Sample records for accident alarm system

  1. Criticality accident alarm system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.; Wooldridge, J.C.


    The purpose of this paper is to give a description of the Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) presently installed at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) for monitoring areas requiring criticality controls, and some of the concerns associated with the operation of this system. The system at the FEMP is known as the Radiation Detection Alarm (RDA) System.

  2. Criticality accident alarm system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.; Wooldridge, J.C.


    This paper describes the staus of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) criticality alarm system. A new radiation detection alarm system was installed in 1990. The anunciation system, calibration and maintenance, and detector placement is described.

  3. Alarm System


    GÖKTAŞ, H.Haldun; DALDAL, Nihat


    Remote management of several home and office appliances is a subject of growing interest and in recent years we have seen many systems providing such controls. In this study, we have developed a cellular phone based home/office remote controller equipped with power controllers, an alarm system, a voice memory and a back-up battery unit. In traditional PSTN based remote controllers, the user always has the possibility of line cuts due to fires or professional burglars cutting the wires before ...

  4. Optimal Alarm Systems (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optimal alarm system is simply an optimal level-crossing predictor that can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability. It...

  5. Plan for IER-443 Testing of the Y-12 and AWE Criticality Accident Alarm System Detectors at the Godiva IV Burst Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorby, J. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hudson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garbett, S. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Auld, G. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Horrne, A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Beller, T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goda, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haught, C. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Woodrow, C. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ward, D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This document provides the scope and details of the “Plan for Testing the Y-12 and AWE Criticality Accident Alarm System Detectors at the Godiva IV Burst Reactor”. Due to the relative simplicity of the testing goals, scope, and methodology, the NCSP Manager approved execution of the test when ready. No preliminary CED-1 or final design CED-2 reports were required or issued. The test will subject Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) detectors supplied by Y- 12 and AWE to very intense and short duration mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields. The goals of the test will be to (1) substantiate functionality, for both existing and newly acquired Y- 12 CAAS detectors, and (2) the ability of the AWE detectors to provide quality temporal dose information after a hypothetical criticality accident. ANSI/ANS-8.3.1997 states that the “system shall be sufficiently robust as to actuate an alarm signal when exposed to the maximum radiation expected”, which has been defined at Y-12, in Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs), to be a dose rate of 10 Rad/s. ANSI/ANS-8.3.1997 further states that “alarm actuation shall occur as a result of a minimum duration transient” which may be assumed to be 1 msec. The pulse widths and dose rates which will be achieved in this test will exceed these requirements. Pulsed radiation fields will be produced by the Godiva IV fast metal burst reactor at the National Criticality Experimental Research Center (NCERC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The magnitude of the pulses and the relative distances to the detectors will be varied to afford a wide range of radiation fluence and pulse widths. The magnitude of the neutron and gamma fields will be determined by reactor temperature rise to fluence and dose conversions which have been previously established through extensive measurements performed under IER-147. The requirements for CAAS systems to detect and alarm under a “minimum accident of concern” as well as other

  6. Final Report for the Testing of the Y-12 Criticality Accident Alarm System Detectors at the Godiva IV Burst Reactor (IER-443)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorby, John C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, David [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hudson, Becka [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Beller, Tim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goda, Joetta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haught, Chris [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Woodrow, Christopher [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ward, Dann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Chris [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Clark, Leo [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom)


    This report documents the experimental conditions and final results for the performance testing of the Y-12 Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) detectors at the Godiva IV Burst Reactor at the National Criticality Experimental Research Center (NCERC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The testing followed a previously issued test plan and was conducted during the week of July 17, 2017, with completion on Thursday July 20. The test subjected CAAS detectors supplied by Y-12 to very intense and short duration mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields to establish compliance to maximum radiation and minimum pulse width requirements. ANSI/ANS- 8.3.1997 states that the “system shall be sufficiently robust as to actuate an alarm signal when exposed to the maximum radiation expected”, which has been defined at Y-12, in Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs), to be a dose rate of 10 Rad/s. ANSI/ANS-8.3.1997 further states that “alarm actuation shall occur as a result of a minimum duration transient” which may be assumed to be 1 msec. The pulse widths and dose rates provided by each burst during the test exceeded those requirements. The CAAS detectors all provided an immediate alarm signal and remained operable after the bursts establishing compliance to the requirements and fitness for re-deployment at Y-12.

  7. Persons with Mild or Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Learn to Use Urine Alarms and Prompts to Avoid Large Urinary Accidents (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Bosco, Andrea; Zonno, Nadia; Badagliacca, Francesco


    This study assessed whether three patients with Alzheimer's disease could learn to use urine alarms and caregivers' prompts to eliminate large urinary accidents. As soon as the patient began to release urine, the alarm system presented auditory and vibratory signals. In relation to those signals, the caregiver would prompt/encourage the patient to…

  8. Evaluation of the concrete shield compositions from the 2010 criticality accident alarm system benchmark experiments at the CEA Valduc SILENE facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Celik, Cihangir [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, Michael E [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wagner, John C [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McMahan, Kimberly L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Authier, Nicolas [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Jacquet, Xavier [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Rousseau, Guillaume [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Wolff, Herve [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Savanier, Laurence [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Baclet, Nathalie [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Lee, Yi-kang [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Trama, Jean-Christophe [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Masse, Veronique [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Gagnier, Emmanuel [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Naury, Sylvie [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Hunter, Richard [Babcock International Group (United Kingdom); Kim, Soon [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dulik, George Michael [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, Kevin H. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    In October 2010, a series of benchmark experiments were conducted at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems. This series of experiments consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. For the first experiment, the reactor was bare (unshielded), whereas in the second and third experiments, it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. The polyethylene shield of the third experiment had a cadmium liner on its internal and external surfaces, which vertically was located near the fuel region of SILENE. During each experiment, several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor. Nearly half of the foils and TLDs had additional high-density magnetite concrete, high-density barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond shields. CEA Saclay provided all the concrete, and the US Y-12 National Security Complex provided the BoroBond. Measurement data from the experiments were published at the 2011 International Conference on Nuclear Criticality (ICNC 2011) and the 2013 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD 2013) topical meeting. Preliminary computational results for the first experiment were presented in the ICNC 2011 paper, which showed poor agreement between the computational results and the measured values of the foils shielded by concrete. Recently the hydrogen content, boron content, and density of these concrete shields were further investigated within the constraints of the previously available data. New computational results for the first experiment are now available

  9. Intensive care alarm system (United States)

    Christensen, J. L.; Herbert, A. L.


    Inductive loop has been added to commercially available call system fitted with earphone receiver. System transmits high frequency signals to nurse's receiver to announce patient's need for help without disturbing others.

  10. Recommendations to alarm systems and lessons learned on alarm system implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerenssen, Aimar; Veland, Oeystein; Farbrot, Jan Erik; Kaarstad, Magnhild; Seim, Lars Aage; Foerdestroemmen, Nils; Bye, Andreas


    Alarm systems have been of major concern within complex industrial processes for many years. Within the nuclear community, the TMI accident in 1979 was the first really serious event that showed also the importance of the man-machine aspects of the systems in general, and the alarm system in particular. The OECD Halden Reactor Project has been working with alarm systems since 1974. This report is an attempt to gather some of the knowledge that has been accumulated during the years in Halden, both in research and also in bilateral projects. Bilateral projects within this field have provided a practical basis of knowledge.A major part of this report consists of a set of recommendations, which reflect HRP's current understanding of how an alarm system should work. There are also recommendations on design methods. But also other issues are included, as system development and implementation experience, and experimental knowledge on the performance of alarm systems. Some open issues are also discussed. (Author). 54 refs., 15 figs

  11. Video systems for alarm assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Ebel, P.E. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))


    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Useful and usable alarm systems : recommended properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veland, Oeystein; Kaarstad, Magnhild; Seim, Lars Aage; Foerdestroemmen, Nils T.


