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Sample records for accident alarm system

  1. Bibliography for nuclear criticality accident experience, alarm systems, and emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-09-01

    The characteristics, detection, and emergency management of nuclear criticality accidents outside reactors has been an important component of criticality safety for as long as the need for this specialized safety discipline has been recognized. The general interest and importance of such topics receives special emphasis because of the potentially lethal, albeit highly localized, effects of criticality accidents and because of heightened public and regulatory concerns for any undesirable event in nuclear and radiological fields. This bibliography lists references which are potentially applicable to or interesting for criticality alarm, detection, and warning systems; criticality accident emergency management; and their associated programs. The lists are annotated to assist bibliography users in identifying applicable: industry and regulatory guidance and requirements, with historical development information and comments; criticality accident characteristics, consequences, experiences, and responses; hazard-, risk-, or safety-analysis criteria; CAS design and qualification criteria; CAS calibration, maintenance, repair, and testing criteria; experiences of CAS designers and maintainers; criticality accident emergency management (planning, preparedness, response, and recovery) requirements and guidance; criticality accident emergency management experience, plans, and techniques; methods and tools for analysis; and additional bibliographies.

  2. Evaluation of Neutron Response of Criticality Accident Alarm System Detector to Quasi-Monoenergetic 24 keV Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Norio; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Yashima, Hiroshi

    The criticality accident alarm system (CAAS), which was recently developed and installed at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's Tokai Reprocessing Plant, consists of a plastic scintillator combined with a cadmium-lined polyethylene moderator and thereby responds to both neutrons and gamma rays. To evaluate the neutron absorbed dose rate response of the CAAS detector, a 24 keV quasi-monoenergetic neutron irradiation experiment was performed at the B-1 facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor. The detector's evaluated neutron response was confirmed to agree reasonably well with prior computer-predicted responses.

  3. Optimal Alarm Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optimal alarm system is simply an optimal level-crossing predictor that can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability. It...

  4. Plan for IER-443 Testing of the Y-12 and AWE Criticality Accident Alarm System Detectors at the Godiva IV Burst Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorby, J. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hudson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garbett, S. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Auld, G. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Horrne, A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Beller, T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goda, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haught, C. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Woodrow, C. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ward, D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-24

    This document provides the scope and details of the “Plan for Testing the Y-12 and AWE Criticality Accident Alarm System Detectors at the Godiva IV Burst Reactor”. Due to the relative simplicity of the testing goals, scope, and methodology, the NCSP Manager approved execution of the test when ready. No preliminary CED-1 or final design CED-2 reports were required or issued. The test will subject Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) detectors supplied by Y- 12 and AWE to very intense and short duration mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields. The goals of the test will be to (1) substantiate functionality, for both existing and newly acquired Y- 12 CAAS detectors, and (2) the ability of the AWE detectors to provide quality temporal dose information after a hypothetical criticality accident. ANSI/ANS-8.3.1997 states that the “system shall be sufficiently robust as to actuate an alarm signal when exposed to the maximum radiation expected”, which has been defined at Y-12, in Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs), to be a dose rate of 10 Rad/s. ANSI/ANS-8.3.1997 further states that “alarm actuation shall occur as a result of a minimum duration transient” which may be assumed to be 1 msec. The pulse widths and dose rates which will be achieved in this test will exceed these requirements. Pulsed radiation fields will be produced by the Godiva IV fast metal burst reactor at the National Criticality Experimental Research Center (NCERC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The magnitude of the pulses and the relative distances to the detectors will be varied to afford a wide range of radiation fluence and pulse widths. The magnitude of the neutron and gamma fields will be determined by reactor temperature rise to fluence and dose conversions which have been previously established through extensive measurements performed under IER-147. The requirements for CAAS systems to detect and alarm under a “minimum accident of concern” as well as other

  5. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr. (Battelle Columbus (USA)); McGinnis, B. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (USA))

    1990-08-31

    Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Persons with Mild or Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Learn to Use Urine Alarms and Prompts to Avoid Large Urinary Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Bosco, Andrea; Zonno, Nadia; Badagliacca, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed whether three patients with Alzheimer's disease could learn to use urine alarms and caregivers' prompts to eliminate large urinary accidents. As soon as the patient began to release urine, the alarm system presented auditory and vibratory signals. In relation to those signals, the caregiver would prompt/encourage the patient to…

  7. Persons with Mild or Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Learn to Use Urine Alarms and Prompts to Avoid Large Urinary Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Bosco, Andrea; Zonno, Nadia; Badagliacca, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed whether three patients with Alzheimer's disease could learn to use urine alarms and caregivers' prompts to eliminate large urinary accidents. As soon as the patient began to release urine, the alarm system presented auditory and vibratory signals. In relation to those signals, the caregiver would prompt/encourage the patient to…

  8. Analysis of criticality accident alarm system coverage of the X-744G, X-744H, X-342/344A and X-343 facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobelbower, M.C.; Woollard, J.; Lee, B.L. Jr.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    Additional services for the uranium enrichment cascade process, such as UF{sub 6} feed, sampling, and material storage are provided by several ancillary Uranium Material Handling (UMH) facilities at the PORTS site. These facilities include the X-343 Feed Vaporization and Sampling Facility, the X-744G Bulk Non-Uranium Enrichment Service Activity (UESA) Storage Building, the X-744H Waste Separation and Storage Facility, the X-344A Toll Enrichment Services Facility and the X-342A Feed Vaporization and Fluorine Generation Facility. As uranium operations are performed within these facilities, the potential for a criticality accident exists. In the event of a criticality accident within a process facility at PORTS, a Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) is in place to detect the criticality accident and sound an alarm. In this report, an analysis was performed to provide verification that the existing CAAS at PORTS provides complete criticality accident coverage in the X-343, X-744G. X-744H. X-344A and X-342A facilities. The analysis has determined that all of the above-mentioned facilities have complete CAAS coverage.

  9. Evaluation of the concrete shield compositions from the 2010 criticality accident alarm system benchmark experiments at the CEA Valduc SILENE facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Celik, Cihangir [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, Michael E [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wagner, John C [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McMahan, Kimberly L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Authier, Nicolas [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Jacquet, Xavier [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Rousseau, Guillaume [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Wolff, Herve [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Savanier, Laurence [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Baclet, Nathalie [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Lee, Yi-kang [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Trama, Jean-Christophe [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Masse, Veronique [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Gagnier, Emmanuel [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Naury, Sylvie [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Hunter, Richard [Babcock International Group (United Kingdom); Kim, Soon [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dulik, George Michael [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, Kevin H. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, a series of benchmark experiments were conducted at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems. This series of experiments consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. For the first experiment, the reactor was bare (unshielded), whereas in the second and third experiments, it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. The polyethylene shield of the third experiment had a cadmium liner on its internal and external surfaces, which vertically was located near the fuel region of SILENE. During each experiment, several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor. Nearly half of the foils and TLDs had additional high-density magnetite concrete, high-density barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond shields. CEA Saclay provided all the concrete, and the US Y-12 National Security Complex provided the BoroBond. Measurement data from the experiments were published at the 2011 International Conference on Nuclear Criticality (ICNC 2011) and the 2013 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD 2013) topical meeting. Preliminary computational results for the first experiment were presented in the ICNC 2011 paper, which showed poor agreement between the computational results and the measured values of the foils shielded by concrete. Recently the hydrogen content, boron content, and density of these concrete shields were further investigated within the constraints of the previously available data. New computational results for the first experiment are now available

  10. Video systems for alarm assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Ebel, P.E. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunteman, W.

    1997-05-01

    The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

  12. HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

  13. Alarm system management: evidence-based guidance encouraging direct measurement of informativeness to improve alarm response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayo, Michael F; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D

    2015-04-01

    Although there are powerful incentives for creating alarm management programmes to reduce 'alarm fatigue', they do not provide guidance on how to reduce the likelihood that clinicians will disregard critical alarms. The literature cites numerous phenomena that contribute to alarm fatigue, although many of these, including total rate of alarms, are not supported in the literature as factors that directly impact alarm response. The contributor that is most frequently associated with alarm response is informativeness, which is defined as the proportion of total alarms that successfully conveys a specific event, and the extent to which it is a hazard. Informativeness is low across all healthcare applications, consistently ranging from 1% to 20%. Because of its likelihood and strong evidential support, informativeness should be evaluated before other contributors are considered. Methods for measuring informativeness and alarm response are discussed. Design directions for potential interventions, as well as design alternatives to traditional alarms, are also discussed. With the increased attention and investment in alarm system management that alarm interventions are currently receiving, initiatives that focus on informativeness and the other evidence-based measures identified will allow us to more effectively, efficiently and reliably redirect clinician attention, ultimately improving alarm response. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Improvement of the Seismic Alarm and the Spent Fuel Pool Instrumentation post Fukushima Dai-Ichi Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Cheol; Joo, Choon Young; Shin, Kyung In; Choi, Jong Jae [KEPCO, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    After the Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident, various basic design features were revisited for the existing and new nuclear power plants. One of the topics was associated with the defense against the earthquakes. Among the variety of seismic designs of the plant systems, the design of the seismic alarm and the improvement of the spent fuel pool instrumentation for the conventional plant and MMIS-based plants in Korean are introduced in this paper. It briefly describes what has been requested or recommended by the US NRC and it introduces the enhancement designed for the following topics for SKN 1 and 2 plant and the SKN 3 and 4 plants, respectively.

  15. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  16. Optimal alarm system applied in coffee rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Resende Gonçalves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alarm systems have very great utility in detecting and warning of catastrophes. This methodology was applied via TARSO model with Bayesian estimation, serving as a forecasting mechanism for coffee rust disease. The coffee culture is very susceptible to this disease causing several records of incidence in most cultivated crops. Researches involving this limiting factor for production are intense and frequent, indicating environmental factors as responsible for the epidemics spread, which does not occur if these factors are not favorable. The fitting type used by the a posteriori probability, allows the system to be updated each time point. The methodology was applied to the rust index series in the presence of the average temperature series. Thus, it is possible to verify the alarm resulted or in a high catastrophe detection in points at which the catastrophe has not occurred, or in the low detections if the point was already in the catastrophe state.

  17. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which...

  18. 46 CFR 76.05-5 - Manual alarm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm system. 76.05-5 Section 76.05-5 Shipping... Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 76.05-5 Manual alarm system. (a) An approved manual alarm system shall be installed in all areas, other than the main machinery spaces,...

  19. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.201 Sensing and alarm systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms...

  20. System for alarms analysis and optimization in petrochemicals plants; Sistema para analise e otimizacao de alarmes em plantas petroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, Gustavo; Pifer, Aderson; Guedes, Luiz Affonso [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Saito, Kaku; Aquino, Leonardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The present work presents a group of algorithms, techniques and functionalities on alarms management which can be used efficiently on the treatment of 'disturbances' caused by the informal management of the alarm systems. Among the disturbances handled by these techniques, there is the recognition of intermittent alarms and false alarms, location of alarm floods and correlation between alarms, aiming the identification of communal root causes. The results will be presented through a case study on petrochemical alarm plants. At last, the results obtained by the utilization of such functionalities will be presented and discussed. (author)

  1. A revival of the alarm system: Making the alarm list useful during incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, J. E.; Oehman, B.; Calzada, A. [GoalArt, Scheelevaegen 17, 223 70 Lund (Sweden); Nihlwing, C.; Jokstad, H.; Kristianssen, L. I.; Kvalem, J. [IFE, OS alle 13, 1777 Halden (Norway); Lind, M. [Oested-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, DK-2800, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2006-07-01

    In control rooms there are often problems with information overload, which means that the operators may receive more information than they are able to interpret. The most serious information overload occurs in two types of situations. The first is when the operating state of the plant changes, which often gives raise to a shower of alarms and events. Such an alarm shower is expected, but can be dangerous, because it may hide other alarms originating from unrelated faults. The second problem occurs when a fault causes several consequential faults, leading to a so-called alarm cascade. Because the alarms seldom arrive in correct time order, it can be very difficult to analyze such a cascade, and the information overload occurs in exactly the moment when a potentially dangerous situation starts. In an ongoing project, GoalArt and IFE are cooperating in testing and evaluating GoalArt's methods for alarm reduction and root cause analysis. The testing comprises two specific algorithms, root cause analysis and state-based alarm priority. The GoalArt system has been integrated with the HAMBO simulator so that operators can evaluate the algorithms on-line. (authors)

  2. Advanced Alarm Systems: Revision of Guidance and Its Technical Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    Pressurized Water Reactor (Westinghouse) APWR Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (Mitsubishi) ARP alarm response procedure CAMLS CANDU Annunciation Message...List System CANDU Canadian Deuterium Uranium CE Combustion Engineering CPIAS Critical Parameter Indication and Alarm System CRT cathode ray tube ...bulletins and information notices; inspection and investigative reports; licensee event reports; and Commission papers and their attachments. NRC

  3. Cooperative warning systems: The impact of false and unnecessary alarms on drivers' compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujoks, Frederik; Kiesel, Andrea; Neukum, Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    Cooperative warning systems have a great potential to prevent traffic accidents. However, because of their predictive nature, they might also go along with an increased frequency of incorrect alarms that could limit their effectiveness. To better understand the consequences associated with incorrect alarms, a driving simulator study with N=80 drivers was conducted to investigate how situational context and warning urgency jointly influence drivers' compliance with an unreliable advisory warning system (AWS). The participants encountered several critical urban driving situations and were either assisted by a 100% reliable AWS, a 60% reliable AWS that generated false alarms (without obvious reason) or a 60% reliable AWS that generated unnecessary alarms (with plausible reason). A baseline drive without any assistance was also introduced to the study. The warnings were presented either only visually or visual-auditory. In line with previous research, drivers' compliance and effectiveness of the AWS was reduced by false alarms but not by unnecessary alarms. However, this so-called cry wolf effect (Breznitz, 1984) was only found in the visual-auditory condition, whereas there was no effect of warning reliability in the condition with visual AWS. Furthermore, false but not unnecessary alarms caused the participants to rate the AWS less favourably during a follow-up interview. In spite of these negative effects of false alarms, a reduction in the frequency of safety-critical events (SCEs) and an earlier braking onset were evident in all assisted drives compared with that of non-assisted driving, even when the AWS was unreliable. The results may thus lower concerns about the negative consequences of warning drivers unnecessarily about upcoming traffic conflicts if the reasons of these alarms are comprehensible. From a perspective of designing AWS, we recommend to use less urgent warnings to prevent the cry wolf effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alarm systems a guide to design, management and procurement

    CERN Document Server

    Engineering Equipment and Materials Users' Association. London

    2013-01-01

    Alarm systems form an essential part of the operator interfaces to large modern industrial facilities. They provide vital support to the operators by warning them of situations that need their attention and have an important role in preventing, controlling and mitigating the effects of abnormal situations. Since it was first published in 1999, EEMUA 191 has become the globally accepted and leading guide to good practice for all aspects of alarm systems. The guide, developed by users of alarm systems with input from the GB Health and Safety Executive, gives comprehensive guidance on designing, managing and procuring an effective alarm system. The new Third Edition has been comprehensively updated and includes guidance on implementing the alarm management philosophy in practice; applications in geographically distributed processes; and performance metrics and KPIs.

  5. Use of pagers with an alarm escalation system to reduce cardiac monitor alarm signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvach, Maria M; Frank, Robert J; Doyle, Pete; Stevens, Zeina Khouri

    2014-01-01

    Alarm fatigue desensitizes nurses to alarm signals and presents potential for patient harm. This project describes an innovative method of communicating cardiac monitor alarms to pagers using an alarm escalation algorithm. This innovation was tested on 2 surgical progressive care units over a 6-month period. There was a significant decrease in mean frequency and duration of high-priority monitor alarms and improvement in nurses' perception of alarm response time, using this method of alarm communication.

  6. Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

  7. ARC Code TI: Optimal Alarm System Design and Implementation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optimal alarm system can robustly predict a level-crossing event that is specified over a fixed prediction horizon. The code contained in this packages provides...

  8. Development of a GLE Alarm System Based Upon Neutron Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, T.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed a system that watches for count rate increases recorded in real time by eight neutron monitors, and gives an alarm when a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) is detected. In this work, we determine optimal strategies for detecting the GLE event at a very early stage, while still keeping the false alarm rate from glitches at a very low level. The January 20, 2005 event will be used to illustrate our methods. A reliable system is developed with an algorithm that produces alarms in three levels according to the number of stations showing an increase. We study past events to optimize appropriate intensity threshold values and a baseline to determine the intensity increase. At the highest level alarm produced by the three stations increase, a false alarm rate expected from the observed data during the past five years become zero. Alarm times of GLEs examined from the most recent nine events are compared with satellite proton data. The GLE alert would precede the earliest alert from GOES (100 MeV or 10 MeV protons) by ~10-20 minutes. For the January 20 event, the GLE alert (3 stations) was generated 12 minutes prior to the earliest GOES alert. The realtime GLE data may be viewed at http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu/spaceweather. An automated e-mail alert system is under development. Supported by NSF grants ATM-0207196 and ATM-0000315.

  9. Implementation of alarm system for vibration monitoring of KOMAC facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Ha; Ahn, Tae-Sung; Song, Young-Gi; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [KOMAC, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    For operating 100 MeV linac, Devices have to be operated in certain order. Thus malfunction of a device cause damage to linac and related devices. To protect linac, machine protect system (MPS) has been developed. The MPS protects the components by monitoring hardwired signals. When values of operating parameters go beyond or below limit, alarm will be generated and interlock system which stops related devices in certain sequence will run. Other factor, giving damage to linac is disaster. A strong vibration such as earthquake causes malfunction of devices and damage to linac. Against disaster, the monitoring system based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) was implemented. Configuration and Implementation of the monitoring system are presented and some preliminary results are reported. KOMAC implemented alarm system for a strong vibration and fire. Alarm is generated in unusual situation. Coping rapidly with situation, damages for Linac and related devices can be reduced.

  10. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981.

  11. Cost-Effective School Alarm Systems. Security Topics Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, Steve

    This document outlines considerations in the selection of a cost-effective school-alarm system. Steps in the planning process include: conducting a district needs assessment; gathering input from all staff levels; consulting technical expertise; and selecting a security system that can be integrated with other site needs. It further describes the…

  12. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  13. Hierarchies of Alarms for Large Distributed Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccioli, M; Martos, V; Holme, O

    2014-01-01

    The control systems of most of the infrastructure at CERN make use of the SCADA package WinCC Open Architecture by ETM*, including successful projects to control large scale systems such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator and associated experiments.).

  14. A WSN-Based Intrusion Alarm System to Improve Safety in Road Work Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. Workers responsible for maintaining and repairing roadways are especially prone to suffer these events, given their exceptional exposure to traffic. Since these actuations usually coexist with regular traffic, an errant driver can easily intrude the work area and provoke a collision. Some authors have proposed mechanisms aimed at detecting breaches in the work zone perimeter and alerting workers, which are collectively called intrusion alarm systems. However, they have several limitations and have not yet fulfilled the necessities of these scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new intrusion alarm system based on a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. Our system is comprised of two main elements: vehicle detectors that form a virtual barrier and detect perimeter breaches by means of an ultrasonic beam and individual warning devices that transmit alerts to the workers. All these elements have a wireless communication interface and form a network that covers the whole work area. This network is in charge of transmitting and routing the alarms and coordinates the behavior of the system. We have tested our solution under real conditions with satisfactory results.

  15. Reducing SCADA System Nuisance Alarms in the Water Industry in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Nigel; Phillips, Debra H; Nicell, Ciaran

    2015-08-01

    The advancement of telemetry control for the water industry has increased the difficulty of managing large volumes of nuisance alarms (i.e., alarms that do not require a response). The aim of this study was to identify and reduce the number of nuisance alarms that occur for Northern Ireland (NI) Water by carrying out alarm duration analysis to determine the appropriate length of persistence (an advanced alarm management tool) that could be applied. All data were extracted from TelemWeb (NI Water's telemetry monitoring system) and analyzed in Excel. Over a 6-week period, an average of 40 000 alarms occurred per week. The alarm duration analysis, which has never been implemented before by NI Water, found that an average of 57% of NI Water alarms had a duration of <5 minutes. Applying 5-minute persistence, therefore, could prevent an average 26 816 nuisance alarms per week. Most of these alarms were from wastewater assets.

  16. 46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Systems § 113.25-8 Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. (a) Each... alarm signal. (e) Each system must have one or more branch circuit distribution panels for each zone... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution of general emergency alarm system...

  17. Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, Bryce A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-12-01

    A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

  18. User image mismatch in anaesthesia alarms: a cognitive systems analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, Karen E; Bergström, Johan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, principles of Cognitive Systems Engineering are used to better understand the human-machine interaction manifesting in the use of anaesthesia alarms. The hypothesis is that the design of the machine incorporates built-in assumptions of the user that are discrepant with the anaesthesiologist's self-assessment, creating 'user image mismatch'. Mismatch was interpreted by focusing on the 'user image' as described from the perspectives of both machine and user. The machine-embedded image was interpreted through document analysis. The user-described image was interpreted through user (anaesthesiologist) interviews. Finally, an analysis was conducted in which the machine-embedded and user-described images were contrasted to identify user image mismatch. It is concluded that analysing user image mismatch expands the focus of attention towards macro-elements in the interaction between man and machine. User image mismatch is interpreted to arise from complexity of algorithm design and incongruity between alarm design and tenets of anaesthesia practice. Cognitive system engineering principles are applied to enhance the understanding of the interaction between anaesthesiologist and alarm. The 'user image' is interpreted and contrasted from the perspectives of machine as well as the user. Apparent machine-user mismatch is explored pertaining to specific design features.

  19. Alert System for High Speed Vehicles to Avoid Wildlife Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “Alert System for High Speed Vehicles to Avoid Wildlife Accidents” is an alert system used to safeguard our wildlife. We often hear of various accidents of wild animals like elephant, nilgai etc., who are trying to cross the railway track. So, an intelligent electronics system is necessary which can be affixed to avoid the possibilities of accidents. Regarding this, in our project we are using a Passive Infrared Sensor (PIR sensor which is an electronic sensor that measures infrared (IR light radiating from objects in its field of view and switches ON any electrical/electronic device to which it is connected to. The key component of the sensor module is the pyroelectric element. All objects with a temperature above absolute zero emit heat energy in the form of radiation. Usually this radiation is invisible to the human eye because it is radiated at infrared wavelengths, but it is detected by this PIR sensor. This sensor does not radiate any energy for detection purposes and thus, it has no harmful effects on living beings. In our project the PIR sensor is used as a part of a burglar alarm and the electronic in the PIR typically control a small relay. This relay completes the circuit across a pair of electrical contacts connected to a detection input zone of the burglar alarm control panel. The system is usually designed such that if no living creature is being detected, the relay contact is closed- a „normally closed‟ (NC relay. If energy emitted from any nearby creature is detected, the relay opens, triggering the alarm, a signal will be directly sent to the driver‟s chamber and it will create a message in the LED screen of his chamber also an alarm will be heard which we have implemented using an ultrasonic sensor hc-sr04.

  20. Alarm Safety and Alarm Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kendall R; Hagadorn, James I; Sink, David W

    2017-09-01

    Clinical alarm systems have received significant attention in recent years following warnings from hospital accrediting and health care technology organizations regarding patient harm caused by unsafe practices. Alarm desensitization or fatigue from frequent, false, or unnecessary alarms, has led to serious events and even patient deaths. Other concerns include settings inappropriate to patient population or condition, inadequate staff training, and improper use or disabling. Research on human factors in alarm response and of functionality of medical devices will help clinicians develop appropriate policies, practices, and device settings for clinical alarms in neonatal intensive care units. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Fiber-Optical Intrusion Alarm System Based on Quasi-Distributed Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Jiang; Yun-Jiang Rao; De-Hong Zeng

    2008-01-01

    A fiber-optical intrusion alarm system based on quasi-distributed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is demonstrated in this paper. The algorithms of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and wavelet packet characteristic entropy are adopted to determine the intrusion location. The intrusion alarm software based on the Labview is developed, and it is also proved by the experiments. The results show that such a fiber-optical intrusion alarm system can offer the automatic intrusion alarm in real-time.

  2. A NEW INVENTION OF ALARM REMINDER LOCKING (ARL SECURITY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.M. Effendi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alarm Reminder Locking (ARL Security System mainly focuses on a door security system, which can install in the door area to increase the security level for home, office room, hostel or other places. This system used Arduino Controller and Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM technology, which is the cheapest source to embed the security system to transmit the Short Message Service (SMS alert data. This device integrates three functions that are alarming, reminder and locked for a purpose of safety and connecting via mobile phone to remind the users through SMS. This device has a 3 modes of operation which is the system will be functional when the door is not improperly closed for the first reminder with the buzzer alert. The second mode is automated locked will be activated when users closed the door, but did not lock manually. Intrusion mode will activate while auto locked modes are interrupted without proper access. All this integrated system will provide high security access against intrusion occurrence. This security device will bring a new benefit to the user to consider about the userfriendly application, low power consumption and reasonable cost to install.

  3. Integration of criticality alarm system at a fuel manufacturing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longinov, M.; Pant, A. [Zircatec Precision Industries, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    In response to the Power Uprate program at Bruce Power, Zircatec has committed to introduce, by Spring 2006 a new manufacturing line for the production of 43 element CANFLEX bundles containing Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) with a centre pin of blended dysprosia/urania (BDU). This is a new fuel design and is the first change in fuel design since the introduction of the current 37 element fuel over 20 years ago. As the primary fuel supplier to the reactor site that has chosen to utilize this new fuel design, Zircatec has agreed to manufacture and supply this new fuel at their facility in Port Hope, Ontario. Under this agreement, Zircatec is challenged with converting a fuel manufacturing facility to include the processing of enriched uranium. The challenge is to introduce the new concept of criticality control to a facility that traditionally does not have to deal with such a concept. One of the elements of the implementation is the criticality detection and alarm system - CIDAS. Since a criticality could go undetected by human senses, one of the methods of ensuring safety from radiation exposure in the event of a criticality is the installation of a criticality incident detection and alarm system. This early warning device could be the difference between low dose exposure and lethal exposure. This paper describes the challenges that Zircatec has faced with the installation of a criticality incident detection and alarm system. These challenges include determining the needs and requirements, determining appropriate specifications, selecting the right equipment, installing the equipment and training personnel in the operation of the new equipment. (author)

  4. 33 CFR 149.135 - What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch? 149.135 Section 149.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... switch? Each switch for activating an alarm, and each audio or visual device for signaling an alarm,...

  5. A High-confidence Cyber-Physical Alarm System: Design and Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Longhua; Xia, Feng; Xu, Ming; Yao, Jun; Shao, Meng

    2010-01-01

    Most traditional alarm systems cannot address security threats in a satisfactory manner. To alleviate this problem, we developed a high-confidence cyber-physical alarm system (CPAS), a new kind of alarm systems. This system establishes the connection of the Internet (i.e. TCP/IP) through GPRS/CDMA/3G. It achieves mutual communication control among terminal equipments, human machine interfaces and users by using the existing mobile communication network. The CPAS will enable the transformation in alarm mode from traditional one-way alarm to two-way alarm. The system has been successfully applied in practice. The results show that the CPAS could avoid false alarms and satisfy residents' security needs.

  6. Aerospace Accident - Injury Autopsy Data System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aerospace Accident Injury Autopsy Database System will provide the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) Aerospace Medical Research Team (AMRT) the ability to...

  7. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

  8. Installation of Computerized Procedure System and Advanced Alarm System in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This report describes the installation of two advanced control room technologies, an advanced alarm system and a computerized procedure system, into the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). Installation of these technologies enables future phases of this research by providing a platform to systematically evaluate the effect of these technologies on operator and plant performance.

  9. Development of Alarm System link Drawing for Operation Support for APR1400 Digital Main Control Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Digitalized MMI(Man-Machine Interface) including Digital Main Control Room(MCR) and digital I and C system was being applied for SKN 3 and 4 Nuclear Power Plant(NPP) and subsequent APR1400 NPP type. But, operators can not easily find instrument for alarm immediately. Therefore, Alarm system is required to easily find instrument for Alarm. For this implementation, we will plan system design considering design feature without affecting network load and CPU load. We have developed Alarm system link drawing for digital MCR. Operators of the digitalized MCR navigates from their consoles to the drawings related to the plant alarms and their instruments or the operation status. Such method gives cognitive load to the operators having to travel to different locations in finding the related information. Screen Sharing System, which is the fundamental technique for Drawing Interconnection Alarm System is close to completion, and it should be functionally tested and verified by the human factor engineering. For the actual application to the operating plants, the drawings to be interconnected to the alarms and the opinions from the operators/maintenance departments for designating alarm number should be surveyed, Also, another function that allows the access to the alarm related drawings not only from the MCR but also from the other offices.

  10. A Human Factors Perspective on Alarm System Research and Development 2000 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curt Braun; John Grimes; Eric Shaver; Ronald Boring (Principal Investigator)

    2011-09-01

    By definition, alarms serve to notify human operators of out-of-parameter conditions that could threaten equipment, the environment, product quality and, of course, human life. Given the complexities of industrial systems, human machine interfaces, and the human operator, the understanding of how alarms and humans can best work together to prevent disaster is continually developing. This review examines advances in alarm research and development from 2000 to 2010 and includes the writings of trade professionals, engineering and human factors researchers, and standards organizations with the goal of documenting advances in alarms system design, research, and implementation.

  11. Development and evaluation of new coupling system for lower limb prostheses with acoustic alarm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Arezoo; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Ahmadian, Jalil; Rahmati, Bizhan; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with lower limb amputation need a secure suspension system for their prosthetic devices. A new coupling system was developed that is capable of suspending the prosthesis. The system's safety is ensured through an acoustic alarm system. This article explains how the system works and provides an in vivo evaluation of the device with regard to pistoning during walking. The system was designed to be used with silicone liners and is based on the requirements of prosthetic suspension systems. Mechanical testing was performed using a universal testing machine. The pistoning during walking was measured using a motion analysis system. The new coupling device produced significantly less pistoning compared to a common suspension system (pin/lock). The safety alarm system would buzz if the suspension was going to fail. The new coupling system could securely suspend the prostheses in transtibial amputees and produced less vertical movement than the pin/lock system.

  12. False alarm suppression of multipulsed laser ranging system with Geiger-mode detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hanjun; Xu, Huigang; Xu, Benlian; Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Fu, Yadan

    2015-06-10

    The false alarm probability is of great concern when designing and evaluating the performance of a multipulsed laser ranging system with a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode. In this paper, based on the statistical distribution difference of the arrival time of the echo photons and noise in the time histogram, a false alarm suppression algorithm is presented. According to the data-processing method of the algorithm, the theoretical model of target detection and false alarm probability with a Poisson statistic and the system working at long dead time is established. With typical system design parameters, the target detection probability under different echo intensity and detection number is analyzed, and the influence of four main factors, namely, detection number, echo intensity, noise, and echo position, on the false alarm probability is investigated. The results show that multipulsed detection can improve the target detection probability, and using this developed algorithm, the false alarm probability can be effectively suppressed, to obtain an appropriate false alarm probability; it is suitable that the detection number is selected as 8; and stronger echo intensity, lower noise level, and a more frontal echo position can result in a lower false alarm probability.

  13. Real-time Alarm Monitoring System for Detecting Driver Fatigue in Wireless Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to develop a real-time alarm monitoring system that can detect the fatigue driving state through wireless communication. The drivers’ electroencephalogram (EEG signals were recorded from occipital electrodes. Seven EEG rhythms with different frequency bands as gamma, hbeta, beta, sigma, alpha, theta and delta waves were extracted. They were simultaneously assessed using relative operating characteristic (ROC curves and grey relational analysis to select one as the fatigue feature. The research results showed that the performance of theta wave was the best one. Therefore, theta wave was used as fatigue feature in the following alarm device. The real-time alarm monitoring system based on the result has been developed, once the threshold was settled by using the data of the first ten minutes driving period. The developed system can detect driver fatigue and give alarm to indicate the onset of fatigue automatically.

  14. Design of alarm systems in Swedish nuclear power plants; Utformning av larmsystem i svenska kaernkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunberg, Anna; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa (Dept. of Product and Production Development, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-04-15

    Research within the area of improving alarm system design and performance has mainly focused on new alarm systems. However, smaller modernisations of legacy systems are more common in the Swedish nuclear industry than design of totally new systems. This imposes problems when the new system should function together with the old system. This project deals with the special concerns raised by modernisation projects. The objective of the project has been to increase the understanding of the relationship between the operator's performance and the design of the alarm system. Of major concern has been to consider the cognitive abilities of the operator, different operator roles and work situations, and varying need of information. The aim of the project has been to complement existing alarm design guidance and to develop user-centred alarm design concepts. Different case studies have been performed in several industry sectors (nuclear, oil refining, pulp and paper, aviation and medical care) to identify best practice. Several empirical studies have been performed within the nuclear area to investigate the operator's need of information, performance and workload in different operating modes. The aspect of teamwork has also been considered. The analyses show that the operator has different roles in different work situations which affect both the type of information needed and how the information is processed. In full power operation, the interaction between the operator and the alarm system is driven by internal factors and the operator tries to maintain high situation awareness by actively searching for information. The operator wants to optimise the process and need detailed information with possibilities to follow-up and get historical data. In disturbance management, the operator is more dependent on external information presented by the alarm system. The new compilation of alarm guidance is based on the operator's varying needs in different working

  15. Nitric Acid Revamp and Upgrading of the Alarm & Protection Safety System at Petrokemija, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoško, I.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Every industrial production, particularly chemical processing, demands special attention in conducting the technological process with regard to the security requirements. For this reason, production processes should be continuously monitored by means of control and alarm safety instrumented systems. In the production of nitric acid at Petrokemija d. d., the original alarm safety system was designed as a combination of an electrical relay safety system and transistorized alarm module system. In order to increase safety requirements and modernize the technological process of nitric acid production, revamping and upgrading of the existing alarm safety system was initiated with a new microprocessor system. The newly derived alarm safety system, Simatic PCS 7, links the function of "classically" distributed control (DCS and logical systems in a common hardware and software platform with integrated engineering tools and operator interface to meet the minimum safety standards with safety integrity level 2 (SIL2 up to level 3 (SIL3, according to IEC 61508 and IEC 61511. This professional paper demonstrates the methodology of upgrading the logic of the alarm safety system in the production of nitric acid in the form of a logical diagram, which was the basis for a further step in its design and construction. Based on the mentioned logical diagram and defined security requirements, the project was implemented in three phases: analysis and testing, installation of the safety equipment and system, and commissioning. Developed also was a verification system of all safety conditions, which could be applied to other facilities for production of nitric acid. With the revamped and upgraded interlock alarm safety system, a new and improved safety boundary in the production of nitric acid was set, which created the foundation for further improvement of the production process in terms of improved analysis.

  16. Development of a ground level enhancement alarm system based upon neutron monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, T.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.

    2006-10-01

    We have developed a system that watches for count rate increases recorded in real time by eight neutron monitors, which triggers an alarm if a ground level enhancement (GLE) is detected. In this work, we determine optimal strategies for detecting the GLE event at a very early stage, while still keeping the false alarm rate at a very low level. We study past events to optimize appropriate intensity threshold values and a baseline to determine the intensity increase. The highest-level alarm, which we term an "alert," is generated when a 4% increase is recorded at three stations in 3 min averaged data. At this level, the false alarm rate obtained by backtesting over the past 4.4 years is zero. Ten GLEs occurred in this period, and our system produced GLE alarms for nine events. Alarm times for these nine events are compared with satellite proton data. The GLE alert precedes the earliest alert from GOES (100 MeV or 10 MeV protons) by ˜10-30 min. Real-time GLE data may be viewed at http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu/spaceweather. An automated e-mail alert system is under development.

  17. A new fire alarm system for electrical installations

    CERN Document Server

    Pietersen, A H

    1978-01-01

    Fires in electrical installations are considered to develop in four phases - initiation, smouldering, flame formation and heat development. Cables are among the more sensitive components, with working temperatures around 50 degrees C and fire detection at 70 degrees C. Conventional alarms include smoke detectors. The new technique described uses microcapsules containing powder forming a gas of the Freon type after diffusion. A typical microcapsule loses 4% per year and has a natural life of 10 years. Fabrication methods are described. Detection is by gas concentration, with a sensitivity of 1 to 10 ppm, or by acoustic methods with microphones to pick up the sound of fractures. Pressure/temperature characteristics of various types of Freon mixtures commercially available are given in graphical form.

  18. [Implementation of an automatic alarms system for early detection of patients with severe sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreras, José María; Judez, Diego; Tirado, Gabriel; Aspiroz, Carmen; Martínez-Álvarez, Rosa; Dorado, Paloma; Ezpeleta, Ana; Marrón, Rafael; Gargallo, Begoña; Herranz, Clara

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of a software tool integrated into the medical electronic history at the time of emergency triage. The aim was the early detection of patients with severe sepsis, and the potential impact of this software tool on reducing the mortality rate in patients treated. The study consisted of two comparative samples. Patient selection was performed retrospectively into two groups using ICD-9 codes from the hospital and emergency department discharge reports. The codes were 038.9, 995.9 and 995.92 for sepsis, and 785.52 for severe sepsis and septic shock. The sample called «alarms» consisted of patients studied after implementing the sepsis alarm system in the Emergency Department computer system. There were two types of alarms, a serious one and an alert one depending on the on vital signs defined. The historical sample called «no alarms» consisted of patients seen in the Emergency Department during the year before the introduction of the alarm system. The compliance rate of the sepsis treatment package was higher in the «alarms» sample, compared to the sample without alarms, with blood cultures, 96.3% versus 80.9% (Psepsis allows acting earlier, better compliance with basic measures, and a reduction in hospital stay and mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Alarm systems detect volcanic tremor and earthquake swarms during Redoubt eruption, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, G.; West, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    We ran two alarm algorithms on real-time data from Redoubt volcano during the 2009 crisis. The first algorithm was designed to detect escalations in continuous seismicity (tremor). This is implemented within an application called IceWeb which computes reduced displacement, and produces plots of reduced displacement and spectrograms linked to the Alaska Volcano Observatory internal webpage every 10 minutes. Reduced displacement is a measure of the amplitude of volcanic tremor, and is computed by applying a geometrical spreading correction to a displacement seismogram. When the reduced displacement at multiple stations exceeds pre-defined thresholds and there has been a factor of 3 increase in reduced displacement over the previous hour, a tremor alarm is declared. The second algorithm was to designed to detect earthquake swarms. The mean and median event rates are computed every 5 minutes based on the last hour of data from a real-time event catalog. By comparing these with thresholds, three swarm alarm conditions can be declared: a new swarm, an escalation in a swarm, and the end of a swarm. The end of swarm alarm is important as it may mark a transition from swarm to continuous tremor. Alarms from both systems were dispatched using a generic alarm management system which implements a call-down list, allowing observatory scientists to be called in sequence until someone acknowledged the alarm via a confirmation web page. The results of this simple approach are encouraging. The tremor alarm algorithm detected 26 of the 27 explosive eruptions that occurred from 23 March - 4 April. The swarm alarm algorithm detected all five of the main volcanic earthquake swarm episodes which occurred during the Redoubt crisis on 26-27 February, 21-23 March, 26 March, 2-4 April and 3-7 May. The end-of-swarm alarms on 23 March and 4 April were particularly helpful as they were caused by transitions from swarm to tremor shortly preceding explosive eruptions; transitions which were

  20. Hazard detection and alarm systems of the EMAG Center used in Polish coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firganek, B.; Mironowicz, W.

    1982-06-01

    This paper presents a review of equipment, measurement and alarm systems for underground mining developed and produced by the EMAG Center for Research and Production of Electrical Engineering and Mine Automation. The following systems for detection and measurement of methane content in mine air are evaluated: the VM-1p methane meter (range from 2 to 10% methane) the MCm-1 methane meter (range from 0 to 3 % methane), the MK-1A methane meter which is mounted on mining machines (it activates an alarm system when methane content in mine air exceeds 1%, 1.5% or 2%), stationary methane measuring systems (MIS-3A, MW-1), automatic methane measuring systems, e.g. the CTT-63/40Up methane station produced on the basis of French licence (Oldham), the CMC-1 methane measuring station developed by EMAG. Systems for detection of underground fires in coal mines are also described: the SATW-4bc carbon monoxide analyzer (used for detecting spontaneous combustion of coal), the SP-24 fire alarm system and the ADD-1 smoke detector used for detecting fires caused by reasons other than spontaneous combustion. Some systems for rock burst forecasting are evaluated: the PRS-4/a computer system, the PRS-4/m microseismologic system, the AUD-80 alarm system for coal mines. Design, specifications and schemes of the safety systems for underground mining are discussed.

  1. Medical device alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Matthias; Görges, Matthias; Fried, Roland; Such, Olaf; Wrede, Christian; Imhoff, Michael

    2011-04-01

    The high number of false positive alarms has long been known to be a serious problem in critical care medicine - yet it remains unresolved. At the same time, threats to patient safety due to missing or suppressed alarms are being reported. The purpose of this paper is to present results from a workshop titled "Too many alarms? Too few alarms?" organized by the Section Patient Monitoring and the Workgroup Alarms of the German Association of Biomedical Engineering of the Association for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies. The current situation regarding alarms and their problems in intensive care, such as lack of clinical relevance, alarm fatigue, workload increases due to clinically irrelevant alarms, usability problems in alarm systems, problems with manuals and training, and missing alarms due to operator error are outlined, followed by a discussion of solutions and strategies to improve the current situation. Finally, the need for more research and development, focusing on signal quality considerations, networking of medical devices at the bedside, diagnostic alarms and predictive warnings, usability of alarm systems, education of healthcare providers, creation of annotated clinical databases for testing, standardization efforts, and patient monitoring in the regular ward, are called for.

  2. Medical audible alarms: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edworthy, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This paper summarizes much of the research that is applicable to the design of auditory alarms in a medical context. It also summarizes research that demonstrates that false alarm rates are unacceptably high, meaning that the proper application of auditory alarm design principles are compromised. Target audience Designers, users, and manufacturers of medical information and monitoring systems that indicate when medical or other parameters are exceeded and that are indicated by an auditory signal or signals. Scope The emergence of alarms as a ‘hot topic’; an outline of the issues and design principles, including IEC 60601-1-8; the high incidence of false alarms and its impact on alarm design and alarm fatigue; approaches to reducing alarm fatigue; alarm philosophy explained; urgency in audible alarms; different classes of sound as alarms; heterogeneity in alarm set design; problems with IEC 60601-1-8 and ways of approaching this design problem. PMID:23100127

  3. Design of the intelligent smoke alarm system based on photoelectric smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiangfei; Yang, Xiufang; Wang, Peipei

    2017-02-01

    This paper designed a kind of intelligent smoke alarm system based on photoelectric smoke detector and temperature, The system takes AT89C51 MCU as the core of hardware control and Labview as the host computer monitoring center.The sensor system acquires temperature signals and smoke signals, the MCU control A/D by Sampling and converting the output analog signals , and then the two signals will be uploaded to the host computer through the serial communication. To achieve real-time monitoring of smoke and temperature in the environment, LabVIEW monitoring platform need to hold, process, analysis and display these samping signals. The intelligent smoke alarm system is suitable for large scale shopping malls and other public places, which can greatly reduce the false alarm rate of fire, The experimental results show that the system runs well and can alarm when the setting threshold is reached,and the threshold parameters can be adjusted according to the actual conditions of the field. The system is easy to operate, simple in structure, intelligent, low cost, and with strong practical value.

  4. Design of alarm systems in Swedish nuclear power plants; Utformning av larmsystem i svenska kaernkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunberg, Anna; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa (Dept. of Product and Production Development, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-04-15

    Research within the area of improving alarm system design and performance has mainly focused on new alarm systems. However, smaller modernisations of legacy systems are more common in the Swedish nuclear industry than design of totally new systems. This imposes problems when the new system should function together with the old system. This project deals with the special concerns raised by modernisation projects. The objective of the project has been to increase the understanding of the relationship between the operator's performance and the design of the alarm system. Of major concern has been to consider the cognitive abilities of the operator, different operator roles and work situations, and varying need of information. The aim of the project has been to complement existing alarm design guidance and to develop user-centred alarm design concepts. Different case studies have been performed in several industry sectors (nuclear, oil refining, pulp and paper, aviation and medical care) to identify best practice. Several empirical studies have been performed within the nuclear area to investigate the operator's need of information, performance and workload in different operating modes. The aspect of teamwork has also been considered. The analyses show that the operator has different roles in different work situations which affect both the type of information needed and how the information is processed. In full power operation, the interaction between the operator and the alarm system is driven by internal factors and the operator tries to maintain high situation awareness by actively searching for information. The operator wants to optimise the process and need detailed information with possibilities to follow-up and get historical data. In disturbance management, the operator is more dependent on external information presented by the alarm system. The new compilation of alarm guidance is based on the operator's varying needs in different working

  5. An Intrusion Alarming System Based on Self- Similarity of Network Traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Fei; ZHU Miao-liang; CHEN Yu-feng; LI Ren-fa; XU Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Intrusion detection system can make effective alarm for illegality of network users, which is absolutely necessarily and important to build security environment of communication base service. According to the principle that the number of network traffic can affect the degree of self-similar traffic, the paper investigates the variety of self-similarity resulted from unconventional network traffic. A network traffic model based on normal behaviors of user is proposed and the Hurst parameter of this model can be calculated. By comparing the Hurst parameter of normal traffic and the self-similar parameter, we can judge whether the network is normal or not and alarm in time.

  6. The Wireless Environment Monitoring Alarm System Based on Self-organizing Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Huawei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under complicated conditions, it is necessary for environmental monitoring to design a wireless monitoring alarm system which can replace the wired system or as a supplement. The system discussed here bases on ARM7 microprocessor named LPC1114 and transceiver module named CC2530. With ZigBee, CSM/GPRS, this system uses multiple sensors to self-organized form a data acquisition and monitoring network system with variety of sensors fusion in the region. The system has some characteristics such as quick, convenient and accurate. Combining with the GSM SMS or GPRS alarm, the system can accurately and reliably monitor temperature, humidity and other environmental factors, and realize remote monitoring in large area and the complicated environment. Thus, this system has high practical value.

  7. Accident diagnosis system based on real-time decision tree expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Andressa dos S.; Augusto, João P. da S. C.; Schirru, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    Safety is one of the most studied topics when referring to power stations. For that reason, sensors and alarms develop an important role in environmental and human protection. When abnormal event happens, it triggers a chain of alarms that must be, somehow, checked by the control room operators. In this case, diagnosis support system can help operators to accurately identify the possible root-cause of the problem in short time. In this article, we present a computational model of a generic diagnose support system based on artificial intelligence, that was applied on the dataset of two real power stations: Angra1 Nuclear Power Plant and Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Plant. The proposed system processes all the information logged in the sequence of events before a shutdown signal using the expert's knowledge inputted into an expert system indicating the chain of events, from the shutdown signal to its root-cause. The results of both applications showed that the support system is a potential tool to help the control room operators identify abnormal events, as accidents and consequently increase the safety.

  8. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  9. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  10. Smart container UWB sensor system for situational awareness of intrusion alarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Carlos E.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Leach, Jr., Richard R.; Vigars, Mark L.

    2013-06-11

    An in-container monitoring sensor system is based on an UWB radar intrusion detector positioned in a container and having a range gate set to the farthest wall of the container from the detector. Multipath reflections within the container make every point on or in the container appear to be at the range gate, allowing intrusion detection anywhere in the container. The system also includes other sensors to provide false alarm discrimination, and may include other sensors to monitor other parameters, e.g. radiation. The sensor system also includes a control subsystem for controlling system operation. Communications and information extraction capability may also be included. A method of detecting intrusion into a container uses UWB radar, and may also include false alarm discrimination. A secure container has an UWB based monitoring system

  11. Expert System Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Processor has been developed on a Sun Sparc Station 4/470 using a commercial-off-the-shelf software development package called G2 by Gensym Corporation...size of the training data set. A prototype expert system CFAR Processor has been presented which applies artificial intelligence to CFAR detection

  12. Control Engineering Embraces Instrumentation and Alarm Systems Of Navy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Samoilescu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Control engineering can be applied not only to propelling and auxiliary machinery but also to electrical installations, refrigeration, cargo handling (especially in tankers and deck machinery, e.g. Windlass control. Opinion still vary on such matters as the relative merits of pneumatic versus electronic system and whether the control center should be in the engine room or adjacent to the navigating bridge. Arguments against the exclusion of the engineer officer from close contact with the machinery are countered by the fact that electronic systems are based on changes other than those of human response. Automated ships (UMS operate closer to prescribed standards and therefore operate with greater efficiency. The closer control of machinery operating conditions (cooling water temperatures and pressures, permits machinery to be run at its optimum design conditions, making for fuel economy and reduced maintenance.

  13. Development of the Severe Accident Analysis DB for the Severe Accident Management Expert System (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwang Il [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This report contains analysis methodologies and calculation results of 5 initiating events of the severe accident analysis database system. The Ulchin 3,4 NPP has been selected as reference plants. Based on the probabilistic safety analysis of the corresponding plant, 54 accident scenarios, which was predicted to have more than 10-10 /ry occurrence frequency, have been analyzed as base cases for the Large loss of Coolant sequence database. The functions of the severe accident analysis database system will be to make a diagnosis of the accident by some input information from the plant symptoms, to search a corresponding scenario, and finally to provide the user phenomenological information based on the pre-analyzed results. The MAAP 4.06 calculation results in this report will be utilized as input data to develop the database system

  14. Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability

  15. Distributed error and alarm processing in the CMS data acquisition system

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Bowen, Matthew; Branson, James; Bukowiec, Sebastian Czeslaw; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, J A; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Flossdorf, Alexander; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, R; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; Holzner, Andre Georg; Hwong, Yi Ling; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Denis; Simon, M; Spataru, Andrei Cristian; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-01-01

    The error and alarm system for the data acquisition of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at CERN was successfully used for the physics runs at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during first three years of activities. Error and alarm processing entails the notification, collection, storing and visualization of all exceptional conditions occurring in the highly distributed CMS online system using a uniform scheme. Alerts and reports are shown on\\-line by web application facilities that map them to graphical models of the system as defined by the user. A persistency service keeps a history of all exceptions occurred, allowing subsequent retrieval of user defined time windows of events for later playback or analysis. This paper describes the architecture and the technologies used and deals with operational aspects during the first years of LHC operation. In particular we focus on performance, stability, and integration with the CMS sub\\-detectors.

