WorldWideScience

Sample records for accident analysis

  1. Accident investigation and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next ste

  2. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  3. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  4. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSweeney, T.I.; Maheras, S.J.; Ross, S.B. [Battelle Memorial Inst. (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites.

  5. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  6. Practical approaches in accident analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, M.

    An accident analysis technique based on successive application of structural response, explosion dynamics, gas cloud formation, and plant operation failure mode models is proposed. The method takes into account the nonideal explosion characteristic of a deflagration in the unconfined cloud. The resulting pressure wave differs significantly from a shock wave and the response of structures like lamp posts and walls can differ correspondingly. This gives a more realistic insight into explosion courses than a simple TNT-equivalent approach.

  7. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  8. Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Saeed Almheiri [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO{sup 1} and NISA{sup 2} that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident.

  9. MELCOR analysis of the TMI-2 accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucheron, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) standard problem that was performed with MELCOR. The MELCOR computer code is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accident in nuclear power plants. The primary role of MELCOR is to provide realistic predictions of severe accident phenomena and the radiological source team. The analysis of the TMI-2 standard problem allowed for comparison of the model predictions in MELCOR to plant data and to the results of more mechanistic analyses. This exercise was, therefore valuable for verifying and assessing the models in the code. The major trends in the TMI-2 accident are reasonably well predicted with MELCOR, even with its simplified modeling. Comparison of the calculated and measured results is presented and, based on this comparison, conclusions can be drawn concerning the applicability of MELCOR to severe accident analysis. 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. An analysis of aircraft accidents involving fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucha, G. V.; Robertson, M. A.; Schooley, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    All U. S. Air Carrier accidents between 1963 and 1974 were studied to assess the extent of total personnel and aircraft damage which occurred in accidents and in accidents involving fire. Published accident reports and NTSB investigators' factual backup files were the primary sources of data. Although it was frequently not possible to assess the relative extent of fire-caused damage versus impact damage using the available data, the study established upper and lower bounds for deaths and damage due specifically to fire. In 12 years there were 122 accidents which involved airframe fires. Eighty-seven percent of the fires occurred after impact, and fuel leakage from ruptured tanks or severed lines was the most frequently cited cause. A cost analysis was performed for 300 serious accidents, including 92 serious accidents which involved fire. Personal injury costs were outside the scope of the cost analysis, but data on personnel injury judgements as well as settlements received from the CAB are included for reference.

  11. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  12. HTGR severe accident sequence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, R.M.; Ball, S.J.; Kornegay, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic, fission product transport, and atmospheric dispersion calculations are presented for hypothetical severe accident release paths at the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). Off-site radiation exposures are calculated for assumed release of 100% of the 24 hour post-shutdown core xenon and krypton inventory and 5.5% of the iodine inventory. The results show conditions under which dose avoidance measures would be desirable and demonstrate the importance of specific release characteristics such as effective release height. 7 tables.

  13. [Hanggliding accidents. Distribution of injuries and accident analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer, F T; Jakob, R P

    1989-12-01

    Paragliding--a relatively new sport to Switzerland--brought 23 patients with 48 injuries (38% lower limb and 29% spinal) within a period of 8 months to the Inselspital University hospital in Berne. The aim of the study in characterizing these injuries is to formulate some guidelines towards prevention. With over 90% of accidents occurring at either take off or landing, emphasis on better training for the beginner is proposed with strict guidelines for the more experienced pilot flying in unfavourable conditions.

  14. Developing techniques for cause-responsibility analysis of occupational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Mousa; Ghorbani, Roghayeh

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to specify the causes of occupational accidents, determine social responsibility and the role of groups involved in work-related accidents. This study develops occupational accidents causes tree, occupational accidents responsibility tree, and occupational accidents component-responsibility analysis worksheet; based on these methods, it develops cause-responsibility analysis (CRA) techniques, and for testing them, analyzes 100 fatal/disabling occupational accidents in the construction setting that were randomly selected from all the work-related accidents in Tehran, Iran, over a 5-year period (2010-2014). The main result of this study involves two techniques for CRA: occupational accidents tree analysis (OATA) and occupational accidents components analysis (OACA), used in parallel for determination of responsible groups and responsibilities rate. From the results, we find that the management group of construction projects has 74.65% responsibility of work-related accidents. The developed techniques are purposeful for occupational accidents investigation/analysis, especially for the determination of detailed list of tasks, responsibilities, and their rates. Therefore, it is useful for preventing work-related accidents by focusing on the responsible group's duties.

  15. Hindsight Bias in Cause Analysis of Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsuo Murata; Yasunari Matsushita

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that hindsight becomes an obstacle to the objective investigation of an accident, and that the proper countermeasures for the prevention of such an accident is impossible if we view the accident with hindsight. Therefore, it is important for organizational managers to prevent hindsight from occurring so that hindsight does not hinder objective and proper measures to be taken and this does not lead to a serious accident. In this study, a basic phenomenon potentially related to accidents, that is, hindsight was taken up, and an attempt was made to explore the phenomenon in order to get basically insights into the prevention of accidents caused by such a cognitive bias.

  16. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE, R.D.; PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-03-23

    This document provided the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report''. All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  17. Canister storage building design basis accident analysis documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOPELIC, S.D.

    1999-02-25

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  18. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    1999-10-20

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).'' All assumptions, parameters and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR.

  19. Reactor Safety Gap Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Components and Severe Accident Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Mitchell T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bunt, R. [Southern Nuclear, Atlanta, GA (United States); Corradini, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ellison, Paul B. [GE Power and Water, Duluth, GA (United States); Francis, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gabor, John D. [Erin Engineering, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Gauntt, R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Linthicum, R. [Exelon Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Luangdilok, W. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Lutz, R. [PWR Owners Group (PWROG); Paik, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Plys, M. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rempe, J. [Rempe and Associates LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wachowiak, R. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States)

    2015-01-31

    The overall objective of this study was to conduct a technology gap evaluation on accident tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist, given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research, and additionally augmented by insights obtained from the Fukushima accident. The ultimate benefit of this activity is that the results can be used to refine the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Reactor Safety Technology (RST) research and development (R&D) program plan to address key knowledge gaps in severe accident phenomena and analyses that affect reactor safety and that are not currently being addressed by the industry or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  20. Analysis of traffic accidents in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlekić Snežana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Violent health damages of different origin (accidents, murders, suicides in children and youth are one of the main causes of death and disabilities in this group of population in most countries. Objective: Objective of our paper was to analyze all related factors of traffic accidents involving children and to propose adequate measures of their prevention. Method: The analysis of fatal traffic accidents of children and youth aged to 18 years on the territory of Belgrade, within the period from 1998 to 2002. Results: In relation to other forms of violent death, the traffic mortality rate in children and youth holds the leading position, accounting for 56.9% with pedestrians as the most frequent category (57.4%. The most frequent age was between 7 and 9 years (46.8% and the boys were more frequently injured than the girls. It was established that the majority of children (51.9% was either running across the street outside the pedestrian/ zebra crossings or they were carelessly running out in the street, especially in April, July, August and September. More than a half of them (55.5%, predominantly school children, were injured by the end of working week, on Thursday and Friday. Conclusion: Results of our research have shown that the traffic education of children in our region is inadequate. Due to the abovementioned, it is primarily necessary to establish long-term and permanent education of this category of population. In addition, some public investments in the City infrastructure will be required in order to reduce the risk of traffic injuries in children.

  1. Development of the Severe Accident Analysis DB for the Severe Accident Management Expert System (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwang Il [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This report contains analysis methodologies and calculation results of 5 initiating events of the severe accident analysis database system. The Ulchin 3,4 NPP has been selected as reference plants. Based on the probabilistic safety analysis of the corresponding plant, 54 accident scenarios, which was predicted to have more than 10-10 /ry occurrence frequency, have been analyzed as base cases for the Large loss of Coolant sequence database. The functions of the severe accident analysis database system will be to make a diagnosis of the accident by some input information from the plant symptoms, to search a corresponding scenario, and finally to provide the user phenomenological information based on the pre-analyzed results. The MAAP 4.06 calculation results in this report will be utilized as input data to develop the database system

  2. Accident progression event tree analysis for postulated severe accidents at N Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyss, G.D.; Camp, A.L.; Miller, L.A.; Dingman, S.E.; Kunsman, D.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Medford, G.T. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-06-01

    A Level II/III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for N Reactor, a Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford reservation in Washington. The accident progression analysis documented in this report determines how core damage accidents identified in the Level I PRA progress from fuel damage to confinement response and potential releases the environment. The objectives of the study are to generate accident progression data for the Level II/III PRA source term model and to identify changes that could improve plant response under accident conditions. The scope of the analysis is comprehensive, excluding only sabotage and operator errors of commission. State-of-the-art methodology is employed based largely on the methods developed by Sandia for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of the NUREG-1150 study. The accident progression model allows complex interactions and dependencies between systems to be explicitly considered. Latin Hypecube sampling was used to assess the phenomenological and systemic uncertainties associated with the primary and confinement system responses to the core damage accident. The results of the analysis show that the N Reactor confinement concept provides significant radiological protection for most of the accident progression pathways studied.

  3. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry.

  4. A COMPARISON OF SOME STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR ROAD ACCIDENT ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OPPE, S INST ROAD SAFETY RES, SWOV

    1992-01-01

    At the TRRL/SWOV Workshop on Accident Analysis Methodology, heldin Amsterdam in 1988, the need to establish a methodology for the analysis of road accidents was firmly stated by all participants. Data from different countries cannot be compared because there is no agreement on research methodology,

  5. TMI-2 accident: core heat-up analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardron, K.H.; Cain, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes NSAC study of reactor core thermal conditions during the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The study focuses primarily on the time period from core uncovery (approximately 113 minutes after turbine trip) through the initiation of sustained high pressure injection (after 202 minutes). The transient analysis is based upon established sequences of events; plant data; post-accident measurements; interpretation or indirect use of instrument responses to accident conditions.

  6. A cluster analysis on road traffic accidents using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharan, Sabariah; Baragona, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    The analysis of traffic road accidents is increasingly important because of the accidents cost and public road safety. The availability or large data sets makes the study of factors that affect the frequency and severity accidents are viable. However, the data are often highly unbalanced and overlapped. We deal with the data set of the road traffic accidents recorded in Christchurch, New Zealand, from 2000-2009 with a total of 26440 accidents. The data is in a binary set and there are 50 factors road traffic accidents with four level of severity. We used genetic algorithm for the analysis because we are in the presence of a large unbalanced data set and standard clustering like k-means algorithm may not be suitable for the task. The genetic algorithm based on clustering for unknown K, (GCUK) has been used to identify the factors associated with accidents of different levels of severity. The results provided us with an interesting insight into the relationship between factors and accidents severity level and suggest that the two main factors that contributes to fatal accidents are "Speed greater than 60 km h" and "Did not see other people until it was too late". A comparison with the k-means algorithm and the independent component analysis is performed to validate the results.

  7. Analysis of local subassembly accident in KALIMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young Min; Jeong, Kwan Seong; Hahn, Do Hee

    2000-10-01

    Subassembly Accidents (S-A) in the Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) may cause extensive clad and fuel melting and are thus regarded as a potential whole core accident initiator. The possibility of S-A occurrence must be very low frequency by the design features, and reactor must have specific instrumentation to interrupt the S-A sequences by causing a reactor shutdown. The evaluation of the relevant initiators, the event sequences which follow them, and their detection are the essence of the safety issue. Particularly, the phenomena of flow blockage caused by foreign materials and/or the debris from the failed fuel pin have been researched world-widely. The foreign strategies for dealing with the S-A and the associated safety issues with experimental and theoretical R and D results are reviewed. This report aims at obtaining information to reasonably evaluate the thermal-hydraulic effect of S-A for a wire-wrapped LMR fuel pin bundle. The mechanism of blockage formation and growth within a pin bundle and at the subassembly entrance is reviewed in the phenomenological aspect. Knowledge about the recent LMR subassembly design and operation procedure to prevent flow blockage will be reflected for KALIMER design later. The blockage analysis method including computer codes and related analytical models are reviewed. Especially SABRE4 code is discussed in detail. Preliminary analyses of flow blockage within a 271-pin driver subassembly have been performed using the SABRE4 computer code. As a result no sodium boiling occurred for the central 24-subchannel blockage as well as 6-subchannel blockage.

  8. Applicability of simplified human reliability analysis methods for severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, R.; St Germain, S. [Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States); Banaseanu, G.; Chatri, H.; Akl, Y. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Most contemporary human reliability analysis (HRA) methods were created to analyse design-basis accidents at nuclear power plants. As part of a comprehensive expansion of risk assessments at many plants internationally, HRAs will begin considering severe accident scenarios. Severe accidents, while extremely rare, constitute high consequence events that significantly challenge successful operations and recovery. Challenges during severe accidents include degraded and hazardous operating conditions at the plant, the shift in control from the main control room to the technical support center, the unavailability of plant instrumentation, and the need to use different types of operating procedures. Such shifts in operations may also test key assumptions in existing HRA methods. This paper discusses key differences between design basis and severe accidents, reviews efforts to date to create customized HRA methods suitable for severe accidents, and recommends practices for adapting existing HRA methods that are already being used for HRAs at the plants. (author)

  9. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.

    2016-10-01

    Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

  10. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.

    2015-08-01

    Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

  11. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE, R.D.

    1999-09-09

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support ''HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety, Analysis Report, Annex A,'' ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  12. NASA's Accident Precursor Analysis Process and the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Frank; Lutomski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the implementation of Accident Precursor Analysis (APA), as well as the evaluation of In-Flight Investigations (IFI) and Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) data for the identification of unrecognized accident potentials on the International Space Station.

  13. National and regional analysis of road accidents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolón-Becerra, A; Lastra-Bravo, X; Flores-Parra, I

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, the absolute fatality figures decreased almost 50 percent between 1998 and 2009. Despite this great effort, road mortality is still of great concern to political authorities. Further progress requires efficient road safety policy based on an optimal set of measures and targets that consider the initial conditions and characteristics in each region. This study attempts to analyze road accidents in Spain and its provinces in time and space during 1998-2009. First, we analyzed daily, monthly, and nationwide (NUTS 0) development of road accidents, the correlation between logarithmic transformations of road accidents and territorial and socioeconomic variables, the causality by simple linear regression of road accidents and territorial and socioeconomic variables, and preliminary frequency by fast Fourier transform. Then we analyzed the annual trend in accidents in the Spanish provinces (NUTS 3) and found a correlation between the logarithmic transformations of the mortality rate, fatalities per fatal accident, and accidents resulting in injuries per inhabitant variables and population, population density, gross domestic product (GDP), length of road network, and area. Finally, causality was analyzed by simple linear regression. The most outstanding results were the negative correlation between mortality rate and population density in Spanish provinces, which has increased over time, and that road accidents in Spain have an approximate periodicity of 57 days. The fast Fourier transform analysis of road accident frequency in Spain was useful in identifying the periodic, harmonic components of accidents and casualties. The periodicity observed both for the period 1998-2009 and by year showed that the highest intensity in road accidents was bimonthly, despite the lower number of accidents and casualties in the spectra of amplitude and power and efforts to reduce the intensity and concentration during off-season travel (summer and December).

  14. [Severe parachuting accident. Analysis of 122 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, U; Mischkowsky, T

    1993-06-01

    Based on a population of 122 severely injured patients the causes of paragliding accidents and the patterns of injury are analyzed. A questionnaire is used to establish a sport-specific profile for the paragliding pilot. The lower limbs (55.7%) and the lower parts of the spine (45.9%) are the most frequently injured parts of the body. There is a high risk of multiple injuries after a single accident because of the tremendous axial power. The standard of equipment is good in over 90% of the cases. Insufficient training and failure to take account of geographical and meteorological conditions are the main determinants of accidents sustained by paragliders, most of whom are young. Nevertheless, 80% of our patients want to continue paragliding. Finally some advice is given on how to prevent paragliding accidents and injuries.

  15. Traffic Accident, System Model and Cluster Analysis in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Vlčková

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the many often frequented topics as normal journalism, so the professional public, is the problem of traffic accidents. This article illustrates the orientation of considerations to a less known context of accidents, with the help of constructive systems theory and its methods, cluster analysis and geoinformation engineering. Traffic accident is reframing the space-time, and therefore it can be to study with tools of technology of geographic information systems. The application of system approach enabling the formulation of the system model, grabbed by tools of geoinformation engineering and multicriterial and cluster analysis.

  16. The relationship between alcohol and traffic accidents an actuarial analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelker, G.

    1970-01-01

    This analysis deals with the accident chances of the excessive drinkers, moderate drinkers and non-drinkers. The Swedish motor insurance results for total abstainers are compared to the average policyholders.

  17. MELCOR DB Construction for the Severe Accident Analysis DB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y. M.; Ahn, K. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been constructing a severe accident analysis database (DB) under a National Nuclear R and D Program. In particular, an MAAP (commercial code being widely used in industries for integrated severe accident analysis) DB for many scenarios including a station blackout (SBO) has been completed. This paper shows the MELCOR DB construction process with examples of SBO scenarios, and the results will be used for a comparison with the MAAP DB

  18. Analysis of Credible Accidents for Argonaut Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, S. C.; Kathern, R. L.; Robkin, M. A.

    1981-04-01

    Five areas of potential accidents have been evaluated for the Argonaut-UTR reactors. They are: • insertion of excess reactivity • catastrophic rearrangement of the core • explosive chemical reaction • graphite fire • fuel-handling accident. A nuclear excursion resulting from the rapid insertion of the maximum available excess reactivity would produce only 12 MWs which is insufficient to cause fuel melting even with conservative assumptions. Although precise structural rearrangement of the core would create a potential hazard, it is simply not credible to assume that such an arrangement would result from the forces of an earthquake or other catastrophic event. Even damage to the fuel from falling debris or other objects is unlikely given the normal reactor structure. An explosion from a metal-water reaction could not occur because there is no credible source of sufficient energy to initiate the reaction. A graphite fire could conceivably create some damage to the reactor but not enough to melt any fuel or initiate a metal-water reaction. The only credible accident involving offsite doses was determined to be a fuel-handling accident which, given highly conservative assumptions, would produce a whole-body dose equivalent of 2 rem from noble gas immersion and a lifetime dose equivalent commitment to the thyroid of 43 rem from radioiodines.

  19. Analysis of FY79 Army Aircraft Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    materiel failure/ malfunction 1. A accident. taskerrr (E) s Jb prforanc whch evited The acronym for the 3W approach to the Investigation, fro tht rquied y... lulli , It t , 1AZ" l iil~ i ..-... lI :.].,;.’,, - ,- S !5U" i_ ’ , o ’o , "% ", . #.,""" ".’ - "-’.’’’’-. "" " "’ ."- " " " II I S.7 44’ * U 11 Imem <I

  20. Criticality accident detector coverage analysis using the Monte Carlo Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zino, J.F.; Okafor, K.C.

    1993-12-31

    As a result of the need for a more accurate computational methodology, the Los Alamos developed Monte Carlo code MCNP is used to show the implementation of a more advanced and accurate methodology in criticality accident detector analysis. This paper will detail the application of MCNP for the analysis of the areas of coverage of a criticality accident alarm detector located inside a concrete storage vault at the Savannah River Site. The paper will discuss; (1) the generation of fixed-source representations of various criticality fission sources (for spherical geometries); (2) the normalization of these sources to the ``minimum criticality of concern`` as defined by ANS 8.3; (3) the optimization process used to determine which source produces the lowest total detector response for a given set of conditions; and (4) the use of this minimum source for the analysis of the areas of coverage of the criticality accident alarm detector.

  1. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs.

  2. Modification of MELCOR for severe accident analysis of candidate accident tolerant cladding materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, Brad J., E-mail: brad.merrill@inl.gov; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M., E-mail: shannon.bragg-sitton@inl.gov; Humrickhouse, Paul W., E-mail: paul.humrickhouse@inl.gov

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) systems are currently under development for LWRs. • Many performance analysis tools are specifically developed for UO{sub 2}–Zr alloy fuel. • Modifications were made to the MELCOR code for candidate ATF cladding. • Preliminary analysis results for SiC and FeCrAl cladding concepts are presented. - Abstract: A number of materials are currently under development as candidate accident tolerant fuel and cladding for application in the current fleet of commercial light water reactors (LWRs). The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the nuclear industry. Continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to the industry’s success. Enhancing the accident tolerance of light water reactors became a topic of serious discussion following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex. The overall goal for the development of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) systems for LWRs is to identify alternative fuel system technologies to further enhance the safety, competitiveness, and economics of commercial nuclear power. Designed for use in the current fleet of commercial LWRs, or in reactor concepts with design certifications (GEN-III+), to achieve their goal enhanced ATF must endure loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer period of time than the current fuel system, while maintaining or improving performance during normal operation. Many available nuclear fuel performance analysis tools are specifically developed for the current UO{sub 2}–Zirconium alloy fuel system. The MELCOR severe-accident analysis code, under development at the Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico (SNL-NM) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is one of these tools. This paper describes modifications

  3. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  4. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  5. Hanford Waste Tank Bump Accident and Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRATZEL, D.R.

    2000-06-20

    This report provides a new evaluation of the Hanford tank bump accident analysis and consequences for incorporation into the Authorization Basis. The analysis scope is for the safe storage of waste in its current configuration in single-shell and double-shell tanks.

  6. MELCOR accident analysis for ARIES-ACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul W. Humrickhouse; Brad J. Merrill

    2012-08-01

    We model a loss of flow accident (LOFA) in the ARIES-ACT1 tokamak design. ARIES-ACT1 features an advanced SiC blanket with LiPb as coolant and breeder, a helium cooled steel structural ring and tungsten divertors, a thin-walled, helium cooled vacuum vessel, and a room temperature water-cooled shield outside the vacuum vessel. The water heat transfer system is designed to remove heat by natural circulation during a LOFA. The MELCOR model uses time-dependent decay heats for each component determined by 1-D modeling. The MELCOR model shows that, despite periodic boiling of the water coolant, that structures are kept adequately cool by the passive safety system.

  7. Analysis on the severe accidents in KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Jae; Cheong, Y. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Cheon, E. J. [PlaGen, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-11-15

    The establishment of regulatory and approval systems for KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) has been demanded as the facility is targeted to be completed in the year of 2005. Such establishment can be achieved by performing adequate and in-depth analyses on safety issues covering radiological and chemical hazard materials, radiation protection, high vacuum, very low temperature, etc. The loss of coolant accidents and the loss of vacuum accident in fusion facilities have been introduced with summary of simulation results that were previously reported for ITER and JET. Computer codes that are actively used for accident simulation research are examined and their main features are briefly described. It can be stated that the safety analysis is indispensable to secure the safety of workers and individual members of the public as well as to establish the regulatory and approval systems for KSTAR tokamak.

  8. Upgrading the safety toolkit: Initiatives of the accident analysis subgroup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; Chung, D.Y.

    1999-07-01

    Since its inception, the Accident Analysis Subgroup (AAS) of the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG) has been a leading organization promoting development and application of appropriate methodologies for safety analysis of US Department of Energy (DOE) installations. The AAS, one of seven chartered by the EFCOG Safety Analysis Working Group, has performed an oversight function and provided direction to several technical groups. These efforts have been instrumental toward formal evaluation of computer models, improving the pedigree on high-use computer models, and development of the user-friendly Accident Analysis Guidebook (AAG). All of these improvements have improved the analytical toolkit for best complying with DOE orders and standards shaping safety analysis reports (SARs) and related documentation. Major support for these objectives has been through DOE/DP-45.

  9. Radionuclides release possibility analysis of MSR at various accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong Wie; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    There are some accidents which go beyond our expectation such as Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster and amounts of radionuclides release to environment, so more effort and research are conducted to prevent it. MSR (Molten Salt Reactor) is one of GEN-IV reactor types, and its coolant and fuel are mixtures of molten salt. MSR has a schematic like figure 1 and it has different features with the solid fuel reactor, but most important and interesting feature of MSR is its many safety systems. For example, MSR has a large negative void coefficient. Even though power increases, the reactor slows down soon. Radionuclides release possibility of MSR was analyzed at various accident conditions including Chernobyl and Fukushima ones. The MSR was understood to prevent the severe accident by the negative reactivity coefficient and the absence of explosive material such as water at the Chernobyl disaster condition. It was expected to contain fuel salts in the reactor building and not to release radionuclides into environment even if the primary system could be ruptured or broken and fuel salts would be leaked at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster condition of earthquake and tsunami. The MSR, which would not lead to the severe accident and therefore prevents the fuel release to the environment at many expected scenarios, was thought to have priority in the aspect of accidents. A quantitative analysis and a further research are needed to evaluate the possibility of radionuclide release to the environment at the various accident conditions based on the simple comparison of the safety feature between MSR and solid fuel reactor.

  10. Analysis of Crew Fatigue in AIA Guantanamo Bay Aviation Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Miller, Donna L.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Lebacqz, J. Victor; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Flight operations can engender fatigue, which can affect flight crew performance, vigilance, and mood. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) requested the NASA Fatigue Countermeasures Program to analyze crew fatigue factors in an aviation accident that occurred at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. There are specific fatigue factors that can be considered in such investigations: cumulative sleep loss, continuous hours of wakefulness prior to the incident or accident, and the time of day at which the accident occurred. Data from the NTSB Human Performance Investigator's Factual Report, the Operations Group Chairman's Factual Report, and the Flight 808 Crew Statements were analyzed, using conservative estimates and averages to reconcile discrepancies among the sources. Analysis of these data determined the following: the entire crew displayed cumulative sleep loss, operated during an extended period of continuous wakefulness, and obtained sleep at times in opposition to the circadian disposition for sleep, and that the accident occurred in the afternoon window of physiological sleepiness. In addition to these findings, evidence that fatigue affected performance was suggested by the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) transcript as well as in the captain's testimony. Examples from the CVR showed degraded decision-making skills, fixation, and slowed responses, all of which can be affected by fatigue; also, the captain testified to feeling "lethargic and indifferent" just prior to the accident. Therefore, the sleep/wake history data supports the hypothesis that fatigue was a factor that affected crewmembers' performance. Furthermore, the examples from the CVR and the captain's testimony support the hypothesis that the fatigue had an impact on specific actions involved in the occurrence of the accident.

  11. A System Supporting the Analysis of Motorway Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Anghinolfi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a business intelligence tool for monitoring traffic accidents on motorways and supporting decisions relevant to road safety. The system manages information on road characteristics, traffic accidents and traffic volumes and produces reports for monitoring the evolution of key performance indicators for road safety, supporting decisions on actions for risk mitigation and safety improvements for road users. The paper illustrates the different types of analyses performed by the system. Pattern based analysis is used to evaluate safety performance indicators for the road sections matching defined patterns. Two different road segmentation algorithms, used to identify the most critical road sections according to various severity indicators, are presented and discussed. Differential analysis compares the value of selected severity indicators before and after the implementation of an intervention on a road. Finally, a graphical user interface allows the accident locations to be visualized and accidents with specific characteristics to be highlighted. The system was evaluated on the data collected between 2009 and 2011 for the A15 motorway in Italy, connecting Parma to La Spezia.

  12. Analysis of multiple tank car releases in train accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Liu, Chang; Hong, Yili

    2017-10-01

    There are annually over two million carloads of hazardous materials transported by rail in the United States. The American railroads use large blocks of tank cars to transport petroleum crude oil and other flammable liquids from production to consumption sites. Being different from roadway transport of hazardous materials, a train accident can potentially result in the derailment and release of multiple tank cars, which may result in significant consequences. The prior literature predominantly assumes that the occurrence of multiple tank car releases in a train accident is a series of independent Bernoulli processes, and thus uses the binomial distribution to estimate the total number of tank car releases given the number of tank cars derailing or damaged. This paper shows that the traditional binomial model can incorrectly estimate multiple tank car release probability by magnitudes in certain circumstances, thereby significantly affecting railroad safety and risk analysis. To bridge this knowledge gap, this paper proposes a novel, alternative Correlated Binomial (CB) model that accounts for the possible correlations of multiple tank car releases in the same train. We test three distinct correlation structures in the CB model, and find that they all outperform the conventional binomial model based on empirical tank car accident data. The analysis shows that considering tank car release correlations would result in a significantly improved fit of the empirical data than otherwise. Consequently, it is prudent to consider alternative modeling techniques when analyzing the probability of multiple tank car releases in railroad accidents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. INDUSTRIAL/MILITARY ACTIVITY-INITIATED ACCIDENT SCREENING ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Kalinich

    1999-09-27

    Impacts due to nearby installations and operations were determined in the Preliminary MGDS Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1996) to be potentially applicable to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of the potential activities ongoing on or off the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is intended that the Industrial/Military Activity-Initiated Accident Screening Analysis provided herein will meet the requirements of the ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987) in establishing whether this external event can be screened from further consideration or must be included as a design basis event (DBE) in the development of accident scenarios for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis only considers issues related to preclosure radiological safety. Issues important to waste isolation as related to impact from nearby installations will be covered in the MGR performance assessment.

  14. Cold Vacuum Drying facility design basis accident analysis documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE, R.D.

    2000-08-08

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR. The calculations in this document address the design basis accidents (DBAs) selected for analysis in HNF-3553, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report'', Annex B, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' The objective is to determine the quantity of radioactive particulate available for release at any point during processing at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and to use that quantity to determine the amount of radioactive material released during the DBAs. The radioactive material released is used to determine dose consequences to receptors at four locations, and the dose consequences are compared with the appropriate evaluation guidelines and release limits to ascertain the need for preventive and mitigative controls.

  15. Improvement of Severe Accident Analysis Computer Code and Development of Accident Management Guidance for Heavy Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Ko Ryu; Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, See Darl; Song, Yong Mann; Choi, Young; Jin, Young Ho

    2005-03-15

    The objective of the project is to develop a generic severe accident management guidance(SAMG) applicable to Korean PHWR and the objective of this 3 year continued phase is to construct a base of the generic SAMG. Another objective is to improve a domestic computer code, ISAAC (Integrated Severe Accident Analysis code for CANDU), which still has many deficiencies to be improved in order to apply for the SAMG development. The scope and contents performed in this Phase-2 are as follows: The characteristics of major design and operation for the domestic Wolsong NPP are analyzed from the severe accident aspects. On the basis, preliminary strategies for SAM of PHWR are selected. The information needed for SAM and the methods to get that information are analyzed. Both the individual strategies applicable for accident mitigation under PHWR severe accident conditions and the technical background for those strategies are developed. A new version of ISAAC 2.0 has been developed after analyzing and modifying the existing models of ISAAC 1.0. The general SAMG applicable for PHWRs confirms severe accident management techniques for emergencies, provides the base technique to develop the plant specific SAMG by utility company and finally contributes to the public safety enhancement as a NPP safety assuring step. The ISAAC code will be used inevitably for the PSA, living PSA, severe accident analysis, SAM program development and operator training in PHWR.

  16. Review of Severe Accident Phenomena in LWR and Related Severe Accident Analysis Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hashim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, importance of severe accident provision is highlighted in view of Fukushima Daiichi accident. Then, extensive review of the past researches on severe accident phenomena in LWR is presented within this study. Various complexes, physicochemical and radiological phenomena take place during various stages of the severe accidents of Light Water Reactor (LWR plants. The review deals with progression of the severe accidents phenomena by dividing into core degradation phenomena in reactor vessel and post core melt phenomena in the containment. The development of various computer codes to analyze these severe accidents phenomena is also summarized in the review. Lastly, the need of international activity is stressed to assemble various severe accidents related knowledge systematically from research organs and compile them on the open knowledge base via the internet to be available worldwide.

  17. Accident analysis of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su'ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2015-04-01

    . The analysis showed that temperatures of fuel and claddings during accident are still below limitations which are in secure condition.

  18. Road Traffic Accident Analysis of Ajmer City Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, P.; Tripathi, S.; Palria, S.

    2014-12-01

    With advancement in technology, new and sophisticated models of vehicle are available and their numbers are increasing day by day. A traffic accident has multi-facet characteristics associated with it. In India 93% of crashes occur due to Human induced factor (wholly or partly). For proper traffic accident analysis use of GIS technology has become an inevitable tool. The traditional accident database is a summary spreadsheet format using codes and mileposts to denote location, type and severity of accidents. Geo-referenced accident database is location-referenced. It incorporates a GIS graphical interface with the accident information to allow for query searches on various accident attributes. Ajmer city, headquarter of Ajmer district, Rajasthan has been selected as the study area. According to Police records, 1531 accidents occur during 2009-2013. Maximum accident occurs in 2009 and the maximum death in 2013. Cars, jeeps, auto, pickup and tempo are mostly responsible for accidents and that the occurrence of accidents is mostly concentrated between 4PM to 10PM. GIS has proved to be a good tool for analyzing multifaceted nature of accidents. While road safety is a critical issue, yet it is handled in an adhoc manner. This Study is a demonstration of application of GIS for developing an efficient database on road accidents taking Ajmer City as a study. If such type of database is developed for other cities, a proper analysis of accidents can be undertaken and suitable management strategies for traffic regulation can be successfully proposed.

  19. NASA Accident Precursor Analysis Handbook, Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Frank; Everett, Chris; Hall, Anthony; Insley, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic accidents are usually preceded by precursory events that, although observable, are not recognized as harbingers of a tragedy until after the fact. In the nuclear industry, the Three Mile Island accident was preceded by at least two events portending the potential for severe consequences from an underappreciated causal mechanism. Anomalies whose failure mechanisms were integral to the losses of Space Transportation Systems (STS) Challenger and Columbia had been occurring within the STS fleet prior to those accidents. Both the Rogers Commission Report and the Columbia Accident Investigation Board report found that processes in place at the time did not respond to the prior anomalies in a way that shed light on their true risk implications. This includes the concern that, in the words of the NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP), "no process addresses the need to update a hazard analysis when anomalies occur" At a broader level, the ASAP noted in 2007 that NASA "could better gauge the likelihood of losses by developing leading indicators, rather than continue to depend on lagging indicators". These observations suggest a need to revalidate prior assumptions and conclusions of existing safety (and reliability) analyses, as well as to consider the potential for previously unrecognized accident scenarios, when unexpected or otherwise undesired behaviors of the system are observed. This need is also discussed in NASA's system safety handbook, which advocates a view of safety assurance as driving a program to take steps that are necessary to establish and maintain a valid and credible argument for the safety of its missions. It is the premise of this handbook that making cases for safety more experience-based allows NASA to be better informed about the safety performance of its systems, and will ultimately help it to manage safety in a more effective manner. The APA process described in this handbook provides a systematic means of analyzing candidate

  20. Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRS - A Preliminary Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles Youinou; R. Sonat Sen

    2013-09-01

    The severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plants illustrates the need for continuous improvements through developing and implementing technologies that contribute to safe, reliable and cost-effective operation of the nuclear fleet. Development of enhanced accident tolerant fuel contributes to this effort. These fuels, in comparison with the standard zircaloy – UO2 system currently used by the LWR industry, should be designed such that they tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, and design-basis events. This report presents a preliminary systems analysis related to most of these concepts. The potential impacts of these innovative LWR fuels on the front-end of the fuel cycle, on the reactor operation and on the back-end of the fuel cycle are succinctly described without having the pretension of being exhaustive. Since the design of these various concepts is still a work in progress, this analysis can only be preliminary and could be updated as the designs converge on their respective final version.

  1. Analysis of Three Mile Island-Unit 2 accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) of the Electric Power Research Institute has analyzed the Three Mile Island-2 accident. Early results of this analysis were a brief narrative summary, issued in mid-May 1979 and an initial version of this report issued later in 1979 as noted in the Foreword. The present report is a revised version of the 1979 report, containing summaries, a highly detailed sequence of events, a comparison of that sequence of events with those from other sources, 25 appendices, references and a list of abbreviations and acronyms. A matrix of equipment and system actions is included as a folded insert.

  2. Traffic accident analysis using GIS: a case study of Kyrenia City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Can; Akçit, Nuhcan

    2015-06-01

    Traffic accidents are causing major deaths in urban environments, so analyzing locations of the traffic accidents and their reasons is crucial. In this manner, patterns of accidents and hotspot distribution are analyzed by using geographic information technology. Locations of the traffic accidents in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013 are combined to generate the kernel distribution map of Kyrenia City. This analysis aims to find high dense intersections and segments within the city. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation methods Local Morans I and Getis-Ord Gi are employed . The results are discussed in detail for further analysis. Finally, required changes for numerous intersections are suggested to decrease potential risks of high dense accident locations.

  3. Source term analysis for a nuclear submarine accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.J.; Hugron, J.J.M.R. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    A source term analysis has been conducted to determine the activity release into the environment as a result of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident aboard a visiting nuclear-powered submarine to a Canadian port. This best-estimate analysis considers the fractional release from the core, and fission product transport in the primary heat transport system, primary containment (i.e. reactor compartment) and submarine hull. Physical removal mechanisms such as vapour and aerosol deposition are treated in the calculation. Since a thermalhydraulic analysis indicated that the integrity of the reactor compartment is maintained, release from the reactor compartment will only occur by leakage; however, it is conservatively assumed that the secondary containment is not isolated for a 24-h period where release occurs through an open hatch in the submarine hull. Consequently, during this period, the activity release into the atmosphere is estimated as 4.6 TBq, leading to a maximum individual dose equivalent of 0.5 mSv at 800 metres from the berthing location. This activity release is comparable to that obtained in the BEREX TSA study (for a similar accident scenario) but is four orders of magnitude less than that reported in the earlier Davis study where, unrealistically, no credit had been taken for the containment system or for any physical removal processes. (author)

  4. Statistical analysis of sudden chemical leakage accidents reported in China between 2006 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Ping, Hua; Ma, Zhi-Hong; Pan, Li-Gang

    2014-04-01

    According to the data from authoritative sources, 1,400 sudden leakage accidents occurred in China during 2006 to 2011 were investigated, in which, 666 accidents were used for statistical characteristic abstracted with no or little damage. The research results were as follows: (1) Time fluctuation: the yearly number of sudden leakage accidents is shown to be decreasing from 2006 to 2010, and a slightly increase in 2011. Sudden leakage accidents occur mainly in summer, and more than half of the accidents occur from May to September. (2) Regional distribution: the accidents are highly concentrated in the coastal area, in which accidents result from small and medium-sized enterprises more easily than that of the larger ones. (3) Pollutants: hazardous chemicals are up to 95 % of sudden leakage accidents. (4) Steps: transportation represents almost half of the accidents, followed by production, usage, storage, and discard. (5) Pollution and casualties: it is easy to cause environmental pollution and casualties. (6) Causes: more than half of the cases were caused by human factor, followed by management reason, and equipment failure. However, sudden chemical leakage may also be caused by high temperature, rain, wet road, and terrain. (7) The results of principal component analysis: five factors are extracted by the principal component analysis, including pollution, casualties, regional distribution, steps, and month. According to the analysis of the accident, the characteristics, causes, and damages of the sudden leakage accident will be investigated. Therefore, advices for prevention and rescue should be acquired.

  5. Estimating the causes of traffic accidents using logistic regression and discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacasu, Murat; Ergül, Barış; Altin Yavuz, Arzu

    2014-01-01

    Factors that affect traffic accidents have been analysed in various ways. In this study, we use the methods of logistic regression and discriminant analysis to determine the damages due to injury and non-injury accidents in the Eskisehir Province. Data were obtained from the accident reports of the General Directorate of Security in Eskisehir; 2552 traffic accidents between January and December 2009 were investigated regarding whether they resulted in injury. According to the results, the effects of traffic accidents were reflected in the variables. These results provide a wealth of information that may aid future measures toward the prevention of undesired results.

  6. Severe accident analysis of a small LOCA accident using MAAP-CANDU support level 2 PSA for the Point Lepreau station refurbishment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petoukhov, S.M.; Brown, M.J.; Mathew, P.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    A Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment was performed for the Point Lepreau Generating Station. The MAAP4-CANDU code was used to calculate the progression of postulated severe core damage accidents and fission product releases. Five representative severe core damage accidents were selected: Station Blackout, Small Loss-of-Coolant Accident, Stagnation Feeder Break, Steam Generator Tube Rupture, and Shutdown State Accident. Analysis results for only the reference Small LOCA Accident scenario (which is a very low probability event) are discussed in this paper. (author)

  7. Loss of Coolant Accident Analysis Methodology for SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, K. H.; Lee, G. H.; Yang, S. H.; Yoon, H. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, H. C

    2006-02-15

    The analysis methodology on the Loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA's) for SMART-P is described in this report. SMART-P is an advanced integral type PWR producing a maximum thermal power of 65.5 MW with metallic fuel. LOCA's are hypothetical accidents that would result from the loss of reactor coolant, at a rate in excess of the capability of the reactor coolant makeup system, from breaks in pipes in the reactor coolant pressure boundary up to and including a break equivalent in size to the double-ended rupture of the largest pipe in the reactor coolant system. Since SMART-P contains the major primary circuit components in a single Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), the possibility of a large break LOCA (LBLOCA) is inherently eliminated and only the small break LOCA is postulated. This report describes the outline and acceptance criteria of small break LOCA (SBLOCA) for SMART-P and documents the conservative analytical model and method and the analysis results using the TASS/SMR code. This analysis method is applied in the SBLOCA analysis performed for the ECCS performance evaluation which is described in the section 6.3.3 of the safety analysis report. The prediction results of SBLOCA analysis model of SMART-P for the break flow, system's pressure and temperature distributions, reactor coolant distribution, single and two-phase natural circulation phenomena, and the time of major sequence of events, etc. should be compared and verified with the applicable separate and integral effects test results. Also, it is required to set-up the feasible acceptance criteria applicable to the metallic fueled integral reactor of SMART-P. The analysis methodology for the SBLOCA described in this report will be further developed and validated as the design and licensing status of SMART-P evolves.

  8. [Spatial exploratory analysis of road accidents in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Hernández, Vladimir

    2012-05-01

    Prepare a tool for the exploratory study of road accidents in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, that exclusively applies the spatial geographical variable (location). Observational and cross-sectional study that uses a Geographic Information System to explore the spatial nature of 13 305 road accidents recorded during 2008 and 2009 in Ciudad Juarez. Indicators were constructed that approximated the transit flow and included two variables: indices of the level of urbanization and population density. The value of the global spatial autocorrelation was positive, indicating the presence of groupings that were identified through the spatial association indicators. There are road risk clusters located in areas with a high level of urbanization, low population density, and a high transit flow level. The exploratory analysis of spatial data is a phase that precedes the use of multivariate techniques with a broader scope. The application of exploratory analysis techniques in itself makes it possible to standardize spatial groupings, identify global autocorrelation, and indicate the direction of the variables under study.

  9. Comprehensive analysis of atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2017-04-01

    Even six years passed after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident, we still have large uncertainty for atmospheric transport and deposition models, the estimate of release rate of source terms and of internal exposure from inhalation. For our better understanding and to reduce the uncertainty, we thoroughly analyzed all the published data of radionuclides such as Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133, and of radiation dose rates at many monitoring sites in eastern Japan. We also retrieved the spatio-temporal distributions of Cs-137 just after the accident by using the unique dataset of hourly radionuclides in atmospheric aerosols collected on the used filter-tapes installed in the suspended particulate matter (SPM) monitors operated at more than 100 stations in the air pollution monitoring network of Japan. The most important findings are summarized as follows. Analyzing the hourly Cs-137 concentrations at two SPM stations located within 20 km from the FD1NPP, we revealed the complicated behavior of plumes and atmospheric radionuclides near the FD1NPP just after the accident. The transport pathways to the northwestern and northern areas from the FD1NPP are clarified especially on March 12-21, 2011. Analysis of the published data clearly shows that atmospheric ratio of I-131/Cs-137 (=R) was mainly divided into two groups, one (R≦10) is for the plumes before March 21, 2011, and the other (R>100) is after that day. These two groups are consistent in all the measured sites, whether the sites are in the Fukushima prefecture or in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. These results are expected partially to identify the source term for each plume.

  10. Analysis of surface powered haulage accidents, January 1990--July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesak, G.M.; Breland, R.M.; Spadaro, J. [Dept. of Labor, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This report addresses surface haulage accidents that occurred between January 1990 and July 1996 involving haulage trucks (including over-the-road trucks), front-end-loaders, scrapers, utility trucks, water trucks, and other mobile haulage equipment. The study includes quarries, open pits and surface coal mines utilizing self-propelled mobile equipment to transport personnel, supplies, rock, overburden material, ore, mine waste, or coal for processing. A total of 4,397 accidents were considered. This report summarizes the major factors that led to the accidents and recommends accident prevention methods to reduce the frequency of these accidents.

  11. Improvement of severe accident analysis method for KSNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Song Won; Cho, Youn Soo [Korea Radiation Technology Institute Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    The objective of this study is preparation of MELCOR 1.8.5 input deck for KSNP and simulation of some major severe accidents. The contents of this project are preparation of MELCOR 1.8.5 base input deck for KSNP to understand severe accident phenomena and to assess severe accident strategy, preparation of 20 cell containment input deck to simulate the distribution of hydrogen and fission products in containment, simulation of some major severe accident scenarios such as TLOFW, SBO, SBLOCA, MBLOCA, and LBLOCA. The method for MELCOR 1.8.5 input deck preparation can be used to prepare the input deck for domestic PWRs and to simulate severe accident experiments such as ISP-46. Information gained from analyses of severe accidents may be helpful to set up the severe accident management strategy and to develop regulatory guidance.

  12. An Accident Precursor Analysis Process Tailored for NASA Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Frank; Stamatelatos, Michael; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Maggio, Gaspare

    2010-01-01

    Accident Precursor Analysis (APA) serves as the bridge between existing risk modeling activities, which are often based on historical or generic failure statistics, and system anomalies, which provide crucial information about the failure mechanisms that are actually operative in the system and which may differ in frequency or type from those in the various models. These discrepancies between the models (perceived risk) and the system (actual risk) provide the leading indication of an underappreciated risk. This paper presents an APA process developed specifically for NASA Earth-to-Orbit space systems. The purpose of the process is to identify and characterize potential sources of system risk as evidenced by anomalous events which, although not necessarily presenting an immediate safety impact, may indicate that an unknown or insufficiently understood risk-significant condition exists in the system. Such anomalous events are considered accident precursors because they signal the potential for severe consequences that may occur in the future, due to causes that are discernible from their occurrence today. Their early identification allows them to be integrated into the overall system risk model used to intbrm decisions relating to safety.

  13. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of K-DEMO Single Blanket Module for Preliminary Accident Analysis using MELCOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Bo; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To develop the Korean fusion commercial reactor, preliminary design concept for K-DEMO (Korean fusion demonstration reactor) has been announced by NFRI (National Fusion Research Institute). This pre-conceptual study of K-DEMO has been introduced to identify technical details of a fusion power plant for the future commercialization of fusion reactor in Korea. Before this consideration, to build the K-DEMO, accident analysis is essential. Since the Fukushima accident, which is severe accident from unexpected disaster, safety analysis of nuclear power plant has become important. The safety analysis of both fission and fusion reactors is deemed crucial in demonstrating the low radiological effect of these reactors on the environment, during severe accidents. A risk analysis of K-DEMO should be performed, as a prerequisite for the construction of a fusion reactor. In this research, thermal-hydraulic analysis of single blanket module of K-DEMO is conducted for preliminary accident analysis for K-DEMO. Further study about effect of flow distributer is conducted. The normal K-DEMO operation condition is applied to the boundary condition and simulated to verify the material temperature limit using MELCOR. MELCOR is fully integrated, relatively fast-running code developed by Sandia National Laboratories. MELCOR had been used for Light Water Reactors and fusion reactor version of MELCOR was developed for ITER accident analysis. This study shows the result of thermal-hydraulic simulation of single blanket module with MELCOR which is severe accident code for nuclear fusion safety analysis. The difference of mass flow rate for each coolant channel with or without flow distributer is presented. With flow distributer, advantage of broadening temperature gradient in the K-DEMO blanket module and increase mass flow toward first wall is obtained. This can enhance the safety of K-DEMO blanket module. Most 13 .deg. C temperature difference in blanket module is obtained.

  14. An analysis of accident data for franchised public buses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W A; Courtney, A J

    1985-10-01

    This paper analyses data on accidents involving franchised public buses operating in Hong Kong. The data were obtained from the Royal Hong Kong Police, the Hong Kong Government Transport Department, the two major franchised bus operators and international sources. The analysis includes an international comparison of accidents with emphasis on the situation in Hong Kong compared to urban areas in the United Kingdom. An attempt has been made to identify the characteristics of bus accidents; accident incidence has been related to time of day, day of the week, time of year, weather conditions, driver's age and experience, hours on duty and policy-reported cause. The results indicate that Hong Kong has a high accident rate compared to Japan, the U.K. and the U.S.A., with particularly high pedestrian involvement rates. Bus accidents peak at around 9:00 AM and 4:00 PM but the accident rate is high throughout the day. Monday and Saturday appear to have a higher than average accident rate. The variability of accident rate throughout the year does not seem to be significant and the accident rate does not appear to be influenced by weather conditions. Older, more experienced drivers generally have a safer driving record than their younger, less experienced colleagues. Accident occurrence is related to the time the driver has been on duty. The paper questions the reliability of police-reported accident causation data and suggests improvements in the design of the accident report form and in the training of police investigators. The relevance of the Hong Kong study for accident research in general is also discussed.

  15. Comparison of Management Oversight and Risk Tree and Tripod-Beta in Excavation Accident Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadfam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Accident investigation programs are a necessary part in identification of risks and management of the business process. Objectives One of the most important features of such programs is the analysis technique for identifying the root causes of accidents in order to prevent their recurrences. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP was used to compare management oversight and risk tree (MORT with Tripod-Beta in order to determine the superior technique for analysis of fatal excavation accidents in construction industries. Materials and Methods MORT and Tripod-Beta techniques were used for analyzing two major accidents with three main steps. First, these techniques were applied to find out the causal factors of the accidents. Second, a number of criteria were developed for the comparison of the techniques and third, using AHP, the techniques were prioritized in terms of the criteria for choosing the superior one. Results The Tripod-Beta investigation showed 41 preconditions and 81 latent causes involved in the accidents. Additionally, 27 root causes of accidents were identified by the MORT analysis. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP investigation revealed that MORT had higher priorities only in two criteria than Tripod-Beta. Conclusions Our findings indicate that Tripod-Beta with a total priority of 0.664 is superior to MORT with the total priority of 0.33. It is recommended for future research to compare the available accident analysis techniques based on proper criteria to select the best for accident analysis.

  16. Exploring the potential of data mining techniques for the analysis of accident patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Galtzur, Ayelet

    2010-01-01

    Research in road safety faces major challenges: individuation of the most significant determinants of traffic accidents, recognition of the most recurrent accident patterns, and allocation of resources necessary to address the most relevant issues. This paper intends to comprehend which data mining...... and association rules) data mining techniques are implemented for the analysis of traffic accidents occurred in Israel between 2001 and 2004. Results show that descriptive techniques are useful to classify the large amount of analyzed accidents, even though introduce problems with respect to the clear...... importance of input and intermediate neurons, and the relative importance of hundreds of association rules. Further research should investigate whether limiting the analysis to fatal accidents would simplify the task of data mining techniques in recognizing accident patterns without the “noise” probably...

  17. The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines.

  18. Aircraft Accident Prevention: Loss-of-Control Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwatny, Harry G.; Dongmo, Jean-Etienne T.; Chang, Bor-Chin; Bajpai, Guarav; Yasar, Murat; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of fatal aircraft accidents are associated with loss-of-control . Yet the notion of loss-of-control is not well-defined in terms suitable for rigorous control systems analysis. Loss-of-control is generally associated with flight outside of the normal flight envelope, with nonlinear influences, and with an inability of the pilot to control the aircraft. The two primary sources of nonlinearity are the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the aircraft and the state and control constraints within which the aircraft must operate. In this paper we examine how these nonlinearities affect the ability to control the aircraft and how they may contribute to loss-of-control. Examples are provided using NASA s Generic Transport Model.

  19. Radionuclide analysis on bamboos following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Higaki

    Full Text Available In response to contamination from the recent Fukushima nuclear accident, we conducted radionuclide analysis on bamboos sampled from six sites within a 25 to 980 km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Maximum activity concentrations of radiocesium (134Cs and (137Cs in samples from Fukushima city, 65 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 71 and 79 kBq/kg, dry weight (DW, respectively. In Kashiwa city, 195 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi, the sample concentrations were in excess of 3.4 and 4.3 kBq/kg DW, respectively. In Toyohashi city, 440 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi, the concentrations were below the measurable limits of up to 4.5 Bq/kg DW. In the radiocesium contaminated samples, the radiocesium activity was higher in mature and fallen leaves than in young leaves, branches and culms.

  20. Analysis on relation between safety input and accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Qing-guo; ZHANG Xue-mu; LI Chun-hui

    2007-01-01

    The number of safety input directly determines the level of safety, and there exists dialectical and unified relations between safety input and accidents. Based on the field investigation and reliable data, this paper deeply studied the dialectical relationship between safety input and accidents, and acquired the conclusions. The security situation of the coal enterprises was related to the security input rate, being effected little by the security input scale, and build the relationship model between safety input and accidents on this basis, that is the accident model.