    This document describes the result of a study on alarm systems conducted by IFE in Halden. The study was initiated by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The objective was to identify and formulate a set of important properties for useful and usable alarm systems. The study is mainly based on review of the latest international recognised guidelines and standards on alarm systems available at the time of writing, with focus on realistic solutions from research and best practice from different industries. In addition, IFE experiences gathered through specification and design of alarm systems and experimental activities in HAMMLAB and bilateral projects, have been utilized where relevant. The document presents a total of 43 recommendations divided into a number of general recommendations and more detailed recommendations on alarm generation, structuring, prioritisation, presentation and handling. (Author)

  13. Recommendations for the LHC safety alarm system

    CERN Document Server

    Laeger, H


    A working group was set up to define the LHC safety alarm system, also known as Alarm-of-Level-3-System (AL3S). The mandate asked for recommendations to be elaborated on four items: the overall concept of the AL3S for machine and experiments, the transmission and display of safety alarms, the AL3S during civil engineering construction, and the transition from the present LEP to the final LHC safety alarm system. The members of the working group represented a wide range of interest and experience including the CERN Fire Brigade, safety officers from experiments and machines, and specialists for safety and control systems. The recommendations highlight the need for a clear definition of responsibilities and procedures, well-engineered homogeneous systems across CERN, and they point to several important issues outside the mandate of the working group. These recommendations were presented, discussed and accepted by several CERN and LHC committees.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky


    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

  15. Car Alarm System Engineered In Arduino Environment


    Järvelä, Sakari


    This thesis is targeting to develop and engineer a burglar alarm system prototype using the software and hardware environment Arduino, which is originally manufactured by Smart Projects. The system under development provides a versatile theft inhibition hardware configuration for the holder of the system. It also provides vehicle localization enabling features in case of theft. In the final project, the aim is not to reach commercial benefit. The aim is to get familiar with software libra...

  16. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.


    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  17. Development of net cage acoustic alarm system (United States)

    Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang


    In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

  18. System for alarms analysis and optimization in petrochemicals plants; Sistema para analise e otimizacao de alarmes em plantas petroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, Gustavo; Pifer, Aderson; Guedes, Luiz Affonso [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Saito, Kaku; Aquino, Leonardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    The present work presents a group of algorithms, techniques and functionalities on alarms management which can be used efficiently on the treatment of 'disturbances' caused by the informal management of the alarm systems. Among the disturbances handled by these techniques, there is the recognition of intermittent alarms and false alarms, location of alarm floods and correlation between alarms, aiming the identification of communal root causes. The results will be presented through a case study on petrochemical alarm plants. At last, the results obtained by the utilization of such functionalities will be presented and discussed. (author)

  19. A Design of Alarm System in a Research Reactor Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaekwan; Jang, Gwisook; Seo, Sangmun; Suh, Yongsuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The digital alarm system has become an indispensable design to process a large amount of alarms of power plants. Korean research reactor operated for decades maintains a hybrid alarm system with both an analog annunciator and a digital alarm display. In this design, several alarms are indicated on an analog panel and digital display, respectively, and it requires more attention and effort of the operators. As proven in power plants, a centralized alarm system design is necessary for a new research reactor. However, the number of alarms and operators in a research reactor is significantly lesser than power plants. Thus, simplification should be considered as an important factor for the operation efficiency. This paper introduces a simplified alarm system. As advances in information technology, fully digitalized alarm systems have been applied to power plants. In a new research reactor, it will be more useful than an analog or hybrid configuration installed in research reactors decades ago. However, the simplification feature should be considered as an important factor because the number of alarms and number of operators in a research reactor is significantly lesser than in power plants.

  20. From alarm systems to smart houses. (United States)

    Vlaskamp, F J


    The percentage of senior citizens in the Netherlands will rise in coming years. The expected percentage for the year 2010 of persons over age 65 in the total population is 15%. More persons over age 65 than ever before will continue to live in their own environment. Emergency response systems (ERS) can support independent living. The most common type of organization distributing ERS is a small, partly subsidized local alarm organization run by a social welfare office for the elderly. Government subsidy has been reduced in recent years which has motivated small organizations to join together into larger regional organizations in order to get a more solid financial base. On the other hand new semi-commercial and commercial organizations have come into being. These developments are part of the growing importance of home care, leading to more medical applications of ERS. User satisfaction with ERS is high. Portable triggers can enhance the effectiveness of the system. However, many users do not wear the portable trigger when feeling well. Future technical developments will result in multifunctionality of ERS-devices. In the long term the hardware of today will be integrated in a multimedia home terminal replacing the telephone. The portable trigger will remain the only specific hardware at home for ERS.

  1. Alarm systems a guide to design, management and procurement

    CERN Document Server

    Engineering Equipment and Materials Users' Association. London


    Alarm systems form an essential part of the operator interfaces to large modern industrial facilities. They provide vital support to the operators by warning them of situations that need their attention and have an important role in preventing, controlling and mitigating the effects of abnormal situations. Since it was first published in 1999, EEMUA 191 has become the globally accepted and leading guide to good practice for all aspects of alarm systems. The guide, developed by users of alarm systems with input from the GB Health and Safety Executive, gives comprehensive guidance on designing, managing and procuring an effective alarm system. The new Third Edition has been comprehensively updated and includes guidance on implementing the alarm management philosophy in practice; applications in geographically distributed processes; and performance metrics and KPIs.

  2. A breathing circuit alarm system based on neural networks. (United States)

    Orr, J A; Westenskow, D R


    The objectives of our study were (1) to implement intelligent respiratory alarms with a neural network; and (2) to increase alarm specificity and decrease false-alarm rates compared with current alarms. We trained a neural network to recognize 13 faults in an anesthesia breathing circuit. The system extracted 30 breath-to-breath features from the airway CO2, flow, and pressure signals. We created training data for the network by introducing 13 faults repeatedly in 5 dogs (616 total faults). We used the data to train the neural network using the backward error propagation algorithm. In animals, the trained network reported the alarms correctly for 95.0% of the faults when tested during controlled ventilation, and for 86.9% of the faults during spontaneous breathing. When tested in the operating room, the system found and correctly reported 54 of 57 faults that occurred during 43.6 hr of use. The alarm system produced a total of 74 false alarms during 43.6 hr of monitoring. Neural networks may be useful in creating intelligent anesthesia alarm systems.

  3. Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo


    The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

  4. ARC Code TI: Optimal Alarm System Design and Implementation (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optimal alarm system can robustly predict a level-crossing event that is specified over a fixed prediction horizon. The code contained in this packages provides...

  5. Advanced Alarm Systems: Revision of Guidance and Its Technical Basis (United States)


    legend; • Plant system or component involved (e.g., reactor coolant pump A); • Parameter involved (e.g., temperature , pressure, voltage); • Status...and Layout .. 4-31 4.3 Human Performance Issues 4-31 5 DISCUSSION 5-1 6 REFERENCES 6 -1 APPENDDC A Alarm System Characterization A-l APPENDIX...Pressurized Water Reactor (Westinghouse) APWR Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (Mitsubishi) ARP alarm response procedure CAMLS CANDU Annunciation Message

  6. New Concept For Alarm Structure And Management In Dcs Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hegazy


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to set new standard for good design and best practice to applied when any DCS ManufacturesSuppliers configure process alarm system in any oil refining oil and gas production gas-handling facilities gasification plant or any chemical processing plant and thereby to optimizeminimize unnecessary alarms from reporting to operator workstations CAD Control Alarm Display. These views based on the experience acquired and implemented during involvement with the commissioning and startup of two DCS projects in Mina Al-Ahmadi Refinery Kuwait.

  7. Alarm management for process control a best-practice guide for design, implementation, and use of industrial alarm systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rothenberg, Douglas H


    No modern industrial enterprise, particularly in such areas as chemical processing, can operate without a secure, and reliable, network of automated monitors and controls. And those operations need alarm systems to alert engineers and managers the moment anything goes wrong or needs attention. This book, by one of the world's leading experts on industrial alarm systems, will provide A to Z coverage of designing, implementing, and maintaining an effective alarm network.