  16. Design of DroDeASys (Drowsy Detection and Alarming System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvale, Hrishikesh B.; Mahajan, Anant S.; Bhagwat, Ashwin A.; Badiger, Vishal T.; Bhutkar, Ganesh D.; Dhabe, Priyadarshan S.; Dhore, Manikrao L.

    The paper discusses the Drowsy Detection & Alarming System that has been developed, using a non-intrusive approach. The system is basically developed to detect drivers dozing at the wheel at night time driving. The system uses a small infra-red night vision camera that points directly towards the driver`s face and monitors the driver`s eyes in order to detect fatigue. In such a case when fatigue is detected, a warning signal is issued to alert the driver. This paper discusses the algorithms that have been used to detect drowsiness. The decision whether the driver is dozing or not is taken depending on whether the eyes are open for a specific number of frames. If the eyes are found to be closed for a certain number of consecutive frames then the driver is alerted with an alarm.

  17. Approaching Behaviour Monitor and Vibration Indication in Developing a General Moving Object Alarm System (GMOAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwei Dong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available People who suffer from hearing impairment caused by illness, age or extremely noisy environments are constantly in danger of being hit or knocked down by fast moving objects behind them when they have no companion or augmented sensory system to warn them. In this paper, we propose the General Moving Object Alarm System (GMOAS, a system focused on aiding the safe mobility of people under these circumstances. The GMOAS is a wearable haptic device that consists of two main subsystems: (i a moving object monitoring subsystem that uses laser range data to detect and track approaching objects, and (ii an alarm subsystem that warns the user of possibly dangerous approaching objects by triggering tactile vibrations on an “alarm necklace”. For moving object monitoring, we propose a simple yet efficient solution to monitor the approaching behavior of objects. Compared with previous work in motion detection and tracking, we are not interested in specific objects but any type of approaching object that might harm the user. To this extent, we define a boundary in the laser range data where the objects are monitored. Within this boundary a fan-shape grid is constructed to obtain an evenly distributed spatial partitioning of the data. These partitions are efficiently clustered into continuous objects which are then tracked through time using an object association algorithm based on updating a deviation matrix that represents angle, distance and size variations of the objects. The speed of the tracked objects is monitored throughout the algorithm. When the speed of an approaching object surpasses the safety threshold, the alarm necklace is triggered indicating the approaching direction of the fast moving object. The alarm necklace is equipped with three motors that can indicate five directions with respect to the user: left, back, right, left-back and right-back. We performed three types of outdoor experiments (object passing, approaching and crossing that

  18. Development of severe accident management and training support system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwang Sub; Kim, Ko Ryo; Jung, Won Dae; Ha, Jae Joo

    2001-04-01

    Recently, the overall severe accident management strategy is under development according to the logical flow of severe accident management guidelines in some foreign countries. In Korea, the basis of severe accident management strategy is established due to the development of Korean severe accident guideline. In the straining system, the professional information as well as the general information for severe accident should be provided to the related personnel and the function of prior simulation for plant behavior according to strategy execution should be required. Korean severe accident management guideline is chosen as the basis logic for development of support system for decision-support and training related with execution of severe accident strategy. The training simulator is developed for prior expectation of plant behavior and the severe accident computer code, MELCOR, is utilized as the engine, and it is possible to operate equipments necessary for execution of severe accident management guidelines. And also, the graphical interface is developed to provide the plant status and provide status change of major equipments dynamically.

  19. Video methods for evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Weirich Paine, Christine M; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Richard; Keren, Ron

    2014-01-01

    False physiologic monitor alarms are extremely common in the hospital environment. High false alarm rates have the potential to lead to alarm fatigue, leading nurses to delay their responses to alarms, ignore alarms, or disable them entirely. Recent evidence from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The Joint Commission has demonstrated a link between alarm fatigue and patient deaths. Yet, very little scientific effort has focused on the rigorous quantitative measurement of alarms and responses in the hospital setting. We developed a system using multiple temporarily mounted, minimally obtrusive video cameras in hospitalized patients' rooms to characterize physiologic monitor alarms and nurse responses as a proxy for alarm fatigue. This allowed us to efficiently categorize each alarm's cause, technical validity, actionable characteristics, and determine the nurse's response time. We describe and illustrate the methods we used to acquire the video, synchronize and process the video, manage the large digital files, integrate the video with data from the physiologic monitor alarm network, archive the video to secure servers, and perform expert review and annotation using alarm "bookmarks." We discuss the technical and logistical challenges we encountered, including the root causes of hardware failures as well as issues with consent, confidentiality, protection of the video from litigation, and Hawthorne-like effects. The description of this video method may be useful to multidisciplinary teams interested in evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses to better characterize alarm fatigue and other patient safety issues in clinical settings.

  20. Exploration on a Modern Positive Social Alarming System%现代实证性社会预警的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎耀军

    2005-01-01

    A new theoretical model of social alarming index system with its operational platforms was constructed on the basis of the research on modem positive social alarming systems at home and abroad. A retrospective evaluation of the state of social harmony and stability in China from 1985 to 2002 and a simulation of social alarming feedback loops empirically examined the effectiveness of this new social alarming index system.

  1. Traffic Accident, System Model and Cluster Analysis in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Vlčková

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the many often frequented topics as normal journalism, so the professional public, is the problem of traffic accidents. This article illustrates the orientation of considerations to a less known context of accidents, with the help of constructive systems theory and its methods, cluster analysis and geoinformation engineering. Traffic accident is reframing the space-time, and therefore it can be to study with tools of technology of geographic information systems. The application of system approach enabling the formulation of the system model, grabbed by tools of geoinformation engineering and multicriterial and cluster analysis.

  2. MMS and GPS car alarm system%彩信与GPS汽车防盗器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫长江; 潘家富; 陈小明

    2011-01-01

    The system combines the use of GSM/GPRS module GPS module, bluetooth module implemented a full range of car anti-theft and navigation. The overall system settings through the phone numbers of car alarm systems, access systems are conducted after the broadcast operation of voice prompts, and system settings to achieve the control. The system has a vibration sensor, automotive side door sensor, ACC sensor with low-level sensor, such as trigger source. When the trigger is triggered, system can be redial preset alarm phone users, Coupled with the global real-time GPS positioning and navigation, MMS GPRS real-time monitoring and wireless remote control to operate at close range, to achieve global car alarm. The system is high stability because of a unique dual power control.%系统利用GSM/GPRS模块结合GPS模块、蓝牙模块实行对汽车进行全方位防盗和导航.系统的整体设置通过电话拨打汽车防盗系统号码,接通系统后,将进行语音播报操作提示,实现系统设置与汽车定位,彩信等控制.系统具有震动传感、车边门传感、ACC传感与电平过低传感等触发源,当触发源被触发后,系统可循环拨打用户预设的报警电话,实现汽车报警.该系统具有独特的双电源控制,稳定性高.

  3. Designing of an emergency call system for traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Ekşi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In our country, many people have been seriously injured or died in traffic accidents. Fatal accidents often occur because of not complying with traffic rules or carelessness. Except these driver mistakes, heavy injuries can result in deaths because of emergency aid teams failing to arrive to accident scene in time. In this study, an accident emergency call system is designed to help injured people's treatment as soon as possible by notifying emercengy team automatically in accidents. The designed system sends messages, including information such as vehicle location, exploding airbag number, vehicle model, age and registration plate, to emergency aid team using GPS module at the moment of crashed vehicle's airbag explosion.

  4. ALARMS: Alerting and Reasoning Management System for Next Generation Aircraft Hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Carlin, Alan S; Marecki, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System will introduce new, advanced sensor technologies into the cockpit. With the introduction of such systems, the responsibilities of the pilot are expected to dramatically increase. In the ALARMS (ALerting And Reasoning Management System) project for NASA, we focus on a key challenge of this environment, the quick and efficient handling of aircraft sensor alerts. It is infeasible to alert the pilot on the state of all subsystems at all times. Furthermore, there is uncertainty as to the true hazard state despite the evidence of the alerts, and there is uncertainty as to the effect and duration of actions taken to address these alerts. This paper reports on the first steps in the construction of an application designed to handle Next Generation alerts. In ALARMS, we have identified 60 different aircraft subsystems and 20 different underlying hazards. In this paper, we show how a Bayesian network can be used to derive the state of the underlying hazards, based on the se...

  5. The event notification and alarm system for the Open Science Grid operations center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, S.; Teige and, S.; Quick, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Open Science Grid Operations (OSG) Team operates a distributed set of services and tools that enable the utilization of the OSG by several HEP projects. Without these services users of the OSG would not be able to run jobs, locate resources, obtain information about the status of systems or generally use the OSG. For this reason these services must be highly available. This paper describes the automated monitoring and notification systems used to diagnose and report problems. Described here are the means used by OSG Operations to monitor systems such as physical facilities, network operations, server health, service availability and software error events. Once detected, an error condition generates a message sent to, for example, Email, SMS, Twitter, an Instant Message Server, etc. The mechanism being developed to integrate these monitoring systems into a prioritized and configurable alarming system is emphasized.

  6. [Violence and accidents among older and younger adults: evidence from the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA), Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Sá, Naíza Nayla Bandeira de; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2011-11-01

    Data from the Brazilian Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA) in 2009 were used to examine socio-demographic characteristics, outcomes, and types of accidents and violence treated at 74 sentinel emergency services in 23 Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District. The analysis included 25,201 individuals aged > 20 years (10.1% > 60 years); 89.3% were victims of accidents and 11.9% victims of violence. Hospitalization was the outcome in 11.1% of cases. Compared to the general population, there were more men and non-white individuals among victims of accidents, and especially among victims of violence. As compared to younger adults (20-59 years), accidents and violence against elderly victims showed less association with alcohol, a higher proportion of domestic incidents, more falls and pedestrian accidents, and aggression by family members. Policies for the prevention of accidents and violence should consider the characteristics of these events in the older population.

  7. A Real Time Intelligent Driver Fatigue Alarm System Based On Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Ratnakar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In automobiles advanced controllers are equipped to control all the data. In this work a new technology is considered as driver fatigue detection system. Developing intelligent system to prevent car accidents and can be very effective in minimizing accident death toll. One of the factors which play an important role in accidents is the human errors including driving fatigue. Relying on new smart techniques; this system detects the signs of fatigue and sleepiness in the face of the person at the time of driving by capturing the video sequences of the driver. Then, the frames are transformed from YUV space into RBG spaces. It is one of the inexpensive and unobtrusive method where face, eyes are detected and edge detection and histogram normalization are performed on the captured frames using MATLAB as a tool.The face area is separated from other parts with high accuracy in segmentation, low error rate and quick processing of input data distinguishes this system from similar ones

  8. An overview of process instrumentation, protective safety interlocks and alarm system at the JET facilities active gas handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, N. E-mail: ns@jet.uk; Brennan, P.; Brown, K.; Gibbons, C.; Jones, G.; Knipe, S.; Manning, C.; Perevezentsev, A.; Stagg, R.; Thomas, R.; Yorkshades, J

    2003-09-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) Facilities Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) comprises ten interconnected processing sub-systems that supply, process and recover tritium from gases used in the JET Machine. Operations require a diverse range of process instrumentation to carry out a multiplicity of monitoring and control tasks and approximately 500 process variables are measured. The different types and application of process instruments are presented with specially adapted or custom-built versions highlighted. Forming part of the Safety Case for tritium operations, a dedicated hardwired interlock and alarm system provides an essential safety function. In the event of failure modes, each hardwired interlock will back-up software interlocks and shutdown areas of plant to a failsafe condition. Design of the interlock and alarm system is outlined and general methodology described. Practical experience gained during plant operations is summarised and the methods employed for routine functional testing of essential instrument systems explained.

  9. Reducing False Alarms in Searches for Gravitational Waves from Coalescing Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Andres

    2008-01-01

    LIGO observatories in Livingston, LA and Hanford, WA may detect gravitational waves emitted from coalescing binary systems composed of two compact objects. In order to detect compact binary coalescence (CBC) events, LIGO searches utilize matched filtering techniques. Matched filtering is the optimal detection strategy for stationary, Gaussian noise, however, LIGO noise is often non-stationary, non-Gaussian. Non-stationary noise result in an excess of false candidate events, commonly known as false alarms. This thesis develops the r^2 test to reduce the false alarm rate for LIGO CBC searches. Results of the search for primordial black hole binary systems (where each object has less than 1M_solar), in LIGO's Third Science Run (S3) is also presented. Results of the r^2 test are shown for several LIGO CBC searches, including the binary neutron star searches in the Third and Fourth Science Runs (S3/S4), the S3/S4 primordial black hole searches, and the binary black hole search in the first three months of the Fift...

  10. 10 CFR 76.89 - Criticality accident requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criticality accident requirements. 76.89 Section 76.89... Criticality accident requirements. (a) The Corporation must maintain and operate a criticality monitoring and audible alarm system meeting the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section in all areas of the...

  11. Monitor alarm fatigue: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvach, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Alarm fatigue is a national problem and the number one medical device technology hazard in 2012. The problem of alarm desensitization is multifaceted and related to a high false alarm rate, poor positive predictive value, lack of alarm standardization, and the number of alarming medical devices in hospitals today. This integrative review synthesizes research and non-research findings published between 1/1/2000 and 10/1/2011 using The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice model. Seventy-two articles were included. Research evidence was organized into five main themes: excessive alarms and effects on staff; nurse's response to alarms; alarm sounds and audibility; technology to reduce false alarms; and alarm notification systems. Non-research evidence was divided into two main themes: strategies to reduce alarm desensitization, and alarm priority and notification systems. Evidence-based practice recommendations and gaps in research are summarized.

  12. An information theory based complexity evaluation approach and example for advanced alarm processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun G.; Seong, Poong H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    In this paper, a model-based complexity evaluation approach is addressed in order to apply in early design phase of interface system. An effective model which predicts the complexity of human-computer interface including its contents is expected to provide practical guidance to designers. It is also expected to improve the human performance and to facilitate the system development. In order to overcome the demerits of conventional predictive models, a model which is based on the information theory and has cyclic property is developed. The proposed diagram, cyclic information flow (CIF) diagram, can describe the information flow around human operators, thus represent operator's cognitive workload. It also considers the signal processing and information providing methodology simultaneously. In order to show an application example, the advanced alarm processing system is evaluated using information theory based approach.

  13. Observation systems with alarm thresholds and their use in designing underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Lars [Geostatistik AB, Tumba (Sweden); Stille, Haakan [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Soil and Rock Mechanics

    2002-08-01

    The decision-based methodology described has wide applications in the building process. It can be applied whenever the exact outcome of the work is not known and where countermeasures might be needed. One such application is in the pre-investigations for the siting of spent nuclear fuel facilities aimed at determining the criteria for abandoning work on a given site. It can be seen that the principles of for designing an observation system and determining the alarm threshold are well understood. Several possible theoretical tools are also known, albeit from other disciplines than civil engineering. However, the choice of tools for a real problem should be investigated so that the advantages and drawbacks are illustrated. Reliable methods for designing observation systems in practice are, however, not known and are therefore not in use. A continuation of this study should therefore be aimed at comparing different theoretical tools and examining their practical application, including Quality Assurance and updating. It is therefore suggested that an observation system with alarm thresholds etc should be designed using the principles described in this report and should include testing and comparison of different models for predicting behaviour. This work could be undertaken for a real or for a hypothetical project. A real project is, of course, more difficult but has all the real-world problems that must be solved. A very brief, and not theoretically fully developed, account of the application of an observation system during the expansion of the interim spent fuel storage facility CLAB is enclosed as Appendix 1. Some comments on proposed changes in the system based on the principles set forth in this report are given in Appendix 2.

  14. One-Piece Triboelectric Nanosensor for Self-Triggered Alarm System and Latent Fingerprint Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yang; Zhu, Huarui; Cao, Xia; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-11-22

    Tactile sensing is of great importance in developing human-machine interface, remote control, and security systems. Here, a self-triggered alarm system based on the one-piece triboelectric nanosensor (TENS) is reported. By using nitrocellulose (NC) membrane as the triboelectric material, the as-designed TENS can not only sensitively respond to physical contacts in a self-triggered mode but also securely detect the third-level details of latent fingerprint. The self-triggered idea based on the triboelectric nanogenerator is compatible with intelligent interactive interface. Besides, this TENS can be conveniently fabricated and integrated into arrays at a large scale due to its freestanding, simple, and low-cost characteristics. This work presents alternative perspectives for the practical applications of the multifunctionalized TENS.

  15. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    . As a response to this situation, our design artefact, the interactive furniture Kidkit, invites children to become accustomed to the alarming sounds sampled from the ward while they are waiting in the waiting room. Our design acknowledges how atmospheres emerge as temporal negotiations between the rhythms......, a familiar relationship with the alarming sounds in the ward, enabling her to focus later more on the visit with the relative. The article discusses the proposed design strategy behind this solution and the potentiality for its use in hospital environments in general....

  16. Alarm fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendelbach, Sue

    2012-09-01

    The number of false high alarms in the hospital setting remains a serious problem. False alarms have desensitized care providers and, at times, have led to dire consequences for patients. Efforts by both industry and clinicians are beginning to address this situation in collaborative approaches. Research is needed to establish an evidence base around issues such as which patients need to be monitored, and what the threshold settings and delay settings should be on devices. Initial and ongoing education needs to be considered for any new medical device, and be included in the hospital's annual budget. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    Nurses working in the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit at Aarhus University Hospital lack the tools to prepare children for the alarming atmosphere they will enter when visiting a hospitalised relative. The complex soundscape dominated by alarms and sounds from equipment is mentioned as the main stressor...... of the body and the environment in conjunction with our internalised perception of the habituated background. By actively controlling the sounds built into Kidkit, the child can habituate them through a process of synchronising them with her own bodily rhythms. Hereby the child can establish, in advance...

  18. Adaptive System Identification for Estimating Future Glucose Concentrations and Hypoglycemia Alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren-Oruklu, Meriyan; Cinar, Ali; Rollins, Derrick K; Quinn, Lauretta

    2012-08-01

    Many patients with diabetes experience high variability in glucose concentrations that includes prolonged hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Models predicting a subject's future glucose concentrations can be used for preventing such conditions by providing early alarms. This paper presents a time-series model that captures dynamical changes in the glucose metabolism. Adaptive system identification is proposed to estimate model parameters which enable the adaptation of the model to inter-/intra-subject variation and glycemic disturbances. It consists of online parameter identification using the weighted recursive least squares method and a change detection strategy that monitors variation in model parameters. Univariate models developed from a subject's continuous glucose measurements are compared to multivariate models that are enhanced with continuous metabolic, physical activity and lifestyle information from a multi-sensor body monitor. A real life application for the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on early (30 min in advance) hypoglycemia detection.

  19. Analysis of Criticality Accident Transients of Uranium Solution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN; Ming-hui; DU; Kai-wen; LIU; Zhen-hua

    2012-01-01

    <正>In the nuclear fuel cycle, fissile materials are often dissolved in water. Criticality accidents are likely to happen in the uranium solution system and release a large amount of energy and radioactive materials. Therefore, the criticality safety of uranium solution system is very important in the nuclear safety technology research.

  20. Gynecological cancer alarm symptoms:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; dePont Christensen, René

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To determine the proportion of patients who were referred to specialist care after reporting gynecological cancer alarm symptoms to their general practitioner. To investigate whether contact with specialist care was associated with lifestyle factors or socioeconomic status. MATERIAL......: Educational level influence contact with specialist care among patients with gynecological cancer alarm symptoms. Future studies should investigate inequalities in access to the secondary healthcare system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......INTRODUCTION: To determine the proportion of patients who were referred to specialist care after reporting gynecological cancer alarm symptoms to their general practitioner. To investigate whether contact with specialist care was associated with lifestyle factors or socioeconomic status. MATERIAL...... and odds ratios (ORs) for associations between specialist care contact, lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The study included 25 866 non-pregnant women; 2957 reported the onset of at least one gynecological cancer alarm symptom, and 683 of these (23.1%) reported symptoms to their general...

  1. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanin, D.I. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Sprung, J.L.; Ritchie, L.T.; Jow, Hong-Nian (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previous CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. This document, Volume 1, the Users's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems.

  2. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jow, H.N.; Sprung, J.L.; Ritchie, L.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Rollstin, J.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Chanin, D.I. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management. 59 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollstin, J.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Chanin, D.I. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Jow, H.N. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projections, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management.

  4. West-Coast Wide Expansion and Testing of the Geodetic Alarm System (G-larmS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, C. J.; Grapenthin, R.; Melgar, D.; Aranha, M. A.; Allen, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Geodetic Alarm System (G-larmS) was developed in collaboration between the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) and New Mexico Tech for real-time Earthquake Early Warning (EEW). G-larmS has been in continuous operation at the BSL since 2014 using event triggers from the ShakeAlert EEW system and real-time position time series from a fully triangulated network consisting of BARD, PBO and USGS stations across northern California (CA). G-larmS has been extended to include southern CA and Cascadia, providing continuous west-coast wide coverage. G-larmS currently uses high rate (1 Hz), low latency (6.5) in CA and Cascadia built from realistic 3D geometries. Synthetic long-period 1Hz displacement waveforms were obtained from a new stochastic kinematic slip distribution generation method. Waveforms are validated by direct comparison to peak P-wave displacement scaling laws and to PGD GMPEs obtained from high-rate GPS observations of large events worldwide. We run the scenarios on real-time streams to systematically test the recovery of slip and magnitude by G-larmS. In addition to presenting these results, we will discuss new capabilities, such as implementing 2D geometry and the applicability of these results to GPS enhanced tsunami warning systems.

  5. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Rollstin, J.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Helton, J.C. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs.

  6. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  7. A System Supporting the Analysis of Motorway Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Anghinolfi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a business intelligence tool for monitoring traffic accidents on motorways and supporting decisions relevant to road safety. The system manages information on road characteristics, traffic accidents and traffic volumes and produces reports for monitoring the evolution of key performance indicators for road safety, supporting decisions on actions for risk mitigation and safety improvements for road users. The paper illustrates the different types of analyses performed by the system. Pattern based analysis is used to evaluate safety performance indicators for the road sections matching defined patterns. Two different road segmentation algorithms, used to identify the most critical road sections according to various severity indicators, are presented and discussed. Differential analysis compares the value of selected severity indicators before and after the implementation of an intervention on a road. Finally, a graphical user interface allows the accident locations to be visualized and accidents with specific characteristics to be highlighted. The system was evaluated on the data collected between 2009 and 2011 for the A15 motorway in Italy, connecting Parma to La Spezia.

  8. 核电厂数字化报警系统处理技术研究%Research on Digital Alarm System Processing Technology of Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓梅; 叶王平; 詹林钰

    2014-01-01

    针对现有核电厂主控制室报警系统所存在的典型人因问题,从数字化报警系统的报警信号流分析入手,提出合理实施报警信号处理和报警显示处理相关技术,并给出报警抑制、报警动态优先级管理及报警显示和控制集成解决方案,以减少报警系统人因问题。%Aiming at the existing typical human problems in main control room alarm system of nuclear power plant ,based on the digital alarm system alarm signal flow anal‐ysis ,a reasonable implementation of the alarm signal processing and alarm display pro‐cessing related technologies was put forward .And alarm suppression ,alarm dynamics priority management and alarm presentation and control integration solutions to reduce alarm system human factor issues were given .

  9. CERN Alarms Data Management: State And Improvements

    CERN Document Server

    Zaharieva, Z

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Alarms System - LASER is a centralized service ensuring the capturing, storing and notification of anomalies for the whole accelerator chain, including the technical infrastructure at CERN. The underlying database holds the pre-defined configuration data for the alarm definitions, for the Operators alarms consoles as well as the time-stamped, run-time alarm events, propagated through the Alarms Systems. The article will discuss the current state of the Alarms database and recent improvements that have been introduced. It will look into the data management challenges related to the alarms configuration data that is taken from numerous sources. Specially developed Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) processes must be applied to this data in order to transform it into an appropriate format and load it into the Alarms database. The recorded alarms events together with some additional data, necessary for providing events statistics to users, are transferred to the long-term alarms archive.The article will cover...

  10. Development of Integrated Evaluation System for Severe Accident Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. H.; Park, S. Y.; Park, J. H.; Song, Y. M.; Ahn, K. I.; Choi, Y

    2007-06-15

    The objective of the project is twofold. One is to develop a severe accident database (DB) for the Korean Standard Nuclear Power plant (OPR-1000) and a DB management system, and the other to develop a localized computer code, MIDAS (Multi-purpose IntegrateD Assessment code for Severe accidents). The MELCOR DB has been constructed for the typical representative sequences to support the previous MAAP DB in the previous phase. The MAAP DB has been updated using the recent version of MAAP 4.0.6. The DB management system, SARD, has been upgraded to manage the MELCOR DB in addition to the MAAP DB and the network environment has been constructed for many users to access the SARD simultaneously. The integrated MIDAS 1.0 has been validated after completion of package-wise validation. As the current version of MIDAS cannot simulate the anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) sequence, point-kinetics model has been implemented. Also the gap cooling phenomena after corium relocation into the RPV can be modeled by the user as an input parameter. In addition, the subsystems of the severe accident graphic simulator are complemented for the efficient severe accident management and the engine of the graphic simulator was replaced by the MIDAS instead of the MELCOR code. For the user's convenience, MIDAS input and output processors are upgraded by enhancing the interfacial programs.

  11. Development of a system of computer codes for severe accident analyses and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Soon Hong; Cheon, Moon Heon; Cho, Nam jin; No, Hui Cheon; Chang, Hyeon Seop; Moon, Sang Kee; Park, Seok Jeong; Chung, Jee Hwan [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-12-15

    The objectives of this study is to develop a system of computer codes for postulated severe accident analyses in Nuclear Power Plants. This system of codes is necessary to conduct individual plant examination for domestic nuclear power plants. As a result of this study, one can conduct severe accident assessments more easily, and can extract the plant-specific vulnerabilities for severe accidents and at the same time the ideas for enhancing overall accident resistance. The scope and contents of this study are as follows : development of a system of computer codes for severe accident analyses, development of severe accident management strategy.

  12. 低压故障停电报警系统%Low Pressure Fault Outage Alarm System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊锋; 丁月明

    2013-01-01

      供电可靠性要求越来越高,对低压配电线路的供电情况一直缺乏监测,不能随时掌握台变的运行情况,如果台变发生跳闸事故,只能通过用户打电话通知电力部门,经常出现停电后不能得到即时地处理,给用户带来工作、生活的不便,长时间的停电也会带来很大的经济损失。分析发生故障停电后报修不及时的原因和对策,研制了一套低压停电故障报警监测系统,在台变跳闸停电后能够通知电力抢修部门,使故障停电报修的时间尽可能的缩短,有效的减少了故障停电时间,提高了供电可靠性,同时有效地提高了供电企业的优质服务水平。%There is higher demand for supply reliability. There is not enough monitoring of the supply of low-voltage distribution lines, and so we can not keep up operation of bench transformer. If the bench transformer occurs tripping accident, we can notify the power sector only through user's call. If the blackouts are often and can not be immediately treated, it will bring inconveniences to the work and living of the user, and also will bring great economic losses. This paper analyzed the causes and countermeasures for not timely repair to failure blackout, developed a set of low-voltage power failure alarm monitoring system which can send the tripping blackout to electrical repair department, reduce the repair time and effectively reduce the fault outage time, improve the reliability of power supply, at the same time improve the level of quality service of power supply enterprise.

  13. Fundamental Principles of Alarm Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Us, Tolga; Jensen, Niels; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally alarms are designed on the basis of empirical guidelines rather than on a sound scientific framework rooted in a theoretical foundation for process and control system design. This paper proposes scientific principles and a methodology for design of alarms based on a functional...... be applied to any engineering system which can be modeled by MFM. The methodology provides a set of alarms which can facilitate event interpretation and operator support for abnormal situation management. The proposed design methodology provides the information content of the alarms, but does not deal...

  14. Transformation of Ground Vibration Signal for Debris-Flow Monitoring and Detection in Alarm Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems.

  15. Transformation of ground vibration signal for debris-flow monitoring and detection in alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Fritschi, Bruno; Graf, Christoph; Moya, José

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems.

  16. Alarm management a comprehensive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hollifield, Bill R

    2011-01-01

    In this second edition, Alarm Management: A Comprehensive Guide, various problems of alarm systems are covered with precise guidance on how they come about and how to effectively correct them. It is written by individuals with vast experience in the different plants, processes, and environments requiring effective alarm management. The second edition is filled with good examples and explanations of procedures, with practical lists and tips on how one should proceed. It is based on hundreds of successful projects.

  17. The Design and Application of Detection and Alarm System of Combustible and Toxic Gas%浅析可燃和有毒有害气体检测报警系统的设计及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明鑫; 梁杰灿

    2016-01-01

    Ln order to avoid safety accident caused by flammable and toxic gas,In petrochemical plant and coal chemical industry, The combustible and toxic gas alarm control system shall be set. This paper simply introduces the updates and changes of the standard specification, and analyzes the combustible toxic gas detection alarm system.Finally professional and national code and the application with the combustible and toxic gas detection alarm system in the PP plant are introduced.%在石油化工及煤化工等行业的生产装置中,为了避免因可燃和有毒有害气体引起的安全生产事故发生,设置可燃和有毒有害气体检测报警系统。本文简单介绍了标准规范更新和变化,浅述可燃和有毒有害气体检测报警系统主要结构,最后介绍了可燃和有毒有害气体检测报警系统在聚丙烯装置中的应用。

  18. WIRELESS ACCIDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM USING GSM AND GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.RATHINAKUMAR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about designing a Smart Display and Control [SDC] which will monitor the zone and maintains the specified speed in the zone levels, which runs on an embedded system. This system includes three modules; automatic speed control module, accident detection and information sending module and security enabling module. Automatic speed control module includes RF transmitter placed in specific location and RF receiver in the vehicle. Accident detection module includes GSM and GPS technology. Security enabling module includes sensory units which ensures the condition of seat belt and the driver. This module includes alcohol sensor and eye sensor. The smart display and control is composed of two separate units: Zone status Transmitter unit and Receiver (speed Display and Control Unit.

  19. Role of Large Clinical Datasets From Physiologic Monitors in Improving the Safety of Clinical Alarm Systems and Methodological Considerations: A Case From Philips Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowan, Azizeh Khaled; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Staggers, Nancy

    2016-09-30

    Large datasets of the audit log of modern physiologic monitoring devices have rarely been used for predictive modeling, capturing unsafe practices, or guiding initiatives on alarm systems safety. This paper (1) describes a large clinical dataset using the audit log of the physiologic monitors, (2) discusses benefits and challenges of using the audit log in identifying the most important alarm signals and improving the safety of clinical alarm systems, and (3) provides suggestions for presenting alarm data and improving the audit log of the physiologic monitors. At a 20-bed transplant cardiac intensive care unit, alarm data recorded via the audit log of bedside monitors were retrieved from the server of the central station monitor. Benefits of the audit log are many. They include easily retrievable data at no cost, complete alarm records, easy capture of inconsistent and unsafe practices, and easy identification of bedside monitors missed from a unit change of alarm settings adjustments. Challenges in analyzing the audit log are related to the time-consuming processes of data cleaning and analysis, and limited storage and retrieval capabilities of the monitors. The audit log is a function of current capabilities of the physiologic monitoring systems, monitor's configuration, and alarm management practices by clinicians. Despite current challenges in data retrieval and analysis, large digitalized clinical datasets hold great promise in performance, safety, and quality improvement. Vendors, clinicians, researchers, and professional organizations should work closely to identify the most useful format and type of clinical data to expand medical devices' log capacity.

  20. Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRS - A Preliminary Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles Youinou; R. Sonat Sen

    2013-09-01

    The severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plants illustrates the need for continuous improvements through developing and implementing technologies that contribute to safe, reliable and cost-effective operation of the nuclear fleet. Development of enhanced accident tolerant fuel contributes to this effort. These fuels, in comparison with the standard zircaloy – UO2 system currently used by the LWR industry, should be designed such that they tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, and design-basis events. This report presents a preliminary systems analysis related to most of these concepts. The potential impacts of these innovative LWR fuels on the front-end of the fuel cycle, on the reactor operation and on the back-end of the fuel cycle are succinctly described without having the pretension of being exhaustive. Since the design of these various concepts is still a work in progress, this analysis can only be preliminary and could be updated as the designs converge on their respective final version.

  1. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin

    2015-07-10

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP) was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.

  2. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Duan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.

  3. An application of probabilistic safety assessment methods to model aircraft systems and accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Hall, R.E.; Fullwood, R.R.

    1998-08-01

    A case study modeling the thrust reverser system (TRS) in the context of the fatal accident of a Boeing 767 is presented to illustrate the application of Probabilistic Safety Assessment methods. A simplified risk model consisting of an event tree with supporting fault trees was developed to represent the progression of the accident, taking into account the interaction between the TRS and the operating crew during the accident, and the findings of the accident investigation. A feasible sequence of events leading to the fatal accident was identified. Several insights about the TRS and the accident were obtained by applying PSA methods. Changes proposed for the TRS also are discussed.

  4. A mobile phone based alarm system for supervising vital parameters in free moving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellermann Kristine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Study protocols involving experimental animals often require the monitoring of different parameters not only in anesthetized, but also in free moving animals. Most animal research involves small rodents, in which continuously monitoring parameters such as temperature and heart rate is very stressful for the awake animals or simply not possible. Aim of the underlying study was to monitor heart rate, temperature and activity and to assess inflammation in the heart, lungs, liver and kidney in the early postoperative phase after experimental cardiopulmonary bypass involving 45 min of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in rats. Besides continuous monitoring of heart rate, temperature and behavioural activity, the main focus was on avoiding uncontrolled death of an animal in the early postoperative phase in order to harvest relevant organs before autolysis would render them unsuitable for the assessment of inflammation. Findings We therefore set up a telemetry-based system (Data Science International, DSI™ that continuously monitored the rat's temperature, heart rate and activity in their cages. The data collection using telemetry was combined with an analysis software (Microsoft excel™, a webmail application (GMX and a text message-service. Whenever an animal's heart rate dropped below the pre-defined threshold of 150 beats per minute (bpm, a notification in the form of a text message was automatically sent to the experimenter's mobile phone. With a positive predictive value of 93.1% and a negative predictive value of 90.5%, the designed surveillance and alarm system proved a reliable and inexpensive tool to avoid uncontrolled death in order to minimize suffering and harvest relevant organs before autolysis would set in. Conclusions This combination of a telemetry-based system and software tools provided us with a reliable notification system of imminent death. The system's high positive predictive value helped to avoid

  5. Improvement of the following accident dose assessment system (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Enn Han; Han, Moon Hee; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae; Choi, Young Gil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The FADAS and its database have been updates for calculating the real-time wind fields continuously at the nuclear sites in Korea. The system has been constructed to compute the wind fields using its own process for the dummy meteorological data, and does not effect on the overall wind field module. If the radioactive materials are released into the atmosphere in real situation, the calculations of wind fields and exposure dose in the previous FADAS are performed in the case of the recognition of the above situation in the source term evaluation module. The current version of FADAS includes the program for evaluating the effect of the predicted accident and the assumed scenario together. The dose assessment module is separated into the real-time and the supposed accident respectively. 7 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  6. Improvement of the following accident dose assessment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Enn Han; Han, Moon Hee; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae; Choi, Young Gil [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    The FADAS has been updates for calculating the real-time wind fields continuously at the nuclear sites in Korea. The system has been constructed to compute the wind fields using its own process for the dummy meteorological data, and dose not effect on the overall wind field module. If the radioactive materials are released into the atmosphere in real situation, the calculations of wind fields and exposure dose in the previous FADAS are performed in the case of the recognition of the above situation in the source term evaluation module. The current version of FADAS includes the program for evaluating the effect of the predicted accident and the assumed scenario together. The dose assessment module is separated into the real-time and the supposed accident respectively.

  7. Development of system of computer codes for severe accident analysis and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, H. S.; Jeon, M. H.; Cho, N. J. and others [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-01-15

    The objectives of this study is to develop a system of computer codes for postulated severe accident analyses in nuclear power plants. This system of codes is necessary to conduct Individual Plant Examination for domestic nuclear power plants. As a result of this study, one can conduct severe accident assessments more easily, and can extract the plant-specific vulnerabilities for severe accidents and at the same time the ideas for enhancing overall accident-resistance. Severe accident can be mitigated by the proper accident management strategies. Some operator action for mitigation can lead to more disastrous result and thus uncertain severe accident phenomena must be well recognized. There must be further research for development of severe accident management strategies utilizing existing plant resources as well as new design concepts.

  8. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-01-10

    Four bounding accidents postulated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing a hydrogen explosion, and a fire breaching filter vessel and enclosure. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  9. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-10-07

    Three bounding accidents postdated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing, and a hydrogen explosion. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  10. Cirrus Airframe Parachute System and Odds of a Fatal Accident in Cirrus Aircraft Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaziz, Mustafa; Stolfi, Adrienne; Olson, Dean M

    2017-06-01

    General aviation (GA) accidents have continued to demonstrate high fatality rates. Recently, ballistic parachute recovery systems (BPRS) have been introduced as a safety feature in some GA aircraft. This study evaluates the effectiveness and associated factors of the Cirrus Airframe Parachute System (CAPS) at reducing the odds of a fatal accident in Cirrus aircraft crashes. Publicly available Cirrus aircraft crash reports were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database for the period of January 1, 2001-December 31, 2016. Accident metrics were evaluated through univariate and multivariate analyses regarding odds of a fatal accident and use of the parachute system. Included in the study were 268 accidents. For CAPS nondeployed accidents, 82 of 211 (38.9%) were fatal as compared to 8 of 57 (14.0%) for CAPS deployed accidents. After controlling for all other factors, the adjusted odds ratio for a fatal accident when CAPS was not deployed was 13.1. The substantial increased odds of a fatal accident when CAPS was not deployed demonstrated the effectiveness of CAPS at providing protection of occupants during an accident. Injuries were shifted from fatal to serious or minor with the use of CAPS and postcrash fires were significantly reduced. These results suggest that BPRS could play a significant role in the next major advance in improving GA accident survival.Alaziz M, Stolfi A, Olson DM. Cirrus Airframe Parachute System and odds of a fatal accident in Cirrus aircraft crashes. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):556-564.

  11. Future Integrated Systems Concept for Preventing Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Jacobson, Steven r.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper presents future system concepts and research directions for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents.

  12. An Accident Precursor Analysis Process Tailored for NASA Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Frank; Stamatelatos, Michael; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Maggio, Gaspare

    2010-01-01

    Accident Precursor Analysis (APA) serves as the bridge between existing risk modeling activities, which are often based on historical or generic failure statistics, and system anomalies, which provide crucial information about the failure mechanisms that are actually operative in the system and which may differ in frequency or type from those in the various models. These discrepancies between the models (perceived risk) and the system (actual risk) provide the leading indication of an underappreciated risk. This paper presents an APA process developed specifically for NASA Earth-to-Orbit space systems. The purpose of the process is to identify and characterize potential sources of system risk as evidenced by anomalous events which, although not necessarily presenting an immediate safety impact, may indicate that an unknown or insufficiently understood risk-significant condition exists in the system. Such anomalous events are considered accident precursors because they signal the potential for severe consequences that may occur in the future, due to causes that are discernible from their occurrence today. Their early identification allows them to be integrated into the overall system risk model used to intbrm decisions relating to safety.

  13. The fine tuning of pain thresholds: a sophisticated double alarm system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léon Plaghki

    the same experimental run. Such an approach illustrates the role of nociception as a "double level" and "double release" alarm system based on level detectors. By contrast, warmth detection was found to be based on difference detectors. It is hypothesized that pain results from a CNS build-up process resulting from population coding and strongly influenced by the background temperatures surrounding at large the stimulation site. We propose an alternative solution to the conventional methods that only measure a single "threshold of pain", without knowing which of the two systems is involved.

  14. The Fine Tuning of Pain Thresholds: A Sophisticated Double Alarm System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaghki, Léon; Decruynaere, Céline; Van Dooren, Paul; Le Bars, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    illustrates the role of nociception as a “double level” and “double release” alarm system based on level detectors. By contrast, warmth detection was found to be based on difference detectors. It is hypothesized that pain results from a CNS build-up process resulting from population coding and strongly influenced by the background temperatures surrounding at large the stimulation site. We propose an alternative solution to the conventional methods that only measure a single “threshold of pain”, without knowing which of the two systems is involved. PMID:20428245

  15. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Foster, R.D.; Gregory, W.S.; Horak, H.L.; Idar, E.S.; Martin, R.A.; Ricketts, C.I.; Smith, P.R.; Tang, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported.

  16. EDUCATIONAL USE OF CLOUD COMPUTING AND AT-MEGA MICROCONTROLLER - A CASE STUDY OF AN ALARM SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Cieplak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article shows a case study of Cloud Computing model combined with AT-Mega microcontrollers for educational purposes. The presented system takes advantage of many aspects of Internet of Things model, thus conjoining Cloud Management system with measurement-execution module based on Arduino platform. One benefit of this solution is a cost-effective way of showcasing machine and device integration with distinct cloud services. This article is based on practical experience with students' projects and an home alarm system with use of a Cloud Computing services will be described.

  17. A Modular Telerobot Control System for Accident Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Robert J.; Shirey, David L.

    1999-07-20

    The Accident Response Mobile Manipulator System (ARMMS) is a teleoperated emergency response vehicle that deploys two hydraulic manipulators, five cameras, and an array of sensors to the scene of an incident. It is operated from a remote base station that can be situated up to four kilometers away from the site. Recently, a modular telerobot control architecture called SMART (Sandia's Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) was applied to ARMMS to improve the precision, safety, and operability of the manipulators on board. Using SMART, a prototype manipulator control system was developed in a couple of days, and an integrated working system was demonstrated within a couple of months. New capabilities such as camera teleoperation, autonomous tool changeout and dual manipulator control have been incorporated. The final system incorporates twenty-two separate modules and implements eight different behavior modes. This paper describes the integration of SMART into the ARMMS system.

  18. Development of the severe accident risk information database management system SARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kwang Il; Kim, Dong Ha

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this report is to introduce essential features and functions of a severe accident risk information management system, SARD (Severe Accident Risk Database Management System) version 1.0, which has been developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, and database management and data retrieval procedures through the system. The present database management system has powerful capabilities that can store automatically and manage systematically the plant-specific severe accident analysis results for core damage sequences leading to severe accidents, and search intelligently the related severe accident risk information. For that purpose, the present database system mainly takes into account the plant-specific severe accident sequences obtained from the Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs), base case analysis results for various severe accident sequences (such as code responses and summary for key-event timings), and related sensitivity analysis results for key input parameters/models employed in the severe accident codes. Accordingly, the present database system can be effectively applied in supporting the Level 2 PSA of similar plants, for fast prediction and intelligent retrieval of the required severe accident risk information for the specific plant whose information was previously stored in the database system, and development of plant-specific severe accident management strategies.

  19. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alarm devices. 77.311 Section 77.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY....311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm...

  20. Developement of integrated evaluation system for severe accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, H. D.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. H.; Choi, Y.; Song, Y. M.; Ahn, K. I.; Park, J. H

    2005-04-01

    The scope of the project includes four activities such as construction of DB, development of data base management tool, development of severe accident analysis code system and FP studies. In the construction of DB, level-1,2 PSA results and plant damage states event trees were mainly used to select the following target initiators based on frequencies: LLOCA, MLOCA, SLOCA, station black out, LOOP, LOFW and SGTR. These scenarios occupy more than 95% of the total frequencies of the core damage sequences at KSNP. In the development of data base management tool, SARD 2.0 was developed under the PC microsoft windows environment using the visual basic 6.0 language. In the development of severe accident analysis code system, MIDAS 1.0 was developed with new features of FORTRAN-90 which makes it possible to allocate the storage dynamically and to use the user-defined data type, leading to an efficient memory treatment and an easy understanding. Also for user's convenience, the input (IEDIT) and output (IPLOT) processors were developed and implemented into the MIDAS code. For the model development of MIDAS concerning the FP behavior, the one dimensional thermophoresis model was developed and it gave much improvement to predict the amount of FP deposited on the SG U-tube. Also the source term analysis methodology was set up and applied to the KSNP and APR1400.

  1. Design of sluice voice alarm system based on AT89S52 and ISD1760%基于AT89S52和ISD1760的水闸语音报警系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴学中; 蔡明星; 吴学文

    2011-01-01

    为避免水闸附近渔船在水闸开闸放水时被上游的水冲走,设计出一种水闸语音报警系统.该系统基于单片机AT89S52和语音芯片ISD1760,在开闸前10分钟,通过系统的通信模块接收远程水闸控制中心发送的指令,判断指令的种类,给予相应的报警提示,同时控制水闸上方的报警指示灯闪亮,通知水闸附近的船只迅速撤离到安全水域.在巢湖市裕溪水闸实际应用中,该系统能够稳定地工作,有效地减少了水闸附近渔船发生危险的事故数,达到了避免不必要的伤亡和损失的要求.%In order to avoid the hazardous situation that when opening the sluice some fishing boats downstream would be washed away, this paper designed a kind of voice alarm system. This system is based on AT89S52 SCM and ISD1760, 10 minutes before opening the sluice, the system received alarm instructions through the control center of the remote sluice,determined the type of instructions, then played corresponding alarm prompts. At the same moment, the system controlled the alarm indicator light which was placed at the top of the sluice flashing so that fishing vessels near the sluice could evacuate to safer waters quickly. The application results using in Yu-xi sluice show that the alarm system can work reliably and stably, it effectively reduces the number of accidents of fishing vessels nearby the sluice, and meets the requirements of avoiding unnecessary casualties and losses.

  2. Development of ultrasonic high temperature system for severe accidents research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Young Ro and others

    2000-07-01

    The aims of this study are to find a gap formation between corium melt and the reactor lower head vessel, to verify the principle of the gap formation and to analyze the effect of the gap formation on the thermal behavior of corium melt and the lower plenum. This report aims at suggesting development of a new high temperature measuring system using an ultrasonic method which overcomes the limitations of the present thermocouple method used for severe accident experiments. Also, this report describes the design and manufacturing method of the ultrasonic system. At that time, the sensor element is fabricated to a reflective element using 1mm diameter and 50 mm and 80 mm long tungsten alloy wires. This temperature measuring system is intended to measure up to 2800 deg C.

  3. A database system for the management of severe accident risk information, SARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, K. I.; Kim, D. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce main features and functions of a PC Windows-based database management system, SARD, which has been developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for automatic management and search of the severe accident risk information. Main functions of the present database system are implemented by three closely related, but distinctive modules: (1) fixing of an initial environment for data storage and retrieval, (2) automatic loading and management of accident information, and (3) automatic search and retrieval of accident information. For this, the present database system manipulates various form of the plant-specific severe accident risk information, such as dominant severe accident sequences identified from the plant-specific Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and accident sequence-specific information obtained from the representative severe accident codes (e.g., base case and sensitivity analysis results, and summary for key plant responses). The present database system makes it possible to implement fast prediction and intelligent retrieval of the required severe accident risk information for various accident sequences, and in turn it can be used for the support of the Level 2 PSA of similar plants and for the development of plant-specific severe accident management strategies.

  4. Role of Large Clinical Datasets From Physiologic Monitors in Improving the Safety of Clinical Alarm Systems and Methodological Considerations: A Case From Philips Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Charles Calhoun; Staggers, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Background Large datasets of the audit log of modern physiologic monitoring devices have rarely been used for predictive modeling, capturing unsafe practices, or guiding initiatives on alarm systems safety. Objective This paper (1) describes a large clinical dataset using the audit log of the physiologic monitors, (2) discusses benefits and challenges of using the audit log in identifying the most important alarm signals and improving the safety of clinical alarm systems, and (3) provides suggestions for presenting alarm data and improving the audit log of the physiologic monitors. Methods At a 20-bed transplant cardiac intensive care unit, alarm data recorded via the audit log of bedside monitors were retrieved from the server of the central station monitor. Results Benefits of the audit log are many. They include easily retrievable data at no cost, complete alarm records, easy capture of inconsistent and unsafe practices, and easy identification of bedside monitors missed from a unit change of alarm settings adjustments. Challenges in analyzing the audit log are related to the time-consuming processes of data cleaning and analysis, and limited storage and retrieval capabilities of the monitors. Conclusions The audit log is a function of current capabilities of the physiologic monitoring systems, monitor’s configuration, and alarm management practices by clinicians. Despite current challenges in data retrieval and analysis, large digitalized clinical datasets hold great promise in performance, safety, and quality improvement. Vendors, clinicians, researchers, and professional organizations should work closely to identify the most useful format and type of clinical data to expand medical devices’ log capacity. PMID:27694097

  5. 基于RFID部队考勤报警系统%Attendance alarm system based on RFID for Army

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁浩; 樊同亮

    2016-01-01

    随着科技进步和部队现代化程度的大大提高,部队考勤系统越来越智能化。文章设计了基于无线射频识别技术的考勤报警系统,采用 STC89C52单片机作为主控器,由 RFID、红外和温度传感器以及 RTC 时钟管理芯片等组成。该系统能够实现记录考勤和对非法人员报警的功能,具有低损耗、高性能、高可靠性的优点。%With the rapid acceleration of the technology and the modernization of troops, it is more intelligent for the troop at-tendance system. In this paper, we design an attendance alarm system based on RFID, adopting the STC89C52 single-chip-microcomputer as master controller. It consists of RFID, infrared sensor, temperature sensor and RTC clock management chip. This system can achieve the function of record attendance and alarms to persons without permission. In addition, it also shows capacity on low loss, high performance and better reliability.