  1. Analysis of Waste Leak and Toxic Chemical Release Accidents from Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Diluent System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2000-09-15

    Radiological and toxicological consequences are calculated for 4 postulated accidents involving the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) diluent addition systems. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated. This analysis contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences for the River Protection Project (RPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).

  2. Development of a post accident analysis model for KALIMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, W. P.; Ha, G. S.; Jeong, H. Y.; Kwon, Y. M.; Heo, S.; Lee, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    An ultimate safety measure of the KALIMER depends on the inherent safety, which have the core maintain a negative reactivity during any accident periods. In order to secure the integrity of a fuel rod, the void reactivity feedback under sodium boiling must be analyzed. Even though the KALIMER design might not allow boiling at any circumstance, sodium boiling would be possible under HCDA (Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident) initiating events which are represented by UTOP (Unprotected Transient Over Power), ULOF (Unprotected Loss Of Flow), ULOHS (Unprotected Loss Of Heat Sink), or sudden flow channel blockage, due to power excursion caused by the reactivity feedback. The slug and annular flow regimes tend to prevail for the boiling of a liquid-metal coolant such as sodium near the atmospheric pressure. In contrast, the bubbly flow is typical under a high pressure in light water reactors. This phenomenon difference brings to develop the present model, especially, at the onset of boiling. A few models had been developed for the sodium boiling analysis. The models such as those in the HOMSEP-2 and SAS series are classified into relatively detailed models. Both models are usually called a multiple-bubble slug ejection model. Some simpler models are also introduced to evade either parameter sensitivities or a mathematical complexity associated with those rigorous models. The present model based on the multiple-bubble slug ejection model. It allows a finite number (N) of bubbles, separated by liquid slugs, in a channel. Boiling occurs at a user specified superheat, and a generated vapor is modeled to fill the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for a static liquid film left on the cladding or/and structure surfaces. The model also assumes a vapor with one uniform pressure. The present analysis is focused on the behavior of early sodium boiling after ULOHS.

  3. Advanced accident sequence precursor analysis level 1 models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattison, M.B.; Thatcher, T.A.; Knudsen, J.K.; Schroeder, J.A.; Siu, N.O. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1996-03-01

    INEL has been involved in the development of plant-specific Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) models for the past two years. These models were developed for use with the SAPHIRE suite of PRA computer codes. They contained event tree/linked fault tree Level 1 risk models for the following initiating events: general transient, loss-of-offsite-power, steam generator tube rupture, small loss-of-coolant-accident, and anticipated transient without scram. Early in 1995 the ASP models were revised based on review comments from the NRC and an independent peer review. These models were released as Revision 1. The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has sponsored several projects at the INEL this fiscal year to further enhance the capabilities of the ASP models. Revision 2 models incorporates more detailed plant information into the models concerning plant response to station blackout conditions, information on battery life, and other unique features gleaned from an Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation quick review of the Individual Plant Examination submittals. These models are currently being delivered to the NRC as they are completed. A related project is a feasibility study and model development of low power/shutdown (LP/SD) and external event extensions to the ASP models. This project will establish criteria for selection of LP/SD and external initiator operational events for analysis within the ASP program. Prototype models for each pertinent initiating event (loss of shutdown cooling, loss of inventory control, fire, flood, seismic, etc.) will be developed. A third project concerns development of enhancements to SAPHIRE. In relation to the ASP program, a new SAPHIRE module, GEM, was developed as a specific user interface for performing ASP evaluations. This module greatly simplifies the analysis process for determining the conditional core damage probability for a given combination of initiating events and equipment failures or degradations.

  4. Severe accident analysis of a station blackout accident using MAAP-CANDU for the Point Lepreau station refurbishment project level 2 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.J.; Petoukhov, S.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    A Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment was performed for the Point Lepreau Generating Station, using the MAAP-CANDU code to simulate the progression of severe core damage accidents and fission product releases. Five representative severe accidents were selected: Station Blackout, Small Loss-of-Coolant, Stagnation Feeder Break, Steam Generator Tube Rupture, and Shutdown State. Analysis results for the reference station blackout accident are discussed in this paper. (author)

  5. Cause Analysis of Wuhan Tianheng Building Pile Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The geological condition and the original structure feature and foundation design of Wuhan Tianheng building are described. The accident appearance of pile foundation in the construction execution of work is illustrated. The generating source of this pile foundation accident is analyzed in great details.``

  6. Analysis of Workplace Accidents in Automotive Repair Workshops in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio López-Arquillos

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Health and safety strategies and accident prevention measures should be individualized and adapted to the type of worker most likely to be injured in each type of accident. Occupational health and safety training courses designed according to worker profile, and improving the participation of the workers in small firms creating regional or roving safety representatives would improve working conditions.

  7. Accident Analysis and Barrier Function (AEB) Method. Manual for Incident Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenson, Ola [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology

    2000-02-01

    The Accident Analysis and Barrier Function (AEB) Method models an accident or incident as a series of interactions between human and technical systems. In the sequence of human and technical errors leading to an accident there is, in principle, a possibility to arrest the development between each two successive errors. This can be done by a barrier function which, for example, can stop an operator from making an error. A barrier function can be performed by one or several barrier function systems. To illustrate, a mechanical system, a computer system or another operator can all perform a given barrier function to stop an operator from making an error. The barrier function analysis consists of analysis of suggested improvements, the effectiveness of the improvements, the costs of implementation, probability of implementation, the cost of maintaining the barrier function, the probability that maintenance will be kept up to standards and the generalizability of the suggested improvement. The AEB method is similar to the US method called HPES, but differs from that method in different ways. To exemplify, the AEB method has more emphasis on technical errors than HPES. In contrast to HPES that describes a series of events, the AEB method models only errors. This gives a more focused analysis making it well suited for checking other HPES-type accident analyses. However, the AEB method is a generic and stand-alone method that has been applied in other fields than nuclear power, such as, in traffic accident analyses.

  8. Injury patterns of seniors in traffic accidents: A technical and medical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Stephan; Otte, Dietmar; Mueller, Christian Walter; Petri, Maximilian; Haas, Philipp; Stuebig, Timo; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the actual injury situation of seniors in traffic accidents and to evaluate the different injury patterns. METHODS: Injury data, environmental circumstances and crash circumstances of accidents were collected shortly after the accident event at the scene. With these data, a technical and medical analysis was performed, including Injury Severity Score, Abbreviated Injury Scale and Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale. The method of data collection is named the German In-Depth Accident Study and can be seen as representative. RESULTS: A total of 4430 injured seniors in traffic accidents were evaluated. The incidence of sustaining severe injuries to extremities, head and maxillofacial region was significantly higher in the group of elderly people compared to a younger age (P accident-related injuries was higher in the group of seniors compared to other groups. CONCLUSION: Seniors are more likely to be involved in traffic injuries and to sustain serious to severe injuries compared to other groups. PMID:23173111

  9. Progress in accident analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

    2000-10-11

    The present work continues our effort to perform an integrated safety analysis for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design. Recently we developed a base case for a severe accident scenario in order to calculate accident doses for HYLIFE-II. It consisted of a total loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in which all the liquid flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) was lost at the beginning of the accident. Results showed that the off-site dose was below the limit given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for public protection in case of accident, and that his dose was dominated by the tritium released during the accident.

  10. Road Accident Analysis: A Case Study of Federal Route FT024 Yong Peng- Parit Sulong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Masirin Mohd Idrus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are considered as an unplanned and unfortunate event which is a serious concern to the community as well as the authority. An accident-counter measure can reduce the rate of road accidents by initially identifying critical locations. The total of road accidents along FT 024 between 2009 and 2012 is 907 cases. Road accidents during the same period range between 24 % and 26 % each year. These accidents killed 34 people and injuring another 101 people. This research aims to identify factors that may contribute to the cause of accidents and to study the effects of speed, volume and road geometry on road accidents. In this study, the locations labelled as km 1, km 2, km 4, km 8, km 5 and km 14 of Federal Route FT 024 Yong Peng – Parit Sulong were selected as the study-case sections based on Accident Point Weightage of ranking, in which each location has different road characteristics. Speed study was carried out at selected road sections to evaluate the influence of speed upon road accidents; and traffic volume count was conducted at the same selected road sections to determine the existing condition of the route. Besides, road geometry observations and measurements were also conducted at selected sections, they were also studied to evaluate influence of road designs upon road accidents. The extracted data were analyzed by using regression analysis on different variables to evaluate the relationship between accident Weightage point and other dependent variables that were considered to have considerable effects upon road accidents such as mean speed, volume, shoulder width, lane width and access point. P value below 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. After conducting data analysis, this study showed that the number of road accidents increases with the increment of speed and access point. On the other hand, volume has no strong relationship to road accidents which means that it may not have an effect on accidents

  11. Development of MAAP5.0.3 Spent Fuel Pool Model for Severe Accident Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mi Ro [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    After the Fukushima accident, the severe accident phenomena in the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) have been the great issues in the nuclear industry. Generally, during full power operation status, the decay heat of the spent fuel in the SFP is not high enough to cause the severe accident that is the say, the melting of fuel and fuel rack. In addition to this, the SFP of the PWR is not isolated within the containment like the SFP of the old BWR plant, there are so many possible measures to prevent and mitigate severe accidents in the SFP. On the other hand, in the low power shutdown status (fuel refueling), all the core is transferred into the SFP during the refueling period. At this period, if some accidents happen such as the loss of SFP cooling and the failure of SFP integrity then the accidents may be developed into severe accident because the decay heat is high enough. So, the analysis of severe accidents in the SFP during low power shutdown state is greatly affected to the establishment of the major strategies in the severe accident management guideline (SAMG). However, the status of the domestic technical background for those analyses is very weak. it is known that the decay heat of the spent fuel in the SFP is not high enough to cause the severe accident qualitatively. However, there are some possibilities that can cause the severe accidents in the SFP if the loss of SFP cooling and integrity happens simultaneously. The severe accident phenomena in SFP themselves are not much different from those in the containment. However, since the structure of SFP cannot be isolated during the accidents like the containment, the consequence can be extremely significant. So, in terms of the establishment of the severe accident management strategy, it is necessary that the quantitative analysis for the severe accident progression in the SFP should be performed. In this study, the general behavior which can be appeared during the severe accidents in the SFP was analyzed using the

  12. Report on preliminary analysis of state of nuclear criticality accident at JCO at Tokaimura, Ibaraki, Japan (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, J.J.; Park, J.H.; Chang, J.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    This preliminary report was prepared by the Special Task Force Team of KAERI in order to analysis status of nuclear criticality accident broken out at 10:35 September 30, 1999 at JCO nuclear conversion test facility located at Tokaimura, Ibaraki, Japan. The report was consisted of accident summary of cause of accident summary of cause of accident and response by relevant organizations, and preliminary technical analysis of radiation exposure of JCO workers, analysis of cause of accident, and accident assessment and preventive actions against criticality accident. It is expected that JCO accident, Japan's first nuclear criticality accident, would make significant effects to Japan nuclear policy and would be also a good example to Korea future actions to be taken in use and development of nuclear energy. 63 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  13. A study on the core analysis methodology for SMART CEA ejection accident-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Sung Kyun; Lee, Chung Chan; Kim, Kyo Yoon; Cho, Byung Oh

    1999-04-01

    A methodology to analyze the fuel enthalpy is developed based on MASTER that is a time dependent 3 dimensional core analysis code. Using the proposed methodology, SMART CEA ejection accident is analyzed. Moreover, radiation doses are estimated at the exclusion area boundary and low population zone to confirm the criteria for the accident. (Author). 31 refs., 13 tabs., 18 figs.

  14. An Evidential Reasoning-Based CREAM to Human Reliability Analysis in Maritime Accident Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Yan, Xinping; Wang, Yang; Soares, C Guedes

    2017-01-09

    This article proposes a modified cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) for estimating the human error probability in the maritime accident process on the basis of an evidential reasoning approach. This modified CREAM is developed to precisely quantify the linguistic variables of the common performance conditions and to overcome the problem of ignoring the uncertainty caused by incomplete information in the existing CREAM models. Moreover, this article views maritime accident development from the sequential perspective, where a scenario- and barrier-based framework is proposed to describe the maritime accident process. This evidential reasoning-based CREAM approach together with the proposed accident development framework are applied to human reliability analysis of a ship capsizing accident. It will facilitate subjective human reliability analysis in different engineering systems where uncertainty exists in practice.

  15. Analysis of Construction Accidents in Turkey and Responsible Parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    GÜRCANLI, G. Emre; MÜNGEN, Uğur

    2013-01-01

    Construction is one of the world’s biggest industry that includes jobs as diverse as building, civil engineering, demolition, renovation, repair and maintenance. Construction workers are exposed to a wide variety of hazards. This study analyzes 1,117 expert witness reports which were submitted to criminal and labour courts. These reports are from all regions of the country and cover the period 1972–2008. Accidents were classified by the consequence of the incident, time and main causes of the accident, construction type, occupation of the victim, activity at time of the accident and party responsible for the accident. Falls (54.1%), struck by thrown/falling object (12.9%), structural collapses (9.9%) and electrocutions (7.5%) rank first four places. The accidents were most likely between the hours 15:00 and 17:00 (22.6%), 10:00–12:00 (18.7%) and just after the lunchtime (9.9%). Additionally, the most common accidents were further divided into sub-types. Expert-witness assessments were used to identify the parties at fault and what acts of negligence typically lead to accidents. Nearly two thirds of the faulty and negligent acts are carried out by the employers and employees are responsible for almost one third of all cases. PMID:24077446

  16. A POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS TO DOE-STD-3009-94 ACCIDENT ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmrose, D E; Yang, J M

    2007-05-10

    The objective of this paper is to assess proposed transuranic waste accident analysis guidance and recent software improvements in a Windows-OS version of MACCS2 that allows the inputting of parameter uncertainty. With this guidance and code capability, there is the potential to perform a quantitative uncertainty assessment of unmitigated accident releases with respect to the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline (EG) of DOE-STD-3009-94 CN3 (STD-3009). Historically, the classification of safety systems in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility's safety basis has involved how subject matter experts qualitatively view uncertainty in the STD-3009 Appendix A accident analysis methodology. Specifically, whether consequence uncertainty could be larger than previously evaluated so the site-specific accident consequences may challenge the EG. This paper assesses whether a potential uncertainty capability for MACCS2 could provide a stronger technical basis as to when the consequences from a design basis accident (DBA) truly challenges the 25 rem EG.

  17. Analysis of accidents with organic material in health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Mariana; Padilha, Maria Itayra; Pinheiro, Regina Dal Castel

    2011-01-01

    This retrospective and descriptive study with a quantitative design aimed to evaluate occupational accidents with exposure to biological material, as well as the profile of workers, based on reporting forms sent to the Regional Reference Center of Occupational Health in Florianópolis/SC. Data collection was carried out through a survey of 118 reporting forms in 2007. Data were analyzed electronically. The occurrence of accidents was predominantly among nursing technicians, women and the mean age was 34.5 years. 73% of accidents involved percutaneous exposure, 78% had blood and fluid with blood, 44.91% resulted from invasive procedures. It was concluded that strategies to prevent the occurrence of accidents with biological material should include joint activities between workers and service management and should be directed at improving work conditions and organization.

  18. Spatial Analysis of Accident Spots Using Weighted Severity Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Density-based Clustering for Traffic Accident Risk (DBCTAR) was carried out to assist in ascertaining the distribution of ... least one road vehicle, occurring on a road open to ... Road Safety Agency (FRSC), the Lagos State Traffic. Management ...

  19. Accidents at work and costs analysis: a field study in a large Italian company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Massimo; Frey, Marco; Passetti, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Accidents at work are still a heavy burden in social and economic terms, and action to improve health and safety standards at work offers great potential gains not only to employers, but also to individuals and society as a whole. However, companies often are not interested to measure the costs of accidents even if cost information may facilitate preventive occupational health and safety management initiatives. The field study, carried out in a large Italian company, illustrates technical and organisational aspects associated with the implementation of an accident costs analysis tool. The results indicate that the implementation (and the use) of the tool requires a considerable commitment by the company, that accident costs analysis should serve to reinforce the importance of health and safety prevention and that the economic dimension of accidents is substantial. The study also suggests practical ways to facilitate the implementation and the moral acceptance of the accounting technology.

  20. Uncertainty analysis of accident notification time and emergency medical service response time in work zone traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qiang; Weng, Jinxian

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the uncertainty caused by exogenous factors, the accident notification time (ANT) and emergency medical service (EMS) response time were modeled as 2 random variables following the lognormal distribution. Their mean values and standard deviations were respectively formulated as the functions of environmental variables including crash time, road type, weekend, holiday, light condition, weather, and work zone type. Work zone traffic accident data from the Fatality Analysis Report System between 2002 and 2009 were utilized to determine the distributions of the ANT and the EMS arrival time in the United States. A mixed logistic regression model, taking into account the uncertainty associated with the ANT and the EMS response time, was developed to estimate the risk of death. The results showed that the uncertainty of the ANT was primarily influenced by crash time and road type, whereas the uncertainty of EMS response time is greatly affected by road type, weather, and light conditions. In addition, work zone accidents occurring during a holiday and in poor light conditions were found to be statistically associated with a longer mean ANT and longer EMS response time. The results also show that shortening the ANT was a more effective approach in reducing the risk of death than the EMS response time in work zones. To shorten the ANT and the EMS response time, work zone activities are suggested to be undertaken during non-holidays, during the daytime, and in good weather and light conditions.

  1. Traffic Accident Analysis Using Decision Trees and Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Miao M.; Abraham, Ajith; Paprzycki, Marcin

    2004-01-01

    The costs of fatalities and injuries due to traffic accident have a great impact on society. This paper presents our research to model the severity of injury resulting from traffic accidents using artificial neural networks and decision trees. We have applied them to an actual data set obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) General Estimates System (GES). Experiment results reveal that in all the cases the decision tree outperforms the neural network. Our research analys...

  2. Offsite Radiological Consequence Analysis for the Bounding Flammable Gas Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Carro, C A

    2003-01-01

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequences of the bounding flammable gas accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank The calculation applies reasonably conservation input parameters in accordance with DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A, guidance. Revision 1 incorporates comments received from Office of River Protection.

  3. Sodium fast reactor gaps analysis of computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajo, Juan (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Ludewig, Hans (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken, Japan); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d' %C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache %3CU%2B2013%3E CEA, France)

    2011-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of an expert-opinion elicitation activity designed to qualitatively assess the status and capabilities of currently available computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety calculations of advanced sodium fast reactors, and identify important gaps. The twelve-member panel consisted of representatives from five U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, and BNL), the University of Wisconsin, the KAERI, the JAEA, and the CEA. The major portion of this elicitation activity occurred during a two-day meeting held on Aug. 10-11, 2010 at Argonne National Laboratory. There were two primary objectives of this work: (1) Identify computer codes currently available for SFR accident analysis and reactor safety calculations; and (2) Assess the status and capability of current US computer codes to adequately model the required accident scenarios and associated phenomena, and identify important gaps. During the review, panel members identified over 60 computer codes that are currently available in the international community to perform different aspects of SFR safety analysis for various event scenarios and accident categories. A brief description of each of these codes together with references (when available) is provided. An adaptation of the Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) for computational modeling and simulation is described for use in this work. The panel's assessment of the available US codes is presented in the form of nine tables, organized into groups of three for each of three risk categories considered: anticipated operational occurrences (AOOs), design basis accidents (DBA), and beyond design basis accidents (BDBA). A set of summary conclusions are drawn from the results obtained. At the highest level, the panel judged that current US code capabilities are adequate for licensing given reasonable margins, but expressed concern that US code development activities had stagnated and that the

  4. Risk analysis of emergent water pollution accidents based on a Bayesian Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To guarantee the security of water quality in water transfer channels, especially in open channels, analysis of potential emergent pollution sources in the water transfer process is critical. It is also indispensable for forewarnings and protection from emergent pollution accidents. Bridges above open channels with large amounts of truck traffic are the main locations where emergent accidents could occur. A Bayesian Network model, which consists of six root nodes and three middle layer nodes, was developed in this paper, and was employed to identify the possibility of potential pollution risk. Dianbei Bridge is reviewed as a typical bridge on an open channel of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project where emergent traffic accidents could occur. Risk of water pollutions caused by leakage of pollutants into water is focused in this study. The risk for potential traffic accidents at the Dianbei Bridge implies a risk for water pollution in the canal. Based on survey data, statistical analysis, and domain specialist knowledge, a Bayesian Network model was established. The human factor of emergent accidents has been considered in this model. Additionally, this model has been employed to describe the probability of accidents and the risk level. The sensitive reasons for pollution accidents have been deduced. The case has also been simulated that sensitive factors are in a state of most likely to lead to accidents.

  5. Analysis of the 1957-58 Soviet nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabalka, J.R.; Eyman, L.D.; Auerbach, S.I.

    1979-12-01

    The occurrence of a Soviet accident in the winter of 1957-58, involving the atmospheric release of reprocessed fission wastes (cooling time approximately 1-2 yrs.), appears to have been confirmed, primarily by an analysis of the USSR radioecology literature. Due to the high population density in the affected region (Cheliabinsk Province in the highly industrialized Urals Region) and the reported level of /sup 90/Sr contamination , the event probably resulted in the evacuation and/or resettlement of the human population from a significant area (100-1000 km/sup 2/). The resulting contamination zone is estimated to have contained approximately 10/sup 6/ Ci of /sup 90/Sr (reference radionuclide); a relatively small fraction of the total may have been dispersed as an aerosol. Although a plausible explanation for the incident exists (i.e., use of now-obsolete waste storage-/sup 137/Cs isotope separation techniques), it is not yet possible, based on the limited information presently available, to completely dismiss this phenomenon as a purely historical event. It seems imperative that we have a complete explanation of the causes and consequences of this incident. Soviet experience gained in application of corrective measures would be invaluable to the rest of the world nuclear community.

  6. Neutronic analysis of LMFBRs during severe core disruptive accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, E.T.

    1979-01-01

    A number of numerical experiments were performed to assess the validity of diffusion theory and various perturbation methods for calculating the reactivity state of a severely disrupted liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). The disrupted configurations correspond, in general, to phases through which an LMFBR core could pass during a core disruptive accident (CDA). Two-reactor models were chosen for this study, the two zone, homogeneous Clinch River Breeder Reactor and the Large Heterogeneous Reactor Design Study Core. The various phases were chosen to approximate the CDA results predicted by the safety analysis code SAS3D. The calculational methods investigated in this study include the eigenvalue difference technique based on both discrete ordinate transport theory and diffusion theory, first-order perturbation theory, exact perturbation theory, and a new hybrid perturbation theory. Selected cases were analyzed using Monte Carlo methods. It was found that in all cases, diffusion theory and perturbation theory yielded results for the change in reactivity that significantly disagreed with both the discrete ordinate and Monte Carlo results. These differences were, in most cases, in a nonconservative direction.

  7. Analysis of Loss-of-Coolant Accidents in the NBSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek J. S.; Cheng L.; Diamond, D.

    2014-05-23

    This report documents calculations of the fuel cladding temperature during loss-of-coolant accidents in the NBSR. The probability of a pipe failure is small and procedures exist to minimize the loss of water and assure emergency cooling water flows into the reactor core during such an event. Analysis in the past has shown that the emergency cooling water would provide adequate cooling if the water filled the flow channels within the fuel elements. The present analysis is to determine if there is adequate cooling if the water drains from the flow channels. Based on photographs of how the emergency water flows into the fuel elements from the distribution pan, it can be assumed that this water does not distribute uniformly across the flow channels but rather results in a liquid film flowing downward on the inside of one of the side plates in each fuel element and only wets the edges of the fuel plates. An analysis of guillotine breaks shows the cladding temperature remains below the blister temperature in fuel plates in the upper section of the fuel element. In the lower section, the fuel plates are also cooled by water outside the element that is present due to the hold-up pan and temperatures are lower than in the upper section. For small breaks, the simulation results show that the fuel elements are always cooled on the outside even in the upper section and the cladding temperature cannot be higher than the blister temperature. The above results are predicated on assumptions that are examined in the study to see their influence on fuel temperature.

  8. Energy Analysis of Road Accidents Based on Close-Range Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Morales

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and low-cost approach for energy analysis of road accidents using images obtained using consumer-grade digital cameras and smartphones. The developed method could be used by security forces in order to improve the qualitative and quantitative analysis of traffic accidents. This role of the security forces is crucial to settle arguments; consequently, the remote and non-invasive collection of accident related data before the scene is modified proves to be essential. These data, taken in situ, are the basis to perform the necessary calculations, basically the energy analysis of the road accident, for the corresponding expert reports and the reconstruction of the accident itself, especially in those accidents with important damages and consequences. Therefore, the method presented in this paper provides the security forces with an accurate, three-dimensional, and scaled reconstruction of a road accident, so that it may be considered as a support tool for the energy analysis. This method has been validated and tested with a real crash scene simulated by the local police in the Academy of Public Safety of Extremadura, Spain.

  9. Exploring the potential of data mining techniques for the analysis of accident patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Galtzur, Ayelet

    2010-01-01

    Research in road safety faces major challenges: individuation of the most significant determinants of traffic accidents, recognition of the most recurrent accident patterns, and allocation of resources necessary to address the most relevant issues. This paper intends to comprehend which data mining...... and association rules) data mining techniques are implemented for the analysis of traffic accidents occurred in Israel between 2001 and 2004. Results show that descriptive techniques are useful to classify the large amount of analyzed accidents, even though introduce problems with respect to the clear......-cut definition of the clusters and the triviality of the description of the main accident characteristics. Results also show that prediction techniques present problems with respect to the large number of rules produced by decision trees, the interpretation of neural network results in terms of relative...

  10. A Hybrid Algorithm of Traffic Accident Data Mining on Cause Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Xi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accident databases provide the basis for road traffic accident analysis, the data inside which usually has a radial, multidimensional, and multilayered structure. Traditional data mining algorithms such as association rules, when applied alone, often yield uncertain and unreliable results. An improved association rule algorithm based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO put forward by this paper can be used to analyze the correlation between accident attributes and causes. The new algorithm focuses on characteristics of the hyperstereo structure of road traffic accident data, and the association rules of accident causes can be calculated more accurately and in higher rates. A new concept of Association Entropy is also defined to help compare the importance between different accident attributes. T-test model and Delphi method were deployed to test and verify the accuracy of the improved algorithm, the result of which was a ten times faster speed for random traffic accident data sampling analyses on average. In the paper, the algorithms were tested on a sample database of more than twenty thousand items, each with 56 accident attributes. And the final result proves that the improved algorithm was accurate and stable.

  11. Safety Analysis Results for Cryostat Ingress Accidents in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, B. J.; Cadwallader, L. C.; Petti, D. A.

    1997-06-01

    Accidents involving the ingress of air, helium, or water into the cryostat of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak design have been analyzed with a modified version of the MELCOR code for the ITER Non-site Specific Safety Report (NSSR-1). The air ingress accident is the result of a postulated breach of the cryostat boundary into an adjoining room. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed air mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, but that the partial vacuum in the adjoining room must be accommodated in the building design. The water ingress accident is the result of a postulated magnet arc that results in melting of a Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS) coolant pipe, discharging PHTS water and PHTS water activated corrosion products and HTO into the cryostat. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed water mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, that the cryostat pressure remains below design limits, and that the corrosion product and HTO releases are well within the ITER release limits.

  12. [Paragliding accidents--a prospective analysis in Swiss mountain regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P

    1993-01-01

    During the period from 1.1 to 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analysed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. Spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremities (35%) were diagnosed most frequently. Surprisingly no neurological complications occurred, which is possibly explained by the solitary axial trauma. In 15 cases very severe malleolar fractures required surgical intervention. One accident was fatal due to a lung rupture. 60% of all accidents happened during the landing phase, 26% at launching and 14% at flight. Half of the pilots were affected in their primary training course. Most accidents were due to an in-flight error of judgement, such as incorrect estimation of wind conditions and a choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to early reports of hang-gliding injuries, only one accident was due to an equipment failure, namely a ruptured steering line. In more than a third of all accidents, the used paraglider was not in correct correlation with the pilot's weight and experience. Inspired by the desire for a long flight, gliders of too large surface-areas were often used, leading to a more unstable flight. To reduce the frequency of paragliding injuries, an accurate choice of equipment and increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore education-programs should focus more on intensifying the pilot's mental and practical skills.

  13. Accident Precursor Analysis and Management: Reducing Technological Risk Through Diligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimister, James R. (Editor); Bier, Vicki M. (Editor); Kunreuther, Howard C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Almost every year there is at least one technological disaster that highlights the challenge of managing technological risk. On February 1, 2003, the space shuttle Columbia and her crew were lost during reentry into the atmosphere. In the summer of 2003, there was a blackout that left millions of people in the northeast United States without electricity. Forensic analyses, congressional hearings, investigations by scientific boards and panels, and journalistic and academic research have yielded a wealth of information about the events that led up to each disaster, and questions have arisen. Why were the events that led to the accident not recognized as harbingers? Why were risk-reducing steps not taken? This line of questioning is based on the assumption that signals before an accident can and should be recognized. To examine the validity of this assumption, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) undertook the Accident Precursors Project in February 2003. The project was overseen by a committee of experts from the safety and risk-sciences communities. Rather than examining a single accident or incident, the committee decided to investigate how different organizations anticipate and assess the likelihood of accidents from accident precursors. The project culminated in a workshop held in Washington, D.C., in July 2003. This report includes the papers presented at the workshop, as well as findings and recommendations based on the workshop results and committee discussions. The papers describe precursor strategies in aviation, the chemical industry, health care, nuclear power and security operations. In addition to current practices, they also address some areas for future research.

  14. Analysis of traffic accidents on rural highways using Latent Class Clustering and Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oña, Juan; López, Griselda; Mujalli, Randa; Calvo, Francisco J

    2013-03-01

    One of the principal objectives of traffic accident analyses is to identify key factors that affect the severity of an accident. However, with the presence of heterogeneity in the raw data used, the analysis of traffic accidents becomes difficult. In this paper, Latent Class Cluster (LCC) is used as a preliminary tool for segmentation of 3229 accidents on rural highways in Granada (Spain) between 2005 and 2008. Next, Bayesian Networks (BNs) are used to identify the main factors involved in accident severity for both, the entire database (EDB) and the clusters previously obtained by LCC. The results of these cluster-based analyses are compared with the results of a full-data analysis. The results show that the combined use of both techniques is very interesting as it reveals further information that would not have been obtained without prior segmentation of the data. BN inference is used to obtain the variables that best identify accidents with killed or seriously injured. Accident type and sight distance have been identify in all the cases analysed; other variables such as time, occupant involved or age are identified in EDB and only in one cluster; whereas variables vehicles involved, number of injuries, atmospheric factors, pavement markings and pavement width are identified only in one cluster. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Explorative spatial analysis of traffic accident statistics and road mortality among the provinces of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Saffet

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the inter-province differences in traffic accidents and mortality on roads of Turkey. Two different risk indicators were used to evaluate the road safety performance of the provinces in Turkey. These indicators are the ratios between the number of persons killed in road traffic accidents (1) and the number of accidents (2) (nominators) and their exposure to traffic risk (denominator). Population and the number of registered motor vehicles in the provinces were used as denominators individually. Spatial analyses were performed to the mean annual rate of deaths and to the number of fatal accidents that were calculated for the period of 2001-2006. Empirical Bayes smoothing was used to remove background noise from the raw death and accident rates because of the sparsely populated provinces and small number of accident and death rates of provinces. Global and local spatial autocorrelation analyses were performed to show whether the provinces with high rates of deaths-accidents show clustering or are located closer by chance. The spatial distribution of provinces with high rates of deaths and accidents was nonrandom and detected as clustered with significance of Paccidents and deaths were located in the provinces that contain the roads connecting the Istanbul, Ankara, and Antalya provinces. Accident and death rates were also modeled with some independent variables such as number of motor vehicles, length of roads, and so forth using geographically weighted regression analysis with forward step-wise elimination. The level of statistical significance was taken as Paccidents according to denominators in the provinces. The geographically weighted regression analyses did significantly better predictions for both accident rates and death rates than did ordinary least regressions, as indicated by adjusted R(2) values. Geographically weighted regression provided values of 0.89-0.99 adjusted R(2) for death and accident rates, compared with 0

  16. Analysis of Workplace Accidents in Automotive Repair Workshops in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Arquillos, Antonio; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos

    2016-09-01

    To analyze the effects of the factors associated with different types of injury (superficial wounds, dislocations and sprains, bone fractures, concussion and internal injuries, burns scalding and freezing) caused by occupational accidents in automotive repair workshops. Study of a sample consisting of 89,954 industry accidents reported from 2003 to 2008. Odds ratios were calculated with a 95% confidence interval. Belonging to a small company is a risk factor for suffering three of the five types of injury studied. Women are less likely to suffer burns and superficial wounds, and more likely to suffer dislocations or sprains. Foreign workers are more likely to suffer concussion and internal injuries. Health and safety strategies and accident prevention measures should be individualized and adapted to the type of worker most likely to be injured in each type of accident. Occupational health and safety training courses designed according to worker profile, and improving the participation of the workers in small firms creating regional or roving safety representatives would improve working conditions.

  17. Analysis of Criticality Accident Transients of Uranium Solution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN; Ming-hui; DU; Kai-wen; LIU; Zhen-hua

    2012-01-01

    <正>In the nuclear fuel cycle, fissile materials are often dissolved in water. Criticality accidents are likely to happen in the uranium solution system and release a large amount of energy and radioactive materials. Therefore, the criticality safety of uranium solution system is very important in the nuclear safety technology research.

  18. Analysis of Traffic Accident-Related Facial Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Su Hyun; Gu, Ja Hea; Kang, Dong Hee

    2016-10-01

    The consequences of facial trauma remain of great significance both functionally and esthetically. Traffic accident-related facial trauma is a frequent and significant cause of maxillofacial injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the natural history of traffic accident-related facial injuries in 846 patients over a 10-year period at a regional emergency center. The authors report a retrospective study of 846 patients with facial trauma from traffic accidents. The medical records of these patients were reviewed and analyzed to determine clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of traffic accident-related facial trauma. In total, 687 of the 846 patients (81.2%) had fractures of the face, and nasal bone fractures were the most common followed by zygomatic complex fractures, blow-out fractures, and maxilla fractures. About 51.2% patients had open wounds on the face, such as lacerations, abrasions, skin or soft tissue defects, and friction burns. Only 7.4% of patients were treated conservatively and the others underwent repair or closed and open reduction. The complication rate was 46.3%, and scars were the most common followed by nose-related complication, hypoesthesia, and eyelid deformities. In addition, 47.6% of complication patients underwent secondary operations. Almost 15% of drivers were drunk, and about 8.7% were confessed drowsy during drive. Almost 30% of pedestrians were hit when they jaywalked across the street. Epidemiological data regarding traffic accident-related facial trauma are important and useful not only for decisions about patient care and developing optimal treatment regimens but to develop new methods to prevent injuries.

  19. Methodology of a PWR containment analysis during a thermal-hydraulic accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dayane F.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Lima, Ana Cecilia S., E-mail: dayane.silva@usp.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br, E-mail: aclima@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work is to present the methodology of calculation to Angra 2 reactor containment during accidents of the type Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This study will be possible to ensure the safety of the population of the surroundings upon the occurrence of accidents. One of the programs used to analyze containment of a nuclear plant is the CONTAIN. This computer code is an analysis tool used for predicting the physical conditions and distributions of radionuclides inside a containment building following the release of material from the primary system in a light-water reactor during an accident. The containment of the type PWR plant is a concrete building covered internally by metallic material and has limits of design pressure. The methodology of containment analysis must estimate the limits of pressure during a LOCA. The boundary conditions for the simulation are obtained from RELAP5 code. (author)

  20. Analysis of Fukushima unit 2 accident considering the operating conditions of RCIC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il, E-mail: sikim@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon; Cho, Song-Won; Song, JinHo

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR 1.8.6. • RCIC operating conditions were assumed and best case was selected. • Effect of RCIC operating condition on accident scenario was found. - Abstract: A severe accident in Fukushima occurred on March 11, 2011 and units 1, 2 and 3 were damaged severely. A tsunami following an earthquake made the supply of electricity power stop, and the safety systems, which use AC or DC power in plants could not operate properly. It is supposed that the degree of core degradation of unit 2 is less serious than in the other plants, and it was estimated that the operation of reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at the initial stage of the accident minimized the core damage through decay heat removal. Although the operating conditions of the RCIC system are not known clearly, it can be important to analyze the accident scenario of unit 2. In this study, best case of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was presented considering the operating conditions of the RCIC system. The effects of operating condition on core degradation and fission product release rate to environment were also examined. In addition, importance of torus room flooding level in the accident analysis was discussed. MELCOR 1.8.6 was used in this research, and the geometries of plant and operating conditions of safety system were obtained from TEPCO through OECD/NEA BSAF Project.

  1. Accident Analysis for the NIST Research Reactor Before and After Fuel Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek J.; Diamond D.; Cuadra, A.; Hanson, A.L.; Cheng, L-Y.; Brown, N.R.

    2012-09-30

    Postulated accidents have been analyzed for the 20 MW D2O-moderated research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The analysis has been carried out for the present core, which contains high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel and for a proposed equilibrium core with low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses employ state-of-the-art calculational methods. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations were performed with the MCNPX code to determine homogenized fuel compositions in the lower and upper halves of each fuel element and to determine the resulting neutronic properties of the core. The accident analysis employed a model of the primary loop with the RELAP5 code. The model includes the primary pumps, shutdown pumps outlet valves, heat exchanger, fuel elements, and flow channels for both the six inner and twenty-four outer fuel elements. Evaluations were performed for the following accidents: (1) control rod withdrawal startup accident, (2) maximum reactivity insertion accident, (3) loss-of-flow accident resulting from loss of electrical power with an assumption of failure of shutdown cooling pumps, (4) loss-of-flow accident resulting from a primary pump seizure, and (5) loss-of-flow accident resulting from inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve. In addition, natural circulation cooling at low power operation was analyzed. The analysis shows that the conversion will not lead to significant changes in the safety analysis and the calculated minimum critical heat flux ratio and maximum clad temperature assure that there is adequate margin to fuel failure.

  2. Scram discharge volume break studies accident sequence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, R.M.; Hodge, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a summary of a report describing the predicted response of Unit 1 at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant to a hypothetical small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) outside of containment. The accident studied would be initiated by a break in the scram discharge volume (SDV) piping when it is pressurized to full reactor vessel pressure as a normal consequence of a reactor scram. If the scram could be reset, the scram outlet valves would close to isolate the SDV and the piping break from the reactor vessel. However, reset is possible only if the conditions that caused the scram have cleared; it has been assumed in this study that the scram signal remains in effect over a long period of time.

  3. Preliminary accident analysis of Flexblue® underwater reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haratyk Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexblue® is a subsea-based, transportable, small modular reactor delivering 160 MWe. Immersion provides the reactor with an infinite heat sink – the ocean – around the metallic hull. The reference design includes a loop-type PWR with two horizontal steam generators. The safety systems are designed to operate passively; safety functions are fulfilled without operator action and external electrical input. Residual heat is removed through four natural circulation loops: two primary heat exchangers immersed in safety tanks cooled by seawater and two emergency condensers immersed in seawater. In case of a primary piping break, a two-train safety injection system is actuated. Each train includes a core makeup tank, an accumulator and a safety tank at low pressure. To assess the capability of these features to remove residual heat, the reactor and its safety systems have been modelled using thermal-hydraulics code ATHLET with conservative assumptions. The results of simulated transients for three typical PWR accidents are presented: a turbine trip with station blackout, a large break loss of coolant accident and a small break loss of coolant accident. The analyses show that the safety criteria are respected and that the reactor quickly reaches a safe shutdown state without operator action and external power.

  4. Accident sequence precursor analysis level 2/3 model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lui, C.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program currently uses simple Level 1 models to assess the conditional core damage probability for operational events occurring in commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Since not all accident sequences leading to core damage will result in the same radiological consequences, it is necessary to develop simple Level 2/3 models that can be used to analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude of the resulting radioactive releases to the environment, and calculate the consequences associated with these releases. The simple Level 2/3 model development work was initiated in 1995, and several prototype models have been completed. Once developed, these simple Level 2/3 models are linked to the simple Level 1 models to provide risk perspectives for operational events. This paper describes the methods implemented for the development of these simple Level 2/3 ASP models, and the linkage process to the existing Level 1 models.

  5. Advanced accident sequence precursor analysis level 2 models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.; Rempe, J.L. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Accident Sequence Precursor program pursues the ultimate objective of performing risk significant evaluations on operational events (precursors) occurring in commercial nuclear power plants. To achieve this objective, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research is supporting the development of simple probabilistic risk assessment models for all commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) in the U.S. Presently, only simple Level 1 plant models have been developed which estimate core damage frequencies. In order to provide a true risk perspective, the consequences associated with postulated core damage accidents also need to be considered. With the objective of performing risk evaluations in an integrated and consistent manner, a linked event tree approach which propagates the front end results to back end was developed. This approach utilizes simple plant models that analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude and timing of a radioactive release to the environment, and calculate the consequences for a given release. Detailed models and results from previous studies, such as the NUREG-1150 study, are used to quantify these simple models. These simple models are then linked to the existing Level 1 models, and are evaluated using the SAPHIRE code. To demonstrate the approach, prototypic models have been developed for a boiling water reactor, Peach Bottom, and a pressurized water reactor, Zion.

  6. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  7. Development of Methodology for Spent Fuel Pool Severe Accident Analysis Using MELCOR Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won-Tae; Shin, Jae-Uk [RETech. Co. LTD., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kwang-Il [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The general reason why SFP severe accident analysis has to be considered is that there is a potential great risk due to the huge number of fuel assemblies and no containment in a SFP building. In most cases, the SFP building is vulnerable to external damage or attack. In contrary, low decay heat of fuel assemblies may make the accident processes slow compared to the accident in reactor core because of a great deal of water. In short, its severity of consequence cannot exclude the consideration of SFP risk management. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has performed the consequence studies of postulated spent fuel pool accident. The Fukushima-Daiichi accident has accelerated the needs for the consequence studies of postulated spent fuel pool accidents, causing the nuclear industry and regulatory bodies to reexamine several assumptions concerning beyond-design basis events such as a station blackout. The tsunami brought about the loss of coolant accident, leading to the explosion of hydrogen in the SFP building. Analyses of SFP accident processes in the case of a loss of coolant with no heat removal have studied. Few studies however have focused on a long term process of SFP severe accident under no mitigation action such as a water makeup to SFP. USNRC and OECD have co-worked to examine the behavior of PWR fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions in a spent fuel rack. In support of the investigation, several new features of MELCOR model have been added to simulate both BWR fuel assembly and PWR 17 x 17 assembly in a spent fuel pool rack undergoing severe accident conditions. The purpose of the study in this paper is to develop a methodology of the long-term analysis for the plant level SFP severe accident by using the new-featured MELCOR program in the OPR-1000 Nuclear Power Plant. The study is to investigate the ability of MELCOR in predicting an entire process of SFP severe accident phenomena including the molten corium and concrete reaction. The

  8. Development of severe accident analysis code - A study on the molten core-concrete interaction under severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chang Hyun; Lee, Byung Chul; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Doh Young; Kim, Ju Yeul [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the phenomena of the molten core/concrete interaction during the hypothetical severe accident, and to develop the model for heat transfer and physical phenomena in MCCIs. The contents of this study are analysis of mechanism in MCCIs and assessment of heat transfer models, evaluation of model in CORCON code and verification in CORCON using SWISS and SURC Experiments, and 1000 MWe PWR reactor cavity coolability, and establishment a model for prediction of the crust formation and temperature of melt-pool. The properties and flow condition of melt pool covering with the conditions of severe accident are used to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients in each reviewed model. Also, the scope and limitation of each model for application is assessed. A phenomenological analysis is performed with MELCOR 1.8.2 and MELCOR 1.8.3 And its results is compared with corresponding experimental reports of SWISS and SURC experiments. And the calculation is performed to assess the 1000 MWe PWR reactor cavity coolability. To improve the heat transfer model between melt-pool and overlying coolant and analyze the phase change of melt-pool, 2 dimensional governing equations are established using the enthalpy method and computational program is accomplished in this study. The benchmarking calculation is performed and its results are compared to the experiment which has not considered effects of the coolant boiling and the gas injection. Ultimately, the model shall be developed for considering the gas injection effect and coolant boiling effect. 66 refs., 10 tabs., 29 refs. (author)

  9. Analysis of Core Degradation in Fukushima Unit 1 Accident with MELCOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il; Kim, Tae Woon; Ha, Kwang Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this study, an accident analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 was performed using MELCOR 1.8.6. The behavior of the initial stage of the accident was focused during 30 hours after the reactor scram, because it was predicted that the vessel failure (severe accident) occurred before 20 hours. A hydrogen explosion also occurred at about 24 hours after the accident, and thus the phenomenon of core degradation before 30 hours was highlighted. Moreover, the effect of the amount of fresh water injection on the core degradation was performed by changing the amount of injection water. It was expected that a large portion of the injection water could not reach the core because of leakage. Thus, core damage was observed according to the amount of water that reached the core. The plant geometries and operating conditions were obtained from TEPCO (Tokyo Electric Power Company) through the OECD/NEA BSAF (Benchmark Study of the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station) Project. An analysis of the Fukushima accident was also performed by Sandia National Laboratories, but several conditions were revised and added in this study. First, the flow rate of the steam into turbine and water into downcomer were considered at the initial stage of accident. The water level followed well the measured data by adding this mechanism. Second, SRV stuck open was included in this calculation. SRV stuck open can occur due to high temperature and frequent operation, and was modeled in calculation. The timing of SRV stuck open was closed to the timing of MSL failure, and thus the depressurization of RPV could have originated from both of MSL failure and SRV stuck open. The effect of injection water was observed, and it was found that the proper water injection can prevent a severe accident at the initial stage of the accident. In conclusion, an analysis of the severe accident occurring in Fukushima Unit 1 was conducted by using MELCOR. The analysis results were consistent with the

  10. Analysis of swimming pool accidents resulting in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B A; Gabrielsen, M A; Hall, W J; O'Heir, J

    1980-04-01

    This paper is a summary of a study of 72 cases of swimming-pool accidents resulting in serious injuries with the potential of permanent disability. Sixty-four of the 72 cases resulted in spinal cord injuries, 57 of which involved quadriplegic lesions. The authors observed that the majority of these injuries resulted from a lack of good judgement and common sense rather than from intoxication or pool structural deficiencies. Also of note was the lack of appropriate first-aid and extrication rendered, as well as the absence of uniform treatment and care received by the majority of the patients.

  11. Risk-based Analysis of Construction Accidents in Iran During 2007-2011-Meta Analyze Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mehran; Ardeshir, Abdollah; Fazel Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of occupational accidents and frequency and severity of work related accidents in the construction industry among Iranian insured workers during the years 20072011. The Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO) accident database containing 21,864 cases between the years 2007-2011 was applied in this study. In the next step, Total Accident Rate (TRA), Total Severity Index (TSI), and Risk Factor (RF) were defined. The core of this work is devoted to analyzing the data from different perspectives such as age of workers, occupation and construction phase, day of the week, time of the day, seasonal analysis, regional considerations, type of accident, and body parts affected. Workers between 15-19 years old (TAR=13.4%) are almost six times more exposed to risk of accident than the average of all ages (TAR=2.51%). Laborers and structural workers (TAR=66.6%) and those working at heights (TAR=47.2%) experience more accidents than other groups of workers. Moreover, older workers over 65 years old (TSI=1.97%> average TSI=1.60%), work supervisors (TSI=12.20% >average TSI=9.09%), and night shift workers (TSI=1.89% >average TSI=1.47%) are more prone to severe accidents. It is recommended that laborers, young workers, weekend and night shift workers be supervised more carefully in the workplace. Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be compulsory in working environments, and special attention should be undertaken to people working outdoors and at heights. It is also suggested that policymakers pay more attention to the improvement of safety conditions in deprived and cold western regions.

  12. Risk-based Analysis of Construction Accidents in Iran During 2007-2011-Meta Analyze Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Amiri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of occupational accidents and frequency and severity of work related accidents in the construction industry among Iranian insured workers during the years 20072011.The Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO accident database containing 21,864 cases between the years 2007-2011 was applied in this study. In the next step, Total Accident Rate (TRA, Total Severity Index (TSI, and Risk Factor (RF were defined. The core of this work is devoted to analyzing the data from different perspectives such as age of workers, occupation and construction phase, day of the week, time of the day, seasonal analysis, regional considerations, type of accident, and body parts affected.Workers between 15-19 years old (TAR=13.4% are almost six times more exposed to risk of accident than the average of all ages (TAR=2.51%. Laborers and structural workers (TAR=66.6% and those working at heights (TAR=47.2% experience more accidents than other groups of workers. Moreover, older workers over 65 years old (TSI=1.97%> average TSI=1.60%, work supervisors (TSI=12.20% >average TSI=9.09%, and night shift workers (TSI=1.89% >average TSI=1.47% are more prone to severe accidents.It is recommended that laborers, young workers, weekend and night shift workers be supervised more carefully in the workplace. Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE should be compulsory in working environments, and special attention should be undertaken to people working outdoors and at heights. It is also suggested that policymakers pay more attention to the improvement of safety conditions in deprived and cold western regions.

  13. Reactor Core Coolability Analysis during Hypothesized Severe Accidents of OPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yongjae; Seo, Seungwon; Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Hwan-Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Assessment of the safety features over the hypothesized severe accidents may be performed experimentally or numerically. Due to the considerable time and expenditures, experimental assessment is implemented only to the limited cases. Therefore numerical assessment has played a major role in revisiting severe accident analysis of the existing or newly designed power plants. Computer codes for the numerical analysis of severe accidents are categorized as the fast running integral code and detailed code. Fast running integral codes are characterized by a well-balanced combination of detailed and simplified models for the simulation of the relevant phenomena within an NPP in the case of a severe accident. MAAP, MELCOR and ASTEC belong to the examples of fast running integral codes. Detailed code is to model as far as possible all relevant phenomena in detail by mechanistic models. The examples of detailed code is SCDAP/RELAP5. Using the MELCOR, Carbajo. investigated sensitivity studies of Station Black Out (SBO) using the MELCOR for Peach Bottom BWR. Park et al. conduct regulatory research of the PWR severe accident. Ahn et al. research sensitivity analysis of the severe accident for APR1400 with MELCOR 1.8.4. Lee et al. investigated RCS depressurization strategy and developed a core coolability map for independent scenarios of Small Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA), SBO, and Total Loss of Feed Water (TLOFW). In this study, three initiating cases were selected, which are SBLOCA without SI, SBO, and TLOFW. The initiating cases exhibit the highest probability of transitioning into core damage according to PSA 1 of OPR 1000. The objective of this study is to investigate the reactor core coolability during hypothesized severe accidents of OPR1000. As a representative indicator, we have employed Jakob number and developed JaCET and JaMCT using the MELCOR simulation. Although the RCS pressures for the respective accident scenarios were different, the JaMCT and Ja

  14. ASTEC adaptation for PHWR limited core damage accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, P., E-mail: pmajum@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Reactor Safety Division, Mumbai 400085 (India); Chatterjee, B.; Lele, H.G. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Reactor Safety Division, Mumbai 400085 (India); Guillard, G.; Fichot, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SAG, Cadarache, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2014-06-01

    Under limited core damage accidents (LCDAs) of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR), coolable geometry of the channel might be retained thanks to the presence of moderator heat sink. Indeed, the pressure tube is amenable to creep deformation at high temperature due to internal pressure and fuel bundles weight. Partial or complete circumferential contact between pressure tube and calandria tube aids heat dissipation to the moderator. A new module has been developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) for simulating this phenomenon which is specific to horizontal-type of reactors. It requires additional calculation of pressure tube sagging/ballooning and temperature field in the circumferential direction. The module is well validated with available experimental results concerning pressure tube deformation and the associated heat transfer in the area of contact. It is then used in analysing typical LCDAs scenarios in Indian PHWR under low and medium internal pressure conditions. This module is implemented in the ASTEC IRSN-GRS severe accident code version under development and will thus be available in the next major version V2.1.

  15. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc.

  16. [Model of Analysis and Prevention of Accidents - MAPA: tool for operational health surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz; Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; da Silva, Alessandro José Nunes; Beltran, Sandra Lorena

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of work-related accidents is important for accident surveillance and prevention. Current methods of analysis seek to overcome reductionist views that see these occurrences as simple events explained by operator error. The objective of this paper is to analyze the Model of Analysis and Prevention of Accidents (MAPA) and its use in monitoring interventions, duly highlighting aspects experienced in the use of the tool. The descriptive analytical method was used, introducing the steps of the model. To illustrate contributions and or difficulties, cases where the tool was used in the context of service were selected. MAPA integrates theoretical approaches that have already been tried in studies of accidents by providing useful conceptual support from the data collection stage until conclusion and intervention stages. Besides revealing weaknesses of the traditional approach, it helps identify organizational determinants, such as management failings, system design and safety management involved in the accident. The main challenges lie in the grasp of concepts by users, in exploring organizational aspects upstream in the chain of decisions or at higher levels of the hierarchy, as well as the intervention to change the determinants of these events.