  8. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.


    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  9. Hierarchies of Alarms for Large Distributed Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccioli, M; Martos, V; Holme, O


    The control systems of most of the infrastructure at CERN make use of the SCADA package WinCC Open Architecture by ETM*, including successful projects to control large scale systems such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator and associated experiments.).

  10. SeaQuest/E906 Shift Alarm System (United States)

    Kitts, Noah


    SeaQuest, Fermilab E906, is a fixed target experiment that measures the Drell-Yan cross-section ratio of proton-proton to proton-deuterium collisions in order to extract the sea anti-quark structure of the proton. SeaQuest will extend the measurements made by E866/NuSea with greater precision at higher Bjorken-x. The continuously running experiment is always being monitored. Those on shift must keep track of all of the detector readouts in order to make sure the experiment is running correctly. As an experiment that is still in its early stages of running, an alarm system for people on shift is being created to provide warnings, such as a plot showing a detector's performance is sufficiently different to need attention. This plan involves python scripts that track live data. When the data shows a problem within the experiment, a corresponding alarm ID is sent to the MySQL database which then sets off an alarm. These alarms, which will alert the person on shift through both an audible and visual response, are important for ensuring that issues do not go unnoticed, and to help make sure the experiment is recording good data.

  11. A WSN-Based Intrusion Alarm System to Improve Safety in Road Work Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Martin


    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. Workers responsible for maintaining and repairing roadways are especially prone to suffer these events, given their exceptional exposure to traffic. Since these actuations usually coexist with regular traffic, an errant driver can easily intrude the work area and provoke a collision. Some authors have proposed mechanisms aimed at detecting breaches in the work zone perimeter and alerting workers, which are collectively called intrusion alarm systems. However, they have several limitations and have not yet fulfilled the necessities of these scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new intrusion alarm system based on a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. Our system is comprised of two main elements: vehicle detectors that form a virtual barrier and detect perimeter breaches by means of an ultrasonic beam and individual warning devices that transmit alerts to the workers. All these elements have a wireless communication interface and form a network that covers the whole work area. This network is in charge of transmitting and routing the alarms and coordinates the behavior of the system. We have tested our solution under real conditions with satisfactory results.

  12. Reducing SCADA System Nuisance Alarms in the Water Industry in Northern Ireland. (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Nigel; Phillips, Debra H; Nicell, Ciaran


    The advancement of telemetry control for the water industry has increased the difficulty of managing large volumes of nuisance alarms (i.e., alarms that do not require a response). The aim of this study was to identify and reduce the number of nuisance alarms that occur for Northern Ireland (NI) Water by carrying out alarm duration analysis to determine the appropriate length of persistence (an advanced alarm management tool) that could be applied. All data were extracted from TelemWeb (NI Water's telemetry monitoring system) and analyzed in Excel. Over a 6-week period, an average of 40 000 alarms occurred per week. The alarm duration analysis, which has never been implemented before by NI Water, found that an average of 57% of NI Water alarms had a duration of <5 minutes. Applying 5-minute persistence, therefore, could prevent an average 26 816 nuisance alarms per week. Most of these alarms were from wastewater assets.

  13. Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, Bryce A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

  14. User image mismatch in anaesthesia alarms: a cognitive systems analysis. (United States)

    Raymer, Karen E; Bergström, Johan


    In this study, principles of Cognitive Systems Engineering are used to better understand the human-machine interaction manifesting in the use of anaesthesia alarms. The hypothesis is that the design of the machine incorporates built-in assumptions of the user that are discrepant with the anaesthesiologist's self-assessment, creating 'user image mismatch'. Mismatch was interpreted by focusing on the 'user image' as described from the perspectives of both machine and user. The machine-embedded image was interpreted through document analysis. The user-described image was interpreted through user (anaesthesiologist) interviews. Finally, an analysis was conducted in which the machine-embedded and user-described images were contrasted to identify user image mismatch. It is concluded that analysing user image mismatch expands the focus of attention towards macro-elements in the interaction between man and machine. User image mismatch is interpreted to arise from complexity of algorithm design and incongruity between alarm design and tenets of anaesthesia practice. Cognitive system engineering principles are applied to enhance the understanding of the interaction between anaesthesiologist and alarm. The 'user image' is interpreted and contrasted from the perspectives of machine as well as the user. Apparent machine-user mismatch is explored pertaining to specific design features.

  15. The ecology and evolution of avian alarm call signaling systems (United States)

    Billings, Alexis Chandon

    Communication is often set up as a simple dyadic exchange between one sender and one receiver. However, in reality, signaling systems have evolved and are used with many forms and types of information bombarding multiple senders, who in turn send multiple signals of different modalities, through various environmental spaces, finally reaching multiple receivers. In order to understand both the ecology and evolution of a signaling system, we must examine all the facets of the signaling system. My dissertation focused on the alarm call signaling system in birds. Alarm calls are acoustic signals given in response to danger or predators. My first two chapters examine how information about predators alters alarm calls. In chapter one I found that chickadees make distinctions between predators of different hunting strategies and appear to encode information about predators differently if they are heard instead of seen. In my second chapter, I test these findings more robustly in a non-model bird, the Steller's jay. I again found that predator species matters, but that how Steller's jays respond if they saw or heard the predator depends on the predator species. In my third chapter, I tested how habitat has influenced the evolution of mobbing call acoustic structure. I found that habitat is not a major contributor to the variation in acoustic structure seen across species and that other selective pressures such as body size may be more important. In my fourth chapter I present a new framework to understand the evolution of multimodal communication across species. I identify a unique constraint, the need for overlapping sensory systems, thresholds and cognitive abilities between sender and receiver in order for different forms of interspecific communication to evolve. Taken together, these chapters attempt to understand a signaling system from both an ecological and evolutionary perspective by examining each piece of the communication scheme.

  16. Orthos, an alarm system for the ALICE DAQ operations (United States)

    Chapeland, Sylvain; Carena, Franco; Carena, Wisla; Chibante Barroso, Vasco; Costa, Filippo; Denes, Ervin; Divia, Roberto; Fuchs, Ulrich; Grigore, Alexandru; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Soos, Csaba; Telesca, Adriana; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; von Haller, Barthelemy


    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion detector studying the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The DAQ (Data Acquisition System) facilities handle the data flow from the detectors electronics up to the mass storage. The DAQ system is based on a large farm of commodity hardware consisting of more than 600 devices (Linux PCs, storage, network switches), and controls hundreds of distributed hardware and software components interacting together. This paper presents Orthos, the alarm system used to detect, log, report, and follow-up abnormal situations on the DAQ machines at the experimental area. The main objective of this package is to integrate alarm detection and notification mechanisms with a full-featured issues tracker, in order to prioritize, assign, and fix system failures optimally. This tool relies on a database repository with a logic engine, SQL interfaces to inject or query metrics, and dynamic web pages for user interaction. We describe the system architecture, the technologies used for the implementation, and the integration with existing monitoring tools.

  17. The design of infrared alarm system based on ZigBee technology (United States)

    Yin, Qiang; Yu, Haiyang; Shao, Xingling; Wang, Zhengyan; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Wendong


    In view of the existing shortcomings of the existing infrared system,such as complicated structure, high transmitting power, expensive cost and etc. A infrared alarm system based on ZigBee technology was presented in this paper. The system consists of owner-alarm, the monitoring room in the housing estate and network router. Through the alarm information detected by infrared sensors, it starts the way of local sound alarm or networking alarm. The results of test demonstrate that the system is convenient for use and reliable for performance.

  18. 33 CFR 149.135 - What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch? (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch? 149.135 Section 149.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... switch? Each switch for activating an alarm, and each audio or visual device for signaling an alarm, must...