  6. Detection and classification of alarm threshold violations in condition monitoring systems working in highly varying operational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strączkiewicz, M.; Barszcz, T.; Jabłoński, A.

    2015-07-01

    All commonly used condition monitoring systems (CMS) enable defining alarm thresholds that enhance efficient surveillance and maintenance of dynamic state of machinery. The thresholds are imposed on the measured values such as vibration-based indicators, temperature, pressure, etc. For complex machinery such as wind turbine (WT) the total number of thresholds might be counted in hundreds multiplied by the number of operational states. All the parameters vary not only due to possible machinery malfunctions, but also due to changes in operating conditions and these changes are typically much stronger than the former ones. Very often, such a behavior may lead to hundreds of false alarms. Therefore, authors propose a novel approach based on parameterized description of the threshold violation. For this purpose the novelty and severity factors are introduced. The first parameter refers to the time of violation occurrence while the second one describes the impact of the indicator-increase to the entire machine. Such approach increases reliability of the CMS by providing the operator with the most useful information of the system events. The idea of the procedure is presented on a simulated data similar to those from a wind turbine.

  7. Accidental knowledge: Using accidents and other project failures to inform research in systems engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Diane C.

    Projects experience cost overruns, late deliveries, quality issues, cancellation, and accidents despite the best efforts of the systems engineering community. There is relatively little research on why systems engineering failures in general happen, but a substantial body of work on accident causation. Here, we investigate whether systems failures in general exhibit the same patterns of causation as accidents. We conducted a review of existing accident models to develop a model that could be applied to all types of project failures. Our model helped us to classify where the factors occur during the system development/system operation phases and which entity was involved in each factor. We analyzed 58 failure case studies. The failure cases span non-accidents, accidents, and dual failures. The sources for each subset had varying depth and scope of investigation. We developed a coding method to compare the factors between failure cases that broke each factor down into an "actor-action-object" structure. We further generalized the actions from the "actor-action-object" strings into control flaws so that we could analyze the failure cases at a high level. We analyzed the control flaws, actions, and actors for each failure case and compared the results for accidents and non-accidents. Of our results that we could not attribute to study biases, we found similarities and differences between project failure causation. We also identified which control flaws, actions, and actors were the most prevalent in the different types of project failures. Of all the actions, "failure to consider factor in system development" contributed most to non-accidents, while "failure to consider step in risk management" contributed the most to accidents. Of all the actors, "company management" contributed the most to non-accidents and accidents.

  8. 医用报警系统中视觉报警信号的测试方法%Test Methods of Visual Alarm Signal for Medical Alarm Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赟; 孙益项

    2014-01-01

    介绍了几种可用于医用报警系统中视觉报警信号的测试方法,以进行YY 0709-2009的符合性验证,包括直接测量报警信号灯的供电脉冲、拍摄视频动画后进行图像分析和用光电传感器测量等,对几种方法的优劣进行了比较。重点提出了一种以硅光电池作为传感器、并在前端增加滤光片、在输出端增加放大电路、用示波器接收信号的方法,解决了液晶模拟闪烁信号的测试难点,能够适应各种医用电气设备的视觉报警信号测试。%This paper introduces several test methods of characteristics of alarm indicator lights which can be used in the medical alarm system to verify the compliance of YY 0709-2009. These methods include the direct measurement of the pulse current supply of the alarm signals, image analysing of a video and reception by photoelectric sensor. After the comparation of the advantages and disadvantages among these methods, this paper proposes a new method of signal reception. This method which used a silicon photocellas the sensor with light filter in its front, and amplified circuit in the output end then used an oscil ograph as the reviewer, has resolved the testing difficulties of the flashing signal simulating by LCD, and can be applied to test the alarm indicator lights in any medical electrical equipment.

  9. 77 FR 18689 - Changes to Standard Numbering System, Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ..., Federal, State, and local law enforcement personnel use SNS information from the States' numbering systems... enforcement personnel use SNS information from the States' numbering systems for enforcement of boating laws... Standard Numbering System (SNS), the Vessel Identification System, and accident reporting; require...

  10. Designing the accident and emergency system: lessons from manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, P

    2003-03-01

    To review the literature on manufacturing process design and demonstrate applicability in health care. Literature review and application of theory using two years activity data from two healthcare communities and extensive observation of activities over a six week period by seven researchers. It was possible to identify patient flows that could be used to design treatment processes around the needs of the patient. Some queues are built into existing treatment processes and can be removed by better process design. Capacity imbalance, not capacity shortage, causes some unnecessary waiting in accident and emergency departments. Clinicians would find that modern manufacturing theories produce more acceptable designs of systems. In particular, good quality is seen as a necessary pre-requisite of fast, efficient services.

  11. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm signals. 113.25-12 Section 113.25-12 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-12 Alarm signals. (a) Each general emergency alarm signal must be an electrically-operated bell, klaxon, or other warning device capable of...

  12. Submerged demineralize system processing of TMI-2 accident waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, H.F.; Quinn, G.J.

    1983-02-01

    Accident-generated radioactive waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 includes a varity of high and low specific-activity waste. The high-specific-activity waste, particularly over one million gallons of contaminated water, required special processing and secondary waste handling. General public utilities and its contractors developed a zeolite-based ion-exchange system called the Submerged Demineralizer System to reduce contamination levels in the water to below allowable limits. Testing and modifications resulted in an operating system that had successfully processed waste water from the Reactor Coolant Bleed Tanks, the Reactor Building Basement, and the Reactor Coolant System as of August 1982. System design objectives were met and decontamination criteria established in 10 CFR 20 were attained. Additional wastes that could not be handled routinely were generated by another water-processing system, called EPICOR II. EPICOR II wastes are discussed. Low-specific-activity (LSA) wastes such as trash and resin-bed waste canisters are also included in handling. LSA wastes are routinely handled and shipped according to existing industry practice. Plant records are summarized to provide approximate yearly volumes and curie loadings of low-specific-activity wastes being shipped off the Island to a commercial burial site.

  13. Statistical Considerations in Designing Tests of Mine Detection Systems: II - Measures Related to the False Alarm Rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonson, K.M.

    1998-08-01

    The rate at which a mine detection system falsely identifies man-made or natural clutter objects as mines is referred to as the system's false alarm rate (FAR). Generally expressed as a rate per unit area or time, the FAR is one of the primary metrics used to gauge system performance. In this report, an overview is given of statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data relating to FAR. Techniques are presented for determining a suitable size for the clutter collection area, for summarizing the performance of a single sensor, and for comparing different sensors. For readers requiring more thorough coverage of the topics discussed, references to the statistical literature are provided. A companion report addresses statistical issues related to the estimation of mine detection probabilities.

  14. Application performance evaluation on automatic fire alarm system of metro%地铁火灾自动报警系统使用效能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立巍; 宋立丹; 赵海荣

    2009-01-01

    对地铁火灾自动报警系统使用效能评价进行了研究,提出了该系统使用效能的评价要求、评价指标体系、评价流程以及评分模型,为地铁火灾自动报警系统的使用效能评价工作提供了技术参考和指导.%Application performance evaluation on automatic fire alarm system in metro was studied. Requirements, evaluation index system, evaluation process and score model of application performance evaluation on automatic fire alarm system in metro were proposed. And it will provide technical reference and guidance on the application performance evaluation job on automatic fire alarm system in metro.

  15. Midair collisions - The accidents, the systems, and the Realpolitik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Two midair collisions occurring in 1978 are described, and the air traffic control system and procedures in use at the time, human factors implications and political consequences of the accidents are examined. The first collision occurred in Memphis and involved a Falcon jet and a Cessna 150 in a situation in which the controllers handling each aircraft were not aware of the presence of the other aircraft until it was too late. The second occurred in San Diego four months later, when a Boeing 727 on a visual approach struck a Cessna 172 from the rear. Following the San Diego collision there arose a great deal of investigative activity, resulting in suggestions for tighter control on visual flight rules aircraft and the expansion of positive control airspace. These issues then led to a political battle involving general aviation, the FAA and the Congress. It is argued, however, that the collisions were in fact system-induced errors resulting from an air traffic control system which emphasizes airspace allocation and politics rather than the various human factors problems facing pilots and controllers.

  16. Design of Pyroelectric Infrared Alarm System%热释电红外报警系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚小燕; 姜旭; 武继安

    2012-01-01

    Based on the working principle of pyroelectric infrared sensor,the passive pyroelectric infrared alarm system is designed for safety of residence house to detect whether outsiders enter or not.This system was made of pyroelectric infrared sensor,Fresnel lens and monitoring circuits.Infrared signal processor BISS0001 was chosen,amplifying and filtering circuits and infrared signal processing circuit were designed on basis of the concealment of infrared,then the voice chip was utilized to simulate alarm voice for warning thieves and burglars.After many experiments,it represented that the system has sensitive response,high anti-interference ability and safe and reliable performance.%基于热释电红外传感器的工作原理,设计了一种被动式热释电红外报警器。主要用于家居安全,探测有无外人闯入。该系统由热释电红外传感器、菲涅尔透镜和监控电路组成。系统把红外线的隐蔽性很好地应用于电路中,选用了新一代红外信号处理器BISS0001,设计了放大滤波电路,红外信号处理电路,并加入语音芯片,模拟警笛声音,达到防盗目的。经多次实验,该系统反应灵敏,抗干扰能力强,安全可靠。

  17. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” ...

  18. Analysis of Waste Leak and Toxic Chemical Release Accidents from Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Diluent System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2000-09-15

    Radiological and toxicological consequences are calculated for 4 postulated accidents involving the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) diluent addition systems. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated. This analysis contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences for the River Protection Project (RPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).

  19. Technical Basis for the Use of Alarming Personal Criticality Detectors to Augment Permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in Areas Not Normally Occupied

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, K R

    2003-01-01

    The technical basis for the use of alarming personal criticality detectors (APCDs) to augment permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in areas not normally occupied is evaluated. All applicable DOE O 420.1A and ANSI/ANS-8.3-1997 criticality alarm system requirements and recommendations are evaluated for applicability to APCDs. Based on this evaluation, design criteria and administrative requirements are presented for APCDs. Siemens EPD/Mk-2 and EPD-N devices are shown to meet the design criteria. A definition of not normally occupied is also presented.

  20. Application of the Severe Accident Code ATHLET-CD. Coolant injection to primary circuit of a PWR by mobile pump system in case of SBLOCA severe accident scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobst, Matthias; Wilhelm, Polina; Kliem, Soeren; Kozmenkov, Yaroslav [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Reactor Safety

    2017-06-01

    The improvement of the safety of nuclear power plants is a continuously on-going process. The analysis of transients and accidents is an important research topic, which significantly contributes to safety enhancements of existing power plants. In case of an accident with multiple failures of safety systems, core uncovery and heat-up can occur. In order to prevent the accident to turn into a severe one or to mitigate the consequences of severe accidents, different accident management measures can be applied. By means of numerical analyses performed with the compute code ATHLET-CD, the effectiveness of coolant injection with a mobile pump system into the primary circuit of a PWR was studied. According to the analyses, such a system can stop the melt progression if it is activated prior to 10 % of total core is molten.

  1. Auto-alarm system based on telephone network%基于电话网络的自动报警系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪慧英; 王玉; 谢春

    2009-01-01

    A design of auto-alarm system based on telephone network is presented. Using the existed telephone network, the auto-alarm system transmits the alarm signal through telephone line, sends and receives the alarm information by double tone multi frequency (DTMF) dialing. This auto-alarm system is applied for fireproofing, guarding the theft as well as first aid for the alone elder and handicapped in uptown. Intelligent offices and Hotels can also use this auto-alarm system instead of establishing special network.%介绍了一种基于电话网络的自动报警系统的软硬件设计.本系统在充分利用现有的程控电话网络或内部小型交换机网络的基础上,以电话线为载体实现报警信号的传输,通过拨号实现报警信息的发送与接收,易于安装维护.本自动报警系统可应用于住宅小区,中小企业的防火、防盗报警、缺少照料的老弱病残的急救报警等,也可应用到企业管理、智能大厦管理、酒店等本需建立专用网络的环境中,利用已有的内部电话网络,极大程度上降低报警系统成本.

  2. Sociological study on the course of the traffic system and the traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Yaşar Erjem

    2007-01-01

    The subject of this research is the operation of the traffic system and traffic accidents from a sociological perspective. In the research , the traffic system is taken as a sub-system of the social system. In this context the effects of the social, cultural and demographic factors on traffic accidents are examined . The data were collected from 681 people of whom 300 are drivers 300 pedestrians, 4 directors and 20 instructors of driving courses in Konya in Turkey. The research findings showe...

  3. [Hospital information system performance for road traffic accidents analysis in a hospital recruitment based area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, A-S; Fauconnier, J

    2013-06-01

    Road traffic accidents in France are mainly analyzed through reports completed by the security forces (police and gendarmerie). But the hospital information systems can also identify road traffic accidents via specific documentary codes of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether hospital stays consecutive to road traffic accident were truly identified by these documentary codes in a facility that collects data routinely and to study the consistency of results from hospital information systems and from security forces during the 2002-2008 period. We retrieved all patients for whom a documentary code for road traffic accident was entered in 2002-2008. We manually checked the concordance of documentary code for road traffic accident and trauma origin in 350 patient files. The number of accidents in the Grenoble area was then inferred by combining with hospitalization regional data and compared to the number of persons injured by traffic accidents declared by the security force. These hospital information systems successfully report road traffic accidents with 96% sensitivity (95%CI: [92%, 100%]) and 97% specificity (95%CI: [95%, 99%]). The decrease in road traffic accidents observed was significantly less than that observed was significantly lower than that observed in the data from the security force (45% for security force data against 27% for hospital data). Overall, this study shows that hospital information systems are a powerful tool for studying road traffic accidents morbidity in hospital and are complementary to security force data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of Fukushima unit 2 accident considering the operating conditions of RCIC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il, E-mail: sikim@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon; Cho, Song-Won; Song, JinHo

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR 1.8.6. • RCIC operating conditions were assumed and best case was selected. • Effect of RCIC operating condition on accident scenario was found. - Abstract: A severe accident in Fukushima occurred on March 11, 2011 and units 1, 2 and 3 were damaged severely. A tsunami following an earthquake made the supply of electricity power stop, and the safety systems, which use AC or DC power in plants could not operate properly. It is supposed that the degree of core degradation of unit 2 is less serious than in the other plants, and it was estimated that the operation of reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at the initial stage of the accident minimized the core damage through decay heat removal. Although the operating conditions of the RCIC system are not known clearly, it can be important to analyze the accident scenario of unit 2. In this study, best case of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was presented considering the operating conditions of the RCIC system. The effects of operating condition on core degradation and fission product release rate to environment were also examined. In addition, importance of torus room flooding level in the accident analysis was discussed. MELCOR 1.8.6 was used in this research, and the geometries of plant and operating conditions of safety system were obtained from TEPCO through OECD/NEA BSAF Project.

  5. GSM汽车报警系统的设计%Design of Car Anti-theft Alarming System Based on GSM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚曼; 王银

    2011-01-01

    A car remote anti-theft alarming system was introduced in this paper.In this system AT89C52 single-chip microcomputer is used as the core to control the GSM communication module.The system components,working principle,hardware and software designing process have been described in detail.The alarm system is triggered by the sensor module,the SCM will send AT instructions which control TC35i to send alarming short messages to the owners as soon as possible.This system breaks the traditional alarm limits,and has a good prospect of market.%设计使用AT89C52单片机为核心,控制GSM通信模块实现了远距离汽车防盗报警系统,从系统组成、工作原理以及软硬件设计方面做了详细介绍。该系统通过传感器模块触发报警,通过单片机向TC35i输入AT指令使其能及时向车主发送短消息告警,打破了传统报警器的距离限制,具有很好的市场前景。

  6. Development of Highly Survivable Power and Communication System for NPP Instruments under Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung J.; Gu, Beom W.; Nguyen, Duy T.; Choi, Bo H.; Rim, Chun T. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So I. [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    According to the detail report from the Fukushima nuclear accident, the failure of conventional instruments is mainly due to the following reasons. 1) Insufficient backup battery capacity after the station black out (SBO) 2) The malfunction or damage of instruments due to the extremely harsh ambient condition after the severe accident 3) The cut-off of power and communication cable due to the physical shocks of hydrogen explosion after the severe accident Since the current equipment qualification (EQ) for the NPP instruments is based on the design basis accident such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA), conventional instruments, which are examined under EQ condition, cannot guarantee their normal operation during the severe accident. A 7m-long-distance wireless power transfer and a radio frequency (RF) communication were introduced with conventional wired system to increase a redundancy. A heat isolation box and a harness are adopted to provide a protection from the expected physical shocks such as missiles and drastic increase of ambient temperature and pressure. A detail design principle of the highly survivable power and communication system, which has 4 sub-systems of a DCRS wireless power transfer, a Zigbee wireless communication, a GFRP harness, and a passive type router with a fly back regulator, has been presented in this paper. Each sub-system has been designed to have a robust operation characteristic regardless of the estimated physical shocks after the severe accident.

  7. Understanding Clinical Alarm Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasewicz, Carol L; Mattox, Elizabeth Andersson

    2015-08-01

    Patient safety organizations and health care accreditation agencies recognize the significance of clinical alarm hazards. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, a nonprofit organization focused on development and use of safe and effective medical equipment, identifies alarm management as a major issue for health care organizations. ECRI Institute, a nonprofit organization that researches approaches for improving patient safety and quality of care, identifies alarm hazards as the most significant of the "Top Ten Health Technology Hazards" for 2014. A new Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal focusing on clinical alarm safety contains new requirements for accredited hospitals to be fully implemented by 2016. Through a fictional unfolding case study, this article reviews selected contributing factors to clinical alarm hazards present in inpatient, high-acuity settings. Understanding these factors improves contributions by nurses to clinical alarm safety practice.

  8. Simulation of Intelligent Fire Detection and Alarm System for a W d p .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Pati

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire is one of the major hazards in warships. A warship being avery complex structure, with sophisticated weapons, machinery, fueland ammunition is always at risk of fire. Restrictions on movement of ship's personnel and equipment requires automation in fire detectionand control systems. This paper describes the limitations of conventional fire detection systems, followed by the features of modern fire detection and alarnr (the so-called intelligent systems and thetypes of fire detectors used in fire detection systems. The experimentalset-up used for simulating a simple system having 24 sensors connecteato the micro computer via digital input card is explained in detail withthe limitations of the experimental set-up and improvements that canbe made by incorporating serial communication in a loop, using fibre optics data links. and intelligent loop/interface units.

  9. Cellular automata model simulating traffic car accidents in the on-ramp system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, using Nagel-Schreckenberg model we study the on-ramp system under the expanded open boundary condition. The phase diagram of the two-lane on-ramp system is computed. It is found that the expanded left boundary insertion strategy enhances the flow in the on-ramp lane. Furthermore, we have studied the probability of the occurrence of car accidents. We distinguish two types of car accidents: the accident at the on-ramp site (Prc) and the rear-end accident in the main road (Pac). It is shown that car accidents at the on-ramp site are more likely to occur when traffic is free on road A. However, the rear-end accidents begin to occur above a critical injecting rate αc1. The influence of the on-ramp length (LB) and position (xC0) on the car accidents probabilities is studied. We found that large LB or xC0 causes an important decrease of the probability Prc. However, only large xC0 provokes an increase of the probability Pac. The effect of the stochastic randomization is also computed.

  10. Implementation guidance for industrial-level security systems using radio frequency alarm links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swank, R.G.

    1996-07-12

    Spread spectrum (SS) RF transmission technologies have properties that make the transmitted signal difficult to intercept, interpret, and jam. The digital code used in the modulation process results in a signal that has high reception reliability and supports multiple use of frequency bands and selective addressing. These attributes and the relatively low installation cost of RF systems make SSRF technologies candidate for communications links in security systems used for industrial sites, remote locations, and where trenching or other disturbances of soil or structures may not be desirable or may be costly. This guide provides a description of such a system and presents implementation methods that may be of engineering benefit.

  11. An effect of containment filtered venting system on scale of contamination under severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Ju young; Lee, Jai-ki [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Some countries are expected to expand the scope of the Emergency Planning Zone(EPZ) by the influence of Fukushima accident. However, if the equipment, which is able to mitigate the severe accident consequences, is installed, unnecessary costs for an expansion of emergency planning zone will be reduced. The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAC) has suggested to mitigate severe accidents by installing The Filtered Containment Venting System (FCVS). The probabilistic assessment code MACCS2 was used to calculate the effective radiation dose with and without FCVS to determine the effective reduction by the installation of a FCVS.

  12. Natural hazard impacts on transport systems: analyzing the data base of transport accidents in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    We consider a transport accident as any accident that occurs during transportation of people and goods. It comprises of accidents involving air, road, rail, water, and pipeline transport. With over 1.2 million people killed each year, road accidents are one of the world's leading causes of death; another 20-50 million people are injured each year on the world's roads while walking, cycling, or driving. Transport accidents of other types including air, rail, and water transport accidents are not as numerous as road crashes, but the relative risk of each accident is much higher because of the higher number of people killed and injured per accident. Pipeline ruptures cause large damages to the environment. That is why safety and security are of primary concern for any transport system. The transport system of the Russian Federation (RF) is one of the most extensive in the world. It includes 1,283,000 km of public roads, more than 600,000 km of airlines, more than 200,000 km of gas, oil, and product pipelines, 115,000 km of inland waterways, and 87,000 km of railways. The transport system, especially the transport infrastructure of the country is exposed to impacts of various natural hazards and weather extremes such as heavy rains, snowfalls, snowdrifts, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, snow avalanches, debris flows, rock falls, fog or icing roads, and other natural factors that additionally trigger many accidents. In June 2014, the Ministry of Transport of the RF has compiled a new version of the Transport Strategy of the RF up to 2030. Among of the key pillars of the Strategy are to increase the safety of the transport system and to reduce negative environmental impacts. Using the data base of technological accidents that was created by the author, the study investigates temporal variations and regional differences of the transport accidents' risk within the Russian federal regions and a contribution of natural factors to occurrences of different

  13. False alarms and missed events: the impact and origins of perceived inaccuracy in tornado warning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripberger, Joseph T; Silva, Carol L; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Carlson, Deven E; James, Mark; Herron, Kerry G

    2015-01-01

    Theory and conventional wisdom suggest that errors undermine the credibility of tornado warning systems and thus decrease the probability that individuals will comply (i.e., engage in protective action) when future warnings are issued. Unfortunately, empirical research on the influence of warning system accuracy on public responses to tornado warnings is incomplete and inconclusive. This study adds to existing research by analyzing two sets of relationships. First, we assess the relationship between perceptions of accuracy, credibility, and warning response. Using data collected via a large regional survey, we find that trust in the National Weather Service (NWS; the agency responsible for issuing tornado warnings) increases the likelihood that an individual will opt for protective action when responding to a hypothetical warning. More importantly, we find that subjective perceptions of warning system accuracy are, as theory suggests, systematically related to trust in the NWS and (by extension) stated responses to future warnings. The second half of the study matches survey data against NWS warning and event archives to investigate a critical follow-up question--Why do some people perceive that their warning system is accurate, whereas others perceive that their system is error prone? We find that subjective perceptions are--in part-a function of objective experience, knowledge, and demographic characteristics. When considered in tandem, these findings support the proposition that errors influence perceptions about the accuracy of warning systems, which in turn impact the credibility that people assign to information provided by systems and, ultimately, public decisions about how to respond when warnings are issued. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. 基于ATmega16的GSM家居安防报警器%GSM Home Alarm System based on ATmega16

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞建勇; 杨润丰; 杨洋; 朱彩莲

    2011-01-01

    The demand of home alarm systems, including remote control for fire alarm, theft alarm and home appliances, is growing increasingly. As mobile phone is a popular and portable communication tool for residents, an automatic SMS home alarm system based on GSM technology was designed, which offer a remote control service via mobile phone for fire, intruder alarm and home appliance. The host controller is a microcontroller (AVR ATmega16) connecting with an external GSM module. SMS operation with password request can set eight mobile phone numbers for authorized users and the alarm message in Chinese. Wireless communication interface is used for infrared and microwave sensors for fire and intruder monitoring. In addition, wireless controlled relay with two output ends for linkage power, video recording, etc. Finally, experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the home alarm system.%当前人们对家居防火、防盗以及对家用电器远程控制的需求日益提升,同时手机已经成为居民随身携带的通信工具,基于此设计了一种基于GSM模块的能够通过手机对家用电器进行远程控制的集火灾、入侵报警于一体的自动短信安防报警系统.该系统由AVR ATmega16单片机外接GSM模块作为控制主机,由短信带密码操作,可设定8组用户电话号码,可中文短信报警,带有红外微波双鉴防盗和火灾检测无线通信接口,有2路无线控制继电器输出端,可联动电源,录像等工作.最后经实测表明系统具有很好的检测效果.

  15. Proposal for the award of an industrial services contract for maintenance of fire and gas detection and evacuation alarm systems

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Services contract for maintenance of fire and gas detection and evacuation alarm systems. Following a market survey carried out among 48 firms in fourteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2818/ST) was sent on 15 December 2000 to four firms and three consortia, each consisting of two firms, in five Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received tenders from one firm and three consortia in four Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium SCHRACK SECONET (AT) - SOTEB (FR), the lowest bidder, for an initial period of three years from 1 October 2001 for an amount not exceeding 5 800 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: AT-50%, FR-50%.

  16. HOW TO MINIMIZE OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS IN TURKEY: THE BONUS-MALUS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent ALTUNKAYNAK

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study suggests Bonus-Malus System (BMS to minimize the occupational accidents in Turkey. Having a 12-class structure with a specific premium ratio for each class considering the number of accidents, the suggested system depends on the principle that the premium ratios should vary according to the number of accidents occurring in a given business. To enter the system, all businesses start from class 6, with a premium ratio of 2%. For the calculation of premium ratios for each class, the expected value principle is used. It is observed by using Markov chains that the system reaches the steady state in 45 years’ time and the changes in the premium income of Social Security Institution (SSI according to the distribution of businesses according to accident in the 5th, 10th, 20th, and 45th years are investigated. As a result, it is seen that the premium income of SSI will, in the course of time, decrease with BMS. In return, it is predicted that business are likely to try to escape punishment and turn to reward and increase measures against occupational accidents with a decrease in the number of accidents.

  17. Study on the code system for the off-site consequences assessment of severe nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sora; Mn, Byung Il; Park, Ki Hyun; Yang, Byung Mo; Suh, Kyung Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The importance of severe nuclear accidents and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) were brought to international attention with the occurrence of severe nuclear accidents caused by the extreme natural disaster at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. In Korea, studies on level 3 PSA had made little progress until recently. The code systems of level 3 PSA, MACCS2 (MELCORE Accident Consequence Code System 2, US), COSYMA (COde SYstem from MAria, EU) and OSCAAR (Off-Site Consequence Analysis code for Atmospheric Releases in reactor accidents, JAPAN), were reviewed in this study, and the disadvantages and limitations of MACCS2 were also analyzed. Experts from Korea and abroad pointed out that the limitations of MACCS2 include the following: MACCS2 cannot simulate multi-unit accidents/release from spent fuel pools, and its atmospheric dispersion is based on a simple Gaussian plume model. Some of these limitations have been improved in the updated versions of MACCS2. The absence of a marine and aquatic dispersion model and the limited simulating range of food-chain and economic models are also important aspects that need to be improved. This paper is expected to be utilized as basic research material for developing a Korean code system for assessing off-site consequences of severe nuclear accidents.

  18. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  19. The Importance of E-Learning and GSM Alarm System in the Medical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Lavinia POPESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present social context is disturbed by questions, diversity, complexity, and the time and space parameters. Thus it is justifying the change of institution activity at news requirements which oblige and which sometimes are contradictory. That is why a special importance presents the adaptation capacity of entities to continuum improvement of their offers. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present new aspects which can increase the medical services quality. Much more, the paper represents an interdisciplinary approach because it presents the importance of integration of technical aspects with the learning system founded by technology, Internet and electronic materials, all integrated of medical engineering.

  20. Classification Of Road Accidents From The Perspective Of Vehicle Safety Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirovský Václav

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern road accident investigation and database structures are focused on accident analysis and classification from the point of view of the accident itself. The presented article offers a new approach, which will describe the accident from the point of view of integrated safety vehicle systems. Seven main categories have been defined to specify the level of importance of automated system intervention. One of the proposed categories is a new approach to defining the collision probability of an ego-vehicle with another object. This approach focuses on determining a 2-D reaction space, which describes all possible positions of the vehicle or other moving object in the specified amount of time in the future. This is to be used for defining the probability of the vehicles interacting - when the intersection of two reaction spaces exists, an action has to be taken on the side of ego-vehicle. The currently used 1-D quantity of TTC (time-to-collision can be superseded by the new reaction space variable. Such new quantity, whose basic idea is described in the article, enables the option of counting not only with necessary braking time, but mitigation by changing direction is then easily feasible. Finally, transparent classification measures of a probable accident are proposed. Their application is highly effective not only during basic accident comparison, but also for an on-board safety system.

  1. ALARM STRATEGY AND COMPLEXITY: PREDICTIONS OF OPERATOR RESPONSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian Dyre; Ronald Boring; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    Decision support for operators is not new, and much has been written regarding the potential usefulness of digital support systems and alarm filtering strategies. However, determining the appropriate characteristics of decision support tools is difficult, especially when alarms can vary in the manner which diagnostic information is formulated and displayed and when event scenario types are complex and numerous. When first reviewed, the advantages or disadvantages of a particular alarm approach may not be apparent to the designer or analyst. The present research focuses on the review of two particular alarm strategies, binary alarm type (BAT) and likelihood alarm type (LAT), and reviews their influence upon accuracy, bias, and trust for tasks performed at a computer workstation capable of replicating a series of control-room-like alarms. The findings are discussed in terms of the of the performance advantages of likelihood alarm technology and related research as an aid to the alarm design process.

  2. Infusion Alarm System Baed on Transmittance%基于透射率变化的输液报警器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江叶; 钱俊

    2016-01-01

    介绍了一种光学输液报警器,其原理是基于透射率的变化,光电转换器将这一变化转化为电信号而发生报警。针对红外感应报警器的各个零部件做了技术和原理说明,并分析其市场前景。%This paper introduces an optical infusion alarm.The principle is based on the change of trans-mittance and photoelectric converter transformed the change into electrical signals and then alarm.This paper also introduces technology and principles for the various parts of the alarm,and illustrates its market pros-pects.

  3. Study on Mobile Object Positioning and Alarming System Based on the “Map World” in the Core Area of the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Kai

    2017-02-01

    The established “Map World” on the National Geographic Information Public Service Platform offers free access to many geographic information in the Core Area of the Silk Road Economic Belt. Considering the special security situation and severe splittism and anti-splittism struggles in the Core Area of the Silk Road Economic Belt, a set of moving target positioning and alarming platform based on J2EE platform and B/S structure was designed and realized by combining the “Map World” data and global navigation satellite system. This platform solves various problems, such as effective combination of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and “Map World” resources, moving target alarming setting, inquiry of historical routes, system management, etc.

  4. Performance of the CEDS Accident Dosimetry System at the 1995 Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, K.L.; Schwanke, L.J.

    1996-12-01

    In July 1995, LANL hosted an accident dosimetry intercomparison. When all reactors on the Oak Ridge Reservation were idled in 1988, the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR), which had been used for 22 previous intercomparisons dating from 1965, was shut down for an indefinite period. The LANL group began characterization of two critical assemblies for dosimetry purposes. As a result, NAD-23 was conceived and 10 DOE facilities accepted invitations to participate in the intercomparison. This report is a summary of the performance of one of the participants, the Centralized External Dosimetry System (CEDS). The CEDS is a cooperative personnel dosimetry arrangement between three DOE sites in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Many successes and failures are reported herein. Generally, the TL dosimeters performed poorly and always over-reported the delivered dose. The TLD processing procedures contain efforts that would lead to large biases in the reported absorbed dose, and omit several key steps in the TLD reading process. The supralinear behavior of lithium fluoride (LiF) has not been characterized for this particular dosimeter and application (i.e., in high-dose mixed neutron/gamma fields). The use of TLD materials may also be precluded given the limitations of the LiF material itself, the TLD reading system, and the upper dose level to which accident dosimetry systems are required to perform as set forth in DOE regulations. The indium foil results confirm the expected inability of that material to predict the magnitude of the wearer`s dose reliably, although it is quite suitable as a quick-sort material. Biological sample (hair) results were above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for only one of the tests. Several questions as to the best methods for sample handling and processing remain.

  5. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  6. Increase the Safety of Road Traffic Accidents by Applying Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Goran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of continual increase of number of traffic accidents and alarming trend of increasing number of traffic accidents with catastrophic consequences for human life and health, it is necessary to actively research and develop methods to combat these trends. One of the measures is the implementation of advanced information systems in existing traffic environment. Accidents clusters, as databases of traffic accidents, introduce a new dimension in traffic systems in the form of experience, providing information on current accidents and the ones that have previously occurred in a given period. This paper proposes a new approach to predictive management of traffic processes, based on the collection of data in real time and is based on accidents clusters. The modern traffic information services collects road traffic status data from a wide variety of traffic sensing systems using modern ICT technologies, creating the most accurate road traffic situation awareness achieved so far. Road traffic situation awareness enhanced by accident clusters' data can be visualized and distributed in various ways (including the forms of dynamic heat maps and on various information platforms, suiting the requirements of the end-users. Accent is placed on their significant features that are based on additional knowledge about existing traffic processes and distribution of important traffic information in order to prevent and reduce traffic accidents.

  7. There Is a Need for Alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, Steve

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the alarm system planning process and provides examples of approaches that have worked for school districts. Explains system elements, monitoring, the bidding process, and the importance of staff training. (MLF)

  8. On the reliability of fire detection and alarm systems. Exploration and analysis of data from nuclear and non-nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyyssoenen, T.; Rajakko, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O. [VTT Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-01-01

    A literature review of reliability data of fire detection and alarm systems was made resulting to rough estimates of some failure frequencies. No theoretical or technical articles on the structure of reliability models of these installations were found. Inspection records of fire detection and alarm system installations by SPEK were studied, and transferred in electronic data base classifying observed failures in failure modes (59) and severity categories (3) guided by freely written records in the original data. The results of that work are presented without many comments in tabular form in this paper. A small sample of installations was collected, and number of components in them was counted to derive some distributions for determination of national populations of various components based on know total amount of installations. From NPPs (Loviisa, Olkiluoto and Barsebaeck) failure reports were analysed, and observed failures of fire detection and alarm systems were classified by severity and detection mode. They are presented here in tabular form for the original and new addressable systems. Populations were counted individually, but for all installations needed documents were not available. Therefore, presented failure frequencies are just first estimates, which will be refined later. (orig.)

  9. Smart smoke alarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-04-28

    Methods and apparatus for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a smoke detector uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether observed conditions indicate that an alarm is warranted.

  10. GPON网管系统ONU端告警管理的设计%Design of ONU alarm management in GPON network management systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张江鑫; 庞利杰

    2009-01-01

    文章首先介绍了千兆无源光网络(GPON)的网络管理系统的结构,然后分析了网管中子代理光网络单元(ONU)的功能,重点讨论了ONU在管理与控制过程中出现的告警情况,并对其进行了分类.在此基础上对告警管理的处理方案进行了设计,完成了ONU管理控制模块中启动失败(SUF)告警进程的设计.%This paper first introduces the structure of the network management system of GPON and then analyses the functions of the subagent ONUs in these systems,focusing on the classified alarms in the these units in the management and control processes.On this basis,it devises the solutions for the alarm management and completes the design of the SUF alarm process for ONU management control modules.

  11. Implementation of a new system of alarm-broadcasting and telephone communication for mines; Wdrozenie nowego systemu lacznosci alarmowo-rozgloszeniowej i telefonicznej do gornictwa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francik, J.; Paczynski, W. [Centrum Elektryfikacji i Automatyzacji Gornictwa EMAG, Katowice (Poland)

    1995-05-01

    The article describes a modern system of alarm-broadcasting and telephone communication, which provides full integration of equipment and intrinsically-safe underground telecommunication network. Construction and functions of the systems type TEDAR and TEDAR-S are presented. Particular attention has been paid to the operational experience gained after implementation of the newest intrinsically-safe system type TEDAR as a unit of integrated mining communication and the intrinsically-safe local shaft communication system type TEDAR-S. (author). 3 figs.

  12. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460..., AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must be installed at the pilothouse to...

  13. 46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse,...

  14. A Remote Health Care System Combining a Fall Down Alarm and Biomedical Signal Monitor System in an Android Smart-Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Sung Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available First aid and immediate help are very important following an accident. The earlier the detection and treatment is carried out, the better the prognosis and chance of recovery of the patients. It is even more important when considering the elderly. Once the elderly have an accident, they not only physically injure their body, but also impair their mental and social ability, and may develop severe sequela. In the last few years, the continuously developed Android cell phone has been applied to many fields. Despite the nature of the GPS positioning system that the mobile phone currently uses, most applications used are SMS and file transfers. However, these biomedical measurement signals, passing through a transferring interface and uploading to the mobile, result the little really successful cases with the remote health care feasibility. This research will develop an Android cell phone which combines the functionality of an ECG, pulsimeter, SpO2, and BAD (Body Activity Detector for real-time monitoring of the activity of a body. When an accident occurs, the signals go through Android smart phone, immediately notifying the remote ends and providing first time help.

  15. The system of emergency cards for primary actions in accident at radioactive material transport in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananiev, V.V. [Div. of the Decommission of Nuclear and Radiation-Hazardous Object of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ermakov, S.V.; Ershov, V.N.; Stovbur, V.I. [FGUP ' ' Emergency Response Centre of Minatom of Russia' ' , St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shvedov, M.O. [Div. of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In the paper are reviewed the current and new designed system of the emergency cards for consignments of radioactive materials in Russian Federation, within the framework of a uniform state system of warning and liquidation of consequences of extraordinary situations and functional subsystem of warning and liquidation of accident situations of Federal Agency for Atomic Energy.

  16. Investigation into the causes of accidents on scraper systems in the gold and platinum mining sectors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moseme, R

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available and cleaning operations of the scraper winch systems that require identification. This research report identifies the risk and hazards associated with scraper winch systems that may lead to potential accidents in the gold and platinum sector. The research also...

  17. Possibility of the development of a Serbian protection system against chemical accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan R. Inđić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a draft of a system model for responding in case of chemical accidents in accordance with the current legislation regarding the environment protection, the structure and elements of the existing response system in case of chemical accidents, other works dealing with the issue as well as the prospects planned by those responsible for the environmental protection. The paper discuss the possibilities of different institutions and agencies of the Republic of Serbia to engage in specialized methods of cooperation and protection against chemical hazards in accordance with Article X of the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.

  18. The use of Grey System Theory in predicting the road traffic accident in Fars province in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents have become a more and more important factor that restrict the development of economy and threaten the safety of human beings. Considering the complexity and uncertainty of the influencing factors on traffic accidents, traffic accident forecasting can be regarded as a grey system with unknown and known information, so be analyzed by grey system theory. Grey models require only a limited amount of data to estimate the behavior of unknown systems. In this paper, first, the original predicted values of road traffic accidents are separately obtained by the GM (1,1 model, the Verhulst model and the DGM(2,1 model. The results of these models on predicting road traffic accident show that the forecasting accuracy of the GM(1,1 is higher than the Verhulst model and the DGM(2,1 model. Then, the GM(1,1 model is applied to predict road traffic accident in Fars province.

  19. 基于GSM的汽车防盗报警器设计%Car alarm system design based on GSM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鹤松; 边洪宁; 刘华东; 董佩

    2011-01-01

    介绍了一种基于GSM的小型汽车防盗器.防盗器以STC 12LE5402AD芯片为主控制器,以SIM900B为GSM模块,通过检测汽车异常的启动信号,以给车主打电话的方式实现远程防盗功能.该防盗器体积小、成本低、无需安装、无噪音污染,易于推广.%This paper presents a small car alarm based on GSM. This alarm takes the STC12LE5402AD chip to be the main controller and the SIM900B to be the GSM module. It can call the owner of the car when detecting the lawless starting signal to realize the remote burglarproof functions.

  20. Developing a Minimum Data Set for an Information Management System to Study Traffic Accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Ahmadi, Maryam; Gharagozlu, Alireza

    2016-03-01

    Each year, around 1.2 million people die in the road traffic incidents. Reducing traffic accidents requires an exact understanding of the risk factors associated with traffic patterns and behaviors. Properly analyzing these factors calls for a comprehensive system for collecting and processing accident data. The aim of this study was to develop a minimum data set (MDS) for an information management system to study traffic accidents in Iran. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in 2014. Data were collected from the traffic police, trauma centers, medical emergency centers, and via the internet. The investigated resources for this study were forms, databases, and documents retrieved from the internet. Forms and databases were identical, and one sample of each was evaluated. The related internet-sourced data were evaluated in their entirety. Data were collected using three checklists. In order to arrive at a consensus about the data elements, the decision Delphi technique was applied using questionnaires. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaires were assessed by experts' opinions and the test-retest method, respectively. An (MDS) of a traffic accident information management system was assigned to three sections: a minimum data set for traffic police with six classes, including 118 data elements; a trauma center with five data classes, including 57 data elements; and a medical emergency center, with 11 classes, including 64 data elements. Planning for the prevention of traffic accidents requires standardized data. As the foundation for crash prevention efforts, existing standard data infrastructures present policymakers and government officials with a great opportunity to strengthen and integrate existing accident information systems to better track road traffic injuries and fatalities.

  1. Developing a Minimum Data Set for an Information Management System to Study Traffic Accidents in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Ahmadi, Maryam; Gharagozlu, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Each year, around 1.2 million people die in the road traffic incidents. Reducing traffic accidents requires an exact understanding of the risk factors associated with traffic patterns and behaviors. Properly analyzing these factors calls for a comprehensive system for collecting and processing accident data. Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop a minimum data set (MDS) for an information management system to study traffic accidents in Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in 2014. Data were collected from the traffic police, trauma centers, medical emergency centers, and via the internet. The investigated resources for this study were forms, databases, and documents retrieved from the internet. Forms and databases were identical, and one sample of each was evaluated. The related internet-sourced data were evaluated in their entirety. Data were collected using three checklists. In order to arrive at a consensus about the data elements, the decision Delphi technique was applied using questionnaires. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaires were assessed by experts’ opinions and the test-retest method, respectively. Results: An (MDS) of a traffic accident information management system was assigned to three sections: a minimum data set for traffic police with six classes, including 118 data elements; a trauma center with five data classes, including 57 data elements; and a medical emergency center, with 11 classes, including 64 data elements. Conclusions: Planning for the prevention of traffic accidents requires standardized data. As the foundation for crash prevention efforts, existing standard data infrastructures present policymakers and government officials with a great opportunity to strengthen and integrate existing accident information systems to better track road traffic injuries and fatalities. PMID:27247791

  2. The problem of alarm fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    Up to 99 percent of alarms sounding on hospital units are false alarms signaling no real danger to patients. These false alarms can lead to alarm fatigue and alarm burden, and may divert health care providers' attention away from significant alarms heralding actual or impending harm. As the health care environment continues to become more dependent upon technological monitoring devices used for patient care, nurses must become aware of the possibility and consequences of alarm fatigue and ways to prevent it from negatively affecting their practice, as well as the possible consequences for patient care. © 2013 AWHONN.

  3. 1983 international intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimetry systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Greene, R.T.; Sims, C.S.

    1985-04-01

    An international intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimetry systems was conducted during September 12-16, 1983, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode to simulate criticality accidents. This study marked the twentieth in a series of annual accident dosimetry intercomparisons conducted at ORNL. Participants from ten organizations attended this intercomparison and measured neutron and gamma doses at area monitoring stations and on phantoms for three different shield conditions. Results of this study indicate that foil activation techniques are the most popular and accurate method of determining accident-level neutron doses at area monitoring stations. For personnel monitoring, foil activation, blood sodium activation, and thermoluminescent (TL) methods are all capable of providing accurate dose estimates in a variety of radiation fields. All participants in this study used TLD's to determine gamma doses with very good results on the average. Chemical dosemeters were also shown to be capable of yielding accurate estimates of total neutron plus gamma doses in a variety of radiation fields. While 83% of all neutron measurements satisfied regulatory standards relative to reference values, only 39% of all gamma results satisfied corresponding guidelines for gamma measurements. These results indicate that continued improvement in accident dosimetry evaluation and measurement techniques is needed.

  4. A systemic analysis of South Korea Sewol ferry accident - Striking a balance between learning and accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Dohyung; Jun, Gyuchan Thomas; Waterson, Patrick; Haslam, Roger

    2017-03-01

    The South Korea Sewol ferry accident in April 2014 claimed the lives of over 300 passengers and led to criminal charges of 399 personnel concerned including imprisonment of 154 of them as of Oct 2014. Blame and punishment culture can be prevalent in a more hierarchical society like South Korea as shown in the aftermath of this disaster. This study aims to analyse the South Korea ferry accident using Rasmussen's risk management framework and the associated AcciMap technique and to propose recommendations drawn from an AcciMap-based focus group with systems safety experts. The data for the accident analysis were collected mainly from an interim investigation report by the Board of Audit and Inspection of Korea and major South Korean and foreign newspapers. The analysis showed that the accident was attributed to many contributing factors arising from front-line operators, management, regulators and government. It also showed how the multiple factors including economic, social and political pressures and individual workload contributed to the accident and how they affected each other. This AcciMap was presented to 27 safety researchers and experts at 'the legacy of Jens Rasmussen' symposium adjunct to ODAM2014. Their recommendations were captured through a focus group. The four main recommendations include forgive (no blame and punishment on individuals), analyse (socio-technical system-based), learn (from why things do not go wrong) and change (bottom-up safety culture and safety system management). The findings offer important insights into how this type of accident should be understood, analysed and the subsequent response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Numerical system utilising a Monte Carlo calculation method for accurate dose assessment in radiation accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, F; Endo, A

    2007-01-01

    A system utilising radiation transport codes has been developed to derive accurate dose distributions in a human body for radiological accidents. A suitable model is quite essential for a numerical analysis. Therefore, two tools were developed to setup a 'problem-dependent' input file, defining a radiation source and an exposed person to simulate the radiation transport in an accident with the Monte Carlo calculation codes-MCNP and MCNPX. Necessary resources are defined by a dialogue method with a generally used personal computer for both the tools. The tools prepare human body and source models described in the input file format of the employed Monte Carlo codes. The tools were validated for dose assessment in comparison with a past criticality accident and a hypothesized exposure.

  6. Multistation alarm system for eruptive activity based on the automatic classification of volcanic tremor: specifications and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Horst; Falsaperla, Susanna; Messina, Alfio; Spampinato, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    With over fifty eruptive episodes (Strombolian activity, lava fountains, and lava flows) between 2006 and 2013, Mt Etna, Italy, underscored its role as the most active volcano in Europe. Seven paroxysmal lava fountains at the South East Crater occurred in 2007-2008 and 46 at the New South East Crater between 2011 and 2013. Month-lasting lava emissions affected the upper eastern flank of the volcano in 2006 and 2008-2009. On this background, effective monitoring and forecast of volcanic phenomena are a first order issue for their potential socio-economic impact in a densely populated region like the town of Catania and its surroundings. For example, explosive activity has often formed thick ash clouds with widespread tephra fall able to disrupt the air traffic, as well as to cause severe problems at infrastructures, such as highways and roads. For timely information on changes in the state of the volcano and possible onset of dangerous eruptive phenomena, the analysis of the continuous background seismic signal, the so-called volcanic tremor, turned out of paramount importance. Changes in the state of the volcano as well as in its eruptive style are usually concurrent with variations of the spectral characteristics (amplitude and frequency content) of tremor. The huge amount of digital data continuously acquired by INGV's broadband seismic stations every day makes a manual analysis difficult, and techniques of automatic classification of the tremor signal are therefore applied. The application of unsupervised classification techniques to the tremor data revealed significant changes well before the onset of the eruptive episodes. This evidence led to the development of specific software packages related to real-time processing of the tremor data. The operational characteristics of these tools - fail-safe, robustness with respect to noise and data outages, as well as computational efficiency - allowed the identification of criteria for automatic alarm flagging. The

  7. Clinical Alarms in Intensive Care Units: Perceived Obstacles of Alarm Management and Alarm Fatigue in Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ok Min; Kim, Hwasoon; Lee, Young Whee; Cho, Insook

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the current situation of clinical alarms in intensive care unit (ICU), nurses' recognition of and fatigue in relation to clinical alarms, and obstacles in alarm management. Subjects were ICU nurses and devices from 48 critically ill patient cases. Data were collected through direct observation of alarm occurrence and questionnaires that were completed by the ICU nurses. The observation time unit was one hour block. One bed out of 56 ICU beds was randomly assigned to each observation time unit. Overall 2,184 clinical alarms were counted for 48 hours of observation, and 45.5 clinical alarms occurred per hour per subject. Of these, 1,394 alarms (63.8%) were categorized as false alarms. The alarm fatigue score was 24.3 ± 4.0 out of 35. The highest scoring item was "always get bothered due to clinical alarms". The highest scoring item in obstacles was "frequent false alarms, which lead to reduced attention or response to alarms". Nurses reported that they felt some fatigue due to clinical alarms, and false alarms were also obstacles to proper management. An appropriate hospital policy should be developed to reduce false alarms and nurses' alarm fatigue.