  17. Analysis of Human Errors in Industrial Incidents and Accidents for Improvement of Work Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leplat, J.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1984-01-01

    Methods for the analysis of work accidents are discussed, and a description is given of the use of a causal situation analysis in terms of a 'variation tree' in order to explain the course of events of the individual cases and to identify possible improvements. The difficulties in identifying 'ca...

  18. Pressure Load Analysis during Severe Accidents for the Evaluation of Late Containment Failure in OPR-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. Y.; Ahn, K. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The MAAP code is a system level computer code capable of performing integral analyses of potential severe accident progressions in nuclear power plants, whose main purpose is to support a level 2 probabilistic safety assessment or severe accident management strategy developments. The code employs lots of user-options for supporting a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The present application is mainly focused on determining an estimate of the containment building pressure load caused by severe accident sequences. Key modeling parameters and phenomenological models employed for the present uncertainty analysis are closely related to in-vessel hydrogen generation, gas combustion in the containment, corium distribution in the containment after a reactor vessel failure, corium coolability in the reactor cavity, and molten-corium interaction with concrete. The phenomenology of severe accidents is extremely complex. In this paper, a sampling-based phenomenological uncertainty analysis was performed to statistically quantify uncertainties associated with the pressure load of a containment building for a late containment failure evaluation, based on the key modeling parameters employed in the MAAP code and random samples for those parameters. Phenomenological issues surrounding the late containment failure mode are highly complex. Included are the pressurization owing to steam generation in the cavity, molten corium-concrete interaction, late hydrogen burn in the containment, and the secondary heat removal availability. The methodology and calculation results can be applied for the optimum assessment of a late containment failure model. The accident sequences considered were a loss of coolant accidents and loss of offsite accidents expected in the OPR-1000 plant. As a result, uncertainties addressed in the pressure load of the containment building were quantified as a function of time. A realistic evaluation of the mean and variance estimates provides a more complete

  19. Human error and the problem of causality in analysis of accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1990-01-01

    , designers or managers have played a major role. There are, however, several basic problems in analysis of accidents and identification of human error. This paper addresses the nature of causal explanations and the ambiguity of the rules applied for identification of the events to include in analysis......Present technology is characterized by complexity, rapid change and growing size of technical systems. This has caused increasing concern with the human involvement in system safety. Analyses of the major accidents during recent decades have concluded that human errors on part of operators...

  20. Radiological accident analysis with simulation codes; Analisis de accidentes radiologicos con codigos de simulacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brucker, R.; Munoz, A.; Rodriguez, J.

    2011-07-01

    The scope of radiological analysis is to calculate the dose received by the public and by an operator in the control room in case of an accident. Simulation software are needed for that kind of analysis in order to solve differential equations (radionuclides transport equations), to simulate the accident scenario, and to calculate the dose. This article presents the main radionuclide transport codes (several cases simulated with RADTRAD v3.03 are detailed), dose calculation programs, and atmospheric dispersion coefficients calculation software. (Author) 10 refs.

  1. A computer code for analysis of severe accidents in LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The ICARE2 computer code, developed and validated since 1988 at IPSN (nuclear safety and protection institute), calculates in a mechanistic way the physical and chemical phenomena involved in the core degradation process during possible severe accidents in LWR's. The coupling between ICARE2 and the best-estimate thermal-hydraulics code CATHARE2 was completed at IPSN and led to the release of a first ICARE/CATHARE V1 version in 1999, followed by 2 successive revisions in 2000 and 2001. This documents gathers all the contributions presented at the first international ICARE/CATHARE users'club seminar that took place in November 2001. This seminar was characterized by a high quality and variety of the presentations, showing an increase of reactor applications and user needs in this area (2D/3D aspects, reflooding, corium slumping into the lower head,...). 2 sessions were organized. The first one was dedicated to the applications of ICARE2 V3mod1 against small-scale experiments such as PHEBUS FPT2 and FPT3 tests, PHEBUS AIC, QUENCH experiments, NRU-FLHT-5 test, ACRR-MP1 and DC1 experiments, CORA-PWR tests, and PBF-SFD1.4 test. The second session involved ICARE/CATHARE V1mod1 reactor applications and users'guidelines. Among reactor applications we found: code applicability to high burn-up fuel rods, simulation of the TMI-2 transient, simulation of a PWR-900 high pressure severe accident sequence, and the simulation of a VVER-1000 large break LOCA scenario. (A.C.)

  2. Severe accident analysis in a two-loop PWR nuclear power plant with the ASTEC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek, Sinisa; Amizic, Milan; Grgic, Davor [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing

    2013-12-15

    The ASTEC/V2.0 computer code was used to simulate a hypothetical severe accident sequence in the nuclear power plant Krsko, a 2-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant. ASTEC is an integral code jointly developed by Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN, France) and Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS, Germany) to assess nuclear power plant behaviour during a severe accident. The analysis was conducted in 2 steps. First, the steady state calculation was performed in order to confirm the applicability of the plant model and to obtain correct initial conditions for the accident analysis. The second step was the calculation of the station blackout accident with a leakage of the primary coolant through degraded reactor coolant pump seals, which was a small LOCA without makeup capability. Two scenarios were analyzed: one with and one without the auxiliary feedwater (AFW). The latter scenario, without the AFW, resulted in earlier core damage. In both cases, the accident ended with a core melt and a reactor pressure vessel failure with significant release of hydrogen. In addition, results of the ASTEC calculation were compared with results of the RELAP5/SCDAPSIM calculation for the same transient scenario. The results comparison showed a good agreement between predictions of those 2 codes. (orig.)

  3. Narrative Text Analysis of Accident Reports with Tractors, Self-Propelled Harvesting Machinery and Materials Handling Machinery in Austrian Agriculture from 2008 to 2010 – A Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Hannes Mayrhofer; Elisabeth Quendler; Josef Boxberger

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report ac...

  4. Analysis on the nitrogen drilling accident of Well Qionglai 1 (I: Major inducement events of the accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfeng Meng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen drilling in poor tight gas sandstone should be safe because of very low gas production. But a serious accident of fire blowout occurred during nitrogen drilling of Well Qionglai 1. This is the first nitrogen drilling accident in China, which was beyond people's knowledge about the safety of nitrogen drilling and brought negative effects on the development of gas drilling technology still in start-up phase and resulted in dramatic reduction in application of gas drilling. In order to form a correct understanding, the accident was systematically analyzed, the major events resulting in this accident were inferred. It is discovered for the first time that violent ejection of rock clasts and natural gas occurred due to the sudden burst of downhole rock when the fractured tight gas zone was penetrated during nitrogen drilling, which has been named as “rock burst and blowout by gas bomb”, short for “rock burst”. Then all the induced events related to the rock burst are as following: upthrust force on drilling string from rock burst, bridging-off formed and destructed repeatedly at bit and centralizer, and so on. However, the most direct important event of the accident turns out to be the blockage in the blooie pipe from rock burst clasts and the resulted high pressure at the wellhead. The high pressure at the wellhead causes the blooie pipe to crack and trigged blowout and deflagration of natural gas, which is the direct presentation of the accident.

  5. Empirical Risk Analysis of Severe Reactor Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants after Fukushima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Christian Kaiser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many countries are reexamining the risks connected with nuclear power generation after the Fukushima accidents. To provide updated information for the corresponding discussion a simple empirical approach is applied for risk quantification of severe reactor accidents with International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES level ≥5. The analysis is based on worldwide data of commercial nuclear facilities. An empirical hazard of 21 (95% confidence intervals (CI 4; 62 severe accidents among the world’s reactors in 100,000 years of operation has been estimated. This result is compatible with the frequency estimate of a probabilistic safety assessment for a typical pressurised power reactor in Germany. It is used in scenario calculations concerning the development in numbers of reactors in the next twenty years. For the base scenario with constant reactor numbers the time to the next accident among the world's 441 reactors, which were connected to the grid in 2010, is estimated to 11 (95% CI 3.7; 52 years. In two other scenarios a moderate increase or decrease in reactor numbers have negligible influence on the results. The time to the next accident can be extended well above the lifetime of reactors by retiring a sizeable number of less secure ones and by safety improvements for the rest.

  6. Study on coal mines accidents based on the grey relational analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuai; ZHANG Jin-long

    2008-01-01

    The subject investigated the system of people-machine-environment in coal mines. The coal mines working process was researched and the theory of grey system was applied to analyze coal mines safety accidents and those relevant factors. This re-search reveals that this analysis method is easy and highly available and the result is of great credibility, which can not only provide theoretical supports to the quantitative study of coal mines safety accident, but offer basis for coal mines companies' safety management.

  7. The Cost of Company Occupational Accidents: An Activity Based Analysis using the SACA Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, Martin

    The Systematic Accident Cost Analysis (SACA) project is a research project carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. It empirically tested a method - the SACA method...... - for evaluating the visible and hidden costs of corporate occupational accidents. It also focused on whether the registration, processing and reporting of these costs could be integrated in the corporate accounting information system. The project was based on case studies in 9 Danish companies within 3 different...

  8. Analysis of Moderator System Failure Accidents by Using New Method for Wolsong-1 CANDU 6 Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Dongsik; Kim, Jonghyun; Cho, Cheonhwey [Atomic Creative Technology Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sungmin [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    To reconfirm the safety of moderator system failure accidents, the safety analysis by using the reactor physics code, RFSP-IST, coupled with the thermal hydraulics code, CATHENA is performed additionally. In the present paper, the newly developed analysis method is briefly described and the results obtained from the moderator system failure accident simulations for Wolsong-1 CANDU 6 reactor by using the new method are summarized. The safety analysis of the moderator system failure accidents for Wolsong-1 CANDU 6 reactor was carried out by using the new code system, i. e., CATHENA and RFSP-IST, instead of the non-IST old codes, namely, SMOKIN G-2 and MODSTBOIL. The analysis results by using the new method revealed as same with the results by using the old method that the fuel integrity is warranted because the localized power peak remained well below the limits and, most importantly, the reactor operation enters into the self-shutdown mode due to the substantial loss of moderator D{sub 2}O inventory from the moderator system. In the analysis results obtained by using the old method, it was predicted that the ROP trip conditions occurred for the transient cases which are also studied in the present paper. But, in the new method, it was found that the ROP trip conditions did not occur. Consequently, in the safety analysis performed additionally by using the new method, the safety of moderator system failure accidents was reassured. In the future, the new analysis method by using the IST codes instead of the non-IST old codes for the moderator system failure accidents is strongly recommended.

  9. The Importance of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in the Investigation of Road Traffic Accidents: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younis M. Albalooshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstain pattern analysis has become a field of specialization in Forensic sciences and plays an important role in the reconstruction of events at a crime scene. Research, books, and articles have been published on the analysis and interpretation of bloodstain patterns We present a case study of a road traffic accident in which bloodstain pattern analysis helped us to solve the discrepancy between reports produced by forensic examiners and by the forensic biology department. The case was of a 22-year-old man who died immediately and a 31- year-old woman who survived a road traffic accident. They were both found outside their overturned car and it was impossible to ascertain from initial observations which of the victims was driving the car at the time of the accident. An external examination of the man revealed multiple injuries, and the cause of his death was severe brain injury. The woman survived with a fracture of the forearm, dislocated clavicle bone, and other minor injuries. After initial examination of the car and based on the pattern of injuries the deceased received, forensic examiner concluded that the man was the driving the car at the time of accident. On the other hand, the forensic DNA analysis of bloodstains obtained from the driver's seat matched that of the woman, suggesting that she was the driver. This apparent discrepancy directed the forensic examiner to carry out a bloodstain pattern analysis on the driver's seat. The bloodstain pattern analysis helped resolve the discrepancy and enabled the investigators to identify the driver correctly. This case report emphasizes the importance of bloodstain pattern analysis in the reconstruction of cases involving road traffic accidents.

  10. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2, Book 2: Accident model document: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-15

    This section of the Accident Model Document (AMD) presents the appendices which describe the various analyses that have been conducted for use in the Galileo Final Safety Analysis Report II, Volume II. Included in these appendices are the approaches, techniques, conditions and assumptions used in the development of the analytical models plus the detailed results of the analyses. Also included in these appendices are summaries of the accidents and their associated probabilities and environment models taken from the Shuttle Data Book (NSTS-08116), plus summaries of the several segments of the recent GPHS safety test program. The information presented in these appendices is used in Section 3.0 of the AMD to develop the Failure/Abort Sequence Trees (FASTs) and to determine the fuel releases (source terms) resulting from the potential Space Shuttle/IUS accidents throughout the missions.

  11. Analysis of Reactivity Induced Accident for Control Rods Ejection with Loss of Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Saad, Hend Mohammed El Sayed; Wahab, Moustafa Aziz Abd El

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of the time-dependent behavior of the neutron population in nuclear reactor in response to either a planned or unplanned change in the reactor conditions, is a great importance to the safe and reliable operation of the reactor. In the present work, the point kinetics equations are solved numerically using stiffness confinement method (SCM). The solution is applied to the kinetics equations in the presence of different types of reactivities and is compared with different analytical solutions. This method is also used to analyze reactivity induced accidents in two reactors. The first reactor is fueled by uranium and the second is fueled by plutonium. This analysis presents the effect of negative temperature feedback with the addition positive reactivity of control rods to overcome the occurrence of control rod ejection accident and damaging of the reactor. Both power and temperature pulse following the reactivity- initiated accidents are calculated. The results are compared with previous works and...

  12. Chemical Analysis of Tire Traces in Traffic Accidents Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Gueissaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the forensic investigation of traffic accidents is to help establish the nature and/or the circumstances of the event. This might be done with the purpose of determining the legal responsibilities of each person involved or to provide families, with a reconstruction of the events, to help understand why their relatives were injured or killed. A methodology for the comparison of chemical profiles of tire traces and tire tread samples obtained by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry has been developed. Chemical profiles are represented by relative abundances of 86 compounds. The variability of the tread within and between 12 tires was assessed. Considering the level of the source as "brand and model" the intra-variability was found to be smaller than the inter-variability, leading to the complete discrimination of the 12 tires of the sample set. Braking tests were carried out on a racetrack in order to produce tire traces which origin was known. The results obtained with a supervised classification method showed that more than 94% of the replicates of the traces were correctly assigned to the class membership (i.e., brand and model of the tire at their origin. These results support that the chemical profile of one trace does not differ from the chemical profile of the tire at its origin but differs generally from the other chemical profiles of the sample set.

  13. A systemic analysis of South Korea Sewol ferry accident - Striking a balance between learning and accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Dohyung; Jun, Gyuchan Thomas; Waterson, Patrick; Haslam, Roger

    2017-03-01

    The South Korea Sewol ferry accident in April 2014 claimed the lives of over 300 passengers and led to criminal charges of 399 personnel concerned including imprisonment of 154 of them as of Oct 2014. Blame and punishment culture can be prevalent in a more hierarchical society like South Korea as shown in the aftermath of this disaster. This study aims to analyse the South Korea ferry accident using Rasmussen's risk management framework and the associated AcciMap technique and to propose recommendations drawn from an AcciMap-based focus group with systems safety experts. The data for the accident analysis were collected mainly from an interim investigation report by the Board of Audit and Inspection of Korea and major South Korean and foreign newspapers. The analysis showed that the accident was attributed to many contributing factors arising from front-line operators, management, regulators and government. It also showed how the multiple factors including economic, social and political pressures and individual workload contributed to the accident and how they affected each other. This AcciMap was presented to 27 safety researchers and experts at 'the legacy of Jens Rasmussen' symposium adjunct to ODAM2014. Their recommendations were captured through a focus group. The four main recommendations include forgive (no blame and punishment on individuals), analyse (socio-technical system-based), learn (from why things do not go wrong) and change (bottom-up safety culture and safety system management). The findings offer important insights into how this type of accident should be understood, analysed and the subsequent response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preliminary Analysis of Aircraft Loss of Control Accidents: Worst Case Precursor Combinations and Temporal Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Groff, Loren; Newman, Richard L.; Foster, John V.; Crider, Dennis H.; Klyde, David H.; Huston, A. McCall

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft loss of control (LOC) is a leading cause of fatal accidents across all transport airplane and operational classes, and can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of conditions and uncertainties, including multiple hazards, and their validation must provide a means of assessing system effectiveness and coverage of these hazards. This requires the definition of a comprehensive set of LOC test scenarios based on accident and incident data as well as future risks. This paper defines a comprehensive set of accidents and incidents over a recent 15 year period, and presents preliminary analysis results to identify worst-case combinations of causal and contributing factors (i.e., accident precursors) and how they sequence in time. Such analyses can provide insight in developing effective solutions for LOC, and form the basis for developing test scenarios that can be used in evaluating them. Preliminary findings based on the results of this paper indicate that system failures or malfunctions, crew actions or inactions, vehicle impairment conditions, and vehicle upsets contributed the most to accidents and fatalities, followed by inclement weather or atmospheric disturbances and poor visibility. Follow-on research will include finalizing the analysis through a team consensus process, defining future risks, and developing a comprehensive set of test scenarios with correlation to the accidents, incidents, and future risks. Since enhanced engineering simulations are required for batch and piloted evaluations under realistic LOC precursor conditions, these test scenarios can also serve as a high-level requirement for defining the engineering simulation enhancements needed for generating them.

  15. ACCIDENT ANALYSES & CONTROL OPTIONS IN SUPPORT OF THE SLUDGE WATER SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2003-11-15

    This report documents the accident analyses and nuclear safety control options for use in Revision 7 of HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, ''K Basins Safety Analysis Report'' and Revision 4 of HNF-SD-SNF-TSR-001, ''Technical Safety Requirements - 100 KE and 100 KW Fuel Storage Basins''. These documents will define the authorization basis for Sludge Water System (SWS) operations. This report follows the guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', for calculating onsite and offsite consequences. The accident analysis summary is shown in Table ES-1 below. While this document describes and discusses potential control options to either mitigate or prevent the accidents discussed herein, it should be made clear that the final control selection for any accident is determined and presented in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062.

  16. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -The development of a severe accident analysis code-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heui Dong; Cho, Sung Won; Park, Jong Hwa; Hong, Sung Wan; Yoo, Dong Han; Hwang, Moon Kyoo; Noh, Kee Man; Song, Yong Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    For prevention and mitigation of the containment failure during severe accident, the study is focused on the severe accident phenomena, especially, the ones occurring inside the cavity and is intended to improve existing models and develop analytical tools for the assessment of severe accidents. A correlation equation of the flame velocity of pre mixture gas of H{sub 2}/air/steam has been suggested and combustion flame characteristic was analyzed using a developed computer code. For the analysis of the expansion phase of vapor explosion, the mechanical model has been developed. The development of a debris entrainment model in a reactor cavity with captured volume has been continued to review and examine the limitation and deficiencies of the existing models. Pre-test calculation was performed to support the severe accident experiment for molten corium concrete interaction study and the crust formation process and heat transfer characteristics of the crust have been carried out. A stress analysis code was developed using finite element method for the reactor vessel lower head failure analysis. Through international program of PHEBUS-FP and participation in the software development, the research on the core degradation process and fission products release and transportation are undergoing. CONTAIN and MELCOR codes were continuously updated under the cooperation with USNRC and French developed computer codes such as ICARE2, ESCADRE, SOPHAEROS were also installed into the SUN workstation. 204 figs, 61 tabs, 87 refs. (Author).

  17. ACCIDENT ANALYSES & CONTROL OPTIONS IN SUPPORT OF THE SLUDGE WATER SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2003-11-15

    This report documents the accident analyses and nuclear safety control options for use in Revision 7 of HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, ''K Basins Safety Analysis Report'' and Revision 4 of HNF-SD-SNF-TSR-001, ''Technical Safety Requirements - 100 KE and 100 KW Fuel Storage Basins''. These documents will define the authorization basis for Sludge Water System (SWS) operations. This report follows the guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', for calculating onsite and offsite consequences. The accident analysis summary is shown in Table ES-1 below. While this document describes and discusses potential control options to either mitigate or prevent the accidents discussed herein, it should be made clear that the final control selection for any accident is determined and presented in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062.

  18. Analysis of Adolescent Awareness of Radiation: Marking the First Anniversary of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Bang Ju [Korean Science Reporters Association, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Marking the first anniversary of the Fukushima nuclear accident, which took place on March 11th, 2011, the level of adolescent awareness and understanding of radiation was surveyed, and the results were then compared with those for adults with the same questionnaires conducted at similar times. A qualitative survey and frequency analysis were made for the design of the study methodology. Those surveyed were limited to 3rd grade middle school students, 15 years of age, who are the future generation. The questionnaire, which is a survey tool, was directly distributed to the students and 2,217 answers were analysed. The questionnaires were composed of 40 questions, and it was found that Cronbach's coefficient was high with 'self awareness of radiation' at 0.494, 'risk of radiation' at 0.843, 'benefit of radiation' at 0.748, 'radiological safety control' at 0.692, 'information sources of radiation' at 0.819, and 'impacts of Fukushima accident'. The results of the survey analysis showed that the students' knowledge of radiation was not very high with 67.4 points (69.5 points for adults) calculated on a maximum scale of 100 points (converted points). The impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident were found to be less significant to adolescents than adults, and the rate of answer of 'so' or ' very so' in the following questions demonstrates this well. It was also shown that the impacts of the Fukushima accident to adolescents were comparatively low with 27.0% (38.9% for adults) on the question of 'attitude changed against nuclear power due to the Fukushima accident,' 65.7%(86.6% for adults) on the question of 'the damages from the Fukushima accident was immeasurably huge,' and 65.0% (86.3% for adults) on 'the Fukushima accident contributed to raising awareness on the safety of nuclear power plants'. The adolescents had a high rate of &apos

  19. Analysis of dental materials as an aid to identification in aircraft accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.S.; Cruickshanks-Boyd, D.W.

    1982-04-01

    The failure to achieve positive identification of aircrew following an aircraft accident need not prevent a full autopsy and toxicological examination to ascertain possible medical factors involved in the accident. Energy-dispersive electron microprobe analysis provides morphological, qualitative, and accurate quantitative analysis of the composition of dental amalgam. Wet chemical analysis can be used to determine the elemental composition of crowns, bridges and partial dentures. Unfilled resin can be analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. Detailed analysis of filled composite restorative resins has not yet been achieved in the as-set condition to permit discrimination between manufacturers' products. Future work will involve filler studies and pyrolysis of the composite resins by thermogravimetric analysis to determine percentage weight loss when the sample examined is subjected to a controlled heating regime. With these available techniques, corroborative evidence achieved from the scientific study of materials can augment standard forensic dental results to obtain a positive identification.

  20. SAMPSON Parallel Computation for Sensitivity Analysis of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, M.; Bautista Gomez, L.; Maruyama, N.; Naitoh, M.; Matsuoka, S.; Cappello, F.

    2014-06-01

    On March 11th 2011 a high magnitude earthquake and consequent tsunami struck the east coast of Japan, resulting in a nuclear accident unprecedented in time and extents. After scram started at all power stations affected by the earthquake, diesel generators began operation as designed until tsunami waves reached the power plants located on the east coast. This had a catastrophic impact on the availability of plant safety systems at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi, leading to the condition of station black-out from unit 1 to 3. In this article the accident scenario is studied with the SAMPSON code. SAMPSON is a severe accident computer code composed of hierarchical modules to account for the diverse physics involved in the various phases of the accident evolution. A preliminary parallelization analysis of the code was performed using state-of-the-art tools and we demonstrate how this work can be beneficial to the nuclear safety analysis. This paper shows that inter-module parallelization can reduce the time to solution by more than 20%. Furthermore, the parallel code was applied to a sensitivity study for the alternative water injection into TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi unit 3. Results show that the core melting progression is extremely sensitive to the amount and timing of water injection, resulting in a high probability of partial core melting for unit 3.

  1. Implementation of numerical simulation techniques in analysis of the accidents in complex technological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klishin, G.S.; Seleznev, V.E.; Aleoshin, V.V. [RFNC-VNIIEF (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Gas industry enterprises such as main pipelines, compressor gas transfer stations, gas extracting complexes belong to the energy intensive industry. Accidents there can result into the catastrophes and great social, environmental and economic losses. Annually, according to the official data several dozens of large accidents take place at the pipes in the USA and Russia. That is why prevention of the accidents, analysis of the mechanisms of their development and prediction of their possible consequences are acute and important tasks nowadays. The accidents reasons are usually of a complicated character and can be presented as a complex combination of natural, technical and human factors. Mathematical and computer simulations are safe, rather effective and comparatively inexpensive methods of the accident analysis. It makes it possible to analyze different mechanisms of a failure occurrence and development, to assess its consequences and give recommendations to prevent it. Besides investigation of the failure cases, numerical simulation techniques play an important role in the treatment of the diagnostics results of the objects and in further construction of mathematical prognostic simulations of the object behavior in the period of time between two inspections. While solving diagnostics tasks and in the analysis of the failure cases, the techniques of theoretical mechanics, of qualitative theory of different equations, of mechanics of a continuous medium, of chemical macro-kinetics and optimizing techniques are implemented in the Conversion Design Bureau {number_sign}5 (DB{number_sign}5). Both universal and special numerical techniques and software (SW) are being developed in DB{number_sign}5 for solution of such tasks. Almost all of them are calibrated on the calculations of the simulated and full-scale experiments performed at the VNIIEF and MINATOM testing sites. It is worth noting that in the long years of work there has been established a fruitful and effective

  2. Formal Analysis of an Airplane Accident in N{Σ}-Labeled Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Tetsuya; Igarashi, Shigeru; Ikeda, Yasuwo; Shio, Masayuki

    N{Σ}-labeled calculus is a formal system for representation, verification and analysis of time-concerned recognition, knowledge, belief and decision of humans or computer programs together with related external physical or logical phenomena.In this paper, a formal verification and analysis of the JAL near miss accident is presented as an example of cooperating systems controlling continuously changing objects including human factor with misunderstanding or incorrect recognition.

  3. Analysis of the FeCrAl Accident Tolerant Fuel Concept Benefits during BWR Station Blackout Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, Kevin R [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys are being considered for fuel concepts with enhanced accident tolerance. FeCrAl alloys have very slow oxidation kinetics and good strength at high temperatures. FeCrAl could be used for fuel cladding in light water reactors and/or as channel box material in boiling water reactors (BWRs). To estimate the potential safety gains afforded by the FeCrAl concept, the MELCOR code was used to analyze a range of postulated station blackout severe accident scenarios in a BWR/4 reactor employing FeCrAl. The simulations utilize the most recently known thermophysical properties and oxidation kinetics for FeCrAl. Overall, when compared to the traditional Zircaloy-based cladding and channel box, the FeCrAl concept provides a few extra hours of time for operators to take mitigating actions and/or for evacuations to take place. A coolable core geometry is retained longer, enhancing the ability to stabilize an accident. Finally, due to the slower oxidation kinetics, substantially less hydrogen is generated, and the generation is delayed in time. This decreases the amount of non-condensable gases in containment and the potential for deflagrations to inhibit the accident response.

  4. Aspects of using a best-estimate approach for VVER safety analysis in reactivity initiated accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovdiienko, Iurii; Bilodid, Yevgen; Ieremenko, Maksym [State Scientific and Technical Centre on Nuclear and Radiation, Safety (SSTC N and RS), Kyiv (Ukraine); Loetsch, Thomas [TUEV SUED Industrie Service GmbH, Energie und Systeme, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    At present time, Ukraine faces the problem of small margins of acceptance criteria in connection with the implementation of a conservative approach for safety evaluations. The problem is particularly topical conducting feasibility analysis of power up-rating for Ukrainian nuclear power plants. Such situation requires the implementation of a best-estimate approach on the basis of an uncertainty analysis. For some kind of accidents, such as loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), the best estimate approach is, more or less, developed and established. However, for reactivity initiated accident (RIA) analysis an application of best estimate method could be problematical. A regulatory document in Ukraine defines a nomenclature of neutronics calculations and so called ''generic safety parameters'' which should be used as boundary conditions for all VVER-1000 (V-320) reactors in RIA analysis. In this paper the ideas of uncertainty evaluations of generic safety parameters in RIA analysis in connection with the use of the 3D neutron kinetic code DYN3D and the GRS SUSA approach are presented.

  5. DATA ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS AND THEIR CAUSES IN GOMEL FOR 2013 AND 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Azemsha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measures undertaken for improvement of road traffic safety presuppose clampdown on violation of road traffic regulations but no attention is paid to the fact that there is no possibility to ensure road traffic safety due to inconformity of roads to the modern safety requirements. Therefore reduction in accident rate is connected with some changes in approaches to designing, construction and maintenance of roads. Nowadays when the number of automobiles is extremely large and their number is increasing with every passing year driver’s professionalism becomes the most significant factor. In these circumstances the professionalism is demonstrated not so much while driving in bad road conditions as it was previously but the professionalism is more revealed in the case when it is necessary to drive in conditions of large workloads and high manoeuvring rate when a special important role is given to the capability to forecast a situation, in other words the capability to read the road. Moral climate on the road is no less important as well and it practically fully depends on a driver.The paper contains an analysis of the Gomel traffic police data on quantitative distribution of road traffic accidents and their victims according to the time of day and month, lighting conditions, weather conditions, age and sex factors, types of violations. Situations of traffic behavior, motivations of drivers and road users, drivers training have been shown in terms of impact on the road traffic accident risk. The paper considers a human factor which rather often causes an accident. An evaluation has been given to such factor as road speed of transport facilities which exerts a significant influence on an accident risk and its severity.

  6. ANALYSIS OF MEDIA PUBLICATIONS ON THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zykova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of informing the public about radiation and radiation risks is made on the basiс of publications on the Fukushima nuclear accident after the earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011, by five newspapers and the official internet sites of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being and the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring. The analysis of the data suggests that the population is satisfied with its request in timely, clear, and reliable information on the radiation situation, protective measures and forecast of the situation development in the future. The possibility to learn about different viewpoints positively affects the mood of readers and reduces their anxiety. However, it should be recognized that, if the information have been provided by a single media only, the population would not have adequate understanding of the situation related to the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant.

  7. Boolean Algebra Application in Analysis of Flight Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casandra Venera BALAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fault tree analysis is a deductive approach for resolving an undesired event into its causes, identifying the causes of a failure and providing a framework for a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the top event. An alternative approach to fault tree analysis methods calculus goes to logical expressions and it is based on a graphical representation of the data structure for a logic - based binary decision diagram representation. In this analysis, such sites will be reduced to a minimal size and arranged in the sense that the variables appear in the same order in each path. An event can be defined as a statement that can be true or false. Therefore, Boolean algebra rules allow restructuring of a Fault Tree into one equivalent to it, but simpler.

  8. An association between dietary habits and traffic accidents in patients with chronic liver disease: A data-mining analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Suetsugu, Takuro; Ogata, Shyou; Imanaga, Minami; Ishii, Kumiko; Esaki, Nao; Sugimoto, Masako; Otsuyama, Jyuri; Nagamatsu, Ayu; Taniguchi, Eitaro; Itou, Minoru; Oriishi, Tetsuharu; Iwasaki, Shoko; Miura, Hiroko; Torimura, Takuji

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of traffic accidents in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) is high in the USA. However, the characteristics of patients, including dietary habits, differ between Japan and the USA. The present study investigated the incidence of traffic accidents in CLD patients and the clinical profiles associated with traffic accidents in Japan using a data-mining analysis. A cross-sectional study was performed and 256 subjects [148 CLD patients (CLD group) and 106 patients with other digestive diseases (disease control group)] were enrolled; 2 patients were excluded. The incidence of traffic accidents was compared between the two groups. Independent factors for traffic accidents were analyzed using logistic regression and decision-tree analyses. The incidence of traffic accidents did not differ between the CLD and disease control groups (8.8 vs. 11.3%). The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that yoghurt consumption was the only independent risk factor for traffic accidents (odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.85; P=0.0197). Similarly, the results of the decision-tree analysis showed that yoghurt consumption was the initial divergence variable. In patients who consumed yoghurt habitually, the incidence of traffic accidents was 6.6%, while that in patients who did not consume yoghurt was 16.0%. CLD was not identified as an independent factor in the logistic regression and decision-tree analyses. In conclusion, the difference in the incidence of traffic accidents in Japan between the CLD and disease control groups was insignificant. Furthermore, yoghurt consumption was an independent negative risk factor for traffic accidents in patients with digestive diseases, including CLD.

  9. The Factors Analysis on Food Safety Accidents Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Xiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study uses SPSS17.0 analysis of validity and reliability of the food enterprises questionnaire. Using AMOS17. 0 software for structural equation model test of goodness of fit and analysis of on the path. From the “melamine” to “Sudanred” and “steroid-tainted pork” events that have been exposed recently, series of typical food safety incidents resulted in the emergence of food safety issues become the focus of attention. A series of food processing can be contaminated by harmful substances, resulting in harmful food, thus constituting food safety issues and poses a serious threat to public and person’s health.

  10. Exposure rate response analysis of criticality accident dectector at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zino, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    This analysis investigated the exposure response behavior of gamma-ray ionization chambers used in the criticality accident systems at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The project consisted of performing exposure response measurements with a calibrated {sup 137}Cs source for benchmarking of the MCNP Monte Carlo code. MCNP was then used to extrapolate the ion chamber`s response to gamma-rays with energies outside the current domain of measured data for criticality fission sources.

  11. CFD Analysis of Migration Mechanism of Source Term Under Severe Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Lin-lin; SUN; Xue-ting; JI; Song-tao

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the migration of source term under severe accident is one of the important aspects of‘Studies on Migration Mechanism of the Source Term under Severe Accident’,which is a significant task of the National Large Advanced PWR Research Program.This research aims at building up a method for analyzing fission product behavior in the containment with CFD code.The effect of PCCS(Passive

  12. Human and organisational factors in maritime accidents: analysis of collisions at sea using the HFACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Christine; Lardjane, Salim; Morel, Gaël; Clostermann, Jean-Pierre; Langard, Benoît

    2013-10-01

    Over the last decade, the shipping industry has implemented a number of measures aimed at improving its safety level (such as new regulations or new forms of team training). Despite this evolution, shipping accidents, and particularly collisions, remain a major concern. This paper presents a modified version of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System, which has been adapted to the maritime context and used to analyse human and organisational factors in collisions reported by the Marine Accident and Investigation Branch (UK) and the Transportation Safety Board (Canada). The analysis shows that most collisions are due to decision errors. At the precondition level, it highlights the importance of the following factors: poor visibility and misuse of instruments (environmental factors), loss of situation awareness or deficit of attention (conditions of operators), deficits in inter-ship communications or Bridge Resource Management (personnel factors). At the leadership level, the analysis reveals the frequent planning of inappropriate operations and non-compliance with the Safety Management System (SMS). The Multiple Accident Analysis provides an important finding concerning three classes of accidents. Inter-ship communications problems and Bridge Resource Management deficiencies are closely linked to collisions occurring in restricted waters and involving pilot-carrying vessels. Another class of collisions is associated with situations of poor visibility, in open sea, and shows deficiencies at every level of the socio-technical system (technical environment, condition of operators, leadership level, and organisational level). The third class is characterised by non-compliance with the SMS. This study shows the importance of Bridge Resource Management for situations of navigation with a pilot on board in restricted waters. It also points out the necessity to investigate, for situations of navigation in open sea, the masters' decisions in critical conditions

  13. Analysis of cost regression and post-accident absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciech, Drozd

    2017-07-01

    The article presents issues related with costs of work safety. It proves the thesis that economic aspects cannot be overlooked in effective management of occupational health and safety and that adequate expenditures on safety can bring tangible benefits to the company. Reliable analysis of this problem is essential for the description the problem of safety the work. In the article attempts to carry it out using the procedures of mathematical statistics [1, 2, 3].

  14. Impact of traffic congestion on road accidents: a spatial analysis of the M25 motorway in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Quddus, Mohammed A; Ison, Stephen G

    2009-07-01

    Traffic congestion and road accidents are two external costs of transport and the reduction of their impacts is often one of the primary objectives for transport policy makers. The relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents however is not apparent and less studied. It is speculated that there may be an inverse relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents, and as such this poses a potential dilemma for transport policy makers. This study aims to explore the impact of traffic congestion on the frequency of road accidents using a spatial analysis approach, while controlling for other relevant factors that may affect road accidents. The M25 London orbital motorway, divided into 70 segments, was chosen to conduct this study and relevant data on road accidents, traffic and road characteristics were collected. A robust technique has been developed to map M25 accidents onto its segments. Since existing studies have often used a proxy to measure the level of congestion, this study has employed a precise congestion measurement. A series of Poisson based non-spatial (such as Poisson-lognormal and Poisson-gamma) and spatial (Poisson-lognormal with conditional autoregressive priors) models have been used to account for the effects of both heterogeneity and spatial correlation. The results suggest that traffic congestion has little or no impact on the frequency of road accidents on the M25 motorway. All other relevant factors have provided results consistent with existing studies.

  15. Sensitivity Analysis of Evacuation Speed in Hypothetical NPP Accident by Earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-yeop; Lim, Ho-Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Effective emergency response in emergency situation of nuclear power plant (NPP) can make consequences be different therefore it is regarded important when establishing an emergency response plan and assessing the risk of hypothetical NPP accident. Situation of emergency response can be totally changed when NPP accident caused by earthquake or tsunami is considered due to the failure of roads and buildings by the disaster. In this study evacuation speed has been focused among above various factors and reasonable evacuation speed in earthquake scenario has been investigated. Finally, sensitivity analysis of evacuation speed in hypothetical NPP accident by earthquake has been performed in this study. Evacuation scenario can be entirely different in the situation of seismic hazard and the sensitivity analysis of evacuation speed in hypothetical NPP accident by earthquake has been performed in this study. Various references were investigated and earthquake evacuation model has been developed considering that evacuees may convert their evacuation method from using a vehicle to walking when they face the difficulty of using a vehicle due to intense traffic jam, failure of buildings and roads, and etc. The population dose within 5 km / 30 km have been found to be increased in earthquake situation due to decreased evacuation speed and become 1.5 - 2 times in the severest earthquake evacuation scenario set up in this study. It is not agreed that using same emergency response model which is used for normal evacuation situations when performing level 3 probabilistic safety assessment for earthquake and tsunami event. Investigation of data and sensitivity analysis for constructing differentiated emergency response model in the event of seismic hazard has been carried out in this study.

  16. Video analysis of the biomechanics of a bicycle accident resulting in significant facial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Shameer H; Willing, Ryan; Jenkyn, Thomas R; Yazdani, Arjang

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to use video analysis techniques to determine the velocity, impact force, angle of impact, and impulse to fracture involved in a video-recorded bicycle accident resulting in facial fractures. Computed tomographic images of the resulting facial injury are presented for correlation with data and calculations. To our knowledge, such an analysis of an actual recorded trauma has not been reported in the literature. A video recording of the accident was split into frames and analyzed using an image editing program. Measurements of velocity and angle of impact were obtained from this analysis, and the force of impact and impulse were calculated using the inverse dynamic method with connected rigid body segments. These results were then correlated with the actual fracture pattern found on computed tomographic imaging of the subject's face. There was an impact velocity of 6.25 m/s, impact angles of 14 and 6.3 degrees of neck extension and axial rotation, respectively, an impact force of 1910.4 N, and an impulse to fracture of 47.8 Ns. These physical parameters resulted in clinically significant bilateral mid-facial Le Fort II and III pattern fractures. These data confer further understanding of the biomechanics of bicycle-related accidents by correlating an actual clinical outcome with the kinematic and dynamic parameters involved in the accident itself and yielding a concrete evidence of the velocity, force, and impulse necessary to cause clinically significant facial trauma. These findings can aid in the design of protective equipment for bicycle riders to help avoid this type of injury.

  17. Application of Dynamic Probabilistic Safety Assessment Approach for Accident Sequence Precursor Analysis: Case Study for Steam Generator Tube Rupture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Hansul; Kim, Taewan; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2017-01-01

    ...) analysis, and to propose a case study using the dynamic-probabilistic safety assessment (D-PSA) approach. The D-PSA approach can aid in the determination of high-risk/low-frequency accident scenarios from all potential scenarios...

  18. Safety culture and accident analysis--a socio-management approach based on organizational safety social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Suman

    2007-04-11

    One of the biggest challenges for organizations in today's competitive business environment is to create and preserve a self-sustaining safety culture. Typically, the key drivers of safety culture in many organizations are regulation, audits, safety training, various types of employee exhortations to comply with safety norms, etc. However, less evident factors like networking relationships and social trust amongst employees, as also extended networking relationships and social trust of organizations with external stakeholders like government, suppliers, regulators, etc., which constitute the safety social capital in the Organization--seem to also influence the sustenance of organizational safety culture. Can erosion in safety social capital cause deterioration in safety culture and contribute to accidents? If so, how does it contribute? As existing accident analysis models do not provide answers to these questions, CAMSoC (Curtailing Accidents by Managing Social Capital), an accident analysis model, is proposed. As an illustration, five accidents: Bhopal (India), Hyatt Regency (USA), Tenerife (Canary Islands), Westray (Canada) and Exxon Valdez (USA) have been analyzed using CAMSoC. This limited cross-industry analysis provides two key socio-management insights: the biggest source of motivation that causes deviant behavior leading to accidents is 'Faulty Value Systems'. The second biggest source is 'Enforceable Trust'. From a management control perspective, deterioration in safety culture and resultant accidents is more due to the 'action controls' rather than explicit 'cultural controls'. Future research directions to enhance the model's utility through layering are addressed briefly.

  19. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models.

  20. Radiological accidents: analysis of the information disseminated by media and public acceptance of nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Tauhata, Luiz [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Marcia Maria [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Virologia

    1995-12-31

    A methodology to treat quantitatively information by Media concerning a nuclear or a radiological accident is presented. It allows us to classify information according to the amount, importance and way of showing, into one indicator, named Information Equivalent. This establishes a procedure for analysis of released information and includes: number of head-lines, illustrations, printed lines, editorials, authorities quoted and so on. Interpretation becomes easier when the evolution and statistical trend of this indicator is observed. The application to evaluate the dissemination of the accident which took place in 1987 in Goiania, Brazil, was satisfactory and allowed us to purpose a model. This will aid the planning, the decision making process and it will improve relationships between technical staff and media during the emergency. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Late health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models.

  2. Analysis of Early Severe Accident Initiated by LBLOCA for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xing-Wei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to simulate an early Severe Accident (SA scenario more detail through transferring the thermal-hydraulic status of the plant predicted by RELAP5 computer code to SA Program (SAP. Based on the criterion of date extract time, the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic calculation data is extracted to form a file for SAP input card at 1477K of cladding surface. Relying on the thermal-hydraulic boundary parameters calculated by RELAP5 code, analysis of early SA initiated by the Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LBLOCA without mitigation measures for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Plant (QSP-II performed by SAP through finding the key events of accident sequence, estimating the amount of hydrogen generation and oxidation behavior of the cladding and evaluating the relocation order of the materials collapsed in the central region of the core. The results of this study are expected to improve the SA analysis methodology more detail through analyzing early SA scenario.

  3. A Comparative analysis for control rod drop accident in RETRAN DNB and CETOP DNB Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chang Keun; Kim, Yo Han; Ha, Sang Jun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    In Korea, the nuclear industries such as fuel manufacturer, the architect engineer and the utility, have been using the methodologies and codes of vendors, such as Westinghouse(WH), Combustion Engineering, for the safety analyses of nuclear power plants. Consequently the industries have kept up the many organizations to operate the methodologies and to maintain the codes for each vendor. It may occur difficulty to improve the safety analyses efficiency and technology related. So, the necessity another of methodologies and code systems applicable to Non- LOCA, beyond design basis accident and performance analyses for all types of pressurized water reactor(PWR) has been raised. Due to the above reason, the Korea Electric Power Research Institute(KEPRI) had decided to develop the new safety analysis code system for Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plants in Korea. As the first requirement, the best-estimate codes were required for applicable wider application area and realistic behavior prediction of power plants with various and sophisticated functions. After the investigation for few candidates, RETRAN-3D has been chosen as a system analysis code. As a part of the feasibility estimation for the methodology and code system, CRD(Control Rod Drop) accident which an event of Non-LOCA accidents for Uljin units 3 and 4 and Yonggwang 1 and 2 was selected to verify the feasibility of the methodology using the RETRAN-3D. In this paper, RETRAN DNB Model and CETOP DNB Model were analyzed by using comparative method.

  4. Analysis of pedestrian accident costs in Sudan using the willingness-to-pay method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofadal, Adam I A; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong

    2015-05-01

    The willingness-to-pay (WTP) with contingent valuation (CV) method has been proven to be a valid tool for the valuation of non-market goods or socio-economic costs of road traffic accidents among communities in developed and developing countries. Research on accident costing tends to estimate the value of statistical life (VOSL) for all road users by providing a principle for the evaluation of road safety interventions in cost-benefit analysis. As in many other developing countries, the economic loss of traffic accidents in Sudan is noticeable; however, analytical research to estimate the magnitude and impact of that loss is lacking. Reports have shown that pedestrians account for more than 40% of the total number of fatalities. In this study, the WTP-CV approach was used to determine the amount of money that pedestrians in Sudan are willing to pay to reduce the risk of their own death. The impact of the socioeconomic factors, risk levels, and walking behaviors of pedestrians on their WTP for fatality risk reduction was also evaluated. Data were collected from two cities-Khartoum and Nyala-using a survey questionnaire that included 1400 respondents. The WTP-CV Payment Card Questionnaire was designed to ensure that Sudan pedestrians can easily determine the amount of money that would be required to reduce the fatality risk from a pedestrian-related accident. The analysis results show that the estimated VOSL for Sudanese pedestrians ranges from US$0.019 to US$0.101 million. In addition, the willingness-to-pay by Sudanese pedestrians to reduce their fatality risk tends to increase with age, household income, educational level, safety perception, and average time spent on social activities with family and community.

  5. Questions concerning safety and risk after the nuclear accidents in Japan. Deepened accident analysis for the Fukushima Daiichi power plant; Sicherheits- und Risikofragen im Nachgang zu den nuklearen Stoer- und Unfaellen in Japan. Vertiefte Ereignisanalyse zur Anlage Fukushima-Daini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistner, Christoph; Englert, Matthias [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-02-25

    The study questions concerning safety and risk in Japanese power plants following the disastrous nuclear accident covers the following issues: the nuclear facility Fukushima Daiichi, site characterization, important technical equipment, important electro-technical equipment, personal; description of the accident progression in the Fukushima nuclear power plant: impact of the earthquake, impact of the tsunami, short-term measures of the operating personnel, pressure and temperature situation in the containments, restoration of the after-heat cooling system in the units 1/2 and 4, fuel element storage pool, summarized parameters during the accident progress; comparative analysis of the accident progression at the Fukushima Daiichi site.

  6. Analysis 320 coal mine accidents using structural equation modeling with unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations as exogenous variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingyu; Shao, Wei; Zhang, Mengjia; Li, Hejun; Yin, Shijiu; Xu, Yingjun

    2016-07-01

    Mining has been historically considered as a naturally high-risk industry worldwide. Deaths caused by coal mine accidents are more than the sum of all other accidents in China. Statistics of 320 coal mine accidents in Shandong province show that all accidents contain indicators of "unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations" with a frequency of 1590, accounting for 74.3% of the total frequency of 2140. "Unsafe behaviors of the operator" is another important contributory factor, which mainly includes "operator error" and "venturing into dangerous places." A systems analysis approach was applied by using structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the interactions between the contributory factors of coal mine accidents. The analysis of results leads to three conclusions. (i) "Unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations," affect the "unsafe behaviors of the operator," "unsafe conditions of the equipment," and "unsafe conditions of the environment." (ii) The three influencing factors of coal mine accidents (with the frequency of effect relation in descending order) are "lack of safety education and training," "rules and regulations of safety production responsibility," and "rules and regulations of supervision and inspection." (iii) The three influenced factors (with the frequency in descending order) of coal mine accidents are "venturing into dangerous places," "poor workplace environment," and "operator error."

  7. Analysis of Accidents in Nine Iranian Gas Refineries: 2007–2011

    OpenAIRE

    AR Shakibmanesh; Bolouri, A.; R Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Occupational accidents are one of the major health hazards in industries and associated with high mortality, morbidity, spiritual damage and economic losses in the world.Objective: To determine the incidence of occupational accidents in 9 Iranian gas refineries between March 2007 and February 2011.Methods: Data on all occupational accidents occurred between March 2007 and February 2011, as well as other possible associated variables including time of accident, whether the accident...

  8. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    YE, Yunfeng; ZHANG, Siheng; RAO, Jiaming; WANG, Haiqing; LI, Yang; WANG, Shengyong; DONG, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths. Methods: Data from 2003–2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents. Results: A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 106 populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death. Conclusion: Ten years’ major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of eaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments. PMID:27057515

  9. Acceptable Risk Analysis for Abrupt Environmental Pollution Accidents in Zhangjiakou City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xi; Zhang, Zhijiao; Dong, Lei; Liu, Jing; Borthwick, Alistair G L; Liu, Renzhi

    2017-04-20

    Abrupt environmental pollution accidents cause considerable damage worldwide to the ecological environment, human health, and property. The concept of acceptable risk aims to answer whether or not a given environmental pollution risk exceeds a societally determined criterion. This paper presents a case study on acceptable environmental pollution risk conducted through a questionnaire survey carried out between August and October 2014 in five representative districts and two counties of Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province, China. Here, environmental risk primarily arises from accidental water pollution, accidental air pollution, and tailings dam failure. Based on 870 valid questionnaires, demographic and regional differences in public attitudes towards abrupt environmental pollution risks were analyzed, and risk acceptance impact factors determined. The results showed females, people between 21-40 years of age, people with higher levels of education, public servants, and people with higher income had lower risk tolerance. People with lower perceived risk, low-level risk knowledge, high-level familiarity and satisfaction with environmental management, and without experience of environmental accidents had higher risk tolerance. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that public satisfaction with environmental management was the most significant factor in risk acceptance, followed by perceived risk of abrupt air pollution, occupation, perceived risk of tailings dam failure, and sex. These findings should be helpful to local decision-makers concerned with environmental risk management (e.g., selecting target groups for effective risk communication) in the context of abrupt environmental accidents.

  10. Analysis of 78 cases of prehospital death due to traffic accident injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡孝菽; 洪勇; 等

    1999-01-01

    Objective The cause and time of prehospital death for the injured patients caused by traffic accidents were studied in order to improve traffic management and clinical treatment,and reduce mortality.Methods The characteristics of the injury,the rescue procedure,the status of the injury leading to death were analyzed based on the retrospective data of 78 cases died before admission.Results The main causes of prehospital death in the traffic accidents included:1.head injury,2.bleeding,3.chest and heart wound,4.spinal cord injury at upper cervix.Death happened immediately after injury was in 17 cases.Death happened from the accident site to our hospital was in 47 cases.Death happened within half an hour after reaching emergency room was in 14 cases.In all of the cases,the death on the transfer took up 62.5%.Conclusions Findings from analysis of the data will be presented on a wide range of traffic safety issues.These include enhancing education of traffic safety and administration of drivers and motor vehicles,establishing a perfect emergency medical service system and a well-trained team of first aid,and popularizing first aid knowledge to all people.

  11. Behavior analysis of container ship in maritime accident in order to redefine the operating criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancuţa, C.; Stanca, C.; Andrei, C.; Acomi, N.

    2017-08-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of maritime transport, container ships operators proceeded to increase the sizes of ships. The latest generation of ships in operation has 19,000 TEU capacity and the perspective is 21,000 TEU within the next years. The increasing of the sizes of container ships involves risks of maritime accidents occurrences. Nowadays, the general rules on operational security, tend to be adjusted as a result of the evaluation for each vessel. To create the premises for making an informed decision, the captain have to be aware of ships behavior in such situations. Not less important is to assure permanent review of the procedures for operation of ship, including the specific procedures in special areas, confined waters or separation schemes. This paper aims at analysing the behavior of the vessel and the respond of the structure of a container ship in maritime accident, in order to redefine the operating criteria. The method selected by authors for carrying out the research is computer simulations. Computer program provides the responses of the container ship model in various situations. Therefore, the simulations allow acquisition of a large category of data, in the scope of improving the prevention of accidents or mitigation of effects as much as possible. Simulations and assessments of certain situations that the ship might experience will be carried out to redefine the operating criteria. The envisaged scenarios are: introducing of maneuver speed for specific areas with high risk of collision or grounding, introducing of flooding scenarios of some compartments in loading programs, conducting of complex simulations in various situations for each vessel type. The main results of this work are documented proposals for operating criteria, intended to improve the safety in case of marine accidents, collisions and groundings. Introducing of such measures requires complex cost benefit analysis, that should not neglect the extreme economic impact

  12. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Gomez del Rio, J.; Sanz, J.