  19. Expert systems and microwave communication systems alarms processing: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.; Goeltz, R.; Purucker, S.


    This report presents the results of a feasibility study conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Bonneville Power Administration concerning the applicability of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology to process alarms associated with Bonneville's Microwave Communication System (MCS). Specifically, the discussion focuses on the characteristics of a prototype expert system/database management system (DBMS) configuration capable of intelligently processing alarms, efficiently storing alarm-based historical data, and providing analysis and reporting tools. Such a system has the potential to improve response to critical alarms, increase the information content of a large volume of complicated data, free operators from performing routine analysis, and provide alarm information to operators, field personnel, and management through queries and automatically produced reports.

  20. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

  1. Development of a Simple Sound Activated Burglar Alarm System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesis Abah AGBO


    Full Text Available The paper presents the design, construction and testing of a simple sound activated burglar alarm. The principle of operation of this burglar alarm is simple. When the intensity of sound exceeds certain intensity, the alarm is triggered and the siren begins to operate. The speaker beeps and the flasher (light flashes. These actions thus alert the owner of the residence and/or security personnel of the presence of an intruder.

  2. Installation of Computerized Procedure System and Advanced Alarm System in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This report describes the installation of two advanced control room technologies, an advanced alarm system and a computerized procedure system, into the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). Installation of these technologies enables future phases of this research by providing a platform to systematically evaluate the effect of these technologies on operator and plant performance.

  3. Recent Results on "Approximations to Optimal Alarm Systems for Anomaly Detection" (United States)

    Martin, Rodney Alexander


    An optimal alarm system and its approximations may use Kalman filtering for univariate linear dynamic systems driven by Gaussian noise to provide a layer of predictive capability. Predicted Kalman filter future process values and a fixed critical threshold can be used to construct a candidate level-crossing event over a predetermined prediction window. An optimal alarm system can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability in this particular scenario.

  4. Aerospace Accident - Injury Autopsy Data System - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aerospace Accident Injury Autopsy Database System will provide the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) Aerospace Medical Research Team (AMRT) the ability to...

  5. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc... (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.—TB/ALL. All tank...

  6. Development of Alarm System link Drawing for Operation Support for APR1400 Digital Main Control Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Digitalized MMI(Man-Machine Interface) including Digital Main Control Room(MCR) and digital I and C system was being applied for SKN 3 and 4 Nuclear Power Plant(NPP) and subsequent APR1400 NPP type. But, operators can not easily find instrument for alarm immediately. Therefore, Alarm system is required to easily find instrument for Alarm. For this implementation, we will plan system design considering design feature without affecting network load and CPU load. We have developed Alarm system link drawing for digital MCR. Operators of the digitalized MCR navigates from their consoles to the drawings related to the plant alarms and their instruments or the operation status. Such method gives cognitive load to the operators having to travel to different locations in finding the related information. Screen Sharing System, which is the fundamental technique for Drawing Interconnection Alarm System is close to completion, and it should be functionally tested and verified by the human factor engineering. For the actual application to the operating plants, the drawings to be interconnected to the alarms and the opinions from the operators/maintenance departments for designating alarm number should be surveyed, Also, another function that allows the access to the alarm related drawings not only from the MCR but also from the other offices.

  7. A Human Factors Perspective on Alarm System Research and Development 2000 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curt Braun; John Grimes; Eric Shaver; Ronald Boring (Principal Investigator)


    By definition, alarms serve to notify human operators of out-of-parameter conditions that could threaten equipment, the environment, product quality and, of course, human life. Given the complexities of industrial systems, human machine interfaces, and the human operator, the understanding of how alarms and humans can best work together to prevent disaster is continually developing. This review examines advances in alarm research and development from 2000 to 2010 and includes the writings of trade professionals, engineering and human factors researchers, and standards organizations with the goal of documenting advances in alarms system design, research, and implementation.

  8. Development and evaluation of new coupling system for lower limb prostheses with acoustic alarm system. (United States)

    Eshraghi, Arezoo; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Ahmadian, Jalil; Rahmati, Bizhan; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan


    Individuals with lower limb amputation need a secure suspension system for their prosthetic devices. A new coupling system was developed that is capable of suspending the prosthesis. The system's safety is ensured through an acoustic alarm system. This article explains how the system works and provides an in vivo evaluation of the device with regard to pistoning during walking. The system was designed to be used with silicone liners and is based on the requirements of prosthetic suspension systems. Mechanical testing was performed using a universal testing machine. The pistoning during walking was measured using a motion analysis system. The new coupling device produced significantly less pistoning compared to a common suspension system (pin/lock). The safety alarm system would buzz if the suspension was going to fail. The new coupling system could securely suspend the prostheses in transtibial amputees and produced less vertical movement than the pin/lock system.

  9. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aponte Luis


    Full Text Available A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects.

  10. 40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system? (United States)


    ... to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or through visual or voice... communication equipment or an alarm system? 267.34 Section 267.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... have access to communication equipment or an alarm system? (a) Whenever hazardous waste is being poured...

  11. Real-time Alarm Monitoring System for Detecting Driver Fatigue in Wireless Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Fu


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to develop a real-time alarm monitoring system that can detect the fatigue driving state through wireless communication. The drivers’ electroencephalogram (EEG signals were recorded from occipital electrodes. Seven EEG rhythms with different frequency bands as gamma, hbeta, beta, sigma, alpha, theta and delta waves were extracted. They were simultaneously assessed using relative operating characteristic (ROC curves and grey relational analysis to select one as the fatigue feature. The research results showed that the performance of theta wave was the best one. Therefore, theta wave was used as fatigue feature in the following alarm device. The real-time alarm monitoring system based on the result has been developed, once the threshold was settled by using the data of the first ten minutes driving period. The developed system can detect driver fatigue and give alarm to indicate the onset of fatigue automatically.

  12. The accident site portable integrated video system (United States)

    Jones, D. P.; Shirey, D. L.; Amai, W. A.


    This paper presents a high bandwidth fiber-optic communication system intended for post accident recovery of weapons. The system provides bi-directional multichannel, and multi-media communications. Two smaller systems that were developed as direct spin-offs of the larger system are also briefly discussed.

  13. The accident site portable integrated video system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.P.; Shirey, D.L.; Amai, W.A.


    This paper presents a high bandwidth fiber-optic communication system intended for post accident recovery of weapons. The system provides bi-directional multichannel, and multi-media communications. Two smaller systems that were developed as direct spin-offs of the larger system are also briefly discussed.

  14. Nitric Acid Revamp and Upgrading of the Alarm & Protection Safety System at Petrokemija, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoško, I.


    Full Text Available Every industrial production, particularly chemical processing, demands special attention in conducting the technological process with regard to the security requirements. For this reason, production processes should be continuously monitored by means of control and alarm safety instrumented systems. In the production of nitric acid at Petrokemija d. d., the original alarm safety system was designed as a combination of an electrical relay safety system and transistorized alarm module system. In order to increase safety requirements and modernize the technological process of nitric acid production, revamping and upgrading of the existing alarm safety system was initiated with a new microprocessor system. The newly derived alarm safety system, Simatic PCS 7, links the function of "classically" distributed control (DCS and logical systems in a common hardware and software platform with integrated engineering tools and operator interface to meet the minimum safety standards with safety integrity level 2 (SIL2 up to level 3 (SIL3, according to IEC 61508 and IEC 61511. This professional paper demonstrates the methodology of upgrading the logic of the alarm safety system in the production of nitric acid in the form of a logical diagram, which was the basis for a further step in its design and construction. Based on the mentioned logical diagram and defined security requirements, the project was implemented in three phases: analysis and testing, installation of the safety equipment and system, and commissioning. Developed also was a verification system of all safety conditions, which could be applied to other facilities for production of nitric acid. With the revamped and upgraded interlock alarm safety system, a new and improved safety boundary in the production of nitric acid was set, which created the foundation for further improvement of the production process in terms of improved analysis.