  8. Analysis of Moderator System Failure Accidents by Using New Method for Wolsong-1 CANDU 6 Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Dongsik; Kim, Jonghyun; Cho, Cheonhwey [Atomic Creative Technology Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sungmin [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    To reconfirm the safety of moderator system failure accidents, the safety analysis by using the reactor physics code, RFSP-IST, coupled with the thermal hydraulics code, CATHENA is performed additionally. In the present paper, the newly developed analysis method is briefly described and the results obtained from the moderator system failure accident simulations for Wolsong-1 CANDU 6 reactor by using the new method are summarized. The safety analysis of the moderator system failure accidents for Wolsong-1 CANDU 6 reactor was carried out by using the new code system, i. e., CATHENA and RFSP-IST, instead of the non-IST old codes, namely, SMOKIN G-2 and MODSTBOIL. The analysis results by using the new method revealed as same with the results by using the old method that the fuel integrity is warranted because the localized power peak remained well below the limits and, most importantly, the reactor operation enters into the self-shutdown mode due to the substantial loss of moderator D{sub 2}O inventory from the moderator system. In the analysis results obtained by using the old method, it was predicted that the ROP trip conditions occurred for the transient cases which are also studied in the present paper. But, in the new method, it was found that the ROP trip conditions did not occur. Consequently, in the safety analysis performed additionally by using the new method, the safety of moderator system failure accidents was reassured. In the future, the new analysis method by using the IST codes instead of the non-IST old codes for the moderator system failure accidents is strongly recommended.

  9. Changes in Default Alarm Settings and Standard In-Service are Insufficient to Improve Alarm Fatigue in an Intensive Care Unit: A Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowan, Azizeh Khaled; Gomez, Tiffany Michelle; Tarriela, Albert Fajardo; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Paper, Bruce Michael

    2016-01-11

    Clinical alarm systems safety is a national concern, specifically in intensive care units (ICUs) where alarm rates are known to be the highest. Interventional projects that examined the effect of changing default alarm settings on overall alarm rate and on clinicians' attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms and alarm fatigue are scarce. To examine if (1) a change in default alarm settings of the cardiac monitors and (2) in-service nursing education on cardiac monitor use in an ICU would result in reducing alarm rate and in improving nurses' attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms. This quality improvement project took place in a 20-bed transplant/cardiac ICU with a total of 39 nurses. We implemented a unit-wide change of default alarm settings involving 17 parameters of the cardiac monitors. All nurses received an in-service education on monitor use. Alarm data were collected from the audit log of the cardiac monitors 10 weeks before and 10 weeks after the change in monitors' parameters. Nurses' attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms were measured using the Healthcare Technology Foundation National Clinical Alarms Survey, pre- and postintervention. Alarm rate was 87.86 alarms/patient day (a total of 64,500 alarms) at the preintervention period compared to 59.18 alarms/patient day (49,319 alarms) postintervention (P=.01). At baseline, Arterial Blood Pressure (ABP), Pair Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs), and Peripheral Capillary Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) alarms were the highest. ABP and SpO2 alarms remained among the top three at the postproject period. Out of the 39 ICU nurses, 24 (62%) provided complete pre- and postproject survey questionnaires. Compared to the preintervention survey, no remarkable changes in the postproject period were reported in nurses' attitudes. Themes in the narrative data were related to poor usability of cardiac monitors and the frequent alarms. The data showed great variation among nurses in terms of changing

  10. An expert system for the quantification of fault rates in construction fall accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talat Birgonul, M; Dikmen, Irem; Budayan, Cenk; Demirel, Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    Expert witness reports, prepared with the aim of quantifying fault rates among parties, play an important role in a court's final decision. However, conflicting fault rates assigned by different expert witness boards lead to iterative objections raised by the related parties. This unfavorable situation mainly originates due to the subjectivity of expert judgments and unavailability of objective information about the causes of accidents. As a solution to this shortcoming, an expert system based on a rule-based system was developed for the quantification of fault rates in construction fall accidents. The aim of developing DsSafe is decreasing the subjectivity inherent in expert witness reports. Eighty-four inspection reports prepared by the official and authorized inspectors were examined and root causes of construction fall accidents in Turkey were identified. Using this information, an evaluation form was designed and submitted to the experts. Experts were asked to evaluate the importance level of the factors that govern fall accidents and determine the fault rates under different scenarios. Based on expert judgments, a rule-based expert system was developed. The accuracy and reliability of DsSafe were tested with real data as obtained from finalized court cases. DsSafe gives satisfactory results.

  11. Design and implementation of an identification system in construction site safety for proactive accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David A S; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhipeng; Li, Qiming

    2012-09-01

    Identifying accident precursors using real-time identity information has great potential to improve safety performance in construction industry, which is still suffering from day to day records of accident fatality and injury. Based on the requirements analysis for identifying precursor and the discussion of enabling technology solutions for acquiring and sharing real-time automatic identification information on construction site, this paper proposes an identification system design for proactive accident prevention to improve construction site safety. Firstly, a case study is conducted to analyze the automatic identification requirements for identifying accident precursors in construction site. Results show that it mainly consists of three aspects, namely access control, training and inspection information and operation authority. The system is then designed to fulfill these requirements based on ZigBee enabled wireless sensor network (WSN), radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and an integrated ZigBee RFID sensor network structure. At the same time, an information database is also designed and implemented, which includes 15 tables, 54 queries and several reports and forms. In the end, a demonstration system based on the proposed system design is developed as a proof of concept prototype. The contributions of this study include the requirement analysis and technical design of a real-time identity information tracking solution for proactive accident prevention on construction sites. The technical solution proposed in this paper has a significant importance in improving safety performance on construction sites. Moreover, this study can serve as a reference design for future system integrations where more functions, such as environment monitoring and location tracking, can be added.

  12. 基于超声波汽车倒车雷达预警系统设计%Design of Reversing Radar Alarming System Based on Ultrasonic Wave Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高月华

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the car accident caused by the bad " back-sight" , a reversing radar alarming system based on the ultrasonic wave sensor has been proposed in this paper. This system begins to work during the back-draft time, it uses the ultrasonic wave transmitted by an ultrasonic sensor to detect the obstacle information. The ultrasonic wave information is processed to the distances information and displayed by the microprocessor. When the distance is smaller than the determined safety range, the system will start to alert with sound. The system has the advantages of simple installing,strong anti-detonation ability. high accuracy of distance detection and working stahly. The hardwares and software of being composed of the system have been presented and the measurement error has also been analyzed.%针对汽车倒车时的"后视"不良引起的倒车事故,介绍了一种基于超声波的倒车雷达预警系统.该系统在汽车挂倒挡时开始工作,通过超声波传感器发送超声波检测障碍物信息,经微处理器处理成测距信息,并进行显示,当距离小到设定的安全范围时,自动启动语音报警,该系统安装简单,抗震能力强,测距准确且工作稳定可靠.该文给出了系统各部分的硬件及软件实现,并分析了误差产生的原因.

  13. Smart alarms from medical devices in the OR and ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Michael; Kuhls, Silvia; Gather, Ursula; Fried, Roland

    2009-03-01

    Alarms in medical devices are a matter of concern in critical and perioperative care. The high rate of false alarms is not only a nuisance for patients and caregivers, but can also compromise patient safety and effectiveness of care. The development of alarm systems has lagged behind the technological advances of medical devices over the last 20 years. From a clinical perspective, major improvements in alarm algorithms are urgently needed. This review gives an overview of the current clinical situation and the underlying problems, and discusses different methods from statistics and computational science and their potential for clinical application. Some examples of the application of new alarm algorithms to clinical data are presented.

  14. Realization of Intelligent Alarm System for District Power Network%地区电网智能告警系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪耕; 明娇; 代海波

    2011-01-01

    In order to let monitoring staff quickly grasp the key abnormal information, timely and accurately take the relevant measure, combing the function features of intelligent alarm system and making use of the object—oriented modular design methods and multi—threading technology, the design idea of intelligent alarm system with the characteristics of strong scalability and fast response is presented. Based on the information integration and classification, troubleshooting strategy is provided through the decision intelligence analysis,traffic light status indicator is provided by smart state analysis, accurate voice alarm is realized by the use of TTS. The proposed system has the information intelligence inquiry function with the application of LINQ technology.%为便于监控人员快速掌握系统运行情况并在异常情况下及时准确采取相关处理措施,结合智能告警系统的功能特点,采用面向对象的模块化设计方法及多线程技术,提出了具有可扩展性强、响应速度快等特点的告警系统智能化设计思想.在信息整合分类的基础上,决策智能分析提供了故障处理策略,智能状态分析给出了红绿灯状态指示,采用文语转换技术TTS(text-to-speech conversion technology)实现了精确的语音告警,应用LINQ(language integrated query)技术,使该系统具有信息智能查询功能.

  15. Flammable Gas Alarm System Based on ADAM-6017%基于ADAM-6017的可燃气体报警系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫华; 赵庆云; 靳建水; 赵继安; 韩国栋

    2012-01-01

    利用智能型以太网I/O ADAM-6017的特性,以分布式控制方式构建某化工厂碳酸酯类等可燃气体报警系统,给出了系统的硬件架构和软件流程及其组态方式.%Basing on Ethernet I/O ADAM-6017 and distributed control mode, the flammable gas alarm system for carbonates in a chemical plant was proposed, including its hardware and software configuration and programming process.

  16. Fukushima Daiichi accident as a stress test for the national system for the protection of the public in event of severe accident at NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kutkov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed that the circumstances of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on 11 March 2011 in Japan should be used as the framework for the stress test of the national system for the protection of public in the beyond design extension conditions at NPP. Stress tests of the public protection strategy show to what extent the national system is stable under the most unfavorable NPP conditions and give an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities and the ways to resolve them. A definition of the Fukushima stress test model has been provided, and the actions undertaken by Japanese authorities under the conditions of the Fukushima Daiichi accident have been considered as the response to this stress test. The stress test has revealed major vulnerabilities in the strategy for the protection of public in the event of an accident at an NPP, which was successfully proven many times by over a hundred exercises at different levels. The stress test showed that the principal vulnerability of protection strategy being in use in Japan in 2011 was the reliance on computer systems in the assessment of the emergency exposure for decision-making during the emergency response phase. It is proposed, that the Fukushima stress test should be used to identify the vulnerabilities in the Russian Federation's strategy for the protection of public in the event of a nuclear accident and to use the lessons learnt from the test results to perfect this strategy.

  17. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  18. 基于MFM和SDG的二回路系统报警分析研究%Alarm Analysis of Secondary Loop System Based on MFM and SDG Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁; 陆古兵; 陈攀

    2014-01-01

    The multilevel flow model (MFM ) and the signed directed graph (SDG) were combined to analyze the alarm signals of the secondary loop system for nuclear power plant .The MFM was used to delaminate and describe nuclear power plant ,and the SDG was used to analyze the logicality of the facility sign in the MFM .Two kinds of faults in the secondary loop system in nuclear power plant were simulated and the alarm signals were analyzed .The simulation results show that the fault source can be identified exact-ly and the transmit route of the alarm signals can be described clearly ,w hich is helpful for operators to judge .%将多层流模型(M FM )和符号有向图(SDG )相结合,对核动力装置二回路系统的报警信号进行分析。利用M FM对核动力装置进行抽象、分层,运用SDG的理论对M FM 中的设备符号进行逻辑分析。对二回路系统的两种故障状态进行报警仿真分析,结果表明:两种方法的结合能准确地判断源故障,清晰显示报警信号传递路径,有助于操纵员进行判断。

  19. Design of a Remote Monitoring and Alarming System%一种远程监控报警系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余湧; 马娅婕; 彭攀来; 刘智旸

    2016-01-01

    With the open source hardware Raspberry Pi as the core of the monitoring and alarm system, combining with the WebCam camera, and using the mature GPRS technology, the remote automatic monitoring and alarming system which is suitable for home security and unattended areas is designed. The overall structure, functions and hardware composition, software structure and function modules as well as the communication mode among all the parts are introduced. In order to achieve the purpose of the remote monitoring and alarming, when obvious moving of the object is detected in monitoring graphics of camera, the image is captured automatically and sent by E-mail, and the image and video segment are saved;the alarm information is also sent to the user. From the tests, it is found that the system operates stably and reliably, it has certain applicable value.%以开源硬件Raspberry Pi作为监控与报警系统的核心,结合WebCam摄像头,运用成熟的GPRS技术,设计了一种适用于家庭安防和无人值守等领域的远程自动监控报警系统。介绍了系统的总体结构、功能,硬件组成、软件结构与功能模块,以及各部分之间的通信方式。当系统侦测到摄像头监控画面中有物体发生明显移动时,将自动捕捉并以电子邮件的形式发出物体运动图像,同时保存图像和视频片段并向用户发送报警信息,从而实现远程监控报警。经过测试运行,系统能够正常、稳定地工作,可靠性较高,具有一定的使用价值。

  20. The Level of Europium-154 Contaminating Samarium-153-EDTMP Activates the Radiation Alarm System at the US Homeland Security Checkpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Najeeb Al Hallak

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available 153Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical composed of EDTMP (ethylenediamine-tetramethylenephosphonate and Samarium-153 [1]. 153Sm-EDTMP has an affinity for skeletal tissue and concentrates in areas with increased bone turnover; thus, it is successfully used in relieving pain related to diffuse bone metastases [1]. The manufacturing process of 153Sm-EDTMP leads to contamination with 154Eu (Europium-154 [2]. A previous study only alluded to the retention of 154Eu in the bones after receiving treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP [2]. Activation of the alarm at security checkpoints after 153Sm-EDTMP therapy has not been previously reported. Two out of 15 patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center (Fargo, N. Dak., USA activated the radiation activity sensors while passing through checkpoints; one at a US airport and the other while crossing theAmerican-Canadian border. We assume that the 154Eu which remained in the patients’ bones activated the sensors. Methods: In order to investigate this hypothesis, we obtained the consent from 3 of our 15 patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP within the previous 4 months to 2 years, including the patient who had activated the radiation alarm at the airport. The patients were scanned with a handheld detector and a gamma camera for energies from 511 keV to 1.3 MeV. Results: All three patients exhibited identical spectral images, and further analysis showed that the observed spectra are the result of 154Eu emissions. Conclusion: Depending on the detection thresholds and windows used by local and federal authorities, the remaining activity of 154Eu retained in patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP could be sufficient enough to increase the count rates above background levels and activate the sensors. At Roger Maris Cancer Center, patients are now informed of the potential consequences of 153Sm-EDTMP therapy prior to initiating treatment. In addition, patients treated with 153Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center

  1. A Security Alarm System Based on ZigBee Technology%一种基于ZigBee技术的智能安防报警系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹玉军; 马晓阳

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the main characteristics and network topology of ZigBee technology, proposes a design scheme of intelligent security alarm system based on ZigBee technology. The system uses CC2530 microcontroller as the core, utilizes a variety of sensors to collect and monitor real-time environmental parameters, and realizes the alarm in case of abnormal condition. The experiment proves that this system features simple in design, flexible in networking, stable in performance, and has better application prospect.%文章介绍了ZigBee技术的主要特点和网络拓扑结构,提出了一种基于ZigBee技术的智能安防报警系统的设计方案。系统采用TI公司的CC2530单片机为核心,利用多种传感器实时采集和监测环境参量,并对异常情况实现报警。实验证明,本系统设计简单、组网方便、性能稳定,具有良好的应用前景。

  2. ACCIDENT ANALYSES & CONTROL OPTIONS IN SUPPORT OF THE SLUDGE WATER SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2003-11-15

    This report documents the accident analyses and nuclear safety control options for use in Revision 7 of HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, ''K Basins Safety Analysis Report'' and Revision 4 of HNF-SD-SNF-TSR-001, ''Technical Safety Requirements - 100 KE and 100 KW Fuel Storage Basins''. These documents will define the authorization basis for Sludge Water System (SWS) operations. This report follows the guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', for calculating onsite and offsite consequences. The accident analysis summary is shown in Table ES-1 below. While this document describes and discusses potential control options to either mitigate or prevent the accidents discussed herein, it should be made clear that the final control selection for any accident is determined and presented in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062.

  3. The effectiveness of antilock braking systems in reducing accidents in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Jeremy; Baughan, Chris

    2002-05-01

    Antilock braking systems (ABS) are fitted to many new cars with the aims of improving their ability to steer while braking heavily and of reducing stopping distances on some road surfaces. This paper presents the findings of a project that assessed the effectiveness of ABS in reducing accidents in Great Britain. A large postal survey was carried out of the owners of modern cars. asking for details of any accidents in which they had been involved during the previous year as well as factors that might influence their likelihood of being involved in an accident. Questions were also asked to test respondents' knowledge of ABS. ABS cars ditfered in several respects from non-ABS cars, as did the two groups of drivers. Consequently, a sophisticated statistical analysis was required to provide unbiased estimates of the effectiveness of ABS. Various results did not achieve statistical significance, but the overall stability of the results indicates that real effects have been measured. They confirm that ABS does have the potential to reduce the number of accidents, but show that this has not been fully achieved. One reason may be that many drivers have little or no knowledge of ABS.

  4. ACCIDENT ANALYSES & CONTROL OPTIONS IN SUPPORT OF THE SLUDGE WATER SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2003-11-15

    This report documents the accident analyses and nuclear safety control options for use in Revision 7 of HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, ''K Basins Safety Analysis Report'' and Revision 4 of HNF-SD-SNF-TSR-001, ''Technical Safety Requirements - 100 KE and 100 KW Fuel Storage Basins''. These documents will define the authorization basis for Sludge Water System (SWS) operations. This report follows the guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', for calculating onsite and offsite consequences. The accident analysis summary is shown in Table ES-1 below. While this document describes and discusses potential control options to either mitigate or prevent the accidents discussed herein, it should be made clear that the final control selection for any accident is determined and presented in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062.

  5. Geographic Information System (GIS) capabilities in traffic accident information management: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Valinejadi, Ali; Goodarzi, Afshin; Safari, Ameneh; Hemmat, Morteza; Majdabadi, Hesamedin Askari; Mohammadi, Ali

    2017-06-01

    Traffic accidents are one of the more important national and international issues, and their consequences are important for the political, economical, and social level in a country. Management of traffic accident information requires information systems with analytical and accessibility capabilities to spatial and descriptive data. The aim of this study was to determine the capabilities of a Geographic Information System (GIS) in management of traffic accident information. This qualitative cross-sectional study was performed in 2016. In the first step, GIS capabilities were identified via literature retrieved from the Internet and based on the included criteria. Review of the literature was performed until data saturation was reached; a form was used to extract the capabilities. In the second step, study population were hospital managers, police, emergency, statisticians, and IT experts in trauma, emergency and police centers. Sampling was purposive. Data was collected using a questionnaire based on the first step data; validity and reliability were determined by content validity and Cronbach's alpha of 75%. Data was analyzed using the decision Delphi technique. GIS capabilities were identified in ten categories and 64 sub-categories. Import and process of spatial and descriptive data and so, analysis of this data were the most important capabilities of GIS in traffic accident information management. Storing and retrieving of descriptive and spatial data, providing statistical analysis in table, chart and zoning format, management of bad structure issues, determining the cost effectiveness of the decisions and prioritizing their implementation were the most important capabilities of GIS which can be efficient in the management of traffic accident information.

  6. Sunrise alarm clock for the hearing impaired - biomed 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follum, James D; Catchpole, Jennifer M

    2011-01-01

    The Sunrise Alarm Clock is a device designed to be more effective than standard alarm clocks and more pleasant than specialty devices in waking the hearing impaired. This is accomplished with the inclusion of visual, physical, and audio alarms. The visual alarm stimulus is created by manipulating the light output of a bedside lamp to mimic the sunrise. This is achieved by varying the duty cycle of a pulse width modulated signal supplied through a standard three-prong receptacle located on the side of the alarm clock. Physical alarms are in the form of wristbands containing vibrating motors. Finally, audio alarms are provided with both volume and pitch control to match the user’s specific needs. The entire system is designed with two users in mind by providing two independently controlled receptacles, wristbands, and audio systems. At the conclusion of development, a nearly fully functional prototype has been produced. The prototype’s audio and physical alarm system along with one visual alarm are fully functional. Shortcomings include poor timekeeping accuracy and problems clearly displaying the time. Even so, this development in sleep technology is capable of performing its task and waking its user with all three alarm systems.

  7. 基于PLC的水浸报警集中监视系统设计%Design of Waterlogging Alarm and Centralized Monitoring System Based on PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱浩; 刘辉峰; 陈铠

    2013-01-01

    介绍了由计算机和S7-200系列PLC组成的水浸报警集中监视系统.在自由口通信模式下,设计了PLC的串口通信程序;利用Windows API函数和Delphi提供的类,开发设计了计算机的通信程序和监视界面,实现了对水浸报警信息的实时监视.通过测试和实际运行发现,该系统工作稳定,功能正常,达到了设计要求.%The waterlogging alarm and centralized monitoring system which consists of PC and S7-200 PLC is introduced. Under free port communication mode, PLC serial communication program is designed. By using Windows API functions and classes in Delphi, communication program and monitoring interface are designed. Monitoring the waterlogging alarm information in real time is realized. The system can run correctly by testing and practical work.

  8. 基于PLC的高层建筑消防报警系统的设计%PLC-based High-rise Building Fire Alarm System Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤

    2011-01-01

    消防报警系统是人们为了早期发现通报火灾,并及时采取有效措施,控制和扑灭火灾,而设置在建筑物中或其它场所的一种自动消防设施。本文详细介绍了火灾报警系统的传感器原理及其分类,并提出了简单的plc控制器设计梯形图。完成了梯形图编写,分析了一般传感器使用方法。%Fire alarm system for early detection of people informed of the fire,and promptly take effective measures to control and extinguish the fire,and set in a building or other place of an automatic fire-fighting facilities.This paper describes the principle sensor fire alarm systems and classification, and made a simple controller design pie ladder, a ladder to complete written analysis of the general use of the sensor.

  9. A smart phone-based pocket fall accident detection, positioning, and rescue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kau, Lih-Jen; Chen, Chih-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    We propose in this paper a novel algorithm as well as architecture for the fall accident detection and corresponding wide area rescue system based on a smart phone and the third generation (3G) networks. To realize the fall detection algorithm, the angles acquired by the electronic compass (ecompass) and the waveform sequence of the triaxial accelerometer on the smart phone are used as the system inputs. The acquired signals are then used to generate an ordered feature sequence and then examined in a sequential manner by the proposed cascade classifier for recognition purpose. Once the corresponding feature is verified by the classifier at current state, it can proceed to next state; otherwise, the system will reset to the initial state and wait for the appearance of another feature sequence. Once a fall accident event is detected, the user's position can be acquired by the global positioning system (GPS) or the assisted GPS, and sent to the rescue center via the 3G communication network so that the user can get medical help immediately. With the proposed cascaded classification architecture, the computational burden and power consumption issue on the smart phone system can be alleviated. Moreover, as we will see in the experiment that a distinguished fall accident detection accuracy up to 92% on the sensitivity and 99.75% on the specificity can be obtained when a set of 450 test actions in nine different kinds of activities are estimated by using the proposed cascaded classifier, which justifies the superiority of the proposed algorithm.

  10. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.S.; O' Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  11. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  12. The effect of traffic light on accident probability in open and periodic boundaries system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhirech, Abdelaziz; Alaoui-Ismaili, Assia

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we numerically study the dependence of car accident probability Pac, per site and per time step on cycle time T of traffic light, both in open and periodic boundaries system. In this study one traffic light is placed in the middle of the system. This work is based on Nagel and Schreckenberg (NaSch) model (Nagel and Schreckenberg (1992)) in parallel dynamics. The Pac dependence on T and the (α, β) phase diagrams are established. α and β are the injecting and extracting rates of cars in the traffic lane respectively. The increase of the cycle time light T causes an important decrease of the accident probability Pac both in the open and periodic cases.

  13. A VR Based Anti-accident Training System for Airport’s Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu GuoDong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A virtual environment of airport’s power supply is very useful for anti-accident training. In this paper, an effective method of anti-accident training for airport’s power supply based on Delta3D VR engine was proposed. The architecture of airport’s power supply training system was introduced. The electric closet’s operating simulation was accomplished based on the device’s operation logic. The model of fault and relay protection was designed according to electrical characteristics. A finite automaton model of diesel engine was presented based on operating conditions for virtual operation. Finally, a VR based airport’s power supply system was built and verified in worker’s training.

  14. Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) in case of nuclear accident with exposure doses estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.; Slavov, K.; Veleva, B.

    2015-07-01

    A PC-oriented Emergency Response System in case of nuclear accident (BERS) is developed and works operationally in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH). The creation and development of BERS was highly stimulated by the ETEX (European Tracer Experiment) project. BERS comprises two main parts - the operational and the accidental ones. The operational part, run automatically every 12 hours, prepares the input meteorological file used by both trajectory and dispersion models, runs the trajectory models, visualizes the results and uploads the maps of trajectories to a dedicated web-site. The accidental part is activated manually when a real radioactive releases occur or during emergency exercises. Its core is the Bulgarian dispersion models EMAP. Outputs are concentration, accumulated deposition and selected doses fields. In the paper, the BERS overall structure is described and examples of its products are presented. Key words: nuclear accident, emergency response, early warning system, air dispersion models, radioactive exposure dose. (Author)

  15. Alarming increase in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Over the past decade and half there has been an alarming worldwide increase in refugees. The total rose form 2.8 million in 1976 to 8.2 million in 1980, to 17.3 million in 1990. Africa's refugees rose from 1.2 million in 1976 to 5.6 million in 1990. Asia's increase over this period was much more rapid--from a mere 180,000 to 8 million. In the Americas the numbers more than trebled, from 770,000 to 2.7 million. Europe was the smallest increase, from 570,000 to 894,000. International law defines a refugee as someone outside of their own country, who has a well-founded fear of persecution because of their political or religious beliefs or ethnic origin, and who cannot turn to their own country for protection. Most refugees are genuine by this definition. The increase reflects, in part, fallout from the cold war. Ethiopia, Mozambique and Angola accounted for almost 1/2 of Africa's refugees; Afghanistan alone for 3/4 of Asia's total. They fled, for the most part, from 1 poor country into another, where they added to shortages of land and fuelwood, and intensified environmental pressure. Malawi, 1 of the poorest countries in the world, is sheltering perhaps as many as 750,000 refugees from the war in Mozambique. But among these refugees--especially among those who turned to the rich countries for asylum--were an increasing number of people who were not suffering political persecution. Driven out of their homes by the collapse of their environment or economic despair, and ready to take any means to get across borders, they are a new category: economic and environmental refugees. The most spectacular attempts hit the television screens: the Vietnamese boat people, ships festooned with Albanians. Behind the headlines there was a growing tide of asylum seekers. The numbers rose 10-fold in Germany from 1983 to 1990. In Switzerland they multiplied by 4 times. In Europe, as a whole, they grew from 71,000 in 1983 to an estimated 550,000 in 1990. In 1990 the numbers threatened to

  16. General methods for alarm reduction; Larmsanering med generella metoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnlund, Jonas; Bergquist, Tord; Raaberg, Martin [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Information Technology

    2003-10-01

    The information in the control rooms has increased due to the technological advances in process control. Large industries produce large data quantities, where some information is unnecessary or even incorrect. The operator needs support from an advanced and well-adjusted alarm system to be able to separate a real event from a minor disturbance. The alarms must be of assistance and not a nuisance. An enhanced alarm situation qualifies an increased efficiency with fewer production disturbances and an improved safety. Yet, it is still unusual that actions are taken to improve the situation. An alarm cleanup with general methods can shortly be described as taking advantage of the control systems built-in functions, the possibility to modify or create function blocks and fine-tune the settings in the alarm system. In this project, we make use of an intelligent software, Alarm Cleanup Toolbox, that simulate different signal processing methods and tries to find improved settings on all the signals in the process. This is a fast and cost-efficient way to improve the overall alarm situation, and lays a foundation for more advanced alarm systems. An alarm cleanup has been carried out at Flintraennan district heating plant in Malmoe, where various signal processing methods has been implemented in a parallel alarm system. This made it possible to compare the two systems under the same conditions. The result is very promising, and shows that a lot of improvements can be achieved with very little effort. An analysis of the alarm system at Vattenreningen (the water purification process) at Heleneholmsverket in Malmoe has been carried out. Alarm Cleanup Toolbox has, besides suggesting improved settings, also found logical errors in the alarm system. Here, no implementation was carried out and therefore the results are analytical, but they validate the efficiency of the general methods. The project has shown that an alarm cleanup with general methods is cost-efficient, and that the

  17. Anatomy of a system accident: The crash of Avianca Flight 052

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    On January 25, 1990, Avianca Flight 052 crashed after running out of fuel following a missed approach to New York's John F. Kennedy Airport. Weather was poor on the East Coast of the United States that day, and the flight had experienced several holding patterns enroute from Medellin, Colombia, to New York. The accident is analyzed in terms of Helmreich and Foushee's (1993) model of crew performance and Reason's (1990) model of latent pathogens in system operations.

  18. Research and Design of Monitoring Alarm System for Mine Oxygen Concentration%矿井低氧监测报警系统的研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟文峰

    2013-01-01

    In order to prevent the mine suffocation incidents from happening again, the design of monitoring alarm system for mine oxygen concentration based on microcontroller automotive anti-suffocation. With PIC16 microcontroller as the main control center, the system is capable of real-time monitoring of the concentration of oxygen in mine, and with Zigbee wireless sensor networks technology the monitoring datas to be sent to PIC16 for treatment and to be dynamic displaied on the LED digital tube connected PIC16. When the oxygen concentration is too low, the system automatically starts the alarm device. Through the contrast experiment with oxygen concentration detector, this system can accurately monitoring the oxygen concentration inside the mine, and be able to realize the alarm function. If the mine is to be installed the system, to avoid potential safety problems due to the lack of oxygen in mine.%为了防止矿井窒息事故的发生,设计了一种基于单片机的矿井低氧监测报警系统。该系统以PIC16单片机为主控中心,系统能够实时监测矿井内氧气浓度,并将监测到的数据通过Zigbee无线传感网技术传送到PIC16进行处理,再由连接在PIC16上的LED数码管动态显示氧气浓度。当氧气含量过低时,系统自动启动报警。通过与氧气浓度探测仪对比实验,该系统能够较准确地监测出矿井内氧气浓度,能够实现报警功能。矿井内安装此系统,可随时测量井下氧气浓度,避免矿工因氧气不足带来的安全隐患。

  19. Alarm management in gas pipeline plant: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Juliano; Lima, Marcelo; Leitao, Gustavo; Guedes, Luiz Affonso [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Branco, Nicolau; Coelho, Robson; Elias, Gustavo Passos; Nunes, Marcelo [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil (TBG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve the requirements of industrial processes, many decision support systems have been introduced in recent years. In this context, the alarm management systems have great relevance. On the other hand, the informatics revolution allowed a great increase of information concerning the operation of the industrial processes. Currently, process operators handle an excessive number of about 1.500 alarms per day. Thus, this overdose of information implies in the discredit of alarms. Then, in order to improve the operation activities of industrial processes, it is mandatory to incorporate procedures to evaluate and rationalize alarms. Since the EMMUA191 Standard is the reference guide to alarm management, but it does not specify how to execute an alarm management procedure, in this paper, a systematic procedure to evaluate alarms configurations in industrial processes is proposed. This procedure is in line with EMMUA191 and is composed by the following steps: to use statistics analyses to identify problematic alarms, such as occurrence, intermittency, correlation, and flooding calculation; to indicate problematic alarm group; and to propose a set of actions to be implemented. To validate our proposal, we present a case study in a gas pipeline plant using the BR-AlarmExpert software. (author)

  20. FAULT DIAGNOSIS WITH MULTI-STATE ALARMS IN A NUCLEAR POWER CONTROL SIMULATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Ronald L. Boring

    2012-10-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  1. Fault Diagnosis with Multi-State Alarms in a Nuclear Power Control Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart A. Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-09-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effects of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized the use of three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. Sensitivity and criterion based on the Signal Detection Theory were used to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  2. Validation and application of the system code ATHLET-CD for BWR severe accident analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Marcello, Valentino, E-mail: valentino.marcello@kit.edu; Imke, Uwe; Sanchez, Victor

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • We present the application of the system code ATHLET-CD code for BWR safety analyses. • Validation of core in-vessel models is performed based on KIT CORA experiments. • A SB-LOCA scenario is simulated on a generic German BWR plant up to vessel failure. • Different core reflooding possibilities are investigated to mitigate the accident consequences. • ATHLET-CD modelling features reflect the current state of the art of severe accident codes. - Abstract: This paper is aimed at the validation and application of the system code ATHLET-CD for the simulation of severe accident phenomena in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). The corresponding models for core degradation behaviour e.g., oxidation, melting and relocation of core structural components are validated against experimental data available from the CORA-16 and -17 bundle tests. Model weaknesses are discussed along with needs for further code improvements. With the validated ATHLET-CD code, calculations are performed to assess the code capabilities for the prediction of in-vessel late phase core behaviour and reflooding of damaged fuel rods. For this purpose, a small break LOCA scenario for a generic German BWR with postulated multiple failures of the safety systems was selected. In the analysis, accident management measures represented by cold water injection into the damaged reactor core are addressed to investigate the efficacy in avoiding or delaying the failure of the reactor pressure vessel. Results show that ATHLET-CD is applicable to the description of BWR plant behaviour with reliable physical models and numerical methods adopted for the description of key in-vessel phenomena.

  3. 多功能防酒驾定位报警系统的设计%The Design of Multifunctional Positioning Alarm System to Prevent Drunk Driving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2014-01-01

    Alarm system for real-time detection of the alcohol content of the driver is designed. System can detect whether someone driving by a pressure sensor. Using GPS as the positioning module, the system can real-time receives the location information of the vehicle,and deposits in EEPROM. MCU reads the information and through the LCD1602 display longitude and latitude, date and time and alcohol content, and can realize voice alarm by ISD1420. If the alcohol content exceeds the standard,the system can pat on the brake of automobile,at the same time,through GPS positioning the accurate position of the vehicle through the GSM network to send text messages, realizes the remote alarm. According to the test results,device is stable and reliable,complete functions,and has a good popularization value.%设计了一种实时检测司机酒精含量的报警系统,通过压力传感器检测是否有人驾驶,以MQ-3酒精传感器检测酒精含量,采用GPS作为定位模块,卫星接收车辆实时位置并存入EEPROM中,单片机读取信息并通过LCD1602显示经纬度,时间日期和酒精含量,通过ISD1420实现语音报警。系统在酒精量超标的情况下制动机车,同时通过GPS定位把车辆的精确位置通过GSM网络以短信的形式实现远程报警。经测试表明,系统稳定可靠,功能齐全,具有较好的推广价值。

  4. 高压注射器智能导流报警系统设计%Design on Intelligent Diversion & Alarm System of High Pressure Syringe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正东; 陈霖; 鲁军; 王熙; 黎海涛

    2011-01-01

    The leakage of high-pressure syringe is usually happened during the course of clinical applications due to its rapid injection speed and high pressure. Based on Texas Instrument(TI)'s microcontroller MSP430F449 and Measurement Specialties Inc(MEAS)'s pressure sensor FS2050. An intelligent diversion & alarm system is designed to prevent the leakage of high-pressure syringe designed. The system can offer real-time monitoring for the full injection process, and start sound & light alarm, switch diversion immediately once the leakage is monitored. The intelligent system can not only overcome the shortcomings of easy to loose on mechanical designs, but also increase the switching function which can effectively reduce the pain of patients. Animal experimental results show that the intelligent diversion & alarm system is reliable and sensitive and can effectively prevent the leakage of high-pressure syringes.%为解决当前医用高压注射器注射药液时因注射速度快、压力高而易发生渗漏的问题,采用TI公司的微控制器MSP430F449及精量电子FS2050压力传感器,设计了一套高压注射器防渗漏智能导流报警系统,可实时监测高压注射过程.一旦监测到渗漏立即进行声光报警,同时迅速进行导流切换.本系统不仅克服了以往机械设计方案易松动的缺点,而且还增加了导流切换功能可有效减轻病人的痛苦.动物实验结果表明,智能导流报警系统稳定可靠、灵敏度高,可有效避免高压注射器的药液渗漏现象的发生.

  5. Design considerations for post accident monitoring system of a research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Gwi Sook; Park, Je Yun; Kim, Young Ki [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The Post Accident Monitoring System (PAMS) provides primary information for operators to assess the plant conditions and perform their role in bringing the plant to a safe condition during an accident. The PAMS of NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) in KOREA provides the continuous display of the PAM category 1 parameters specified in R.G 1.97, Rev. 03. Recently the PAMS of NPP has been designed according to R.G 1.97, Rev. 04. There is no PAMS at the HANARO in KOREA, but recently RRs (Research Reactors) around the world are going to have PAMS for various multi purposes. We should determine the design considerations for PAMS in a Korean RR based on the design state analysis. Thus, this paper proposes strategies on the design considerations for the PAMS of a Korean RR.

  6. Modeling of Spray System Operation under Hydrogen and Steam Emissions in NPP Containment during Severe Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Seleznev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes one of the variants of mathematical models of a fluid dynamics process inside the containment, which occurs in the conditions of operation of spray systems in severe accidents at nuclear power plant. The source of emergency emissions in this case is the leak of the coolant or rupture at full cross-section of the main circulating pipeline in a reactor building. Leak or rupture characteristics define the localization and the temporal law of functioning of a source of emergency emission (or accrued operating of warmed up hydrogen and steam in the containment. Operation of this source at the course of analyzed accident models should be described by the assignment of the relevant Dirichlet boundary conditions. Functioning of the passive autocatalytic recombiners of hydrogen is described in the form of the complex Newton boundary conditions.

  7. On the registration of FLGPR and IR data for a forward-looking landmine detection system and its use in eliminating FLGPR false alarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, K.; Keller, J.; Ho, K. C.; Busch, M.; Gader, P. D.

    2008-04-01

    This paper proposes a technique for using infrared (IR) imagery to eliminate false forward-looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) detections by examining areas in IR images corresponding to FLGPR alarm locations. The FLGPR and IR co-location is based on the assumption of a flat earth and the pinhole camera model. The parameters of the camera and its location on the vehicle are not assumed to be known. The parameters of the model are estimated using a set of correspondences gathered from the data utilizing the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES) optimization algorithm. Detection of false alarms is accomplished by generating a descriptor, consisting of various statistics calculated from the IR images along with the FLGPR confidence value, for each alarm location. The alarms are then classified based on the Mahalanobis distance between their descriptor and a multivariate normal distribution used to model false alarms. The false alarm distribution is computed from training data where the validity of each alarm location is already known. Using this technique, generally fifteen to twenty percent or more of the FLGPR false alarms can be eliminated without losing any true alarms.

  8. Research and practice of intelligent fire alarm system%智能火灾预警系统的研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅坚尧

    2011-01-01

    以农村小作坊、出租房、小旅馆、门店及广大普通住宅等“散远小”场所为关注点,整合火灾检测、报警、有(无)线通信等成熟技术,设计出成本低、功能完备的火灾自动预警系统.测试表明,该系统运行可靠,各项技术指标均达到了设计需求.%Focusing on "scattered, far, small" places as rural workshops, rental house, small hotels and ordinary residen-tials, integrating mature technologies as fire detection, alarm, wireline and non-wireline communication, low-cost and functional automatic fire warning system was designed. The results show that the system is reliable, and the technical indicators meet the design requirements.

  9. Study on the establishment of retrospective dosimetry system for nuclear radiation accident(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik; Chai, Ha Seok; Lee, Jong Ok [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    This study was driven forward centering around physical techniques in retrospective dosimetry system for encountering nuclear radiation accident. The results obtained through this study are summarized as follow : the minimal facilities based on physical techniques should be assured at KINS for appropriate operation and establishment of retrospective accident dosimetry system, the necessary apparatus and man power for retrospective dose assessment by physical techniques might be operated flexibly, however, CL and TL/OSL readers should be equipped with the highest priority, a series of comparative examination of several physical techniques for retrospective dose assessment revealed that most of the irradiated materials around accident sites are usable for the dose assessment, if a priori study on the dosimetrical characteristics of those materials is preceded in accordance with the species of the collectable samples, the results of the study on the CL-dose response and radiation energy dependence of sugar and sorbitol, showed the nonlinearity in CL-dose relationship at the range of low dose(less than 5 Gy), and it led us to perform a study on the correction of the nonlinearity, and in the later study, CL output showed heavy dependence on radiation energy in the energy below around 100 keV and accordingly, a study on the correction for the energy dependence was also carried out, ve were able to obtain good results as a first attempt to carry out such corrections.

  10. Development of a MAAP-based Severe Accident Training Simulator using Visual System Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jae Seung [SENTECH, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwang Il; Kim, Kyung Doo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The recent environment of severe accident analysis requires high performance computers to simulate complicated reactor and containment phenomena. In parallel with this, rapid advances in computer technology now enable these codes to run in real or almost real time. The remaining limitation restricting their use on an even wider scale is that most of the existing codes are still subject to a complicated I/O structure. Even user-friendly graphical user interfaces (GUI) will be not likely to help better and efficient interpretation of the analysis results obtained from these codes as well as for their increased use. This situation has motivated the development of easy-to-use GUI tools for severe accident codes, such as ViSA, SNAP, MAAP4-GRAAP, SATS, and et al. For instance, ViSA enables the thermal-hydraulic system codes to be used like a conventional nuclear plant analyzer. Recently, a project for a real time simulation of results obtained using MAAP4 codes under the ViSA environment has been initiated in KAERI. Such a GUI-based interactive interface can be very useful in sharing real time analysis results obtained from the MAAP code. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the current status of a MAAP-based Severe Accident Simulator being coupled with the ViSA system

  11. Likelihood alarm displays. [for human operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Robert D.; Kantowitz, Barry H.; Kantowitz, Susan C.

    1988-01-01

    In a likelihood alarm display (LAD) information about event likelihood is computed by an automated monitoring system and encoded into an alerting signal for the human operator. Operator performance within a dual-task paradigm was evaluated with two LADs: a color-coded visual alarm and a linguistically coded synthetic speech alarm. The operator's primary task was one of tracking; the secondary task was to monitor a four-element numerical display and determine whether the data arose from a 'signal' or 'no-signal' condition. A simulated 'intelligent' monitoring system alerted the operator to the likelihood of a signal. The results indicated that (1) automated monitoring systems can improve performance on primary and secondary tasks; (2) LADs can improve the allocation of attention among tasks and provide information integrated into operator decisions; and (3) LADs do not necessarily add to the operator's attentional load.

  12. Design of an intelligent gas monitor and alarm system%智能瓦斯监测报警系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亮; 何小刚

    2013-01-01

    新型智能瓦斯监控报警器系统,采用了ARM Cortex-M3系列微控制器STM32F107作为硬件平台,并对各传感器采集的数据进行分析处理,利用人工智能算法中的神经网络作为数据预测模型,同时由RS485通信技术和ZigBee无线通信技术完成对报警设备的控制.为了降低系统硬件成本,减少人工操作,并使系统自行进行多任务的处理与切换,采用了μCOS-Ⅱ作为嵌入式系统.%A new-type intelligent gas monitor and alarm system was designed. The STM32F107 chip of ARM Cortex-M3 series severed as hardware to analyze and calculate the data collected by all sensors. In addition, neural network, one of the artificial intelligence algorithms, was applied as data prediction model, and RS485 communication technology and ZigBee wireless communication technology were used to control the alarm device. In order to reduce the hardware cost and unnecessary manual operation, and to realize automatic processing and shift of multiple system tasks, μCOS- Ⅱ operating system was applied as embedded system to achieve expected objective.

  13. The guard against theft and alarm system of automobile based on the GSM%基于GSM的汽车防盗报警系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冲

    2011-01-01

    In order to prevent the stolen vehicle more effectively, the guard against theft and alarm system based on the GSM is designed in this paper,which utilizes module Q2403A of WISMO cell-phone. MCU is adopted as the central controller in the system, so that the alarm information can follow mobile phone users in time. On the other hand, the different states of the car can be controled by answering some different special form short messages from the user. In addition, the system can also send the current state to mobile phone users. According to receiving the different content of short message, the interaction can be realized between the message system and mobile phone users.%为了更加有效地防止车辆被盗,笔者设计了一种远程汽车防盗报警系统。系统以单片机作为控制器.利用其通信功能及WISMO移动通信模块Q2403A,将汽车被盗的警情信号用短信息的方式发送到某个确定的手机用户.使该报警信息能及时地跟随手机用户,达到移动报警的目的。同时该手机用户还可以给系统回复短信息。以控制汽车的状态,另外,系统还可以根据接收到的控制短信息的不同内容,向手机用户发送当前系统状态的提示信息.从而实现系统和手机用户之间的互动.

  14. A system of safety management practices and worker engagement for reducing and preventing accidents: an empirical and theoretical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Jan K; Yorio, Patrick L

    2014-07-01

    The overall research objective was to theoretically and empirically develop the ideas around a system of safety management practices (ten practices were elaborated), to test their relationship with objective safety statistics (such as accident rates), and to explore how these practices work to achieve positive safety results (accident prevention) through worker engagement. Data were collected using safety manager, supervisor and employee surveys designed to assess and link safety management system practices, employee perceptions resulting from existing practices, and safety performance outcomes. Results indicate the following: there is a significant negative relationship between the presence of ten individual safety management practices, as well as the composite of these practices, with accident rates; there is a significant negative relationship between the level of safety-focused worker emotional and cognitive engagement with accident rates; safety management systems and worker engagement levels can be used individually to predict accident rates; safety management systems can be used to predict worker engagement levels; and worker engagement levels act as mediators between the safety management system and safety performance outcomes (such as accident rates). Even though the presence of safety management system practices is linked with incident reduction and may represent a necessary first-step in accident prevention, safety performance may also depend on mediation by safety-focused cognitive and emotional engagement by workers. Thus, when organizations invest in a safety management system approach to reducing/preventing accidents and improving safety performance, they should also be concerned about winning over the minds and hearts of their workers through human performance-based safety management systems designed to promote and enhance worker engagement. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Data-Driven Implementation of Alarm Reduction Interventions in a Cardiovascular Surgical ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Sharon H; Doyle, Peter A; Sapirstein, Adam; Cvach, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Alarm fatigue in the ICU setting has been well documented in the literature. The ICU's high-intensity environment requires staff's vigilant attention, and distraction from false and non-actionable alarms pulls staff away from important tasks, creates dissatisfaction, and is a potential patient safety risk if alarms are missed or ignored. This project was intended to improve patient safety by optimizing alarm systems in a cardiovascular surgical intensive care unit (CVSICU). Specific aims were to examine nurses' attitudes toward clinical alarm signals, assess nurses' ability to discriminate audible alarm signals, and implement a bundled set of best practices for monitor alarm reduction without undermining patient safety. CVSICU nurses completed an alarm perception survey and participated in alarm discriminability testing. Nurse survey data and baseline monitor alarm data were used to select targeted alarm reduction interventions, which were progressively phased in. Monitor alarm data and cardiorespiratory event data were trended over one year. Five of the most frequent CVSICU monitor alarm types-pulse oximetry, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse oximetry sensor, and ventricular tachycardia > 2-were targeted. After implementation, there was a 61% reduction in average alarms per monitored bed and a downward trend in cardiorespiratory events. To reduce alarm fatigue it is important to decrease alarm burden through targeted interventions. Methods to reduce non-actionable alarms include adding short delays to allow alarm self-correction, adjusting default alarm threshold limits, providing alarm notification through a secondary device, and teaching staff to optimize alarm settings for individual patients. Copyright © 2016 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Habituating alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie

    functionality for the staff, but are stressful for visitors and patients, as they are designed to demand attention even though they have no direct functional meaning to them. By introducing sounds from the ward, integrated in the furniture as simple sound sample triggers, KidKit invites children to become...... accustomed to the alarming sounds through rhythmic interaction in the waiting room, and bringing the furniture with them afterwards as a secure anchor, when entering the ward. This rhythmic habituation can enable the child to focus her attention on the meeting with the hospitalized relative....

  17. Habituating alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie

    essential dynamic parameters when designing atmospheres. This research is based on the development of the novel research artefact Kidkit, designed for children, who are going to meet a hospitalized relative with fatal injuries in a Neuro–Intensive Care Unit. Sounds from hospital equipment have important...... accustomed to the alarming sounds through rhythmic interaction in the waiting room, and bringing the furniture with them afterwards as a secure anchor, when entering the ward. This rhythmic habituation can enable the child to focus her attention on the meeting with the hospitalized relative....

  18. Assessment of Clinical Alarms Influencing Nurses' Perceptions of Alarm Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Emalie M; Costanzo, Cindy L

    Excessive clinical alarms have inundated health care for years. Multiple governing bodies, organizations, and facilities have deemed alarm management a priority. Alarm management is a multifaceted problem that affects all health care organizations and clinical staff, especially those in critical care units. Ultimately, the lack of knowledge regarding nurses' perceptions to alarm management and alarm fatigue creates patient safety chiasms. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to understand nurses' perceptions of alarm fatigue (utilizing the Healthcare Technology Foundation's Clinical Alarms Committee Survey) while implementing interventions that improve patient safety. The design of this qualitative study is an electronically distributed survey to 31 nurses who work in critical care. The Healthcare Technology Foundation clinical alarms survey has 36 questions with various answering strategies distributed (with permission) via e-mail access by BlueQ through Creighton University. Twenty-six respondents (n = 26) completed the survey, with 42% being intensive care unit nurses and 58% being progressive care unit nurses. The majority of nurses (n = 23, 88%) agreed that nuisance alarms occur frequently and disrupt patient care (n = 25, 96%). A lack of standardized method was noted to alarm management and parameter changes. Multiple patterns emerged that initiated the need for further examination and improvement. Following the survey, themes emerged, and changes were implemented including the following: an alarm management policy was created, tools were provided to staff for easy usage, staff were educated using hands-on practice at an annual training summit, and sustainability was created through continuation of alarm management assessment and improvement.