    2001-05-01

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work, computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) have been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here we consider a severe loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in conjunction with simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the confinement) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and confinement building itself). Even though confinement failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product transport and release. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 5 mSv (0.5 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  13. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

    2000-02-23

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental (S and E) aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work a set of computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) has been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here the authors consider a severe lost of coolant accident (LOCA) producing simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the containment) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and containment building it self). Even though containment failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product release and transport. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 6 mSv (0.6 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  14. Road accidents at night in the Netherlands : a national analysis according to official road accident data. Contribution to OECD Research Group TS 3 on Improving Road Safety at Night.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, S.

    1979-01-01

    The questionnaire about night-time accident data of the OECD Research Group TS 3 on Improving Road Safety at Night was filled in for the Netherlands. Thereafter a national analysis was written, using the already completed accident data questionnaire. Guidelines for the contents and presentation fo

  15. Radiation protection: an analysis of thyroid blocking. [Effectiveness of KI in reducing radioactive uptake following potential reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, D C; Blond, R M

    1980-01-01

    An analysis was performed to provide guidance to policymakers concerning the effectiveness of potassium iodide (KI) as a thyroid blocking agent in potential reactor accident situations, the distance to which (or area within which) it should be distributed, and its relative effectiveness compared to other available protective measures. The analysis was performed using the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) consequence model. Four categories of accidents were addressed: gap activity release accident (GAP), GAP without containment isolation, core melt with a melt-through release, and core melt with an atmospheric release. Cost-benefit ratios (US $/thyroid nodule prevented) are given assuming that no other protective measures are taken. Uncertainties due to health effects parameters, accident probabilities, and costs are assessed. The effects of other potential protective measures, such as evacuation and sheltering, and the impact on children (critical population) are evaluated. Finally, risk-benefit considerations are briefly discussed.

  16. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.; J. C. VAN OURS

    2002-01-01

    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  17. Progress in Addressing DNFSB Recommendation 2002-1 Issues: Improving Accident Analysis Software Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VINCENT, ANDREW

    2005-04-25

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (''Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software'') identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls to prevent or mitigate potential accidents. Over the last year, DOE has begun several processes and programs as part of the Implementation Plan commitments, and in particular, has made significant progress in addressing several sets of issues particularly important in the application of software for performing hazard and accident analysis. The work discussed here demonstrates that through these actions, Software Quality Assurance (SQA) guidance and software tools are available that can be used to improve resulting safety analysis. Specifically, five of the primary actions corresponding to the commitments made in the Implementation Plan to Recommendation 2002-1 are identified and discussed in this paper. Included are the web-based DOE SQA Knowledge Portal and the Central Registry, guidance and gap analysis reports, electronic bulletin board and discussion forum, and a DOE safety software guide. These SQA products can benefit DOE safety contractors in the development of hazard and accident analysis by precluding inappropriate software applications and utilizing best practices when incorporating software results to safety basis documentation. The improvement actions discussed here mark a beginning to establishing stronger, standard-compliant programs, practices, and processes in SQA among safety software users, managers, and reviewers throughout the DOE Complex. Additional effort is needed, however, particularly in: (1) processes to add new software applications to the DOE Safety Software Toolbox; (2) improving the effectiveness of software issue communication; and (3) promoting a safety software quality assurance culture.

  18. Analysis of Maximum Reasonably Foreseeable Accidents for the Yucca Mountain Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.B. Ross; R.E. Best; S.J. Maheras; T.I. McSweeney

    2001-08-17

    Accidents could occur during the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This paper describes the risks and consequences to the public from accidents that are highly unlikely but that could have severe consequences. The impact of these accidents would include those to a collective population and to hypothetical maximally exposed individuals (MEIs). This document discusses accidents with conditions that have a chance of occurring more often than 1 in 10 million times in a year, called ''maximum reasonably foreseeable accidents''. Accidents and conditions less likely than this are not considered to be reasonably foreseeable.

  19. IMPROVEMENT OF EXPERT ANALYSIS FOR ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS USING COMPUTER SIMULATION PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Azemsha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing methods for auto-technical expertise presuppose selection of some parameters on the basis of the expert’s intuition and experience. Type of a vehicle and its loading rate, road conditions are not taken into account also in the case when deceleration is to be determined. While carrying out the analysis it has been established that an application of special software makes it possible to improve significantly efficiency of the executed works directed on solution of the assigned tasks, to speed up calculation processes, to decrease qualitatively probability of arithmetic errors and provides the possibility to visualize results of the conducted investigations. Possibility of using various models for dynamic motion simulation and collision of vehicles (in the form of 3D-models has been established in the paper. In such a case specific features of vehicle technical conditions, its loading rate and condition of roadway surface have been taken account in the paper. The given paper also permits to obtain a dynamic display of reconstructed accident mechanism in axonometric projection, to film video-clips when a camera is positioned at any spatial point: road, roadside, raised position, moving vehicle, driver's seat in the vehicle.The paper contains an analysis of possibilities of road traffic accident simulation programs, a statistical analysis that shows significance in differences between simulation results when various programs have been used. The paper presents initial data and results of vehicle speed calculation on the basis of braking track length which have been obtained with the help of road traffic accident express analysis (a classical approach and PC-Crash when additional influencing factors are taken into account. A number of shortcomings have been revealed while analyzing the simulation results of the applied software. The shortcomings must be removed in the analyzed software products.On the basis of the executed analysis in

  20. Syntactic Accidents in Program Analysis: On the Impact of the CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Damian; Danvy, Olivier

    2000-01-01

    control-flow analysis yields equivalent results on a direct-style program and on its CPS counterpart, a monovariant binding-time analysis yields less precise results on a direct-style program than on its CPS counterpart, and an enhanced monovariant binding-time analysis yields equivalent results...... on a direct-style program and on its CPS counterpart. Our proof technique amounts to constructing the CPS counterpart of flow information and of binding times. Our results formalize and confirm a folklore theorem about traditional binding-time analysis, namely that CPS has a positive effect on binding times....... What may be more surprising is that the benefit does not arise from a standard refinement of program analysis, as, for instance, duplicating continuations. The present study is symptomatic of an unsettling property of program analyses: their quality is unpredictably vulnerable to syntactic accidents...

  1. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. HTGR accident initiation and progression analysis status report. Volume V. AIPA fission product source terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberstein, D.; Apperson, C.E. Jr.; Hanson, D.L.; Myers, B.F.; Pfeiffer, W.W.

    1976-02-01

    The primary objective of the Accident Initiation and Progression Analysis (AIPA) Program is to provide guidance for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) safety research and development. Among the parameters considered in estimating the uncertainties in site boundary doses are uncertainties in fission product source terms generated under normal operating conditions, i.e., fuel body inventories, circulating coolant activity, total plateout activity in the primary circuit, and plateout distributions. The volume presented documents the analyses of these source term uncertainties. The results are used for the detailed consequence evaluations, and they provide the basis for evaluation of fission products important for HTGR maintenance and shielding.

  3. Analysis of credible accidents for Argonaut reactors. Report for October 1980-April 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, S.C.; Kathren, R.L.; Robkin, M.A.

    1981-04-01

    Five areas of potential accidents have been evaluated for the Argonaut-UTR reactors. They are: insertion of excess reactivity, catastrophic rearrangement of the core, explosive chemical reaction, graphite fire, and a fuel-handling accident.

  4. Determinants of within-country variation in traffic accident mortality in Italy: A geographical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. La Torre (Giuseppe); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); G. Quaranta (Gianluigi); A. Mannocci (Alice); W. Ricciardi

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To identify determinants of regional differences in traffic accident mortality in Italy. Data and methods: Multiple linear regression models were conducted assessing the associations between regional differences in traffic mortality, case fatality and accident rates (dependent

  5. Development of system of computer codes for severe accident analysis and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, H. S.; Jeon, M. H.; Cho, N. J. and others [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-01-15

    The objectives of this study is to develop a system of computer codes for postulated severe accident analyses in nuclear power plants. This system of codes is necessary to conduct Individual Plant Examination for domestic nuclear power plants. As a result of this study, one can conduct severe accident assessments more easily, and can extract the plant-specific vulnerabilities for severe accidents and at the same time the ideas for enhancing overall accident-resistance. Severe accident can be mitigated by the proper accident management strategies. Some operator action for mitigation can lead to more disastrous result and thus uncertain severe accident phenomena must be well recognized. There must be further research for development of severe accident management strategies utilizing existing plant resources as well as new design concepts.

  6. A systemic approach to accident analysis: a case study of the Stockwell shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Daniel P; Salmon, Paul M; Stanton, Neville A; Walker, Guy H

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses a systemic approach to accident investigation, based upon AcciMaps, to model the events leading up to the shooting of Jean Charles de Menezes at Stockwell Underground station in July 2005. The model captures many of the findings of the Independent Police Complaints Commission's report in a single representation, modelling their interdependencies and the causal flow. Furthermore, by taking a systemic approach, the analysis identifies further considerations related to the suitability of the Metropolitan Police Service's organisational structure to support rapid-paced operations, where reliable identification of a suspect is not possible. Based upon the analysis, the paper questions the division of functions between teams and the suitability of an organisational structure that relies upon the complex flow of information between separate teams for surveillance and for controlling the suspect. A dynamic organisational structure is proposed that changes in response to operation type and unfolding events. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper provides much needed and called for validation for a systemic approach to accident analysis. A widely reported case study is used to illustrate the process. The paper shows how such an approach can consolidate the key findings of much larger reports as well as draw out additional recommendations.

  7. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of a hypothetical core disruptive accident in LMFBRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chuang [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: lch98@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhang Xiong [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lu Mingwan [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2005-03-01

    To ensure safety, it is necessary to assess the integrity of a reactor vessel of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) under HCDA. Several important problems for a fluid-structural interaction analysis of HCDA are discussed in the present paper. Various loading models of hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) are compared and the polytropic processes of idea gas (PPIG) law is recommended. In order to define a limited total energy release, a '5% truncation criterion' is suggested. The relationship of initial pressure of gas bubble and the total energy release is given. To track the moving interfaces and to avoid the severe mesh distortion an arbitrary Lagrangrian-Eulerian (ALE) approach is adopted in the finite element modeling (FEM) analysis. Liquid separation and splash from a free surface are discussed. By using an elasticity solution under locally uniform pressure, two simplified analytical solutions for 3D and axi-symmetric case of the liquid impact pressure on roof slab are derived. An axi-symmetric finite elements code FRHCDA for fluid-structure interaction analysis of hypothetical core disruptive accident in LMFBR is developed. The CONT benchmark problem is calculated. The numerical results agree well with those from published papers.

  8. A Deformation Analysis Code of CANDU Fuel under the Postulated Accident: ELOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Jung, Jong Yeob

    2006-11-15

    Deformations of the fuel element or fuel channel might be the main cause of the fuel failure. Therefore, the accurate prediction of the deformation and the analysis capabilities are closely related to the increase of the safety margin of the reactor. In this report, among the performance analysis or the transient behavior prediction computer codes, the analysis codes for deformation such as the ELOCA, HOTSPOT, CONTACT-1, and PTDFORM are briefly introduced and each code's objectives, applicability, and relations are explained. Especially, the user manual for ELOCA code which is the analysis code for the fuel deformation and the release of fission product during the transient period after the postulated accidents is provided so that it can be the guidance to the potential users of the code and save the time and economic loss by reducing the trial and err000.

  9. Quantitative uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of a PWR control rod ejection accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasichnyk, I.; Perin, Y.; Velkov, K. [Gesellschaft flier Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit - GRS mbH, Boltzmannstasse 14, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The paper describes the results of the quantitative Uncertainty and Sensitivity (U/S) Analysis of a Rod Ejection Accident (REA) which is simulated by the coupled system code ATHLET-QUABOX/CUBBOX applying the GRS tool for U/S analysis SUSA/XSUSA. For the present study, a UOX/MOX mixed core loading based on a generic PWR is modeled. A control rod ejection is calculated for two reactor states: Hot Zero Power (HZP) and 30% of nominal power. The worst cases for the rod ejection are determined by steady-state neutronic simulations taking into account the maximum reactivity insertion in the system and the power peaking factor. For the U/S analysis 378 uncertain parameters are identified and quantified (thermal-hydraulic initial and boundary conditions, input parameters and variations of the two-group cross sections). Results for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are presented for safety important global and local parameters. (authors)

  10. Risk-based Analysis of Construction Accidents in Iran During 2007-2011-Meta Analyze Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mehran Amiri; Abdollah Ardeshir; Mohammad Hossein Fazel Zarandi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of occupational accidents and frequency and severity of work related accidents in the construction industry among Iranian insured workers during the years 20072011. Methods The Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO) accident database containing 21,864 cases between the years 2007-2011 was applied in this study. In the next step, Total Accident Rate (TRA), Total Severity Index (TSI), and Risk Factor (RF) were d...

  11. Response Analysis on Electrical Pulses under Severe Nuclear Accident Temperature Conditions Using an Abnormal Signal Simulation Analysis Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil-Mo Koo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike design basis accidents, some inherent uncertainties of the reliability of instrumentations are expected while subjected to harsh environments (e.g., high temperature and pressure, high humidity, and high radioactivity occurring in severe nuclear accident conditions. Even under such conditions, an electrical signal should be within its expected range so that some mitigating actions can be taken based on the signal in the control room. For example, an industrial process control standard requires that the normal signal level for pressure, flow, and resistance temperature detector sensors be in the range of 4~20 mA for most instruments. Whereas, in the case that an abnormal signal is expected from an instrument, such a signal should be refined through a signal validation process so that the refined signal could be available in the control room. For some abnormal signals expected under severe accident conditions, to date, diagnostics and response analysis have been evaluated with an equivalent circuit model of real instruments, which is regarded as the best method. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a program designed to implement a diagnostic and response analysis for equivalent circuit modeling. The program links signal analysis tool code to abnormal signal simulation engine code not only as a one body order system, but also as a part of functions of a PC-based ASSA (abnormal signal simulation analysis module developed to obtain a varying range of the R-C circuit elements in high temperature conditions. As a result, a special function for abnormal pulse signal patterns can be obtained through the program, which in turn makes it possible to analyze the abnormal output pulse signals through a response characteristic of a 4~20 mA circuit model and a range of the elements changing with temperature under an accident condition.

  12. A Content Analysis of News Media Coverage of the Accident at Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mitchell; Edison, Nadyne G.

    A study was conducted for the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island to analyze coverage of the accident by ten news organizations: two wire services, three commercial television networks, and five daily newspapers. Copies of all stories and transcripts of news programs during the first week of the accident were examined from…

  13. Narrative text analysis of accident reports with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery in Austrian agriculture from 2008 to 2010 - a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report accidents to insurers was conducted to obtain detailed information about the scenarios and causes of accidents. This narrative analysis of reports was made the first time and yielded first insights for identifying antecedents of accidents and potential opportunities for technical based intervention. A literature and internet search was done to discuss and confirm the findings. The narrative text analysis showed that in more than one third of the accidents with tractors and materials handling machinery the vehicle rolled or tipped over. The most relevant accident scenarios with harvesting machinery were being trapped and falling down. The direct comparison of the analysed machinery categories showed that more than 10% of the accidents in each category were caused by technical faults, slippery or muddy terrain and incorrect or inappropriate operation of the vehicle. Accidents with tractors, harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery showed similarities in terms of causes, circumstances and consequences. Certain technical and communicative measures for accident prevention could be used for all three machinery categories. Nevertheless, some individual solutions for accident prevention, which suit each specific machine type, would be necessary.

  14. Analysis of Public Perception on Radiation: with One Year after Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Bang Ju [Korean Science Reporters Association, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    A year has passed since the nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima on March 11, 2011, and a survey for public perception on radiation by Korean people has been made. The methodological design was based on a quantitative survey and a frequency analysis was done. The analysis objects were survey papers (n=2,754pcs) answered by random ordinary citizens chosen from all over the country. The questionnaires, and study tool, were directly distributed and collected. A total of 40 questionnaires using a coefficient of Cronbach's {alpha} per each area was 'self perception of radiation' (0.620), 'radiation risk' (0.830), 'benefit from radiation' (0.781), 'radiation controlled' (0.685), 'informative source of radiation' (0.831), 'influence degree from Fukushima accident' (0.763), showing rather high score from all areas. As the result of the questionnaires, the knowledge of radiation concept was 69.50 out of 100 points, which shows a rather significant difference from the result of 'know well about radiation' (53.7%) and 'just know about radiation' (37.40%). According to the survey, one of the main reasons why radiation seems risky was that once exposed to radiation, it may not have negative impacts presently but, the next generation could see negative impacts (66.1%). About 41% of our respondents showed a negative position against the government's report on radiation while 39.5% of respondents said that we should stop running nuclear power in light of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. This study was done for the first time by Korean people's public perception on radiation after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. We expect this might have significant contributions to the establishment of the government's policy on radiation.

  15. Analysis of hot leg natural circulation under station blackout severe accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Under severe accidents, natural circulation flows are important to influence the accident progression and result in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). In a station blackout accident with no recovery of steam generator (SG) auxiliary feedwater (TMLB' severe accident scenario), the hot leg countercurrent natural circulation flow is analyzed by using a severe-accident code, to better understand its potential impacts on the creep-rupture timing among the surge line, the hot leg, and SG tubes. The results show that the natural circulation may delay the failure time of the hot leg.The recirculation ratio and the hot mixing factor are also calculated and discussed.

  16. Electrical equipment performance under severe accident conditions (BWR/Mark 1 plant analysis): Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.R.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Medford, G.T.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of the Performance Evaluation of Electrical Equipment during Severe Accident States Program is to determine the performance of electrical equipment, important to safety, under severe accident conditions. In FY85, a method was devised to identify important electrical equipment and the severe accident environments in which the equipment was likely to fail. This method was used to evaluate the equipment and severe accident environments for Browns Ferry Unit 1, a BWR/Mark I. Following this work, a test plan was written in FY86 to experimentally determine the performance of one selected component to two severe accident environments.

  17. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOME HEALTH INDICATORS OF VARIOUS RADIATION ACCIDENTS LIQUIDATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shubik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of comparative investigation of morbidity and immunity of liquidators of radiation accidents occurred in South Urals (Kyshtym accident, at Chernobyl NPP and nuclear submarines (NS consequences. The most evident immunity and health changes were revealed for liquidators of Chernobyl NPP accident (ChNPP. Investigations of Kyshtym accident liquidators revealed long-term immunological losses. Comparison of health indicators of Chernobyl and nuclear submarine accident liquidators reveals the possibility of combined influence of radiation and stress on the immunity and health.

  18. Safety culture and accident analysis-A socio-management approach based on organizational safety social capital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Suman [Risk Analyst (India)]. E-mail: sumanashokrao@yahoo.co.in

    2007-04-11

    One of the biggest challenges for organizations in today's competitive business environment is to create and preserve a self-sustaining safety culture. Typically, Key drivers of safety culture in many organizations are regulation, audits, safety training, various types of employee exhortations to comply with safety norms, etc. However, less evident factors like networking relationships and social trust amongst employees, as also extended networking relationships and social trust of organizations with external stakeholders like government, suppliers, regulators, etc., which constitute the safety social capital in the Organization-seem to also influence the sustenance of organizational safety culture. Can erosion in safety social capital cause deterioration in safety culture and contribute to accidents? If so, how does it contribute? As existing accident analysis models do not provide answers to these questions, CAMSoC (Curtailing Accidents by Managing Social Capital), an accident analysis model, is proposed. As an illustration, five accidents: Bhopal (India), Hyatt Regency (USA), Tenerife (Canary Islands), Westray (Canada) and Exxon Valdez (USA) have been analyzed using CAMSoC. This limited cross-industry analysis provides two key socio-management insights: the biggest source of motivation that causes deviant behavior leading to accidents is 'Faulty Value Systems'. The second biggest source is 'Enforceable Trust'. From a management control perspective, deterioration in safety culture and resultant accidents is more due to the 'action controls' rather than explicit 'cultural controls'. Future research directions to enhance the model's utility through layering are addressed briefly.

  19. Analysis of flammability in the attached buildings to containment under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, J.C. de la, E-mail: juan-carlos.de-la-rosa-blul@ec.europa.eu [European Commission Joint Research Centre (Netherlands); Fornós, Joan, E-mail: jfornosh@anacnv.com [Asociación Nuclear Ascó-Vandellós (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Analysis of flammability conditions in buildings outside containment. • Stepwise approach easily applicable for any kind of containment and attached buildings layout. • Detailed application for real plant conditions has been included. - Abstract: Right after the events unfolded in Fukushima Daiichi, the European Union countries agreed in subjecting Nuclear Power Plants to Stress Tests as developed by WENRA and ENSREG organizations. One of the results as implemented in many European countries derived from such tests consisted of mandatory technical instructions issued by nuclear regulatory bodies on the analysis of potential risk of flammable gases in attached buildings to containment. The current study addresses the key aspects of the analysis of flammable gases leaking to auxiliary buildings attached to Westinghouse large-dry PWR containment for the specific situation where mitigating systems to prevent flammable gases to grow up inside containment are available, and containment integrity is preserved – hence avoiding isolation system failure. It also provides a full practical exercise where lessons learned derived from the current study – hence limited to the imposed boundary conditions – are applied. The leakage of gas from the containment to the support buildings is based on separate calculations using the EPRI-owned Modular Accident Analysis Program, MAAP4.07. The FATE™ code (facility Flow, Aerosol, Thermal, and Explosion) was used to model the transport and distribution of leaked flammable gas (H{sub 2} and CO) in the penetration buildings. FATE models the significant mixing (dilution) which occurs as the released buoyant gas rises and entrains air. Also, FATE accounts for the condensation of steam on room surfaces, an effect which acts to concentrate flammable gas. The results of the analysis show that during a severe accident, flammable conditions are unlikely to occur in compartmentalized buildings such as the one used in the

  20. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Late health effects uncertain assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the expert panel on late health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  1. Of Disasters and Dragon Kings: A Statistical Analysis of Nuclear Power Incidents & Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Wheatley, Spencer; Sornette, Didier

    2015-01-01

    We provide, and perform a risk theoretic statistical analysis of, a dataset that is 75 percent larger than the previous best dataset on nuclear incidents and accidents, comparing three measures of severity: INES (International Nuclear Event Scale), radiation released, and damage dollar losses. The annual rate of nuclear accidents, with size above 20 Million US$, per plant, decreased from the 1950s until dropping significantly after Chernobyl (April, 1986). The rate is now roughly stable at 0.002 to 0.003, i.e., around 1 event per year across the current fleet. The distribution of damage values changed after Three Mile Island (TMI; March, 1979), where moderate damages were suppressed but the tail became very heavy, being described by a Pareto distribution with tail index 0.55. Further, there is a runaway disaster regime, associated with the "dragon-king" phenomenon, amplifying the risk of extreme damage. In fact, the damage of the largest event (Fukushima; March, 2011) is equal to 60 percent of the total damag...

  2. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Early health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on early health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  3. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for deposited material and external doses. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Boardman, J. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom); Jones, J.A. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA deposited material and external dose models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on deposited material and external doses, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  4. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on internal dosimetry, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  5. Accident Analysis and Countermeasures of the Enterprises Involved in Ammonia%涉氨企业事故分析与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢均臣; 王延平

    2015-01-01

    从事故发生环节、事故类型、事故设备、事故原因等几个方面分析了2005年-2014年全国涉氨企业发生的事故。分析表明:储存和使用环节事故最多;事故主要类型事故泄漏和中毒;主要发生在食品厂、肉类加工厂、冷饮厂、水产公司、果蔬公司、制药厂的制冷车间;主要发生在管道、储罐、阀门、法兰等部位;材料失效事故占比最高。最后,提出了预防此类事故的建议措施。%Accidents occurred in 2005-2014 in our country were analyzed from the aspects of the accident link, accident type, accident equipment, accident cause. Analysis showed that accidents in links of the storage and use were the most, the main types of accidents were leakage and poisoning, accidents mainly occured in food factory, meat processing factory, beverage factory, etc, accidents mainly occured in pipeline, storage tanks, valves, flanges, etc, the amount of accidents caused by material failure was the largest. Suggestions for preventing such accidents were put forward.

  6. The Analysis of the Contribution of Human Factors to the In-Flight Loss of Control Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2012-01-01

    In-flight loss of control (LOC) is currently the leading cause of fatal accidents based on various commercial aircraft accident statistics. As the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) emerges, new contributing factors leading to LOC are anticipated. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), along with other aviation agencies and communities are actively developing safety products to mitigate the LOC risk. This paper discusses the approach used to construct a generic integrated LOC accident framework (LOCAF) model based on a detailed review of LOC accidents over the past two decades. The LOCAF model is comprised of causal factors from the domain of human factors, aircraft system component failures, and atmospheric environment. The multiple interdependent causal factors are expressed in an Object-Oriented Bayesian belief network. In addition to predicting the likelihood of LOC accident occurrence, the system-level integrated LOCAF model is able to evaluate the impact of new safety technology products developed in AvSP. This provides valuable information to decision makers in strategizing NASA's aviation safety technology portfolio. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of human causal factors in the model, including the contributions from flight crew and maintenance workers. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) taxonomy was used to develop human related causal factors. The preliminary results from the baseline LOCAF model are also presented.

  7. Who by accident? The social morphology of car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Roni; Yair, Gad; Mahalel, David

    2010-09-01

    Prior studies in the sociology of accidents have shown that different social groups have different rates of accident involvement. This study extends those studies by implementing Bourdieu's relational perspective of social space to systematically explore the homology between drivers' social characteristics and their involvement in specific types of motor vehicle accident. Using a large database that merges official Israeli road-accident records with socioeconomic data from two censuses, this research maps the social order of road accidents through multiple correspondence analysis. Extending prior studies, the results show that different social groups indeed tend to be involved in motor vehicle accidents of different types and severity. For example, we find that drivers from low socioeconomic backgrounds are overinvolved in severe accidents with fatal outcomes. The new findings reported here shed light on the social regularity of road accidents and expose new facets in the social organization of death. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Analysis of traffic accident size for Korean highway using structural equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Chung, Jin-Hyuk; Son, Bongsoo

    2008-11-01

    Accident size can be expressed as the number of involved vehicles, the number of damaged vehicles, the number of deaths and/or the number of injured. Accident size is the one of the important indices to measure the level of safety of transportation facilities. Factors such as road geometric condition, driver characteristic and vehicle type may be related to traffic accident size. However, all these factors interact in complicate ways so that the interrelationships among the variables are not easily identified. A structural equation model is adopted to capture the complex relationships among variables because the model can handle complex relationships among endogenous and exogenous variables simultaneously and furthermore it can include latent variables in the model. In this study, we use 2649 accident data occurred on highways in Korea and estimate relationship among exogenous factors and traffic accident size. The model suggests that road factors, driver factors and environment factors are strongly related to the accident size.

  9. Statistical Analysis and Safety Management on China's Coal Mine Gas Accident from 2006 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Xuan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available . From 2006 to 2015 the causes and characteristics of coal mine gas accidents are analyzed from the aspect of the death toll and number of accidents in China based on the theory of statistics. And the results show that the level of gas accident casualties is obviously regional distribution and points and time distribution is relatively concentrated as well. Therefore, the corresponding management and measures are put forward based on Orbit Intersecting theory.

  10. A Human Reliability Analysis of Post- Accident Human Errors in the Low Power and Shutdown PSA of KSNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Daeil; Kim, J. H.; Jang, S. C

    2007-03-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, using the ANS low power and shutdown (LPSD) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) Standard, evaluated the LPSD PSA model of the KSNP, Yonggwang Units 5 and 6, and identified the items to be improved. The evaluation results of human reliability analysis (HRA) of the post-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP showed that 10 items among 19 items of supporting requirements for those in the ANS PRA Standard were identified as them to be improved. Thus, we newly carried out a HRA for post-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP. Following tasks are the improvements in the HRA of post-accident human errors of the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP compared with the previous one: Interviews with operators in the interpretation of the procedure, modeling of operator actions, and the quantification results of human errors, site visit. Applications of limiting value to the combined post-accident human errors. Documentation of information of all the input and bases for the detailed quantifications and the dependency analysis using the quantification sheets The assessment results for the new HRA results of post-accident human errors using the ANS LPSD PRA Standard show that above 80% items of its supporting requirements for post-accident human errors were graded as its Category II. The number of the re-estimated human errors using the LPSD Korea Standard HRA method is 385. Among them, the number of individual post-accident human errors is 253. The number of dependent post-accident human errors is 135. The quantification results of the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP with new HEPs show that core damage frequency (CDF) is increased by 5.1% compared with the previous baseline CDF It is expected that this study results will be greatly helpful to improve the PSA quality for the domestic nuclear power plants because they have sufficient PSA quality to meet the Category II of Supporting Requirements for the post-accident

  11. System analysis with improved thermo-mechanical fuel rod models for modeling current and advanced LWR materials in accident scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Ian Edward

    A nuclear reactor systems code has the ability to model the system response in an accident scenario based on known initial conditions at the onset of the transient. However, there has been a tendency for these codes to lack the detailed thermo-mechanical fuel rod response models needed for accurate prediction of fuel rod failure. This proposed work will couple today's most widely used steady-state (FRAPCON) and transient (FRAPTRAN) fuel rod models with a systems code TRACE for best-estimate modeling of system response in accident scenarios such as a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In doing so, code modifications will be made to model gamma heating in LWRs during steady-state and accident conditions and to improve fuel rod thermal/mechanical analysis by allowing axial nodalization of burnup-dependent phenomena such as swelling, cladding creep and oxidation. With the ability to model both burnup-dependent parameters and transient fuel rod response, a fuel dispersal study will be conducted using a hypothetical accident scenario under both PWR and BWR conditions to determine the amount of fuel dispersed under varying conditions. Due to the fuel fragmentation size and internal rod pressure both being dependent on burnup, this analysis will be conducted at beginning, middle and end of cycle to examine the effects that cycle time can play on fuel rod failure and dispersal. Current fuel rod and system codes used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are compilations of legacy codes with only commonly used light water reactor materials, Uranium Dioxide (UO2), Mixed Oxide (U/PuO 2) and zirconium alloys. However, the events at Fukushima Daiichi and Three Mile Island accident have shown the need for exploration into advanced materials possessing improved accident tolerance. This work looks to further modify the NRC codes to include silicon carbide (SiC), an advanced cladding material proposed by current DOE funded research on accident tolerant fuels (ATF). Several

  12. Review of core disruptive accident analysis for liquid-metal cooled fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. C.; Na, B. C.; Hahn, D. H

    1997-04-01

    Analysis methodologies of core disruptive accidents (CDAs) are reviewed. The role of CDAS in the overall safety evaluation of fast reactors has not always been well defined nor universally agreed upon. However, they have become a traditional issue in LMR safety, design, and licensing. The study is for the understanding of fast reactor behavior under CDA conditions to establish the consequences of such conditions and to provide a basis for evaluating consequence limiting design features for the KALIMER developments. The methods used to analyze CDAs from initiating event to complete core disruption are described. Two examples of CDA analyses for CRBRP and ALMR are given and R and D needed for better understanding of CDA phenomena are proposed. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  13. Health effects models for off-site radiological consequence analysis on nuclear reactor accidents (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Toshimitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Takahashi, Tomoyuki [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Yonehara, Hidenori [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [eds.

    2000-12-01

    This report is a revision of JAERI-M 91-005, 'Health Effects Models for Off-Site Radiological Consequence Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Accidents'. This revision provides a review of two revisions of NUREG/CR-4214 reports by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission which is the basis of the JAERI health effects models and other several recent reports that may impact the health effects models by international organizations. The major changes to the first version of the JAERI health effects models and the recommended parameters in this report are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. This report also provides suggestions about future revisions of computational aspects on health effects models. (author)

  14. An analysis on the severe accident progression with operator recovery actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, T.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Song, J.H., E-mail: dosa@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T.W.; Kim, D.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Severe accident progression for the station blackout and SBLOCA accident. • Analyses on APR1400 using MELCOR. • Operator recovery actions for decay heat removal and inventory make up. • Determine the time allowed for the operator to prevent reactor vessel failure. • Insight for the operator recovery actions for the severe accident management. - Abstract: Analyses on the severe accident progressions for the station blackout (SBO) accident and small break LOCA (SBLOCA) initiated severe accident were performed for APR1400 by using MELCOR computer code. Operator recovery actions for decay heat removal and inventory make up using a depressurization system and safety injection pump were simulated in parallel with a simulation of the severe accident progression. Sensitivity studies on the operator actions were performed to investigate the changes in the timing of the reactor vessel failure and to determine the time allowed for the operator to prevent reactor vessel failure. Sensitivity analyses on the effect of major modeling parameters were performed additionally to quantify the uncertainties in timing. It is found that the operator has about 2 h for the recovery actions after the indication of core damage by the signal of core exit thermocouple (CET) for the SBLOCA initiated severe accident, while the operator has to take immediate actions after the indication of core damage by CET for the SBO accident.

  15. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, appendices A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States); Lui, C.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Paesler-Sauer, J. [Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany); Helton, J.C. [and others

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the second of a three-volume document describing the project and contains two appendices describing the rationales for the dispersion and deposition data along with short biographies of the 16 experts who participated in the project.

  16. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States); Lui, C.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Paesler-Sauer, J. [Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany); Helton, J.C. [and others

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of the joint effort was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. Experts developed their distributions independently. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. To validate the distributions generated for the dispersion code input variables, samples from the distributions and propagated through the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the first of a three-volume document describing the project.

  17. Analysis of simulation results of damaged nuclear fuel accidents at NPPs with shell-type nuclear reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor L. Kozlov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lessons from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP made it necessary to reevaluate and intensificate the work on modeling and analyzing various scenarios of severe accidents with damage to the nuclear fuel in the reactor, containment and spent nuclear fuel storage pool with the expansion of the primary initiating event causes group listing. Further development of computational tools for modeling the explosion prevention criteria as to steam and gas mixtures, considering the specific thermal-hydrodynamic conditions and mechanisms of explosive situations arrival at different stages of a severe accident development, is substantiated. Based on the analysis of the known shell-type nuclear reactors accidents results the explosion safety thermodynamic criteria are presented, the parameters defining the steam and gas explosions conditions are found, the need to perform the further verification and validation of deterministic codes serving to simulate general accident processes behavior as well as phase-to-phase interaction calculated dependencies is established. The main parameters controlling and defining the criteria explosion safety effective regulation areas and their optimization conditions are found.

  18. Safety analysis of a loss-of-coolant accident in a breeding blanket for experimental fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocco, P.; Casini, G.; Djerassi, H.; Papa, L.; Pautasso, G.; Renda, V.; Rouyer, J.L.

    1985-07-01

    A LOCA in a blanket design proposed for NET (Next European Torus) is investigated. The structural analysis of a damaged breeder unit shows that this first containment barrier has a high probability of survival to this accident. The radioactive sources involved are evaluated and an assessment is made of all containment barriers and associated protection systems.

  19. SisRadiologia: a new software tool for analysis of radiological accidents and incidents in industrial radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Camila M. Araujo; Silva, Francisco C.A. da, E-mail: araujocamila@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Araujo, Rilton A., E-mail: consultoria@maximindustrial.com.br [Maxim Industrial Assessoria TI, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), many efforts have been made by Member states, aiming a better control of radioactive sources. Accidents mostly happened in practices named as high radiological risk and classified by IAEA in categories 1 and 2, being highlighted those related to radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography. Worldwide, more than 40 radiological accidents have been recorded in the industrial radiography. Worldwide, more than 40 radiological accidents have been recorded in the industrial radiography area, involving 37 workers, 110 members of the public and 12 fatalities. Records display 5 severe radiological accidents in industrial radiography activities in Brazil, in which 7 workers and 19 members of the public were involved. Such events led to hands and fingers radiodermatitis, but to no death occurrence. The purpose of this study is to present a computational program that allows the data acquisition and recording in the company, in such a way to ease a further detailed analysis of radiological event, besides providing the learning cornerstones aiming the avoidance of future occurrences. After one year of the 'Industrial SisRadiologia' computational program application - and mostly based upon the workshop about Analysis and Dose Calculation of Radiological Accidents in Industrial Radiography (Workshop sobre Analise e Calculo de dose de acidentes Radiologicos em Radiografia Industrial - IRD 2012), in which several Radiation Protection officers took part - it can be concluded that the computational program is a powerful tool to data acquisition, as well as, to accidents and incidents events recording and surveying in Industrial Radiography. The program proved to be efficient in the report elaboration to the Brazilian Regulatory Authority, and very useful in workers training to fix the lessons learned from radiological events.

  20. A Study for Appropriateness of National Nuclear Policy by using Economic Analysis Methodology after Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Jong Myoung; Roh, Myung Sub [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the appropriateness of national nuclear policy in BPE of Korea from an economic perspective. To do this, this paper only focus on the economic analysis methodology without any considering other conditions such as political, cultural, or historical things. In a number of countries, especially Korea, nuclear energy policy is keeping the status quo after Fukushima accident. However the nation's nuclear policy may vary depending on the choice of people. Thus, to make the right decisions, it is important to deliver accurate information and knowledge about nuclear energy to the people. As proven in this paper, the levelized cost of nuclear power is the most inexpensive among the base load units. As the reliance on nuclear power is getting stronger through the economic logic, the nuclear safety and environmental elements will be strengthened. Based on this, national nuclear policy should be promoted. In the aftermath of the Fukushima accident recognized as the world's worst nuclear disaster since the Chernobyl, there are some changes in the nuclear energy policy of various countries. Germany, for example, called a halt to operate Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) which accounts for about 7.5% of the national power generation capacity of 6.3GW. In developing countries such as China and India they conducted the safety check of the nuclear power plants again before preceding their nuclear business. Korea government announced 'The 6th Basic Plan for Long-term Electricity Supply and Demand (BPE)', considering the safety and general public acceptance of the nuclear power plants. According to BPE, they postponed a plan for additional NPP construction, except for constructions that had been already reflected in the 5th BPE. All told, the responses for nuclear energy policy of countries are different depending on their own circumstances.

  1. WORK ACCIDENTS ANALYSIS, EMPHASIZING THE FOREST SECTORS, IN A FEDERAL HIGH EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héder Alencar Vianna

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the probable causes of accidents at work, of the forest sectors, of a Federal Institution of Higher education in Minas Gerais State looking for minimizing risks damages to worker’s health and safety. The analyses were accomplished by means of the Accidents Communications in Service data bank and the results showed that in the studied period, for the forest sector, 50.71% of the accidents were attributed to the insecure act, 16.98% to insecure condition and 17.94% to personal factor of insecurity. The functional evaluation indicated that in 7.14% of the accidents occurred with workers that were not in the function established by the employment respective contracts. The rates of gravity and frequency of accidents calculated for the forest sectors allowed to conclude that the indices were higher than the others sectors and much higher than the values published by the Brazilian Ministry of Social Service and Assistance.

  2. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran: analysis of driver-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moafian, Ghasem; Aghabeigi, Mohammad-Reza; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri; Sarikhani, Yaser

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA) and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran. This paper explores the association between driver-related factors and RTA in the country. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20, 2010 to June 10, 2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department. We included 538 588 RTA records, which were classified to control for the main confounders: accident type, final cause of accident, time of accident and driver-related factors. Driver-related factors included sex, educational level, license type, type of injury, duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver's error type. A total of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male, sex ratio of almost 13:1) were involved in the RTAs. Among them 423 932 (78.71%) were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74%) had a diploma degree. Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811, 54.00%). The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59 (75 024, 13.93%). The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years'of driving experience. Neglect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589, 64.17%). Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175, 25.66% and 129 352, 24.02%, respectively). We found significant association between type of accident and sex, education, license type, time of accident, final cause of accident, driver's error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P less than 0.001). Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures, which will change inappropriate behavior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users.

  3. [Hospital information system performance for road traffic accidents analysis in a hospital recruitment based area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, A-S; Fauconnier, J

    2013-06-01

    Road traffic accidents in France are mainly analyzed through reports completed by the security forces (police and gendarmerie). But the hospital information systems can also identify road traffic accidents via specific documentary codes of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether hospital stays consecutive to road traffic accident were truly identified by these documentary codes in a facility that collects data routinely and to study the consistency of results from hospital information systems and from security forces during the 2002-2008 period. We retrieved all patients for whom a documentary code for road traffic accident was entered in 2002-2008. We manually checked the concordance of documentary code for road traffic accident and trauma origin in 350 patient files. The number of accidents in the Grenoble area was then inferred by combining with hospitalization regional data and compared to the number of persons injured by traffic accidents declared by the security force. These hospital information systems successfully report road traffic accidents with 96% sensitivity (95%CI: [92%, 100%]) and 97% specificity (95%CI: [95%, 99%]). The decrease in road traffic accidents observed was significantly less than that observed was significantly lower than that observed in the data from the security force (45% for security force data against 27% for hospital data). Overall, this study shows that hospital information systems are a powerful tool for studying road traffic accidents morbidity in hospital and are complementary to security force data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, M G; Wollin, S

    1986-01-01

    Information concerning 520 bicycle accidents and their victims was obtained from medical records and the victims' replies to questionnaires. The analyzed aspects included risk of injury, completeness of accident registrations by police and in hospitals, types of injuries and influence of the cyclists' age and sex, alcohol, fatigue, hunger, haste, physical disability, purpose of cycling, wearing of protective helmet and other clothing, type and quality of road surface, site of accident (road junctions, separate cycle paths, etc.) and turning manoeuvres.

  5. Control rod ejection accident analysis for a PWR with thorium fuel loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Cruz, D.F. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group NRG, Westerduinweg 3, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the results of 3-D transient analysis of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) core loaded with 100% Th-Pu MOX fuel assemblies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety impact of applying a full loading of this innovative fuel in PWRs of the current generation. A reactivity insertion accident scenario has been simulated using the reactor core analysis code PANTHER, used in conjunction with the lattice code WIMS. A single control rod assembly, with the highest reactivity worth, has been considered to be ejected from the core within 100 milliseconds, which may occur due to failure of the casing of the control rod driver mechanism. Analysis at both hot full power and hot zero power reactor states have been taken into account. The results were compared with those obtained for a representative PWR fuelled with UO{sub 2} fuel assemblies. In general the results obtained for both cores were comparable, with some differences associated mainly to the harder neutron spectrum observed for the Th-Pu MOX core, and to some specific core design features. The study has been performed as part of the LWR-DEPUTY project of the EURATOM 6. Framework Programme, where several aspects of novel fuels are being investigated for deep burning of plutonium in existing nuclear power plants. (authors)

  6. Stability Analysis of the EBR-I Mark-II Core Meltdown Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae-Yong; Kang, Chang Mu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the stability of the EBR-I core meltdown accident using the NuSTAB code. The result of NuSTAB analysis is compared with previous stability analysis by Sandmeier using the root locus method. The Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-1) at Argonne National Laboratory was designed to demonstrate fast reactor breeding and to prove the use of liquid-metal coolant for power production and reached criticality in August 1951. The EBR-I reactor was undergoing a series of physics experiments and the Mark-II core was melted accidentally on Nov. 29, 1955. The experiment was going to increase core temperature to 500C to see if the reactor loses reactivity, and scram when the power reached 1500 kW or doubling of fission rate per second. However the operator scrammed with a slow moving control and missed the shutdown by two seconds and caused the core meltdown. The NuSTAB code has an advantage of analyzing space-dependent fast reactors and predicting regional oscillations compared to the point kinetics. Also, NuSTAB can be useful when the coupled neutronic-thermal-hydraulic codes cannot be used for stability analysis. Future work includes analyses of the PGSFR for various operating conditions as well as further validation of the NuSTAB calculations against SFR stability experiments when such experiments become available.

  7. KSTAR Severe Accident Analysis using MELCOR : Ex-vessel Coolant Pipe Break with Failure of Fusion Power Termination System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Bo; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To investigate the consequence of severe accidents in fusion reactor, a number of thermal hydraulics simulation codes were used (ECART, INTRA, ATHENA/RELAP and so on). MELCOR is chosen as the thermal hydraulics code to simulate the consequence of radioactive material release from accident in preliminary safety report. Capability of the simulation code for fusion reactor severe accident analysis is ability to simulate the hydraulic system in ITER and the transport phenomenon of radionuclides. MELCOR is a fully integrated code that models the accidents in Light Water Reactor (LWR). There are three kinds of radioactive materials in fusion reactor; tritium (or Tiritiated water: HTO), activation products (AP) of divertor or first-wall and activated corrosion products(ACP). In generic Site Safety Report (GSSR), the release guidelines for tritium and activation products are listed for normal operation, incidents, and accidents. And this guidelines presented in Table 1. Not only ITER, the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) is also developing fusion research reactor. The scale of facility is smaller than ITER but this small scale of facility offers the experimental flexibility to develop fusion technology. The major differences between KSTAR and ITER systems are presented in Table 2. Fusion source difference between KSTAR and ITER is D-D fusion reaction (Deuterium-Deuterium fusion reaction) and D-T fusion reaction (Deuterium-Tritium fusion reaction). This D-D fusion makes one tritium by 50 percent chance. The radioactivity of tritium is small to consider compared to radioactive materials in nuclear fission reactor. This reaction is presented in equation (1) In the present work, conservatively estimated tritium inventory amount in KSTAR is used with one of the most severe accident in ITER; Ex-vessel pipe break with Fusion Power Termination System (FPTS). The MELCOR KSTAR input is made by scaling down the ITER input deck. So, the detail system is not same

  8. Application of dynamic probabilistic safety assessment approach for accident sequence precursor analysis: Case study for steam generator tube rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Sul; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Wan [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this research is to introduce the technical standard of accident sequence precursor (ASP) analysis, and to propose a case study using the dynamic-probabilistic safety assessment (D-PSA) approach. The D-PSA approach can aid in the determination of high-risk/low-frequency accident scenarios from all potential scenarios. It can also be used to investigate the dynamic interaction between the physical state and the actions of the operator in an accident situation for risk quantification. This approach lends significant potential for safety analysis. Furthermore, the D-PSA approach provides a more realistic risk assessment by minimizing assumptions used in the conventional PSA model so-called the static-PSA model, which are relatively static in comparison. We performed risk quantification of a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) accident using the dynamic event tree (DET) methodology, which is the most widely used methodology in D-PSA. The risk quantification results of D-PSA and S-PSA are compared and evaluated. Suggestions and recommendations for using D-PSA are described in order to provide a technical perspective.

  9. [Spatial analysis of road traffic accidents with fatalities in Spain, 2008-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Barroso, Diana; López-Cuadrado, Teresa; Llácer, Alicia; Palmera Suárez, Rocío; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the areas of greatest density of road traffic accidents with fatalities at 24 hours per km(2)/year in Spain from 2008 to 2011, using a geographic information system. Accidents were geocodified using the road and kilometer points where they occurred. The average nearest neighbor was calculated to detect possible clusters and to obtain the bandwidth for kernel density estimation. A total of 4775 accidents were analyzed, of which 73.3% occurred on conventional roads. The estimated average distance between accidents was 1,242 meters, and the average expected distance was 10,738 meters. The nearest neighbor index was 0.11, indicating that there were aggregations of accidents in space. A map showing the kernel density was obtained with a resolution of 1 km(2), which identified the areas of highest density. This methodology allowed a better approximation to locating accident risks by taking into account kilometer points. The map shows areas where there was a greater density of accidents. This could be an advantage in decision-making by the relevant authorities. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8 % of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced.

  11. Analysis on distribution of freeway accidents under various conditions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide a current survey on the situation of freeway accidents in China. The results show that the accident rate, death toll, injury toll, and direct loss of property are 3.2, 8.4, 7.2, and 24.3 times that of the average for an ordinary highway in China. Freeway accidents occur mainly in Southern (20.77% and Central (20.2% China. With detailed data from Guangdong Province, the number of accidents in freeways with 80 km/h design speed (29.58/km/103 pcu was more than three times that in freeways with design speed of 100 km/h (9.54/km/103 pcu and 120 km/h (9.42/km/103 pcu. The total accident rate increased monotonously with the decrease in horizontal radius. The results indicate that 54.54% (/km/103 pcu of accidents occurred on a steep slope (4%–5%, representing about 10 times that of 3%–4% slope and 20 times that of the less than 3% slope. Based on the data, the safety situation of China’s highway transportation is obviously grim, and improving freeway heavy traffic management in economically developed regions, strengthening the safeguarding of mountain freeways, applying small radius and large vertical grade with caution, and developing a monitoring system of tunnels and interchanges could be used as effective measures to prevent freeway accidents.

  12. Nonresponse analysis and adjustment in a mail survey on car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivesten, Emma; Jonsson, Sofia; Jakobsson, Lotta; Norin, Hans

    2012-09-01

    Statistical accident data plays an important role for traffic safety development involving the road system, vehicle design, and driver education. Vehicle manufacturers use data from accident mail surveys as an integral part of the product development process. Low response rates has, however, lead to concerns on whether estimates from a mail survey can be trusted as a source for making strategic decisions. The main objective of this paper was to investigate nonresponse bias in a mail survey addressing driver behaviour in accident situations. Insurance data, available for both respondents and nonrespondents were used to analyze, as well as adjust for nonresponse. Response propensity was investigated by using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. The survey data was then weighted by using inverse propensity weights. Two specific examples of survey estimates are addressed, namely driver vigilance and driver's distraction just before the accident. The results from this paper reveal that driver age and accident type were the most influential variables for nonresponse weighting. Driver gender and size of town where the driver resides also had some influence, but not for all survey variables investigated. The main conclusion of this paper is that nonresponse weighting can increase confidence in accident data collected by a mail survey, especially when response rates are low. Weighting has a moderate influence on this survey, but a larger influence may be expected if applied on a more diverse driver population. The development of auxiliary data collection can further improve accident mail survey methodology in future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Human Reliability Analysis of Pre-Accident Human Errors in the Low Power and Shutdown PSA of the KSNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Daeil; Jang, Seungchul

    2007-03-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, using the ANS Low Power /Shutdown (LPSD)PRA Standard, evaluated the LPSD PSA model of the KSNP, Younggwang (YGN) Units 5 and 6, and identified the items to be improved. The evaluation results of human reliability analysis (HRA) of the pre-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model of the KSNP showed that 13 items among 15 items of supporting requirements for those in the ANS PRA Standard were identified as them to be improved. Thus, we newly carried out a HRA for pre-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP to improve its quality. We considered potential pre-accident human errors for all manual valves and control/instrumentation equipment of the systems modeled in the KSNP LPSD PSA model except reactor protection system/ engineering safety features actuation system. We reviewed 160 manual valves and 56 control/instrumentation equipment. The number of newly identified pre-accident human errors is 101. Among them, the number of those related to testing/maintenance tasks is 56. The number of those related to calibration tasks is 45. The number of those related to only shutdown operation is 10. It was shown that the pre-accident human errors related to only shutdown operation contributions to the core damage frequency of LPSD PSA model for the KSNP was negligible.The self-assessment results for the new HRA results of pre-accident human errors using the ANS LPSD PRA Standard show that above 80% items of its supporting requirements for post-accident human errors were graded as its Category II or III. It is expected that the HRA results for the pre-accident human errors presented in this study will be greatly helpful to improve the PSA quality for the domestic nuclear power plants because they have sufficient PSA quality to meet the Category II of supporting requirements for the postaccident human errors in the ANS LPSD PRA Standard.

  14. A Human Reliability Analysis of Pre-Accident Human Errors in the Low Power and Shutdown PSA of the KSNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Daeil; Jang, Seungchul

    2007-03-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, using the ANS Low Power /Shutdown (LPSD)PRA Standard, evaluated the LPSD PSA model of the KSNP, Younggwang (YGN) Units 5 and 6, and identified the items to be improved. The evaluation results of human reliability analysis (HRA) of the pre-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model of the KSNP showed that 13 items among 15 items of supporting requirements for those in the ANS PRA Standard were identified as them to be improved. Thus, we newly carried out a HRA for pre-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP to improve its quality. We considered potential pre-accident human errors for all manual valves and control/instrumentation equipment of the systems modeled in the KSNP LPSD PSA model except reactor protection system/ engineering safety features actuation system. We reviewed 160 manual valves and 56 control/instrumentation equipment. The number of newly identified pre-accident human errors is 101. Among them, the number of those related to testing/maintenance tasks is 56. The number of those related to calibration tasks is 45. The number of those related to only shutdown operation is 10. It was shown that the pre-accident human errors related to only shutdown operation contributions to the core damage frequency of LPSD PSA model for the KSNP was negligible.The self-assessment results for the new HRA results of pre-accident human errors using the ANS LPSD PRA Standard show that above 80% items of its supporting requirements for post-accident human errors were graded as its Category II or III. It is expected that the HRA results for the pre-accident human errors presented in this study will be greatly helpful to improve the PSA quality for the domestic nuclear power plants because they have sufficient PSA quality to meet the Category II of supporting requirements for the postaccident human errors in the ANS LPSD PRA Standard.

  15. The effect of gamma-ray transport on afterheat calculations for accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J.F.; Sanz, J.

    2000-05-01

    Radioactive afterheat is an important source term for the release of radionuclides in fusion systems under accident conditions. Heat transfer calculations are used to determine time-temperature histories in regions of interest, but the true source term needs to be the effective afterheat, which considers the transport of penetrating gamma rays. Without consideration of photon transport, accident temperatures may be overestimated in others. The importance of this effect is demonstrated for a simple, one-dimensional problem. The significance of this effect depends strongly on the accident scenario being analyzed.