  15. A new fire alarm system for electrical installations

    CERN Document Server

    Pietersen, A H


    Fires in electrical installations are considered to develop in four phases - initiation, smouldering, flame formation and heat development. Cables are among the more sensitive components, with working temperatures around 50 degrees C and fire detection at 70 degrees C. Conventional alarms include smoke detectors. The new technique described uses microcapsules containing powder forming a gas of the Freon type after diffusion. A typical microcapsule loses 4% per year and has a natural life of 10 years. Fabrication methods are described. Detection is by gas concentration, with a sensitivity of 1 to 10 ppm, or by acoustic methods with microphones to pick up the sound of fractures. Pressure/temperature characteristics of various types of Freon mixtures commercially available are given in graphical form.

  16. Methodology of an Aircraft Accident Response System Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Željko Županič


    Full Text Available The paper investigates the ability to learn from an aircraft accident as the opportunities for learning diminish with the decline in the accident rate. A safety compromising case is studied as the processes of aircraft accident intervention and recovery can degrade the ability of an aircraft accident investigation process to enhance aviation safety by revealing accident causation. In the case study an assessment of the Slovenian aircraft accident response system was made. For the purpose of evaluating the successfulness of aircraft accident intervention and effectiveness of recovery, a model of aircraft accident response system requirements has been developed. Based on non-conformances identified by the model of requirements, remedial measures are proposed for the enhancement of the aircraft accident response system operation. Criteria for the definition of the transition from accident intervention to recovery are derived from the assessment findings in a manner not to impede the aircraft accident investigation effectiveness and efficiency.

  17. Fuzzy reasoning of accident provenance in pervasive healthcare monitoring systems. (United States)

    Wang, Yongli; Hu, Xiaohua


    In pervasive healthcare monitoring environments, data provenance, as one metadata, can help people analyze the reasons for medical accidents that are generated by complex events. This reasoning processing often encounters inaccurate time and irreversible reasoning problems. How to solve the uncertain process and fuzzy transformation time presents many challenges to the study of data provenance. In this paper, we propose a backward derivation model with the provenance semantic, backward fuzzy time reasoning net (BFTRN), to solve these two problems. We design a backward reasoning algorithm motivated by time automation theory based on this model. With regard to given life-critical alarms and some constraints, it cannot only derive all evolution paths and the possibility distribution of paths from historical information, but also efficiently compute the value of fuzzy time function for each transition of lift-critical complex alarms in the healthcare monitoring system. We also analyze the properties of BFTRN model in this paper. Experiments on real dataset show that the proposed model is efficient.

  18. SMS Based Car Alarm System Utilizing AT89S52 Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balza Achmad


    Full Text Available This study aims to design a car alarm system. The system is designed to activating an alarm (danger signal and sends SMS messages to the HP owners of the car when sensors on the car alarm are active. The hardware of car alarm system use AT89S52 microcontroller based on SMS in this research, consists of a series of 4 main parts, namely the minimum system microcontroller circuits, power supply, serial communications, and input/output. In an SMS text sent and received from the cell phone to the SMS Center flows in the form of PDU (Protocol Data Unit. The SMS format is divided into several segments of data that each segment has a specific purpose. Segments are: SMS center number, destination number, bytes SMS settings for this and most important is the content of SMS messages that have been modified in the form of UPE. The instructions AT Command is required to send or upload SMS data to mobile phone and send SMS data. The results showed that the performance of the alarm system designed is work properly.

  19. Supporting attention allocation in multitask environments: effects of likelihood alarm systems on trust, behavior, and performance. (United States)

    Wiczorek, Rebecca; Manzey, Dietrich


    The aim of the current study was to investigate potential benefits of likelihood alarm systems (LASs) over binary alarm systems (BASs) in a multitask environment. Several problems are associated with the use of BASs, because most of them generate high numbers of false alarms. Operators lose trust in the systems and ignore alarms or cross-check all of them when other information is available. The first behavior harms safety, whereas the latter one reduces productivity. LASs represent an alternative, which is supposed to improve operators' attention allocation. We investigated LASs and BASs in a dual-task paradigm with and without the possibility to cross-check alerts with raw data information. Participants' trust in the system, their behavior, and their performance in the alert and the concurrent task were assessed. Reported trust, compliance with alarms, and performance in the alert and the concurrent task were higher for the LAS than for the BAS. The cross-check option led to an increase in alert task performance for both systems and a decrease in concurrent task performance for the BAS, which did not occur in the LAS condition. LASs improve participants' attention allocation between two different tasks and therefore lead to an increase in alert task and concurrent task performance. The performance maximum is achieved when LAS is combined with a cross-check option for validating alerts with additional information. The use of LASs instead of BASs in safety-related multitask environments has the potential to increase safety and productivity likewise.

  20. [Implementation of an automatic alarms system for early detection of patients with severe sepsis]. (United States)

    Ferreras, José María; Judez, Diego; Tirado, Gabriel; Aspiroz, Carmen; Martínez-Álvarez, Rosa; Dorado, Paloma; Ezpeleta, Ana; Marrón, Rafael; Gargallo, Begoña; Herranz, Clara


    The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of a software tool integrated into the medical electronic history at the time of emergency triage. The aim was the early detection of patients with severe sepsis, and the potential impact of this software tool on reducing the mortality rate in patients treated. The study consisted of two comparative samples. Patient selection was performed retrospectively into two groups using ICD-9 codes from the hospital and emergency department discharge reports. The codes were 038.9, 995.9 and 995.92 for sepsis, and 785.52 for severe sepsis and septic shock. The sample called «alarms» consisted of patients studied after implementing the sepsis alarm system in the Emergency Department computer system. There were two types of alarms, a serious one and an alert one depending on the on vital signs defined. The historical sample called «no alarms» consisted of patients seen in the Emergency Department during the year before the introduction of the alarm system. The compliance rate of the sepsis treatment package was higher in the «alarms» sample, compared to the sample without alarms, with blood cultures, 96.3% versus 80.9% (Psepsis allows acting earlier, better compliance with basic measures, and a reduction in hospital stay and mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  1. Network-Based Real-time Integrated Fire Detection and Alarm (FDA) System with Building Automation (United States)

    Anwar, F.; Boby, R. I.; Rashid, M. M.; Alam, M. M.; Shaikh, Z.


    Fire alarm systems have become increasingly an important lifesaving technology in many aspects, such as applications to detect, monitor and control any fire hazard. A large sum of money is being spent annually to install and maintain the fire alarm systems in buildings to protect property and lives from the unexpected spread of fire. Several methods are already developed and it is improving on a daily basis to reduce the cost as well as increase quality. An integrated Fire Detection and Alarm (FDA) systems with building automation was studied, to reduce cost and improve their reliability by preventing false alarm. This work proposes an improved framework for FDA system to ensure a robust intelligent network of FDA control panels in real-time. A shortest path algorithmic was chosen for series of buildings connected by fiber optic network. The framework shares information and communicates with each fire alarm panels connected in peer to peer configuration and declare the network state using network address declaration from any building connected in network. The fiber-optic connection was proposed to reduce signal noises, thus increasing large area coverage, real-time communication and long-term safety. Based on this proposed method an experimental setup was designed and a prototype system was developed to validate the performance in practice. Also, the distributed network system was proposed to connect with an optional remote monitoring terminal panel to validate proposed network performance and ensure fire survivability where the information is sequentially transmitted. The proposed FDA system is different from traditional fire alarm and detection system in terms of topology as it manages group of buildings in an optimal and efficient manner.Introduction

  2. Design of the intelligent smoke alarm system based on photoelectric smoke (United States)

    Ma, Jiangfei; Yang, Xiufang; Wang, Peipei


    This paper designed a kind of intelligent smoke alarm system based on photoelectric smoke detector and temperature, The system takes AT89C51 MCU as the core of hardware control and Labview as the host computer monitoring center.The sensor system acquires temperature signals and smoke signals, the MCU control A/D by Sampling and converting the output analog signals , and then the two signals will be uploaded to the host computer through the serial communication. To achieve real-time monitoring of smoke and temperature in the environment, LabVIEW monitoring platform need to hold, process, analysis and display these samping signals. The intelligent smoke alarm system is suitable for large scale shopping malls and other public places, which can greatly reduce the false alarm rate of fire, The experimental results show that the system runs well and can alarm when the setting threshold is reached,and the threshold parameters can be adjusted according to the actual conditions of the field. The system is easy to operate, simple in structure, intelligent, low cost, and with strong practical value.