  19. As assessment of power system vulnerability to release of carbon fibers during commercial aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The vulnerability of a power distribution system in Bedford and Lexington, Massachusetts to power outages as a result of exposure to carbon fibers released in a commercial aviation accident in 1993 was examined. Possible crash scenarios at Logan Airport based on current operational data and estimated carbon fiber usage levels were used to predict exposure levels and occurrence probabilities. The analysis predicts a mean time between carbon fiber induced power outages of 2300 years with an expected annual consequence of 0.7 persons losing power. In comparison to historical outage data for the system, this represents a 0.007% increase in outage rate and 0.07% increase in consequence.

  20. Decision support system for emergency management of oil spill accidents in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Pinardi, Nadia; De Dominicis, Michela; Lecci, Rita; Turrisi, Giuseppe; Cretì, Sergio; Martinelli, Sara; Agostini, Paola; Marra, Palmalisa; Palermo, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an innovative web-based decision support system to facilitate emergency management in the case of oil spill accidents, called WITOIL (Where Is The Oil). The system can be applied to create a forecast of oil spill events, evaluate uncertainty of the predictions, and calculate hazards based on historical meteo-oceanographic datasets. To compute the oil transport and transformation, WITOIL uses the MEDSLIK-II oil spill model forced by operational meteo-oceanographic services. Results of the modeling are visualized through Google Maps. A special application for Android is designed to provide mobile access for competent authorities, technical and scientific institutions, and citizens.

  1. 家庭安防系统中手机彩信报警的实现%Realization of multimedia messaging service of home safety alarm system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光异; 王会清; 程勇

    2013-01-01

    利用 LabVIEW 软件开发了集现场数据采集、传送及远程监视于一体的彩信实时报警系统。当监控现场有非法侵入时,控制主机收到被触发的探测器报警信号后立即启动相应的模块采集现场的声音与图像,经信号处理后以最直观的彩信形式,通过 GPRS 网络发送到用户设定的手机。系统运行结果表明,数据发送稳定、实时性好,声音和图像清晰,可以作为传统报警方式的补充,也可应用于其他方面的远程监控。%A multimedia messaging service real-time alarm system of onsite data collection, transmission and remote monitoring has been established using LabVIEW development tools. As soon as the probes are triggered by illegal intruder , control host immediately starts the data collection of live sound and image by related module, and after signal processing, the data are sent to the appointed mobile phone. Testing results show that the data transmission is stable, time lag is short, the sound and the image are clear. The MMS can be used as an enhanced assembly to the traditional alarm system , as well as to other remote monitoring.

  2. An investigation of training strategies to improve alarm reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, James P; Chancey, Eric T

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have suggested that operator training may improve operator reactions; however, researchers have not documented this for alarm reactions. The goal of this research was to train participants to react to alarms using sensor activity patterns. In Experiment 1, 80 undergraduates monitored a simulated security screen while completing a primary word search task. They received spatial, temporal, single sensor, or no training to respond to alarms of differing reliability levels. Analyses revealed more appropriate and quicker reactions when participants were trained and when the alarms were reliable. In Experiment 2, 56 participants practiced time estimation by simple repetition, performance feedback, or performance feedback and temporal subdivision. They then reacted to alarms based on elapsed time between sensor activity and alarm onset. Surprisingly, results indicated that participants did not benefit differentially from temporal interval training, focusing instead on advertised system reliability. Researchers should replicate these findings with realistic tasks and real-world complex task operators.

  3. DC system voltage alarm settings of nuclear power plants%核电站核岛直流系统电压报警定值分析与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝连钢; 孙炜

    2011-01-01

    利用RCC-E关于直流系统电压性能异常变化范围的规定,以及现有核岛直流系统蓄电池年度放电曲线,结合法国EDF核电站核岛直流系统电压高低报警定值,提出了1000 MW核电机组核岛直流系统电压高、低报警定值设计的新方法.电压报警定值按照系统设计方法,电压高报警定值与下游电源匹配,电压低报警后,蓄电池应能再运行半个多小时.运行实践表明,新的电压高、低报警定值设计合理,在电压异常时,能够及时报警,正确地反映了系统运行的状况.%The design of high and low alarm settings for the DC system voltage of 1 000 MW nuclear power plants is proposed according to the scope of abnormal voltage performances stipulated in RCC-E for DC system and the existing annual discharge curve of DC system battery,with the reference to those of French EDF nuclear power plants. The designed high alarm setting matches the downstream power supply. With the designed low alarm setting,about more than half an hour of system operation by battery is allowed after alarm annunciation. Operational results show that,the designed voltage alarm settings are reasonable,the voltage abnormality is timely alarmed ,and the situation of the system operation is correctly reflected.

  4. Design of On-Board Remote Alarm System Based on GSM Network%基于GSM网络的车载远程报警系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟娜; 王帅; 陈文强; 潘之杰; 赵福全

    2011-01-01

    采用GSM技术设计了车载远程报警系统。该系统以微处理器为控制核心,利用传感器的报警信号,使GSM模块在发生警情的同时发送短信到指定的号码,并且通过CAN总线控制车身其它单元,有效地提高了汽车防盗性能。%The on-board remote alarm system is designed based on the GSM technology. With a MCU as its control core, this system uses the alarm signal of a sensor to make the GSM module send messages to the appointed number at the same time when it alarms. It can control the other body units through CAN bus, thus effectively improving the anti-theft performance of automobile.

  5. Helicopter emergency medical services accident rates in different international air rescue systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Hinkelbein

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available J Hinkelbein1,2, M Schwalbe2, H V Genzwuerker2,31Department for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Cologne, Germany; 2Working Group “Emergency Medicine and Air Rescue”, German Society of Aviation and Space Medicine (DGRLM eV; 3Clinic of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Neckar-Odenwald-Kliniken gGmbH, Hospitals Buchen and Mosbach, Buchen, GermanyAim: Each year approximately two to four helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS crashes occur in Germany. The aim of the present study was to compare crash rates and fatal crash rates in Germany to rates in other countries.Materials and methods: A MEDLINE search from 1970 to 2009 was performed using combinations of the keywords “HEMS”, “rescue helicopter”, “accident”, “accident rate”, “crash”, and “crash rate”. The search was supplemented by additional published data. Data were compared on the basis of 10,000 missions and 100,000 helicopter flying hours. These data were allocated to specific time frames for analyis.Results: Eleven relevant studies were identified. Five studies (three from Germany, one from the US, one from Australia analyzing HEMS accidents on the basis of 10,000 missions were identified. Crash rates per 10,000 missions ranged between 0.4 and 3.05 and fatal crash rates between 0.04 and 2.12. In addition, nine studies (six from the US, two from Germany, one from Australia used 100,000 flying hours as a denominator. Here, crash rates ranged between 1.7 and 13.4 and fatal crash rates between 0.91 and 4.7.Conclusions: Data and accident rates were inhomogeneous and differed significantly. Data analysis was impeded by publication of mean data, use of different time frames, and differences in HEMS systems.Keywords: fatal accident rate, rescue helicopter, fatal crash rate, helicopter emergency medical system, accident analysis

  6. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  7. [How Much Alarm Can the Human Being Tolerate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Benedikt; Peters, Jürgen; Frey, Ulrich H

    2017-07-01

    Due to growing technisation of intensive care the number of devices with integrated alarm systems is steadily increasing. However, most of the sounding alarms are false alarms causing high levels of frustration, aggression and inappropriate behaviour amongst the medical personnel. All this jeopardises patient care. The high number of alarms also disturb the patients interrupting their sleep and provokes anxiety, and also increases the already high noise level in intensive care units and the operating theatre alike. In the interest of the medical staff and our patients, we should reduce the high frequency of false alarms by using modern alarm algorithms techniques, lower both noise exposure and stress load with the help of modern individualized alarm systems and by increasing awareness on the dangers of alarm fatigue through training and by using individualized patient-related alarm limits. Despite economic challenges hospitals and intensive care units should optimize staffing, thereby lowering the risk to patients and improving employee satisfaction. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Alarm Fatigue: A Concept Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patricia West; Patricia Abbott

    2014-01-01

    .... [...]it is the hope of these authors that an enhanced understanding of alarm fatigue can contribute to future collaborative multidisciplinary research efforts and continued policy progression to create...

  9. Managing Errors to Reduce Accidents in High Consequence Networked Information Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganter, J.H.

    1999-02-01

    Computers have always helped to amplify and propagate errors made by people. The emergence of Networked Information Systems (NISs), which allow people and systems to quickly interact worldwide, has made understanding and minimizing human error more critical. This paper applies concepts from system safety to analyze how hazards (from hackers to power disruptions) penetrate NIS defenses (e.g., firewalls and operating systems) to cause accidents. Such events usually result from both active, easily identified failures and more subtle latent conditions that have resided in the system for long periods. Both active failures and latent conditions result from human errors. We classify these into several types (slips, lapses, mistakes, etc.) and provide NIS examples of how they occur. Next we examine error minimization throughout the NIS lifecycle, from design through operation to reengineering. At each stage, steps can be taken to minimize the occurrence and effects of human errors. These include defensive design philosophies, architectural patterns to guide developers, and collaborative design that incorporates operational experiences and surprises into design efforts. We conclude by looking at three aspects of NISs that will cause continuing challenges in error and accident management: immaturity of the industry, limited risk perception, and resource tradeoffs.

  10. The Role of Trust and Interaction in Global Positioning System Related Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris W.; Shea, Christine; Holloway, C. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses a network of satellites to calculate the position of a receiver over time. This technology has revolutionized a wide range of safety-critical industries and leisure applications. These systems provide diverse benefits; supplementing the users existing navigation skills and reducing the uncertainty that often characterizes many route planning tasks. GPS applications can also help to reduce workload by automating tasks that would otherwise require finite cognitive and perceptual resources. However, the operation of these systems has been identified as a contributory factor in a range of recent accidents. Users often come to rely on GPS applications and, therefore, fail to notice when they develop faults or when errors occur in the other systems that use the data from these systems. Further accidents can stem from the over confidence that arises when users assume automated warnings will be issued when they stray from an intended route. Unless greater attention is paid to the role of trust and interaction in GPS applications then there is a danger that we will see an increasing number of these failures as positioning technologies become integral in the functioning of increasing numbers of applications.

  11. A visual warning system to reduce struck-by or pinning accidents involving mobile mining equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, J; Gallagher, S; Mayton, A; Srednicki, J

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes an experiment to examine whether a visual warning system can improve detection of moving machine hazards that could result in struck-by or pinning accidents. Thirty-six participants, twelve each in one of three age groups, participated in the study. A visual warning system capable of providing four different modes of warning was installed on a continuous mining machine that is used to mine coal. The speed of detecting various machine movements was recorded with and without the visual warning system. The average speed of detection for forward and reverse machine movements was reduced by 75% when using the flashing mode of the visual warning system. This translated to 0.485 m of machine travel for the fast speed condition of 19.8 m/min, which is significant in the context of the confined spaces of a mine. There were no statistically significant differences among age groups in the ability to detect machine movements for the visual warning modes in this study. The visual warning system shows promise as a safety intervention for reducing struck-by or pinning accidents involving continuous mining machines. The methods and results of this study could be applied to other moving machinery used in mining or other industries where moving machinery poses struck-by or pinning hazards.

  12. 红外图像报警系统的研究与实现%Research and Implementation of Infrared Image Alarm System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会敏; 谢泽奇; 张云龙

    2011-01-01

    针对家庭防盗报警系统要求可靠性高、抗干扰能力强、体积小、误报率低、便于调试等特点,设计实现了一种基于AT-mega128的红外图像报警系统;首先介绍系统的总体结构,其中系统采用高性能的AVR单片机ATmega128并结合技术成熟的CMOS图像采集与JPEG图像压缩技术来实现;然后重点阐述系统的工作原理、硬件组成及软件实现方法,详细介绍了系统实现过程中的关键技术;最后在不同光照下对系统进行了测试;测试结果表明:该系统具有测量精度高,运行稳定,实时性好、性价比高,具有一定的实用价值.%An infrared image alarm system is designed and implemented in order to meet the demands of family security-monitoring alarm system-high reliability, strong anti-interference ability, small volume, low error rate and debugging convenience. First about the general structure of the system, it is realized by the high-performance AVR MCU ATmega128 and the mature technique of the CMOS Im age Collecting System and JPEG image compression. Then it expounds emphatically the working principle and implementation method of hardware and software, and gives a detailed description on the key technology during the system design course. The last part is about system test in different illumination. The test result shows that this system has high measuring accuracy, stable operation, good real-time and high performance-price ratio, and it has certain practical value.

  13. 基于用户权限的综合监控系统报警管理研究%Research on Alarm Management of Integrated Supervisory Control System Based on User Permissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡阳

    2015-01-01

    According to the different demand of human-machine interface user permissions and alarm management in Integrated Supervisory Control System, alarm management function was designed and finished based on user permissions, which realized centralized management of user authority and alarm information and obtained good application effect.%针对综合监控系统中人机界面用户权限和报警管理的差异化需求,设计并完成了基于用户权限的报警管理功能,实现了用户权限与报警信息的集中管理,并取得了良好的应用效果。

  14. Diagnostic system for identification of accident scenarios in nuclear power plants using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santosh, T.V. [Health, Safety and Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)], E-mail: santutv@barc.gov.in; Srivastava, A.; Sanyasi Rao, V.V.S.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S. [Health, Safety and Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents the work carried out towards developing a diagnostic system for the identification of accident scenarios in 220 MWe Indian PHWRs. The objective of this study is to develop a methodology based on artificial neural networks (ANNs), which assists in identifying a transient quickly and suggests the operator to initiate the corrective actions during abnormal operations of the reactor. An operator support system, known as symptom-based diagnostic system (SBDS), has been developed using ANN that diagnoses the transients based on reactor process parameters, and continuously displays the status of the reactor. As a pilot study, the large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) with and without the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) in reactor headers has been considered. Several break scenarios of large break LOCA have been analyzed. The time-dependent transient data have been generated using the RELAP5 thermal hydraulic code assuming an equilibrium core, which conforms to a realistic estimation. The diagnostic results obtained from the ANN study are satisfactory. These results have been incorporated in the SBDS software for operator assistance. A few important outputs of the SBDS have been discussed in this paper.

  15. A diagnostic system for identifying accident conditions in a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, T.V., E-mail: santoshiitb@yahoo.co [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Kumar, M.; Thangamani, I.; Srivastava, A.; Dutta, A.; Verma, V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Ganju, S.; Chatterjee, B.; Rao, V.V.S.S.; Lele, H.G.; Ghosh, A.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: Neural networks based diagnostic system has been developed to identify transients quickly, estimate the source-term and assist the operator to take corrective actions during abnormal situations in 220 MWe PHWRs. The transient data for the break scenarios ranging from 20% to 200% has been generated using RELAP5 and CONTRAN codes. 32 break scenarios of large break LOCA in inlet and outlet reactor headers with and without ECCS have been analyzed using artificial neural networks. A few break scenarios were directly predicted without being trained earlier. Test results obtained from ANN are within the acceptable range. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to develop a system, which assists the operator in identifying an accident quickly using ANNs that diagnoses the accidents based on reactor process parameters, and continuously displays the status of the nuclear reactor. A large database of transient data of reactor process parameters has been generated for reactor core, containment, environmental dispersion and radiological dose to train the ANNs. These data have been generated using various codes e.g., RELAP5-thermal-hydraulics code for the core. The present version of this system is capable of identifying large break LOCA scenarios of 220 MWe Indian PHWRs. The system has been designed to provide the necessary information to the operator to handle emergency situations when the reactor is operating. The diagnostic results obtained from ANNs study are satisfactory.

  16. The development of a nuclear accident risk information system(NARIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Jung, Won Dea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The computerized system, NARIS(Nuclear Accident Risk Information System) was developed in order to support the estimation of health effects and the establishment the effective risk reduction strategies. Using the system, we can analyze the distribution of health effects easily by displaying the results on the digital map of the site. Also, the thematic mapping allows the diverse analysis of the distribution of the health effects.The NARIS can be used in the emergency operation facilities in order to analyze the distribution of the health effects resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant. Also, the rapid analysis of the health effect is possible by storing the health effect results in the form of a database. Therefore, the staffs of the emergency operation facilities can establish the rapid and effective emergency response strategies. The module for the optimization of the costs and benefits and the decision making support will be added. The technical support for the establishment of the optimum and effective emergency response strategies will be possible using this system. 23 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  17. Issues and challenges for pedestrian active safety systems based on real world accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdane, Hédi; Serre, Thierry; Masson, Catherine; Anderson, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze real crashes involving pedestrians in order to evaluate the potential effectiveness of autonomous emergency braking systems (AEB) in pedestrian protection. A sample of 100 real accident cases were reconstructed providing a comprehensive set of data describing the interaction between the vehicle, the environment and the pedestrian all along the scenario of the accident. A generic AEB system based on a camera sensor for pedestrian detection was modeled in order to identify the functionality of its different attributes in the timeline of each crash scenario. These attributes were assessed to determine their impact on pedestrian safety. The influence of the detection and the activation of the AEB system were explored by varying the field of view (FOV) of the sensor and the level of deceleration. A FOV of 35° was estimated to be required to detect and react to the majority of crash scenarios. For the reaction of a system (from hazard detection to triggering the brakes), between 0.5 and 1s appears necessary.

  18. Development of highly reliable power and communication system for essential instruments under severe accidents in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bo Hwan; Jang, Gi Chan; Shin, Sung Min; Kang, Hyun Gook; Rim, Chun Taek [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Ill [I and C Group, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd, Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This article proposes a highly reliable power and communication system that guarantees the protection of essential instruments in a nuclear power plant under a severe accident. Both power and communication lines are established with not only conventional wired channels, but also the proposed wireless channels for emergency reserve. An inductive power transfer system is selected due to its robust power transfer characteristics under high temperature, high pressure, and highly humid environments with a large amount of scattered debris after a severe accident. A thermal insulation box and a glass-fiber reinforced plastic box are proposed to protect the essential instruments, including vulnerable electronic circuits, from extremely high temperatures of up to 627 .deg. C and pressure of up to 5 bar. The proposed wireless power and communication system is experimentally verified by an inductive power transfer system prototype having a dipole coil structure and prototype Zigbee modules over a 7-m distance, where both the thermal insulation box and the glass-fiber reinforced plastic box are fabricated and tested using a high-temperature chamber. Moreover, an experiment on the effects of a high radiation environment on various electronic devices is conducted based on the radiation test having a maximum accumulated dose of 27 Mrad.

  19. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. A systemic approach to accident analysis: a case study of the Stockwell shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Daniel P; Salmon, Paul M; Stanton, Neville A; Walker, Guy H

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses a systemic approach to accident investigation, based upon AcciMaps, to model the events leading up to the shooting of Jean Charles de Menezes at Stockwell Underground station in July 2005. The model captures many of the findings of the Independent Police Complaints Commission's report in a single representation, modelling their interdependencies and the causal flow. Furthermore, by taking a systemic approach, the analysis identifies further considerations related to the suitability of the Metropolitan Police Service's organisational structure to support rapid-paced operations, where reliable identification of a suspect is not possible. Based upon the analysis, the paper questions the division of functions between teams and the suitability of an organisational structure that relies upon the complex flow of information between separate teams for surveillance and for controlling the suspect. A dynamic organisational structure is proposed that changes in response to operation type and unfolding events. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper provides much needed and called for validation for a systemic approach to accident analysis. A widely reported case study is used to illustrate the process. The paper shows how such an approach can consolidate the key findings of much larger reports as well as draw out additional recommendations.

  1. Electromagnetic system for detection and localization of miners caught in mine accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronenko, Vira; Dudkin, Fedir

    2016-12-01

    The profession of a miner is one of the most dangerous in the world. Among the main causes of fatalities in underground coal mines are the delayed alert of the accident and the lack of information regarding the actual location of the miners after the accident. In an emergency situation (failure or destruction of underground infrastructure), personnel search behind and beneath blockage needs to be performed urgently. However, none of the standard technologies - radio-frequency identification (RFID), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT), Wi-Fi, emitting cables, which use the stationary technical devices in mines - provide information about the miners location with the necessary precision. The only technology that is able to provide guaranteed delivery of messages to mine personnel, regardless of their location and under any destruction in the mine, is low-frequency radio technology, which is able to operate through the thickness of rocks even if they are wet. The proposed new system for miner localization is based on solving the inverse problem of determining the magnetic field source coordinates using the data of magnetic field measurements. This approach is based on the measurement of the magnetic field radiated by the miner's responder beacon using two fixed and spaced three-component magnetic field receivers and the inverse problem solution. As a result, a working model of the system for miner's beacon search and localization (MILES - MIner's Location Emergency System) was developed and successfully tested. This paper presents the most important aspects of this development and the results of experimental tests.

  2. Alarm Fatigue: Causes and Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Marc; Hüske-Kraus, Dirk; Klausen, Andreas; Koch, Christian; Schlauch, Wolfgang; Röhrig, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The term "Alarm fatigue" is commonly used to describe the effect which a high number of alarms can have on caregivers: Frequent alarms, many of which are avoidable, can lead to inadequate responses, severely impacting patient safety. In the first step of a long-term effort to address this problem, both the direct and indirect impact of alarms, as well as possible causes of unnecessary alarms were focused. Models of these causes and impacts were developed using a scoping review which included guided interviews with experts from medical informatics, clinicians and medical device manufacturers. These models can provide the methodical grounds for the definition of targeted interventions and the assessment of their effects.

  3. A Remote Alarm System Against Theft for Litchi Orchard Based on GPRS%基于GPRS的荔枝园防盗远程监测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宇; 骆少明; 黄伟锋; 张培锋; 王克强

    2017-01-01

    Aiming at the security management difficulties in large-scale litchi orchards with labors shortage , a remote an-ti-theft alarm system based GPRS was proposed in this paper .The system was composed of single chip microcomputer module ,GPRS communication module , sensor module , display module and alarm module .The human body infrared in-duction probe was adopted to monitor orchard information in real time .The GPRS communication module was used to send abnormal location information to the users ’ mobile phones .Results showed that average data transmission time was 29 .19 s.Two modes could normally alarm in adjacent installation mode of six sensors .One mode was that the sensor spacing was 3 cm with 30 °sensor angle and 40 cm-distance between the people to the sensor .Another mode was that the sensor spac-ing was 6 cm with 30 °sensor angle and 70 cm-distance between the people to the sensor .This system was safe and agile , and it has more advantages over traditional monitoring systems .%针对种植规模大的荔枝园劳动力短缺以致安保管理困难的问题,提出了一种基于 GPRS 网络的防盗远程监测系统。该系统由单片机控制模块、GPRS通信模块、传感器模块、显示模块、报警模块及远程数据中心6部分组成,借助GPRS 数据业务,实时地将荔枝园现场的防盗信息发送至远程数据中心,实现对异常情况的报警。测试结果表明:系统的平均数据传输时间为29.91s,6种传感器相邻安装模式中能正常报警的模式有两种。一种模式是传感器间距为3cm且夹角为30°,人到传感器距离为40cm;另一种模式是传感器间距为6cm 且夹角为30°,人到传感器距离为70 cm。该系统安全性高,使用灵活,相比传统的监控系统更有优势。

  4. Construction of a technique plan repository and evaluation system based on AHP group decision-making for emergency treatment and disposal in chemical pollution accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Shenggang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); College of Chemistry, Baotou Teachers’ College, Baotou 014030 (China); Cao, Jingcan; Feng, Li; Liang, Wenyan [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Liqiu, E-mail: zhangliqiu@163.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Different chemical pollution accidents were simplified using the event tree analysis. • Emergency disposal technique plan repository of chemicals accidents was constructed. • The technique evaluation index system of chemicals accidents disposal was developed. • A combination of group decision and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was employed. • Group decision introducing similarity and diversity factor was used for data analysis. - Abstract: The environmental pollution resulting from chemical accidents has caused increasingly serious concerns. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine in advance the appropriate emergency treatment and disposal technology for different types of chemical accidents. However, the formulation of an emergency plan for chemical pollution accidents is considerably difficult due to the substantial uncertainty and complexity of such accidents. This paper explains how the event tree method was used to create 54 different scenarios for chemical pollution accidents, based on the polluted medium, dangerous characteristics and properties of chemicals involved. For each type of chemical accident, feasible emergency treatment and disposal technology schemes were established, considering the areas of pollution source control, pollutant non-proliferation, contaminant elimination and waste disposal. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs from the plan repository, the technique evaluation index system was developed based on group decision-improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and has been tested by using a sudden aniline pollution accident that occurred in a river in December 2012.

  5. Accurate dose assessment system for an exposed person utilising radiation transport calculation codes in emergency response to a radiological accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, F; Shigemori, Y; Seki, A

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed to assess radiation dose distribution inside the body of exposed persons in a radiological accident by utilising radiation transport calculation codes-MCNP and MCNPX. The system consists mainly of two parts, pre-processor and post-processor of the radiation transport calculation. Programs for the pre-processor are used to set up a 'problem-dependent' input file, which defines the accident condition and dosimetric quantities to be estimated. The program developed for the post-processor part can effectively indicate dose information based upon the output file of the code. All of the programs in the dosimetry system can be executed with a generally used personal computer and accurately give the dose profile to an exposed person in a radiological accident without complicated procedures. An experiment using a physical phantom was carried out to verify the availability of the dosimetry system with the developed programs in a gamma ray irradiation field.

  6. Development and operation of the network system for nuclear safety - Improvement of the following accident dose assessment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Enn Han; Han, Moon Hee; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The FADAS has been updates for calculating the real-time wind fields continuously at the nuclear sites in Korea. The system has been constructed to compute the wind fields using its own process for the dummy meteorological data, and does not effect on the overall wind field module. If the radioactive materials are released into the atmosphere in real situation, the calculations of wind fields and exposure dose in the previous FADAS are performed in the case of the recognition of the above situation in the source term evaluation module. The current version of FADAS includes the program for evaluating the effect of the predicted accident and the assumed scenario together. The dose assessment module is separated into the real-time and the supposed accident respectively. 8 refs., 17 figs., 10 tabs. (Author)

  7. System analysis with improved thermo-mechanical fuel rod models for modeling current and advanced LWR materials in accident scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Ian Edward

    A nuclear reactor systems code has the ability to model the system response in an accident scenario based on known initial conditions at the onset of the transient. However, there has been a tendency for these codes to lack the detailed thermo-mechanical fuel rod response models needed for accurate prediction of fuel rod failure. This proposed work will couple today's most widely used steady-state (FRAPCON) and transient (FRAPTRAN) fuel rod models with a systems code TRACE for best-estimate modeling of system response in accident scenarios such as a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In doing so, code modifications will be made to model gamma heating in LWRs during steady-state and accident conditions and to improve fuel rod thermal/mechanical analysis by allowing axial nodalization of burnup-dependent phenomena such as swelling, cladding creep and oxidation. With the ability to model both burnup-dependent parameters and transient fuel rod response, a fuel dispersal study will be conducted using a hypothetical accident scenario under both PWR and BWR conditions to determine the amount of fuel dispersed under varying conditions. Due to the fuel fragmentation size and internal rod pressure both being dependent on burnup, this analysis will be conducted at beginning, middle and end of cycle to examine the effects that cycle time can play on fuel rod failure and dispersal. Current fuel rod and system codes used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are compilations of legacy codes with only commonly used light water reactor materials, Uranium Dioxide (UO2), Mixed Oxide (U/PuO 2) and zirconium alloys. However, the events at Fukushima Daiichi and Three Mile Island accident have shown the need for exploration into advanced materials possessing improved accident tolerance. This work looks to further modify the NRC codes to include silicon carbide (SiC), an advanced cladding material proposed by current DOE funded research on accident tolerant fuels (ATF). Several

  8. Nurses' Perceptions and Practices Toward Clinical Alarms in a Transplant Cardiac Intensive Care Unit: Exploring Key Issues Leading to Alarm Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowan, Azizeh Khaled; Tarriela, Albert Fajardo; Gomez, Tiffany Michelle; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Rapp, Kami Marie

    2015-03-16

    Intensive care units (ICUs) are complex work environments where false alarms occur more frequently than on non-critical care units. The Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal .06.01.01 targeted improving the safety of clinical alarm systems and required health care facilities to establish alarm systems safety as a hospital priority by July 2014. An important initial step toward this requirement is identifying ICU nurses' perceptions and common clinical practices toward clinical alarms, where little information is available. Our aim was to determine perceptions and practices of transplant/cardiac ICU (TCICU) nurses toward clinical alarms and benchmark the results against the 2011 Healthcare Technology Foundation's (HTF) Clinical Alarms Committee Survey. A quality improvement project was conducted on a 20-bed TCICU with 39 full- and part-time nurses. Nurses were surveyed about their perceptions and attitudes toward and practices on clinical alarms using an adapted HTF clinical alarms survey. Results were compared to the 2011 HTF data. Correlations among variables were examined. All TCICU nurses provided usable responses (N=39, 100%). Almost all nurses (95%-98%) believed that false alarms are frequent, disrupt care, and reduce trust in alarm systems, causing nurses to inappropriately disable them. Unlike the 2011 HTF clinical alarms survey results, a significantly higher percentage of our TCICU nurses believed that existing devices are complex, questioned the ability and adequacy of the new monitoring systems to solve alarm management issues, pointed to the lack of prompt response to alarms, and indicated the lack of clinical policy on alarm management (Palarms and poor usability of the cardiac monitors. A lack of standardized approaches exists in changing patients' electrodes and individualizing parameters. Around 60% of nurses indicated they received insufficient training on bedside and central cardiac monitors. A correlation also showed the need for training

  9. 基于ZigBee技术的嵌入式无线温度报警系统%Embedded Temperature Alarm System Based on ZigBee Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史博研

    2011-01-01

    为了实时分析温度并及时处理危险,设计了基于ZigBee技术的嵌入式无线温度报警系统.系统采集部分由温度采集模块和ZigBee子节点传输模块组成,处理部分由ZigBee主节点及ARM9处理器组成,单片机将DS18B20温度传感器采集到的数据通过ZigBee子节点发送到ZigBee主节点,CPU ARM9分析ZigBee主节点的数据,然后对过高温度进行一系列防范操作.%In order to real-time analysis and timely handling of dangerous temperatures, embedded wireless temperature alarm system is designed based on ZigBee technology.The system consist of two parts, the part of collect consists of temperature acquisition module and the sub-node ZigBee transmission module,and the part of data processing consist of ZigBee main nodes and ARM9 processor .The sub-node ZigBee will sent the data collected by the temperature acquisition module to the master node,CPU ARM9 analysis main node ZigBee data, and then a series of precautions for high temperature operation.

  10. 基于STM32的智能家居无线激光报警系统%Intelligent indoor wireless laser alarm system based on STM32

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 牛晓飞; 许海峰; 汪材印; 唐永刚

    2013-01-01

    This thesis has designed an intelligent indoor wireless laser alarm system which takes Micro controller Unit STM 32F103 as the core .The system consists of Micro controller Unit ,GSM wireless transceiver ,matrix keyboard ,sound and light alarm and pyroelectric laser sensors .Pyroelectric laser sensor receives infrared signal which would be analysed by STM 32F103 .Alarm signal would be send out by the sound and light alarm module .In the meantime GSM would transmit short message to the mobile of user through mobile network to reflect the circumstances of the alarm location .Because of the wide mobile network , the system is unnecessary to set up special network and maintain it .Therefore ,it has unique advantages compared with the traditional monitor systems .%以STM32为核心,设计了智能家居无线激光报警系统。该系统由单片机控制模块、GSM无线发送接收模块、矩阵键盘模块、声光报警模块、热释电激光传感器模块组成。通过热释电激光传感器采集相关信号,单片机STM32经过处理后控制声光报警模块发出报警信号,并将报警信号通过GSM短信模块发送至用户手机上,实时反馈报警地点的情况。该系统利用广泛的移动网络,不需要组建专用网络和维护网络,较传统的监控系统有着独特的优势。

  11. Alarm fatigue: a patient safety concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendelbach, Sue; Funk, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that 72% to 99% of clinical alarms are false. The high number of false alarms has led to alarm fatigue. Alarm fatigue is sensory overload when clinicians are exposed to an excessive number of alarms, which can result in desensitization to alarms and missed alarms. Patient deaths have been attributed to alarm fatigue. Patient safety and regulatory agencies have focused on the issue of alarm fatigue, and it is a 2014 Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal. Quality improvement projects have demonstrated that strategies such as daily electrocardiogram electrode changes, proper skin preparation, education, and customization of alarm parameters have been able to decrease the number of false alarms. These and other strategies need to be tested in rigorous clinical trials to determine whether they reduce alarm burden without compromising patient safety.

  12. NIRS external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Miyahara, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Masaki; Fukumura, Akifumi; Akashi, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    The great east Japan earthquake and subsequent tsunamis caused Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) developed the external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents. The system is being used in the Fukushima health management survey. The doses can be obtained by superimposing the behavior data of the residents on the dose rate maps. For grasping the doses, 18 evacuation patterns of the residents were assumed by considering the actual evacuation information before using the survey data. The doses of the residents from the deliberate evacuation area were relatively higher than those from the area within 20 km radius. The estimated doses varied from around 1 to 6 mSv for the residents evacuated from the representative places in the deliberate evacuation area. The maximum dose in 18 evacuation patterns was estimated to be 19 mSv.

  13. Balancing the Tension Between Hyperoxia Prevention and Alarm Fatigue in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketko, Anastasia K; Martin, Craig M; Nemshak, Michelle A; Niedner, Matthew; Vartanian, Rebecca J

    2015-08-01

    After the implementation of narrowed oxygen saturation alarms, alarm frequency increased in the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital NICU which could have a negative impact on patient safety. The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations issued a Sentinel Event Alert for hospitals in 2013 to improve alarm safety, resulting in a 2014 National Patient Safety Goal requiring institutional policies and procedures to be in place to manage alarms. A multidisciplinary improvement team developed an alarm management bundle applying strategies to decrease alarm frequency, which included evaluating existing strategies and developing patient care-based and systems-based interventions. The total number of delivered and detected saturation alarms and high saturation alarms and the total time spent within a targeted saturation range were quantitatively tracked. Nursing morale was assessed qualitatively. SpO2 alarms per monitored patient-day increased from 78 to 105 after the narrowing of alarm limits. Modification of the high saturation alarm algorithm substantially decreased the delivery and escalation of high pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) alarms. During a pilot period, using histogram technology to individually customize alarm limits resulted in increased time spent within the targeted saturation range and fewer alarms per day. Qualitatively, nurses reported improved satisfaction when not assigned >1 infant with frequent alarms, as identified by an alarm frequency tool. Alarm fatigue may detrimentally affect patient care and safety. Alarm management strategies should coincide with oxygen management within a NICU, especially in single-patient-bed units. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Stand-alone tsunami alarm equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Akio; Hayashi, Yutaka; Miyaoka, Kazuki; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Baba, Toshitaka; Catalán, Patricio A.; Zelaya, Cecilia; Riquelme Vasquez, Felipe; Sanchez-Olavarria, Rodrigo; Barrientos, Sergio

    2017-05-01

    One of the quickest means of tsunami evacuation is transfer to higher ground soon after strong and long ground shaking. Ground shaking itself is a good initiator of the evacuation from disastrous tsunami. Longer period seismic waves are considered to be more correlated with the earthquake magnitude. We investigated the possible application of this to tsunami hazard alarm using single-site ground motion observation. Information from the mass media is sometimes unavailable due to power failure soon after a large earthquake. Even when an official alarm is available, multiple information sources of tsunami alert would help people become aware of the coming risk of a tsunami. Thus, a device that indicates risk of a tsunami without requiring other data would be helpful to those who should evacuate. Since the sensitivity of a low-cost MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) accelerometer is sufficient for this purpose, tsunami alarm equipment for home use may be easily realized. Amplitude of long-period (20 s cutoff) displacement was proposed as the threshold for the alarm based on empirical relationships among magnitude, tsunami height, hypocentral distance, and peak ground displacement of seismic waves. Application of this method to recent major earthquakes indicated that such equipment could effectively alert people to the possibility of tsunami.

  15. Una nueva metodología para el análisis de alarmas masivas en sistemas de potencia basada en sistemas cognitivos; A New Congnitive-Based Methodology for Massive alarm management System in Electrical Power Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Aizpurúa P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una metodología que integra las técnicas disponibles en la gestión de alarmasmasivas en los centros de control y despacho de energía eléctrica, así como el aporte de cada entidad queestá involucrada en el sistema. Se abordan las técnicas de inteligencia artificial que se pueden utilizar asícomo los recursos de información de que se dispone. El objetivo ulterior se fundamenta en encontrar lacausa raíz de la avalancha de alarmas (árbol de alarmas y reducir la cantidad de ellas utilizando técnicas deasociación o agrupamiento de forma que se cumplan con los estándares establecidos por la norma EEMUA191. Sobre este tema se han desarrollado otros trabajos, sin embargo el problema de la administración dealarmas en la industria sigue siendo un problema sin resolver de forma adecuada. La integración sedesarrolla utilizando la ontología de cada uno de los dominios del sistema, i.e., la ontología de las alarmas,del control, de los eventos, del flujo de energía y la ontología de secuencia de disparo. A la metodología sesuman el uso de los sistemas expertos para el tratamiento de las alarmas en forma de reglas y el uso desistemas neuro-borrosos para tratar la base histórica de datos de alarmas y fallos. This paper presents a methodology that integrates several available techniques to manage the massiveamount of alarm signals in electrical power dispatch control centers, as well as the contribution of eachentity involved in the system. Artificial intelligence techniques that can be used in this problem arereviewed here, based on the information resources available. The final objective is to find the root cause ofavalanches of alarms (Alarm Tree and to reduce their number through grouping or clustering techniquesso that the EEMUA 191 standards are followed. Even though other contributions in this topic have beenmade before, the alarm management problem continues to be practically unsolved for many applicationsin

  16. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Development of WxAP System Architecture And Concepts of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantier, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) System architecture and Concept of Operation (CONOPS) activities. The topics include: 1) Background Information on System Architecture/CONOPS Activity; 2) Activity Work in Progress; and 3) Anticipated By-Products.

  17. Electromagnetic system for detection and localization of the miners caught by accident in mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronenko, Vira; Dudkin, Fedir

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that the profession of a miner is one of the most dangerous in the world. Among the main causes of the people death in the underground coal mining enterprises is their untimely alerting of the accident, as well as the lack of information for the rescuers about the actual location of the miners after the accident. As world practice shows, the electromagnetic (EM) systems for the search and detection of people across a massive layer of rock are the most effective. Such systems are under development almost half a century in many countries dealing with mine industry. However, substantial progress related to the localization of personnel at a distance at least of 20-30 meters through the rock is not reached. In an emergency situation (failure or destruction of underground infrastructure), personnel search behind and beneath of obstruction should be provided urgently. But none of the standard technologies (RFID, DECT, WiFi, emitting cable), which use the stationary technical devices in mines, do not provide notification of people caught by accident location. The only technology that provides guaranteed delivery of messages about the accident to the mine personnel, regardless of their location and under any destruction in the mine, is low-frequency radio technology able to operate through the thickness of rocks. From the general theoretical considerations, it is clear that the miners localization system requires solving the inverse problem of the magnetic field source coordinates determining using the data of 3-component magnetic field measurements. A fundamentally new approach, based on the measurement of the magnetic field of the miner's responder beacon by two fixed and spaced three-component magnetic field receivers and solution of the inverse problem using the results of the magnetic field measurement, was proposed. As a result, the concept of the equipment for miners beacon search and localization implementation (MILES - miner's location emergency

  18. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 2: with Beam Shutdown Only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report is one of a series of reports that document normal operation and accident simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal system. These simulations were performed for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. This report documents the results of simulations of a Loss-of-Flow Accident (LOFA) where power is lost to all of the pumps that circulate water in the blanket region, the accelerator beam is shut off and neither the residual heat removal nor cavity flood systems operate.

  19. The control, monitor, and alarm system for the ICT equipment of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tanci, Claudio; Conforti, Vito; Tacchini, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Gallozzi, Stefano; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Trifoglio, Massimo; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Zoli, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI is an Italian flagship project whose first goal is the realization of an end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype will be installed in Italy during Fall 2014. A second goal will be the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment necessary to drive the infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype is being designed as a complete and stand-alone computer center. The design goal is to obtain basic ICT equipment that might be scaled, with a low level of redundancy, for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. The ICT equipment envisaged at the Serra La Nave observing station in Italy, where the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype will operate, includes computers, servers and workstations, network devices, an uninterruptable power supply system, and air conditioning systems. Suitable hardware and software tools will allow the parameters related to the behavior and health of each item of equipment to be controlled and monitored. This paper presents the proposed architecture and technical solutions that integrate the ICT equipment in the framework of the Observatory Control System package of the ASTRI/CTA Mini- Array Software System, MASS, to allow their local and remote control and monitoring. An end-toend test case using an Internet Protocol thermometer is reported in detail.

  20. 基于页面分析的Web安全监测与报警系统%Web security monitoring and alarm system based on page analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 刘军; 李源; 王兴伟

    2011-01-01

    Various information services in our social life offer services base on Web techniques, and research and application about Web security is one of the main topics in security area. In this article , we propose a Web security monitoring technology based on page analysis and build an architecture of Web security monitoring and alarm system based on page analysis.%社会生活中的各类信息服务已经大部分是通过基于Web技术的信息系统的方式对外提供,其系统安全研究和应用已经是安全领域主要课题之一.本文提出一种基于页面分析的Web信息系统漏洞检测与状态监测技术,并基于该技术构建了可用的Web信息系统安全监测与报警系统.

  1. Enterprise Strategy Information Monitoring and Alarming System%企业战略信息监控报警系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱敬荣; 钱省三; 黄晓东

    2000-01-01

    With the planned economy changing into socialist market economy more deeply, the competition among enterprises is becoming keener. Any enterprise which wants to have competitive advantages must implement enterprise strategic management and at the same time take steps quickly according to circumstantial change to benefit itself or avoid risks. This article discusses the necessity of reinforcing the implementation and control of strategy and setting up the warning system of monitoring enterprise strategic information in the process of enterprise strategic management. It also gives information on how to determine strategic monitoring targets and accomplish this warning system on computer.%随着计划经济向社会主义市场经济转轨的深入,企业所面临的竞争越来越激烈。想要取得竞争的优势,就必须实施企业战略管理,并对环境变化作出迅速反应,做到趋利避险。本文论述了企业战略管理过程中加强战略实施控制与建立企业战略信息监控报警系统的必要性,并对如何确定战略监控指标及如何在计算机上实现该报警系统作了介绍。

  2. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heames, T.J. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Williams, D.A.; Johns, N.A.; Chown, N.M. (UKAEA Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith (UK)); Bixler, N.E.; Grimley, A.J. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Wheatley, C.J. (UKAEA Safety and Reliability Directorate, Culcheth (UK))

    1990-10-01

    This document provides a description of a model of the radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident. This document serves as the user's manual for the computer code called VICTORIA, based upon the model. The VICTORIA code predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions between fission products and structural materials, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. This document provides a detailed description of each part of the implementation of the model into VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided. The VICTORIA code was developed upon a CRAY-XMP at Sandia National Laboratories in the USA and a CRAY-2 and various SUN workstations at the Winfrith Technology Centre in England. 60 refs.

  3. Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) in case of nuclear accident with exposure doses’estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrakov, M.; Prodanova, M.; Slavov, K.; Veleva, B.

    2015-07-01

    A PC-oriented Emergency Response System in case of nuclear accident (BERS) is developed and works operationally in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH). The creation and development of BERS was highly stimulated by the ETEX (European Tracer Experiment) project. BERS comprises two main parts - the operational and the accidental ones. The operational part, run automatically every 12 hours, prepares the input meteorological file used by both trajectory and dispersion models, runs the trajectory models, visualizes the results and uploads the maps of trajectories to a dedicated web-site. The accidental part is activated manually when a real radioactive releases occur or during emergency exercises. Its core is the Bulgarian dispersion models EMAP. Outputs are concentration, accumulated deposition and selected doses fields. In the paper, the BERS overall structure is described and examples of its products are presented. (Author)

  4. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations. 62.25... Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations. (a) General. Minimum instrumentation and alarms required for specific types of automated vital systems are listed in Table 62.35-50. (b) Instrumentation Location....

  5. Reducing false intracranial pressure alarms using morphological waveform features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzo, Fabien; Liebeskind, David; Hu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    False alarms produced by patient monitoring systems in intensive care units are a major issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. While alarms are typically triggered by manually adjusted thresholds, the trend and patterns observed prior to threshold crossing are generally not used by current systems. This study introduces and evaluates, a smart alarm detection system for intracranial pressure signal (ICP) that is based on advanced pattern recognition methods. Models are trained in a supervised fashion from a comprehensive dataset of 4791 manually labeled alarm episodes extracted from 108 neurosurgical patients. The comparative analysis provided between spectral regression, kernel spectral regression, and support vector machines indicates the significant improvement of the proposed framework in detecting false ICP alarms in comparison to a threshold-based technique that is conventionally used. Another contribution of this work is to exploit an adaptive discretization to reduce the dimensionality of the input features. The resulting features lead to a decrease of 30% of false ICP alarms without compromising sensitivity.

  6. Lessons learnt from an international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-Vergara, J.C.; Thompson, I.M.G.; Funck, E.

    2003-01-01

    and at the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry (UDO) of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. The network systems are used continuously to monitor radiation levels throughout a country in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications...

  7. Generating a 3D Simulation of a Car Accident from a Formal Description : the CarSim System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egges, A.; Nijholt, A.; Nugues, P.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of generating a 3D simulation of a car accident from a written description can be divided into two subtasks: the linguistic analysis and the virtual scene generation. As a means of communication between these two system parts, we designed a template formalism to represent a written

  8. "Turn it off!": diabetes device alarm fatigue considerations for the present and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Joseph P; Mackowiak, Linda; Anhalt, Henry; Zisser, Howard

    2013-05-01

    Safe and widespread use of diabetes technology is constrained by alarm fatigue: when someone receives so many alarms that he or she becomes less likely to respond appropriately. Alarm fatigue and related usability issues deserve consideration at every stage of alarm system design, especially as new technologies expand the potential number and complexity of alarms. The guiding principle should be patient wellbeing, while taking into consideration the regulatory and liability issues that sometimes contribute to building excessive alarms. With examples from diabetes devices, we illustrate two complementary frameworks for alarm design: a "patient safety first" perspective and a focus on human factors. We also describe opportunities and challenges that will come with new technologies such as remote monitoring, adaptive alarms, and ever-closer integration of glucose sensing with insulin delivery. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  9. KSTAR Severe Accident Analysis using MELCOR : Ex-vessel Coolant Pipe Break with Failure of Fusion Power Termination System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Bo; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To investigate the consequence of severe accidents in fusion reactor, a number of thermal hydraulics simulation codes were used (ECART, INTRA, ATHENA/RELAP and so on). MELCOR is chosen as the thermal hydraulics code to simulate the consequence of radioactive material release from accident in preliminary safety report. Capability of the simulation code for fusion reactor severe accident analysis is ability to simulate the hydraulic system in ITER and the transport phenomenon of radionuclides. MELCOR is a fully integrated code that models the accidents in Light Water Reactor (LWR). There are three kinds of radioactive materials in fusion reactor; tritium (or Tiritiated water: HTO), activation products (AP) of divertor or first-wall and activated corrosion products(ACP). In generic Site Safety Report (GSSR), the release guidelines for tritium and activation products are listed for normal operation, incidents, and accidents. And this guidelines presented in Table 1. Not only ITER, the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) is also developing fusion research reactor. The scale of facility is smaller than ITER but this small scale of facility offers the experimental flexibility to develop fusion technology. The major differences between KSTAR and ITER systems are presented in Table 2. Fusion source difference between KSTAR and ITER is D-D fusion reaction (Deuterium-Deuterium fusion reaction) and D-T fusion reaction (Deuterium-Tritium fusion reaction). This D-D fusion makes one tritium by 50 percent chance. The radioactivity of tritium is small to consider compared to radioactive materials in nuclear fission reactor. This reaction is presented in equation (1) In the present work, conservatively estimated tritium inventory amount in KSTAR is used with one of the most severe accident in ITER; Ex-vessel pipe break with Fusion Power Termination System (FPTS). The MELCOR KSTAR input is made by scaling down the ITER input deck. So, the detail system is not same

  10. Smart Home Based SIM900A running water automatic alarm system%基于SIM900A的智能家居跑水自动报警系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴翠娟

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, AT89S52 microcontroller and GSM module chip SIM900A, build a home run water system automatic alarms. System consists of evasion detection circuit, microcontroller minimum system and SIM900A SMS modules and other components. Leak detection circuit detection module raindrop raindrop sensor and signal conditioning circuit, as long as the presence of a small amount of running water, rain sensor can be detected and processed by the signal conditioning circuit, to the SCM system, the microcontroller sends SMS module SIM900A command, start module sends alarm messages to family members, and sends an alarm signal to the smart cell property alarm system.%本文采用单片机AT89S52和GSM模块芯片SIM900A,构建一款家庭跑水自动报警的系统.系统由漏税检测电路、单片机最小系统和SIM900A短信模块等组成.漏水检测电路采用雨滴传感器和信号调理电路构成的雨滴检测模块,只要存在少量跑水,雨滴传感器就可检测到,并经信号调理电路处理后,送到单片机控制系统中,单片机向SIM900A短信模块发送指令,启动模块发送报警提示短信给家庭成员,同时向智能小区中的物业报警系统发送报警信号.

  11. 一种用于煤气报警器中的双电源供电系统的设计%Design of Double Power Supply System Used in Gas Alarm Apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方如举; 杨永乐; 马钰慧

    2011-01-01

    One kind of electric circuit of double power supply system is designed, with the aid of circuit structure build and power is cut in coal parameter computation. The shortcoming that alarm apparatus can not ring is overcome when gas alarm system which uses 220V alternating current supply or the dry cell battery power.%从电路结构搭建和参数计算,设计了一种双电源供电系统电路.克服了使用的电源是220V家用电源或干电池供电系统中,在断电时,报警器将无法工作缺点.