  16. Development of NASA's Accident Precursor Analysis Process Through Application on the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Gaspare; Groen, Frank; Hamlin, Teri; Youngblood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Accident Precursor Analysis (APA) serves as the bridge between existing risk modeling activities, which are often based on historical or generic failure statistics, and system anomalies, which provide crucial information about the failure mechanisms that are actually operative in the system. APA docs more than simply track experience: it systematically evaluates experience, looking for under-appreciated risks that may warrant changes to design or operational practice. This paper presents the pilot application of the NASA APA process to Space Shuttle Orbiter systems. In this effort, the working sessions conducted at Johnson Space Center (JSC) piloted the APA process developed by Information Systems Laboratories (ISL) over the last two years under the auspices of NASA's Office of Safety & Mission Assurance, with the assistance of the Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) Shuttle & Exploration Analysis Branch. This process is built around facilitated working sessions involving diverse system experts. One important aspect of this particular APA process is its focus on understanding the physical mechanism responsible for an operational anomaly, followed by evaluation of the risk significance of the observed anomaly as well as consideration of generalizations of the underlying mechanism to other contexts. Model completeness will probably always be an issue, but this process tries to leverage operating experience to the extent possible in order to address completeness issues before a catastrophe occurs.

  17. Finite element based stress analysis of BWR internals exposed to accident loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altstadt, E.; Weiss, F.P.; Werner, M.; Willschuetz, H.G.

    1998-10-01

    During a hypothetical accident the reactor pressure vessel internals of boiling water reactors can be exposed to considerable loads resulting from temperature gradients and pressure waves. Three dimensional FE models were developed for the core shroud, the upper and the lower core supporting structure, the steam separator pipes and the feed water distributor. The models of core shroud, upper core structure and lower core structure were coupled by means of the substructure technique. All FE models can be used for thermal and for structural mechanical analyses. As an example the FE analysis for the case of a station black-out scenario (loss of power supply for the main circulating pumps) with subsequent emergency core cooling is demonstrated. The transient temperature distributions within the core shroud and within the steam dryer pipes as well were calculated based on the fluid temperatures and the heat transfer coefficients provided by thermo-hydraulic codes. At the maximum temperature gradients in the core shroud, the mechanical stress distribution was computed in a static analysis with the actual temperature field being the load. (orig.)

  18. A Sensitivity Analysis of a Pipe Break Accident in a Preliminary Specific Design of the PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwi Lim; Jeong, Jae Ho; Ha, Kwi Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is a pool type sodium cooled fast reactor with a thermal power of 392.1 MW which has been developed in accord with an enhanced safety, an efficient utilization of uranium resources and a reduction of a high level waste volume in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since 2012 under a National Nuclear R and D Program. The PGSFR has an inherent safety characteristic owing to the design to have a negative power reactivity coefficient during all operation modes and it has a passive safety characteristic due to the design of a passive decay heat removal circuit. In order to assess the inherent safety features of the PGSFR, a safety analysis was performed for a pipe break accident with MARS-LMR. And, the sensitivity studies were also performed to find the most conservative condition. As a result, the PGSFR was appropriately tripped by a high power to PHTS flow ratio using the method of extracting the PHTS flow rate from the pressure drop. The air flow rate was the most sensitive variable in the sensitivity analysis. Therefore, it is important to know the accurate uncertainty of the air flow rate in the AHX.

  19. Revealing the association between cerebrovascular accidents and ambient temperature: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla-Vaca, Andrés; Healy, Ryan Jacob; Silva-Medina, Melissa M.

    2017-05-01

    The association between cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) and weather has been described across several studies showing multiple conflicting results. In this paper, we aim to conduct a meta-analysis to further clarify this association, as well as to find the potential sources of heterogeneity. PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched from inception through 2015, for articles analyzing the correlation between the incidence of CVA and temperature. A pooled effect size (ES) was estimated using random effects model and expressed as absolute values. Subgroup analyses by type of CVA were also performed. Heterogeneity and influence of covariates—including geographic latitude of the study site, male percentage, average temperature, and time interval—were assessed by meta-regression analysis. Twenty-six articles underwent full data extraction and scoring. A total of 19,736 subjects with CVA from 12 different countries were included and grouped as ischemic strokes (IS; n = 14,199), intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH; n = 3798), and subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH; n = 1739). Lower ambient temperature was significantly associated with increase in incidence of overall CVA when using unadjusted (pooled ES = 0.23, P CVA. Further population-based studies conducted at negative latitudes are needed to clarify the influence of this factor.

  20. The role of mitochondrial proteomic analysis in radiological accidents and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, David; Zhang, Bingrong; Zhang, Amy; Zhang, Lurong; Okunieff, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the recent Level 7 nuclear event at the Fukushima Daiichi plant, there has been heightened awareness of the possibility of radiological terrorism and accidents and the need for techniques to estimate radiation levels after such events. A number of approaches to monitoring radiation using biological markers have been published, including physical techniques, cytogenetic approaches, and direct, DNA-analysis approaches. Each approach has the potential to provide information that may be applied to the triage of an exposed population, but problems with development and application of devices or lengthy analyses limit their potential for widespread application. We present a post-irradiation observation with the potential for development into a rapid point-of-care device. Using simple mitochondrial proteomic analysis, we investigated irradiated and nonirradiated murine mitochondria and identified a protein mobility shift occurring at 2-3 Gy. We discuss the implications of this finding both in terms of possible mechanisms and potential applications in bio-radiation monitoring.

  1. Analysis of high burnup fuel behavior under control rod ejection accident in Korea standard nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chan Bok; Lee, Chung Chan; Kim, Oh Hwan; Kim, Jong Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    Test results of high burnup fuel behavior under RIA(reactivity insertion accident) indicated that fuel might fail at the fuel enthalpy lower than that in the current fuel failure criteria was derived by the conservative assumptions and analysis of fuel failure mechanisms, and applied to the analysis of control rod ejection accident in the 1,000 MWe Korea standard PWR. Except that three dimensional core analysis was performed instead of conventional zero dimensional analysis, all the other conservative assumptions were kept. Analysis results showed that less than on percent of the fuel rods in the core has failed which was much less than the conventional fuel failure fraction, 9.8 %, even though a newly derived fuel failure criteria -Fuel failure occurs at the power level lower than that in the current fuel failure criteria. - was applied, since transient fuel rod power level was significantly decreased by analyzing the transient fuel rod power level was significantly decreased by analyzing the transient core three dimensionally. Therefore, it can be said that results of the radiological consequence analysis for the control rod ejection accident in the FSAR where fuel failure fraction was assumed 9.8 % is still bounding. 18 tabs., 48 figs., 39 refs. (Author).

  2. ANALYSIS OF POSSIBILITY TO AVOID A RUNNING-DOW ACCIDENT TIMELY BRAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarayev, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Such circumstances under which the drive can stop the vehicle by applying timely braking before reaching the pedestrian crossing or decrease the speed to the safe limit to avoid a running-down accident is considered.

  3. Accidents at Work and Costs Analysis: A Field Study in a Large Italian Company

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BATTAGLIA, Massimo; FREY, Marco; PASSETTI, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    ... to individuals and society as a whole. However, companies often are not interested to measure the costs of accidents even if cost information may facilitate preventive occupational health and safety management initiatives...

  4. THE ANALYSIS OF AFFECT OF THE TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS ENDING DEATH TO THE LIFE EXPECTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya KOC

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available We make observations for year 1999, backward on the traffic accidents and deaths in the registrations and countries, based on the age and sex classifications by analyzing using life table techniques. In conclusion we observed that in tables that are prepared by excluded traffic accidents, effects seen in all ranges of sex and totally life losing from the age of zero. Life expectancy for year 1999 in Turkey, our observations pointed out the number 74.43 on the life table including all the deaths, 74.61 on the life table excluding accidents. When we make observations on the sex stage, for men we finded out 72.00 on the life table including deaths 74.24 on the life table excluding accidents. For women we observed the numbers 76.99 and 77.10 on the life tables. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(1.000: 32-40

  5. Source terms for analysis of accidents at a high level waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubayi, V.; Davis, R.E.; Youngblood, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to identifying source terms from possible accidents during the preclosure phase of a high-level nuclear waste repository. A review of the literature on repository safety analyses indicated that source term estimation is in a preliminary stage, largely based on judgement-based scoping analyses. The approach developed here was to partition the accident space into domains defined by certain threshold values of temperature and impact energy density which may arise in potential accidents and specify release fractions of various radionuclides, present in the waste form, in each domain. Along with a more quantitative understanding of accident phenomenology, this approach should help in achieving a clearer perspective on scenarios important to preclosure safety assessments of geologic repositories. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. GIS based analysis of Intercity Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, A; Zare, M; Darparesh, M; Mohseni, S; Soleimani-Ahmadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accidents including intercity car traffic accidents (ICTAs) are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality due to the growing number of vehicles, risky behaviors, and changes in lifestyle of the general population. A sound knowledge of the geographical distribution of car traffic accidents can be considered as an approach towards the accident causation and it can be used as an administrative tool in allocating the sources for traffic accidents prevention. This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution and the time trend of fatal intercity car traffic accidents in Iran. To conduct this descriptive study, all Iranian intercity road traffic mortality data were obtained from the Police reports in the Statistical Yearbook of the Governor's Budget and Planning. The obtained data were for 17 complete Iranian calendar years from March 1997 to March 2012. The incidence rate (IR) of fatal ICTAs for each year was calculated as the total number of fatal ICTAs in every 100000 population in specified time intervals. Figures and maps indicating the trends and geographical distribution of fatal ICTAs were prepared while using Microsoft Excel and ArcGis9.2 software. The number of fatal car accidents showed a general increasing trend from 3000 in 1996 to 13500 in 2012. The incidence of fatal intercity car accidents has changed from six in 100000 population in 1996 to 18 in 100000 population in 2012. GIS based data showed that the incidence rate of ICTAs in different provinces of Iran was very divergent. The highest incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Semnan province (IR= 35.2), followed by North Khorasan (IR=22.7), and South Khorasan (IR=22). The least incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Tehran province (IR=2.4) followed by Khozestan (IR=6.5), and Eastern Azarbayejan (IR=6.6). The compensation cost of fatal ICTAs also showed an increasing trend during the studied period. Since an increasing amount of money was being paid yearly for the car

  7. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran: analysis of driver-related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moafian Ghasem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Road traffic accident (RTA and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran. This paper explores the as-sociation between driver-related factors and RTA in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20, 2010 to June 10, 2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department. We included 538 588 RTA records, which were classified to control for the main confounders: accident type, final cause of accident, time of accident and driver-related factors. Driver-related factors included sex, educational level, license type, type of injury, duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver’s error type. Results: A total of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male, sex ratio of almost 13:1 were involved in the RTAs. Among them 423 932 (78.71% were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74% had a diploma degree. Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811, 54.00%. The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59 (75 024, 13.93%. The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years’ of driving experience. Ne-glect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589, 64.17%. Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175, 25.66% and 129 352, 24.02%, respectively. We found significant association between type of acci-dent and sex, education, license type, time of accident, final cause of accident, driver’s error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P<0.001. Conclusion: Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures, which will change inappropriate be-havior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Automobile

  8. Experimental analysis of the performance of machine learning algorithms in the classification of navigation accident records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REIS, M V. S. de A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the use of machine learning techniques in a database of marine accidents. We analyzed and evaluated the main causes and types of marine accidents in the Northern Fluminense region. For this, machine learning techniques were used. The study showed that the modeling can be done in a satisfactory manner using different configurations of classification algorithms, varying the activation functions and training parameters. The SMO (Sequential Minimal Optimization algorithm showed the best performance result.

  9. Identification of Behavior Based Safety by Using Traffic Light Analysis to Reduce Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, A.; Nasution, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work present the safety assessment of a case study and describes an important area within the field production in oil and gas industry, namely behavior based safety (BBS). The company set a rigorous BBS and its intervention program that implemented and deployed continually. In this case, observers requested to have discussion and spread a number of determined questions related with work behavior to the workers during observation. Appraisal of Traffic Light Analysis (TLA) as one tools of risk assessment used to determine the estimated score of BBS questionnaire. Standardization of TLA appraisal in this study are based on Regulation of Minister of Labor and Occupational Safety and Health No:PER.05/MEN/1996. The result shown that there are some points under 84%, which categorized in yellow category and should corrected immediately by company to prevent existing bad behavior of workers. The application of BBS expected to increase the safety performance at work time-by-time and effective in reducing accidents.

  10. Development of Auditing Technology for Accident Analysis of SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B. D.; Lee, Y. J.; Jeong, J. J.; Kim, H. C.; Chung, Y. J.; Bae, K. H

    2006-02-15

    The objective of this project is to develop thermal hydraulic models of the regulatory auditing codes for the application of SMART-P integrated reactor. At initial period, PIRT has been performed to identify the model deficiencies and determine the priority of model improvements. The identified thermal hydraulic models has been implemented to RELAP5/MOD3.3 auditing code according to the PIRT ranking. The input model for SMART-P has been developed with consistent to the current design status documents and checked by independent reviewer as Q/A procedure.The evaluation of experimental availabilities and code collapsible has been done by expert group and summarized as validation matrix forms. The experimental data of VISTA, which is the only integral effect test facility, were used to validate the improved model. The safety analysis has been demonstrated for the essential accident scenario. The validation and demonstration show that the developed models are applicable to utilize in reliable and independent auditing for SMART design certification.

  11. PTSD symptom severity and psychiatric comorbidity in recent motor vehicle accident victims: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Bryce; Irish, Leah A; Pacella, Maria L; Sledjeski, Eve M; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2014-10-01

    We conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) on 249 recent motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims to examine subgroups that differed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, current major depressive disorder and alcohol/other drug use disorders (MDD/AoDs), gender, and interpersonal trauma history 6-weeks post-MVA. A 4-class model best fit the data with a resilient class displaying asymptomatic PTSD symptom levels/low levels of comorbid disorders; a mild psychopathology class displaying mild PTSD symptom severity and current MDD; a moderate psychopathology class displaying severe PTSD symptom severity and current MDD/AoDs; and a severe psychopathology class displaying extreme PTSD symptom severity and current MDD. Classes also differed with respect to gender composition and history of interpersonal trauma experience. These findings may aid in the development of targeted interventions for recent MVA victims through the identification of subgroups distinguished by different patterns of psychiatric problems experienced 6-weeks post-MVA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF A 9975 PACKAGE IN A FACILITY FIRE ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, N.

    2011-02-14

    Surplus plutonium bearing materials in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are stored in the 3013 containers that are designed to meet the requirements of the DOE standard DOE-STD-3013. The 3013 containers are in turn packaged inside 9975 packages that are designed to meet the NRC 10 CFR Part 71 regulatory requirements for transporting the Type B fissile materials across the DOE complex. The design requirements for the hypothetical accident conditions (HAC) involving a fire are given in 10 CFR 71.73. The 9975 packages are stored at the DOE Savannah River Site in the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility for long term of up to 50 years. The design requirements for safe storage in KAMS facility containing multiple sources of combustible materials are far more challenging than the HAC requirements in 10 CFR 71.73. While the 10 CFR 71.73 postulates an HAC fire of 1475 F and 30 minutes duration, the facility fire calls for a fire of 1500 F and 86 duration. This paper describes a methodology and the analysis results that meet the design limits of the 9975 component and demonstrate the robustness of the 9975 package.

  13. Consequence analysis of core meltdown accidents in liquid metal fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, S.D.; Hahn, D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Core disruptive accidents have been investigated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) as part of work to demonstrate the inherent and ultimate safety of the conceptual design of the Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor(KALIMER), a 150 Mw pool-type sodium cooled prototype fast reactor that uses U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel. In this study, a simple method was developed using a modified Bethe-Tait method to simulate the kinetics and hydraulic behavior of a homogeneous spherical core over the period of the super-prompt critical power excursion induced by the ramp reactivity insertion. Calculations of energy release during excursions in the sodium-voided core of the KALIMER were subsequently performed using the method for various reactivity insertion rates up to 100 $/s, which has been widely considered to be the upper limit of ramp rates due to fuel compaction. Benchmark calculations were made to compare with the results of more detailed analysis for core meltdown energetics of the oxide fuelled fast reactor. A set of parametric studies was also performed to investigate the sensitivity of the results on the various thermodynamics and reactor parameters. (author)

  14. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran:analysis of driver-related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghasem Moafian; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Amin Hoseinzadeh; Kamran Bagheri Lankarani; Yaser Sarikhani

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA)and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran.This paper explores the association between driver-related factors and RTA in the country.Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20,2010 to June 10,2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department.We included 538 588 RTA records,which were classified to control for the main confounders:accident type,final cause of accident,time of accident and driver-related factors.Driver-related factors included sex,educational level,license type,type of injury,duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver's error type.Results:Atotal of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male,sex ratio of almost 13:1) were involved in the RTAs.Among them 423 932 (78.71%) were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74%) had a diploma degree.Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811,54.00%).The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59(75 024,13.93%).The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years' of driving experience.Neglect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589,64.17%).Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175,25.66% and 129 352,24.02%,respectively).We found significant association between type of accident and sex,education,license type,time of accident,final cause of accident,driver's error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P<0.001).Conclusion:Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures,which will change inappropriate behavior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users.

  15. Mortality from road traffic accidents in a rapidly urbanizing Chinese city: A 20-year analysis in Shenzhen, 1994-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Wu, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Jian; Fu, Ying-Bin; Li, Shan-Shan; Ma, Han-Wu; Zou, Fei; Cheng, Jin-Quan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the trends of motorization and mortality rates from road traffic accidents and examine their associations in a rapidly urbanizing city in China, Shenzhen. Using data from the Shenzhen Deaths Registry between 1994 and 2013, we calculated the annual mortality rates of road traffic accidents, in addition to the age- and sex-specific mortality rates and their annual percentage changes (APCs) for the period of 2000-2013. We also examined the associations between mortality rate of road traffic accidents and traffic growth with Spearman's rank correlation analysis and a log-linear model derived from Smeed's law. A total of 20,196 deaths due to road traffic accidents, including 14,391 (71.3%) male deaths and 5,805 (28.7%) female deaths, were recorded in Shenzhen from 1994 to 2013. The annual mortality rates in terms of deaths per population and deaths per vehicle changed in similar patterns, demonstrating an increase since 1994 and peaking in 1997, followed by a steady decrease thereafter. The decrease in mortality was faster in individuals aged 20 year or older compared to those younger than 20 years. The mortality rates in term of deaths per population were positively correlated with the total number of vehicles per kilometer of road but negatively correlated with the motorization rate in term of vehicles per population. The estimated model for deaths due to road traffic accidents in relation to the total population and the number of registered vehicles was ln (deaths/10,000 vehicles) = -1.902 × ln (vehicles/population) - 1.961. The coefficient was statistically significant (P traffic accidents in a rapidly urbanizing Chinese city based observations in the 20-year period from 1994 to 2013. The decreased mortality rate may be explained by the expansion of road network construction, improved road safety regulations and management, as well as more accessible ambulance services in recent years. Nevertheless, road traffic accidents remain a

  16. Revealing the association between cerebrovascular accidents and ambient temperature: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla-Vaca, Andrés; Healy, Ryan Jacob; Silva-Medina, Melissa M.

    2016-10-01

    The association between cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) and weather has been described across several studies showing multiple conflicting results. In this paper, we aim to conduct a meta-analysis to further clarify this association, as well as to find the potential sources of heterogeneity. PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched from inception through 2015, for articles analyzing the correlation between the incidence of CVA and temperature. A pooled effect size (ES) was estimated using random effects model and expressed as absolute values. Subgroup analyses by type of CVA were also performed. Heterogeneity and influence of covariates—including geographic latitude of the study site, male percentage, average temperature, and time interval—were assessed by meta-regression analysis. Twenty-six articles underwent full data extraction and scoring. A total of 19,736 subjects with CVA from 12 different countries were included and grouped as ischemic strokes (IS; n = 14,199), intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH; n = 3798), and subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH; n = 1739). Lower ambient temperature was significantly associated with increase in incidence of overall CVA when using unadjusted (pooled ES = 0.23, P < 0.001) and adjusted data (pooled ES = 0.03, P = 0.003). Subgroup analyses showed that lower temperature has higher impact on the incidence of ICH (pooled ES = 0.34, P < 0.001), than that of IS (pooled ES = 0.22, P < 0.001) and SAH (pooled ES = 0.11, P = 0.012). In meta-regression analysis, the geographic latitude of the study site was the most influencing factor on this association (Z-score = 8.68). Synthesis of the existing data provides evidence supporting that a lower ambient temperature increases the incidence of CVA. Further population-based studies conducted at negative latitudes are needed to clarify the influence of this factor.

  17. SCAP: a new methodology for safety management based on feedback from credible accident-probabilistic fault tree analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F I; Iqbal, A; Ramesh, N; Abbasi, S A

    2001-10-12

    As it is conventionally done, strategies for incorporating accident--prevention measures in any hazardous chemical process industry are developed on the basis of input from risk assessment. However, the two steps-- risk assessment and hazard reduction (or safety) measures--are not linked interactively in the existing methodologies. This prevents a quantitative assessment of the impacts of safety measures on risk control. We have made an attempt to develop a methodology in which risk assessment steps are interactively linked with implementation of safety measures. The resultant system tells us the extent of reduction of risk by each successive safety measure. It also tells based on sophisticated maximum credible accident analysis (MCAA) and probabilistic fault tree analysis (PFTA) whether a given unit can ever be made 'safe'. The application of the methodology has been illustrated with a case study.

  18. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  19. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Flow Accident (LOFA) Analysis Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 1: with Beam Shutdown and Active RHR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report is one of a series of reports that document normal operation and accident simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal system. These simulations were performed for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report.

  20. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Analysis Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 3: External HR Break at Pump Outlet without Pump Trip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report is one of a series of reports that document normal operation and accident simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal (HR) system. These simulations were performed for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report.

  1. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  2. The analysis of pressurizer safety valve stuck open accident for low power and shutdown PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ho Gon; Park, Jin Hee; Jang, Seong Chul; Kim, Tae Woon

    2005-01-01

    The PSV (Pressurizer Safety Valve) popping test carried out practically in the early phase of a refueling outage has a little possibility of triggering a test-induced LOCA due to a PSV not fully closed or stuck open. According to a KSNP (Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant) low power and shutdown PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), the failure of a HPSI (High Pressure Safety Injection) following a PSV stuck open was identified as a dominant accident sequence with a significant contribution to low power and shutdown risks. In this study, we aim to investigate the consequences of the NPP for the various accident sequences following the PSV stuck open as an initiating event through the thermal-hydraulic system code calculations. Also, we search the accident mitigation method for the sequence of HPSI failure, then, the applicability of the method is verified by the simulations using T/H system code.

  3. The Cost of Company Occupational Accidents: An Activity Based Analysis using the SACA Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, Martin

    - for evaluating the visible and hidden costs of corporate occupational accidents. It also focused on whether the registration, processing and reporting of these costs could be integrated in the corporate accounting information system. The project was based on case studies in 9 Danish companies within 3 different...... industry sectors. The main conclusions are that only 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in corporate accounting systems while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents for a company with 3.600 employees was estimated to approximately $682.......000. The integration of occupational cost calculations into accounting systems such as SAP R/3 is considered unlikely for the relatively small Danish companies although technically possible. The costs of doing this and the subsequent costs of registration and control are considered prohibitive. A way forward could...

  4. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for deposited material and external doses. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Boardman, J. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom); Jones, J.A. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA deposited material and external dose models.

  5. Development of the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of nuclear power plant severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naitoh, Masanori; Ujita, Hiroshi; Nagumo, Hiroichi [Nuclear Power Corp. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has initiated a long-term program to develop the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of hypothetical severe accidents in nuclear power plants. IMPACT employs advanced methods of physical modeling and numerical computation, and can simulate a wide spectrum of senarios ranging from normal operation to hypothetical, beyond-design-basis-accident events. Designed as a large-scale system of interconnected, hierarchical modules, IMPACT`s distinguishing features include mechanistic models based on first principles and high speed simulation on parallel processing computers. The present plan is a ten-year program starting from 1993, consisting of the initial one-year of preparatory work followed by three technical phases: Phase-1 for development of a prototype system; Phase-2 for completion of the simulation system, incorporating new achievements from basic studies; and Phase-3 for refinement through extensive verification and validation against test results and available real plant data.

  6. Safety Assessment of High-Risk Operations in Hydroelectric-Project Based on Accidents Analysis, SEM, and ANP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Lan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety risk analysis and assessment of high-risk work system in hydroelectric project has an important role in safety management. The interactive relationships between human factors and the importance of factors are analyzed and proposed. We analyze the correlation relationship among the factors by using statistical method, which is more objective than subjective judgment. The HFACS is provided to establish a rational and an applicable index system for investigating human error in accidents; the structural equation modeling (SEM and accident data are used to construct system model and acquire the path coefficient among the risk factor variables; the ANP model is built to assess the importance of accident factors. 289 pieces of valid questionnaires data are analyzed to obtain the path coefficient between risk factor variables and to build the ANP model’s judgment matrix. Finally, the human factors’ weights are calculated by ANP model. Combining SEM’s results and factor's frequency analysis and building the ANP model, the results show that the four greatest weight values of the factors are, respectively, “personal readiness,” “perception and decision errors,” “skill-based errors,” and “violation operations.” The results of ANP model provide a reference for the engineering and construction management.

  7. Serious work accidents and their causes - An analysis of data from Eurostat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    In the two years 2009-2010 EU countries reported a total of 4.5 million occupational accidents with more than three days absence from work to Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat 2013,1). The European database offers comparable statistics on accidents at work......% to slips, trips and falls and 21.5% to loss of control of machines and tools. Only 12 % of the fatalities and 2 % of long term sick leave were caused by the more serious hazards while the rest by the more minor hazards. The Minor hazards and simple accidental events need more awareness if the goal...

  8. Bayesian optimization analysis of containment-venting operation in a boiling water reactor severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xiaoyu; Ishikawa, Jun; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Maryyama, Yu [Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Containment venting is one of several essential measures to protect the integrity of the final barrier of a nuclear reactor during severe accidents, by which the uncontrollable release of fission products can be avoided. The authors seek to develop an optimization approach to venting operations, from a simulation-based perspective, using an integrated severe accident code, THALES2/KICHE. The effectiveness of the containment-venting strategies needs to be verified via numerical simulations based on various settings of the venting conditions. The number of iterations, however, needs to be controlled to avoid cumbersome computational burden of integrated codes. Bayesian optimization is an efficient global optimization approach. By using a Gaussian process regression, a surrogate model of the “black-box” code is constructed. It can be updated simultaneously whenever new simulation results are acquired. With predictions via the surrogate model, upcoming locations of the most probable optimum can be revealed. The sampling procedure is adaptive. Compared with the case of pure random searches, the number of code queries is largely reduced for the optimum finding. One typical severe accident scenario of a boiling water reactor is chosen as an example. The research demonstrates the applicability of the Bayesian optimization approach to the design and establishment of containment-venting strategies during severe accidents.

  9. Risk Analysis for Public Consumption: Media Coverage of the Ginna Nuclear Reactor Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwoody, Sharon; And Others

    Researchers have determined that the lay public makes risk judgments in ways that are very different from those advocated by scientists. Noting that these differences have caused considerable concern among those who promote and regulate health and safety, a study examined media coverage of the accident at the Robert E. Ginna nuclear power plant…

  10. Analysis of Traffic Accidents Leading to Death Using Tripod Beta Method in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Ebrahemzadih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tried to find the original causes of road accidents to prevent their occurrence. This was a descriptive-analytic retrospective study which assessed 1,000 cases of road accidents leading to death during 2003-2013 using the Tripod Beta method. The latent problems, the contributing preconditions, and corrective strategies for the prevention of occurrence of these accidents were determined. The findings of this study revealed that violation of traffic safety rules, especially deliberate violations and risk-takings decreased with increasing age. In comparative status of the superficial problems, illegal and impermissible speed of drivers accounted for 19.10%, in comparative status of preconditions, violation of safety rules accounted for 32.6% and finally, in comparative status of the latent problems, the presence of financial constraints and time pressure in designing and manufacturing of the cars, and quality of city streets, roads, accounted for 20.1%, of the leading causes of occurrence of accidents in this study.

  11. An Analysis of Human Causal Factors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    related factors that cause accidents or hazards like inadequate physical fitness, alcohol and drug usage, supplements like nicotine or caffeine ...PC 306 • Fatigue ( sleep deprivation) PC 307 • Circadian rhythm de-synchronization (e.g., jet lag or shift work) PC 308 • Motion sickness PC

  12. Incorporation of phenomenological uncertainties in probabilistic safety analysis - application to LMFBR core disruptive accident energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, B; Theofanous, T G; Rumble, E T; Atefi, B

    1984-08-01

    This report describes a method for quantifying frequency and consequence uncertainty distribution associated with core disruptive accidents (CDAs). The method was developed to estimate the frequency and magnitude of energy impacting the reactor vessel head of the Clinch River Breeder Plant (CRBRP) given the occurrence of hypothetical CDAs. The methodology is illustrated using the CRBR example.

  13. Bayesian analysis of risk associated with workplace accidents in earthmoving operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. García

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the characteristics of earthmoving operations involving a workplace accident. Bayesian networks were used to identify the factors that best predicted potential risk situations. Inference studies were then conducted to analyse the interplay between different risk factors. We demonstrate the potential of Bayesian networks to describe workplace contexts and predict risk situations from a safety and production planning perspective.

  14. An Analysis of Station Blackout Sequences Using MELCOR1.8.5 Code for the Severe Accident Analysis DB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y. M.; Ahn, K. I. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been constructing severe accident analysis database (DB) under a National Nuclear R and D Program. Especially, MAAP (commercial code being widely used for industries) DB for many scenarios including station blackout (SBO) has been completed up to now. This report shows the analysis results for SBO scenarios using MELCOR code. These results will be used for the degree of completion after being compared with MAAP results. The developing strategy of MELCOR code is the same with that of MAAP DB. For the generation of data set, the Korean standard nuclear power plant (KSNP) has been selected as a reference plant and the eight SBO scenarios are chosen to be analyzed based on the PSA results (these eight scenarios accounted for 99 percent of occurrence frequency of total 197 SBO scenarios). Both thermal hydraulics (T/H) and source term analysis have been performed using MELCOR version 1.8.5 for the chosen scenarios. But only major T/H variables treated in the MAAP report are listed among the generated data set, which shows the characteristics of each scenario. These SBO results together with those of the other initiating events (to be analyzed in the future) will be used as inputs for DB construction and special value will be found in the comparing and complimentary process with MAAP DB

  15. Accident Prediction Models for Akure – Ondo Carriageway, Ondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Accident data on the 52km Akure-Ondo Carriageway and Spot Speed data were collected ... fatal accident and 62% non-fatal accident, However, the regression analysis ... corresponding vehicle kilometre of travel, commerce, and transportation ... of accident can provide insight into the causes that contributed to accident.

  16. Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Accident Progression Uncertainty Analysis and Implications for Decommissioning of Fukushima Reactors - Volume I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntt, Randall O. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mattie, Patrick D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has conducted an uncertainty analysis (UA) on the Fukushima Daiichi unit (1F1) accident progression with the MELCOR code. The model used was developed for a previous accident reconstruction investigation jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). That study focused on reconstructing the accident progressions, as postulated by the limited plant data. This work was focused evaluation of uncertainty in core damage progression behavior and its effect on key figures-of-merit (e.g., hydrogen production, reactor damage state, fraction of intact fuel, vessel lower head failure). The primary intent of this study was to characterize the range of predicted damage states in the 1F1 reactor considering state of knowledge uncertainties associated with MELCOR modeling of core damage progression and to generate information that may be useful in informing the decommissioning activities that will be employed to defuel the damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Additionally, core damage progression variability inherent in MELCOR modeling numerics is investigated.

  17. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Causal Factors in Major Maritime Accidents in the USA and Canada (1996-2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C, M.

    2007-01-01

    Accident reports provide important insights into the causes and contributory factors leading to particular adverse events. In contrast, this paper provides an analysis that extends across the findings presented over ten years investigations into maritime accidents by both the US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and Canadian Transportation Safety Board (TSB). The purpose of the study was to assess the comparative frequency of a range of causal factors in the reporting of adverse events. In order to communicate our findings, we introduce J-H graphs as a means of representing the proportion of causes and contributory factors associated with human error, equipment failure and other high level classifications in longitudinal studies of accident reports. Our results suggest the proportion of causal and contributory factors attributable to direct human error may be very much smaller than has been suggested elsewhere in the human factors literature. In contrast, more attention should be paid to wider systemic issues, including the managerial and regulatory context of maritime operations.

  18. Time analysis of fatal traffic accidents in Fars Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Seyed Taghi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To analyze the time factor in road traffic accidents (RTAs in Fars Province of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in Fars Province, Iran from November 22, 2009 to November 21, 2011. Victims’ information consisted of age, sex, death toll involving dri-vers or passengers of cars, motorcycles and pedestrians, and site of injury etc. Accidents were analyzed in relation to hour of the day, season of the year, lighting condition in-cluding sunrise, sunset, daytime and nighttime. Results: A total of 3 642 deaths (78.3% were males, and the ratio of males to females was about 3.6:1 were studied regarding their autopsy records. There was a steady in-crease in fatal accidents occurring at midnight to 15:59. The risk of being involved in a fatal traffic accident was higher for those injured between 4:00 to 7:59 than at other times (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.85-2.44. The greatest number of fatal RTAs took place in summer. Mortalities due to RTA during spring and summer were more pronounced at 20:00 to 23:59 and midnight to 3:59, whereas mortalities in fall and winter were more pronounced from 12:00 to 15:59. Conclusion: The high mortality rate of RTA is a major public health problem in Fars Province. Our results indicate that the time is an important factor which contributes to road traffic deaths. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Epidemiology; Mortality; Iran

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of Dousing Spray Trip on Radioactive Release in Pressure Tube Rupture Accident with Both End Fitting Failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, M. S.; Kang, H. S; Kim, S. R. [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We analyzed the sensitivity analysis of dousing spray trip conditions on radioactive release. In terms of conservativeness, the set 1 trip would be more appropriate in RR analysis than set 2 trip, which is the general condition of RR analysis. Radioactive releases from the containment building is related to containment air pressure, which increases by the coolant discharge from loss of coolant accident and the actuation conditions of dousing spray and so on. In LOCA analysis, the dousing spray trip conditions are set for the analysis objectives; for peak pressure (PP), for pressure signal (PS), for radioactive release (RR) and etc. In RR analysis, we would determine the dousing spray trip condition to increase radioactive release to the public for conservatism. Therefore, we carried out the sensitivity analysis of dousing spray trip condition on radioactive release from containment building using GOTHIC and SMART program for CANDU.

  20. Retrospective reconstruction of Ioidne-131 distribution at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by analysis of Ioidne-129

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi; Kusuno, Haruka; Miyake, Yasuto; Honda, Maki

    2014-05-01

    Science and Education on June, 2011. So far more than 500 samples were measured and determined I-129 deposition amount by AMS at MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator), The University of Tokyo. The measurement error from AMS is less than 5%, typically 3%. The overall uncertainty is estimated less than 30%, including the uncertainty from that of the nominal value of the standard reference material used, that of I-129/I-131 ratio estimation, that of the "representativeness" for the region by the analyzed sample, etc. The isotopic ratio I-129/I-131 from the reactor was estimated [3] (to be 22.3 +- 6.3 as of March 11, 2011) from a series of samples collected by a group of The University of Tokyo on the 20th of April, 2011 for which the I-131 was determined by gamma-ray spectrometry with good precision. Complementarily, we had investigated the depth profile in soil of the accident derived I-129 and migration speed after the deposition and found that more than 90% of I-129 was concentrated within top 5 cm layer and the downward migration speed was less than 1cm/yr [4]. From the set of I-129 data, corresponding I-131 were calculated and the distribution map is going to be constructed. Various fine structures of the distribution came in sight. [1] Y. Nikiforov and D. R. Gnepp, 1994, Cancer, Vol. 47, pp748-766. [2] T. Straume, et al., 1996, Health Physics, Vol. 71, pp733-740. [3] Y. Miyake, H. Matsuzaki et al.,2012, Geochem. J., Vol. 46, pp327-333. [4] M. Honda, H. Matsuzaki et al., under submission.

  1. Steady state and accident analysis of SCOR (simple compact reactor) with the CATHARE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie-Sophie Chenaud; Guy-Marie Gautier [CEA Cadarache- 13108 St Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Within the framework of innovative reactors studies, the CEA was led to propose the SCOR design (Simple Compact Reactor). This design is based on a compact 600 MWe PWR and combines most of the advantages of innovative reactors. All main components such as the pressurizer, the canned pumps, the control rod mechanics and the dedicated heat exchangers on the passive residual heat removal system are integrated in the vessel.The only steam generator is located above the vessel in place of the upper head. The reactor operates at much lower primary circuit pressure than standard PWRs (85 bar instead of the usual 155 bar) and the power density is low (70 MW/m{sup 3} instead of 100 MW/m{sup 3} for the present PWRs). The reactivity being controlled by control rods and burnable poisons, there is no soluble boron. The elimination of a serious LOCA (Loss Of Coolant Accident) and the integrated residual heat removal system lead to enhanced safety with simple safety systems. Main features of the SCOR design and functional parameters have been previously reported. This paper focuses on the safety analysis of SCOR. Thermo hydraulic calculations have been run with the CATHARE code. Some calculations were run with the point kinetics module of CATHARE. Several transient simulations have been assessed. They concern a normal reactor trip from full power operation till refueling shutdown and accidental scenarios such as: - Loss of power, - Breaks from 0.02 m to 0.1 m on circuits connected to the vessel, - Steam generator tubes rupture, - Reactivity insertion by cold shock. Results of transient simulations enable us to conclude upon: - the increase of grace periods in comparison with standard PWRs if no safety systems operate besides emergency shutdown, - the expected efficiency of designed safety systems and in particular of the residual heat removal system in passive configuration even when integrated exchanger are dewatered. It will be retained that

  2. The path of accident analysis: the traditional paradigm and extending the origins of the expansion of analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildeberto Muniz de Almeida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approach to accidents assumes that compliance with procedures and norms protects the system from accidents and that these events are caused by the faulty behavior of workers, which results partly from personality aspects. Identification of these behaviors can be based on comparing them with the standard "safe working practices", which safety experts are aware of ahead of time. In recent decades, new alternative views have expanded the perimeters of accident analyses and opened the way to questioning the assumption of the traditional approach to the concepts of the human being and work. These new approaches help to highlight the sterile results of traditional practices: blaming and punishing victims, recommending training, and proposing norms without changing the systems in which the accidents took place. The new approaches suggest that the traditional approach is totally worn out and emphasize the importance of operator contribution for system safety.

  3. Simulations of argon accident scenarios in the ATLAS experimental cavern a safety analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Balda, F

    2002-01-01

    Some characteristic accidents in the ATLAS experimental cavern (UX15) are simulated by means of STAR-CD, a code using the "Finite-Volume" method. These accidents involve different liquid argon leaks from the barrel cryostat of the detector, thus causing the dispersion of the argon into the Muon Chamber region and the evaporation of the liquid. The subsequent temperature gradients and distribution of argon concentrations, as well as their evolution in time are simulated and discussed, with the purpose of analysing the dangers related to asphyxiation and to contact with cryogenic fluids for the working personnel. A summary of the theory that stands behind the code is also given. In order to validate the models, an experimental test on a liquid argon spill performed earlier is simulated, showing that the program is able to output reliable results. At the end, some safety-related recommendations are listed.

  4. Response Analysis on Electrical Pulses under Severe Nuclear Accident Temperature Conditions Using an Abnormal Signal Simulation Analysis Module

    OpenAIRE

    Kil-Mo Koo; Jin-Ho Song; Sang-Baik Kim; Kwang-Il Ahn; Won-Pil Baek; Kil-Nam Oh; Gyu-Tae Kim

    2012-01-01

    Unlike design basis accidents, some inherent uncertainties of the reliability of instrumentations are expected while subjected to harsh environments (e.g., high temperature and pressure, high humidity, and high radioactivity) occurring in severe nuclear accident conditions. Even under such conditions, an electrical signal should be within its expected range so that some mitigating actions can be taken based on the signal in the control room. For example, an industrial process control standard...

  5. Analysis of Shahid Rajaee hospital administrative data on injuries resulting from car accidents in Shiraz, Iran: 2011-2014 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadollahi, Mahnaz; Ghiassee, Aida; Anvar, Mehrdad; Ghaem, Hale; Farahmand, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    The administrative data from trauma centers could serve as potential sources of invaluable information while studying epidemiologic features of car accidents. In this cross-sectional analysis of Shahid Rajaee hospital administrative data, we aimed to evaluate patients injured in car accidents in terms of age, gender, injury severity, injured body regions and hospitalization outcome in the recent four years (2011-2014). The hospital registry was accessed at Shiraz Trauma Research Center (Shiraz, Iran) and the admission's unit data were merged with the information gathered upon discharge. A total number of 27,222 car accident patients aged over 15 years with International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10) external causes of injury codes (V40.9-V49.9) were analyzed. Injury severity score and injured body regions were determined based on converting ICD-10 injury codes to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS-98) severity codes using a domestically developed electronic algorithm. A binary logistic regression model was applied to the data to examine the contribution of all independent variables to in-hospital mortality. Men accounted for 68.9% of the injuries and the male to female ratio was 2.2:1. The age of the studied population was (34 ± 15) years, with more than 77.2% of the population located in the 15-45 years old age group. Head and neck was the most commonly injured body region (39.0%) followed by extremities (27.2%). Injury severity score (ISS) was calculated for 13,152 (48.3%) patients, of whom, 80.9% had severity scores less than 9. There were 332 patients (1.2%) admitted to the intensive care units and 422 in-hospital fatalities (1.5%) were recorded during the study period. Age above 65 years [OR = 7.4, 95% CI (5.0-10.9)], ISS above 16 [OR = 9.1, 95% CI (5.5-14.9)], sustaining a thoracic injury [OR = 7.4, 95% CI (4.6-11.9)] and head injury [OR = 4.9, 95% CI (3.1-7.6)] were the most important independent predictors of death following car

  6. Epidemiological analysis of traffic accident trauma in Gansu province in 1996

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向东; 代荫梅

    1999-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiologic data of traffic trauma in Gansu province in 1996 and try to find effective ways to reduce the injury.Methods The data were gathered from the General Team o the Traffic Police of Gansu Province and analyzed together with other related data.Results Although the traffic accidents in Gansu province were reduced in last two years as a result of traffic safety education,the number of casuatlties has not been evidently reduced.The number of deaths caused by traffic accidents was 983 in 1996.The main causes of these deaths were the negligence of the drivers,carelessness of the pedestrians and the bike riders,the sudden breakdown of the machine parts of the vehicles,and non-licensed driving.Among the number of deaths 69 percent was caused by violation of traffic regulations by drivers.Most of the death accidents happened at straight roads and road-crosses.The percentage was 64% and 11%,respectively.The most of deaths,about 81%,took place in sunny days.The main reason was due to the careless and exceeding-speed-limit driving.The young and middle aged were about 77% of the dead,most likely because they are the dominant group in daily work and life.Conclusions To strengthen the propaganda of traffic regulations,improve driver's moral qualities and raise the management level are very important for reducing traffic accidents.Correct and timely first aid before being hospitalized can also greatly reduce the mortality.

  7. 3D analysis of the reactivity insertion accident in VVER-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullayev, A. M.; Zhukov, A. I.; Slyeptsov, S. M. [NSC Kharkov Inst. for Physics and Technology, 1, Akademicheskaya Str., Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine)

    2012-07-01

    Fuel parameters such as peak enthalpy and temperature during rod ejection accident are calculated. The calculations are performed by 3D neutron kinetics code NESTLE and 3D thermal-hydraulic code VIPRE-W. Both hot zero power and hot full power cases were studied for an equilibrium cycle with Westinghouse hex fuel in VVER-1000. It is shown that the use of 3D methodology can significantly increase safety margins for current criteria and met future criteria. (authors)

  8. Time analysis of fatal traffic accidents in Fars Province of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Taghi Heydari; Amin Hoseinzadeh; Yaser Sarikhani; Arya Hedjazi; Mohammad Zarenezhad; Ghasem Moafian; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the time factor in road traffic accidents (RTAs) in Fars Province of Iran.Methods:This study was conducted in Fars Province,Iran from November 22,2009 to November 21,2011.Victims'information consisted of age,sex,death toll involving drivers or passengers of cars,motorcycles and pedestrians,and site of injury etc.Accidents were analyzed in relation to hour of the day,season of the year,lighting condition including sunrise,sunset,daytime and nighttime.Results:Atotal of 3 642 deaths (78.3% were males,and the ratio of males to females was about 3.6:1) were studied regarding their autopsy records.There was a steady increase in fatal accidents occurring at midnight to 15:59.The risk of being involved in a fatal traffic accident was higher for those injured between 4:00 to 7:59 than at other times (OR=2.13,95% CI 1.85-2.44).The greatest number of fatal RTAs took place in summer.Mortalities due to RTA during spring and summer were more pronounced at 20:00 to 23:59and midnight to 3:59,whereas mortalities in fall and winter were more pronounced from 12:00 to 15:59.Conclusion:The high mortality rate ofRTAis a major public health problem in Fars Province.Our results indicate that the time is an important factor which contributes to road traffic deaths.

  9. Decrease of morbidity in road traffic accidents in a high income country - an analysis of 24,405 accidents in a 21 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstberger, Antonio; Joeris, Alexander; Daigl, Monica; Kiss, Miklos; Angerpointner, Katharina; Nerlich, Michael; Schmucker, Uli

    2015-10-01

    The WHO initiated the "Decade of Action for Road Safety" because the fatality on road traffic accidents could become the fifth leading cause of death in 2030. On the contrary, fatalities continue to decrease in high income countries. The aim of the study was to find evidence for changes in injury severity of passenger car occupants after road traffic accidents in Germany over time, and to find contributing factors. Data from the German In Depth Accident Study (GIDAS), representative for Germany, was used. A total of 24.405 accidents, reported from 1991 until 2011. 44.503 adult passenger car occupants were examined. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed to find reasons for observed trends over time. The relative decrease in mortality was 68.8% from 1991 until 2011. Between 2006 and 2011, the percentage of severely injured traffic victims was less than half, both in terms of the whole body and individual body regions. For injuries with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥ 2, the percentage of persons with lower leg injuries declined by 72.5%, followed by the percentage of persons with pelvic injuries (61.5%), upper extremity injuries (57.7%), head injuries (54.3%), thorax injuries (50.0%), and abdomen injuries (40.0%). The multivariable regression model found 13 independent variables associated with injury prevention (e.g. seat belt use: OR 0.41, CI 95% 0.32-0.49; airbag: OR 0.86, CI 95% 0.75-0.99). The implementation of protective factors increased over time while accident constellations with a high probability for severe injury decreased over time. The decrease of severe injuries after road traffic accidents can be only attributed to a comprehensive approach including the enforcement of road safety policies and innovations in car engineering and emergency medicine. Traffic related measures and alcohol level control, and seat belt usage enforcement next to other technical advances are considered especially important. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  10. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the first of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This document reports on an ongoing project to assess uncertainty in the MACCS and COSYMA calculations for the offsite consequences of radionuclide releases by hypothetical nuclear power plant accidents. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain variables that affect calculations of offsite consequences. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. Other panels were formed to consider uncertainty in other aspects of the codes. Their results are described in companion reports. Volume 1 contains background information and a complete description of the joint consequence uncertainty study. Volume 2 contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures for both panels, (3) the rationales and results for the panels on soil and plant transfer and animal transfer, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  11. Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

  12. SiC MODIFICATIONS TO MELCOR FOR SEVERE ACCIDENT ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad J. Merrill; Shannon M Bragg-Sitton

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. The Fuels Pathway within this program focuses on fuel system components outside of the fuel pellet, allowing for alteration of the existing zirconium-based clad system through coatings, addition of ceramic sleeves, or complete replacement (e.g. fully ceramic cladding). The DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is also conducting research on materials for advanced, accident tolerant fuels and cladding for application in operating LWRs. To aide in this assessment, a silicon carbide (SiC) version of the MELCOR code was developed by substituting SiC in place of Zircaloy in MELCOR’s reactor core oxidation and material property routines. The purpose of this development effort is to provide a numerical capability for estimating the safety advantages of replacing Zr-alloy components in LWRs with SiC components. This modified version of the MELCOR code was applied to the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) plant accident. While the results are considered preliminary, SiC cladding showed a dramatic safety advantage over Zircaloy cladding during this accident.

  13. Dose rate mapping and quantitative analysis of radioactive deposition with simple monitoring instruments in Finland after the Chernobyl accident.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivukoski, J. [Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Helsinki (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: janne.koivukoski@intermin.fi

    2013-03-01

    This article reviews the Finnish dose-rate mapping equipment and the system to process the obtained results, which were used immediately after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. We present the results of the external gamma-radiation monitoring carried out with simple civil-defence gamma monitoring instruments and compare them with the subsequent deposition mapping performed with research-grade instruments. The analysis shows that the quality of radiation mapping is good enough for decision makers to direct protective measures to the right areas. This review also demonstrates that a simple stationary external gamma radiation monitoring network can be effectively used for early warning in radiation emergency situations. (orig.)

  14. An analysis of thermionic space nuclear reactor power system: I. Effect of disassembling radial reflector, following a reactivity initiated accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Paramonov, Dmitry

    1993-01-01

    An analysis is performed to determine the effect of disassembling the radial reflector of the TOPAZ-II reactor, following a hypothetical severe Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA). Such an RIA is assumed to occur during the system start-up in orbit due to a malfunction of the drive mechanism of the control drums, causing the drums to rotate the full 180° outward at their maximum speed of 1.4°/s. Results indicate that disassembling only three of twelve radial reflector panels would successfully shutdown the reactor, with little overheating of the fuel and the moderator.

  15. KIT multi-physics tools for the analysis of design and beyond design basis accidents of light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Victor Hugo; Miassoedov, Alexei; Steinbrueck, M.; Tromm, W. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    This paper describes the KIT numerical simulation tools under extension and validation for the analysis of design and beyond design basis accidents (DBA) of Light Water Reactors (LWR). The description of the complex thermal hydraulic, neutron kinetics and chemo-physical phenomena going on during off-normal conditions requires the development of multi-physics and multi-scale simulations tools which are fostered by the rapid increase in computer power nowadays. The KIT numerical tools for DBA and beyond DBA are validated using experimental data of KIT or from abroad. The developments, extensions, coupling approaches and validation work performed at KIT are shortly outlined and discussed in this paper.

  16. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  17. An epidemiological analysis of drunk driving accidents in Kagawa Prefecture - comparison of 1997-2000 and 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yoshitsugu; Inoue, Ken; Sakuta, Akira; Seki, Nobuhiko; Miyazawa, Teruomi; Eguchi, Kenji

    2008-10-01

    In this study, we examined the number of drunk driving accidents and drunk driving accident toll in 1997-2000 and 2003-2006 for Kagawa Prefecture, which had Japan's highest number of traffic accident fatalities per 100,000 population.

  18. Analysis of Japanese radionuclide monitoring data of food before and after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Stefan; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Steinhauser, Georg

    2015-03-03

    In an unprecedented food monitoring campaign for radionuclides, the Japanese government took action to secure food safety after the Fukushima nuclear accident (Mar. 11, 2011). In this work we analyze a part of the immense data set, in particular radiocesium contaminations in food from the first year after the accident. Activity concentrations in vegetables peaked immediately after the campaign had commenced, but they decreased quickly, so that by early summer 2011 only a few samples exceeded the regulatory limits. Later, accumulating mushrooms and dried produce led to several exceedances of the limits again. Monitoring of meat started with significant delay, especially outside Fukushima prefecture. After a buildup period, contamination levels of meat peaked by July 2011 (beef). Levels then decreased quickly, but peaked again in September 2011, which was primarily due to boar meat (a known accumulator of radiocesium). Tap water was less contaminated; any restrictions for tap water were canceled by April 1, 2011. Pre-Fukushima (137)Cs and (90)Sr levels (resulting from atmospheric nuclear explosions) in food were typically lower than 0.5 Bq/kg, whereby meat was typically higher in (137)Cs and vegetarian produce was usually higher in (90)Sr. The correlation of background radiostrontium and radiocesium indicated that the regulatory assumption after the Fukushima accident of a maximum activity of (90)Sr being 10% of the respective (137)Cs concentrations may soon be at risk, as the (90)Sr/(137)Cs ratio increases with time. This should be taken into account for the current Japanese food policy as the current regulation will soon underestimate the (90)Sr content of Japanese foods.

  19. Analysis of a small break loss-of-coolant accident of pressurized water reactor by APROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Falahi, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Haennine, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Porkholm, K. [IVO International, Ltd., Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the capability of APROS (Advanced PROcess Simulator) code to simulate the real plant thermal-hydraulic transient of a Small Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) of Loss-Of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility. The LOFT is a scaled model of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). This work is a part of a larger validation of the APROS thermal-hydraulic models. The results of SBLOCA transient calculated by APROS showed a reasonable agreement with the measured data.