  3. Design of alarm systems in Swedish nuclear power plants; Utformning av larmsystem i svenska kaernkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunberg, Anna; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa (Dept. of Product and Production Development, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))


    Research within the area of improving alarm system design and performance has mainly focused on new alarm systems. However, smaller modernisations of legacy systems are more common in the Swedish nuclear industry than design of totally new systems. This imposes problems when the new system should function together with the old system. This project deals with the special concerns raised by modernisation projects. The objective of the project has been to increase the understanding of the relationship between the operator's performance and the design of the alarm system. Of major concern has been to consider the cognitive abilities of the operator, different operator roles and work situations, and varying need of information. The aim of the project has been to complement existing alarm design guidance and to develop user-centred alarm design concepts. Different case studies have been performed in several industry sectors (nuclear, oil refining, pulp and paper, aviation and medical care) to identify best practice. Several empirical studies have been performed within the nuclear area to investigate the operator's need of information, performance and workload in different operating modes. The aspect of teamwork has also been considered. The analyses show that the operator has different roles in different work situations which affect both the type of information needed and how the information is processed. In full power operation, the interaction between the operator and the alarm system is driven by internal factors and the operator tries to maintain high situation awareness by actively searching for information. The operator wants to optimise the process and need detailed information with possibilities to follow-up and get historical data. In disturbance management, the operator is more dependent on external information presented by the alarm system. The new compilation of alarm guidance is based on the operator's varying needs in different working

  4. Limitations of systemic accident analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casandra Venera BALAN


    Full Text Available In terms of system theory, the description of complex accidents is not limited to the analysis of the sequence of events / individual conditions, but highlights nonlinear functional characteristics and frames human or technical performance in relation to normal functioning of the system, in safety conditions. Thus, the research of the system entities as a whole is no longer an abstraction of a concrete situation, but an exceeding of the theoretical limits set by analysis based on linear methods. Despite the issues outlined above, the hypothesis that there isn’t a complete method for accident analysis is supported by the nonlinearity of the considered function or restrictions, imposing a broad vision of the elements introduced in the analysis, so it can identify elements corresponding to nominal parameters or trigger factors.

  5. The Wireless Environment Monitoring Alarm System Based on Self-organizing Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Huawei


    Full Text Available Under complicated conditions, it is necessary for environmental monitoring to design a wireless monitoring alarm system which can replace the wired system or as a supplement. The system discussed here bases on ARM7 microprocessor named LPC1114 and transceiver module named CC2530. With ZigBee, CSM/GPRS, this system uses multiple sensors to self-organized form a data acquisition and monitoring network system with variety of sensors fusion in the region. The system has some characteristics such as quick, convenient and accurate. Combining with the GSM SMS or GPRS alarm, the system can accurately and reliably monitor temperature, humidity and other environmental factors, and realize remote monitoring in large area and the complicated environment. Thus, this system has high practical value.

  6. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction (United States)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin


    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  7. Optimized Vibration Chamber for Landslide Sensory and Alarm System (United States)

    Ismail, Eliza Sabira Binti; Hadi Habaebi, Mohamed; Daoud, Jamal I.; Rafiqul Islam, Md


    Landslide is one of natural hazard that is not unfamiliar disaster in Malaysia. Malaysia has experienced this disaster many times since 1969. This natural hazard has become a major research concern for Malaysian government when many people were injured badly and even had been killed. Many previous research works published in the open literature aimed at designing a system that could detect landslide in early stage before the landslide becomes catastrophic. This paper presents the early works on a major work-in-progress landslide early warning system for Malaysian environment. The aim of this system is to develop the most efficiently reliable cost-effective system in which slight earth movements are monitored continuously. The challenge this work aims at is to work with a low budget system that produces efficient performance. Hence, the material used is off-the-shelf. Early design optimization results of the vibration sensor used is quite promising detecting the slightest faint tremors, which are amplified using the best vibration chamber available. It is shown that the choice of proper pipe length and diameter dimensions in combination to a gravel to exaggerate the produced higher sensitivity level noise of 5 dB.

  8. Control Engineering Embraces Instrumentation and Alarm Systems Of Navy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Samoilescu


    Full Text Available Control engineering can be applied not only to propelling and auxiliary machinery but also to electrical installations, refrigeration, cargo handling (especially in tankers and deck machinery, e.g. Windlass control. Opinion still vary on such matters as the relative merits of pneumatic versus electronic system and whether the control center should be in the engine room or adjacent to the navigating bridge. Arguments against the exclusion of the engineer officer from close contact with the machinery are countered by the fact that electronic systems are based on changes other than those of human response. Automated ships (UMS operate closer to prescribed standards and therefore operate with greater efficiency. The closer control of machinery operating conditions (cooling water temperatures and pressures, permits machinery to be run at its optimum design conditions, making for fuel economy and reduced maintenance.

  9. Justice and the human alarm system: The impact of exclamation points and flashing lights on the justice judgment process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, K. van den; Ham, J.; Lind, E.A.; Simonis, M.J.; Essen, W.J. van; Rijpkema, M.


    Extending theory within the justice domain and work on the human alarm system, the current paper argues that the process by which justice judgments are formed may be influenced reliably by the activation of psychological systems that people use to detect and handle alarming situations. Building on

  10. Smart container UWB sensor system for situational awareness of intrusion alarms (United States)

    Romero, Carlos E.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Leach, Jr., Richard R.; Vigars, Mark L.


    An in-container monitoring sensor system is based on an UWB radar intrusion detector positioned in a container and having a range gate set to the farthest wall of the container from the detector. Multipath reflections within the container make every point on or in the container appear to be at the range gate, allowing intrusion detection anywhere in the container. The system also includes other sensors to provide false alarm discrimination, and may include other sensors to monitor other parameters, e.g. radiation. The sensor system also includes a control subsystem for controlling system operation. Communications and information extraction capability may also be included. A method of detecting intrusion into a container uses UWB radar, and may also include false alarm discrimination. A secure container has an UWB based monitoring system

  11. The Performance of Earthworm Based Earthquake Alarm Reporting System in Taiwan (United States)

    Chen, Ta-Yi; Hsiao, Nai-Chi; Wu, Yih-Min


    The Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan has operated an earthquake early warning (EEW) system and issued warnings to schools and government agencies since 2014. Because the real-time seismic data streams are integrated by the Earthworm software, some EEW modules were created under the Earthworm platform. The system is named Earthworm Based Earthquake Alarm Reporting (eBEAR) system, which is currently operating. The eBEAR system consists of new Earthworm modules for managing P-wave phase picking, trigger associations, hypocenter locations, magnitude estimations, and alert filtering prior to broadcasting. Here, we outline the methodology and performance of the eBEAR system. The online performance of the eBEAR system indicated that the average reporting times afforded by the system are approximately 15 and 26 s for inland and offshore earthquakes, respectively. Comparing to the earthquake catalog, the difference of the epicenters are less than 10 km for inland earthquakes; the difference of the magnitude are about 0.3. No false alarms generated by the system, but there were three false alarms issued by human. Due to the wrong operations, the EEW information created by off-line test were sent. However, we have learned from it and improved the standard operation procedure in the EEW system.