  12. Design of safe monitoring and alarm system for oil tank farm boundary%浅谈油库周界安全防范监控报警系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊杰

    2015-01-01

    The safe monitoring and alarm system for oil tank farm boundary is designed in this paper based on the pros and cons of different alarm systems.It will provide effective technical solution to keep the security of the tankers.%本文根据各种周界入侵报警系统的优缺点做出正确的选择,合理地设计与建立周界安全防范监控报警系统,为相关保卫人员确保油库区域的安全提供一种有效的技术防范措施。

  13. The Design and Research of Integrated OSS Alarm System Based on Mobile Network%基于OSS的移动网络综合告警系统设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴军

    2012-01-01

    基于OSS的移动网络实时告警系统是移动运营商进行网络管理和监控的支撑平台。网络实时告警系统基于TMN理论实现了对通信网元和网管信息的统一接入,从而实现了在监控与系统显示上的一致性。OSS综合告警系统实现了网络故障侦查和客户关联,从而实现了网络信息相关性的分析,为提高网络服务提供了一定的基础。%based on the mobile network real-time OSS alarm system is mobile operators for network management and monitoring of the support platform.Real network alarm system based on the theory of communication network realization TMN and network management information access unity is realized,and the monitoring and system of the consistency of the display.Comprehensive alarm system realizes the OSS network fault detection and customer association,so as to realize the correlation analysis of network information,and to improve the network service provides a certain foundation.

  14. Alarm fatigue: impacts on patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskin, Keith J; Hueske-Kraus, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Electronic medical devices are an integral part of patient care. As new devices are introduced, the number of alarms to which a healthcare professional may be exposed may be as high as 1000 alarms per shift. The US Food and Drug Administration has reported over 500 alarm-related patient deaths in five years. The Joint Commission, recognizing the clinical significance of alarm fatigue, has made clinical alarm management a National Patient Safety Goal. Potential solutions to alarm fatigue include technical, organizational, and educational interventions. Selecting only the right monitors (i.e., avoiding overmonitoring), judicious selection of alarm limits, and multimodal alarms can all reduce the number of nuisance alarms to which a healthcare worker is exposed. Alarm fatigue can jeopardize safety, but some clinical solutions such as setting appropriate thresholds and avoiding overmonitoring are available.

  15. Bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, M G; Wollin, S

    1986-01-01

    Information concerning 520 bicycle accidents and their victims was obtained from medical records and the victims' replies to questionnaires. The analyzed aspects included risk of injury, completeness of accident registrations by police and in hospitals, types of injuries and influence of the cyclists' age and sex, alcohol, fatigue, hunger, haste, physical disability, purpose of cycling, wearing of protective helmet and other clothing, type and quality of road surface, site of accident (road junctions, separate cycle paths, etc.) and turning manoeuvres.

  16. Interfacing systems LOCAs (Loss of Coolant Accidents) at boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Tsong-Lun; Fitzpatrick, R.; Stoyanov, S.

    1987-01-01

    The work presented in this paper was performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) effort towards the resolution of Generic Issue 105 ''Interfacing System Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) at Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs).'' For BWRs, intersystem LOCA have typically either not been considered in probabilistic risk analyses, or if considered, were judged to contribute little to the risk estimates because of their perceived low frequency of occurrence. However, recent operating experience indicates that the pressure isolation valves (PIVs) in BWRs may not adequately protect against overpressurization of low pressure systems. The objective of this paper is to present the results of a study which analyzed interfacing system LOCA at several BWRs. The BWRs were selected to best represent a spectrum of BWRs in service using industry operating event experience and plant-specific information/configurations. The results presented here include some possible changes in test requirements/practices as well as an evaluation of their reduction potential in terms of core damage frequency (CDF).

  17. Design and implementation of car anti-theft alarm system based on single-chip%基于单片机汽车防盗报警系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢海军; 吴钟云; 杨艳华; 安玉磊

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一种新型的汽车防盗报警系统,以单片机为主控制模块,采用防震传感器以采集外部震动信号,利用声光报警模块发出声光报警,采用移动电话GSM拨打车主电话或给车主发短信,使用无线遥控模块可实现远程遥控开启与关闭系统。试验表明该系统可以实现在0~70 m开阔空地的远程准确的开启与关闭报警功能。%Introduce a new type vehicle anti-theft alarm system based on SCM as the main control module, the shock sensor collecting the external vibration signal, using the acousto-optic alarm module to send the acousto-optic alarm, using GSM to dial the telephone of owner or send text messages to owners, the use of wireless remote control module achieving remote control opening and closing system. The system has high reliability, simple peripheral circuit, strong practicability, low cost and so on.

  18. Application of Data Transmission Technology in the Automatic Fire Alarm System%数据通信传输技术在火灾自动报警系统中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁鸿

    2011-01-01

    At present the fire damage degree and endanger scope are on the rise. In order to reduce the loss of degree, countnes in the world develop automatic fire alarm system. Data transmission technology is a very important technique in the automatic fire alarm system. Combining with automatic fire alarm system from data transmission mode. string/parallel communication mode. flyers/duplex data transmission. data synchronization method, digital coding method, the article introduced the technology.%目前,火灾损失程度和危害范围呈上升趋势.为了降低火灾损失的程度,世界各国都在积极开发火灾自动报警系统.数据通信传输技术是在火灾自动报警系统中非常重要的一种技术.本文结合火灾自动报警系统从数据通信传输模式,串/并行通信方式、传单/双工数据传输方式、数据同步方式、数字编码方式等方面介绍这一技术.

  19. Perceptual specificity in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriazis, Judith; Slobodchikoff, C N

    2006-07-01

    Gunnison's prairie dogs have a complex alarm communication system. We show that the escape responses of prairie dogs to naturally occurring live predators differed depending upon the species of predator. We also show that playbacks of alarm calls that were elicited originally by the live predators produced the same escape responses as the live predators themselves. The escape responses fell into two qualitatively different categories: running to the burrow and diving inside for hawks and humans, and standing upright outside the burrow for coyotes and dogs. Within these two categories there were differences in response. For hawks, only the prairie dogs that were in the direct flight path of a stooping red-tailed hawk ran to their burrows and dove inside, while for humans and human alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and diving inside. For coyotes and coyote alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and standing alert at the burrow rims, while for domestic dogs and playbacks of alarm calls for domestic dogs the prairie dogs assumed an alert posture wherever they were feeding, but did not run to their burrows. These responses to both the live predators and to predator-elicited alarm calls suggest that the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs contain meaningful referential information about the categories of predators that approach a colony of prairie dogs.

  20. Development of the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of nuclear power plant severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naitoh, Masanori; Ujita, Hiroshi; Nagumo, Hiroichi [Nuclear Power Corp. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has initiated a long-term program to develop the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of hypothetical severe accidents in nuclear power plants. IMPACT employs advanced methods of physical modeling and numerical computation, and can simulate a wide spectrum of senarios ranging from normal operation to hypothetical, beyond-design-basis-accident events. Designed as a large-scale system of interconnected, hierarchical modules, IMPACT`s distinguishing features include mechanistic models based on first principles and high speed simulation on parallel processing computers. The present plan is a ten-year program starting from 1993, consisting of the initial one-year of preparatory work followed by three technical phases: Phase-1 for development of a prototype system; Phase-2 for completion of the simulation system, incorporating new achievements from basic studies; and Phase-3 for refinement through extensive verification and validation against test results and available real plant data.

  1. Lessons learnt from an international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-Vergara, J.C.; Thompson, I.M.G.; Funck, E.;

    2003-01-01

    and at the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry (UDO) of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. The network systems are used continuously to monitor radiation levels throughout a country in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications......As part of the European Research Council's Fourth Framework Programme, the EURADOS Action Group on Monitoring of External Exposures held an intercomparison of national network systems. This took place during May/June 1999 at the Riso Natural Environmental Radiation Measurement Station in Denmark....... The radiation levels measured are used to estimate the radiation risks to people arising from the accident. Seven European countries participated in the intercomparison with detector systems used in their national network systems as well as with detectors being developed for future use. Since different...

  2. ZigBee无线传感器网络在消防报警系统中的应用%Research on the Application of ZigBee Wireless Sensor Networks for Fire Alarm System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚凤龙; 阚洪亮; 韩中华; 张东伟

    2012-01-01

    As the rapid developments of information sciences and network technologies, which enable the fire alarm system controllers have the characteristics of distributed-intelligence, high-capacities, networked become feasible. In the thesis, wireless fire alarm monitoring system based on Zigbee is designed, which can solove problems such as the complexities in the process of design, constructions and maintenance, the low abilities of anti-disturbance, and high late of false alarm.%无线传感器网络技术的迅速发展。使分布智能式、大容量、网络化的火灾报警控制器的实现成为可能。构建了基于ZigBee的无线火警监测系统。解决了现有消防报警系统设计、施工与维护复杂,抗干扰能力低,故障率和误报率高等问题。

  3. SCADA alarms processing for wind turbine component failure detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, E.; Reder, M.; Melero, J. J.

    2016-09-01

    Wind turbine failure and downtime can often compromise the profitability of a wind farm due to their high impact on the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Early detection of failures can facilitate the changeover from corrective maintenance towards a predictive approach. This paper presents a cost-effective methodology to combine various alarm analysis techniques, using data from the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, in order to detect component failures. The approach categorises the alarms according to a reviewed taxonomy, turning overwhelming data into valuable information to assess component status. Then, different alarms analysis techniques are applied for two purposes: the evaluation of the SCADA alarm system capability to detect failures, and the investigation of the relation between components faults being followed by failure occurrences in others. Various case studies are presented and discussed. The study highlights the relationship between faulty behaviour in different components and between failures and adverse environmental conditions.

  4. A weighted dissimilarity index to isolate faults during alarm floods

    CERN Document Server

    Charbonnier, S; Gayet, P

    2015-01-01

    A fault-isolation method based on pattern matching using the alarm lists raised by the SCADA system during an alarm flood is proposed. A training set composed of faults is used to create fault templates. Alarm vectors generated by unknown faults are classified by comparing them with the fault templates using an original weighted dissimilarity index that increases the influence of the few alarms relevant to diagnose the fault. Different decision strategies are proposed to support the operator in his decision making. The performances are evaluated on two sets of data: an artificial set and a set obtained from a highly realistic simulator of the CERN Large Hadron Collider process connected to the real CERN SCADA system.

  5. Pyroelectric infrared alarm system based on human gait recognition%基于人体步态识别的热释电红外传感报警系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 钟舜聪

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of difficult detecting the motionless human body using pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor, a passive PIR alarm system based on human gait recognition was investigated to enhance the intelligence of the system and to reduce the false alarm rate. As the detector, PIR sensor was employed in the system for non-contact monitoring the human body within a certain distance. The PIR signal was filtered, amplified, and then converted to a digital signal by an analog-to-digital converter. Consequently, the digital signal was sent to a microcomputer ( MCU ) for processing. The human body movement characteristics were analyzed to achieve accurate security alarm purpose. The experimental results demonstrate the stable performance, high sensitivity and low false alarm rate of the developed PIR alarm system, therefore, it can be recommended for the applications in security system of home, shopping center, and warehouse.%针对热释电红外传感器对运动后静止的人体无法感应的缺点,设计了一种基于人体步态识别的热释电红外报警系统,大大提高了系统感知智能度,减少了报警的误报率.该系统利用热释电红外传感器(PIR)作为探头,将感测到人体的红外信息转换成电压信号,通过滤波、放大等信号调理以及经过数据采集后,将信号传递给单片机处理,结合人体运动特征进行步态识别,从而实现智能报警,达到安全防护的目的.研究结果表明,基于人体步态识别的热释电红外报警系统具有性能稳定、灵敏度高、误报率低等优点,适合各种安全报警的场合,具有广泛的应用前景.

  6. An experimental investigation of the effects of alarm processing and display on operator performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.; Brown, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Hallbert, B.; Skraaning, G. [Halden Reactor Project (Norway); Wachtel, J.; Persensky, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. As part of this program, guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. In the course of guidance development, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support complete guidance development were identified. The primary purpose of the research reported in this paper was to evaluate the effects of three of these alarm system design characteristics on operator performance in order to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and to provide data to support the development of design review guidance in these areas. Three alarm system design characteristics studied were (1) alarm processing (degree of alarm reduction), (2) alarm availability (dynamic prioritization and suppression), and (3) alarm display (a dedicated tile format, a mixed tile and message list format, and a format in which alarm information is integrated into the process displays). A secondary purpose was to provide confirmatory evidence of selected alarm system guidance developed in an earlier phase of the project. The alarm characteristics were combined into eight separate experimental conditions. Six, two-person crews of professional nuclear power plant operators participated in the study. Following training, each crew completed 16 test trials which consisted of two trials in each of the eight experimental conditions (one with a low-complexity scenario and one with a high-complexity scenario). Measures of process performance, operator task performance, situation awareness, and workload were obtained. In addition, operator opinions and evaluations of the alarm processing and display conditions were collected. No deficient

  7. Signal Quality Analysis of Ambulatory Electrocardiograms to Gate False Myocardial Ischemia Alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelazez, Mohamed; Quesnel, Patrick X; Chan, Adrian D C; Yang, Homer

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to propose and validate an alarm gating system for a myocardial ischemia monitoring system that uses ambulatory electrocardiogram. The PeriOperative ISchemic Evaluation study recommended the selective administration of β blockers to patients at risk of cardiac events following noncardiac surgery. Patients at risk are identified by monitoring ST segment deviations in the electrocardiogram (ECG); however, patients are encouraged to ambulate to improve recovery, which deteriorates the signal quality of the ECG leading to false alarms. The proposed alarm gating system computes a signal quality index (SQI) to quantify the ECG signal quality and rejects alarms with a low SQI. The system was validated by artificially contaminating ECG records with motion artifact records obtained from the long-term ST database and MIT-BIH noise stress test database, respectively. Without alarm gating, the myocardial ischemia monitoring system attained a Precision of 0.31 and a Recall of 0.78. The alarm gating improved the Precision to 0.58 with a reduction of Recall to 0.77. The proposed system successfully gated false alarms with future work exploring the misidentification of fiducial points by myocardial ischemia monitoring systems. The reduction of false alarms due to the proposed system will decrease the incidence of the alarm fatigue condition typically found in clinicians. Alarm fatigue condition was rated as the top patient safety hazard from 2012 to 2015 by the Emergency Care Research Institute.

  8. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed.

  9. Vehicle Fire Alarm System Design Based on MCU%基于单片机的车载火灾报警器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽霞; 方建华; 何涛

    2014-01-01

    In order to avoid the personal and property damage due to spontaneous combustion of motor vehicles, this paper designs a vehicle fire alarm. It adopts MCU as the control chip, uses K type thermocouple and MAX6675 chip to real time detect the temperature of flashpoints and reference points on the motor vehicle, when the temperature difference between the flashpoints and reference points exceeds the allowed temperature difference value setting, alarm signal is sent. The running and testing experiments for the fire alarm are carried out, obtaining the expected results, which include the temperature difference between flashpoints and reference points values, so that the pre-alarm of motor vehicle's spontaneous combustion is implemented.%为了避免因机动车自燃带来的人身和财产损害,文章设计了车载火灾报警器,其用单片机做主控制芯片,采用K型热电偶和MAX6675芯片对机动车上的易燃点和基准点的温度进行实时检测,当比较到易燃点温度和基准点温度超过设定的允许温差值时,发出报警。进行了车载火灾报警器运行和测试实验,获得了预期的结果,检测到了机动车易燃点与基准点的温度差值,据此实现了对机动车自燃火灾的预报警。

  10. Distribution of combustible gas alarm based on embedded Ethernet technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xi-bo; ZHANG Jun-jie; WANG Yang

    2008-01-01

    One kind of combustible gas alarms based on industrial Ethernet was designed to prevent the gas leakage in industrial production sites. The alarm adopted the high performance microprocessor LPC2214 as the main chip. The embedded operating system μC/OS-Ⅱ and TCP/IP protocol stack ulP running on LPC2214 con-stitute a development platform of application of the combustible gas alarm. The test shows that it can automati-cally and continuously detect combustible gas in industrial production sites in several positions;it can give out sound-light alarm and take protective measures immediately against the gas leakage ; and it can send the detected data to PC through the Etheruet interface to realize the remote detection. The designed project provides a refer-ence to design industrial devices based on industrial Ethernet.

  11. Male rats respond to their own alarm pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Pheromones are defined as substances released from an individual (donor) that influence a second individual (recipient) of the same species. However, it is unclear whether mammalian pheromones can affect the donor itself. To address this question, the effect of self-exposure to an alarm pheromone was examined. Exposure to the alarm pheromone resulted in an enhanced anxiety response, which was not different between recipients that perceived their own pheromone and those that perceived another individual's pheromone. The present results suggest that the alarm pheromone influences the emotional system of the recipient as well as induces similar anxiogenic effects on the donor rat that released the alarm pheromone. This is the first evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of mammalian pheromone self-exposure.

  12. Wireless intelligent alarm technology with pyroelectric infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao

    2009-07-01

    Aiming at the defects of monitoring conducted by man in the conventional practice, we study the passive intelligent automatic alarm technology based on the pyroelectric infrared sensor and wireless communication technology. The designed passive infrared wireless alarm is composed of pyroelectric infrared sensors, infrared special chip BISS0001 and their peripheral circuits. When someone enters into the detecting and monitoring range, the alarm will detect the infrared ray of the human radiation by the contactless form and detect the signals of circuit output. Then it translates them into low frequency signals relative with human sports speed, distance and direction, produce corresponding output signals through amplifying by the back state controller, switch on the work power of the wireless transmitting circuit and make it emit the alarm signals. The system enhances the monitoring level and effects and possesses many advantages such as wide detecting range, long detecting distance and high reliability.

  13. The association between attributions of responsibility for motor vehicle accidents and patient satisfaction: a study within a no-fault injury compensation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jason; Berk, Michael; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Stafford, Lesley; Nordfjaern, Trond

    2015-05-01

    This study set out to test the relationship between attributions of responsibility for motor vehicle accidents and satisfaction with personal injury compensation systems. The study analysed survey data from 1394 people injured in a motor vehicle accident who were compensated under a no-fault personal injury compensation system. Patients' ratings of satisfaction with the compensation system across five domains (resolves your issues, keeps you up-to-date, treats you as an individual, cares about you, and overall satisfaction) were analysed alongside patient attributions of responsibility for their accident (not responsible, partly responsible, totally responsible). Postaccident physical and mental health status, age, gender, and duration of compensation claim were controlled for in the analysis. A multivariate analysis of covariance indicated attributions of responsibility for accidents were significantly associated with levels of patient satisfaction across all five domains under study (F (10, 2084) = 3.7, presponsibility for their accidents to others were significantly less satisfied with the injury compensation system than those who attributed responsibility to themselves. Satisfaction with no-fault motor vehicle injury compensation services are associated with patients' attributions of responsibility for their accident. Compensation systems and other rehabilitation services monitoring patient satisfaction should adjust for attributions of responsibility when assessing levels of patient satisfaction between time periods, services, or injured populations. Differences in levels of patient satisfaction observed between compensation or rehabilitation populations may reflect differences in attributions of responsibility for accidents rather than objective service quality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heams, T J [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, D A; Johns, N A; Mason, A [UKAEA, Winfrith, (England); Bixler, N E; Grimley, A J [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheatley, C J [UKAEA, Culcheth (England); Dickson, L W [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Osborn-Lee, I [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Domagala, P; Zawadzki, S; Rest, J [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Alexander, C A [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Lee, R Y [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided.

  15. Upgrading the electrical system of the IEA-R1 reactor to avoid triggering event of accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Jose Roberto de; Madi Filho, Tufic, E-mail: jrmello@ipen.br, E-mail: tmfilho@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The IEA-R1 research reactor at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN) is a research reactor open pool type, built and designed by the American firm 'Babcox and Wilcox', having as coolant and moderator demineralized light water and Beryllium and graphite, as reflectors. The power supply system is designed to meet the electricity demand required by the loads of the reactor (Security systems and systems not related to security) in different situations the plant can meet, such as during startup, normal operation at power, shutdown, maintenance, exchange of fuel elements and accident situations. Studies have been done on possible accident initiating events and deterministic techniques were applied to assess the consequences of such incidents. Thus, the methods used to identify and select the accident initiating events, the methods of analysis of accidents, including sequence of events, transient analysis and radiological consequences, have been described. Finally, acceptance criteria of radiological doses are described. Only a brief summary of the item concerning loss of electrical power will be presented. The loss of normal electrical power at the IEA-R1 reactor is very common. In the case of Electric External Power Loss, at the IEA-R1 reactor building, there may be different sequences of events, as described below. When the supply of external energy in the IEA-R1 facility fails, the Electrical Distribution Vital System, consisting of 4 (four) generators type 'UPS', starts operation, immediately and it will continue supplying power to the reactor control table, core cooling system and other security systems. To contribute to security, in the electric power failure, starts to operate the Emergency Cooling System (SRE). SRE has the function of removing residual heat from the core to prevent the melting of fuel elements in the event of loss of refrigerant to the core. Adding to the generators with batteries group system, new auxiliary

  16. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Helium-Gas Accident Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Helium Supply Rupture into Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    The model results are used to determine if beam power shutdown is necessary (or not) as a result of the LOHGA accident to maintain the blanket system well below any of the thermal-hydraulic constraints imposed on the design. The results also provide boundary conditions to the detailed bin model to study the detailed temperature response of the hot blanket module structure. The results for these two cases are documented in the report.

  17. Estimation of the patient monitor alarm rate for a quantitative analysis of new alarm settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waele, Stijn; Nielsen, Larry; Frassica, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In many critical care units, default patient monitor alarm settings are not fine-tuned to the vital signs of the patient population. As a consequence there are many alarms. A large fraction of the alarms are not clinically actionable, thus contributing to alarm fatigue. Recent attention to this phenomenon has resulted in attempts in many institutions to decrease the overall alarm load of clinicians by altering the trigger thresholds for monitored parameters. Typically, new alarm settings are defined based on clinical knowledge and patient population norms and tried empirically on new patients without quantitative knowledge about the potential impact of these new settings. We introduce alarm regeneration as a method to estimate the alarm rate of new alarm settings using recorded patient monitor data. This method enables evaluation of several alarm setting scenarios prior to using these settings in the clinical setting. An expression for the alarm rate variance is derived for the calculation of statistical confidence intervals on the results.

  18. ZONAS OSCURAS EN EL SISTEMA DE ALARMA DE ADVERTENCIA DE TSUNAMI EN CHILE DARK ZONES IN ALARM SYSTEM OF TSUNAMI OF WARNING OF TSUNAMI IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alvarez

    2010-12-01

    - ministry of interior (ONEMI and hydrographic and oceanographic service of Chilean navy (SHOA. This article deals with experiences carried out in order to activate the warning systems, generating fictional telluric events and / or historical telluric events capable of triggering tsunami occurrences. It also proposes a working hypothesis that will allow monitoring the response of the state agencies, through the procedures established by law in the Republic of Chile. Our research delivers results that allow us to affirm that there are areas for hypothetical events that could generate tsunamis in which the To carry out this research we have used a software called STLAT based on simplified equations of the propagation of a tsunami wave, which has allowed us to get quick results. We have also carried out tests with official data which have shown that the alarm system was not able to respond appropriately to the 8.4 M Atico event that occurred in Peru in 2001.

  19. Construction of a technique plan repository and evaluation system based on AHP group decision-making for emergency treatment and disposal in chemical pollution accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shenggang; Cao, Jingcan; Feng, Li; Liang, Wenyan; Zhang, Liqiu

    2014-07-15

    The environmental pollution resulting from chemical accidents has caused increasingly serious concerns. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine in advance the appropriate emergency treatment and disposal technology for different types of chemical accidents. However, the formulation of an emergency plan for chemical pollution accidents is considerably difficult due to the substantial uncertainty and complexity of such accidents. This paper explains how the event tree method was used to create 54 different scenarios for chemical pollution accidents, based on the polluted medium, dangerous characteristics and properties of chemicals involved. For each type of chemical accident, feasible emergency treatment and disposal technology schemes were established, considering the areas of pollution source control, pollutant non-proliferation, contaminant elimination and waste disposal. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs from the plan repository, the technique evaluation index system was developed based on group decision-improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and has been tested by using a sudden aniline pollution accident that occurred in a river in December 2012.

  20. Systematic Review of Physiologic Monitor Alarm Characteristics and Pragmatic Interventions to Reduce Alarm Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Christine Weirich; Goel, Veena V; Ely, Elizabeth; Stave, Christopher D; Stemler, Shannon; Zander, Miriam; Bonafide, Christopher P

    2016-02-01

    Alarm fatigue from frequent nonactionable physiologic monitor alarms is frequently named as a threat to patient safety. To critically examine the available literature relevant to alarm fatigue. Articles published in English, Spanish, or French between January 1980 and April 2015 indexed in PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Articles focused on hospital physiologic monitor alarms addressing any of the following: (1) the proportion of alarms that are actionable, (2) the relationship between alarm exposure and nurse response time, and (3) the effectiveness of interventions in reducing alarm frequency. We extracted data on setting, collection methods, proportion of alarms determined to be actionable, nurse response time, and associations between interventions and alarm rates. Our search produced 24 observational studies focused on alarm characteristics and response time and 8 studies evaluating interventions. Actionable alarm proportion ranged from alarm exposure and longer nurse response time. Most intervention studies included multiple components implemented simultaneously. Although studies varied widely, and many had high risk of bias, promising but still unproven interventions include widening alarm parameters, instituting alarm delays, and using disposable electrocardiographic wires or frequently changed electrocardiographic electrodes. Physiologic monitor alarms are commonly nonactionable, and evidence supporting the concept of alarm fatigue is emerging. Several interventions have the potential to reduce alarms safely, but more rigorously designed studies with attention to possible unintended consequences are needed. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  1. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  2. Semi-supervised detection of intracranial pressure alarms using waveform dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzo, Fabien; Hu, Xiao

    2013-04-01

    Patient monitoring systems in intensive care units (ICU) are usually set to trigger alarms when abnormal values are detected. Alarms are generated by threshold-crossing rules that lead to high false alarm rates. This is a recognized issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. Recently developed smart alarm models require alarms to be validated by experts during the training phase. The manual annotation process involved is time-consuming and virtually impossible to achieve for the thousands of alarms recorded in the ICU every week. To tackle this problem, we investigate in this study if the use of semi-supervised learning methods, that can naturally integrate unlabeled data samples in the model, can be used to improve the accuracy of the alarm detection. As a proof of concept, the detection system is evaluated on intracranial pressure (ICP) signal alarms. Specific morphological and trending features are extracted from the ICP signal waveform to capture the dynamic of the signal prior to alarms. This study is based on a comprehensive dataset of 4791 manually labeled alarms recorded from 108 neurosurgical patients. A comparative analysis is provided between kernel spectral regression (SR-KDA) and support vector machine (SVM) both modified for the semi-supervised setting. Results obtained during the experimental evaluations indicate that the two models can significantly reduce false alarms using unlabeled samples; especially in the presence of a restrained number of labeled examples. At a true alarm recognition rate of 99%, the false alarm reduction rates improved from 9% (supervised) to 27% (semi-supervised) for SR-KDA, and from 3% (supervised) to 16% (semi-supervised) for SVM.

  3. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  4. Effect of Cellular Phone and Radar Forensics on Search and Rescue Duration for General Aviation Aircraft Accidents in the Contiguous United States

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Ryan J

    2014-01-01

    Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELT) are generally the primary tool for locating distressed aircrews following an aircraft accident. In 2009, the International COSPAS-SARSAT organization ordered the cessation of 121.5 MHz ELT satellite monitoring to alleviate systemic false alarms and encourage pilots to upgrade ELTs to modern 406 MHz models. While most nations acquiesced to the mandate, the United States encountered severe resistance from pilot groups. As a result, 121.5 MHz ELTs are still i...

  5. 基于超声波传感器的测距报警系统设计%System design of alarm system based on ultrasonic sensor distance measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌

    2013-01-01

      This sound and light alarm system device based on ultrasonic distance measurement controlled by STC89c52(MCU),which can realize the safety monitoring of a specific region. When the intruder appears in the monitoring area, the front ultrasonic sensors will transmit and receive the ultrasonic signal to the MCU.%  本系统是基于STC89C52单片机(MCU)控制的超声波测距声光报警装置,可实现对特定区域的安全监控。当有入侵者出现在监控区域时,前端超声波传感器通过发射和接收超声波,将探测信号传递给系统的主控芯片单片机。

  6. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Flow Accident (LOFA) Analysis Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 1: with Beam Shutdown and Active RHR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report is one of a series of reports that document normal operation and accident simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal system. These simulations were performed for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report.

  7. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 4: External Pressurizer Surge Line Break Near Inlet Header

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report is one of a series of reports documenting accident scenario simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal systems. The simulations were performed in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) for the APT.

  8. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Coolant Accident Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 5: External RHR Break Near Inlet Header

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report is one of a series of reports that document normal operation and accident simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal system. These simulations were performed for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report.

  9. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Analysis Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 3: External HR Break at Pump Outlet without Pump Trip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report is one of a series of reports that document normal operation and accident simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal (HR) system. These simulations were performed for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report.

  10. Development of Positioning and Alarming Belt System Against Elder People Falling Down Based on Mobile Communication%基于移动通信的老人摔倒定位报警腰带系统的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁杰; 史建凯; 李成

    2015-01-01

    本文利用ARM单片机为核心,设计了一个基于移动通信网络的老人摔倒定位报警腰带系统。该系统实现了当老人摔倒后立即向监护人远程报警、同时发送定位信息并开启现场录音功能。监护人也可根据需要提取老人定位信息,控制语音报警系统的开关,全程录制老人运动轨迹等,便于对老人日常活动的监护。该系统已成功完成了软硬件联调测试,能提供摔倒检测、定位、录像、录音、语音报警、远程通信等功能。%By using ARM microcontroller as the core, this paper designs a positioning and alarming belt sys-tem against elder people falling down based on mobile communication networks. This system alerts the guardian when the old man falls down, sends the position and opens field recording function as well. The guardian can also extract the information, control the switch of voice alarm system and open the whole recording, which is easy for daily care. The system has been successfully completed debugging and testing of hardware and software, the results show that it can provide many functions of fall down detection, localization, video, audio, voice alarm, remote communication and etc.

  11. SCAP: a new methodology for safety management based on feedback from credible accident-probabilistic fault tree analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F I; Iqbal, A; Ramesh, N; Abbasi, S A

    2001-10-12

    As it is conventionally done, strategies for incorporating accident--prevention measures in any hazardous chemical process industry are developed on the basis of input from risk assessment. However, the two steps-- risk assessment and hazard reduction (or safety) measures--are not linked interactively in the existing methodologies. This prevents a quantitative assessment of the impacts of safety measures on risk control. We have made an attempt to develop a methodology in which risk assessment steps are interactively linked with implementation of safety measures. The resultant system tells us the extent of reduction of risk by each successive safety measure. It also tells based on sophisticated maximum credible accident analysis (MCAA) and probabilistic fault tree analysis (PFTA) whether a given unit can ever be made 'safe'. The application of the methodology has been illustrated with a case study.

  12. An international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident having transboundary implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, I.M.G.; Andersen, C.E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    of these detectors are used. During an accident the data produced by such systems will be exchanged between countries within the European Communities, (EC) and as required by the IAEA's Early Warning Convention between the rest of the world and Europe. It is therefore important to ensure that such data should...... be harmonised so that it can be accurately interpreted by other countries and by international organisations. To assist with such harmonisation an intercomparison was held during May/June 1999 at the Riso Natural Environmental Radiation Measurement Station in Denmark and at the PTB underground laboratory...... for dosimetry and spectrometry (UDO) in Germany. The main aim of the intercomparison was to help ensure that results reported by different countries during a nuclear accident will be consistent and comparable. It is important that during an emergency the measurements of the plume doses or contamination levels...

  13. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and... GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis... type of device includes conditioned response enuresis alarms. (b) Classification. Class II...

  14. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR... Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51 shall provide the MC&A alarm resolution capabilities described in paragraphs (b) through (f) of...

  15. Time to death analysis of road traffic accidents in relation to delta V, drunk driving, and restraint systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yonghan; Sohn, So Young

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this research is to identify variables related to the expected time to death due to road traffic accidents (RTAs). Such research is expected to be useful in improving safety laws and regulations and developing new safety systems. The resulting information is crucial not only for reducing accident fatalities but for assessing related insurance policies. In this article, we analyze factors that are potentially associated with variation in the expected survival time after a road traffic accident using Weibull regression. In particular, we consider the association with alcohol involvement, delta V, and restraint systems. Our empirical results, obtained based on the NASS-CDS, indicate that the expected survival time for non-alcohol-impaired drivers is 3.23 times longer at a delta V of 50 km/h than that for alcohol-impaired drivers under the same conditions. In addition, it was observed that, even when occupants were alcohol-impaired, if they were protected by both air bags and seat belts, their expected survival time after an RTA increased 2.59-fold compared to alcohol-impaired drivers who used only seat belts. Our findings may be useful in improving road traffic safety and insurance policies by offering insights into the factors that reduce fatalities.

  16. Conceptual Design of Portable Filtered Air Suction Systems For Prevention of Released Radioactive Gas under Severe Accidents of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Yim, Man S.; Rim, Chun T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    It becomes evident that severe accidents may occur by unexpected disasters such as tsunami, heavy flood, or terror. Once radioactive material is released from NPP through severe accidents, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gas spreading in the air. As a remedy for this problem, the idea on the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for the prevention of released radioactive gas under severe accidents was proposed. In this paper, the conceptual design of a PoFASS focusing on the number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are proposed. In order to design a flexible robot suction nozzle, mathematical models for the gaps which represent the lifted heights of extensible covers for given convex shapes of pipes and for the covered areas are developed. In addition, the system requirements for the design of the robot arms of PoFASS are proposed, which determine the accessible range of leakage points of released radioactive gas. In this paper, the conceptual designs of the flexible robot suction nozzle and robot arm have been conducted. As a result, the minimum number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are defined to be four and three, respectively. For further works, extensible cover designs on the flexible robot suction nozzle and the application of the PoFASS to the inside of NPP should be studied because the radioactive gas may be released from connection pipes between the containment building and auxiliary buildings.

  17. Behavioural implications of alarm mistrust as a function of task workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, J P; Dunn, M C

    2000-09-01

    The research was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing primary task and alarm workload on alarm mistrust as reflected by alarm and primary task performances. A total of 126 undergraduate students performed a complex psychomotor task battery three times, with the number of concurrent tasks increasing each time. During their performance, the students were required to react to an alarm system (including visual and auditory components) of questionable reliability. Depending on the group to which participants were assigned, the alarm presentation rate constituted a low-, medium- or high-workload condition. Alarm response data (times, frequencies, accuracies) and primary task data (tracking error) were analyzed to assess performance differences as a function of primary and secondary task workload levels. Results generally supported the hypotheses: increasing primary task and alarm task workload degraded alarm response performance. Also, response frequencies supported earlier research suggesting that participants 'probability match' their response rates to alarm system reliability. The results are discussed with regard to the cry-wolf effect, attention theory and alarm system design.

  18. Monitor alarm fatigue: standardizing use of physiological monitors and decreasing nuisance alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kelly Creighton; Cvach, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Reliance on physiological monitors to continuously "watch" patients and to alert the nurse when a serious rhythm problem occurs is standard practice on monitored units. Alarms are intended to alert clinicians to deviations from a predetermined "normal" status. However, alarm fatigue may occur when the sheer number of monitor alarms overwhelms clinicians, possibly leading to alarms being disabled, silenced, or ignored. Excessive numbers of monitor alarms and fear that nurses have become desensitized to these alarms was the impetus for a unit-based quality improvement project. Small tests of change to improve alarm management were conducted on a medical progressive care unit. The types and frequency of monitor alarms in the unit were assessed. Nurses were trained to individualize patients' alarm parameter limits and levels. Monitor software was modified to promote audibility of critical alarms. Critical monitor alarms were reduced 43% from baseline data. The reduction of alarms could be attributed to adjustment of monitor alarm defaults, careful assessment and customization of monitor alarm parameter limits and levels, and implementation of an interdisciplinary monitor policy. Although alarms are important and sometimes life-saving, they can compromise patients' safety if ignored. This unit-based quality improvement initiative was beneficial as a starting point for revamping alarm management throughout the institution.

  19. 75 FR 25137 - Changes to Standard Numbering System, Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Personally Identifiable Information Sec. Section symbol SNS Standard Numbering System U.S.C. United States..., Federal, State, and local law enforcement personnel use SNS information from the States' numbering systems..., and local law enforcement personnel use SNS information from the States' numbering systems for...

  20. Research and Application of Optimization for RPN System Alarm Caused by Source Range Lockout%闭锁源量程导致RPN报警的优化研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚立民; 刘琢; 赖厚晶; 陈卫华

    2013-01-01

    With the nuclear instrumentation system ( RPN) of Ling' ao Nuclear Power Station as example, the issue of system alarm occurs when source range (SR) channel of nuclear power measurement system is normally lockout in power operation is researched, and the optimizing schemes are proposed. The schemes implement certain optimization while keep existing system design. Through analyzing and investigating, the advantages and disadvantages of each scheme are proposed. The optimization of RPN system alarm provides important reference and guidance for follow-up CPR1000 reactor type nuclear power projects.%以岭澳核电站二期机组核功率测量系统(RPN)为例,针对正常闭锁核功率测量系统源量程通道在功率运行期间出现的系统报警问题,提出了相应的优化方案.优化方案在保持现有系统设计的基础上进行一定优化,通过分析和探讨,给出了各种优化方案的优势和不足之处.RPN系统报警的优化方案对CPR1000堆型的后续核电项目具有重要的指导和借鉴意义.

  1. Implementation of numerical simulation techniques in analysis of the accidents in complex technological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klishin, G.S.; Seleznev, V.E.; Aleoshin, V.V. [RFNC-VNIIEF (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Gas industry enterprises such as main pipelines, compressor gas transfer stations, gas extracting complexes belong to the energy intensive industry. Accidents there can result into the catastrophes and great social, environmental and economic losses. Annually, according to the official data several dozens of large accidents take place at the pipes in the USA and Russia. That is why prevention of the accidents, analysis of the mechanisms of their development and prediction of their possible consequences are acute and important tasks nowadays. The accidents reasons are usually of a complicated character and can be presented as a complex combination of natural, technical and human factors. Mathematical and computer simulations are safe, rather effective and comparatively inexpensive methods of the accident analysis. It makes it possible to analyze different mechanisms of a failure occurrence and development, to assess its consequences and give recommendations to prevent it. Besides investigation of the failure cases, numerical simulation techniques play an important role in the treatment of the diagnostics results of the objects and in further construction of mathematical prognostic simulations of the object behavior in the period of time between two inspections. While solving diagnostics tasks and in the analysis of the failure cases, the techniques of theoretical mechanics, of qualitative theory of different equations, of mechanics of a continuous medium, of chemical macro-kinetics and optimizing techniques are implemented in the Conversion Design Bureau {number_sign}5 (DB{number_sign}5). Both universal and special numerical techniques and software (SW) are being developed in DB{number_sign}5 for solution of such tasks. Almost all of them are calibrated on the calculations of the simulated and full-scale experiments performed at the VNIIEF and MINATOM testing sites. It is worth noting that in the long years of work there has been established a fruitful and effective

  2. Natural Circulation in the Blanket Heat Removal System During a Loss-of-Pumping Accident (LOFA) Based on Initial Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    A transient natural convection model of the APT blanket primary heat removal (HR) system was developed to demonstrate that the blanket could be cooled for a sufficient period of time for long term cooling to be established following a loss-of-flow accident (LOFA). The particular case of interest in this report is a complete loss-of-pumping accident. For the accident scenario in which pumps are lost in both the target and blanket HR systems, natural convection provides effective cooling of the blanket for approximately 68 hours, and, if only the blanket HR systems are involved, natural convection is effective for approximately 210 hours. The heat sink for both of these accident scenarios is the assumed stagnant fluid and metal on the secondary sides of the heat exchangers.

  3. 气体灭火系统的火灾自动报警和控制探讨%The Discussion about Gas fire extinguishing system of Fire auto-alarm and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄彩萍

    2011-01-01

    This article elaborate the design for fire auto-alarm and control of Gas fire extinguishing system,introduce some security measures for protected area,with the related technical codes and the examples of project.%本文结合相关规范及工程实例,详细阐述了气体灭火系统的火灾自动报警和控制系统设计以及防护区内的安全措施。

  4. Development of the scenario-based training system to reduce hazards and prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Choi, Jong-Won; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, IkJune; Kim, GeunHo; Kang, ShinYoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities has to be accomplished by assuring the safety of workers. Decommissioning workers need familiarization with working environments because working environment is under high radioactivity and work difficulty during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. On-the-job training of decommissioning works could effectively train decommissioning workers but this training approach could consume much costs and poor modifications of scenarios. The efficiency of virtual training system could be much better than that of physical training system. This paper was intended to develop the training system to prevent accidents for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The requirements for the training system were drawn. The data management modules for the training system were designed. The training system of decommissioning workers was developed on the basis of virtual reality which is flexibly modified. The visualization and measurement in the training system were real-time done according as changes of the decommissioning scenario. It can be concluded that this training system enables the subject to improve his familiarization about working environments and to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. In the end, the safety during decommissioning of nuclear facilities will be guaranteed under the principle of ALARA.

  5. Effect of spray system on fission product distribution in containment during a severe accident in a two-loop pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehjourian, Mehdi; Rahgoshay, Mohammad; Jahanfamia, Gholamreza [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sayareh, Reza [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kerman Graduate University of Technology, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirani, Saied [Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    The containment response during the first 24 hours of a low-pressure severe accident scenario in a nuclear power plant with a two-loop Westinghouse-type pressurized water reactor was simulated with the CONTAIN 2.0 computer code. The accident considered in this study is a large-break loss-of-coolant accident, which is not successfully mitigated by the action of safety systems. The analysis includes pressure and temperature responses, as well as investigation into the influence of spray on the retention of fission products and the prevention of hydrogen combustion in the containment.

  6. Effect of Spray System on Fission Product Distribution in Containment During a Severe Accident in a Two-Loop Pressurized Water Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehjourian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The containment response during the first 24 hours of a low-pressure severe accident scenario in a nuclear power plant with a two-loop Westinghouse-type pressurized water reactor was simulated with the CONTAIN 2.0 computer code. The accident considered in this study is a large-break loss-of-coolant accident, which is not successfully mitigated by the action of safety systems. The analysis includes pressure and temperature responses, as well as investigation into the influence of spray on the retention of fission products and the prevention of hydrogen combustion in the containment.

  7. Alarm pheromone processing in the ant brain: an evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Mizunami

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Social insects exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. We review recent advances in the understanding of the processing of alarm pheromone information in the ant brain. We found that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. Alarm pheromone information is then transmitted, via projection neurons, to the lateral horn and the calyces of the mushroom body of the protocerebrum. In the lateral horn, we found a specific area where terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive projection neurons are more densely distributed than in the rest of the lateral horn. Some neurons in the protocerebrum responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and they may participate in the control of behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons, especially those originating from the mushroom body lobe, responded also to non-pheromonal odors and may play roles in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal signals. We found that a class of neurons receive inputs in the lateral horn and the mushroom body lobe and terminate in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of aggressive behavior, which is sensitized by alarm pheromones and is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. We propose that the alarm pheromone processing system has evolved by differentiation of a part of general odor processing system.

  8. 基于GSM和nRF24L01的环境监测报警系统设计%Design of Environmental detection and alarm system based on GSM and nRF24L01

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷宁

    2015-01-01

    本文设计了一种基于GSM和nRF24L01的环境监控报警系统,实现对人体红外、温湿度、天然气浓度、火焰等信号的实时检测,并将检测结果显示于TFT屏幕,出现危险情况启动语音报警,并通过移动网络迅速与用户设置好的手机通信。系统运行稳定、操作方便,适合智能楼宇,家居住宅,企业厂区的远程安防。%This paper presents a design of environmental detection and alarm system based on GSM and nRF24L01,it provides real-time detection of the signal of Infrared radiation of human body,temperature and humidity,gas concentration and flame,then the test results are displayed on TFT.When dangerous appear,the system start voice alarm at once,and quickly set a communication with the user through the mobile phone network.The system is stable,easy to operate,suitable for remote security for intelligent buildings, house,company and factories.

  9. Lessons learnt from an international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saez-Vergara, J.C.; Thompson, I.M.G.; Funck, E.; Andersen, C.E.; Neumaier, S.; Botter-Jensen, L

    2003-07-01

    As part of the European Research Council's Fourth Framework Programme, the EURADOS Action Group on Monitoring of External Exposures held an intercomparison of national network systems. This took place during May/June 1999 at the Riso Natural Environmental Radiation Measurement Station in Denmark and at the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Germany. The network systems are used continuously to monitor radiation levels throughout a country in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications. The radiation levels measured are used to estimate the radiation risks to people arising from the accident. Seven European countries participated in the intercomparison with detector systems used in their national network systems as well as with detectors being developed for future use. Since different radiation quantities were measured by the systems (namely exposure, air kerma and ambient dose equivalent), the initial analysis of the intercomparison results was made in terms of the quantity air kerma rate. This report completes the analysis of the results and these are given in terms of air kerma rate in order to be consistent with the preliminary report. In addition, in some cases the results are also given in terms of the quantity measured by each national network system. The experience gained from this intercomparison is used to help organise a follow-up intercomparison to be held at the PTB Braunschweig in September 2002 and in which a further seven or eight countries from Europe will participate. (author)

  10. Reconstruction system for the river pollution accidents%河流污染事故重建系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘付衍华; 刘茂; 孟博; 毛星

    2011-01-01

    河流污染事故发生后,需要根据检测数据,对污染源进行科学估计.所用软件操作应简单易行,并迅速获得满足一定精度要求的数值解.基于MATLAB和Visual C++技术,对河流污染事故分别在一维及二维的情况下进行了模拟,并将多种模拟结果可视化.另外,系统应用贝叶斯理论,结合河流污染物质扩散模拟模型和监测数据估计污染源的时间、位置和强度等重要参数,采用马尔可夫链蒙特卡罗方法进行后验推断,对污染源泄漏时间、地点和污染源强度等参数进行可能性估计.%In this paper, we have engaged in a study of river pollution accidents and reconstruction projects, in order to reduce the logs of the accidents, building up the reconstruction system. The most important part of this system is the simulation of the river-water pollutants in one-dimensional and two-dimensional, with the accident source reconstruction taken as the key link. Since the river pollution accidents may have a serious impact on the water supply system and the whole aquatic environment, it is necessary to make an immediate decision to control the situation after occurrence of the river pollution accident. For this purpose, we should quickly, first of all, use the one-dimensional and two-dimensional water quality model, to simulate the river pollution accidents, simulate the pollutant concentrations in the river after the leakage over time, and compare the simulation data with the monitoring data, obtain the variance is 5.013 3, so as to indicate a greater accuracy of the simulated results. Secondly, the application of Bayesian MCMC method combine with the use of the river pollutant-diffusion model should be applied together so as to simulate the general situation of the accident source. The convergent estimation of the value of R simulation proves that the simulation result proves to be closer to the actual statistical results. In addition, since the convergence speed

  11. Alarm reduction with correlation analysis; Larmsanering genom korrelationsanalys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergquist, Tord; Ahnlund, Jonas; Johansson, Bjoern; Gaardman, Lennart; Raaberg, Martin [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Information Technology

    2004-09-01

    This project's main interest is to improve the overall alarm situation in the control rooms. By doing so, the operators working environment is less overstrained, which simplifies the decision-making. According to a study of the British refinery industry, the operators make wrong decisions in four times out of ten due to badly tuned alarm systems, with heavy expenses as a result. Furthermore, a more efficiently alarm handling is estimated to decrease the production loss with between three and eight percent. This sounds, according to Swedish standards, maybe a bit extreme, but there is no doubt about the benefits of having a well-tuned alarm system. This project can be seen as an extension of 'General Methods for Alarm Reduction' (VARMEFORSK--835), where the process improvements were the result of suggestions tailored for every signal. Here, instead causal dependences in the process are examined. A method for this, specially designed to fit process signals, has been developed. It is called MLPC (Multiple Local Property Correlation) and could be seen as an unprejudiced way of increase the information value in the process. There are a number of ways to make use of the additional process understanding a correlation analysis provides. In the report some are mentioned, foremost aiming to improve the alarm situation for operators. Signals from two heating plants have been analyzed with MLPC. In simulations, with the use of the result from these analyses as a base, a large number of alarms have been successfully suppressed. The results have been studied by personal with process knowledge, and they are very positive to the use of MLPC and they express many benefits by the clarification of process relations. It was established in 'General Methods for Alarm Reduction' that low pass filter are superior to mean value filter and time delay when trying to suppress alarms. As a result, a module for signal processing has been developed. The main purpose is

  12. Time changes in radiocesium concentration in aquatic systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Yuichi; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Kato, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masatoshi

    2015-04-01

    Due to Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive materials including Cs-134 and Cs-137 were widely distributed in surrounded area. The radiocesiums have been transported in river networks. The monitoring started at 6 sites from June 2011. Subsequently, additional 24 monitoring sites were installed between October 2012 and January 2013. Flow and turbidity (for calculation of suspended sediment concentration) were measured at each site, while suspended sediments and river water were collected every one or half month to measure Cs-134 and Cs-137 activity concentrations by gamma spectrometry. Also detailed field monitoring has been condcuted in Yamakiya-district, Kawamata town, Fukushima prefecture. These monitoring includes, 1) Radiocesium wash-off from the runoff-erosion plot under different land use, 2) 2. Measurement of radiocesium transfer in forest environment, in association with hydrological pathways such as throughfall and overlandflow on hillslope, 3) Monitoring on radiocesium concentration in soil water, ground water, and spring water, 4)Monitoring of dissolved and particulate radiocesium concentration in river water, and stream water from the forested catchment, and 5)Measurement of radiocesium content in drain water and suspended sediment from paddy field. Our monitoring result demonstrated that the Cs-137 concentration in eroded sediment from the runoff-erosion plot has been almost constant for the past 3 years, however the Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment from the forested catchment showed slight decrease through time. On the other hand, the suspended sediment from paddy field and those in river water from large catchments exhibited rapid decrease in Cs-137 concentration with time. The decreasing trend of Cs-137 concentration were fitted by the two-component exponential model, differences in decreasing rate of the model were compared and discussed among various land uses and catchment scales. Such analysis can provide

  13. Independent flameout alarm monitoring system of combustion furnace multi-burners%燃炉多燃烧器独立熄火报警监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方平; 王一民; 于晓红; 曹旭杰; 何军民

    2014-01-01

    Various combustion furnaces in petrochemical industry use a large number of burners, the normal combustion of burners is related to the safe operation of the combustion furnace. This paper analy-ses how by endoscope-type high temperature probe capture video images of combustion furnace burners, and process images, judge flameout for each burner independently use of computer,when flameout appea-ring in the burner then giving the corresponding alarm. Proved with the accuracy of image analysis soft-ware for judge the flameout of the burner. In the petroleum chemical industry, it will produce far-reac-hing effect for all kinds of fuel, gas-fired boiler risk pre-alarm and safety operation monitoring.%石化各种燃炉内使用的大量燃烧器是否正常燃烧关系到整个燃炉的安全运行。该文分析了如何通过内窥式耐高温探头摄取燃炉内燃烧器视频图像,并使用计算机进行图像处理、分析,对每个燃烧器进行独立的熄火判断,在燃烧器熄火时给出相应的报警。论证了图像分析软件对燃烧器火焰判断的准确性,对石油化工行业各种燃油、燃气锅炉危险预报警等安全运行监控方面将产生深远的影响。

  14. “Turn It Off!”: Diabetes Device Alarm Fatigue Considerations for the Present and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Joseph P.; Mackowiak, Linda; Anhalt, Henry; Zisser, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Safe and widespread use of diabetes technology is constrained by alarm fatigue: when someone receives so many alarms that he or she becomes less likely to respond appropriately. Alarm fatigue and related usability issues deserve consideration at every stage of alarm system design, especially as new technologies expand the potential number and complexity of alarms. The guiding principle should be patient wellbeing, while taking into consideration the regulatory and liability issues that sometimes contribute to building excessive alarms. With examples from diabetes devices, we illustrate two complementary frameworks for alarm design: a “patient safety first” perspective and a focus on human factors. We also describe opportunities and challenges that will come with new technologies such as remote monitoring, adaptive alarms, and ever-closer integration of glucose sensing with insulin delivery. PMID:23759412

  15. Alarming Rise In Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A rapid rise in birth defects has prompted China to look for causes and solutionsEvery 60 seconds two children are born in China with a handicap.It’s an alarming fact,but one that young adults across the country who hope to have children face every day. At a conference on the prevention of birth defects in Chengdu of Sichuan Province in September,Vice Minister of the National Population and Family Planning Commission Jiang Fan revealed this inconvenient truth, supported by shocking statistics.