  20. Resolve! Version 2.5: Flammable Gas Accident Analysis Tool Acceptance Test Plan and Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LAVENDER, J.C.

    2000-10-17

    RESOLVE! Version 2 .5 is designed to quantify the risk and uncertainty of combustion accidents in double-shell tanks (DSTs) and single-shell tanks (SSTs). The purpose of the acceptance testing is to ensure that all of the options and features of the computer code run; to verify that the calculated results are consistent with each other; and to evaluate the effects of the changes to the parameter values on the frequency and consequence trends associated with flammable gas deflagrations or detonations.

  1. Speciation analysis of organotin compounds in lard poisoning accident in Jiangxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Samples including organotin contaminated lard, urine, blood, and main organs of the poisoned bodies were collected in the incident which took place in Longnan and Dingnan counties, Jiangxi Province, China around the new year's day of 1999. The organotin compounds in these samples were identified and determined by gas chromatography-flame photometric detector (GC-FPD), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and inductively coupled plasma- mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Experiments confirmed that tri- and dimethyltin are the main components that caused the poisoning accident. Monomethyltin, dioctyltin and inorganic tin were also found in several samples.

  2. SACO-1: a fast-running LMFBR accident-analysis code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.J.; Cahalan, J.E.; Vaurio, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    SACO is a fast-running computer code that simulates hypothetical accidents in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors to the point of permanent subcriticality or to the initiation of a prompt-critical excursion. In the tradition of the SAS codes, each subassembly is modeled by a representative fuel pin with three distinct axial regions to simulate the blanket and core regions. However, analytic and integral models are used wherever possible to cut down the computing time and storage requirements. The physical models and basic equations are described in detail. Comparisons of SACO results to analogous SAS3D results comprise the qualifications of SACO and are illustrated and discussed.

  3. Analysis on the dispersion of radioactive materials in marine environment after the Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B.; Youm, M.K.; Lee, B.G.; Suh, K.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Raul, P. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive materials were released to the atmosphere and ocean due to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in March 2011. Marine environment was contaminated by the aeolian fallout and direct release to the sea, especially the radioactive materials were entered in the sea from atmospheric deposition from March 12-30. It was important to evaluate the marine pollution due to the radioactive materials in Pacific Ocean as well as the near fields in the Fukushima Sea. A three-dimensional Lagrangian particle model was used to predict the overall dispersion patterns of the radioactive materials in the global ocean during 2011 to 2021. The spatial domain for the simulations extended from 180 deg. W to 180 deg. E and from 75 deg. S to 75 deg. N. The monthly averaged current data of the 10 years forecast, from JAMSTEC, were used. Numerical simulations were performed to evaluate the distribution of the radionuclides in the ocean with considering directly release and deposition from the atmosphere. Simulated results in the sea water and seabed are compared with the measured data, and atmospheric transport model has been also used to calculate the rates of atmospheric deposition on the sea surface. The clouds of the radioactive materials in surface waters were predicted from 2012 (1 year after accident) to 2021 (10 years after accident) in global ocean. The distributions of the radioactive materials in 2012 showed the rapid movements due to the Kuroshio currents to the eastward direction from Fukushima site. It was predicted that the radioactive clouds reached in the west coast of US after 5 ∼ 6 years from the accident. Comparative results had good agreements in some places over the ocean, but they had a little differences in some locations. The difference between the calculations and measurements are due to the currents and relatively coarse resolutions in the model. The concentrations in dissolved, suspended matters and bottom sediments would be

  4. Speciation analysis of organotin compounds in lard poisoning accident in Jiangxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江桂斌; 周群芳; 何滨; 刘稷燕

    2000-01-01

    Samples including organotin contaminated lard, urine, blood, and main organs of the poisoned bodies were collected in the incident which took place in Longnan and Dingnan counties, Jiangxi Province, China around the new year’s day of 1999. The organotin compounds in these samples were identified and determined by gas chromatography-flame photometric detector (GC-FPD), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Experiments confirmed that tri- and dimethyltin are the main components that caused the poisoning accident. Monomethyltin, dioctyltin and inorganic tin were also found in several samples.

  5. Human error and the problem of causality in analysis of accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1990-01-01

    and for termination of the search for `causes'. In addition, the concept of human error is analysed and its intimate relation with human adaptation and learning is discussed. It is concluded that identification of errors as a separate class of behaviour is becoming increasingly difficult in modern work environments......Present technology is characterized by complexity, rapid change and growing size of technical systems. This has caused increasing concern with the human involvement in system safety. Analyses of the major accidents during recent decades have concluded that human errors on part of operators...

  6. SCENARIO OF AN ACCIDENT OF SOIL DAMS IN CASE OF WATER SPILL OVER A DAM CREST BY USING FAULT TREE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Dmitriy Viktorovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The scenario of a hydrodynamic accident of water flow over a crest of a soil dam is considered by the method of fault tree analysis, for which the basic reasons and controlled diagnostic indicators of an accident have been defined. Logical operators “AND”/”OR” were used for creation of a sequence of logically connected events, leading to an undesired event in the scenario of accident. The scenario of the accident was plotted in case of three basic reasons - an excessive settling of a dam crest, an excess flood, an inoperable spillway, taking into account the sequence of the events’ development and with observance of the necessary conditions leading to an accident. “Technical” reasons were observed in the present scenario, force majeure events were not considered. The provided scenario of the accident consists of two branches of events’ development: the left one that depends on an upstream level, and the right one that depends on settling of a dam crest. In each of the considered events an accident “the water spill over a crest of a soil dam” is possible only in case of execution of two different conditions at the same time, i.e. in case of an appropriate upstream level and the appropriate mark of a crest of a soil dam. The conditions of the accident are defined by diagnostic indices - the upstream level and settling of a dam crest, which at the same time are safety criteria of the hydraulic structure for soil dams. They allow defining the technical condition of the construction. Four possible technical conditions are suggested for the definition of technical statuses - normative, operable, limited operable, abnormal. Criteria of safety are the boundaries of the state: for loading and impact - it is the upstream level, for geometrical compliance of the construction - it is a dam crest mark.

  7. Analysis of human error in occupational accidents in the power plant industries using combining innovative FTA and meta-heuristic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Omidvari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational accidents are of the main issues in industries. It is necessary to identify the main root causes of accidents for their control. Several models have been proposed for determining the accidents root causes. FTA is one of the most widely used models which could graphically establish the root causes of accidents. The non-linear function is one of the main challenges in FTA compliance and in order to obtain the exact number, the meta-heuristic algorithms can be used. Material and Method: The present research was done in power plant industries in construction phase. In this study, a pattern for the analysis of human error in work-related accidents was provided by combination of neural network algorithms and FTA analytical model. Finally, using this pattern, the potential rate of all causes was determined. Result: The results showed that training, age, and non-compliance with safety principals in the workplace were the most important factors influencing human error in the occupational accident. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that human errors can be greatly reduced by training, right choice of workers with regard to the type of occupations, and provision of appropriate safety conditions in the work place.

  8. Accident: Reminder

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  9. Sudden water pollution accidents and reservoir emergency operations: impact analysis at Danjiangkou Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hezhen; Lei, Xiaohui; Shang, Yizi; Duan, Yang; Kong, Lingzhong; Jiang, Yunzhong; Wang, Hao

    2017-05-03

    Danjiangkou Reservoir is the source reservoir of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (MRP). Any sudden water pollution accident in the reservoir would threaten the water supply of the MRP. We established a 3-D hydrodynamic and water quality model for the Danjiangkou Reservoir, and proposed scientific suggestions on the prevention and emergency management for sudden water pollution accidents based on simulated results. Simulations were performed on 20 hypothetical pollutant discharge locations and 3 assumed amounts, in order to model the effect of pollutant spreading under different reservoir operation types. The results showed that both the location and mass of pollution affected water quality; however, different reservoir operation types had little effect. Five joint regulation scenarios, which altered the hydrodynamic processes of water conveyance for the Danjiangkou and Taocha dams, were considered for controlling pollution dispersion. The results showed that the spread of a pollutant could be effectively controlled through the joint regulation of the two dams and that the collaborative operation of the Danjiangkou and Taocha dams is critical for ensuring the security of water quality along the MRP.

  10. Analysis of Severe Accident for the SFP under the Condition of Drainage using MELCOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jung-Min; Pack, Jae-Woo [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to analyze the effect of a LOCA of the spent fuel pool. We use the MECORE 1.8.6 code to compute the variation of the fuel cladding temperature after a completer loss of the cooling water in the spent fuel pool. A loss of coolant accident in a typical spent fuel pool has been simulated using the MELCOR 1.8.6 code to see the variation of key parameters such as the oxygen concentration in the fuel assembly region and the cladding temperature. In a commercial nuclear power plant, highly radioactive spent fuel assemblies unloaded from the nuclear reactor core are typically stored for a period of time in the spent fuel pool to reduce the radioactivity. The spent fuel assemblies are usually placed in long square racks. It is known that in the progress of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the cooling water in the spent fuel storage was completely lost and the fuel was heated up and damaged. The simulation result shows that the cladding temperature exceeds the rupture temperature in most of the fuel rods and some part of the fuel rods suffers melting of the cladding.

  11. Analysis of an AP600 intermediate-size loss-of-coolant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E.; Lime, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A postulated double-ended guillotine break of an AP600 direct-vessel-injection line has been analyzed. This event is characterized as an intermediate-break loss-of-coolant accident. Most of the insights regarding the response of the AP600 safety systems to the postulated accident are derived from calculations preformed with the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 code. However, complementary insights derived from a scaled experiment conducted in the ROSA facility, as well as insights based upon calculations by other codes, are also presented. Based upon the calculated and experimental results, the AP600 will not experience a core heat up and will reach a safe shutdown state using only safety-class equipment. Only the early part of the long-term cooling period initiated by In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank injection was evaluated. Thus, the observation that the core is continuously cooled should be verified for the later phase of the long-term cooling period when sump injection and containment cooling processes are important.

  12. Clinical analysis of 28 children suffering from intracranial hematoma and multiple injuries following traffic accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江山; 程成; 江勇豪

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the result of diagnosis and treatment of intracranial hematoma and multiple injuries caused by road traffic accidents. Methods: Twenty-eight patients, aged from 1 to 14 years, receiving craniotomy and other surgical treatments were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Among the 28 cases, 23 cured with the recovery rate of 82.3%, 2 had a sequel of moderate disability, and 3 died from severe brain injury, hemorrhagic shock, and other visceral complications. The clinical sympotoms and signs were severe and perplexing. The major characters included: severe head injury, usually combined by multiple injuries, and easy of access to missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. Conclusions: The occurrence of infection is high after traffic accidents as a result of depression of humoral and cellular immunity, long-term bed rest, and fractures of limbs. Hence, on the basis of maintaining vital signs, the management of primary wound is essential to reduce infection and underlying death. In addition to the management of brain injury, concurrent injuries should also be highlighted so as to reach a good result for their patients.

  13. Assessment of accident risks in the CRBRP. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-03-01

    Appendices to Volume I include core-related accident-sequence definition, CRBRP risk-assessment sequence-probability determinations, failure-probability data, accident scenario evaluation, radioactive material release analysis, ex-core accident analysis, safety philosophy and design features, calculation of reactor accident consequences, sensitivity study, and risk from fires.

  14. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part 1, Introduction, integration, and summary: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Abrahmson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilbert, E.S. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report is a revision of NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990), Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. This revision has been made to incorporate changes to the Health Effects Models recommended in two addenda to the NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 11, 1989 report. The first of these addenda provided recommended changes to the health effects models for low-LET radiations based on recent reports from UNSCEAR, ICRP and NAS/NRC (BEIR V). The second addendum presented changes needed to incorporate alpha-emitting radionuclides into the accident exposure source term. As in the earlier version of this report, models are provided for early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating the risks of seven types of cancer in adults - leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ``other``. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Five classes of genetic diseases -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocations, and multifactorial diseases are also considered. Data are provided that should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk.

  15. Analysis of Hydrogen Risk Mitigation System for Severe Accidents of EU-APR1400 Using MAAP4 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mun Soo; Suh, Jung Soo; Bae, Byoung Hwan [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    According to the EUR (European Utility Requirements for LWR Nuclear Power Plants), it is mandatory that the HMS (Hydrogen Mitigation System) of the Eu-APR1400 should be equipped with a passive or automatic hydrogen control system. Considering this requirement, a PAR (Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner) system was adopted for the HMS of the Eu-APR1400. This passive HMS should be evaluated carefully in order to ensure that the HMS has adequate capacity to control hydrogen concentrations during severe accident conditions and to show that the system can satisfy the design requirements of the EUR. In this paper, analyses were carried out to examine the effectiveness of the HMS incorporated into the Eu- APR1400 design. These analyses were performed using the MAAP (Modular Accident Analysis Program) 4 code. in order to identify whether the HMS could control the average hydrogen concentrations in the containment, such that the concentration would not exceed 10 percent by volume: the analyses also considered whether there was the possibility of inadvertent hydrogen combustion in such processes as FA (Flame Acceleration) and DDT (Deflagration to Detonation Transition)

  16. Safety accident analysis for second phase projects of Shenzhen metro%深圳地铁二期工程建设期安全事故分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晨; 张佐汉

    2013-01-01

    By the statistics analysis of safety accidents in Shenzhen Subway Phase Ⅱ Construction,this paper detected that collapse accidents were the accidents most likely happening during construction,and the accidents were prone to happen in the process of foundation pit engineering,shield propelling, underground tunneling and high-formwork construction. By combining with the main methods of subway construction process,this paper showed that auxiliary methods and the temporary bearing structures were the basic reasons for the accident,and put forward the key points of the accident prevention through analysis of the engineering accidents and the construction management experience,which could provide the security management experience for the next subway construction safety.%  通过统计与分析深圳市地铁二期工程在建设期所发生的安全事故,发现坍塌是地铁工程建设期间的多发事故,地铁工程在基坑工程、盾构推进、隧道暗挖和高支模施工的过程中易发生安全事故。结合地铁建设过程中的主要工法,通过进一步分析,发现对辅助工法施工重视不够,临时承重结构施工时抢工期常常是引发事故的重要原因。结合工程事故的分析及建设管理经验,提出事故预防的重点,以期为下阶段大规模的地铁工程建设活动提供安全管理经验。

  17. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents......The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...

  18. Sensitivity analysis for CORSOR models simulating fission product release in LOFT-LP-FP-2 severe accident experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoseyni, Seyed Mohsen [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Basic Sciences; Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Young Researchers and Elite Club; Pourgol-Mohammad, Mohammad [Sahand Univ. of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Yousefpour, Faramarz [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    This paper deals with simulation, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of LP-FP-2 experiment of LOFT test facility. The test facility simulates the major components and system response of a pressurized water reactor during a LOCA. MELCOR code is used for predicting the fission product release from the core fuel elements in LOFT LP-FP-2 experiment. Moreover, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is performed for different CORSOR models simulating release of fission products in severe accident calculations for nuclear power plants. The calculated values for the fission product release are compared under different modeling options to the experimental data available from the experiment. In conclusion, the performance of 8 CORSOR modeling options is assessed for available modeling alternatives in the code structure.

  19. Uncertainty analysis of preclosure accident doses for the Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C.W.; Miller, D.D.; Zavoshy, S.J. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA); Jardine, L.J. [Jardine (L.J.) and Associates, Livermore, CA (USA)

    1990-12-31

    This study presents a generic methodology that can be used to evaluate the uncertainty in the calculated accidental offsite doses at the Yucca Mountain repository during the preclosure period. For demonstration purposes, this methodology is applied to two specific accident scenarios: the first involves a crane dropping an open container with consolidated fuel rods, the second involves container failure during emplacement or removal operations. The uncertainties of thirteen parameters are quantified by various types of probability distributions. The Latin Hypercube Sampling method is used to evaluate the uncertainty of the offsite dose. For the crane-drop scenario with concurrent filter failure, the doses due to the release of airborne fuel particles are calculated to be 0.019, 0.32, and 2.8 rem at confidence levels of 10%, 50%, and 90%, respectively. For the container failure scenario with concurrent filter failure, the 90% confidence-level dose is 0.21 rem. 20 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. The Accident Simulation Analysis of LNG Tank%LNG储罐事故模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    要栋梁

    2014-01-01

    Based on the software SAFETI coming from Norway Veritas, accident simulation of a liquefied natural gas storage tanks are selected. Leakage and diffusion, tank fire and explosion model was used to simulate the damage scope and impact area. It can pro-vide a theoretical basis for the emergency rescue and disaster preven-tion and mitigation.%本文应用挪威船级社的SFETI软件对某液化天然气储罐进行事故模拟,分别选用泄漏扩散、池火灾和爆炸模型进行模拟计算,得出不同事故的伤害范围和影响区域,为事故救援和防灾减灾提供了理论依据。

  1. Degraded core accidents for the Sizewell PWR A sensitivity analysis of the radiological consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, G N; Clarke, R H; Ferguson, L; Haywood, S M; Hemming, C R; Jones, J A

    1982-01-01

    The radiological impact of degraded core accidents postulated for the Sizewell PWR was assessed in an earlier study. In this report the sensitivity of the predicted consequences to variation in the values of a number of important parameters is investigated for one of the postulated accidental releases. The parameters subjected to sensitivity analyses are the dose-mortality relationship for bone marrow irradiation, the energy content of the release, the warning time before the release to the environment, and the dry deposition velocity for airborne material. These parameters were identified as among the more important in determining the uncertainty in the results obtained in the initial study. With a few exceptions the predicted consequences were found to be not very sensitive to the parameter values investigated, the range of variation in the consequences for the limiting values of each parameter rarely exceeded a factor of a few and in many cases was considerably less. The conclusions reached are, however, p...

  2. Development of auditing technology for accident analysis of SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B. D.; Kim, H. C.; Bae, K. H.; Lee, Y. J.; Chung, Y. J.; Jeong, J. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    The objective of this project is to develop thermal hydraulic models of the regulatory auditing codes for the application of SMART-P integrated reactor. The current year fall under the first step of the 3 year project, and the main researches were focused on identifying the candidate thermal hydraulic models for improvement. Well known PIRT methodology has been applied to identify model improvement items. As a part of PIRT process, the identification of SMART-P system and compenent has been performed. The scenario of each key accident and phenonema have been identified. To identify SMART-P thermal-hydraulic characteristics, preliminary calculation has been performed and identify the applicability and inprovement items of current auditing code, RELAP5.

  3. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the second of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project by the US Nuclear Regulatory and the Commission of European Communities to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This two-volume report, which examines mechanisms and uncertainties of transfer through the food chain, is the first in a series of five such reports. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain transfer that affect calculations of offsite radiological consequences. Seven of the experts reported on transfer into the food chain through soil and plants, nine reported on transfer via food products from animals, and two reported on both. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. This volume contains seven appendices. Appendix A presents a brief discussion of the MAACS and COSYMA model codes. Appendix B is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on soils and plants. Appendix C presents the rationales and responses of each of the members of the soils and plants expert panel. Appendix D is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on animal transfer. The rationales and responses of each of the experts on animal transfer are given in Appendix E. Brief biographies of the food chain expert panel members are provided in Appendix F. Aggregated results of expert responses are presented in graph format in Appendix G.

  4. Comparative Analysis of the Pattern of Severe Injury Due to Road Traffic Accidents in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Spiridonova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study stepwise differences in the severity and pattern of severe traumatic injuries due to road traffic accidents in patients during the qualified and specialized stages of medical care in the age groups of 1 month to 18 years in the Rostov Region. Material and methods. The 2004—2009 case reports were used to make a retrospective comparative assessment of the condition of victims with severe road traffic injury at care stages in 2 groups: 1 one-month- to 18-year-old children who had been primarily admitted to the qualified-stage intensive care units (n=61; 2 one-month-to 18-year-old patients from the intensive care unit of the Regional Children’s Hospital, referred from the qualified-stage intensive care units (n=133. Results. The number of specialized-stage children in grave and extremely extensive grave condition at the specialized stage was 14.7% more than that at the qualified stage (100 and 85.3%, espectively. Concomitant injury was encountered more frequently (by 13% in the specialized-stage patients (73.7 and 60.7%, respectively. The severity of road traffic injury was determined mainly by brain injuries at the qualified irnd specialized stages (96.7 and 96.1%, by skeletal injuries (11.6% more frequently and thoracic ones (9.8% more frequently at the specialized stage. The prevalence of abdominal injuries at the qualified stage was 9.8% higher. The pattern of brain injury in the specialized-stage patients showed a preponderance of brain contusion and epidural hematomas by 18.5 and 6.5%, respectively. Conclusion. Severe thoracic and brain injuries (craniocerebral injuries, brain contusion, and intracranial hematomas are an indication for patient referral to the specialized care stage in order to perform high-technological diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Key words: children, road traffic accidents, severe injury, medical care stages.

  5. An aftermath analysis of the 2014 coal mine accident in Soma, Turkey: Use of risk performance indicators based on historical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Matteo; Burgherr, Peter

    2016-02-01

    On the 13th of May 2014 a fire related incident in the Soma coal mine in Turkey caused 301 fatalities and more than 80 injuries. This has been the largest coal mine accident in Turkey, and in the OECD country group, so far. This study investigated if such a disastrous event should be expected, in a statistical sense, based on historical observations. For this purpose, PSI's ENSAD database is used to extract accident data for the period 1970-2014. Four different cases are analyzed, i.e., OECD, OECD w/o Turkey, Turkey and USA. Analysis of temporal trends for annual numbers of accidents and fatalities indicated a non-significant decreasing tendency for OECD and OECD w/o Turkey and a significant one for USA, whereas for Turkey both measures showed an increase over time. The expectation analysis revealed clearly that an event with the consequences of the Soma accident is rather unlikely for OECD, OECD w/o Turkey and USA. In contrast, such a severe accident has a substantially higher expectation for Turkey, i.e. it cannot be considered an extremely rare event, based on historical experience. This indicates a need for improved safety measures and stricter regulations in the Turkish coal mining sector in order to get closer to the rest of OECD.

  6. Tools for improving safety management in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet occupational accidents analysis period of 1998-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasjord, Halvard L

    2006-01-01

    Reporting of human accidents in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet has always been very difficult because there has been no tradition in making reports on all types of working accidents among fishermen, if the accident does not seem to be very serious or there is no economical incentive to report. Therefore reports are only written when the accidents are serious or if the fisherman is reported sick. Reports about an accident are sent to the insurance company, but another report should also be sent to the Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD). Comparing of data from one former insurance company and NMD shows that the real numbers of injuries or serious accidents among Norwegian fishermen could be up to two times more than the numbers reported to NMD. Special analyses of 1690 accidents from the so called PUS-database (NMD) for the period 1998-2002, show that the calculated risk was 23.6 accidents per 1000 man-years. This is quite a high risk level, and most of the accidents in the fishing fleet were rather serious. The calculated risks are highest for fishermen on board the deep sea fleet of trawlers (28.6 accidents per 1000 man-years) and also on the deep sea fleet of purse seiners (28.9 accidents per 1000 man-years). Fatal accidents over a longer period of 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006 are also roughly analysed. These data from SINTEF's own database show that the numbers of fatal accidents have been decreasing over this long period, except for the two periods 1980-84 and 1990-94 where we had some casualties with total losses of larger vessels with the loss of most of the crew, but also many others typical work accidents on smaller vessels. The total numbers of registered Norwegian fishermen and also the numbers of man-years have been drastically reduced over the 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006. The risks of fatal accidents have been very steady over time at a high level, although there has been a marked risk reduction since 1990-94. For the last 8.5-year period of January 1998

  7. 基于HFACS的海上交通事故原因系统分析%Systemic analysis on cause of marine traffic accidents based on HFACS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣欣; 轩少永; 席永涛; 胡甚平

    2012-01-01

    为定量研究海上交通事故人失误致因因素,分析各种人失误因素对事故的影响程度,从而达到控制人失误事故的最终目的.在引入人的不安全行为分类框架和“人-机-环境”系统的基础上,运用人因素分析与分类系统(Human Factors Analysis and Classification System,HFACS),提出海上交通事故人失误分析与分类系统(Human Error Analysis and Classification System for Marine Traffic Accident,HEACS-MTA),对海上交通事故人失误因素进行分类.运用灰色关联分析法(Grey Relational Analysis,GRA)对事故形成原因进行定量分析,得出管理因素是事故的根本原因.导致事故发生的人失误因素依次为不安全行为的前提条件、不安全的监督、不安全行为和组织影响.%To research the causation factors of human errors in marine traffic accidents quantitatively, the influencing degree of the causation factors which lead to human errors is analyzed, so as to control accidents caused by human errors. On the base of introducing the classification framework of human' s unsafe behavior and the " man-machine-environment" system, the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System ( HFACS) is used and the Human Error Analysis and Classification System for Marine Traffic Accident (HEACS-MTA) is proposed to classify human errors in marine traffic accidents. The Grey Relational Analysis ( GRA) is used to analyze the accident causes quantitatively, and the conclusion is made that the management factor is the root cause of the accidents. The order of the main human error factors which lead to accident is precondition for unsafe acts, unsafe supervision, unsafe acts and organizational influences.

  8. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Severe accident data; truck accident data; railroad accident data; highway survey data and bridge column properties; structural analysis; thermal analysis; probability estimation techniques; and benchmarking for computer codes used in impact analysis. (LN)

  9. Analysis and prevention on explosion accident of sulfuric acid tanks%硫酸储罐爆炸事故分析及预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启波; 袁凤丽; 王清

    2012-01-01

    介绍了山东省某化工有限公司苯胺厂的工人在废硫酸罐顶部焊接管线时发生的一起废硫酸罐爆炸事故.通过对事故发生经过及现场情况的调查分析,找出了导致事故发生的原因,由于废硫酸罐耐酸瓷瓦破损,废硫酸渗漏与罐体接触反应产生的氢气,与由苯-稀硫酸萃取分离器串入废硫酸罐的苯或硝基苯蒸气及罐内空气混合形成爆炸性混合物,遇到因违章操作产生的明火、高温发生爆炸.通过对这次事故的详细描述、分析,在吸取事故教训的基础上,提出了相应的预防措施,为预防类似事故的发生提供参考.%In February of 2007, an accident happened in a chemical Co. , LTD aniline factory in Shandong Province. When welding the pipe of the waste sulphuric acid can on the top of the waste sulphuric acid , the tank exploded suddenly. Based on a large number of investigation and analysis on the accident process and the scene of the accident, the reasons that caused the accident were found. The damage of waste sulphuric acid porcelain tile leaded to waste sulphuric acid leakage and generated hydrogen by reaction with the tank body. Benzene and nitrobenzene steam gone by benzene-dilute sulphuric acid extraction separator strung into the workers were on waste sulphuric acid tank. Hydrogen, benzene and nitrobenzene steam and air in the tank were mixed into explosive mixtures. These explosive mixtures encountered open flame and high temperature resulted from workers'illegal operations and then exploded, which caused the tragic accident. Facing the accident, and taking it as a warning for future, through the detailed description and analysis of the accident and in the draw lessons from the accident, the corresponding prevention measures were put forward, in order to prevent the occurrence of similar accidents.

  10. Fault Tree Analysis of Fire and Explosion Accidents for Dual Fuel (Diesel/Natural Gas) Ship Engine Rooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yifeng Guan; Jie Zhao; Tengfei Shiand Peipei Zhu

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, China’s increased interest in environmental protection has led to a promotion of energy-efficient dual fuel (diesel/natural gas) ships in Chinese inland rivers. A natural gas as ship fuel may pose dangers of fire and explosion if a gas leak occurs. If explosions or fires occur in the engine rooms of a ship, heavy damage and losses will be incurred. In this paper, a fault tree model is presented that considers both fires and explosions in a dual fuel ship;in this model, dual fuel engine rooms are the top events. All the basic events along with the minimum cut sets are obtained through the analysis.The primary factors that affect accidents involving fires and explosions are determined by calculating the degree of structure importance of the basic events.According to these results, corresponding measures are proposed to ensure and improve the safety and reliability of Chinese inland dual fuel ships.

  11. Fault tree analysis of fire and explosion accidents for dual fuel (diesel/natural gas) ship engine rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yifeng; Zhao, Jie; Shi, Tengfei; Zhu, Peipei

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, China's increased interest in environmental protection has led to a promotion of energy-efficient dual fuel (diesel/natural gas) ships in Chinese inland rivers. A natural gas as ship fuel may pose dangers of fire and explosion if a gas leak occurs. If explosions or fires occur in the engine rooms of a ship, heavy damage and losses will be incurred. In this paper, a fault tree model is presented that considers both fires and explosions in a dual fuel ship; in this model, dual fuel engine rooms are the top events. All the basic events along with the minimum cut sets are obtained through the analysis. The primary factors that affect accidents involving fires and explosions are determined by calculating the degree of structure importance of the basic events. According to these results, corresponding measures are proposed to ensure and improve the safety and reliability of Chinese inland dual fuel ships.

  12. Optimized electricity expansions with external costs internalized and risk of severe accidents as a new criterion in the decision analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Campo M, C.; Estrada S, G. J., E-mail: cmcm@fi-b.unam.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The external cost of severe accidents was incorporated as a new element for the assessment of energy technologies in the expansion plans of the Mexican electric generating system. Optimizations of the electric expansions were made by internalizing the external cost into the objective function of the WASP-IV model as a variable cost, and these expansions were compared with the expansion plans that did not internalize them. Average external costs reported by the Extern E Project were used for each type of technology and were added to the variable component of operation and maintenance cost in the study cases in which the externalises were internalized. Special attention was paid to study the convenience of including nuclear energy in the generating mix. The comparative assessment of six expansion plans was made by means of the Position Vector of Minimum Regret Analysis (PVMRA) decision analysis tool. The expansion plans were ranked according to seven decision criteria which consider internal costs, economical impact associated with incremental fuel prices, diversity, external costs, foreign capital fraction, carbon-free fraction, and external costs of severe accidents. A set of data for the calculation of the last criterion was obtained from a Report of the European Commission. We found that with the external costs included in the optimization process of WASP-IV, better electric expansion plans, with lower total (internal + external) generating costs, were found. On the other hand, the plans which included the participation of nuclear power plants were in general relatively more attractive than the plans that did not. (Author)

  13. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment. Volume 3, Appendices C, D, E, F, and G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the third of a three-volume document describing the project and contains descriptions of the probability assessment principles; the expert identification and selection process; the weighting methods used; the inverse modeling methods; case structures; and summaries of the consequence codes.

  14. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by US Department of Energy waste management operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Policastro, A.; Freeman, W.; Jackson, R.; Mishima, J.; Turner, S.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms evaluated. A personal-computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for the calculation of human health risk impacts. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated, and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. Key assumptions in the development of the source terms are identified. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also discuss specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  15. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  16. Accident Analysis of Chinese CPR1000 in Response to Station Blackout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Juyoul [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Cilliers, Anthonie [North-West University, Potchefstroom (South Africa)

    2016-10-15

    Stress tests required evaluation of the consequences of loss of safety functions from any initiating event (e.g., earthquake or flooding) causing loss of electrical power, including station blackout (SBO). The SBO scenario involves a loss of offsite power, failure of the redundant emergency diesel generators, failure of alternate current (AC) power restoration and the eventual degradation of the reactor coolant pump (RCP) seals resulting in a long term loss of coolant. Using PCTRAN/CPR1000, this study analyses the station blackout on a Chinese CPR1000 which is the most representative type reactor in terms of number of reactors, operating period, power capacity and geological distance from Korean Peninsula. Both the physical effects of the accidents as well as the releases of radioisotopes are calculated and discussed. Station blackout simulation was conducted in this study. The resulting effects seen are consistent with other stress test station blackout tests used utilizing licensed simulation codes. An exact comparison is however not possible as the plants on which the simulations was done vary greatly and the limitations of availability to Chinese FSAR. PCTRAN/CPR1000 is an extremely useful simulation package that provides engineers and scientists very accurate feedback to how a nuclear power plant would react as a whole under various plant conditions. It is able to do this extremely fast as well. As a training tool PCTRAN/CPR1000 provides hands-on experience with many of the primary plant operations and develops an intuitive understanding of the plant.

  17. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S. (Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (USA). School of Public Health)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. In addition, models are included for assessing the risks of several nonlethal early and continuing effects -- including prodromal vomiting and diarrhea, hypothyroidism and radiation thyroiditis, skin burns, reproductive effects, and pregnancy losses. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and other.'' The category, other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also developed. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. The models of cancer risk are derived largely from information summarized in BEIR III -- with some adjustment to reflect more recent studies. 64 refs., 18 figs., 46 tabs.

  18. "Murder-suicide" or "murder-accident"? Difficulties with the analysis of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Veldhoen, David; Kobus, Hilton; Heath, Karen

    2010-09-01

    Homicide where a perpetrator is found dead adjacent to the victim usually represents murder-suicide. Two incidents are reported to demonstrate characteristic features in one, and alternative features in the other, that indicate differences in the manner of death. (i) A 37-year-old mother was found dead in a burnt out house with her two young sons in an adjacent bedroom. Deaths were due to incineration and inhalation of products of combustion. (ii) A 39-year-old woman was found stabbed to death in a burnt out house with her 39-year-old de facto partner deceased from the combined effects of incineration and inhalation of products of combustion. The first incident represented a typical murder-suicide, however, in the second incident, the perpetrator had tried to escape through a window and had then sought refuge in a bathroom under a running shower. Murder-accident rather than murder-suicide may therefore be a more accurate designation for such cases.

  19. An analysis of Japan radiation protection measurements after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Arlene A. dos; Souza-Santos, Denison; Melo, Dunstana R. de; Hunt, John G.; Juliao, Ligia M.Q C.; Conti, Luiz F.C.; Pires do Rio, Monica A.; Reis, Rocio G., E-mail: arlene@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    On March 11th 2011, Japan was struck by a devastating earthquake followed by a tsunami wave that took the lives of thousands and started a major nuclear accident in the Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant complex. Right from the beginning, the information published by the Japanese government and by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was followed by a team of experts at the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) of Brazil. Radiation monitoring data, such as radionuclide activity concentration in water and food, ambient dose rate and fallout concentration in specific cities have been compiled and analyzed, with emphasis on dose limits established by Brazilian regulatory authority. A computer code for dose assessment, developed at the IRD and based upon the IAEA documents TECDOC-1162 and TECDOC-955, was used to assess the doses due to intakes of radionuclides and external exposure for individuals of different age groups. The IAEA model predictions for the ambient dose rates, when the fallout is known, are compared with the measured values in different cities. The Japanese recommendations for evacuation, sheltering and restriction of food and water consumption are evaluated with regards to the Brazilian limits defined in the CNEN NN 3.01 standard. (author)

  20. Analysis of Individual and Environmental Factors for Road Traffic Accidents in Sirjan-Bandarabbas Road between 2010 and 2011, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sirjan -Bandarabbas road is one of the important commercial roads in Iran and for Sirjan’s area situation and relevance between Sirjan and other states in Iran so high percentage of goods that forwarded from Bandarabbas to other states transit from Sirjan .Therefore this road is as one important transition road and traffic road too .This study analyzed road traffic accidents were occurred between 2010 and 201in Sirjan- Bandarabbas road. Individual and demographic factors include Time of accidents, Drivers age, time of the days, seat belt and safety laws, Guilty vehicle, Mode of accident and education Level. Time of day analyses suggested that the highest percentage of road traffic injuries occurred in the time group between 12-18 hours. Drivers with the age group of 36-50 had more involvement in death accidents. The findings of this study also revealed that most of the collisions was front to back and front to side. Female drivers were found to be generally safer drivers than their male counterparts; male drivers had a higher involvement rate in road traffic accidents. This study indicated that Observe safety laws, Guilty vehicle and Mode of accidents have a meaningful relationship with Type of accidents in road traffic accidents in Sirjan Bandarabbas road.

  1. Spatiotemporal Analysis for Wildlife-Vehicle Based on Accident Statistics of the County Straubing-Bogen in Lower Bavaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagany, R.; Dorner, W.

    2016-06-01

    During the last years the numbers of wildlife-vehicle-collisions (WVC) in Bavaria increased considerably. Despite the statistical registration of WVC and preventive measures at areas of risk along the roads, the number of such accidents could not be contained. Using geospatial analysis on WVC data of the last five years for county Straubing-Bogen, Bavaria, a small-scale methodology was found to analyse the risk of WVC along the roads in the investigated area. Various indicators were examined, which may be related to WVC. The risk depends on the time of the day and year which shows correlations in turn to the traffic density and wildlife population. Additionally the location of the collision depends on the species and on different environmental parameters. Accidents seem to correlate with the land use left and right of the street. Land use data and current vegetation were derived from remote sensing data, providing information of the general land use, also considering the vegetation period. For this a number of hot spots was selected to identify potential dependencies between land use, vegetation and season. First results from these hotspots show, that WVCs do not only depend on land use, but may show a correlation with the vegetation period. With regard to agriculture and seasonal as well as annual changes this indicates that warnings will fail due to their static character in contrast to the dynamic situation of land use and resulting risk for WVCs. This shows that there is a demand for remote sensing data with a high spatial and temporal resolution as well as a methodology to derive WVC warnings considering land use and vegetation. With remote sensing data, it could become possible to classify land use and calculate risk levels for WVC. Additional parameters, derived from remote sensed data that could be considered are relief and crops as well as other parameters such as ponds, natural and infrastructural barriers that could be related to animal behaviour and

  2. Safety analysis methodology for Chinshan nuclear power plant spent fuel pool under Fukushima-like accident condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hao-Tzu [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China). Research Atomic Energy Council; Li, Wan-Yun; Wang, Jong-Rong; Tseng, Yung-Shin; Chen, Hsiung-Chih; Shih, Chunkuan; Chen, Shao-Wen [National Tsing Hua Univ., HsinChu, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science

    2017-03-15

    Chinshan nuclear power plant (NPP), a BWR/4 plant, is the first NPP in Taiwan. After Fukushima NPP disaster occurred, there is more concern for the safety of NPPs in Taiwan. Therefore, in order to estimate the safety of Chinshan NPP spent fuel pool (SFP), by using TRACE, MELCOR, CFD, and FRAPTRAN codes, INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, R.O.C.) performed the safety analysis of Chinshan NPP SFP. There were two main steps in this research. The first step was the establishment of Chinshan NPP SFP models. And the transient analysis under the SFP cooling system failure condition (Fukushima-like accident) was performed. In addition, the sensitive study of the time point for water spray was also performed. The next step was the fuel rod performance analysis by using FRAPTRAN and TRACE's results. Finally, the animation model of Chinshan NPP SFP was presented by using the animation function of SNAP with MELCOR analysis results.

  3. Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nagel, Lise Loft

    2012-01-01

    A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the au......A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior...... to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation...... of fatal airplane crashes should be subject to forensic autopsy, including PMCT and forensic chemical analysis. The continuous accumulation of knowledge about injury patterns from “simple” accidents is the foundation for the correct analysis of “difficult” accidents....

  4. Modeling and sensitivity analysis of transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric transport and ground deposition of radioactive isotopes 131I and 137Cs during and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP accident (March 2011 are investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF/Chem model. The aim is to assess the skill of WRF in simulating these processes and the sensitivity of the model's performance to various parameterizations of unresolved physics. The WRF/Chem model is first upgraded by implementing a radioactive decay term into the advection-diffusion solver and adding three parameterizations for dry deposition and two parameterizations for wet deposition. Different microphysics and horizontal turbulent diffusion schemes are then tested for their ability to reproduce observed meteorological conditions. Subsequently, the influence on the simulated transport and deposition of the characteristics of the emission source, including the emission rate, the gas partitioning of 131I and the size distribution of 137Cs, is examined. The results show that the model can predict the wind fields and rainfall realistically. The ground deposition of the radionuclides can also potentially be captured well but it is very sensitive to the emission characterization. It is found that the total deposition is most influenced by the emission rate for both 131I and 137Cs; while it is less sensitive to the dry deposition parameterizations. Moreover, for 131I, the deposition is also sensitive to the microphysics schemes, the horizontal diffusion schemes, gas partitioning and wet deposition parameterizations; while for 137Cs, the deposition is very sensitive to the microphysics schemes and wet deposition parameterizations, and it is also sensitive to the horizontal diffusion schemes and the size distribution.

  5. Testing of LWR fuel rods to support criticality safety analysis of transport accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, P.C. [BNFL International Transport, Spent Fuel Services (United Kingdom); Dallongeville, M. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    For the transport of low enriched materials, criticality safety may be demonstrated by applying pessimistic modelling assumptions that bound any realistic case. Where Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel is being transported, enrichment levels are usually too high to permit this approach and more realistic data is needed. This requires a method by which the response of LWR fuel under impact accident conditions can be approximated or bounded. In 2000, BNFL and COGEMA LOGISTICS jointly commenced the Fuel Integrity Project (FIP) whose objective was to develop such methods. COGEMA LOGISTICS were well advanced with a method for determining the impact response of unirradiated fuel, but required further test data before acceptance by the Transport Regulators. The joint project team extensively discussed the required inputs to the FIP, from which it was agreed that BNFL would organise new tests on both unirradiated and irradiated fuel samples and COGEMA LOGISTICS would take major responsibility for evaluating the test results. Tests on unirradiated fuel rod samples involved both dynamic and quasi-static loading on fuel samples. PWR fuel rods loaded with uranium pellets were dropped vertically from 9m onto a rigid target and this was repeated on BWR fuel rods, similar tests on empty fuel rods were also conducted. Quasi-static tests were conducted on 530 mm long PWR and BWR fuel specimens under axial loading. Tests on irradiated fuel samples were conducted on high burn-up fuel rods of both PWR and BWR types. These were believed original to the FIP project and involved applying bending loads to simply supported pressurised rod specimens. In one test the fuel rod was heated to nearly 500oC during loading, all specimens were subject to axial impact before testing. Considerable experience of fuel rod testing and new data was gained from this test programme.

  6. The dominance of accidents caused by banalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    . Nevertheless, the fact is that the simpler accidents normally caused by what might be regarded as banalities occur at a much higher frequencies and with many more fatalities and invalidities than any of what are usually regarded as the most dangerous kinds of accidents. In depth analysis of national statistics...... on accidents could reveal the kind of accidents we are talking about, where they happen, to whom, how, and what can be done about them. This would require a special registration system of the events leading up to the accident. The main results for the four most frequent types of accident will be described...... as an example of how much information such systems can offer in general for the work of accident prevention in more traditional and common enterprises....

  7. Health effects model for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part I. Introduction, integration, and summary. Part II. Scientific basis for health effects models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs.

  8. Calculation of Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) minimum for accident analysis of main steam line break at Angra-1; Calculo do minimo DNBR para analise do acidente de ruptura da linha principal de vapor em Angra-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Marcio Dornellas [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: mdorne@eletronuclear.gov.br

    2000-07-01

    The maintenance costs, the operational problems and the failures possibilities of the boron injection system, composed by pumps, valves, heated lines and the boron injection tank, make this tank removal or the boron concentration reduction advisable for Angra 1 Power Plant. The main accident from chapter XV of the final safety analysis report affected by this modification is the main steam line break. It is necessary the interaction of the areas of Accidents and Transients Analysis (RETRAN 02/Mod 5.1 code), Neutronics (APA System) and Thermohydraulics (COBRA IIIC/MIT) to analyse this accident. The present Angra 1 boron concentration is 20000 ppm and it could be reduced to 2000 ppm as a result of the present study. The Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) is the restrictive parameter of this accident, which is calculated from the initials and boundary conditions obtained from the Transients and Accidents Analysis and Neutronics areas. (author)

  9. Numerical analysis of grid plate melting after a severe accident in a Fast-Breeder Reactor (FBR)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Jasmin Sudha; K Velusamy

    2013-12-01

    Fast breeder reactors (FBRs) are provided with redundant and diverse plant protection systems with a very low failure probability (<10-6/reactor year), making core disruptive accident (CDA), a beyond design basis event (BDBE). Nevertheless, safety analysis is carried out even for such events with a view to mitigate their consequences by providing engineered safeguards like the in-vessel core catcher. During a CDA, a significant fraction of the hot molten fuel moves downwards and gets relocated to the lower plate of grid plate. The ability of this plate to resist or delay relocation of core melt further has been investigated by developing appropriate mathematical models and translating them into a computer code HEATRAN-1. The core melt is a time dependent volumetric heat source because of the radioactive decay of the fission products which it contains. The code solves the nonlinear heat conduction equation including phase change. The analysis reveals that if the bottom of grid plate is considered to be adiabatic, melt-through of grid plate (i.e., melting of the entire thickness of the plate) occurs between 800 s and 1000 s depending upon the initial conditions. Knowledge of this time estimate is essential for defining the initial thermal load on the core catcher plate. If heat transfer from the bottom of grid plate to the underlying sodium is taken into account, then melt-through does not take place, but the temperature of grid plate is high enough to cause creep failure.

  10. Syntactic Accidents in Program Analysis: On the Impact of the CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Damian; Danvy, Olivier

    2000-01-01

    We show that a non-duplicating transformation into Continuation-Passing Style (CPS) has no effect on control-flow analysis, a positive effect on binding-time analysis for traditional partial evaluation, and no effect on binding-time analysis for continuation-based partial evaluation: a monovariant...... control-flow analysis yields equivalent results on a direct-style program and on its CPS counterpart, a monovariant binding-time analysis yields less precise results on a direct-style program than on its CPS counterpart, and an enhanced monovariant binding-time analysis yields equivalent results...... on a direct-style program and on its CPS counterpart. Our proof technique amounts to constructing the CPS counterpart of flow information and of binding times. Our results formalize and confirm a folklore theorem about traditional binding-time analysis, namely that CPS has a positive effect on binding times...

  11. Syntactic accidents in program analysis: on the impact of the CPS transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damian, Daniel; Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    We show that a non-duplicating transformation into Continuation-Passing Style (CPS) has no effect on control-flow analysis, a positive effect on binding-time analysis for traditional partial evaluation, and no effect on binding-time analysis for continuation-based partial evaluation: a monovariant...... control-flow analysis yields equivalent results on a direct-style program and on its CPS counterpart, a monovariant binding-time analysis yields less precise results on a direct-style program than on its CPS counterpart, and an enhanced monovariant binding-time analysis yields equivalent results...... on a direct-style program and on its CPS counterpart. Our proof technique amounts to constructing the CPS counterpart of flow information and of binding times. Our results formalize and confirm a folklore theorem about traditional binding-time analysis, namely that CPS has a positive effect on binding times...

  12. Analysis on Causes of Electrical Shock Accident of Fountain%喷水池电击事故起因简析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王厚余

    2012-01-01

    Electrical shock accident of fountain occurs frequently in China. Electrical equipments with a voltage of 220 V and above should be used for fountain and over-high voltage will result in electrical shock accident underwater. The author believes that different from that above ground, the electrical shock accident of fountain is mainly caused by underground voltage gradient or electric field. Therefore, relevant analysis is conducted and key points to prevent electrical shock accident during electrical design under the current conditions in China are presented.%我国喷水池电击事故屡有发生。喷水池内电气设备需采用220V及以上电压,过高电压在水下很易引发电击事故。作者认为喷水池内电击事故的发生与地面上不同,它主要由水下电压梯度或电场引起。故对此进行分析,并提出在我国现时条件下喷水池电气设计中防电击的要点。

  13. Paragliding accidents in remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, G; Schippinger, G; Pretscher, R

    1997-08-01

    Paragliding is an increasingly popular hobby, as people try to find new and more adventurous activities. However, there is an increased and inherent danger with this sport. For this reason, as well as the inexperience of many operators, injuries occur frequently. This retrospective study centers on the helicopter rescue of 70 individuals in paragliding accidents. All histories were examined, and 43 patients answered a questionnaire. Nineteen (42%) pilots were injured when taking off, 20 (44%) during the flight, and six (13%) when landing. Routine and experience did not affect the prevalence of accident. Analysis of the causes of accident revealed pilot errors in all but three cases. In 34 rescue operations a landing of the helicopter near the site of the accident was possible. Half of the patients had to be rescued by a cable winch or a long rope fixed to the helicopter. Seven (10%) of the pilots suffered multiple trauma, 38 (54%) had injuries of the lower extremities, and 32 (84%) of them sustained fractures. Injuries to the spine were diagnosed in 34 cases with a fracture rate of 85%. One patient had an incomplete paraplegia. Injuries to the head occurred in 17 patients. No paraglider pilot died. The average hospitalization was 22 days, and average time of working inability was 14 weeks. Fourteen (34%) patients suffered from a permanent damage to their nerves or joints. Forty-three percent of the paragliders continued their sport despite the accident; two of them had another accident. An improved training program is necessary to lower the incidence of paragliding accidents. Optimal equipment to reduce injuries in case of accidents is mandatory. The helicopter emergency physician must perform a careful examination, provide stabilization of airways and circulation, give analgesics, splint fractured extremities, and transport the victim on a vacuum mattress to the appropriate hospital.

  14. Risk-informed analysis of the large break loss of coolant accident and PCT margin evaluation with the RISMC methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, T.H. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Liang, K.S., E-mail: ksliang@alum.mit.edu [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Cheng, C.K.; Pei, B.S. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Patelli, E. [Institute of Risk and Uncertainty, University of Liverpool, Room 610, Brodie Tower, L69 3GQ (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • With RISMC methodology, both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties have been considered. • 14 probabilistically significant sequences have been identified and quantified. • A load spectrum for LBLOCA has been conducted with CPCT and SP of each dominant sequence. • Comparing to deterministic methodologies, the risk-informed PCT margin can be greater by 44–62 K. • The SP of the referred sequence to cover 99% in the load spectrum is only 5.07 * 10{sup −3}. • The occurrence probability of the deterministic licensing sequence is 5.46 * 10{sup −5}. - Abstract: For general design basis accidents, such as SBLOCA and LBLOCA, the traditional deterministic safety analysis methodologies are always applied to analyze events based on a so called surrogate or licensing sequence, without considering how low this sequence occurrence probability is. In the to-be-issued 10 CFR 50.46a, the LBLOCA will be categorized as accidents beyond design basis and the PCT margin shall be evaluated in a risk-informed manner. According to the risk-informed safety margin characterization (RISMC) methodology, a process has been suggested to evaluate the risk-informed PCT margin. Following the RISMC methodology, a load spectrum of PCT for LBLOCA has been generated for the Taiwan’s Maanshan Nuclear Power plant and 14 probabilistic significant sequences have been identified. It was observed in the load spectrum that the conditional PCT generally ascends with the descending sequence occurrence probability. With the load spectrum covering both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties, the risk-informed PCT margin can be evaluated by either expecting value estimation method or sequence probability coverage method. It was found that by comparing with the traditional deterministic methodology, the PCT margin evaluated by the RISMC methodology can be greater by 44–62 K. Besides, to have a cumulated occurrence probability over 99% in the load spectrum, the occurrence probability

  15. SPATIOTEMPORAL ANALYSIS FOR WILDLIFE-VEHICLE-COLLISIONS BASED ON ACCIDENT STATISTICS OF THE COUNTY STRAUBING-BOGEN IN LOWER BAVARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pagany

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last years the numbers of wildlife-vehicle-collisions (WVC in Bavaria increased considerably. Despite the statistical registration of WVC and preventive measures at areas of risk along the roads, the number of such accidents could not be contained. Using geospatial analysis on WVC data of the last five years for county Straubing-Bogen, Bavaria, a small-scale methodology was found to analyse the risk of WVC along the roads in the investigated area. Various indicators were examined, which may be related to WVC. The risk depends on the time of the day and year which shows correlations in turn to the traffic density and wildlife population. Additionally the location of the collision depends on the species and on different environmental parameters. Accidents seem to correlate with the land use left and right of the street. Land use data and current vegetation were derived from remote sensing data, providing information of the general land use, also considering the vegetation period. For this a number of hot spots was selected to identify potential dependencies between land use, vegetation and season. First results from these hotspots show, that WVCs do not only depend on land use, but may show a correlation with the vegetation period. With regard to agriculture and seasonal as well as annual changes this indicates that warnings will fail due to their static character in contrast to the dynamic situation of land use and resulting risk for WVCs. This shows that there is a demand for remote sensing data with a high spatial and temporal resolution as well as a methodology to derive WVC warnings considering land use and vegetation. With remote sensing data, it could become possible to classify land use and calculate risk levels for WVC. Additional parameters, derived from remote sensed data that could be considered are relief and crops as well as other parameters such as ponds, natural and infrastructural barriers that could be related to

  16. TRUMP-BD: A computer code for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, N.J.; Marseille, T.J.; White, M.D.; Lowery, P.S.