  12. Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification. (United States)

    Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel


    Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability

  13. Design of DroDeASys (Drowsy Detection and Alarming System) (United States)

    Juvale, Hrishikesh B.; Mahajan, Anant S.; Bhagwat, Ashwin A.; Badiger, Vishal T.; Bhutkar, Ganesh D.; Dhabe, Priyadarshan S.; Dhore, Manikrao L.

    The paper discusses the Drowsy Detection & Alarming System that has been developed, using a non-intrusive approach. The system is basically developed to detect drivers dozing at the wheel at night time driving. The system uses a small infra-red night vision camera that points directly towards the driver`s face and monitors the driver`s eyes in order to detect fatigue. In such a case when fatigue is detected, a warning signal is issued to alert the driver. This paper discusses the algorithms that have been used to detect drowsiness. The decision whether the driver is dozing or not is taken depending on whether the eyes are open for a specific number of frames. If the eyes are found to be closed for a certain number of consecutive frames then the driver is alerted with an alarm.

  14. Distributed error and alarm processing in the CMS data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.; et al.


    The error and alarm system for the data acquisition of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at CERN was successfully used for the physics runs at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during first three years of activities. Error and alarm processing entails the notification, collection, storing and visualization of all exceptional conditions occurring in the highly distributed CMS online system using a uniform scheme. Alerts and reports are shown on-line by web application facilities that map them to graphical models of the system as defined by the user. A persistency service keeps a history of all exceptions occurred, allowing subsequent retrieval of user defined time windows of events for later playback or analysis. This paper describes the architecture and the technologies used and deals with operational aspects during the first years of LHC operation. In particular we focus on performance, stability, and integration with the CMS sub-detectors.

  15. Distributed error and alarm processing in the CMS data acquisition system

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Bowen, Matthew; Branson, James; Bukowiec, Sebastian Czeslaw; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, J A; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Flossdorf, Alexander; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, R; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; Holzner, Andre Georg; Hwong, Yi Ling; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Denis; Simon, M; Spataru, Andrei Cristian; Sumorok, Konstanty


    The error and alarm system for the data acquisition of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at CERN was successfully used for the physics runs at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during first three years of activities. Error and alarm processing entails the notification, collection, storing and visualization of all exceptional conditions occurring in the highly distributed CMS online system using a uniform scheme. Alerts and reports are shown on\\-line by web application facilities that map them to graphical models of the system as defined by the user. A persistency service keeps a history of all exceptions occurred, allowing subsequent retrieval of user defined time windows of events for later playback or analysis. This paper describes the architecture and the technologies used and deals with operational aspects during the first years of LHC operation. In particular we focus on performance, stability, and integration with the CMS sub\\-detectors.

  16. Approaching Behaviour Monitor and Vibration Indication in Developing a General Moving Object Alarm System (GMOAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwei Dong


    Full Text Available People who suffer from hearing impairment caused by illness, age or extremely noisy environments are constantly in danger of being hit or knocked down by fast moving objects behind them when they have no companion or augmented sensory system to warn them. In this paper, we propose the General Moving Object Alarm System (GMOAS, a system focused on aiding the safe mobility of people under these circumstances. The GMOAS is a wearable haptic device that consists of two main subsystems: (i a moving object monitoring subsystem that uses laser range data to detect and track approaching objects, and (ii an alarm subsystem that warns the user of possibly dangerous approaching objects by triggering tactile vibrations on an “alarm necklace”. For moving object monitoring, we propose a simple yet efficient solution to monitor the approaching behavior of objects. Compared with previous work in motion detection and tracking, we are not interested in specific objects but any type of approaching object that might harm the user. To this extent, we define a boundary in the laser range data where the objects are monitored. Within this boundary a fan-shape grid is constructed to obtain an evenly distributed spatial partitioning of the data. These partitions are efficiently clustered into continuous objects which are then tracked through time using an object association algorithm based on updating a deviation matrix that represents angle, distance and size variations of the objects. The speed of the tracked objects is monitored throughout the algorithm. When the speed of an approaching object surpasses the safety threshold, the alarm necklace is triggered indicating the approaching direction of the fast moving object. The alarm necklace is equipped with three motors that can indicate five directions with respect to the user: left, back, right, left-back and right-back. We performed three types of outdoor experiments (object passing, approaching and crossing that

  17. Accident diagnosis system based on real-time decision tree expert system (United States)

    Nicolau, Andressa dos S.; Augusto, João P. da S. C.; Schirru, Roberto


    Safety is one of the most studied topics when referring to power stations. For that reason, sensors and alarms develop an important role in environmental and human protection. When abnormal event happens, it triggers a chain of alarms that must be, somehow, checked by the control room operators. In this case, diagnosis support system can help operators to accurately identify the possible root-cause of the problem in short time. In this article, we present a computational model of a generic diagnose support system based on artificial intelligence, that was applied on the dataset of two real power stations: Angra1 Nuclear Power Plant and Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Plant. The proposed system processes all the information logged in the sequence of events before a shutdown signal using the expert's knowledge inputted into an expert system indicating the chain of events, from the shutdown signal to its root-cause. The results of both applications showed that the support system is a potential tool to help the control room operators identify abnormal events, as accidents and consequently increase the safety.

  18. The effect of system modeling on the Fukushima accident evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E.; Fontanet, J.; López, C.; Fernández, E.


    The Fukushima accident is becoming both a unique opportunity and a huge challenge for severe accident analysis. The OECD-BSAF project has articulated a good part of the modeling efforts conducted so far. Inside this project, CIEMAT has conducted forensic analyses of the Fukushima accident in units 1 through 3 with MELCOR 2.1 and it has postulated a set of accident scenarios consistent with data. Beyond specific results, sensitivity analyses on safety systems performance and prevailing boundary conditions have highlighted the need of conducting uncertainty analyses when modeling NPPs severe accident scenarios. (Author)

  19. A dispersed alarm system for the elderly and its relevance to local general practitioners (United States)

    McWhirter, Malcolm


    This paper describes the use of a dispersed alarm system for the elderly in the Central region of Scotland. Information from referral forms, questionnaires completed by wardens after a call and client registers were used to investigate the population served, sources of referral and the way the service was used. All the general practitioners working in the area covered by the service were sent a questionnaire asking for their views of the service. In May 1984 the alarm system covered 861 clients in private housing and 1259 in sheltered housing. Over 50% of referrals were from the health services and the most common reasons for referral were poor mobility and falls. False alarms accounted for 40% of calls and they were more likely to be from clients in sheltered housing than in private housing. Of genuine calls 71% were due to illness or disability with 25% due to falls. All of the general practitioners responding to the questionnaire were aware of a patient in their practice covered by the service and considered that the service provided useful 24-hour support for the elderly at risk because of frailty and disability PMID:3448211

  20. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie


    Nurses working in the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit at Aarhus University Hospital lack the tools to prepare children for the alarming atmosphere they will enter when visiting a hospitalised relative. The complex soundscape dominated by alarms and sounds from equipment is mentioned as the main stressor...

  1. Planning an Automatic Fire Detection, Alarm, and Extinguishing System for Research Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostam Golmohamadi


    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Educational and research laboratories in universities have a high risk of fire, because they have a variety of materials and equipment. The aim of this study was to provide a technical plan for safety improvement in educational and research laboratories of a university based on the design of automatic detection, alarm, and extinguishing systems . Methods : In this study, fire risk assessment was performed based on the standard of Military Risk Assessment method (MIL-STD-882. For all laboratories, detection and fire alarm systems and optimal fixed fire extinguishing systems were designed. Results : Maximum and minimum risks of fire were in chemical water and wastewater (81.2% and physical agents (62.5% laboratories, respectively. For studied laboratories, we designed fire detection systems based on heat and smoke detectors. Also in these places, fire-extinguishing systems based on CO2 were designed . Conclusion : Due to high risk of fire in studied laboratories, the best control method for fire prevention and protection based on special features of these laboratories is using automatic detection, warning and fire extinguishing systems using CO2 .