  16. Alarms Remain,Efforts Continue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ China must come to terms with the fact that it has quality problems in at least 1% of its products.Though there is no country in the world that can completely avoid problems,given the responsible role China plays on the intemational stage,China should stop to take a look at itself and find ways to improve.China must examine herself carefully,when looking at the production chain;we have to keep aware that some alarms still remain.

  17. Correlating data from different sensors to increase the positive predictive value of alarms: an empiric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitan, Yuval; O'Connor, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    Alarm fatigue from high false alarm rate is a well described phenomenon in the intensive care unit (ICU). Progress to further reduce false alarms must employ a new strategy. Highly sensitive alarms invariably have a very high false alarm rate. Clinically useful alarms have a high Positive-Predictive Value. Our goal is to demonstrate one approach to suppressing false alarms using an algorithm that correlates information across sensors and replicates the ways that human evaluators discriminate artifact from real signal. After obtaining IRB approval and waiver of informed consent, a set of definitions, (hypovolemia, left ventricular shock, tamponade, hemodynamically significant ventricular tachycardia, and hemodynamically significant supraventricular tachycardia), were installed in the monitors in a 10 bed cardiothoracic ICU and evaluated over an 85 day study period. The logic of the algorithms was intended to replicate the logic of practitioners, and correlated information across sensors in a way similar to that used by practitioners. The performance of the alarms was evaluated via a daily interview with the ICU attending and review of the tracings recorded over the previous 24 hours in the monitor. True alarms and false alarms were identified by an expert clinician, and the performance of the algorithms evaluated using the standard definitions of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Between 1 and 221 instances of defined events occurred over the duration of the study, and the positive predictive value of the definitions varied between 4.1% and 84%. Correlation of information across alarms can suppress artifact, increase the positive predictive value of alarms, and can employ more sophisticated definitions of alarm events than present single-sensor based systems.

  18. 自动喷水灭火系统湿式报警阀设置问题探讨%On the Fixation of Hydraulic Alarm Valve of Automatic Water-spray Fire System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许剑方

    2011-01-01

    Wet alarm valve is a crucial part of automatic water-spray fire system.This paper focuses on whether an automatic water-spay fire system needs a wet alarm valve,whether it is in forms of concentration or distribution,and whether its location should be on the top of the building or at the bottom,and the number of sprays needed.%湿式报警阀是自动喷水灭火系统的重要组成部分。针对湿式报警阀的设置问题,重点探讨了自动喷水灭火系统是否都要设置湿式报警阀;湿式报警阀集中设置还是分散设置;湿式报警阀是底层设置还是楼层设置;湿式报警阀后所带喷头数目等几个问题,以真正发挥湿式报警阀的作用和自动喷水灭火系统的灭火效能。

  19. 关于可燃有毒气体探测报警系统合理设置方案的探讨%The Discussion of Flammable & Toxic Gas Detection Alarm System Set-up Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢炜

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses the related standards, and based on the engineering practice, discusses the level evaluated of flammable & toxic gas detection alarm system within the layer of the process plant protection, and issued an reasonable hazardous gas detection alarm system frame. At the same time, focus on the real engineering practice environment, issued the practical set-up plan.%本文通过对相关标准规范的分析,结合工程实践过程中遇到的问题,论述了可燃气体探测、有毒气体探测报警系统在过程工厂中的保护层等级与实际效用,并据此提出了较为合理的有害气体探测报警系统的架构。同时针对目前实际状况,提出了可供实际操作的系统组成。

  20. Application of the Bulgarian emergency response system in case of nuclear accident in environmental assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrakov, Dimiter; Veleva, Blagorodka; Georgievs, Emilia; Prodanova, Maria; Slavov, Kiril; Kolarova, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The development of the Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) for short term forecast in case of accidental radioactive releases to the atmosphere has been started in the mid 1990's [1]. BERS comprises of two main parts - operational and accidental, for two regions 'Europe' and 'Northern Hemisphere'. The operational part runs automatically since 2001 using the 72 hours meteorological forecast from DWD Global model, resolution in space of 1.5o and in time - 12 hours. For specified Nuclear power plants (NPPs), 3 days trajectories are calculated and presented on NIMH's specialized Web-site (http://info.meteo.bg/ews/). The accidental part is applied when radioactive releases are reported or in case of emergency exercises. BERS is based on numerical weather forecast information and long-range dispersion model accounting for the transport, dispersion, and radioactive transformations of pollutants. The core of the accidental part of the system is the Eulerian 3D dispersion model EMAP calculating concentration and deposition fields [2]. The system is upgraded with a 'dose calculation module' for estimation of the prognostic dose fields of 31 important radioactive gaseous and aerosol pollutants. The prognostic doses significant for the early stage of a nuclear accident are calculated as follows: the effective doses from external irradiation (air submersion + ground shinning); effective dose from inhalation; summarized effective dose and absorbed thyroid dose [3]. The output is given as 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours prognostic dose fields according the updated meteorology. The BERS was upgraded to simulate the dispersion of nuclear materials from Fukushima NPP [4], and results were presented in NIMH web-site. In addition BERS took part in the respective ENSEMBLE exercises to model 131I and 137Cs in Fukushima source term. In case of governmental request for expertise BERS was applied for environmental impact assessment of hypothetical accidental transboundary

  1. Analysis of Hydrogen Risk Mitigation System for Severe Accidents of EU-APR1400 Using MAAP4 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mun Soo; Suh, Jung Soo; Bae, Byoung Hwan [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    According to the EUR (European Utility Requirements for LWR Nuclear Power Plants), it is mandatory that the HMS (Hydrogen Mitigation System) of the Eu-APR1400 should be equipped with a passive or automatic hydrogen control system. Considering this requirement, a PAR (Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner) system was adopted for the HMS of the Eu-APR1400. This passive HMS should be evaluated carefully in order to ensure that the HMS has adequate capacity to control hydrogen concentrations during severe accident conditions and to show that the system can satisfy the design requirements of the EUR. In this paper, analyses were carried out to examine the effectiveness of the HMS incorporated into the Eu- APR1400 design. These analyses were performed using the MAAP (Modular Accident Analysis Program) 4 code. in order to identify whether the HMS could control the average hydrogen concentrations in the containment, such that the concentration would not exceed 10 percent by volume: the analyses also considered whether there was the possibility of inadvertent hydrogen combustion in such processes as FA (Flame Acceleration) and DDT (Deflagration to Detonation Transition)

  2. An analysis of thermionic space nuclear reactor power system: I. Effect of disassembling radial reflector, following a reactivity initiated accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Paramonov, Dmitry

    1993-01-01

    An analysis is performed to determine the effect of disassembling the radial reflector of the TOPAZ-II reactor, following a hypothetical severe Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA). Such an RIA is assumed to occur during the system start-up in orbit due to a malfunction of the drive mechanism of the control drums, causing the drums to rotate the full 180° outward at their maximum speed of 1.4°/s. Results indicate that disassembling only three of twelve radial reflector panels would successfully shutdown the reactor, with little overheating of the fuel and the moderator.

  3. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  4. A GIS-based prediction and assessment system of off-site accident consequence for Guangdong nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X Y; Qu, J Y; Shi, Z Q; Ling, Y S

    2003-01-01

    GNARD (Guangdong Nuclear Accident Real-time Decision support system) is a decision support system for off-site emergency management in the event of an accidental release from the nuclear power plants located in Guangdong province, China. The system is capable of calculating wind field, concentrations of radionuclide in environmental media and radiation doses. It can also estimate the size of the area where protective actions should be taken and provide other information about population distribution and emergency facilities available in the area. Furthermore, the system can simulate and evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures assumed and calculate averted doses by protective actions. All of the results can be shown and analysed on the platform of a geographical information system (GIS).

  5. Alarm Fatigue vs User Expectations Regarding Context-Aware Alarm Handling in Hospital Environments Using CallMeSmart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvoll, Terje; Arntsen, Harald; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    Surveys and research show that mobile communication systems in hospital settings are old and cause frequent interruptions. In the quest to remedy this, an Android based communication system called CallMeSmart tries to encapsulate most of the frequent communication into one hand held device focusing on reducing interruptions and at the same time make the workday easier for healthcare workers. The objective of CallMeSmart is to use context-awareness techniques to automatically monitor the availability of physicians' and nurses', and use this information to prevent or route phone calls, text messages, pages and alarms that would otherwise compromise patient care. In this paper, we present the results from interviewing nurses on alarm fatigue and their expectations regarding context-aware alarm handling using CallMeSmart.

  6. Development of Public Training System for Emergency Exercise Using Virtual Reality Technology Based on Radioactive Release Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Il; Park, Seong Jun; Lee, Dewhey; Song, Sub Lee; Park, Younwon [BEES Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    An exercise is normally conducted for a day or two days depending on the scale of the exercise. What we have experienced up to date there are several limitations in the radiological emergency exercises such as low public acceptance, poor enthusiasm in the exercise participation, not very attracting exercise scenarios, low efficiency in conducting an exercise, and so on. In order to overcome the limitations of the present exercising system, we would like to develop a radiological emergency exercise system using VR (virtual reality) technology based on a radioactive release accident. In this paper, we just introduce some basic development methods and event tree based scenario as a beginning stage. After the accident in Fukushima Daiichi NPP, the importance of emergency exercise especially for the public is far more emphasized around the world more and more. However, the human labor focused radiological emergency exercise up to now has many limitations. After developing this system properly and by using it, we could even expect to estimate the weak points of the emergency arrangements and strategy we have.

  7. Linking road accident data to other files : an integrated road accident recordkeeping system. Contribution in Proceedings of Seminar P 'Road Safety' held at the 14th PTHC Summer Annual Meeting, University of Sussex, England, from 14-17 July 1986. Volume P 284, p. 55-86.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, S.

    1986-01-01

    The road accident data which the police collect is of great value to road safety research and is used extensively. This data increases greatly in value if it can be linked to other files which contain more detailed information on exposure. Linking road accident data to other files results in what we call an Integrated Road Accident Recordkeeping System in -which the combined value of the linked files is greater than that of the sum of their individual values.

  8. Feasibility study of superconducting power cables for DC electric railway feeding systems in view of thermal condition at short circuit accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Daisuke; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Masaru

    2016-12-01

    A superconducting power cable has merits of a high power transmission capacity, transmission losses reduction, a compactness, etc., therefore, we have been studying the feasibility of applying superconducting power cables to DC electric railway feeding systems. However, a superconducting power cable is required to be cooled down and kept at a very low temperature, so it is important to reveal its thermal and cooling characteristics. In this study, electric circuit analysis models of the system and thermal analysis models of superconducting cables were constructed and the system behaviors were simulated. We analyzed the heat generation by a short circuit accident and transient temperature distribution of the cable to estimate the value of temperature rise and the time required from the accident. From these results, we discussed a feasibility of superconducting cables for DC electric railway feeding systems. The results showed that the short circuit accident had little impact on the thermal condition of a superconducting cable in the installed system.

  9. Alarm management for storage and transportation terminals; Gerenciamento de alarmes para terminais de transferencia e estocagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Patricia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Feldman, Rafael Noac [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Recently, in many industrial segments, it has been taken into account the issues related to the high amount of alarms that are announced in the control rooms, even if the industrial process is under normal conditions. Recent studies and surveys have shown that the three major problems related to it are: alarms that remain active during normal operation; alarms that remain chattering during an operational period; the phenomenon called Alarm flood, that occurs when an extensive amount of alarms is announced and the operator does not have enough time to take effective actions. In order to reduce or to eliminate the two above mentioned causes, alarm analysis and housekeeping, called Alarm Rationalization, have been efficient in major cases, because such facts occur mainly due to inadequate limits definition and/or equipment and instruments out of service or in maintenance. Such alarms are called in the literature as bad-actors or villains, and their occurrences may reach up to 50% of the daily total amount of alarms. This paper aims to present the main results of a project named Alarm Management for Transfer and Storage Terminals. The project development is based on two different terminal surveys, in order not only to identify the most frequent causes of undesirable alarms, but also to generate design standards. The main phases of the project are: alarm rationalization based on bad-actors detection; generate a set of design and operation standards; generate an Alarm Philosophy document for the Terminals. (author)

  10. 33 CFR 127.207 - Warning alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.207 Warning alarms. (a) The...

  11. Two wheeler accidents on Indian roads--a study from Mangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Animesh; Menezes, Ritesh G; Kanchan, Tanuj; Gagan, S; Jain, Rashmi

    2009-04-01

    The alarming increase in mortality and morbidity owing to road traffic accidents has been a matter of great concern globally. This study was undertaken to find the trend of two wheeler accidents over the five years (2000-2004) with respect to age and sex of the victim, type of injury sustained, type of vehicle involved and time distribution of accidents. Data was retrospectively collected from the records at the Regional Transport Authority's office, office of superintendent of police and also from both the Traffic police stations of the Mangalore city. Results were tabulated and the analysis was done using SPSS version 10. Test of significance was applied and p value accidents were recorded during 2000-2004. Majority (77%) of the victims were in the age group 18-44 years. Accident rate among males (83%) was higher than that among females (17%). Five percent of the victims (n=75) succumbed to injuries, of whom 45 died on the spot. Geared vehicles (81%) were more commonly involved than those without gears. Highest number of accidents was seen during 6-10 pm. There is considerable morbidity and mortality due to two wheeler road traffic accidents. Among the fatalities majority died at the spot. Hence first aid measures at the spot would be of great help. It is recommended to have a good support system and para medical training for the people manning the ambulance. Awareness should be created among general public. Besides, every road traffic injury case has medicolegal elements involved. In India, as per law, every road traffic injury case is registered as a medicolegal case and investigated for prosecution concerns and compensation needs.

  12. Investigation of a hydrogen mitigation system during large break loss-of-coolant accident for a two-loop pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehjourian, Mehdi; Rahgoshay, Mohmmad; Jahanfamia, Gholamreza [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sayareh, Reza [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kerman Graduate University of Technology, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirani, Amir Saied [Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Hydrogen release during severe accidents poses a serious threat to containment integrity. Mitigating procedures are necessary to prevent global or local explosions, especially in large steel shell containments. The management of hydrogen safety and prevention of over-pressurization could be implemented through a hydrogen reduction system and spray system. During the course of the hypothetical large break loss-of-coolant accident in a nuclear power plant, hydrogen is generated by a reaction between steam and the fuel-cladding inside the reactor pressure vessel and also core concrete interaction after ejection of melt into the cavity. The MELCOR 1.8.6 was used to assess core degradation and containment behavior during the large break loss-of-coolant accident without the actuation of the safety injection system except for accumulators in Beznau nuclear power plant. Also, hydrogen distribution in containment and performance of hydrogen reduction system were investigated.

  13. Accident: Reminder

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  14. TMACS test procedure TP001: Alarm management. Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, P.K.

    1994-09-01

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project`s acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure addresses the Alarm Management requirements of the TMACS. The features to be tested are: real-time alarming on high and low level and discrete alarms, equipment alarms, dead-band filtering, alarm display color coding, alarm acknowledgement, and alarm logging.

  15. Alarm Fatigue: Use of an Evidence-Based Alarm Management Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmell, Jacob W; Coke, Lola; Catinella, Rachel; Hosford, Tracy; Majeski, Amy

    The purpose of this article is to describe the impact of an evidence-based alarm management strategy on patient safety. An alarm management program reduced alarms up to 30%. Evaluation of patients on continuous cardiac monitoring showed a 3.5% decrease in census. This alarm management strategy has the potential to save $136 500 and 841 hours of registered nurses' time per year. No patient harm occurred during the 2-year project.

  16. Three-dimensional dose evaluation system using real-time wind field information for nuclear accidents in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jay; Lu, Chung-Hsin; Chang, Shu-Jun; Yang, Yung-Muh; Chang, Bor-Jing; Teng, Jen-Hsin

    2006-09-01

    In Taiwan, the three operating nuclear power plants are all built along the coast over complex terrain. Dose estimates after a nuclear accident with releases of radioactive materials, therefore, cannot be accurately calculated using simple dispersion models. We developed a three-dimensional dose evaluation system, which incorporates real-time prognostic wind field information with three-dimensional numerical models to predict dose results. The proposed system consists of three models: a three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model (HOTMAC), a three-dimensional transport and diffusion model (RAPTAD), and a dose calculation model (DOSE). The whole-body dose and thyroid dose as well as dose rates can be rapidly estimated and displayed on the three-dimensional terrain model constructed by satellite images. The developed three-dimensional dose evaluation system could accurately forecast the dose results and has been used in the annual nuclear emergency response exercise to provide suggestions for protective measures.

  17. A novel algorithm for reducing false arrhythmia alarms in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Chandan; Sharma, Sonal; Jalali, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Alarm fatigue in intensive care units (ICU) is one of the top healthcare issues in the US. False alarms in ICU will decrease the quality of care and staff response time over the alarms. Normally, false alarm will cause desensitization of the clinical staff which leads to warnings and misleading, if the triggered alarm is true. In this study, we have proposed a multi-model ensemble approach to reduce the false alarm rate in monitoring systems. We have used 750 patient records from PhysioNet database. At First arrhythmia based features from electrocardiogram (ECG), arterial blood pressure (ABP) and photoplethysmogram (PPG) features were extracted from the records. Next, the dataset has been separated into two subsets on the basis of available features information. The first dataset (DS1) is the combination of ECG physiological, ABP and PPG features. Their correlation coefficient and p-values criteria have been applied for relevant alarm-wise feature-set selection, and random forest classifier was used for model development and validation. The threshold based approach was used on second dataset (DS2) which is the combination of arrhythmia, ABP and PPG features. The developed ensemble model is able to achieve sensitivity 83.33-100 % (average 95.56 %) being true alarms and suppress false alarms rate 66.67-89% (average 77.25%). The predictability of classifier shows the advantage to deal with unbalanced set of information, therefore overall model performance has reached to 83.96% accuracy.

  18. Multi-parameter vital sign database to assist in alarm optimization for general care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, James; Kanter, Benjamin; Skora, Brooke; McCombie, Scott; Henry, Isaac; McCombie, Devin; Kennedy, Rosemary; Soller, Babs

    2016-12-01

    Continual vital sign assessment on the general care, medical-surgical floor is expected to provide early indication of patient deterioration and increase the effectiveness of rapid response teams. However, there is concern that continual, multi-parameter vital sign monitoring will produce alarm fatigue. The objective of this study was the development of a methodology to help care teams optimize alarm settings. An on-body wireless monitoring system was used to continually assess heart rate, respiratory rate, SpO2 and noninvasive blood pressure in the general ward of ten hospitals between April 1, 2014 and January 19, 2015. These data, 94,575 h for 3430 patients are contained in a large database, accessible with cloud computing tools. Simulation scenarios assessed the total alarm rate as a function of threshold and annunciation delay (s). The total alarm rate of ten alarms/patient/day predicted from the cloud-hosted database was the same as the total alarm rate for a 10 day evaluation (1550 h for 36 patients) in an independent hospital. Plots of vital sign distributions in the cloud-hosted database were similar to other large databases published by different authors. The cloud-hosted database can be used to run simulations for various alarm thresholds and annunciation delays to predict the total alarm burden experienced by nursing staff. This methodology might, in the future, be used to help reduce alarm fatigue without sacrificing the ability to continually monitor all vital signs.

  19. Non-specific alarm calls trigger mobbing behavior in Hainan gibbons (Nomascus hainanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huaiqing; Gao, Kai; Zhou, Jiang

    2016-09-30

    Alarm calls are important defensive behaviors. Here, we report the acoustic spectrum characteristics of alarm calls produced by Hainan gibbons (Nomascus hainanus) inhabiting Bawangling National Nature Reserve in Hainan, China. Analysis of call data collected from 2002-2014 shows that alarm calls are emitted by all family group members, except infants. Alarm behavior included simple short alarming calls (7-10 min) followed by longer variable-frequency mobbing calls lasting 5-12 min. The duration of individual alarming and mobbing calls was 0.078 ± 0.014 s and 0.154 ± 0.041 s at frequency ranges of 520-1000 Hz and 690-3920 Hz, respectively. Alarming call duration was positively associated with group size. The alarm calls can trigger mobbing behavior in Hainan gibbons; this is a defense way of social animals, and first report among the primates' species. The system of vocal alarm behavior described in this critically endangered species is simple and effective.

  20. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  1. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  2. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  3. Safety Bulletin 2013-1: When the alarm rings, you must leave!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    The HSE Unit just released the Safety Bulletin 2013-1 entitled “When the alarm rings, you must leave!”. The Bulletin is available on EDMS under the following number: 1307611. Be reminded  that HSE Safety Bulletins are published in English and French and share feedbacks of incidents/near miss/accidents that happened on the CERN site with the aim to improve prevention.

  4. Physiologic monitoring alarm load on medical/surgical floors of a community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Brian; Dahl, Deborah; Nielsen, Larry

    2011-01-01

    It has been known to the public that high frequency of false and/or unnecessary alarms from patient monitoring devices causes "alarm fatigue" in critical care. But little is known about the impact to care on the less acute patients located outside the critical care areas, such as the traditional medical/surgical (med/surg) floor. As part of a larger population management study, we initiated continuous physiological monitoring to 79 beds of floor patients in a community hospital. In order to qualify the patient monitoring alarm load for subacute medical and surgical floor patients, we assessed alarm data from April 2009 to January 2010. A standard critical care monitoring system (Philips IntelliVue MP-5 and Telemetry) was installed and set to the default alarm limits. All waveform data available for the patient (typically ECG, RESP, PPG at 125hz 8 bit), all alarm conditions declared by the monitoring system, and 1 minute parameter trend data were saved to disk every 8 hours for all patients. A monitoring care protocol was created to determine whether the patient was monitored via the hardwired bedside or wirelessly via telemetry. Alarms were not announced on the care unit but instead notifications were the responsibility of remote telehealth center personnel. We retrospectively evaluated the frequency of alarms over specific physiologic thresholds (n= 4104 patients) and conducted adjudication of all alarms based on a smaller sampling (n=30 patients). For all patients, the average hours of monitoring per patient were 16.5 hours with a standard deviation (s) of 8.3 hours and a median of 22 hours. The average number of alarms (all severities) per patient was 69.7 (s =90.3, median =28) alarms. When this is adjusted to the duration of monitoring, the average per patient, per day rate was 95.6 (s =124.2, median =34.2) alarms. The adjudicated sample (n=30 patients) resulted in 34% of critical alarms (lethal arrhythmias, extreme high or low heart rate [HR], extreme

  5. Design of an automatic alarm walking stick system based on Internet of things%基于物联网的自动报警智能拐杖系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元; 吴彦文; 卢佳卉; 熊雅清; 杨凯; 刘沛泽

    2016-01-01

    随着社会事件的发生,老人安全出行再次引发人们的重点关注。一种基于物联网能实现自动报警的智能拐杖能够保障老人安全出行,拐杖系统包括数据采集与数据处理的拐杖终端。该系统利用ADXL345三轴加速度传感器测量倾角精度高,SIM908模块集GPS单元与GSM 单元于一体的特点,可准确获得老人行走状态并进行判断、处理。实验结果证明,该系统可实现定位、摔倒判断、自动报警、通信等功能,克服了目前国内相关产品只能手动报警的缺陷,可为老人安全出行提供保障。%Safety for the old is a matter of considerable interest .It is a design of intelligent walking stick system which can realize automatic alarm based on Internet of things .Data sampling and data processing are included in the walking stick terminal .The system takes good use of which ADXL345 acceleration sensor has the advantage in measuring angles with high precision and SIM 908 integrates GPS and GSM to get accurate condition of the old ,then decide and take actions . It overcomes the shortage that related domestic products currently can only ask for help manually . Experiment proofs the system can get positions ,detect falling down ,communication and alarm automatically .It is a method to providing security for the elderly .

  6. Knowledge Discovery from Communication Network Alarm Databases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The technique of Knowledge Discovery in Databases(KDD) to learn valuable knowledge hidden in network alarm databases is introduced. To get such knowledge, we propose an efficient method based on sliding windows (named as Slidwin) to discover different episode rules from time sequential alarm data. The experimental results show that given different thresholds parameters, large amount of different rules could be discovered quickly.

  7. Research and application on FTA model of chemical accident fuzzy system%化工事故模糊系统FTA模型的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王陈玉书; 张园园; 张巨伟; 尚思思; 刘俊亨

    2013-01-01

    针对化工事故模糊系统,基于三角模糊数和事故树建立事故定量分析模型.运用该模型进行案例分析,确定储油罐体发生火灾爆炸事故的概率分布,指出概率的波动范围、平均事故概率,得出基本事件的模糊重要度,进行模糊重要度排序,明确该化工系统危险源分布的状态,指出导致事故发生的最危险路径,给出该危险路径发生的模糊概率,以上为企业管理人员制定安全措施提供重要的参考依据.该模型对于企业进行事故预测、事故原因分析、制定安全对策、风险投资分析具有重要的意义.%Accident quantitative analysis model for chemical accident fuzzy system based on triangular fuzzy number and fault tree was established. This model was applied to analyzing a case, determining the fire and explosion accident probability distribution of oil tank, pointing out that the fluctuation range of probability and the average accident probability, getting the fuzzy important degree of basic events, sorting fuzzy degree of importance, clearing the state of dangerous source distribution about the chemical system, and pointing out the most dangerous path that causes the accident. All of above provide important reference for corporate executives to develop safety measures. The model is important for accident prediction, analyzing the cause of the accident, developing safety countermeasures and analyzing risk investment.

  8. On a Special Fixation of a Fire Alarming System in a Nuclear Station%谈核电站火灾自动报警系统的特殊配置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹田荣

    2012-01-01

    结合核电站火灾危险的特殊性,阐述了核电站常规岛中网控楼、蓄电池室、汽轮机厂房、电缆隧道、输变电变压器等建筑的火灾自动报警系统设备的特殊配置及选用特点,以发挥火灾自动报警系统的监控作用。%This paper explains the unique characteristics of a fire risk in a nuclear station in terms of its normal centre control building,a battery room turbulent plant and wire tunnels and power transformers to make the better use of fire automatic alarm system.

  9. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents......The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...

  10. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  11. 基于 GSM 网络的远程红外家庭安防系统设计%Design of Long Range Infrared Alarm Family Safety Pretactive System Based on GSM Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于昕梅; 郑友鑫; 郑东涛

    2013-01-01

      This paper designs an long range monitor and controlling system within a Family safety protection. It is that infrared alarm which is controlled by MUC continuously monitoring environment safe inside provision scope, after discovering an excrescent circumstance (infrared alarm be separated to cut off or be destroyed),MUC Correspond with GSM mobile telephone through serial-port, then report the warning message to the control centre or preset cellular phone through the GSM network, after the control centre receive information and carry on analytical judgment, it give out control order to the far end ,and the far end carries on a homologous control. The purpose of family safe precaution is achieved. The system is low cost and reliable which can be applied to commercial applications.%  通过单片机控制红外接口不断感知规定范围内环境安防情况,发现异常情况后,由单片机经由串口与 GSM手机进行通信,再将报警信息经由 GSM 网络传送至控制中心或预置的手机上,控制中心接到报警信息进行分析判断后,将控制命令发给远端进行相应的控制,从而达到安防目的。该系统成本低,性能稳定可靠,具有较高的商业应用价值。

  12. Alarm management in TRANSPETRO National Oil Control Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, Helio; Costa, Luciano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For sure Alarm Management is not a new issue. EEMUA 191 has been around since 1999 and everyone has received visits from consultants in this area. Besides this regulators have requested that operators have a policy for it. However there are few papers showing actual pipeline operator experience in alarm management. In this paper we present the work developed in TRANSPETRO National Oil Control Center since 2006, where we operate 5509 km of crude oil and refined products pipelines. Since the beginning of the centralized operation in 2002, alarm management has been a concern but a systematic approach has been taken since 2006. Initially we will make a brief revision of the literature and show trends for regulations. Then we will show the tools and the approach we have taken. Finally, the further developments we see. The point that we want to discuss is that, it has been very difficult to implement the system in a linear way and we believe that companies that have huge legacy systems, the same probably will occur. Putting in simple words, our main conclusion is: Implementing an Alarm Management policy produces good results however probably sometimes is better not to follow strictly the traditional steps. (author)

  13. Design of Breakdown Self-diagnostic and Voice Alarm System about Shower Box Group%淋浴箱组故障自诊断语音报警系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓东; 王洪喜

    2012-01-01

    It will lead to shower box can not run normally and even explosion if the breakdown of ignition, water pressure and temperature can not timely and effectively control and repair. Aiming at the problem, design the breakdown self-diagnostic and voice alarm system based on MCU. It uses P89LPC935 as the core and timely monitor boiler temperature, water pressure and ignition state by smoke temperature sensor , pressure sensor and fine detector. When breakdown occurs self-priming pump and boiler immediately stop work and voice a-larm for repairing at the same time. It ensures shower box group safety and stable work.%针对淋浴箱组工作时,如果出现点火、水压、炉温过高等故障时得不到及时有效的控制和维修,将会导致箱组无法正常运行甚至发生爆炸的问题,文中设计了基于单片机控制的淋浴箱组故障自诊断语音报警系统.采用以单片机P89LPC935为核心,通过烟温传感器、压力传感器、火焰探测器对炉温、水压及点火的现场情况实时诊断,当有故障出现时立即停止自吸泵和锅炉工作并将故障类型语音报警,以便维修人员及时处理,保证了淋浴箱组的安全、稳定工作.

  14. Safety assessment for electricity generation failure accident of gas cooled nuclear power plant using system dynamics (SD) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2013-04-15

    The power production failure happens in the loss of coolant of the nuclear power plants (NPPs). The air ingress is a serious accident in gas cooled NPPs. The quantification of the study performed by the system dynamics (SD) method which is processed by the feedback algorithms. The Vensim software package is used for the simulation, which is performed by the Monte-Carlo method. Two kinds of considerations as the economic and safety properties are important in NPPs. The result shows the stability of the operation when the power can be decided. The maximum value of risk is the 11.77 in 43rd and the minimum value is 0.0 in several years. So, the success of the circulation of coolant is simulated by the dynamical values. (orig.)

  15. 基于HFACS的海上交通事故原因系统分析%Systemic analysis on cause of marine traffic accidents based on HFACS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣欣; 轩少永; 席永涛; 胡甚平

    2012-01-01

    为定量研究海上交通事故人失误致因因素,分析各种人失误因素对事故的影响程度,从而达到控制人失误事故的最终目的.在引入人的不安全行为分类框架和“人-机-环境”系统的基础上,运用人因素分析与分类系统(Human Factors Analysis and Classification System,HFACS),提出海上交通事故人失误分析与分类系统(Human Error Analysis and Classification System for Marine Traffic Accident,HEACS-MTA),对海上交通事故人失误因素进行分类.运用灰色关联分析法(Grey Relational Analysis,GRA)对事故形成原因进行定量分析,得出管理因素是事故的根本原因.导致事故发生的人失误因素依次为不安全行为的前提条件、不安全的监督、不安全行为和组织影响.%To research the causation factors of human errors in marine traffic accidents quantitatively, the influencing degree of the causation factors which lead to human errors is analyzed, so as to control accidents caused by human errors. On the base of introducing the classification framework of human' s unsafe behavior and the " man-machine-environment" system, the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System ( HFACS) is used and the Human Error Analysis and Classification System for Marine Traffic Accident (HEACS-MTA) is proposed to classify human errors in marine traffic accidents. The Grey Relational Analysis ( GRA) is used to analyze the accident causes quantitatively, and the conclusion is made that the management factor is the root cause of the accidents. The order of the main human error factors which lead to accident is precondition for unsafe acts, unsafe supervision, unsafe acts and organizational influences.

  16. Criticality accident detector coverage analysis using the Monte Carlo Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zino, J.F.; Okafor, K.C.

    1993-12-31

    As a result of the need for a more accurate computational methodology, the Los Alamos developed Monte Carlo code MCNP is used to show the implementation of a more advanced and accurate methodology in criticality accident detector analysis. This paper will detail the application of MCNP for the analysis of the areas of coverage of a criticality accident alarm detector located inside a concrete storage vault at the Savannah River Site. The paper will discuss; (1) the generation of fixed-source representations of various criticality fission sources (for spherical geometries); (2) the normalization of these sources to the ``minimum criticality of concern`` as defined by ANS 8.3; (3) the optimization process used to determine which source produces the lowest total detector response for a given set of conditions; and (4) the use of this minimum source for the analysis of the areas of coverage of the criticality accident alarm detector.

  17. Telemetry Monitor Watchers Reduce Bedside Nurses' Exposure to Alarms by Intercepting a High Number of Nonactionable Alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchaudhuri, Sonali; Chen, Stephanie; Clayton, Elaine; Accurso, Anthony; Zakaria, Sammy

    2017-06-01

    Cardiac telemetry, designed to monitor hospitalized patients with active cardiac conditions, is highly utilized outside the intensive care unit but is also resource-intensive and produces many nonactionable alarms. In a hospital setting in which dedicated monitor watchers are set up to be the first responders to system-generated alerts, we conducted a retrospective study of the alerts produced over a continuous 2-month period to evaluate how many were intercepted before nurse notification for being nonactionable, and how many resulted in code team activations. Over the 2-month period, the system generated 20,775 alerts (5.1/patient-day, on average), of which 87% were intercepted by monitor watchers. None of the alerts for asystole, ventricular fibrillation, or ventricular tachycardia resulted in a code team activation. Our results highlight the high burden of alerts, the large majority of which are nonactionable, as well as the role of monitor watchers in decreasing the alarm burden on nurses. Measures are needed to decrease telemetry-related alerts in order to reduce alarm-related harms, such as alarm fatigue. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2017;12:447-449. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  18. Novel approach to cardiac alarm management on telemetry units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Deborah A; Covelle, Patricia M; Piepenbrink, James C; Villanova, Karen L; Cuneo, Charlotte L; Awtry, Eric H

    2014-01-01

    General medical-surgical units struggle with how best to use cardiac monitor alarms to alert nursing staff to important abnormal heart rates (HRs) and rhythms while limiting inappropriate and unnecessary alarms that may undermine both patient safety and quality of care. When alarms are more often false than true, the nursing staff's sense of urgency in responding to alarms is diminished. In this syndrome of "clinical alarm fatigue," the simple burden of alarms desensitizes caregivers to alarms. Noise levels associated with frequent alarms may also heighten patient anxiety and disrupt their perception of a healing environment. Alarm fatigue experienced by nurses and patients is a significant problem and innovative solutions are needed. The purpose of this quality improvement study was to determine variables that would safely reduce noncritical telemetry and monitor alarms on a general medical-surgical unit where standard manufacturer defaults contributed to excessive audible alarms. Mining of alarm data and direct observations of staff's response to alarms were used to identify the self-reset warning alarms for bradycardia, tachycardia, and HR limits as the largest contributors of audible alarms. In this quality improvement study, the alarms for bradycardia, tachycardia, and HR limits were changed to "crisis," requiring nursing staff to view and act on the alarm each time it sounded. The limits for HR were HR low 45 bpm and HR high 130 bpm. An overall 89% reduction in total mean weekly audible alarms was achieved on the pilot unit (t = 8.84; P monitoring events, and the incidence of code blues decreased by 50%. Alarms with self-reset capabilities may result in an excess number of audible alarms and clinical alarm fatigue. By eliminating self-resetting alarms, the volume of audible alarms and associated clinical alarm fatigue can be significantly reduced without requiring additional resources or technology or compromising patient safety and lead to improvement in

  19. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  20. The dominance of accidents caused by banalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    . Nevertheless, the fact is that the simpler accidents normally caused by what might be regarded as banalities occur at a much higher frequencies and with many more fatalities and invalidities than any of what are usually regarded as the most dangerous kinds of accidents. In depth analysis of national statistics...... on accidents could reveal the kind of accidents we are talking about, where they happen, to whom, how, and what can be done about them. This would require a special registration system of the events leading up to the accident. The main results for the four most frequent types of accident will be described...... as an example of how much information such systems can offer in general for the work of accident prevention in more traditional and common enterprises....

  1. ED accreditation update. Hospitals put on notice: alarm management is a top priority for 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Establishing alarm management as a new National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG), The Joint Commission (TJC) is calling on hospitals to make the issue a safety priority, and to begin establishing policies and procedures designed to minimize alarm fatigue among clinical staff. Beginning on January 1,2014, hospitals need to begin identifying the most important alarm signals to manage based on input from staff as well as factors such as patient risk, and the potential for harm as demonstrated by the device's history. By January 1,2016, hospitals need to have policies and procedures in place for managing alarms identified in the first phase of the NPSG's requirements. Also, staff and independent licensed practitioners need to be educated about the purpose and proper operation of alarm systems that they are responsible for.

  2. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  3. The Design and Realization of an Automatic Weibo Alarm Monitor System%一种可自动微博报警的监控系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏金池

    2014-01-01

    设计并实现了一种基于ARM嵌入式平台的可自动发送带GIF图片微博报警的智能视频监控系统。系统在原有的智能监控预警系统的基础上,利用PIL图像库及Python脚本,将每次异常事件后保存的多张JPG图片生成一张GIF动画,并利用新浪微博提供的Python SDK发送一条带GIF图片的微博,起到预警的作用。用户可通过多种微博客户端收到提醒信息。%In this paper, design and realize an intelligent monitor early warning system based on ARM embedded platform, which can send a GIF image to Sina weibo automatically. The system is based on the intelligent monitoring early warning system, using python Imaging Library and Python scripts, to detect the abnormal situation. Then, the system will use multiple JPG images to generate a GIF image, and use Python SDK to send a GIF image to Sina weibo,.This function have the effect of alarm. The us-er can receives the reminding information through a variety of Sina weibo client.

  4. Study on home wireless anti-theft alarm system based on Android%基于Android平台的家用无线防盗报警系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈菁; 王志华

    2015-01-01

    在此介绍一种基于Android平台的家用无线防盗报警系统,其不仅实现低成本检测、显示和报警,而且能通过串口WiFi设备将系统数据无线传输到用户的智能手机上,实现远程无线控制。系统采用超声波测距模块、振动检测模块和红外对射电路实现自动检测功能,采用蜂鸣器和LED实现声光报警功能,以内置精简指令集RISC的AVR单片机作为数据处理中心,通过异步串行收发器USART将系统状态数据发送至HLK⁃RM04模块,该模块内置TCP/IP协议栈实现用户串口、以太网、WiFi接口之间数据的转换和传输。系统还通过对Android手机应用程序编程,使用户在智能手机上实现AVR单片机与智能手机之间数据传输,实现对整个系统的设置与控制。%The household anti⁃theft alarm system based on Android platform and combined with the microcontroller not only can achieve low⁃cost detection,display and alarm,but also can transmit the system data to the users’intelligent mobile phone in wireless transmission mode through the serial port WIFI equipment, and realize remote wireless control. The ultrasonic ranging module,vibration detection module and infrared emission circuit are used in the system to realize automatic detection function. The buzzer and LED are adopted to achieve sound and light alarm function. The AVR single chip microcomputer with built⁃in reduced instruction set is taken as data processing center. The system status data is sent to the module LAK⁃RMO4 through the asynchronous serial transceiver USART. The TCP/IP protocol stack is built in the module to realize data transmission and conversion among the user serial port,Ethernet and WIFI interface. Through programming of Android mobile phone applica⁃tion program,the user can achieve data transmission between AVR SCM and intelligent mobile phone in intelligent mobile phone,and realize setting and control of the whole system.

  5. 一种防跌倒预警系统的研究与实现%The Study and Realization of an Early Pre-impact Fall Alarm System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧奇; 梁丁; 宁运琨; 张静; 赵国如

    2014-01-01

    Falls are the second leading cause of unintentional injury deaths worldwide, so how to prevent falls has become a safety and security problem for elderly people. At present, because the sensing modules of most fall alarms generally only integrate the single 3-axis accelerometer, the measurement accuracy of sensing signals is limited. They can only achieve the alarm of post-fall detection but not the early pre-impact fall recognition in real fall applications. Therefore, an early pre-impact fall alarm system based on high-precision inertial sensing units was studied and developed in this paper. A multi-modality sensing module embedded with the fall detection algorithm was developed for the early pre-impact fall detection. The module included a 3-axis accelerometer, a 3-axis gyroscope and a 3-axis magnetometer, which could arouse early pre-impact fall warnings by a buzzer and a vibrator. Total 81 times of fall experiments from 9 healthy subjects were conducted in simulated fall conditions. The result shows that the detection sensitivity of the system combining the early warning threshold algorithm can reach 98.61%with a speciifcity of 98.61%, and the average pre-impact lead time is 300 ms. In the future, GPS, GSM electronic modules and wearable protected airbags will be embedded in the system, which will enhance real-time fall protections and timely treatments for the elderly people.%跌倒是造成世界上意外伤害死亡的第二大原因,如何预防跌倒已成为保障老人生命的关键。目前常见“跌倒报警器”的传感模块一般采用单一的三轴加速度计,测量精度受限,仅能实现人体跌倒后的报警功能而不能实现跌倒前的预警。文章设计并实现了一种基于 MEMS 惯性传感单元的防跌倒预警器,率先设计了含“三轴加速度计+三轴陀螺仪+三轴磁力计”的高精度多模态传感模块,内嵌跌倒预警算法,并通过蜂鸣器和振动器警示。对九名

  6. Design of a portable falling alarm system of old people based on Arduino MCU%基于Arduino单片机的便携式老年人跌倒报警系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖二宁; 张兴明; 李康士; 董永吉

    2016-01-01

    In order to satisfy the fall deterction of old people, a design scheme of fall monitoring system based on Arduino MCU is proposed. and the hardware and software design of the system is completed. The system consists of a portable device and a APP monitor, The portable device mainly includes 8-bits Arduino AVR MCU, the SIM900A chip which realizes the communication function and SMS alarm, the ADXL345 chip which realizes fall detection function, and the GPS NEO 6M WAVESHARE chip which realizes the positioning function. APP monitor is based on Android 4.4 and AutoNavi map package development, support domestic arbitrary locations show easy tracking view. Practical application and test results show that, the system has the advantages of simple operation, accurate positioning, fall alarm precision, meet the design requirements.%为了实现对老年人跌倒报警的需求,提出了一种基于Arduino单片机的跌倒报警系统设计方案,并完成系统的软硬件设计。该系统由便携式设备与监护APP组成,便携式设备主要包括完成数据处理的8位AVR单片机Arduino NANO、实现通信功能及短信报警的SIM900A芯片、实现跌倒检测功能的ADXL345芯片与实现定位功能的WAVE-SHARE GPS NEO 6M芯片。监护APP部分采用基于Android 4.4与高德地图包开发,支持国内任意地点显示,支持路径规划及语音播报。实际应用与测试结果表明,该系统具有操作简便、跌倒报警准确、定位精度高等特点,具有很强的实用价值和良好的市场前景。

  7. Social Odors: Alarm Pheromones and Social Buffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, I describe 2 types of olfactory communication in rats, which appear to arouse anxiety and relief, respectively. In alarm pheromonal communication, rats release 4-methylpentanal and hexanal from their perianal region when they are stressed. These molecules activate the anxiety circuit, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, when 4-methylpentanal and hexanal are simultaneously detected by the vomeronasal system and the main olfactory system, respectively. Consequently, recipient rats show a variety of anxiety responses, depending on the threatening stimuli. In appeasing olfactory communication, non-stressed rats release an appeasing olfactory signal, which is detected by the main olfactory system of other rats. When detected, this olfactory signal suppresses activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala and, as a result, ameliorates stress responses elicited by an auditory conditioned stimulus during social buffering phenomenon. Because social buffering appears to be based on affinity and attachment to accompanying animals, the appeasing olfactory signal may arouse relief in rats. A definition of social buffering is also proposed as we still have no set definition for the term social buffering yet.

  8. 网络游戏服务器报警系统的设计与实现%The Design and Implementation of Alarm System for Online Game Server

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江岸

    2013-01-01

    The online game server generally has great loading pressure, with the increase of game player, the server is growing in number of quantity. In order to manager the server system efficiently, and discover the problem of hardware or software promptly, this paper design an alarm system for game server, perfectly solved the problem of monitoring on the server, which has a great apply prospect.%网络游戏服务器一般都承受着较大的性能考验和负载压力,随着网络游戏玩家数量的增加,后台服务器数量也不断增多,为了高效的管理服务器,并及时发现服务器的硬件或者软件问题,该文设计了一套网络游戏服务器的报警系统,有效的解决了服务器的监控问题,具有较好的应用前景.

  9. 基于系统动力学的井喷事故仿真研究%Study on Simulation of Blowout Accidents Based on System Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉安民; 何沙

    2011-01-01

    In order to forecast the development process of blowout accident dynamically, a system simulation flow chart for blowout accident was built combined with the relevant principles of System Dynamic and based on the analysis of blowout accident main influential factors. The System Dynamic simulation software Vensim was used to simulate the overall process of blowout accident. Monitoring and early warning of oil and gas wells dynamically were achieved. The research results indicate that the blowout accident is caused by the cross-coupling functions of human factors, management factors, environmental factors, equipment factors, and laws and regulations factors.%为动态预测井喷事故发展过程,在分析导致井喷事故主要因素的基础上,结合系统动力学的相关原理,构建井喷事故系统仿真流图,并运用系统动力学仿真软件Vensim对井喷事故的整体流程进行仿真,实现了对油气井安全水平的动态监测和预警.结果表明:井喷事故的发生是由人为因素、管理因素、环境因素、设备因素和法律法规因素四大子系统的交叉耦合作用而导致整个油气井系统的安全水平低于井喷事故的安全临界点所造成的.

  10. Survey/research on application of expert system to electric power technology. Part 1. ; Protoypical preparation of accident section discrimination system by personal computer edition. Expert system no denryoku gijutsu eno tekiyo ni kansuru chosater dot kenkyu (1). ; Keito jiko kukan hantei system (pasokon ban) no shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, H. (The Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan))

    1991-03-20

    As the first step in the prototypical preparation of system accident recovery support system'', in order to support the accident phenomenon comprehension and recovery operation, to be done by the operators at the time of accident occurrence in the electric power system, accident section discrimination system by personal computer edition'' was prototypically prepared for the purpose of discussing the knowledge expression and inference method. That system is, at the time of system accident occurrence, to discriminate the accident section from the information of operated protective relay and tripped circuit breaker, and was structured of objective system model and about 100 production rules (knowledge under a form of if {yields} then''). As the rule was made not to depend upon a proper system, change in system structure and protection system can be corresponded to by change in objective system model only. Correct conclusion was obtained in 1 to 10 minutes, as a result of demonstration, made in about 50 cases of supposed accident, using a control system (12 buses, 2 power source buses, 12 power transmission circuits and 26 circuit breakers), based on the system in Takehara control station. 9 refs., 25 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  12. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  13. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b) ...

  14. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next to...