    1990-06-01

    TRUMP-BD (Boil Down) is an extension of the TRUMP (Edwards 1972) computer program for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions. This extension allows prediction of the heat transfer rates, metal-water oxidation rates, fission product release rates, steam generation and consumption rates, and temperature distributions for nuclear fuel assemblies under core uncovery conditions. The heat transfer processes include conduction in solid structures, convection across fluid-solid boundaries, and radiation between interacting surfaces. Metal-water reaction kinetics are modeled with empirical relationships to predict the oxidation rates of steam-exposed Zircaloy and uranium metal. The metal-water oxidation models are parabolic in form with an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Uranium oxidation begins when fuel cladding failure occurs; Zircaloy oxidation occurs continuously at temperatures above 13000{degree}F when metal and steam are available. From the metal-water reactions, the hydrogen generation rate, total hydrogen release, and temporal and spatial distribution of oxide formations are computed. Consumption of steam from the oxidation reactions and the effect of hydrogen on the coolant properties is modeled for independent coolant flow channels. Fission product release from exposed uranium metal Zircaloy-clad fuel is modeled using empirical time and temperature relationships that consider the release to be subject to oxidation and volitization/diffusion ( bake-out'') release mechanisms. Release of the volatile species of iodine (I), tellurium (Te), cesium (Ce), ruthenium (Ru), strontium (Sr), zirconium (Zr), cerium (Cr), and barium (Ba) from uranium metal fuel may be modeled.

  17. Injuries to New Zealanders participating in adventure tourism and adventure sports: an analysis of Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim; Macky, Keith; Edwards, Jo

    2006-12-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of adventure tourism and adventure sports activity in injury claims made to the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC). Epidemiological analysis of ACC claims for the period, July 2004 to June 2005, where adventure activities were involved in the injury. 18,697 adventure tourism and adventure sports injury claims were identified from the data, representing 28 activity sectors. Injuries were most common during the summer months, and were most frequently located in the major population centres. The majority of injuries were incurred by claimants in the 20-50 years age groups, although claimants over 50 years of age had highest claims costs. Males incurred 60% of all claims. Four activities (horse riding, mountain biking, tramping/hiking, and surfing) were responsible for approximately 60% of all adventure tourism and adventure sports-related injuries. Slips, trips, and falls were the most common injury initiating events, and injuries were most often to the back/spine, shoulder, and knee. These findings suggest the need to investigate whether regulatory intervention in the form of codes of practice for high injury count activities such as horse riding and mountain biking may be necessary. Health promotion messages and education programs should focus on these and other high-injury risk areas. Improved risk management practices are required for commercial adventure tourism and adventure sports operators in New Zealand if safety is to be improved across this sector.

  18. A working man`s analysis of incidents and accidents with explosives at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1946--1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, J.B.; Goldie, R.H.

    1998-12-31

    At the inception of the Laboratory hectic and intense work was the norm during the development of the atomic bombs. After the war the development of other weapons for the Cold War again contributed to an intense work environment. Formal Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) were not required at that time. However, the occurrence of six fatalities in 1959 during the development of a new high-energy plastic bonded explosive (94% HMX) forced the introduction SOPs. After an accident at the Department of Energy (DOE) plant at Amarillo, TX in 1977, the DOE promulgated the Department wide DOE Explosives Safety Manual. Table 1 outlines the history of the introduction of SOPs and the DOE Explosives Safety Manual. Many of the rules and guidelines presented in these documents were developed and introduced as the result of an incident or accident. However, many of the current staff are not familiar with the background of the development. To preserve as much of this knowledge as possible, they are collecting documentation on incidents and accidents involving energetic materials at Los Alamos. Formal investigations of serious accidents elucidate the multiple causes that contributed to accidents. These reports are generally buried in a file and, and are not read by more recent workers. Reports involving fatalities at Los Alamos before 1974 were withheld from the general employee. Also, these documents contain much detail and analysis that is not of interest to the field worker. The authors have collected the documents describing 116 incidents and have analyzed the contributing factors as viewed from the standpoint of the individual operator. All the incidents occurred at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and involved energetic materials in some manner, though not all occurred within the explosive handling groups. Most accidents are caused by multiple contributing factors. They have attempted to select the one or two factors that they consider as the most important relative to the

  19. Análise e classificação dos fatores humanos nos acidentes industriais Analysis and classification of the human factors in industrial accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cármen Regina Pereira Correa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto apresenta a evolução do conhecimento do fenômeno "acidente", mostrando a mudança do conceito do acidente como obra do destino para um componente do processo produtivo de qualquer segmento - industrial, aeronáutico, serviços, transporte dentre outros. O método de análise e classificação dos fatores humanos nos acidentes é apresentado e discutido quanto à viabilidade de implementação. Finalmente, conclui-se que a forma atual e moderna para prevenção de acidentes está baseada na identificação antecipada das falhas latentes da organização e do sistema, e que a ferramenta apresentada contribui para a gestão proativa e conseqüentemente para a diminuição do impacto dos acidentes do trabalho no processo produtivo.The present text presents the evolution of the knowledge of the phenomenon "accident", showing the change of the concept of the accident as workmanship of the destination for one component of the productive process of any segment - industrial, aeronautical, services, transports amongst others. The method of analysis and classification of the human factors in the accidents is presented and argued how much to the implementation viability. Finally one concludes that the current and modern form for prevention of accidents is based on the anticipated identification of the latent failures of the organization and the system, and that the presented tool contributes consequently for the pro-active management and in the reduction of the impact of the employment-related accidents in the productive process.

  20. Validation of GAMMA+ model for Evaluating Heat Transfer of VHTR core in Accident Conditions by CFD analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dongho; Yoon, Sujong; Park, Gooncherl; Cho, Hyoungkyu [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    KAERI has established a plan to demonstrate massive production of hydrogen using a VHTR by the early 2020s. In addition the GAMMA+ code is developed to analyze VHTR thermo-fluid transients at KAERI. One of the candidate reactor designs for VHTR is prismatic modular reactor (PMR), of which reference reactor is the 600MWth GT-MHR. This type of reactor has a passive safety system. During the High Pressure Conduction Cooling (HPCC) or Low Pressure Conduction Cooling (LPCC) accident, the core heats up by decay heat and then starts to cool down by conduction and radiation cooling to the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) through the prismatic core. In this mechanism, the solid conduction occurs in graphite and fuel blocks, and the gas conduction and radiation occurs in coolant holes and bypass gaps. It is important to predict conduction and radiation heat transfer in the core for safety analysis. Effective thermal conductivity is derived by Maxwell's far-field methodology Radiation effect is expressed as corresponding conductivity and added to gas conductivity. In this study, ETC model used in GAMMA+ code is validated with the commercial CFD code, CFX-13. In this study, the effective thermal conductivity model of the GAMMA+ was evaluated by comparison of CFD analysis. The CFD analysis was conducted for various numbers and volume fractions of coolant holes and temperatures. Although slight disagreement was shown for the cases run with small number of holes, the result of GAMMA+ model is accurate for the large numbers of holes sufficiently. Since there are 102 coolant holes and 210 fuel holes in a fuel block, it is concluded that GAMMA+ model is proper formula for predicting effective thermal conductivity of the VHTR fuel block. However, in high temperature region above 500 .deg. C, the GAMMA+ model underestimates the effective thermal conductivity since radiation heat transfer is not reflected precisely. Further researches on it seem to be necessary.

  1. [Accidents in travellers - the hidden epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Alexander; Hatz, Christoph

    2013-06-01

    The risk of malaria and other communicable diseases is well addressed in pre-travel advice. Accidents are usually less discussed. Thus, we aimed at assessing accident figures for the Swiss population, based on data of the register from 2004 to 2008 of the largest Swiss accident insurance organization (SUVA). More than 139'000 accidents over 5 years showed that 65 % of the accidents overseas are injuries, and 24 % are caused by poisoning or harm by cold, heat or air pressure. Most accidents happened during leisure activities or sports. More than one third of the non-lethal and more than 50 % of the fatal accidents happened in Asia. More than three-quarters of non-lethal accidents take place in people between 25 and 54 years. One out of 74 insured persons has an accident abroad per year. Despite of many analysis short-comings of the data set with regard to overseas travel, the figures document the underestimated burden of disease caused by accidents abroad and should affect the given pre-health advice.

  2. Thermal-hydraulic analysis under partial loss of flow accident hypothesis of a plate-type fuel surrounded by two water channels using RELAP5 code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Iliuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal-hydraulic analysis of plate-type fuel has great importance to the establishment of safety criteria, also to the licensing of the future nuclear reactor with the objective of propelling the Brazilian nuclear submarine. In this work, an analysis of a single plate-type fuel surrounding by two water channels was performed using the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic code. To realize the simulations, a plate-type fuel with the meat of uranium dioxide sandwiched between two Zircaloy-4 plates was proposed. A partial loss of flow accident was simulated to show the behavior of the model under this type of accident. The results show that the critical heat flux was detected in the central region along the axial direction of the plate when the right water channel was blocked.

  3. EUROCONTROL-Systemic Occurrence Analysis Methodology (SOAM)-A 'Reason'-based organisational methodology for analysing incidents and accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licu, Tony [EUROCONTROL-European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation and Dedale Asia Pacific, Safety Team, Rue de la Fusee, 96, 1130 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: antonio.licu@eurocontrol.int; Cioran, Florin [EUROCONTROL-European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation and Dedale Asia Pacific, Safety Team, Rue de la Fusee, 96, 1130 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: florin.cioran@eurocontrol.int; Hayward, Brent [EUROCONTROL-European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation and Dedale Asia Pacific, Safety Team, Rue de la Fusee, 96, 1130 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: bhayward@dedale.net; Lowe, Andrew [EUROCONTROL-European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation and Dedale Asia Pacific, Safety Team, Rue de la Fusee, 96, 1130 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: alowe@dedale.net

    2007-09-15

    The Safety Occurrence Analysis Methodology (SOAM) developed for EUROCONTROL is an accident investigation methodology based on the Reason Model of organisational accidents. The purpose of a SOAM is to broaden the focus of an investigation from human involvement issues, also known as 'active failures of operational personnel' under Reason's original model, to include analysis of the latent conditions deeper within the organisation that set the context for the event. Such an approach is consistent with the tenets of Just Culture in which people are encouraged to provide full and open information about how incidents occurred, and are not penalised for errors. A truly systemic approach is not simply a means of transferring responsibility for a safety occurrence from front-line employees to senior managers. A consistent philosophy must be applied, where the investigation process seeks to correct deficiencies wherever they may be found, without attempting to apportion blame or liability.

  4. Major accident analysis and prevention of coal mines in China from the year of 1949 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Lirong; Jiang Zhongan; Cheng Weimin; Zuo Xiuwei; Lv Dawei; Yao Yujing

    2011-01-01

    From the year of 1949 to the present,the China national coal output has been increasing quickly and became first in the world in 2009.But at the same time,major coal mining accidents still exist nowadays.In order to review the overall situation and provide information on major accidents of coal mines in China,we investigated 26 major coal mining accidents in China between the years of 1949 and 2009 through statistical methods,each of which led to more than 1 00 fatalities.Statistical characteristics about accident-related factors such as time,death toll,accident reasons,characters and nature of enterprise were analyzed.And some special conclusions have been achieved.For example,although we have made great progress,the safety situation in China coal mining industry is still serious,and the reasons for the mining accidents are all human errors which are not inevitable.Such results may be helpful to prevent major accidents in coal mines.Moreso,based on both the knowledge of other countries which have good safety situation nowadays and the safety management situation of China,we made suggestion on safety management of China coal mining.In conclusion,countermeasures were proposed in accordance with the results of statistical studies and the analyses of problems existed in coal mines,including the perfection of safety supervision organization,the establishment of cooperating agency among government,coal mines and workers,the perfection of safety rules and regulations,the improvement of safety investment,the enhancement of safety training,the development of safety technique,and the development of emergency rescue technique and equipment.

  5. Analysis of avalanche risk factors in backcountry terrain based on usage frequency and accident data in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techel, F.; Zweifel, B.; Winkler, K.

    2015-09-01

    Recreational activities in snow-covered mountainous terrain in the backcountry account for the vast majority of avalanche accidents. Studies analyzing avalanche risk mostly rely on accident statistics without considering exposure (or the elements at risk), i.e., how many, when and where people are recreating, as data on recreational activity in the winter mountains are scarce. To fill this gap, we explored volunteered geographic information on two social media mountaineering websites - bergportal.ch and camptocamp.org. Based on these data, we present a spatiotemporal pattern of winter backcountry touring activity in the Swiss Alps and compare this with accident statistics. Geographically, activity was concentrated in Alpine regions relatively close to the main Swiss population centers in the west and north. In contrast, accidents occurred equally often in the less-frequented inner-alpine regions. Weekends, weather and avalanche conditions influenced the number of recreationists, while the odds to be involved in a severe avalanche accident did not depend on weekends or weather conditions. However, the likelihood of being involved in an accident increased with increasing avalanche danger level, but also with a more unfavorable snowpack containing persistent weak layers (also referred to as an old snow problem). In fact, the most critical situation for backcountry recreationists and professionals occurred on days and in regions when both the avalanche danger was critical and when the snowpack contained persistent weak layers. The frequently occurring geographical pattern of a more unfavorable snowpack structure also explains the relatively high proportion of accidents in the less-frequented inner-alpine regions. These results have practical implications: avalanche forecasters should clearly communicate the avalanche danger and the avalanche problem to the backcountry user, particularly if persistent weak layers are of concern. Professionals and recreationists, on the

  6. How does corruption influence perceptions of the risk of nuclear accidents?: cross-country analysis after the 2011 Fukushima disaster in Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Japan’s 2011 natural disasters were accompanied by a devastating nuclear disaster in Fukushima. This paper used cross-country data obtained immediately after the Japanese disaster to explore how, and the extent to which, corruption affects the perception of citizens regarding the risk of nuclear accidents. Endogeneity bias was controlled for using instrumental variables. The cross-country analysis showed that citizens in less corrupt countries tend to perceive there to be a lower possibility ...

  7. A study on industrial accident rate forecasting and program development of estimated zero accident time in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-gu; Kang, Young-sig; Lee, Hyung-won

    2011-01-01

    To begin a zero accident campaign for industry, the first thing is to estimate the industrial accident rate and the zero accident time systematically. This paper considers the social and technical change of the business environment after beginning the zero accident campaign through quantitative time series analysis methods. These methods include sum of squared errors (SSE), regression analysis method (RAM), exponential smoothing method (ESM), double exponential smoothing method (DESM), auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, and the proposed analytic function method (AFM). The program is developed to estimate the accident rate, zero accident time and achievement probability of an efficient industrial environment. In this paper, MFC (Microsoft Foundation Class) software of Visual Studio 2008 was used to develop a zero accident program. The results of this paper will provide major information for industrial accident prevention and be an important part of stimulating the zero accident campaign within all industrial environments.

  8. Fire and Thermal Effects of HD 1.3 Accidents: History, Research, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    5.3 Modeling Skin Burns 5.3.1 Model Description Skin consists of three layers: the epidermis , the dermis , and the subcutaneous tissue, see Figure...1, were used in the analysis. Table 1: Properties of skin tissues and blood Property Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous Tissue Blood Thickness...that includes the effect of blood perfusion ( )bbb2 2 TTGρc x Tk t Tρc −− ∂ ∂ = ∂ ∂ Property Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous Tissue Blood Thickness (m

  9. Analysis of Human Errors in Industrial Incidents and Accidents for Improvement of Work Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leplat, J.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1984-01-01

    recommendations, the method proposed identifies very explicit countermeasures. Improvements require a change in human decisions during equipment design, work planning, or the execution itself. The use of a model of human behavior drawing a distinction between automated skill-based behavior, rule-based 'know......-how' and knowledge-based analysis is proposed for identification of the human decisions which are most sensitive to improvements...

  10. Medical SisRadiologia: a new software tool for analysis of radiological accidents and incidents in medical radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Camila M. Araujo; Silva, Francisco C.A. da, E-mail: araujocamila@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Araujo, Rilton A.; Pelegrineli, Samuel Q., E-mail: consultoria@maximindustrial.com.br, E-mail: samuelfisica@maximindustrial.com.br [Maxim Industrial, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The man's exposure to ionizing radiation in health are has increased considerably due not only the great request of medical examinations as well as the improvement of the techniques used in diagnostic imaging, for example, equipment for conventional X-rays, CT scans, mammography, hemodynamic and others. Although the benefits of using of radiology techniques are unquestionable, the lack of training in radiation protection of the workers, associated with procedure errors, have been responsible for the increasing number of radiation overexposures of these workers. Sometimes these high doses are real and there is a true radiological accident. The radiation workers, named occupationally Exposed Individual (IOE), must comply with two national regulations: Governmental Decree 453/1998 of the National Agency of Sanitary Surveillance (Portaria 453/1998 ANVISA Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria), which establishes the basic guidelines for radiation protection in medial and dental radiology and; the Governmental Decree NR-32/2002 of the Ministry of Labour and Employment (Ministerio do Trabalho e Emprego), which establishes the basic guidelines for the worker's health. The two mandatory regulations postulate a detailed investigation in the event of radiation overexposure of an IOE. In order to advice the diagnostic institution to perform an efficient analysis, investigation and report of high doses, it is proposed the use of a computational tool named 'Medical SisRadiologia'. This software tool enables the compilation and record of radiological abnormal data occurred in a diagnostic institution. It will also facilitate the detailed analysis of the event and will increase the effectiveness and development of work performed by the Radiation Protection Service. At the end, a technical report is issued, in accordance with the regulations of the technical regulations, which could also be used as training tool to avoid another event in the future. (author)

  11. Mechanisms of motor vehicle crashes related to burns--an analysis of the German In depth Accident Study (GIDAS) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, S; Otte, D; Stübig, T; Petri, M; Ettinger, M; Mueller, C W; Krettek, C; Haasper, C; Probst, C

    2013-12-01

    Patients of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) suffering burns are challenging for the rescue team and the admitting hospital. These patients often face worse outcomes than crash patients with trauma only. Our analysis of the German In-depth Accident Study (GIDAS) database researches the detailed crash mechanisms to identify potential prevention measures. We analyzed the 2011 GIDAS database comprising 14,072 MVC patients and compared individuals with (Burns) and without (NoBurns) burns. Only complete data sets were included. Patients with burns obviously resulting of air bag deployment only were not included in the Burns group. Data acquisition by an on call team of medical and technical researchers starts at the crash scene immediately after the crash and comprises technical data as well as medical information until discharge from the hospital. Statistical analysis was done by Mann-Whitney-U-test. Level of significance was p burns (0.7%; group "Burns"). Demographic data and injury severity showed no statistical significant difference between the two groups of Burns and NoBurns. Injury severity was measured using the Injury Severity Score (ISS). Direct frontal impact (Burns: 48.5% vs. NoBurns: 33%; p Burns: 33.5 ± 21.4 vs. NoBurns: 25.2 ± 15.9; p Burns: 12.5% vs. NoBurns: 2.1%; p burns. This may serve automobile construction companies to improve the burn safety to prevent flames spreading from the motor compartment to the passenger compartment. Communities may impose speed limits in local crash hot spots. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis and prevention of accident-caused faults in power cable lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susakova Tatyana V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure fault-free operation of power cable lines it is essential to make a thorough analysis of the type of faults and their location. The paper considers the most common type of faults and main reasons for cable damage. The case study of cable faults at an urban network (Zabaikalsky Krai shows that the root cause is insulation deterioration, especially with the cables reaching the end of their 35 year lifetime. Therefore, to prevent faults and mitigate the threats it is necessary to increase surveillance of cable systems and use cables with higher reliability and functionality, e.g., XLPE cables.

  13. Large break loss-of-coolant accident analysis for China Qinshan-2 nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Yong; Ban, Chang Hwan; Chung, Bub Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Rongzhong; Yu, Hongxing [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, SC (China)

    1994-12-01

    Large break LOCA analysis for China Qinshan-2 nuclear power plant has been performed using realistic evaluation model which has been being developed by KAERI. RELAP5/MOD3/KAERI code, which is a modified version of RELAP5/MOD3, is coupled with CONTEMPT4/MOD5 and is used as a best estimate code to predict the thermal hydraulic behavior of the system. PCT uncertainty which stems from code uncertainty, plant application uncertainty, scaling uncertainty and PCT bias are discussed. Among them, plant application uncertainty is described in detail. The licensing PCT is calculated by adding all the uncertainties to the best-estimate PCT. The result indicates the Qinshan-2 nuclear power plant has at least 37 deg C safety margin for large break LOCA. (Author) 10 refs., 47 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. Factors Associated with Fatal Occupational Accidents among Mexican Workers: A National Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Delgado, Mery; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Robles, Eduardo; Borja, Víctor H.; Aguilar, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the factors associated with fatal occupational injuries in Mexico in 2012 among workers affiliated with the Mexican Social Security Institute. Methods Analysis of secondary data using information from the National Occupational Risk Information System, with the consequence of the occupational injury (fatal versus non-fatal) as the response variable. The analysis included 406,222 non-fatal and 1,140 fatal injuries from 2012. The factors associated with the lethality of the injury were identified using a logistic regression model with the Firth approach. Results Being male (OR=5.86; CI95%: 4.22-8.14), age (OR=1.04; CI95%: 1.03-1.06), employed in the position for 1 to 10 years (versus less than 1 year) (OR=1.37; CI95%: 1.15-1.63), working as a facilities or machine operator or assembler (OR: 3.28; CI95%: 2.12- 5.07) and being a worker without qualifications (OR=1.96; CI95%: 1.18-3.24) (versus an office worker) were associated with fatality in the event of an injury. Additionally, companies classified as maximum risk (OR=1.90; CI 95%: 1.38-2.62), workplace conditions (OR=7.15; CI95%: 3.63-14.10) and factors related to the work environment (OR=9.18; CI95%:4.36-19.33) were identified as risk factors for fatality in the event of an occupational injury. Conclusions Fatality in the event of an occupational injury is associated with factors related to sociodemographics (age, sex and occupation), the work environment and workplace conditions. Worker protection policies should be created for groups with a higher risk of fatal occupational injuries in Mexico. PMID:25790063

  15. 高压加氢裂化装置事故模拟分析%Simulation Analysis on Accidents in High Pressure Hydrogenation Cracking Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小红

    2012-01-01

    Taking the high pressure hydrogenation cracking plant as example,the plant was divided into 7 areas with potential hazard according to functions of each unit,and analysis was made on conditions of occurring fire or explosion accident in each area.Simulation was made for the accidents with SAFETI software,and corresponding safety precaution measures were raised based on data of accidents'affecting region.%以高压加氢裂化装置为例,根据各单元的功能,将装置划分为7个危险区域,对各区域发生火灾或爆炸事故的条件进行了分析。利用SAFETI软件对事故进行模拟,并根据事故影响范围数据提出了相应的安全措施。

  16. Causal Analysis of Mine Mechanical and Electrical Accidents and Countermeasures%基于煤矿机电事故原因探析及对策思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凯

    2016-01-01

    在煤炭开采过程中由于人为因素和环境因素等多方面的影响,经常出现各种煤矿事故。本文主要对煤矿机电事故产生的原因进行分析,然后针对性提出一些策略,希望可以给煤矿相关研究人员提供参考。%Different kinds of coal mine accidents often occur due to construction method and influence of human factors and environmental factor,which not only influence the development of coal mine resources and threaten the life and health of mine workers.The paper mainly focuses on the causal analysis of mine mechanical and electrical accidents and presents some countermeasures.

  17. 3-dimensional thermohydraulic analysis of KALIMER reactor pool during unprotected accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Hahn Do Hee

    2003-01-01

    During a normal reactor scram, the heat generation is reduced almost instantaneously while the coolant flow rate follows the pump coastdown. This mismatch between power and flow results in a situation where the core flow entering the hot pool is at a lower temperature than the temperature of the bulk pool sodium. This temperature difference leads to thermal stratification. Thermal stratification can occur in the hot pool region if the entering coolant is colder than the existing hot pool coolant and the flow momentum is not large enough to overcome the negative buoyancy force. Since the fluid of hot pool enters IHXs, the temperature distribution of hot pool can alter the overall system response. Hence, it is necessary to predict the pool coolant temperature distribution with sufficient accuracy to determine the inlet temperature conditions for the IHXs and its contribution to the net buoyancy head. Therefore, two-dimensional hot pool thermohydraulic model named HP2D has been developed. In this report code-to-code comparison analysis between HP2D and COMMIX-1AR/P has been performed in the case of steady-state and UTOP.

  18. Emulation and Sobol' sensitivity analysis of an atmospheric dispersion model applied to the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Sylvain; Mallet, Vivien; Korsakissok, Irène; Mathieu, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Simulations of the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides involve large uncertainties originating from the limited knowledge of meteorological input data, composition, amount and timing of emissions, and some model parameters. The estimation of these uncertainties is an essential complement to modeling for decision making in case of an accidental release. We have studied the relative influence of a set of uncertain inputs on several outputs from the Eulerian model Polyphemus/Polair3D on the Fukushima case. We chose to use the variance-based sensitivity analysis method of Sobol'. This method requires a large number of model evaluations which was not achievable directly due to the high computational cost of Polyphemus/Polair3D. To circumvent this issue, we built a mathematical approximation of the model using Gaussian process emulation. We observed that aggregated outputs are mainly driven by the amount of emitted radionuclides, while local outputs are mostly sensitive to wind perturbations. The release height is notably influential, but only in the vicinity of the source. Finally, averaging either spatially or temporally tends to cancel out interactions between uncertain inputs.

  19. Occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T.L. van; Schneeberger, P.M.; Heimeriks, K.; Boland, G.J.; Karagiannis, I.; Geraedts, J.; Ruijs, W.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To make proper evaluation of prevention policies possible, data on the incidence and associated medical costs of occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands are needed. METHODS: Descriptive analysis of blood exposure accidents and risk estimates for occupational groups. Cost

  20. Squeal Those Tires! Automobile-Accident Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caples, Linda Griffin

    1992-01-01

    Methods use to reconstruct traffic accidents provide settings for real life applications for students in precalculus, mathematical analysis, or trigonometry. Described is the investigation of an accident in conjunction with the local Highway Patrol Academy integrating physics, vector, and trigonometry. Class findings were compared with those of…

  1. PF-4 simulated fire accident analysis: Filter-spray cool-down system reevaluation implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, B.W.; Gregory, W.S.

    1990-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory PF-4 facility was designed with spray cool down systems within the building's ventilation systems. The Engineering and Safety Analysis Group was asked, in cooperation with ENG-8 and MST-8, to evaluate whether the spray cool-down system still need to be classified as safety class'' systems. The study was performed using the FIRAC computer code. Given the fire source terms (hypothetical fire energy or time-temperature history), FIRAC can predict the pertinent transient flow parameters (pressures, flows, and temperatures) throughout a previously defined and selected fire zone. A computer model for the study that had all of the main ventilation systems in the south half of the PF-4 facility was used. Because the most hazardous room is located in the 400 Section, all ventilation systems but the 400 Section's one were simplified. The impetus for simplification was to keep the computer model tractable, and this was possible with the following assumptions: the fire cannot spread from one room to another, all corridor connecting doors are closed and will not fail under the pressures generated by the fire, and the principal pathway for potential release is the ventilation system. All of the blowers continue to operate, and all fire retardant systems fail to operate during the fire. The ASTM time-temperature curve was the source for the burn-room temperature, and smoke injection was used as input as well. Five different computer runs were made using different combinations of source terms and heat transfer. A connection from the burn room to the glovebox ventilation system was created by burning the glovebox plastic shielding; it was modeled by a branch having an initial flow 75 ft{sup 3}/min. 7 refs., 35 refs., 15 tabs.

  2. Regulation Plans on Severe Accidents developed by KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyun Tae; Chung, Ku Young; Na, Han Bee [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Some nuclear power plants in Fukushima Daiichi site had lost their emergency reactor cooling function for long-time so the fuels inside the reactors were molten, and the integrity of containment was damaged. Therefore, large amount of radioactive material was released to environment. Because the social and economic effects of severe accidents are enormous, Korean Government already issued 'Severe Accident Policy' in 2001 which requires nuclear power plant operators to set up 'Quantitative Safety Goal', to do 'Probabilistic Safety Analysis', to install 'Severe Accident Countermeasures' and to make 'Severe Accident Management Plan'. After the Fukushima disaster, a Special Safety Inspection was performed for all operating nuclear power plants of Korea. The inspection team from industry, academia, and research institutes assessed Korean NPPs capabilities to cope with or respond to severe accidents and emergency situation caused by natural disasters such as a large earthquake or tsunami. As a result of the special inspection, about 50 action items were identified to increase the capability to cope with natural disaster and severe accidents. Nuclear Safety Act has been amended to require NPP operators to submit Accident Management Plant as part of operating license application. The KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT had first investigated oversea severe accident regulation trend before and after the Fukushima accident. Then, the TFT has developed regulation draft for severe accidents such as Severe accident Management Plans, the required design features for new NPPs to prevent severe accident against multiple failures and beyond-design external events, countermeasures to mitigate severe accident and to keep the integrity of containment, and assessment methodology on safety assessment plan and probabilistic safety assessment.

  3. Beyond Accidents: A Back-Analysis on Conveyor Belt Injury for a Better Design for Maintenance Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinetti, Alberto; van Dongen, Leonardus Adriana Maria; Romano, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    The conveyor belt represents one of the most commonly used methods of transporting bulk materials today. As highlighted multiple times in research, the moving parts are a critical issue causing accidents and injuries and several of these are strictly related to the opportunity to enter in working

  4. Analysis of a hypothetical loss of coolant accident in a Konvoi type NPP by GASFLOW and COCOSYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Stefan; Royl, Peter [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Band, Sebastian [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The 3D computational fluid dynamics code GASFLOW and the German containment code system COCOSYS, which is based on a lumped-parameter approach, are used to simulate the hydrogen-air-steam distribution and hydrogen mitigation in a Konvoi type nuclear power plant in a postulated hypothetical core melt accident. A break in a coolant loop and the subsequent loss of the coolant causes a strong heat-up of the core. As a consequence hydrogen is produced by oxidation of cladding tubes. The residual steam and the produced hydrogen are released into the containment through the break in the coolant loop. Without suitable counter measures, sensitive mixtures can build up with a combustion potential which could threaten the integrity of the containment. A model of a Konvoi type nuclear power plant which is equipped with passive autocatalytic recombiners is used to simulate such accident scenario. COCOSYS allows comprehensive simulation of all relevant processes of severe accidents, whereas GASFLOW is primarily designed to simulate the distribution of steam and hydrogen within the containment. This paper presents the comparison of GASFLOW and COCOSYS simulation results for the in-vessel phase of the selected accident. (orig.)

  5. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables.

  6. Analysis of Shahid Rajaee hospital administrative data on injuries resulting from car accidents in Shiraz, Iran: 2011–2014 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Yadollahi

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Hospital administrative databases of this hospital could be used as reliable sources of information in providing epidemiologic reports of car accidents in terms of severity and outcomes. Improving the quality of recordings at hospital databases is an important initial step towards more comprehensive injury surveillance in Fars, Iran.

  7. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  8. Gas Station Oil Tank Explosion Accident Tree Analysis%加油站油罐区爆炸事故树分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晋宇; 曹雄; 谷明朝; 韩苗苗; 王悦

    2013-01-01

      对油罐区爆炸的原因进行了详细的分类,绘制了油罐区爆炸事故树。通过结构重要度和最小割集分析得出,除达到爆炸极限外,油气积聚和油罐区通风不良是引发事故的重要因素,并提出防止油罐爆炸事故的有效可行方法评价的结果对加油站进行安全决策、减少事故隐患,具有积极的指导意义。%For oil tank area, the cause of the explosion carried on the detailed classification, on the basis of drawing the oil tank explosion ac⁃cident tree. Through the structure important degree, the minimum cut set analysis, reach the explosion limit, causing accumulation of oil and gas and oil tank area, poor ventilation is an important factor to cause an accident, and to prevent the oil tank explosion accident, effective and feasible method to improve the level of the oil tank area safety work, the results of the evaluation to the gas station for safety decision-making, reduce accidents, has a positive guiding significance.

  9. Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nagel, Lise Loft

    2012-01-01

    A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the au......A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior...... to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation...... for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury severity...

  10. [Analysis of knowledge attitudes and practices of health care workers facing blood exposure accidents in a general surgery service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennigrou, Samir; Ben Ameur Khechine, Imène; Cherif, Ali; Najah, Nabil; Ben Hamida, Abdelmajid

    2004-06-01

    In order to assess the degree of knowledge, attitudes and the personnel's practices exercising in a service of general surgery of the hospital Charles Nicolle of Tunis, concerning blood exposure accidents, we did a transverse survey during the month of January of the year 2002. A questionnaire has been addressed to 114 people while using the technique of the direct interview. The middle age of investigated is 35.7 years. The sex ratio is 0.7. Only the 2/3 declare have been vaccinated against the B hepatitis. The results show a good knowledge of the exposure risk to a communicable disease by blood (95.6%), but less good for the risk of contamination by the three viruses HBV, HCV and HIV. The resheathing of needles, considered like gesture to risk, is underestimated by 71.2% of investigated. The majority of investigated declare to know universal precaution principles (85.8%). However, to the maximum 4 measures only on the 10 advisable have been mentioned by investigated. The conduct to hold in case of blood exposure accident seems insufficiently known by our sample. It is represented, in 78.8% of cases, in the application of disinfectants Betadine type or alcohol iodized, whereas the practice of a serology to the patient source is ignored completely. 75% of investigated having had a blood exposure accident lasting the last 12 months (n = 44) didn't declare their blood exposure accident and only 11.4% declare to have undergone cares. Actions of information and formation, to the intention of the whole of the personnel of the service, on risks incurred by the nursing, gestures and procedures to risk, the universal precaution respect, the conduct to hold in case of a blood exposure accident, the interest of the declaration and the interest of the vaccination against the B hepatitis, are primordial.

  11. Analysis of 129I in the soils of Fukushima Prefecture: preliminary reconstruction of 131I deposition related to the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the most critical radionuclides to be monitored after release from reactor accidents due to the tendency for this nuclide to accumulate in the human thyroid gland. However, there are not enough data related to the reactor accident in Fukushima, Japan to provide regional information on the deposition of this short-lived nuclide (half-life = 8.02 d). In this study we have focused on the long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (half-life of 1.57 × 10(7) y), and analyzed it by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for surface soil samples collected at various locations in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to obtain information on the (131)I/(129)I ratio released from the accident, we have determined (129)I concentrations in 82 soil samples in which (131)I concentrations were previously determined. There was a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.84) between the two nuclides, suggesting that the (131)I levels in soil samples following the accident can be estimated through the analysis of (129)I. We have also examined the possible influence from (129m)Te on (129)I, and found no significant effect. In order to construct a deposition map of (131)I, we determined the (129)I concentrations (Bq/kg) in 388 soil samples collected from different locations in Fukushima Prefecture and the deposition densities (Bq/m(2)) of (131)I were reconstructed from the results.

  12. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...

  13. Case Study on Influence Factor Trend Analysis of the Accidents and Events of Nuclear Power Plants by applying Nuclear Safety Culture Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. Y.; Park, Y. W.; Park, H.G. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study 1) established the standard based on frameworks of safety culture principles that show safety culture promotion goals, 2) analyzed the linkages with the frameworks that were established by analyzing each incident cause and weak point from selected 268 cases(rating over INES grade 1) among 4,088 cases (as of April 1, 2015). The 4,088 cases were selected as a result of database analysis from 702 accidents recorded in accident and rating evaluation reports that were published in the National Nuclear Safety Commission and overseas IRS (International Reporting System for operating Experience), and 3) finally conducted a trend analysis studies with these comprehensive results. From the investigations, followings were concluded. 1) In order to analyze the safety culture, analysis methodology is required. 2) Analytical methodology for building sustainable safety culture promoting a virtuous cycle system was developed 3) Among variety of process input data, 970 domestic and overseas incidents were selected as targets and 502 accidents were classified as safety culture related events by utilizing screen filter of IAEA GS-G-3.5 Appendix I and Framework (Nuclear Safety Culture Base Frame) developed by BEES, Inc. for safety culture analysis method. 4) As a result, complex safety culture influence factors for the one reason which was difficult to separate by conventional methods was able to be analyzed. 5) The cumulative data through the system was results of virtuous trend analysis rather than temporary results. Thus, it could be unique cultural factors of the domestic industry and could derive trend differences for domestic safety culture factors accordingly.

  14. Analysis of the falling accident of a Control bar to power with adiabatic and realistic methodologies; Analisis del Accidente de Caida de una Barra de Control a Potencia con Metodologias Adiabatica y Realista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, C.; Trueba, M.

    2014-07-01

    The CRDA accident in BWR plants was analysed historically in situations of stop cold and stop hot with adiabatic methods, to have considered these situations the more limiting for this type of event. The proposed analysis is done with the two methodologies in order to show that this accident is effectively limiting how much lower is the power, as well as the conservatism of the adiabatic approximation. (Author)

  15. Code assessment and modelling for Design Basis Accident analysis of the European Sodium Fast Reactor design. Part II: Optimised core and representative transients analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, A., E-mail: aulach@iqn.upv.es [JRC-IET European Commission, Westerduinweg 3, PO BOX 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Schikorr, M. [KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mikityuk, K. [PSI, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ammirabile, L. [JRC-IET European Commission, Westerduinweg 3, PO BOX 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Bandini, G. [ENEA, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Darmet, G.; Schmitt, D. [EDF, 1 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France); Dufour, Ph.; Tosello, A. [CEA, St. Paul lez Durance, 13108 Cadarache (France); Gallego, E.; Jimenez, G. [UPM, José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Bubelis, E.; Ponomarev, A.; Kruessmann, R.; Struwe, D. [KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Stempniewicz, M. [NRG, Utrechtseweg 310, P.O. Box-9034, 6800 ES Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Benchmarked models have been applied for the analysis of DBA transients of the ESFR design. • Two system codes are able to simulate the behavior of the system beyond sodium boiling. • The optimization of the core design and its influence in the transients’ evolution is described. • The analysis has identified peak values and grace times for the protection system design. - Abstract: The new reactor concepts proposed in the Generation IV International Forum require the development and validation of computational tools able to assess their safety performance. In the first part of this paper the models of the ESFR design developed by several organisations in the framework of the CP-ESFR project were presented and their reliability validated via a benchmarking exercise. This second part of the paper includes the application of those tools for the analysis of design basis accident (DBC) scenarios of the reference design. Further, this paper also introduces the main features of the core optimisation process carried out within the project with the objective to enhance the core safety performance through the reduction of the positive coolant density reactivity effect. The influence of this optimised core design on the reactor safety performance during the previously analysed transients is also discussed. The conclusion provides an overview of the work performed by the partners involved in the project towards the development and enhancement of computational tools specifically tailored to the evaluation of the safety performance of the Generation IV innovative nuclear reactor designs.

  16. Professional experience and traffic accidents/near-miss accidents among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; González, Alberto Durán; Mesas, Arthur Eumann

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between the time working as a truck driver and the report of involvement in traffic accidents or near-miss accidents. A cross-sectional study was performed with truck drivers transporting products from the Brazilian grain harvest to the Port of Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil. The drivers were interviewed regarding sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, behavior in traffic and involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents in the previous 12 months. Subsequently, the participants answered a self-applied questionnaire on substance use. The time of professional experience as drivers was categorized in tertiles. Statistical analyses were performed through the construction of models adjusted by multinomial regression to assess the relationship between the length of experience as a truck driver and the involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents. This study included 665 male drivers with an average age of 42.2 (±11.1) years. Among them, 7.2% and 41.7% of the drivers reported involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, respectively. In fully adjusted analysis, the 3rd tertile of professional experience (>22years) was shown to be inversely associated with involvement in accidents (odds ratio [OR] 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.52) and near-miss accidents (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.05-0.53). The 2nd tertile of professional experience (11-22 years) was inversely associated with involvement in accidents (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.98). An evident relationship was observed between longer professional experience and a reduction in reporting involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, regardless of age, substance use, working conditions and behavior in traffic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Deterministic Analysis of a Beyond Design Basis Accident in a Low Power, Pin-Type Fuel Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagah Abdou, Hesham Mohammed [INVAP S. E., Bariloche (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    A Beyond Design Basis Accident has been analyzed for a pool type research reactor with pin-type, Zry4 clad fuel. This is a low power research reactor (maximum power: 100kW) with neutron beam facilities. Two scenarios are considered: a neutron beam rapture that results in a fraction of the core submerged in water and a catastrophic failure that results in a fully uncovered core. The paper discusses the different cooling mechanisms for these two BDBAs and compares results for both scenarios, with predictions of no core damage in any situation. Core damage is defined as CHFR↔1.5 and/or Tclad→T start of breakaway oxidation temperature. In addition, the paper compares calculations with a thermalhydraulic code and an analytical model. This paper allows to analyze the applicability of regular thermalhydraulic codes to BDBA accident scenarios in low power research reactors.

  18. Development of two-dimensional hot pool model and analysis of the ULOHS accident in KALIMER design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Jeong, K. S.; Hahn, H. D

    2000-10-01

    In the new version of HP2D program, the variation model of the hot pool sodium level is added so that the temperature and velocity profiles can be predicted more accurately than old version. To verify and validate the developed new version model, comparison of the MONJU experimental data with the predicted one is performed and analyzed. And also the ULOHS(Unprotected Loss of Heat Sink) accident in the KALIMER design is performed and analyzed.

  19. [Emergency care for traffic accidents in Bavaria: current process analysis depending on hospital and emergency service structures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, C K; Bielmeier, S; Burghofer, K

    2010-03-01

    A change is emerging in the hospital landscape due to health political measures, which in consequence also influences the prehospital medical care in emergencies. The main focus of this study was to gather information about emergency medical care after traffic accidents on the basis of data from Bavarian emergency medical services. In 2006 there were 14,261 traffic accidents in Bavaria where an emergency doctor attended the scene. The patients were primarily cared for by land-based rescue services and air rescue services were only used in 19.1% of the cases. Of the patients involved in a traffic accident 47.6% were transported to a primary health care hospital. A prehospital interval of more than 60 min occurred in 20% of the missions. Of the patients 96.2% were transported to tertiary or maximum care hospital by air rescue services but emergency facilities were, however restricted to daylight hours. There was a further limitation due to the routine duty hours in hospitals as only 36.7% of accidents occurred during this time intervall. An increase of admission post trauma in maximum care clinics occurred from 2002 until 2006 while simultaneously the prehospital period was extended. In order to assure sufficient trauma care for seriously injured persons a continuous 24 h availability of emergency trauma facilities is necessary. For this purpose it is necessary to establish regional trauma networks between receiving hospitals as well as air rescue services at night time. Furthermore, a cost-efficient compensation of the structural, personnel and logistic expenses for the treatment of the severely injured has to be assured.

  20. A Study on Effects of Initial Conditions to the Fuel Integrity Analysis of Steam Generator Tube Rupture Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Seok; Kim, Ung Soo; Park, Min Soo; Huh, Jae Young; Lee, Gyu Cheon [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    During SGTR accident, RCS pressure continuously decreases while the core power, core flow rate and core average temperature almost do not change until reactor trip occurs. As a result, the departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) also continuously decreases, thus eroding the thermal margin to DNB. To identify no damage of the fuel cladding due to the onset of film boiling, it must be analyzed whether the heat flux is maintained below the critical heat flux or not. For this purpose, it is used to define the specified acceptable fuel design limit (SAFDL) of DNBR and evaluate that the DNBR stays above the SAFDL. Evaluating the DNBR in SGTR accident, several initial conditions are varied as that would challenge to the safety limit, or SAFDL. However, the effects of some initial conditions are complicate and difficult to be intuitively identified. The initial conditions mainly affect the minimum DNBR during SGTR accident are the initial core power, the initial RCS flow rate, the initial core inlet temperature and the initial pressurizer pressure. The conservative initial conditions for the core power and the RCS flow rate can be determined easily by qualitative evaluation. The others such as the initial core inlet temperature and the initial pressurizer pressure are complicate and difficult to be determined. From this study, it is identified that the maximum initial pressurizer pressure and the minimum initial core inlet temperature on SGTR accident most postpones the reactor trip resulting in smaller RCS inventory at the reactor trip time point. And the smaller RCS inventory at the time point of the reactor trip tends to make the DNBR undershoot larger which is a dominant factor to determine the minimum DNBR under a LOOP condition.

  1. Preliminary Analysis of a Steam Line Break Accident with the MARS-KS code for the SMART Design with Passive Safety Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Doohyuk; Ko, Yungjoo; Suh, Jaeseung [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sunguk; Yi, Sungjae; Park, Hyunsik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    SMART has been developed by KAERI, and SMART-Standard Design Approval (SDA) was recently granted in 2012. A SMART design with Passive Safety System (PSS) features (called SMART-PSS) is being developed and added to the standard design of SMART by KAERI to improve its safety system. Active safety systems such as safety injection pumps will be replaced by a passive safety system, which is actuated only by the gravity force caused by the height difference. All tanks for the passive safety systems are higher than the injection nozzle, which is located around the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs). In this study, a preliminary analysis of the main steam line break accident (MSLB) was performed using the MARS-KS code to understand the general behavior of the SMART-PSS design and to prepare its validation test with the SMART-ITL (FESTA) facility. An anticipated accident for the main steam line break (MSLB) was performed using the MARS-KS code to understand the thermal-hydraulic behaviors of the SMART-PSS design. The preliminary analysis provides good insight into the passive safety system design features of the SMART-PSS and the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the SMART design. The analysis results of the MSLB showed that the core water collapsed level inside the core support barrel was maintained high over the active core top level during the transient period. Therefore, the SMART-PSS design has satisfied the requirements to maintain the plant at a safe shutdown condition during 72 hours without AC power or operator action after an anticipated accident.

  2. Time to death analysis of road traffic accidents in relation to delta V, drunk driving, and restraint systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yonghan; Sohn, So Young

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this research is to identify variables related to the expected time to death due to road traffic accidents (RTAs). Such research is expected to be useful in improving safety laws and regulations and developing new safety systems. The resulting information is crucial not only for reducing accident fatalities but for assessing related insurance policies. In this article, we analyze factors that are potentially associated with variation in the expected survival time after a road traffic accident using Weibull regression. In particular, we consider the association with alcohol involvement, delta V, and restraint systems. Our empirical results, obtained based on the NASS-CDS, indicate that the expected survival time for non-alcohol-impaired drivers is 3.23 times longer at a delta V of 50 km/h than that for alcohol-impaired drivers under the same conditions. In addition, it was observed that, even when occupants were alcohol-impaired, if they were protected by both air bags and seat belts, their expected survival time after an RTA increased 2.59-fold compared to alcohol-impaired drivers who used only seat belts. Our findings may be useful in improving road traffic safety and insurance policies by offering insights into the factors that reduce fatalities.

  3. MARINE ACCIDENTS RESEARCHED THROUGH HUMAN FACTOR PRISMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav M Ćorović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We are aware of a large number of marine accidents that result in numerous casualties and even deaths and substantial negative environmental effects. The objective of this paper is to indicate factors that contribute to human errors which is identified as the most frequent cause to marine accidents. Despite rapid technological development and safety legislation, this paper identifies the human factor as the waekest link in maritime safety system. This analysis could lead to decrease of vessel accidents. In addition, starting from the European Maritime Safety Agency data and by linear regression model application, we have obtained the trend of number of ships involved in marine accidents as well as the trend of lives lost in marine accidents  in and around European Union waters.

  4. A Scoping Analysis Of The Impact Of SiC Cladding On Late-Phase Accident Progression Involving Core–Concrete Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, M. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The overall objective of the current work is to carry out a scoping analysis to determine the impact of ATF on late phase accident progression; in particular, the molten core-concrete interaction portion of the sequence that occurs after the core debris fails the reactor vessel and relocates into containment. This additional study augments previous work by including kinetic effects that govern chemical reaction rates during core-concrete interaction. The specific ATF considered as part of this study is SiC-clad UO2.

  5. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendices F-H, Volume 2, Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States); Holmes, B. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis.

  6. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix E (Sections E.9-E.16), Volume 2, Part 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Wong, S.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis.

  7. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 3: Appendixes C-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J. [and others

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the Appendices for the Analysis of Accident Sequences and Source Terms at Waste Treatment and Storage Facilities for Waste Generated by the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations. The main report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for calculation of human health risk impacts. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also provide discussion of specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  8. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  9. Analysis of process of ship blackout accident based on surge tube failure%全船断电叠加波动管失效事故分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 陈力生; 张帆; 刘海鹏; 晏峰

    2014-01-01

    利用 MELCOR 程序建立了船用堆计算模型,通过模拟船用堆全船断电事故进程,分析了全船断电事故的热工水力及堆芯失效过程。建立了稳压器波动管蠕变失效模型,实现了 MELCOR 程序对稳压器波动管蠕变失效问题的计算分析。对波动管破口尺寸进行了敏感性分析,结果表明:破口尺寸越大,事故进程越快。全船断电事故舱底的熔穿及稳压器波动管的失效,给船用堆的抗沉性及船内人员健康带来潜在的危害。%A computation model of the marine reactor is established by use of the MELCOR program . The simulation of the process of blackout accident resulting from the marine reactor helps analyze the cause of the thermodynamic and reactor core failure leading to the ship electricity cutoff .Therefore , the creep failure model of pressurizer surge tube is established to make a computation and analysis of the problem of creep failure in the pressurizer surge tube .The sensibility analysis of the breaking size of the surge tube proves that the bigger the breaking ,the faster the accident progresses .It will bring potential hazards to the sinking resistant capability of the marine reactor and to the health of the ship ′s crew because of the melt penetration of the cabin bottom and the failure of pressurizer surge tube in the ship blackout accident .

  10. Source Term Analysis on Blackout Accident of Marine Reactor%船用堆全船断电事故源项分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 陈力生; 张帆; 蔡琦

    2014-01-01

    Based on the integration program of MELCOR for severe accident analysis , the computational model of a typical marine reactor was established .The creep failure of pressurizer surge tube in the accident of blackout was verified ,and the behavior of the source term before and after the break of surge tube was analyzed .The results show that atmospheric environment and crew would suffer the radioactive harm .The smaller the surge tube break ,the slower the accident process .However ,the external radiation of the crew is slightly increased and the internal radiation is unchanged .The research results can provide a basis on further dose analysis of the source term and the emergency action inside and outside the ship .%本文以一体化严重事故分析程序M ELCOR为研究工具,建立了某型船用堆的计算模型。计算验证了全船断电事故稳压器波动管的蠕变失效,对波动管破损前后的源项行为进行了分析研究。结果表明:波动管失效直接导致对大气环境和船内人员的放射性危害。波动管破损尺寸的减小,导致失效后事故进程减慢,然而对船内人员的外照射危害略有提高,内照射危害相同。本文研究结果可为进一步的源项剂量分析及船内外应急提供依据。

  11. [Accidents with the "paraglider"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T H; Dengg, C; Gabl, M

    1988-09-01

    With a collective of 46 patients we show the details and kinds of accidents caused by paragliding. The base for the casuistry of the accidents was a questionnaire which was answered by most of the injured persons. These were questions about the theoretical and practical training, the course of the flight during the different phases, and the subjective point of view of the course of the accident. The patterns of the injuries showed a high incidence of injuries of the spinal column and high risks for the ankles. At the end, we give some advice how to prevent these accidents.

  12. Accidents (FARS) (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Accident - (1975-current): This data file (NTAD) contains information about crash characteristics and environmental conditions at the time of the crash. There is one...

  13. Fuel handling accident analysis for the University of Missouri Research Reactor's High Enriched Uranium to Low Enriched Uranium fuel conversion initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Benjamin

    In accordance with the 1986 amendment concerning licenses for research and test reactors, the MU Research Reactor (MURR) is planning to convert from using High-Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel to the use of Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. Since the approval of a new LEU fuel that could meet the MURR's performance demands, the next phase of action for the fuel conversion process is to create a new Safety Analysis Report (SAR) with respect to the LEU fuel. A component of the SAR includes the Maximum Hypothetical Accident (MHA) and accidents that qualify under the class of Fuel Handling Accidents (FHA). In this work, the dose to occupational staff at the MURR is calculated for the FHAs. The radionuclide inventory for the proposed LEU fuel was calculated using the ORIGEN2 point-depletion code linked to the MURR neutron spectrum. The MURR spectrum was generated from a Monte Carlo Neutron transPort (MCNP) simulation. The coupling of these codes create MONTEBURNS, a time-dependent burnup code. The release fraction from each FHA within this analysis was established by the methodology of the 2006 HEU SAR, which was accepted by the NRC. The actual dose methodology was not recorded in the HEU SAR, so a conservative path was chosen. In compliance to NUREG 1537, when new methodology is used in a HEU to LEU analysis, it is necessary to re-evaluate the HEU accident. The Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) values were calculated in addition to the whole body dose and thyroid dose to operation personnel. The LEU FHA occupational TEDE dose was 349 mrem which is under the NRC regulatory occupational dose limit of 5 rem TEDE, and under the LEU MHA limit of 403 mrem. The re-evaluated HEU FHA occupational TEDE dose was 235 mrem, which is above the HEU MHA TEDE dose of 132 mrem. Since the new methodology produces a dose that is larger than the HEU MHA, we can safely assume that it is more conservative than the previous, unspecified dose.