  15. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mixture causing actuation of the alarm is taken. (2) If the alarm has a positive displacement mixture pump... mixture causing actuation of the alarm is taken. (3) If the alarm has a positive displacement mixture pump... centrifugal mixture pump or is not equipped with a mixture pump, the mixture flow rate is reduced to...

  16. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318... § 80.318 Use of alarm signals. (a) The radiotelegraph or radiotelephone alarm signal, as appropriate... transmission of an urgent cyclone warning. In this case the alarm signal may only be used by coast stations...

  17. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 1: External HR Break Near Inlet Header

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    The APT blanket system has about 57 MW of thermal energy deposited within the blanket region under normal operating conditions from the release of neutrons and the interaction of the High energy particles with the blanket materials. This corresponds to about 48 percent of total thermal energy deposited in the APT target/blanket system. The deposited thermal energy under normal operation conditions is an important input parameter used in the thermal-hydraulic design and accident analysis.

  18. A guide to advance preparation for accident investigation. [Contains a list of System Safety Development Center publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nertney, R J; Fielding, J R

    1992-08-01

    This report is an aid for DOE/DOE contractor organizations for evaluating the state of operational readiness for performance of accident investigations according to DOE requirements. The methods described are primarily related to type A/B investigations as required by DOE Order 5484.1. However, the generic considerations are applicable to any investigatory process. The material is useful for evaluating the state of readiness before, during, or after an accident.

  19. A Review of Accident Modelling Approaches for Complex Critical Sociotechnical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    integrated model has been demonstrated by analysing the failure in the Therac -25 sociotechnical system. THERAC -25 was an X-ray treatment machine...Baxter (2003) developed a three-layer model for the THERAC -25 system: the regulation authorities, the company who developed the system, and the...FailureFault Error FailureFault Error Failure THERAC -25 FAILURE DESIGN and CERTIFICATION Programmer Company Regulation Authorities Figure 7: Integrating

  20. Renewal of the control terminals of the criticality alarm system of the factory; Renovacion de los terminales de control del sistema de alarma de criticidad de la fabrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escandon Ortiz, E.; Dorado Sierra, P.; Ortiz Trujillo, D.; Zurron Cifuentes, O.; Lopez Marquez, J.

    2011-07-01

    The new terminals to be installed are based on computer servers with eDNA management software and have the same features as the existing, but with the advantage of a greater dynamism and flexibility in obtaining and storage of historical data from the modules of acquisition of data (DAM) system.

  1. Development of computer-controlled ultrasonic image processing system for severe accidents research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jong Tai; Kim, Jong Whan; Cho, Young Ro; Ha, Kwang Soon; Park, Rae Jun; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong; Sim, Chul Moo

    2000-07-01

    In order to verify in-vessel corium cooling mechanism, LAVA(Lower-plenum Arrested Vessel Attack) experiment is being performed as a first stage proof of principle test. The aims of this study are to find a gap formation between corium melt and reactor lower head vessel, to verify the principle of the gap formation and to analyze the effect of the gap formation on the thermal behavior of corium melt and the lower plenum. This report aims at developing a computer controlled image signal processing system which is able to improve visualization and to measure the gap distribution with 3-dimensional planar image using a time domain signal analysis method as a part of the ultrasonic pulse echo methods and a computerized position control system. An image signal processing system is developed by independently developing an ultrasonic image signal processing technique and a PC controlled position control system and then combining both systems.

  2. Development and Application of a Clinical Microsystem Simulation Methodology for Human Factors-Based Research of Alarm Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Leo; Gosbee, John W; Merck, Derek L

    2017-07-01

    (1) To develop a clinical microsystem simulation methodology for alarm fatigue research with a human factors engineering (HFE) assessment framework and (2) to explore its application to the comparative examination of different approaches to patient monitoring and provider notification. Problems with the design, implementation, and real-world use of patient monitoring systems result in alarm fatigue. A multidisciplinary team is developing an open-source tool kit to promote bedside informatics research and mitigate alarm fatigue. Simulation, HFE, and computer science experts created a novel simulation methodology to study alarm fatigue. Featuring multiple interconnected simulated patient scenarios with scripted timeline, "distractor" patient care tasks, and triggered true and false alarms, the methodology incorporated objective metrics to assess provider and system performance. Developed materials were implemented during institutional review board-approved study sessions that assessed and compared an experimental multiparametric alerting system with a standard monitor telemetry system for subject response, use characteristics, and end-user feedback. A four-patient simulation setup featuring objective metrics for participant task-related performance and response to alarms was developed along with accompanying structured HFE assessment (questionnaire and interview) for monitor systems use testing. Two pilot and four study sessions with individual nurse subjects elicited true alarm and false alarm responses (including diversion from assigned tasks) as well as nonresponses to true alarms. In-simulation observation and subject questionnaires were used to test the experimental system's approach to suppressing false alarms and alerting providers. A novel investigative methodology applied simulation and HFE techniques to replicate and study alarm fatigue in controlled settings for systems assessment and experimental research purposes.

  3. Real-time management (RTM) by cloud computing system dynamics (CCSD) for risk analysis of Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyo Sung [Yonsei Univ., Wonju Gangwon-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Convergence Engineering; Woo, Tae Ho [Yonsei Univ., Wonju Gangwon-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Convergence Engineering; The Cyber Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical and Control Engineering

    2017-03-15

    The earthquake and tsunami induced accident of nuclear power plant (NPP) in Fukushima disaster is investigated by the real-time management (RTM) method. This non-linear logic of the safety management is applied to enhance the methodological confidence in the NPP reliability. The case study of the earthquake is modeled for the fast reaction characteristics of the RTM. The system dynamics (SD) modeling simulations and cloud computing are applied for the RTM method where the real time simulation has the fast and effective communication for the accident remediation and prevention. Current tablet computing system can improve the safety standard of the NPP. Finally, the procedure of the cloud computing system dynamics (CCSD) modeling is constructed.

  4. Fire detector setting problems discussion of code for design of automatic fire alarm systems%《火灾自动报警系统设计规范》探测器设置问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赞瑞; 门茂琛; 薛原

    2011-01-01

    Based on quantitative and qualitative rules of smoke and temperature spreading along flat or sloping roof, new setting and fitting curve of point type fire detector were proposed, which was different from requirement of current code for design of automatic fire alarm systems. And, correction coefficient of radius of protection was demonstrated , wrong correction was%根据火灾时烟、温气流在平、坡屋顶上运行机理的量变、质变,提出了有别于现行的点型火灾探测器的设置限定、安装曲线及其绘制;论证了曾提出的保护半径修正系数,并分析了所见错误修正的后果和介绍点型探测器在平屋顶上的经济合理快捷设置法.

  5. Health and environment in Eastern Europe: an alarming diagnosis. Sante et environnement a l'Est: un diagnostic alarmant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnefoy, X.

    1993-05-01

    Life-expectancy, infant and maternal mortality rates... the distance between East and West in increasing. Among the explanations: ways of life, systems of health care, socioeconomic situations or even historical fatality. But other factors can be pointed out: polluted air, water and soil - an environment whose deterioration is reason for alarm. International organizations have the job of making a diagnosis prior to any treatment.

  6. Clinical Alarms in intensive care: implications of alarm fatigue for the safety of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridi, Adriana Carla; Louro, Thiago Quinellato; da Silva, Roberto Carlos Lyra

    2014-01-01

    to identify the number of electro-medical pieces of equipment in a coronary care unit, characterize their types, and analyze implications for the safety of patients from the perspective of alarm fatigue. this quantitative, observational, descriptive, non-participatory study was conducted in a coronary care unit of a cardiology hospital with 170 beds. a total of 426 alarms were recorded in 40 hours of observation: 227 were triggered by multi-parametric monitors and 199 were triggered by other equipment (infusion pumps, dialysis pumps, mechanical ventilators, and intra-aortic balloons); that is an average of 10.6 alarms per hour. the results reinforce the importance of properly configuring physiological variables, the volume and parameters of alarms of multi-parametric monitors within the routine of intensive care units. The alarms of equipment intended to protect patients have increased noise within the unit, the level of distraction and interruptions in the workflow, leading to a false sense of security.

  7. PF-4 simulated fire accident analysis: Filter-spray cool-down system reevaluation implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, B.W.; Gregory, W.S.

    1990-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory PF-4 facility was designed with spray cool down systems within the building's ventilation systems. The Engineering and Safety Analysis Group was asked, in cooperation with ENG-8 and MST-8, to evaluate whether the spray cool-down system still need to be classified as safety class'' systems. The study was performed using the FIRAC computer code. Given the fire source terms (hypothetical fire energy or time-temperature history), FIRAC can predict the pertinent transient flow parameters (pressures, flows, and temperatures) throughout a previously defined and selected fire zone. A computer model for the study that had all of the main ventilation systems in the south half of the PF-4 facility was used. Because the most hazardous room is located in the 400 Section, all ventilation systems but the 400 Section's one were simplified. The impetus for simplification was to keep the computer model tractable, and this was possible with the following assumptions: the fire cannot spread from one room to another, all corridor connecting doors are closed and will not fail under the pressures generated by the fire, and the principal pathway for potential release is the ventilation system. All of the blowers continue to operate, and all fire retardant systems fail to operate during the fire. The ASTM time-temperature curve was the source for the burn-room temperature, and smoke injection was used as input as well. Five different computer runs were made using different combinations of source terms and heat transfer. A connection from the burn room to the glovebox ventilation system was created by burning the glovebox plastic shielding; it was modeled by a branch having an initial flow 75 ft{sup 3}/min. 7 refs., 35 refs., 15 tabs.

  8. Development of intergrated accident management assessment technology; development of interface modules of risk-monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S. K.; Park, S. K.; Seok, H.; Kim, D. K.; Han, J. K.; Park, B. R. [KOPEC, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Based on the development of interface modules with FORTE.- DynaRM can quantify risk model very fast (Very frequent risk model quantification is needed for configuration risk management).- risk monitoring system technology transfer to foreign NPPs. Contribution to component failure and maintenance control automation with the development of Tagging control System. On-Line risk monitoring system development by joint team between Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and KOPEC is a request by KEPCO. The softwares developed in this study is easily implemented at domestic NPPs without extra study or cost. Economic benefit and Software export to foreign NPPs are expected because of the development of technology related to risk monitoring system and its management. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  9. Automated information-analytical system for thunderstorm monitoring and early warning alarms using modern physical sensors and information technologies with elements of artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldyreff, Anton S.; Bespalov, Dmitry A.; Adzhiev, Anatoly Kh.

    2017-05-01

    Methods of artificial intelligence are a good solution for weather phenomena forecasting. They allow to process a large amount of diverse data. Recirculation Neural Networks is implemented in the paper for the system of thunderstorm events prediction. Large amounts of experimental data from lightning sensors and electric field mills networks are received and analyzed. The average recognition accuracy of sensor signals is calculated. It is shown that Recirculation Neural Networks is a promising solution in the forecasting of thunderstorms and weather phenomena, characterized by the high efficiency of the recognition elements of the sensor signals, allows to compress images and highlight their characteristic features for subsequent recognition.

  10. Behavioral alarm treatment for nocturnal enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To investigate the efficacy of alarm treatment in a sample of Brazilian children and adolescents with nocturnal enuresis and relate treatment success to age and type of clinical support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During 32 weeks, 84 children and adolescents received alarm treatment together with weekly psychological support sessions for individual families or groups of 5 to 10 families. RESULTS: 71% of the participants achieved success, defined as 14 consecutive dry nights. The result was similar for children and adolescents and for individual or group support. The time until success was shorter for participants missing fewer support sessions. CONCLUSIONS: Alarm treatment was effective for the present sample, regardless of age or type of support. Missing a higher number of support sessions, which may reflect low motivation for treatment, increased the risk of failure.

  11. Radiation Measurement Systems and Experiences in Japan after the Fukushima Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    In the approximately 4 years since the March 2011 earthquake and subsequent Tsunami damaged the three Dai-Ichi nuclear power plants, the AREVA and Canberra team have deployed a variety of different radiation measurement machines in Japan. These measurement projects or instruments include: - Dose-rate mapping of the close-in areas on the damaged reactor site using the stored output of dose rate meters carried by workers planning for the installing of a water processing unit; - Spectroscopic on-line measurements of the first water processing unit on the site, where these nuclide-specific measurements at multiple points allowed remote users to determine the optimum processing parameters - General purpose food measurement units, both high precision HPGe systems and low cost NaI systems, which were used throughout the country for food quality measurements; - In-vivo measurement systems, both fixed and mobile whole body counting units, that were used on at least 500,000 people, demonstrating to them that internal doses were very low; - In-vivo measurements with special high-sensitivity whole body counters on babies and children, demonstrating to the parents of these children that internal doses are very low; - Automatic systems for high throughput assay of bags of rice that are part of the consumer confidence plan to prove to customers that Fukushima Prefecture rice is safe; - High sensitivity automatic system to assay boxes of special semi-dry persimmons and to report the activity of each individual item within the box meets the regulatory limit; - System to assay soil on a conveyor belt and sort the output according to level of radioactivity, which would then reduce the volume of material that must be treated as radioactive; - System to assay a truck loaded with 1 cubic meter sacks of soil and vegetation, and report the results of each individual sack. - On-line water measurement system for SrY90 at levels that are suitable for release to the environment; - Mobile

  12. Risk-based modeling of early warning systems for pollution accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayman, W M; Males, R M

    2002-01-01

    An early warning system is a mechanism for detecting, characterizing and providing notification of a source water contamination event (spill event) in order to mitigate the impact of contamination. Spill events are highly probabilistic occurrences with major spills, which can have very significant impacts on raw water sources of drinking water, being relatively rare. A systematic method for designing and operating early warning systems that considers the highly variable, probabilistic nature of many aspects of the system is described. The methodology accounts for the probability of spills, behavior of monitoring equipment, variable hydrology, and the probability of obtaining information about spills independent of a monitoring system. Spill Risk, a risk-based model using Monte Carlo simulation techniques has been developed and its utility has been demonstrated as part of an AWWA Research Foundation sponsored project. The model has been applied to several hypothetical river situations and to an actual section of the Ohio River. Additionally, the model has been systematically applied to a wide range of conditions in order to develop general guidance on design of early warning systems.

  13. JLAB Web Based Tracking System for Integrated Incident, Accident, Inspection, and Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Prior; R. Lawrence

    2003-09-01

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, or JLab, is a Department of Energy particle accelerator used to conduct fundamental physics research. In such a facility there are numerous statutory, regulatory, contractual, and best practice requirements for managing and analyzing environmental health and safety (EH&S) related data. A tracking system has been developed at JLab that meets the needs of all levels of the organization, from the front line worker to the most senior management. This paper describes the system implementation and performance to date.

  14. A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country. PMID:24479025

  15. A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopalakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents (RTAs have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country.

  16. A cross-scale numerical modeling system for management support of oil spill accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Alberto; Oliveira, Anabela; Fortunato, André B; Zhang, Joseph; Baptista, António M

    2014-03-15

    A flexible 2D/3D oil spill modeling system addressing the distinct nature of the surface and water column fluids, major oil weathering and improved retention/reposition processes in coastal zones is presented. The system integrates hydrodynamic, transport and oil weathering modules, which can be combined to offer different-complexity descriptions as required by applications across the river-to-ocean continuum. Features include accounting for different composition and reology in the surface and water column mixtures, as well as spreading, evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification, shoreline retention, dispersion and dissolution. The use of unstructured grids provides flexibility and efficiency in handling spills in complex geometries and across scales. The use of high-order Eulerian-Lagrangian methods allows for computational efficiency and for handling key processes in ways consistent with their distinct mathematical nature and time scales. The modeling system is tested through a suite of synthetic, laboratory and realistic-domain benchmarks, which demonstrate robust handling of key processes and of 2D/3D couplings. The application of the modeling system to a spill scenario at the entrance of a port in a coastal lagoon illustrates the power of the approach to represent spills that occur in coastal regions with complex boundaries and bathymetry.

  17. A Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) Examination of Commercial Vessel Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    experienced workers, such as in an apprenticeship . The amount of conscious decision- making or cognitive thinking is higher than in rule-based...human-machine interaction : an approach to cognitive engineering . North-Holland: Elsevier Science. Rasmussen, J. (1983). Skills, rules, and... Engineering HFWG Human Factors Working Group HSI Human Systems Integration IMO International Maritime Organization IIC Investigator-in-Charge

  18. The Fire Alarm System of Wind Turbine Engine Room Based on ZigBee%基于ZigBee的风电机舱火灾预警系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬春明; 杨涛; 张金强

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the loss of fire hidden trouble in the wind turbine,we designed a fire alarm system of wind turbine engine based on ZigBee. The system consists of the collection nodes,the coordination node and the monitoring center node. We use CC2530 as the processor,which controls the location of the fire hidden trouble in wind turbine engine room,collecting the data through the data collection nodes and sending them to monitoring cen⁃ter by GPRS network. According to the experiment and test results,the system can work stability,high reliability, early warning accuracy and monitoring of the regional operations of each time period effectiveness ,thus it can guar⁃antee the wind turbine running security and stability.%为了解决风电机组中火灾隐患带来的损失,提出了基于ZigBee的风电机舱的火灾预警系统。系统由传感器采集节点、网络协调节点,以及监控中心节点组成。采用CC2530作为处理器来控制传感器采集风机舱内主要的火灾隐患位置,在协调节点汇聚,通过GPRS网络传送到远处监控中心。通过实验和测试,系统运行稳定,可靠性高,预警准确,能够有效的监测各区域的各个时间段的运行情况,从而能够保证风电机组安全、稳定的运行。

  19. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  20. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  1. Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) / Emergency Core Coolant System (ECCS Evaluation of Risk-Informed Margins Management Strategies for a Representative Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) toolkit and methodology are proposed for investigating nuclear power plant core, fuels design and safety analysis, including postulated Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis. This toolkit, under an integrated evaluation model framework, is name LOCA toolkit for the US (LOTUS). This demonstration includes coupled analysis of core design, fuel design, thermal hydraulics and systems analysis, using advanced risk analysis tools and methods to investigate a wide range of results.

  2. Poison and alarm: the Asian hornet Vespa velutina uses sting venom volatiles as an alarm pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ya-Nan; Wen, Ping; Dong, Shi-Hao; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James C

    2017-02-15

    In colonial organisms, alarm pheromones can provide a key fitness advantage by enhancing colony defence and warning of danger. Learning which species use alarm pheromone and the key compounds involved therefore enhances our understanding of how this important signal has evolved. However, our knowledge of alarm pheromones is more limited in the social wasps and hornets compared with the social bees and ants. Vespa velutina is an economically important and widespread hornet predator that attacks honey bees and humans. This species is native to Asia and has now invaded Europe. Despite growing interest in V. velutina, it was unknown whether it possessed an alarm pheromone. We show that these hornets use sting venom as an alarm pheromone. Sting venom volatiles were strongly attractive to hornet workers and triggered attacks. Two major venom fractions, consisting of monoketones and diketones, also elicited attack. We used gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) to isolate 13 known and 3 unknown aliphatic ketones and alcohols in venom that elicited conspicuous hornet antennal activity. Two of the unknown compounds may be an undecen-2-one and an undecene-2,10-dinone. Three major compounds (heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one and undecan-2-one) triggered attacks, but only nonan-2-one did so at biologically relevant levels (10 hornet equivalents). Nonan-2-one thus deserves particular attention. However, the key alarm releasers for V. velutina remain to be identified. Such identification will help to illuminate the evolution and function of alarm compounds in hornets.

  3. Sequence and batch language programs and alarm-related ``C`` programs for the 242-A MCS. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, J.F.

    1995-03-01

    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, ``242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades``. This control system, called the Monitor and Control System (MCS), was installed in the 242-A Evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme which uses special programs, annunciator keys, and process graphics. The special programs are written in two languages; Sequence and Batch Language (SABL), and ``C`` language. The WTSE-developed alarm scheme works as described below: SABL relates signals and alarms to the annunciator keys, called SKID keys. When an alarm occurs, a SABL program causes a SKID key to flash, and if the alarm is of yellow or white priority then a ``C`` program turns on an audible horn (the D/3 system uses a different audible horn for the red priority alarms). The horn and flashing key draws the attention of the operator.

  4. An international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident having transboundary implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, I.M.G.; Andersen, C.E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl accident many countries now operate large national networks of radiation detectors that continuously monitor radiation levels in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications. The networks are used to provide data to assist in determining...... be harmonised so that it can be accurately interpreted by other countries and by international organisations. To assist with such harmonisation an intercomparison was held during May/June 1999 at the Riso Natural Environmental Radiation Measurement Station in Denmark and at the PTB underground laboratory...... for dosimetry and spectrometry (UDO) in Germany. The main aim of the intercomparison was to help ensure that results reported by different countries during a nuclear accident will be consistent and comparable. It is important that during an emergency the measurements of the plume doses or contamination levels...

  5. Mianserin affects alarm reaction to conspecific chemical alarm cues in Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio

    2017-02-01

    In this study, I show that mianserin, a chemical with serotonin and adrenoceptor antagonist activities, increases fish vulnerability to a potential predator threat, when prey fish must deal with this threat based on conspecific chemical alarm cues. For that, I evaluated whether mianserin, diluted in the water, influences the behavioral responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to conspecific skin extract (chemical alarm cues). I found that, while mianserin did not abolished antipredator responses, this drug mitigates some components of this defensive reaction. Thus, a potential decrease in serotonin and adrenergic activities reduces the ability of dealing with predators when perceiving conspecific chemical alarm cues.

  6. Interfacing systems LOCA (loss-of-coolant accidents): Pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozoki, G.; Kohut, P.; Fitzpatrick, R.

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes a study performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Reactor and Plant Safety Issues Branch, Division of Reactor and Plant Systems, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This study was requested by the NRC in order to provide a technical basis for the resolution of Generic Issue 105 ''Interfacing LOCA at LWRs.'' This report deals with pressurized water reactors (PWRs). A parallel report was also accomplished for boiling water reactors. This study focuses on three representative PWRs and extrapolates the plant-specific findings for their generic applicability. In addition, a generic analysis was performed to investigate the cost-benefit aspects of imposing a testing program that would require some minimum level of leak testing of the pressure isolation valves on plants that presently have no such requirements. 28 refs., 31 figs., 64 tabs.

  7. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS General... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table...

  8. TMACS Test Procedure TP001: Alarm Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, P.K.

    1994-05-31

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project`s acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS Alarm management functions.

  9. Incidence of Cancer: Alarming Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Lourdes Iglesias Armenteros

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is an important health problem worldwide. It affects all of the countries, independently of the race, culture, level of economical development and political system. Around 10 million of new cases of cancer are detected every year. At present approximately 50 000 women died because of this disease.

  10. Patient Safety Implications of Electronic Alerts and Alarms of Maternal - Fetal Status During Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Lyndon, Audrey; Davidson, Leigh Ann

    2016-01-01

    When nurses care for women during labor, they encounter numerous alerts and alarms from electronic fetal monitors and their surveillance systems. Notifications of values of physiologic parameters for a woman and fetus that may be outside preset limits are generated via visual and audible cues. There is no standardization of these alert and alarm parameters among electronic fetal monitoring vendors in the United States, and there are no data supporting their sensitivity and specificity. Agreement among professional organizations about physiologic parameters for alerts and alarms commonly used during labor is lacking. It is unknown if labor nurses view the alerts and alarms as helpful or a nuisance. There is no evidence that they promote or hinder patient safety. This clinical issue warrants our attention as labor nurses. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  11. EUROCONTROL-Systemic Occurrence Analysis Methodology (SOAM)-A 'Reason'-based organisational methodology for analysing incidents and accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licu, Tony [EUROCONTROL-European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation and Dedale Asia Pacific, Safety Team, Rue de la Fusee, 96, 1130 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: antonio.licu@eurocontrol.int; Cioran, Florin [EUROCONTROL-European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation and Dedale Asia Pacific, Safety Team, Rue de la Fusee, 96, 1130 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: florin.cioran@eurocontrol.int; Hayward, Brent [EUROCONTROL-European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation and Dedale Asia Pacific, Safety Team, Rue de la Fusee, 96, 1130 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: bhayward@dedale.net; Lowe, Andrew [EUROCONTROL-European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation and Dedale Asia Pacific, Safety Team, Rue de la Fusee, 96, 1130 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: alowe@dedale.net

    2007-09-15

    The Safety Occurrence Analysis Methodology (SOAM) developed for EUROCONTROL is an accident investigation methodology based on the Reason Model of organisational accidents. The purpose of a SOAM is to broaden the focus of an investigation from human involvement issues, also known as 'active failures of operational personnel' under Reason's original model, to include analysis of the latent conditions deeper within the organisation that set the context for the event. Such an approach is consistent with the tenets of Just Culture in which people are encouraged to provide full and open information about how incidents occurred, and are not penalised for errors. A truly systemic approach is not simply a means of transferring responsibility for a safety occurrence from front-line employees to senior managers. A consistent philosophy must be applied, where the investigation process seeks to correct deficiencies wherever they may be found, without attempting to apportion blame or liability.

  12. A study on the effect of containment filtered venting system to off-site under severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Ju Young; Kwon, Tae Eun; Lee, Jai Ki [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The containment filtered venting system reduces the range of the contamination area around the nuclear power plant by strengthening the integrity of the containment building. In this study, the probabilistic assessment code MACCS2 was used to assess the effect of the CFVS to off-site. The accident source term was selected from a Probabilistic Safety Analysis report of SHINKORI 1 and 2 Nuclear Power Plant. The three source term categories from 19 STC were chosen to evaluate the effective dose and thyroid dose of residents around the power plant and the dose with CFVS and without CFVS were compared. The dose was calculated according to the distance from the nuclear power plant, so the damage scale based on the distance that exceeds the IAEA criteria for effective dose (100 mSv per 7 days) and thyroid dose (50 mSv per 7 days) were compared. The effective dose reduction rates of the STC-3, STC-4, STC-6 were about 95-99% in the whole range (0⁓35 km), 96-98% for the thyroid dose. There are similar results between effective dose and thyroid dose. After applying the CFVS, the damage scale that exceeds the effective dose criteria was about 1 km (mean). Especially, the STC-4 damage scale was decreased from 26 km (mean) to 1.2 km (mean) significantly. The damage scale that exceed the thyroid dose criteria was decreased to 2⁓3 km (mean). The STC-4 damage scale was also decreased significantly as compared to STC-3, STC-6 in terms of effective dose.

  13. Research and Design of Streaming Media System for City Monitoring and Alarming Networking Platform%城市监控报警联网平台流媒体系统研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟卿卿; 王建勇

    2016-01-01

    为解决大范围监控视频联网过程中面临的不同丢包率、网络类型及系统带宽等复杂网络环境问题,参照GB/T 28181国家标准及相关行业标准,提出一套基于会话初始协议及实时传输协议的城市监控报警联网平台流媒体系统协议框架,并以该协议框架为基础,设计一套城市监控报警联网平台流媒体系统的实现方案。该方案基于中心流媒体服务器及云存储技术,支持多级跨域大规模媒体互联和媒体数据高效集中存储及分发。应用结果表明,该方案的单域实时视频点播响应时间可控制在2 s以内,且能够有效适应丢包率高达30%的网络环境,具有较好的通用性、稳定性及适应性,能够满足安防一线监控视频联网要求。%In order to solve the complex network problems in the process of large-scale monitoring video interconnection,such as different packet loss rate,network types and system bandwidth,according to GB/T 28181 national standard and related industry standards,a streaming media protocol framework for the city monitoring and alarming networking platform is proposed,which is based on Session Initiation Protocol(SIP)and Real-time Transport Protocol(RTP).On the basis of this proposed protocol framework,a streaming media system implementation scheme for the city monitoring and alarming networking platform is designed.Based on the central streaming media server and cloud storage technology,this scheme supports wide range multi-level and cross-domain media interconnection as well as efficient and centralized media data storage and distribution.Practical application proves that the proposed scheme is able to reduce the response time of single-domain real-time video request to less than 2 s,and effectively adapt to the network environment whose loss rate is up to 30%.It is better at universality,stability and adaptability,and is able to meet the requirements of public security video

  14. Analysis of the Positive Pathogenic Bacteria and the Alarm Time by Automated Blood Culture System%全自动血培养仪阳性病原菌种类及报警时间分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖忠; 叶杰; 陈振南

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyse the positive pathogenic bacteria of the blood culture and the alarm time.Method:A total of 2180 blood specimens were collected from April 2010 to April 2012 in our hospital and the specimens were detected by BD BACTEC 9120 automated blood culture system.Analyse the bacterial species and alarm time of the blood specimens in aerobic and anaerobic bottles.Result:282 blood culture positive samples were isolated from the 2180 blood culture samples,which was true positive in 263 cases.The positive rate of the blood culture was 12.1%,which 269 strains of pathogens were isolated,including Gram-positive cocci accounted for 40.1%,gram negative bacilli 57.2%,fungi 2.6%.However the positive rate was just 15.6% only from aerobic bottles and 5.7% only from anaerobic ones,and 20.9% from both of the two bottles.The fastest positive time was 5.02 h, during the test,the number of positive reactions accounted for 69.1% in 24 hours,92.5% in 48 hours,and 97% in 72 hours.The false positive rate was 0.87%, and the false negative rate was 0.52%.Conclusion:Application of both aerobic and anaerobic cultivation detected by BD BACTEC 9120 automated blood culture system can improve the blood culture positive rate,shorten the positive detection time.%  目的:分析血培养阳性病原菌种类及仪器报警时间.方法:用 BD BACTEC 9120全自动血培养仪检测笔者所在医院2010年4月-2012年4月共计2180份血标本,分析血标本在需氧瓶和厌氧瓶中生长细菌的种类及仪器报警时间.结果:2180例血培养标本中报警阳性282例,其中真阳性263例,阳性率为12.1%.分离出细菌269株,其中革兰阳性球菌占40.1%,革兰阴性杆菌占57.2%,真菌占2.6%.其中仅需氧瓶报阳的阳性率为6.3%,仅厌氧瓶报阳的阳性率为2.8%,需氧瓶及厌氧瓶均报阳的阳性率为2.9%;最快阳性检出时间为5.02 h,24 h内检出的阳性数占69.1%,48 h 检出的阳性数占92.5%,72 h 检出的阳性数占97.0%

  15. INSTALLATION OF A POST-ACCIDENT CONFINEMENT HIGH-LEVEL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM IN THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-09-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Post-Accident Confinement High-Level Radiation Monitoring System'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.6 (Attachment 1). This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians in reducing risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Unit 2, through improved accident detection capability, specifically by the installation of a dual train high-level radiation detection system in the confinement of Unit 2 of the Kola NPP. The major technical objective of this project was to provide, install and make operational the necessary hardware inside the confinement of the Kola NPP Unit 2 to provide early and reliable warning of the release of radionuclides from the reactor into the confinement air space as an indication of the occurrence of a severe accident at the plant. In addition, it was intended to provide hands-on experience and training to the Russian plant workers in the installation, operation, calibration and maintenance of the equipment in order that they may use the equipment without continued US assistance as an effective measure to improve reactor safety at the plant.

  16. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  17. 基于C8051F020的智能红外报警系统设计%The design of intelligent infrared alarm system based on C8051F020

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊杰

    2014-01-01

    We used C8051f020 as the key controlling component of single chip microcomputer(SCM),pyroelectric infra-red sensor module DYP-ME003 as the front-end detector,through SPI protocol model of ISD1700 voice chip for accurate control of audio playback function,realized voice doorbell recording,playback,alarm recording,broadcasting,etc.If someone rashly enters the house monitored,the monitor will instruct GSM module which is preset with proper informa-tion to send the emergent message to the owner’s mobile phone and report the incident to the police as well.The test re-sults show that this system can repreduce the voice effects,and work stably,reliably.%以C8051f020单片机作为控制核心,采用热释电红外传感器模块 DYP-ME003作为前端探测器,通过SPI 协议模式对语音芯片 ISD1700进行语音录放功能的精确操控,实现语音门铃录音、播放,报警声录音、播放等。若有人入侵,则通过单片机控制 GSM 模块按照设置好的号码及信息发送到主人的手机上,达到报警目的。测试结果表明,该系统能真实再现语音效果,运行稳定、可靠。

  18. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52.236-13 Section 52.236-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident...

  19. Expert systems for electric power system operation. Denryoku keito un[prime]yo expert system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunugi, M.; Shimada, K.; Nagata, J. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-07-01

    This review article describes recent noteworthy technological trends in the expert systems for electric power system operation. These technological trends include the development of domain shell for the purpose of facilitating and insuring system development, the integration of expert systems with a conventional energy management system and a SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system, and the integration of an expert system with fuzzy-logic applications and a neural network. This paper also introduces two recent expert systems for electric power system operation. One is the integrated expert system for emergency operations delivered to the Miyagi Load-Dispatching Office of Tohoku Electric Power Company, which consists of the accident reasoning expert system, the inteligent alarm processing, and the accident restoration procedure expert system. Another one is the voltage reactive power control system delivered to Chubu Electric Power Company. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Design of Fire Auto-alarm and Control System of the Container Tower for the Second-phase Project of Shanghai Waigaoqiao Port Area%上海外高桥港区二期工程集装箱调度中心火灾报警系统设计介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭力清

    2000-01-01

    简要介绍上海外高桥港区二期工程集装箱调度中心火灾报警系统的设计及体会。%It briefly introduces design and understandings of the fire auto-alarm and control system of the Container Tower for the 2nd-phase Project of Shanghai Waigaoqiao Port Area.

  1. Perspectives on use of personal alarms by older fallers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie Johnston

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Kylie Johnston1, Karen Grimmer-Somers1, Michele Sutherland21International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide; 2Falls Prevention Unit, Department of Health, Government of South Australia, Adelaide, AustraliaBackground: Personal alarms are proposed as a reliable mechanism for older people to obtain assistance after falling. However, little is known about how older people feel about owning and using personal alarms.Aim: This paper reports on experiences of independently living older people, who have recently fallen, regarding alarm use and their independence.Method: Volunteers older than 65 years who had sustained a fall in the previous six months were sought via community invitations. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted to gain information about their fall and their perspectives on personal alarm use. Interviews were content-analyzed to identify key concepts and themes.Results: Thirty-one interviews were conducted. Twenty callers owned personal alarms. Four subgroups of older fallers were identified; the first group used personal alarms effectively and were advocates for their benefits, the second group owned an alarm but did not use it effectively, the third group did not own alarms mostly because of cost, although were receptive to an alarm should one be provided, and the fourth group did not have an alarm and would not use it even if it was provided.Discussion: Personal alarms produce positive experiences when used effectively by the right people. The cost of personal alarms prohibits some older fallers from being effective alarm users. However, other elderly fallers remain unwilling to consider alarm use even if one was provided. In view of their cost, personal alarms should be targeted to people who will benefit most. ­Alternative strategies should be considered when alarms are unlikely to be used appropriately.Keywords: personal alarm devices, falls, older people, patient perspective

  2. A Community Hospital's Evaluation of Alarm Management Safety Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnat-Thoma, Emma; Shah, Kayuri

    2016-12-01

    The Joint Commission's 2014 National Patient Safety Goals required hospitals to evaluate alarm safety in 2014-2015 and implement alarm safety policies. The aim of this study was to assess common alarm management safety factors in our 187-bed community hospital. Two weeks' worth of IV pump report data was evaluated to characterize 33 IV pump alarm types. Hospital and IV pump noise was measured, and an alarm management nurse survey was conducted. There were 8731 total IV pump alarms/alerts (24-hour mean, 623.6) across 6 units. The 2-minute idle alarm accounted for 32.4% of all total IV alarms/alerts, suggestive of high levels of nurse multitasking and nurse work interruptions. IV pump volumes contributed to overall hospital noise. Survey data identified patient units and alarm safety practices needing additional support. Characterization of IV pump alarms/alerts is an emerging area of scientific inquiry. Findings indicate the need for organizations to evaluate alarm burden and alarm management safety practices to reduce alarm fatigue risks.

  3. "Alarm-corrected" ergonomic armrest use could improve learning curves of novices on robotic simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Perez, Manuela; Hossu, Gabriela; Hubert, Nicolas; Perrenot, Cyril; Hubert, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In robotic surgery, the professional ergonomic habit of using an armrest reduces operator fatigue and increases the precision of motion. We designed and validated a pressure surveillance system (PSS) based on force sensors to investigate armrest use. The objective was to evaluate whether adding an alarm to the PSS system could shorten ergonomic training and improve performance. Twenty robot and simulator-naïve participants were recruited and randomized in two groups (A and B). The PSS was installed on a robotic simulator, the dV-Trainer, to detect contact with the armrest. The Group A members completed three tasks on the dV-Trainer without the alarm, making 15 attempts at each task. The Group B members practiced the first two tasks with the alarm and then completed the final tasks without the alarm. The simulator provided an overall score reflecting the trainees' performance. We used the new concept of an "armrest load" score to describe the ergonomic habit of using the armrest. Group B had a significantly higher performance score (p alarm associated with the PSS rectified ergonomic errors and accelerated professional ergonomic habit acquisition. The combination of the PSS and alarm is effective in significantly shortening the learning curve in the robotic training process.

  4. Patient characteristics associated with false arrhythmia alarms in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patricia R; Zègre-Hemsey, Jessica K; Schindler, Daniel; Bai, Yong; Pelter, Michele M; Hu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    A high rate of false arrhythmia alarms in the intensive care unit (ICU) leads to alarm fatigue, the condition of desensitization and potentially inappropriate silencing of alarms due to frequent invalid and nonactionable alarms, often referred to as false alarms. The aim of this study was to identify patient characteristics, such as gender, age, body mass index, and diagnosis associated with frequent false arrhythmia alarms in the ICU. This descriptive, observational study prospectively enrolled patients who were consecutively admitted to one of five adult ICUs (77 beds) at an urban medical center over a period of 31 days in 2013. All monitor alarms and continuous waveforms were stored on a secure server. Nurse scientists with expertise in cardiac monitoring used a standardized protocol to annotate six clinically important types of arrhythmia alarms (asystole, pause, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, accelerated ventricular rhythm, and ventricular bradycardia) as true or false. Total monitoring time for each patient was measured, and the number of false alarms per hour was calculated for these six alarm types. Medical records were examined to acquire data on patient characteristics. A total of 461 unique patients (mean age =60±17 years) were enrolled, generating a total of 2,558,760 alarms, including all levels of arrhythmia, parameter, and technical alarms. There were 48,404 hours of patient monitoring time, and an average overall alarm rate of 52 alarms/hour. Investigators annotated 12,671 arrhythmia alarms; 11,345 (89.5%) were determined to be false. Two hundred and fifty patients (54%) generated at least one of the six annotated alarm types. Two patients generated 6,940 arrhythmia alarms (55%). The number of false alarms per monitored hour for patients' annotated arrhythmia alarms ranged from 0.0 to 7.7, and the duration of these false alarms per hour ranged from 0.0 to 158.8 seconds. Patient characteristics were compared in relation to 1) the

  5. Patient characteristics associated with false arrhythmia alarms in intensive care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patricia R; Zègre-Hemsey, Jessica K; Schindler, Daniel; Bai, Yong; Pelter, Michele M; Hu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A high rate of false arrhythmia alarms in the intensive care unit (ICU) leads to alarm fatigue, the condition of desensitization and potentially inappropriate silencing of alarms due to frequent invalid and nonactionable alarms, often referred to as false alarms. Objective The aim of this study was to identify patient characteristics, such as gender, age, body mass index, and diagnosis associated with frequent false arrhythmia alarms in the ICU. Methods This descriptive, observational study prospectively enrolled patients who were consecutively admitted to one of five adult ICUs (77 beds) at an urban medical center over a period of 31 days in 2013. All monitor alarms and continuous waveforms were stored on a secure server. Nurse scientists with expertise in cardiac monitoring used a standardized protocol to annotate six clinically important types of arrhythmia alarms (asystole, pause, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, accelerated ventricular rhythm, and ventricular bradycardia) as true or false. Total monitoring time for each patient was measured, and the number of false alarms per hour was calculated for these six alarm types. Medical records were examined to acquire data on patient characteristics. Results A total of 461 unique patients (mean age =60±17 years) were enrolled, generating a total of 2,558,760 alarms, including all levels of arrhythmia, parameter, and technical alarms. There were 48,404 hours of patient monitoring time, and an average overall alarm rate of 52 alarms/hour. Investigators annotated 12,671 arrhythmia alarms; 11,345 (89.5%) were determined to be false. Two hundred and fifty patients (54%) generated at least one of the six annotated alarm types. Two patients generated 6,940 arrhythmia alarms (55%). The number of false alarms per monitored hour for patients’ annotated arrhythmia alarms ranged from 0.0 to 7.7, and the duration of these false alarms per hour ranged from 0.0 to 158.8 seconds. Patient

  6. A preview of the efficiency of systemic family therapy in treatment of children with posttraumatic stress disorder developed after car accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Traumatic stress refers to physical and emotional reactions caused by events which represent a life threat or a disturbance of physical and phychological integrity of a child, as well as their parents or gaerdians. Car accidents are the main cause of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in children. The aim of this study was to preview clinical efficiency of systemic family therapy (SFT as therapy intervention in treatment of children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD traumatized in car accident under identical circumstances of exposure. We pointed out the importance of specific family factors (family cohesion and adaptability, emotional reaction of the parents on PTSD clinical outcome. Methods. The sample of this clinical observational study included 7-sixth grade pupiles - 5 boys and 2 girls, aged 13. All of the pupils were involved in car accident with one death. Two groups were formed - one group included three children who were involved in 8 SFT sessions together with their families. The second group included 4 children who received an antidepressant sertraline in the period of three months. Results. Two months after the car accident, before the beginning of the therapy, all of the children were the members of rigidly enmeshed family systems, considering the high average cohesion scores and the low average adaptability scores on the FACES III. Three months after the received therapy, having evaluated the results of the therapeutic approaches, we established that the adaptability scores of the families included in the SFT were higher than the scores of the families of the children who received pharmacotherapy with one boy still meeting the criteria for PTSD. Conclusion. Systemic family therapy was efficient in the treatment of children with PTSD, traumatized in car accident. Therapy efficiency was higher when both parents and children were included in SFT than in the case when they were not included in the family

  7. A preview of the efficiency of systemic family therapy in treatment of children with posttraumatic stress disorder developed after car accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, Miodrag; Grbesa, Grozdanko; Kostić, Jelena; Simonović, Maja; Milenković, Tatjana; Visnjić, Aleksandar

    2013-02-01

    Traumatic stress refers to physical and emotional reactions caused by events which represent a life threat or a disturbance of physical and phychological integrity of a child, as well as their parents or gaerdians. Car accidents are the main cause of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children. The aim of this study was to preview clinical efficiency of systemic family therapy (SFT) as therapy intervention in treatment of children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) traumatized in car accident under identical circumstances of exposure. We pointed out the importance of specific family factors (family cohesion and adaptability, emotional reaction of the parents) on PTSD clinical outcome. The sample of this clinical observational study included 7-sixth grade pupiles--5 boys and 2 girls, aged 13. All of the pupils were involved in car accident with one death. Two groups were formed--one group included three children who were involved in 8 SFT sessions together with their families. The second group included 4 children who received an antidepressant sertraline in the period of three months. Two months after the car accident, before the beginning of the therapy, all of the children were the members of rigidly enmeshed family systems, considering the high average cohesion scores and the low average adaptability scores on the FACES III. Three months after the received therapy, having evaluated the results of the therapeutic approaches, we established that the adaptability scores of the families included in the SFT were higher than the scores of the families of the children who received pharmacotherapy with one boy still meeting the criteria for PTSD. Systemic family therapy was efficient in the treatment of children with PTSD, traumatized in car accident. Therapy efficiency was higher when both parents and children were included in SFT than in the case when they were not included in the family therapy. The change in the functioning of the family systems was not

  8. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry.

  9. Preliminary Analysis of a Steam Line Break Accident with the MARS-KS code for the SMART Design with Passive Safety Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Doohyuk; Ko, Yungjoo; Suh, Jaeseung [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sunguk; Yi, Sungjae; Park, Hyunsik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    SMART has been developed by KAERI, and SMART-Standard Design Approval (SDA) was recently granted in 2012. A SMART design with Passive Safety System (PSS) features (called SMART-PSS) is being developed and added to the standard design of SMART by KAERI to improve its safety system. Active safety systems such as safety injection pumps will be replaced by a passive safety system, which is actuated only by the gravity force caused by the height difference. All tanks for the passive safety systems are higher than the injection nozzle, which is located around the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs). In this study, a preliminary analysis of the main steam line break accident (MSLB) was performed using the MARS-KS code to understand the general behavior of the SMART-PSS design and to prepare its validation test with the SMART-ITL (FESTA) facility. An anticipated accident for the main steam line break (MSLB) was performed using the MARS-KS code to understand the thermal-hydraulic behaviors of the SMART-PSS design. The preliminary analysis provides good insight into the passive safety system design features of the SMART-PSS and the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the SMART design. The analysis results of the MSLB showed that the core water collapsed level inside the core support barrel was maintained high over the active core top level during the transient period. Therefore, the SMART-PSS design has satisfied the requirements to maintain the plant at a safe shutdown condition during 72 hours without AC power or operator action after an anticipated accident.

  10. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Olkiluoto (Finland); Cliff Po, L.C. [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  11. Alarm fatigue: a roadmap for mitigating the cacophony of beeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purbaugh, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon known as alarm fatigue is the direct result of excessive alarms in hospitals. This article highlights the effects of alarm fatigue and reviews current clinical recommendations and guidelines to raise nurse awareness and provide tools to combat the problem.

  12. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  13. 33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Autopilot alarm or indicator. 157... § 157.440 Autopilot alarm or indicator. (a) A tankship owner or operator shall ensure that each installed autopilot unit without automatic manual override has an audible and visual alarm, which...

  14. 46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked “GENERAL ALARM” on a plate or other firm noncorrosive backing....

  15. Alarm annunciation in a graphical environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.G.

    1994-08-01

    Well-designed graphical user interfaces, such as Microsoft Windows{trademark} or UNIX{trademark} -- based X-Windows, provide a capability for enhanced display of security alarm information. Conversely, a poorly designed interface can quickly overwhelm an operator. This paper describes types of graphical information that can be displayed and offers guidance on how to best display that information. Limits are proposed for the complexity of the user interface, and guidelines are suggested for the display of maps and sensors.

  16. Research and implementation of intelligent alarm transceiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haobo long; XiaolingTian

    2015-01-01

    To design and implement a inteligent alarm transceiver, the sensor, such as temperature, voltage, video check. is used in transceiver. Then it analyses real-time acquisition data of sensor, if the transceiver is not working normaly, and the results are sent to the host computer. And the latter send fault information to user by mobile phone. During this period, without artificial participation, to achieve the purpose of inteligent warning. it can improve the maintenance efficiency of transceiver.

  17. Communication Pattern Regarding Alarms and Patient Signals Between Nurses, Other Health Care Actors, Patients and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvoll, Terje; Hanenburg, Adrienne; Giordanego, Alain; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    CallMeSmart is a context aware communication system for hospitals. The system is being used by nurses and the physicians at the Oncology department, University Hospital of North Norway. CallMeSmart has been designed to increase the efficiency of communication between the nurse-physician and physician-physician. In this study, we have looked at the communication pathways between nurse-nurse and patient-nurse: how nurses define a preference of calling somebody, how alarms and tasks are prioritized, and how this could be implemented into the CallMeSmart system to improve the system for the nurses. This paper discusses how the communication pathways of the patient alarm system can be improved for health care actors in hospitals by revealing the communication patterns according to an alarm between those actors. We address the communication pattern between nurses, other health care actors, patients and the devices used, and discuss possible improvements of this communication.

  18. Reverse-engineering a detector with false alarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Scott; Yu, Jun

    2007-02-01

    Inspired by results from the Break Our Watermarking System (BOWS) contest, we explored techniques to reverse-engineer watermarking algorithms via oracle attacks. We exploit a principle called "superrobustness," which allows a watermarking algorithm to be characterized by its resistance to specific distortions. The generic application of this principle to an oracle attack seeks to find a severe false alarm, or a point on the watermark detection region as far as possible from the watermarked image. For specific types of detection regions, these severe false positives can leak information about the feature space as well as detector parameters. We explore the specific case of detectors using normalized correlation, or correlation coefficient.

  19. A view of treatment process of melted nuclear fuel on a severe accident plant using a molten salt system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Mizuguchi, K. [Power and Industrial Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, 4-1 Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0862 (Japan); Oomori, T. [Chemical System Design and Engineering Department, Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    At severe accident such as Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, the nuclear fuels in the reactor would melt and form debris which contains stable UO2-ZrO2 mixture corium and parts of vessel such as zircaloy and iron component. The requirements for solution of issues are below; -) the reasonable treatment process of the debris should be simple and in-situ in Fukushima Daiichi power plant, -) the desirable treatment process is to take out UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} or metallic U and TRU metal, and dispose other fission products as high level radioactive waste; and -) the candidate of treatment process should generate the smallest secondary waste. Pyro-process has advantages to treat the debris because of the high solubility of the debris and its total process feasibility. Toshiba proposes a new pyro-process in molten salts using electrolysing Zr before debris fuel being treated.

  20. Chair alarm for patient fall prevention based on gesture recognition and interactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Heather; Lee, Jae-Kyu; Ma, Hongshen

    2008-01-01

    The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand. Patient falls are one of the greatest causes of injury in hospitals. Current chair and bed exit alarm systems are inadequate because of insufficient notification, high false-alarm rate, and long trigger delays. The GRiT chair alarm uses an array of capacitive proximity sensors and pressure sensors to create a map of the patient's sitting position, which is then processed using gesture recognition algorithms to determine when a patient is attempting to stand and to alarm the care providers. This system also uses a range of voice and light feedback to encourage the patient to remain seated and/or to make use of the system's integrated nurse-call function. This system can be seamlessly integrated into existing hospital WiFi networks to send notifications and approximate patient location through existing nurse call systems.