  14. Learning lessons from Natech accidents - the eNATECH accident database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Girgin, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    When natural hazards impact industrial facilities that house or process hazardous materials, fires, explosions and toxic releases can occur. This type of accident is commonly referred to as Natech accident. In order to prevent the recurrence of accidents or to better mitigate their consequences, lessons-learned type studies using available accident data are usually carried out. Through post-accident analysis, conclusions can be drawn on the most common damage and failure modes and hazmat release paths, particularly vulnerable storage and process equipment, and the hazardous materials most commonly involved in these types of accidents. These analyses also lend themselves to identifying technical and organisational risk-reduction measures that require improvement or are missing. Industrial accident databases are commonly used for retrieving sets of Natech accident case histories for further analysis. These databases contain accident data from the open literature, government authorities or in-company sources. The quality of reported information is not uniform and exhibits different levels of detail and accuracy. This is due to the difficulty of finding qualified information sources, especially in situations where accident reporting by the industry or by authorities is not compulsory, e.g. when spill quantities are below the reporting threshold. Data collection has then to rely on voluntary record keeping often by non-experts. The level of detail is particularly non-uniform for Natech accident data depending on whether the consequences of the Natech event were major or minor, and whether comprehensive information was available for reporting. In addition to the reporting bias towards high-consequence events, industrial accident databases frequently lack information on the severity of the triggering natural hazard, as well as on failure modes that led to the hazmat release. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the dynamics of the accident and renders the development of

  15. AP1000给水丧失事故定性分析%Qualitative Accident Analysis on Loss of Normal Feedwater for AP1000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李延凯; 林萌; 侯东; 李美琳; 杨燕华

    2012-01-01

    针对AP1000核电站,基于两流体最佳估算系统程序RELAP5建立热工水力模型,基于Matlab/Simulink软件及工业组态软件建立相关控制系统数学模型,用于对正常给水丧失事故的计算分析.建模数据主要参考AP1000 Design Control Document(AP1000 DCD),由于建模数据不够充分、详尽,模型不够精确,文中事故分析以定性分析为主.计算结果表明:RELAP5具备计算自然循环的能力,计算结果与DCD中正常给水丧失事故结果总体趋势基本一致,非能动余热排出系统(PRHRS)、堆芯补水箱(CMT)系统能够及时、有效地排出堆芯余热和堆芯衰变热,确保堆芯安全.PRHRS余热排出能力对事故发展有明显影响,模型中PRHRS余热排出能力较强,使冷却剂温度更快地降低到较低水平,导致CMT更早投入以及随后反应堆各参数响应的不同.%For the analysis of loss of normal feedwater accident for AP1000, a thermal-hydraulic model was built based on a two-fluid best estimate code, RELAP5. A control system model was built based on Matlab/Simulink code. As the main data for modeling was from AP1000 Design Control Document (AP1000 DCD), which was inadequate and not accurate enough, the accident analysis was qualitative. The calculation results, overall consistent with the same accident in DCD, show that the RELAP5 code has the ability to calculate the natural circulation. PRHRS and CMT are able to remove the core residual heat, decay heat timely and efficiently during the accident to guarantee the safety of the core. In the calculation model, the capability of PRHRS is stronger, which makes the coolant temperature quickly reduced to a lower level, leading to an earlier actuation of CMT, followed by different responses of the plant.

  16. Analysis of main steam isolation valve leakage in design basis accidents using MELCOR 1.8.6 and RADTRAD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salay, Michael (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C.); Kalinich, Donald A.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Radel, Tracy E.

    2008-10-01

    Analyses were performed using MELCOR and RADTRAD to investigate main steam isolation valve (MSIV) leakage behavior under design basis accident (DBA) loss-of-coolant (LOCA) conditions that are presumed to have led to a significant core melt accident. Dose to the control room, site boundary and LPZ are examined using both approaches described in current regulatory guidelines as well as analyses based on best estimate source term and system response. At issue is the current practice of using containment airborne aerosol concentrations as a surrogate for the in-vessel aerosol concentration that exists in the near vicinity of the MSIVs. This study finds current practice using the AST-based containment aerosol concentrations for assessing MSIV leakage is non-conservative and conceptually in error. A methodology is proposed that scales the containment aerosol concentration to the expected vessel concentration in order to preserve the simplified use of the AST in assessing containment performance under assumed DBA conditions. This correction is required during the first two hours of the accident while the gap and early in-vessel source terms are present. It is general practice to assume that at {approx}2hrs, recovery actions to reflood the core will have been successful and that further core damage can be avoided. The analyses performed in this study determine that, after two hours, assuming vessel reflooding has taken place, the containment aerosol concentration can then conservatively be used as the effective source to the leaking MSIV's. Recommendations are provided concerning typical aerosol removal coefficients that can be used in the RADTRAD code to predict source attenuation in the steam lines, and on robust methods of predicting MSIV leakage flows based on measured MSIV leakage performance.

  17. Comparative analysis of PA-31-350 Chieftain (N44LV) accident and NASA crash test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayduk, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A full scale, controlled crash test to simulate the crash of a Piper PA-31-350 Chieftain airplane is described. Comparisons were performed between the simulated crash and the actual crash in order to assess seat and floor behavior, and to estimate the acceleration levels experienced in the craft at the time of impact. Photographs, acceleration histories, and the tested airplane crash data is used to augment the accident information to better define the crash conditions. Measured impact parameters are presented along with flight path velocity and angle in relation to the impact surface.

  18. Neutronic Analysis on Potential Accident Tolerant Fuel-Cladding Combination U3Si2-FeCrAl

    OpenAIRE

    Shengli Chen; Cenxi Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Neutronic performance is investigated for a potential accident tolerant fuel (ATF), which consists of U3Si2 fuel and FeCrAl cladding. In comparison with current UO2-Zr system, FeCrAl has a better oxidation resistance but a larger thermal neutron absorption cross section. U3Si2 has a higher thermal conductivity and a higher uranium density, which can compensate the reactivity suppressed by FeCrAl. Based on neutronic investigations, a possible U3Si2-FeCrAl fuel-cladding system is taken into con...

  19. Estimation of total released amount of Cs-137 and Cs-134 derived from TEPCO-FNPP1 accident into the North Pacific Ocean by using optimal interpolation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke; Hirose, Katsumi

    2015-04-01

    The oceanic distribution of Cs-137 and Cs-134 released from the Tokyo Electric Power Company-Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (TEPCO-FNPP1) accident were investigated by using the optimal interpolation (OI) analysis. The two domains (open ocean, >141.5°E; coastal region near the TEPCO-FNPP1, Pacific Ocean. Atmospheric deposition is also cause to high activities in the region between 180° and 130° W in the North Pacific Ocean. The total inventory of FNPP1-released Cs-134 in the North Pacific Ocean is estimated to be 15.2±1.8 PBq. In these, about half (8.3±1.8 PBq) of the total released Cs-134 amount existed in the coastal region near the TEPCO-FNPP1. It appeared that the total OICs134 inventory, which is defined as a total Cs-134 inventory in the coastal area near the TEPCO-FNPP1, is controlled by direct release, atmospheric deposition, and coastal current system. Leak of stagnant water induced by heavy rainfall would also cause the increase of the total OICs134 inventory. After the direct discharge of the contaminated water ceased on 6 April, 2011, the total OICs134 inventory exponentially with a half-time of 4.2±0.5 days and became to about 2.0±0.4 PBq at the middle of May 2011. Considering that the Cs-134/Cs-137 activity ratios for the FNPP1 accident were very close to one (0.99±0.03) and extremely uniform during the first month, the total amount of Cs-137 released by the TEPCO-FNPP1 accident reached to 20% of a current North Pacific inventory (60 PBq, Aoyama et al., 2012) of bomb-derived Cs-137 injected in the 1950s and early 1960s.

  20. 大型 LNG 储罐泄漏事故后果分析%Consequence Analysis of Leakage Accident of Large LNG Storage Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞志东; 吴建林

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas is a kind of high quality ,high efficiency ,clean energy ,Which is widely used in various industries .In order to use natural gas Conveniently ,some coastal cities in our country have built many large LNG storage tanks .Liquefied natural gas is the flammable and explosive dangerous goods ,so once a tank leaks ,it may cause very serious consequences .The PHAST software ,once being input the real scene at the time of an accident ,can calculate and analyze the diffusion ,the flash fire ,the fire disaster ,or the explosion immediately , quickly determining the leakage ,diffusion ,combustion and explosion hazard area ,and measuring the personnel death radius ,serious injury radius and minor injury radius caused by the fire thermal radiation and explosion pressure .Analysis of the accident can help receiving sta-tions intuitively understand the degree of danger after the accident so as to take corresponding measures .%天然气是一种优质、高效的清洁能源,广泛地应用于各个行业中。我国部分沿海城市已建造了大型 LNG 接收站,运用PHAST 软件,输入发生事故时的真实场景,可对 LNG 储罐泄漏事故后果进行计算和分析,从而确定泄漏、扩散、燃烧和爆炸等危险区域范围。分析结果能帮助接收站直观了解发生事故后的危险程度,进而能够针对性地采取相应的安全措施。

  1. Utilization of the IAIA (Investigation and Analysis of Incidents and Accidents) method in the investigation of the P-36 platform accident; Utilizacao do metodo IAIA (Investigacao e Analise de Acidentes e Incidentes) na investigacao do acidente ocorrido na plataforma P-36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Marcus de Barros [ARCE - Agencia Reguladora de Servicos Publicos Delegados do Estado do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In the beginning of XXI century the Brazilian oil industry report a big accident involving that which was the biggest petroleum platform of the world. With capacity production of 180.000 barrels a day and capacity compression of 7,2 million cubic meter a day of natural gas, the off-shore platform P-36 was situated on Roncador field, in Campos basin, operating in 1360 meters of water. As consequences, eleven deaths with irreparable traumas to the families, friends and worker partners, one billion dollars in prejudices to brazilian country, environmental damages by oil leak and injuries to PETROBRAS reputation in Brazil and in the world. The method of investigation and analysis of incidents and accidents - IAIA is very wide and its philosophy contain a lot of topics, since basic concepts, investigation actions, analysis action and diagnosis by the general kind of fail. Using this method and taking advantage from the report elaborated by the commission organized by ANP - Agencia Nacional do Petroleo and DPC - Diretoria de Portos e Costas, responsible for the investigation and analysis of the accident occurred with P-36, this paper identify the direct and indirect causes of the accident, in attempt to avoid new similar situations. (author)

  2. Communication and industrial accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  3. Accidents - personal factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitsev, S.L.; Tsygankov, A.V.

    1982-03-01

    This paper evaluates influence of selected personal factors on accident rate in underground coal mines in the USSR. Investigations show that so-called organizational factors cause from 80 to 85% of all accidents. About 70% of the organizational factors is associated with social, personal and economic features of personnel. Selected results of the investigations carried out in Donbass mines are discussed. Causes of miner dissatisfaction are reviewed: 14% is caused by unsatisfactory working conditions, 21% by repeated machine failures, 16% by forced labor during days off, 14% by unsatisfactory material supply, 16% by hard physical labor, 19% by other reasons. About 25% of miners injured during work accidents are characterized as highly professionally qualified with automatic reactions, and about 41% by medium qualifications. About 60% of accidents is caused by miners with less than a 3 year period of service. About 15% of accidents occurs during the first month after a miner has returned from a leave. More than 30% of accidents occurs on the first work day after a day or days off. Distribution of accidents is also presented: 19% of accidents occurs during the first 2 hours of a shift, 36% from the second to the fourth hour, and 45% occurs after the fourth hour and before the shift ends.

  4. Behavior of an heterogeneous annular FBR core during an unprotected loss of flow accident: Analysis of the primary phase with SAS-SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massara, S.; Schmitt, D.; Bretault, A.; Lemasson, D.; Darmet, G.; Verwaerde, D. [EDF R and D, 1, Avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France); Struwe, D.; Pfrang, W.; Ponomarev, A. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie KIT, Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik INR, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, Gebaude 521, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of a substantial improvement on FBR core safety connected to the development of a new Gen IV reactor type, heterogeneous core with innovative features are being carefully analyzed in France since 2009. At EDF R and D, the main goal is to understand whether a strong reduction of the Na-void worth - possibly attempting a negative value - allows a significant improvement of the core behavior during an unprotected loss of flow accident. Also, the physical behavior of such a core is of interest, before and beyond the (possible) onset of Na boiling. Hence, a cutting-edge heterogeneous design, featuring an annular shape, a Na-plena with a B{sub 4}C plate and a stepwise modulation of fissile core heights, was developed at EDF by means of the SDDS methodology, with a total Na-void worth of -1 $. The behavior of such a core during the primary phase of a severe accident, initiated by an unprotected loss of flow, is analyzed by means of the SAS-SFR code. This study is carried-out at KIT and EDF, in the framework of a scientific collaboration on innovative FBR severe accident analyses. The results show that the reduction of the Na-void worth is very effective, but is not sufficient alone to avoid Na-boiling and, hence, to prevent the core from entering into the primary phase of a severe accident. Nevertheless, the grace time up to boiling onset is greatly enhanced in comparison to a more traditional homogeneous core design, and only an extremely low fraction of the fuel (<0.1%) enters into melting at the end of this phase. A sensitivity analysis shows that, due to the inherent neutronic characteristics of such a core, the gagging scheme plays a major role on the core behavior: indeed, an improved 4-zones gagging scheme, associated with an enhanced control rod drive line expansion feed-back effect, finally prevents the core from entering into sodium boiling. This major conclusion highlights both the progress already accomplished and the need for more detailed

  5. Seismic Shaking Table Requirements and Consideration of Fluid-Structure Interaction Effect in Seismic Response Analysis Model for In-Reactor Fuel Assembly Under Severe Earthquake Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kanghee; Yoon, Kyungho; Kang, Heungsoek; Lee, Youngho; Kim, Hyungkyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Dynamic response of fuel assembly can be significantly affected by added hydrodynamic mass and additional damping from the fluid and flow inside operating reactor core. Added mass or hydrodynamic virtual mass from surrounding fluid medium can be theoretically estimated by the potential flow theory. Solving Laplace equation in terms of velocity potential can leads to calculate mass components in the mass matrix of simplified fuel FE model. Additional damping from the fluid and the flow inside reactor core are originated from fluid drag and flow lift force, respectively. Lift force from axial flow can increase fuel assembly damping by twice compared to still fluid damping from the loop testing. In practice, fuel assembly damping should be measured by mockup loop testing and referred to published data in the literature. The justification is performed via time history analysis with simplified dynamic model using a group of fuel assembly in the core. Key check points in this analysis might be the integrity of intermediate spacer grids when impacting fuels into core shroud plate or into neighboring fuel assembly. Thus, dynamic displacement and impact force at grid elevations are the important structural parameters to be traced out during the analysis and the simulation testing. KAERI have a plan to develop dynamic analysis model and to setup test infrastructure for full scale and several fuel assembly rows seismic simulation testing. This paper briefly discuss on the reference earthquake accident scenario, shaking table requirements for full-scale seismic simulation testing, virtual testing issues before the hardware setup, and modelling issue related to fluid-structure interaction effect in accident core analysis.

  6. Review of methodology for accident consequence assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Watson, E.C.

    1978-09-01

    This report reviews current methodologies for reactor accident consequence analysis and describes areas where modifications are warranted. Methodologies reviewed are: (1) Models in Regulatory Guides 1.109, 1.111 and 1.113 used for evaluation of compliance with 10 CFR 50 Appendix I; (2) Models in Regulatory Guides used for evaluation of consequences from accidents of Classes 3-8; (3) Models for evaluation of Class 9 accidents presented in the Reactor Safety Study; and (4) Models in the Liquid Pathway Generic Study. The review is designed to aid in the ultimate goal of selection of a comprehensive set of models to extend the Class 9 methodology of the Reactor Safety Study to the analysis of Classes 3-8 accidents.

  7. Status of science and technology with respect of preparation and evaluation of accident analyses and the use of analysis simulators. Final report; Ermittlung des Standes von Wissenschaft und Technik bei der Durchfuehrung und Bewertung von Stoerfallanalysen und der Verwendung von Analysesimulatoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draeger, P.; Cester, F.; Erdmann, W.; and others

    2011-12-15

    The final report on the status of science and technology with respect of preparation and evaluation of accident analyses and the use of analysis simulators includes the following work packages: uncertainty analysis for an incident in BWR, preparation and evaluation of accident analyses considering the requirements in the reviewed standards, safeguarding of the mixing modeling for the evaluation of re-criticality accidents, answering of recent questions concerning reactor and containment behavior during incidents and accidents, actualization and refinement of data bases for plant specific analysis simulators.

  8. Cause Analysis of a High-pressure Deaerator Explosion Accident%一起高压除氧器爆炸事故原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建

    2014-01-01

    Feedwater deaerator is a hybrid heater in the regenerative system of coal-ifred power plants,the purpose of which is to remove the oxygen and other not condensate gas in the boiler feed water, to ensure the quality of boiler feed water.The security of the deaerator operation is an effective guarantee for the safe operation of the power plant. This article introduces a deaerator suddenly explode accident in a 200000 unit of a thermal power plant during normal operation. According to analysis, the cause of the accident is found and preventive measures are put forward in this article.%除氧器是火力发电厂给水回热系统中的一个混合式加热器,它的作用是除去锅炉给水中的氧气和其它不凝结气体,以保证锅炉给水的品质,除氧器的安全运行是发电厂安全运行的有效保证。本文对火力发电厂一台20万千瓦机组在正常运行时除氧器突然发生爆炸事故进行分析,找出事故原因提出预防事故的措施。

  9. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix I, Volume 2, Part 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States); Holmes, B. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL) and Sandia National Labs. (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this volume of the report is to document the approach utilized in the level-1 internal events PRA for the Surry plant, and discuss the results obtained. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1, which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis examining accidents initiated by internal events (including internal fire and flood) was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis.

  10. Analysis and Treatment of Main Shaft Wearing Accident of Electric Generator%发电机大轴磨损事故的分析与处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国强; 张修鲁; 陈强; 鞠福道; 杨成伟

    2012-01-01

    对莱钢一起发电机大轴磨损事故进行了分析,改进了逆变柜切换装置的滤波电容偏大和直流油泵控制回路的缺陷后,运行效果良好。%It is dealt with the analysis of a main shaft wearing accident of an electric generator, occurred in Laiwu Steel. The reasons are that the filtering capacitance is higher for the switching-over device in the inverter cabinet and the DC control circuit of the oil pump is defective. Through the analysis and improvement, the insolated network achieved good operation effects.

  11. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  12. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  13. Fabrication and microstructural analysis of UN-U3Si2 composites for accident tolerant fuel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kyle D.; Raftery, Alicia M.; Lopes, Denise Adorno; Wallenius, Janne

    2016-08-01

    In this study, U3Si2 was synthesized via the use of arc-melting and mixed with UN powders, which together were sintered using the SPS method. The study revealed a number of interesting conclusions regarding the stability of the system - namely the formation of a probable but as yet unidentified ternary phase coupled with the reduction of the stoichiometry in the nitride phase - as well as some insights into the mechanics of the sintering process itself. By milling the silicide powders and reducing its particle size ratio compared to UN, it was possible to form a high density UN-U3Si2 composite, with desirable microstructural characteristics for accident tolerant fuel applications.

  14. Chromosome aberration analysis in persons exposed to low-level radiation from the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, M S; Hayata, I; Kamada, N; Kodama, Y; Kodama, S

    2001-09-01

    Chromosome aberrations were studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 43 persons who were exposed to low-level radiation of mixed neutrons and gamma-rays resulting from the JCO criticality accident. When the age-adjusted frequencies of dicentric and ring chromosomes were compared with the dose calibration curve established in vitro for 60Co gamma-rays as a reference radiation, a significant correlation was observed between the chromosomally estimated doses and the documented doses evaluated by physical means. The regression coefficient of the chromosomal doses against the documented doses, 1.47 +/- 0.33, indicates that the relative biological effectiveness of fission neutrons at low doses is considerably higher than that currently adopted in the radiation protection standard.

  15. EEG patterns in persons exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident: part 1: conventional EEG analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, K N; Yuryev, K L

    2001-01-01

    Prospective conventional EEG study was carried out 3-5 and 10-13 years after the Chernobyl accident (1986) in patients who had acute radiation sickness and in emergency workers in 1986 ("liquidators"). Control groups comprised healthy volunteers; veterans of the Afghanistan war with posttraumatic stress disorder; veterans with mild traumatic brain injury; and patients with dyscirculatory encephalopathy. In 3-5 years after irradiation, there were irritated EEG changes with paroxysmal activity shifted to the left frontotemporal region (cortical-limbic overactivation) that were transformed 10-13 years after irradiation toward a low-voltage EEG pattern with excess of fast (beta) and slow (delta) activity together with depression of alpha and theta activity (organic brain damage with inhibition of the cortical-limbic system). Quantitative EEG is likely to be very informative for investigation of dose-effect relationships.

  16. Simulation analysis of environmental risk accident and management of high-sulfur gas field development in complex terrain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao WANG; Fanghua HAO; Xuan ZHANG; Wen SUN; Hongguang CHENG

    2008-01-01

    Environmental risk of high sulfur gas field exploitation has become one of the hot spots of envir-onmental management studies. Severe gas H2S blowout accidents in recent years have shown that poor under-standing and estimates of the poisonous gas movement could lead to dangerous evacuation delays. It is important to evaluate the real concentration of H2S, especially in complex terrain. Traditional experiential models are not valid in the case of rough terrain, especially in low-lying areas where the gas accumulates. This study, using high sulfur content gas field of Sichuan "Pu Guang gas field" as study object and adopting objective diagnosis of wind field of land following coordinate three dimensions, applied Lagrangian Puff Model and breaking up tech-nique of puffs to simulate the H2S diffusion condition of blowout accidents produced in the high sulfur content gas field of complex terrain area. The results showed that the H2S distribution did not occur mainly in low wind dir-ection, and due to the obstruction of the mountain's body, it accumulated in front of mountain on produced turn over, flowed around submitted jumping type distribution. The mountain waist near the hilltop and low hollow river valley site rapture points simulating contrast showed that the higher the rapture point, the better the diffusing con-dition of pollutant, the distribution of risk sensitive point decided piping rupture environmental risk size combining the H2S diffusion result and residential area dispersing in the study area, synthetic judge located in the high rapture point environmental risk was smaller than the low hollow point, thus it was suggested to carryout laying of lining build of equal high line of higher terrain. According to simulation results, the environmental risk management measures aimed at putting down adverse effects were worked out.

  17. Analysis of ex-vessel melt jet breakup and coolability. Part 1: Sensitivity on model parameters and accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr; Hwang, Byoungcheol; Jung, Woo Hyun

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Application of JASMINE code to melt jet breakup and coolability in APR1400 condition. • Coolability indexes for quasi steady state breakup and cooling process. • Typical case in complete breakup/solidification, film boiling quench not reached. • Significant impact of water depth and melt jet size; weak impact of model parameters. - Abstract: The breakup of a melt jet falling in a water pool and the coolability of the melt particles produced by such jet breakup are important phenomena in terms of the mitigation of severe accident consequences in light water reactors, because the molten and relocated core material is the primary heat source that governs the accident progression. We applied a modified version of the fuel–coolant interaction simulation code, JASMINE, developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to a plant scale simulation of melt jet breakup and cooling assuming an ex-vessel condition in the APR1400, a Korean advanced pressurized water reactor. Also, we examined the sensitivity on seven model parameters and five initial/boundary condition variables. The results showed that the melt cooling performance of a 6 m deep water pool in the reactor cavity is enough for removing the initial melt enthalpy for solidification, for a melt jet of 0.2 m initial diameter. The impacts of the model parameters were relatively weak and that of some of the initial/boundary condition variables, namely the water depth and melt jet diameter, were very strong. The present model indicated that a significant fraction of the melt jet is not broken up and forms a continuous melt pool on the containment floor in cases with a large melt jet diameter, 0.5 m, or a shallow water pool depth, ≤3 m.

  18. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 2: Accident and Thermal Fluids Analysis PIRTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Corradini, M. [University of Wisconsin; Fisher, Stephen Eugene [ORNL; Gauntt, R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Geffraye, G. [CEA, France; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Hassan, Y. [Texas A& M University; Moses, David Lewis [ORNL; Renier, John-Paul [ORNL; Schultz, R. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Wei, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2008-03-01

    An accident, thermal fluids, and reactor physics phenomena identification and ranking process was conducted by a panel of experts on the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) design (consideration given to both pebble-bed and prismatic gas-cooled reactor configurations). Safety-relevant phenomena, importance, and knowledge base were assessed for the following event classes: (1) normal operation (including some reactor physics aspects), (2) general loss of forced circulation (G-LOFC), (3) pressurized loss-of-forced circulation (P-LOFC), (4) depressurized loss-of-forced circulation (D-LOFC), (5) air ingress (following D-LOFC), (6) reactivity transients - including anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), (7) processes coupled via intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) (IHX failure with molten salt), and (8) steam/water ingress. The panel's judgment of the importance ranking of a given phenomenon (or process) was based on the effect it had on one or more figures of merit or evaluation criteria. These included public and worker dose, fuel failure, and primary (and other safety) system integrity. The major phenomena of concern that were identified and categorized as high importance combined with medium to low knowledge follow: (1) core coolant bypass flows (normal operation), (2) power/flux profiles (normal operation), (3) outlet plenum flows (normal operation), (4) reactivity-temperature feedback coefficients for high-plutonium-content cores (normal operation and accidents), (5) fission product release related to the transport of silver (normal operation), (6)emissivity aspects for the vessel and reactor cavity cooling system (G-LOFC), (7) reactor vessel cavity air circulation and heat transfer (G-LOFC), and (8)convection/radiation heating of upper vessel area (P-LOFC).

  19. Application of fault tree analysis on fire and blast accidents of LPG tank%事故树分析法在LPG储罐火灾爆炸事故中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝彩霞; 许彦; 龚声武

    2012-01-01

    LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) is one of the usual dangerous chemicals. Contrast to the common chemical container, the chance of fire and blast accidents caused by LPG tank are larger, which means accidents caused by LPG tank will give rise to great losses and severe damages. So the study on the fire and blast accidents of LPG tank has a great significance. In view of the causation, the LPG tank accident can be classify into two different models, one is destruction of the chemical, the other is physical fire and explosion. In this paper the two types of accident of the LPG tank were analyzed, whick focused on the factors that cause fire and blast accident and physical blast accident of the LPG tank. The fault trees model was established with fire and blast accident and physical blast accident of the LPG tank as the top event. Through the qualitative analysis of these fault trees, all the minimum cut-sets affecting the top event were obtained. By calculating structure importance degree of the basic event, the primary factors which affect the accident of the LPG storage tank were confirmed. According to these results, corresponding measures were put forward so that the safety and reliability of LPG tanks could be ensured and improved.%LPG(液化石油气)属于危险化学品之一,LPG储罐发生火灾爆炸的机率大,造成的损失比较严重,故对其火灾爆炸事故进行研究具有重要意义.LPG储罐爆炸根据其发生机理分为化学爆炸(燃爆)和物理爆炸两种模式.本文通过对LPG储罐燃爆、物理爆炸两类事故进行系统分析,建立了以LPG储罐燃爆、物理爆炸为顶事件的事故树.通过对其事故树的定性分析,得到了影响顶事件的各个最小割(径)集.通过计算底事件的结构重要度,确定了影响LPG储罐火灾爆炸事故的主要因素,并提出了相应的改进措施,进而提高LPG储罐的安全性和运行可靠性.

  20. Analysis of criticality accident alarm system coverage of the X-744G, X-744H, X-342/344A and X-343 facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobelbower, M.C.; Woollard, J.; Lee, B.L. Jr.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    Additional services for the uranium enrichment cascade process, such as UF{sub 6} feed, sampling, and material storage are provided by several ancillary Uranium Material Handling (UMH) facilities at the PORTS site. These facilities include the X-343 Feed Vaporization and Sampling Facility, the X-744G Bulk Non-Uranium Enrichment Service Activity (UESA) Storage Building, the X-744H Waste Separation and Storage Facility, the X-344A Toll Enrichment Services Facility and the X-342A Feed Vaporization and Fluorine Generation Facility. As uranium operations are performed within these facilities, the potential for a criticality accident exists. In the event of a criticality accident within a process facility at PORTS, a Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) is in place to detect the criticality accident and sound an alarm. In this report, an analysis was performed to provide verification that the existing CAAS at PORTS provides complete criticality accident coverage in the X-343, X-744G. X-744H. X-344A and X-342A facilities. The analysis has determined that all of the above-mentioned facilities have complete CAAS coverage.

  1. 危险化学品泄漏事故的混沌动力学特性分析%The Chaotic Dynamics Analysis of the Hazardous Chemical Leakage Accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟

    2013-01-01

    To study how to prevent and control hazardous chemical leakage accidents successfully and effectively, by using chaos theory and methods, the data of hazardous chemical leakage accidents of a chemical plant in Jiaozuo were analyzed. The results of time series analysis and R/S analysis in the data indicated that hazardous chemical leakage accidents have chaotic characteristics. Analyzed and discussed such chaotic characteristics of hazardous chemical leakage accidents. And, possible subsequent accidents in a short-term were forecasted.%为探讨如何有效地预防和控制危险化学品泄漏事故,运用混沌理论方法对焦作市某化工厂泄漏事故统计数据进行了时间序列分析和R/S 分析,指出危险化学品泄漏事故具有明显的混沌特性。分析和讨论了危险化学品泄漏事故的混沌特性,并对后续短期内可能发生的事故进行了预测。

  2. Analysis of an accident type sbloca in reactor contention AP1000 with 8.0 Gothic code; Analisis de un accidente tipo Sbloca en la contencion del reactor AP1000 con el codigo Gothic 8.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goni, Z.; Jimenez Varas, G.; Fernandez, K.; Queral, C.; Montero, J.

    2016-08-01

    The analysis is based on the simulation of a Small Break Loss-of-Coolant-Accident in the AP1000 nuclear reactor using a Gothic 8.0 tri dimensional model created in the Science and Technology Group of Nuclear Fision Advanced Systems of the UPM. The SBLOCA has been simulated with TRACE 5.0 code. The main purpose of this work is the study of the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of the AP1000 containment during a SBLOCA. The transients simulated reveal close results to the realistic behaviour in case of an accident with similar characteristics. The pressure and temperature evolution enables the identification of the accident phases from the RCS point of view. Compared to the licensing calculations included in the AP1000 Safety Analysis, it has been proved that the average pressure and temperature evolution is similar, yet lower than the licensing calculations. However, the temperature and inventory distribution are significantly heterogeneous. (Author)

  3. A human reliability analysis of the Three Mile power plant accident considering the THERP and ATHEANA methodologies; Uma analise da confiabilidade humana do acidente na Usina de Three Mile Island II considerando as metodologias Therp e Atheana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Renato Alves da

    2004-03-15

    The main purpose of this work is the study of human reliability using the THERP (Technique for Human Error Prediction) and ATHEANA methods (A Technique for Human Error Analysis), and some tables and also, from case studies presented on the THERP Handbook to develop a qualitative and quantitative study of nuclear power plant accident. This accident occurred in the TMI (Three Mile Island Unit 2) power plant, PWR type plant, on March 28th, 1979. The accident analysis has revealed a series of incorrect actions, which resulted in the Unit 2 shut down and permanent loss of the reactor. This study also aims at enhancing the understanding of the THERP method and ATHEANA, and of its practical applications. In addition, it is possible to understand the influence of plant operational status on human failures and of these on equipment of a system, in this case, a nuclear power plant. (author)

  4. [Violence and accidents among older and younger adults: evidence from the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA), Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Sá, Naíza Nayla Bandeira de; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2011-11-01

    Data from the Brazilian Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA) in 2009 were used to examine socio-demographic characteristics, outcomes, and types of accidents and violence treated at 74 sentinel emergency services in 23 Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District. The analysis included 25,201 individuals aged > 20 years (10.1% > 60 years); 89.3% were victims of accidents and 11.9% victims of violence. Hospitalization was the outcome in 11.1% of cases. Compared to the general population, there were more men and non-white individuals among victims of accidents, and especially among victims of violence. As compared to younger adults (20-59 years), accidents and violence against elderly victims showed less association with alcohol, a higher proportion of domestic incidents, more falls and pedestrian accidents, and aggression by family members. Policies for the prevention of accidents and violence should consider the characteristics of these events in the older population.

  5. Final report on accident tolerant fuel performance analysis of APMT-Steel Clad/UO₂ fuel and APMT-Steel Clad/UN-U₃Si₅ fuel concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Galloway, Jack D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-12

    In FY2014 our group completed and documented analysis of new Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) concepts using BISON. We have modeled the viability of moving from Zircaloy to stainless steel cladding in traditional light water reactors (LWRs). We have explored the reactivity penalty of this change using the MCNP-based burnup code Monteburns, while attempting to minimize this penalty by increasing the fuel pellet radius and decreasing the cladding thickness. Fuel performance simulations using BISON have also been performed to quantify changes to structural integrity resulting from thinner stainless steel claddings. We account for thermal and irradiation creep, fission gas swelling, thermal swelling and fuel relocation in the models for both Zircaloy and stainless steel claddings. Additional models that account for the lower oxidation stainless steel APMT are also invoked where available. Irradiation data for HT9 is used as a fallback in the absence of appropriate models. In this study the isotopic vectors within each natural element are varied to assess potential reactivity gains if advanced enrichment capabilities were levied towards cladding technologies. Recommendations on cladding thicknesses for a robust cladding as well as the constitutive components of a less penalizing composition are provided. In the first section (section 1-3), we present results accepted for publication in the 2014 TOPFUEL conference regarding the APMT/UO₂ ATF concept (J. Galloway & C. Unal, Accident Tolerant and Neutronically Favorable LWR Cladding, Proceedings of WRFPM 2014, Sendai, Japan, Paper No.1000050). Next we discuss our preliminary findings from the thermo-mechanical analysis of UN-U₃Si₅ fuel with APMT clad. In this analysis we used models developed from limited data that need to be updated when the irradiation data from ATF-1 test is available. Initial results indicate a swelling rate less than 1.5% is needed to prevent excessive clad stress.

  6. Analysis on Wake Vortex Accident Mechanism Based on Bayesian Networks%基于贝叶斯网络的尾流事故机理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳; 孙瑶

    2011-01-01

    For the limitation of fault tree analysis, a fault tree of wake vortex was mapped onto a Bayesian network. By researching, analyzing calculation data, some key accident-causing factors such as the huge density of air traffic, the wrong judgment of space between two aircraft by ATC and the ignoring of the STCA warning, were found out. And then by introducing improved measures into Bayesian networks, the effectiveness of related measures was assessed. The application of Bayesian Network in wake vortex accident analysis has more advantage over fault tree analysis in the aspect of expressing the uncertainty and the identification of the key factors.%针对事故树分析法的局限性,在尾流事故树的基础上,建立贝叶斯网络(BN).运用推理运算对BN进行定量分析,得出:空中交通密度太大、空中交通管制(ATC)间隔判断错误和短期冲突告警(STCA)被忽略是事故的关键致因.将针对致因提出的改进措施引入到BN中,评价相关措施的有效性.应用BN进行尾流事故的机理分析,能够以比逻辑门更好的形式表达变量间的不确定性关系,从而更加方便地找到导致事故发生的关键因素.

  7. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  8. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  9. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...

  10. Boating Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  11. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  12. The Fukushima accident; Accident nucleaire a Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, D.

    2012-02-15

    The Fukushima accident is characterized by a sequence of natural disasters: earthquake and tsunamis that deprived simultaneously 3 reactors from cooling and electrical power for quite a long time. A series of hydrogen explosion has added to the mess. Experts agree to say that certainly nuclear fuel has melt to form corium in all 3 reactors. The accident has contaminated tens of thousand acres of land around the plant and has jeopardized local coastal fishery. The human toll is unexpectedly low: no direct casualty in the population but several suicides among the people that was forced to leave their home. 5 people from the plant staff died certainly from the consequences of the tsunami. (A.C.)

  13. Analysis of the rotation accident of assemblies in boiling water reactors; Analisis del accidente de rotacion de ensambles en reactores de agua en ebullicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerril-Gonzalez M, J. J. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Av. Industrias no contaminantes por Anillo Periferico Norte s/n, Apdo. Postal 150 Cordemex, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Fuentes M, L.; Castillo M, J. A.; Ortiz S, J. J.; Perusquia de Cueto, R., E-mail: juanjosebecerril_1@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    For this work was analyzed the impact that would cause the load of a rotated fuel assembly in the behaviour of the core in the Cycle 14 of the Unit 1 of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. To carry out this analysis the code Simulate-3 was used, with which was possible to analyze the behavior of the effective multiplication factor and the thermal limits (MAPRAT, MFLPD and MFLCPR). The rotation of fuel assemblies to 90, 180 and 270 grades was analyzed with regard to the design position, with 0, 1, 2 and 3 burnt cycles for these assemblies. The results show that the thermal limits remain inside the allowed values, therefore if this accident type happened the reactor could continue operating in a sure way. (Author)

  14. The investigation and analysis of an atypical chemical fire accident%一起非典型化工火灾事故的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐少波

    2012-01-01

    结合一起化工火灾事故介绍火灾事故调查的程序.上海化工园区某公司低温罐区乙烯管道发生泄漏,引发爆炸燃烧,未造成人员伤亡.通过多方人证询问,首先排除人为破坏因素.录像分析表明首先发生了可燃物的泄漏,而后瞬间爆炸产生了亮光,发生火灾.由破坏痕迹轻重、可燃气体探测仪DCS分析、平台南侧管廊管道裂口朝向、平台区域管道裂口朝向确定泄漏部位;由录像比对分析阀门阀盖缺失情况,结合鉴定分析,确定泄漏点为超临界乙烯操作平台底层东南侧超临界乙烯计量器旁路阀处.引火源有三种可能,事故定性为设备缺陷引发的安全生产事故.应进一步研究分析新技术的安全风险,制定相关技术标准.应加强对化工设备的监管,细化部分电气设施的控制权限.%The fire accident investigation procedure with a chemical fire accident was put forward. A cryogenic tank farm ethyl-ene pipeline leak of a company in the Shanghai Chemical Industry Park caused the explosion burning without casualties. Through multi-party witnesses asked, the human damage factors were ruled out first. Video analysis showed that first the leakage of combustible occurred and then an instant explosion of light before the fire. Through the damage traces, DCS analysis of combustible gas detector, the orientation of pipe gallery and pipeline gap of the south side of the platform and the orientation of pipeline gap of platform, the leak site was determined. Combined with the identification analysis, the leak point was the bypass valve of the supercritical ethylene meter bypass on the southeast of the bottom of the supercritical ethylene platform by video analysis and the valve bonnet loss situation. There are three possibilities of ignition source. The accident was determined to be a production safety accident caused by equipment defects. It should be further studied to analyze the security risks of new

  15. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  16. Corrigendum to: “Publication bias and time-trend bias in meta-analysis of bicycle helmet efficacy: a re-analysis of Attewell, Glase and McFadden, 2001” [Accid. Anal. Prev. 43 (2011) 1245–1251].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2013-11-01

    This paper is a corrigendum to the previously published paper: “Publication bias and time-trend bias in meta-analysis of bicycle helmet efficacy: A re-analysis of Attewell, Glase and McFadden, 2001” [Accid. Anal. Prev. (2011) 1245–1251]. This corrigendum was prepared to correct errors in data and analysis in the previously published paper. Like the previously published paper, this paper confirms that the meta-analysis of bicycle helmet efficacy reported by Attewell, Glase and McFadden (Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2001, 345–352) was influenced by publication bias and time-trend bias that was not controlled for. As a result, the analysis reported inflated estimates of the effects of bicycle helmets. This paper presents a re-analysis of the study. The re-analysis included: (1) Ensuring the inclusion of all published studies by means of continuity corrections of estimates of effect relying on zero counts; (2) detecting and adjusting for publication bias by means of the trim-and-fill method; (3) detecting and trying to account for a time-trend bias in estimates of the effects of bicycle helmets; (4) updating the study by including recently published studies evaluating the effects of bicycle helmets. The re-analysis shows smaller safety benefits associated with the use of bicycle helmets than the original study.

  17. 列车追尾事故的故障树分析兼谈复杂系统安全%Fault Tree Analysis of Train Crash Accident and Discussion on Safety of Complex Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志忠

    2011-01-01

    The train crash accident at Wenzhou city was rated as an especially serious accident which happened at the rapid development stage of train transportation in China. Taking train crash accident as the top event, fault tree analysis was conducted to depict the possible reasons and accident modes. The events contributing to train crash accident are discussed from the their nature to preventive measures. From a broader viewpoint, safety issues of the three elements of a complex safety-critical system (hardware, software and human) are addressed along with technological and management strategies and suggestions.%温州动车组追尾事故是我国铁路大发展时期发生的特别重大事故.为更深入了解事故的可能原因,以列车追尾事故为顶事件,开展故障树分析,探讨事故的各种发生模式,剖析造成事故的各种事件,并从宏观的角度讨论了复杂安全关键系统的安全要素和策略,给出了一些建议.

  18. Regression model analysis of the decreasing trend of cesium-137 concentration in the atmosphere since the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Kyo; Ohse, Kenji; Shima, Nagayoshi; Kawatsu, Kencho; Tsukada, Hirofumi

    2016-11-01

    The decreasing trend of the atmospheric (137)Cs concentration in two cities in Fukushima prefecture was analyzed by a regression model to clarify the relation between the parameter of the decrease in the model and the trend and to compare the trend with that after the Chernobyl accident. The (137)Cs particle concentration measurements were conducted in urban Fukushima and rural Date sites from September 2012 to June 2015. The (137)Cs particle concentrations were separated in two groups: particles of more than 1.1 μm aerodynamic diameters (coarse particles) and particles with aerodynamic diameter lower than 1.1 μm (fine particles). The averages of the measured concentrations were 0.1 mBq m(-3) in Fukushima and Date sites. The measured concentrations were applied in the regression model which decomposed them into two components: trend and seasonal variation. The trend concentration included the parameters for the constant and the exponential decrease. The parameter for the constant was slightly different between the Fukushima and Date sites. The parameter for the exponential decrease was similar for all the cases, and much higher than the value of the physical radioactive decay except for the concentration in the fine particles at the Date site. The annual decreasing rates of the (137)Cs concentration evaluated by the trend concentration ranged from 44 to 53% y(-1) with average and standard deviation of 49 ± 8% y(-1) for all the cases in 2013. In the other years, the decreasing rates also varied slightly for all cases. These indicated that the decreasing trend of the (137)Cs concentration was nearly unchanged for the location and ground contamination level in the three years after the accident. The (137)Cs activity per aerosol particle mass also decreased with the same trend as the (137)Cs concentration in the atmosphere. The results indicated that the decreasing trend of the atmospheric (137)Cs concentration was related with the reduction of the (137)Cs

  19. 变压器安装事故的问题分析%Accident Analysis of Transformer Installation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁方建; 刘勋; 杨艳齐

    2012-01-01

    Power transformers as the core equipment of power transmission and distribution system, to ensure its safe operation has important significance, but the transformer installation is a very complex process, influenced by mixed field installation process and installation workers not familiar with transformer structure.In the transformer installation maintenance process, there will inevitably be some defects,when severe, will cause the transformer tripped, and forced outage maintenance condition.In this paper, the actual site, the typical installations of several accidents are summed up, and the accidents reasons are analyzed, the corresponding improvement measures are developed. It is presented that during installation, maintenance, and repair of the transformers, to advance the organization, technical training, quality control, a clear division of labor, installation and maintenance records.%电力变压器作为输变电系统的核心设备,保证其安全运行有着重要的意义,但是变压器安装是一个工序相当复杂的过程,受到现场安装工艺参差不齐和安装工人对变压器结构不熟悉的影响,在变压器安装检修过程中难免会出现一些缺陷,严重时会导致变压器跳闸,被迫停电检修的情况.笔者结合现场实际,总结了几起典型的安装事故,并对以上事故进行了原因分析,制定了对应的改进措施.提出了在变压器安装、维护、检修过程中,要提前做好组织工作,做好技术培训,控制好质量点,明确分工,做好安装检修记录的建议.

  20. Investigation of loss of coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors using the ''Dynamic Best-Estimate Safety Analysis'' (DYBESA) method for considering of uncertainties in TRACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sporn, Michael; Hurtado, Antonio [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Loss of coolant accident must take uncertainties with potentially strong effects on the accident sequence prediction into account. For example, uncertainties in computational model input parameters resulting from varying geometry and material data due to manufacturing tolerances or unavailable measurements should be considered. The uncertainties of physical models used by the software program are also significant. In this paper, use of the ''Dynamic Best-Estimate Safety Analysis'' (DYBESA) method to quantify the uncertainties in the TRACE thermal-hydraulic program is demonstrated. For demonstration purposes loss of coolant accidents with breaks of various types and sizes in a DN 700 reactor coolant pipe are used as an example Application.

  1. Fabrication and microstructural analysis of UN-U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} composites for accident tolerant fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Kyle D., E-mail: kylej@kth.se; Raftery, Alicia M.; Lopes, Denise Adorno; Wallenius, Janne

    2016-08-15

    In this study, U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} was synthesized via the use of arc-melting and mixed with UN powders, which together were sintered using the SPS method. The study revealed a number of interesting conclusions regarding the stability of the system – namely the formation of a probable but as yet unidentified ternary phase coupled with the reduction of the stoichiometry in the nitride phase – as well as some insights into the mechanics of the sintering process itself. By milling the silicide powders and reducing its particle size ratio compared to UN, it was possible to form a high density UN-U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} composite, with desirable microstructural characteristics for accident tolerant fuel applications. - Highlights: • U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fabricated from elemental uranium and silicon through arc melting. • Homogeneity of the silicides assessed through densitometry, XRD, SEM and EDS, chemical etching and optical microscopy. • UN powder fabricated using hydriding-nitriding method. • No phase transformations detected when sintering using silicide particle sizes less than UN particle size. • High density composite (98%TD) fabricated with silicide grain coating using spark plasma sintering at 1450 °C.

  2. Neutronic Analysis on Potential Accident Tolerant Fuel-Cladding Combination U3Si2-FeCrAl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengli Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutronic performance is investigated for a potential accident tolerant fuel (ATF, which consists of U3Si2 fuel and FeCrAl cladding. In comparison with current UO2-Zr system, FeCrAl has a better oxidation resistance but a larger thermal neutron absorption cross section. U3Si2 has a higher thermal conductivity and a higher uranium density, which can compensate the reactivity suppressed by FeCrAl. Based on neutronic investigations, a possible U3Si2-FeCrAl fuel-cladding system is taken into consideration. Fundamental properties of the suggested fuel-cladding combination are investigated in a fuel assembly. These properties include moderator and fuel temperature coefficients, control rods worth, radial power distribution (in a fuel rod, and different void reactivity coefficients. The present work proves that the new combination has less reactivity variation during its service lifetime. Although, compared with the current system, it has a little larger deviation on power distribution and a little less negative temperature coefficient and void reactivity coefficient and its control rods worth is less important, variations of these parameters are less important during the service lifetime of fuel. Hence, U3Si2-FeCrAl system is a potential ATF candidate from a neutronic view.

  3. Big Data Analysis on Power Grid Security Accident%电网安全事故大数据分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘友春; 卜晓; 卢逢婷

    2015-01-01

    Power was one of the social production factors, whether the power industry was safe or not had a big significance on national economy. This paper elaborated the current situation of big data development on China's power industry briefly, and introduced the specific application that big data acted on power grid security accident and evaluation model of power grid safety operation; pointed out big data problems to be solved in power industry and put forward a series of countermeasures.%电力是当今社会的生产要素之一,电力行业能否实现安全稳定生产对我国国民经济的发展至关重要。文章对我国电力行业大数据的发展现状进行了简要阐述,并介绍了大数据在电网安全事故方面的具体应用以及电网运行安全性评价分析模型,指出了大数据在电力行业中亟待解决的问题,并针对这些问题提出了一系列应对措施。

  4. 覆土油罐浮起事故原因及防范对策%Cause analysis on a buried tank uplifting accidents and relevant countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常向东; 赵丽新; 陈明

    2013-01-01

    In view of a buried tank uplifting accident, this paper analyzes the cause of the accident based on the basic structure of the buried tank, and discusses countermeasures accordingly. Relevant calculation is carried out according to the stress analysis of the emptied tank. Results show that to uplift buried tanks of nominal capacity of 1 000 m3, 2 000 m3, 3 000 m3, S 000 m3 and 10 000 nr, it is only required that the water collection height and water collection volume in the tank chamber should reach 0.232 m, 0.223 m, 0.231 m, 0.218 m and 0.234 m and 3.636 m3, 4.367 m3, 5.290 m3 6.356 m3 and 8.921 m3 respectively, and even if the drain valve is totally open, when the water intake rate of the tank chamber exceeds 30 mVh, the emptied tank will be uplifted. Therefore, the paper proposes countermeasures for uplifting accidents in following aspects, including complete transformation, drainage leakage repair, strengthening management and design & construction, etc.%针对某覆土油罐浮起事故,基于该油罐的基本结构,分析了浮起事故发生的原因,研究了防范对策.根据排空油罐的受力分析,进行了相关计算,结果表明:若使容量分别为1 000 m3、2 000 m3、3 000 m3、5 000 m3、10 000 m3的覆土油罐浮起,罐室集水高度只需达到0.232 m、0.223 m、0.231 m、0.218 m、0.234 m,集水量只需达到3.636 m3、4.367 m3、5.290 m3、6.356 m3、8.921 m3,即使排水阀全开,如果罐室进水量超过30 m3/h,排空油罐就可能浮起.为此,从覆土油罐的全面改造、排水补漏、加强管理及设计建造等方面提出了浮起事故防范对策.

  5. Investigation and analysis of the intoxication accident of sodium nitrite%一起亚硝酸钠中毒事故的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王滨; 周东升

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the causes of food-poisoning, to prevent and eliminate the similar accident. METHODS Used scene hygienic investigation, epidemiological analysis, laboratory detection and so on. RESULTS The food- poisoning event was caused by the polluted water with sodium nitrite from the reservior. The sodium nitrite water was siphoned from supply water pipe to drinking water pipe by temporary stop water. CONCLUSION More propagandas should be strengthened, the all population should improve the knowledge of the sodium nitrite intoxication. The health supervision department should strength training and inspection works. The enterprise should strength the management of sodium nitrite, the same water source should be forbidden to be used as industry water and drinking water in order to eliminate the accident and the similar accident of hazarding wokers' health.%目的 对一起食物中毒的原因进行分析,防止和杜绝事故的再次发生.方法 采用现场卫生学调查、流行病学分析、实验室检测等方法.结果 该事故为一起因暂时停水,引起的车间除锈用亚硝酸钠蓄水池水,由进水管虹吸返流至饮用水管,污染饮用水所致的食物中毒.结论 应加强多渠道宣传,提高各类人员对亚硝酸盐中毒的认识,卫生监督部门要加强培训和监督工作,企业要加强对亚硝酸盐规范管理,严禁工业用水与生活饮用水共用同一水源,以消除这类事件或其他危害职工身体健康的事件发生.

  6. Severe accident testing of electrical penetration assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauss, D.B. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-11-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted on three different designs of full-size electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs) that are used in the containment buildings of nuclear power plants. The objective of the tests was to evaluate the behavior of the EPAs under simulated severe accident conditions using steam at elevated temperature and pressure. Leakage, temperature, and cable insulation resistance were monitored throughout the tests. Nuclear-qualified EPAs were produced from D. G. O'Brien, Westinghouse, and Conax. Severe-accident-sequence analysis was used to generate the severe accident conditions (SAC) for a large dry pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark I drywell, and a BWR Mark III wetwell. Based on a survey conducted by Sandia, each EPA was matched with the severe accident conditions for a specific reactor type. This included the type of containment that a particular EPA design was used in most frequently. Thus, the D. G. O'Brien EPA was chosen for the PWR SAC test, the Westinghouse was chosen for the Mark III test, and the Conax was chosen for the Mark I test. The EPAs were radiation and thermal aged to simulate the effects of a 40-year service life and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) before the SAC tests were conducted. The design, test preparations, conduct of the severe accident test, experimental results, posttest observations, and conclusions about the integrity and electrical performance of each EPA tested in this program are described in this report. In general, the leak integrity of the EPAs tested in this program was not compromised by severe accident loads. However, there was significant degradation in the insulation resistance of the cables, which could affect the electrical performance of equipment and devices inside containment at some point during the progression of a severe accident. 10 refs., 165 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. Severe accident risks from external events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the early development of design requirements for seismic events in USA early developing nuclear electric generating fleet.Notable safety studies,including WASH-1400,Sandia Siting Study and the NUREG-1150 probabilistic risk study,are briefly reviewed in terms of their relevance to extreme accidents arising from seismic and other severe accident initiators.Specific characteristic about the nature of severe accidents in nuclear power plant (NPP) are reviewed along with present day state-of-art analysis methodologies (methods for estimation of leakages and consequences of releases (MELCOR) and MELCOR accident consequence code system (MACCS)) that are used to evaluate severe accidents and to optimize mitigative and protective actions against such accidents.It is the aim of this paper to make nuclear operating nations aware of the risks that accompany a much needed energy resource and to identify some of the tools,techniques and landmark safety