  2. Traffic Accident, System Model and Cluster Analysis in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Vlčková


    Full Text Available One of the many often frequented topics as normal journalism, so the professional public, is the problem of traffic accidents. This article illustrates the orientation of considerations to a less known context of accidents, with the help of constructive systems theory and its methods, cluster analysis and geoinformation engineering. Traffic accident is reframing the space-time, and therefore it can be to study with tools of technology of geographic information systems. The application of system approach enabling the formulation of the system model, grabbed by tools of geoinformation engineering and multicriterial and cluster analysis.

  3. Designing of an emergency call system for traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Ekşi


    Full Text Available In our country, many people have been seriously injured or died in traffic accidents. Fatal accidents often occur because of not complying with traffic rules or carelessness. Except these driver mistakes, heavy injuries can result in deaths because of emergency aid teams failing to arrive to accident scene in time. In this study, an accident emergency call system is designed to help injured people's treatment as soon as possible by notifying emercengy team automatically in accidents. The designed system sends messages, including information such as vehicle location, exploding airbag number, vehicle model, age and registration plate, to emergency aid team using GPS module at the moment of crashed vehicle's airbag explosion.

  4. Observation systems with alarm thresholds and their use in designing underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Lars [Geostatistik AB, Tumba (Sweden); Stille, Haakan [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Soil and Rock Mechanics


    The decision-based methodology described has wide applications in the building process. It can be applied whenever the exact outcome of the work is not known and where countermeasures might be needed. One such application is in the pre-investigations for the siting of spent nuclear fuel facilities aimed at determining the criteria for abandoning work on a given site. It can be seen that the principles of for designing an observation system and determining the alarm threshold are well understood. Several possible theoretical tools are also known, albeit from other disciplines than civil engineering. However, the choice of tools for a real problem should be investigated so that the advantages and drawbacks are illustrated. Reliable methods for designing observation systems in practice are, however, not known and are therefore not in use. A continuation of this study should therefore be aimed at comparing different theoretical tools and examining their practical application, including Quality Assurance and updating. It is therefore suggested that an observation system with alarm thresholds etc should be designed using the principles described in this report and should include testing and comparison of different models for predicting behaviour. This work could be undertaken for a real or for a hypothetical project. A real project is, of course, more difficult but has all the real-world problems that must be solved. A very brief, and not theoretically fully developed, account of the application of an observation system during the expansion of the interim spent fuel storage facility CLAB is enclosed as Appendix 1. Some comments on proposed changes in the system based on the principles set forth in this report are given in Appendix 2.

  5. A case of shotgun injury which occurred while an unconventional home security alarm system was being checked. (United States)

    Asirdizer, Mahmut; Yavuz, Mehmet Sunay


    Installation of devices involving shotguns is rarely encountered in forensic medicine practice. In this case report, authors aimed to present an unusual and rare case of shotgun injury due to a home security alarm system and its legal assessment. An electrical technician was invited to a summer house to check a home security alarm system installed by another firm which he worked for previously. It was an unconventional home security alarm system attached to a shotgun. The technician was injured with 18 buckshot pellets (no: 4) while checking the system. The host was convicted of a possible intent to cause a life-threatening injury to the technician. We think that this verdict will set a precedent for similar cases.

  6. Multi-Sensor Building Fire Alarm System with Information Fusion Technology Based on D-S Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ding


    Full Text Available Multi-sensor and information fusion technology based on Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is applied in the system of a building fire alarm to realize early detecting and alarming. By using a multi-sensor to monitor the parameters of the fire process, such as light, smoke, temperature, gas and moisture, the range of fire monitoring in space and time is expanded compared with a single-sensor system. Then, the D-S evidence theory is applied to fuse the information from the multi-sensor with the specific fire model, and the fire alarm is more accurate and timely. The proposed method can avoid the failure of the monitoring data effectively, deal with the conflicting evidence from the multi-sensor robustly and improve the reliability of fire warning significantly.

  7. The postman always rings twice: two cases of shotgun deaths associated with an unconventional home security alarm system. (United States)

    Asirdizer, Mahmut; Turkmen, Nursel; Akan, Okan; Yavuz, Mehmet Sunay


    Injury and death cases caused by booby traps are not common in forensic medicine practice. Besides, installation of booby traps including firearms is generally for suicidal and rarely for homicidal purposes. Although few patents were described about home security alarm system that were created by firearms in the United States, 1 sample of injury with a similar unconventional mechanism of home safety system was reported by Asirdizer and Yavuz in 2009. In the published case report, the story of an electrical technician who was invited to a summer house by the homeowner to check the home security alarm system was reported. In the so-called report, he was stated to be injured by the shotgun attached to the unconventional home security alarm system while checking the system. As a result, the homeowner was convicted of a possible intent to cause a life-threatening injury to the technician.The so-called homeowner and his wife died by the same shotgun attached to the same unconventional home security alarm system 4 years on from the first event. In the present case report, we have aimed to present the findings of the crime scene and the autopsies of these unusual 2 deaths and to discuss individual and legal factors in paving the way for the deaths of 2 people.

  8. West-Coast Wide Expansion and Testing of the Geodetic Alarm System (G-larmS) (United States)

    Ruhl, C. J.; Grapenthin, R.; Melgar, D.; Aranha, M. A.; Allen, R. M.


    The Geodetic Alarm System (G-larmS) was developed in collaboration between the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) and New Mexico Tech for real-time Earthquake Early Warning (EEW). G-larmS has been in continuous operation at the BSL since 2014 using event triggers from the ShakeAlert EEW system and real-time position time series from a fully triangulated network consisting of BARD, PBO and USGS stations across northern California (CA). G-larmS has been extended to include southern CA and Cascadia, providing continuous west-coast wide coverage. G-larmS currently uses high rate (1 Hz), low latency (6.5) in CA and Cascadia built from realistic 3D geometries. Synthetic long-period 1Hz displacement waveforms were obtained from a new stochastic kinematic slip distribution generation method. Waveforms are validated by direct comparison to peak P-wave displacement scaling laws and to PGD GMPEs obtained from high-rate GPS observations of large events worldwide. We run the scenarios on real-time streams to systematically test the recovery of slip and magnitude by G-larmS. In addition to presenting these results, we will discuss new capabilities, such as implementing 2D geometry and the applicability of these results to GPS enhanced tsunami warning systems.

  9. Transformation of ground vibration signal for debris-flow monitoring and detection in alarm systems. (United States)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Fritschi, Bruno; Graf, Christoph; Moya, José


    Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems.

  10. CERN Alarms Data Management: State And Improvements

    CERN Document Server

    Zaharieva, Z


    The CERN Alarms System - LASER is a centralized service ensuring the capturing, storing and notification of anomalies for the whole accelerator chain, including the technical infrastructure at CERN. The underlying database holds the pre-defined configuration data for the alarm definitions, for the Operators alarms consoles as well as the time-stamped, run-time alarm events, propagated through the Alarms Systems. The article will discuss the current state of the Alarms database and recent improvements that have been introduced. It will look into the data management challenges related to the alarms configuration data that is taken from numerous sources. Specially developed Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) processes must be applied to this data in order to transform it into an appropriate format and load it into the Alarms database. The recorded alarms events together with some additional data, necessary for providing events statistics to users, are transferred to the long-term alarms archive.The article will cover...

  11. Utilization of GSM Module (Sim 900 Based Arduino-Uno for Alarm System and Remote Automatic Door Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzi Fauzi


    Full Text Available Sebuah sistem alarm dan pengunci pintu otomatis jarak jauh untuk keamanan rumah telah dibuat. Otomatisasi kunci pintu rumah ini beroperasi dengan menggunakan perintah yang dikirimkan oleh pemilik rumah melalui pesan singkat melalui handphone sehingga keamanan rumah akan tetap dapat dikendalikan meski dari jarak yang jauh. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membangun otomatisasi rumah pintar yang mampu melakukan dua hal yakni mengunci pintu dan menyalakan alarm dengan menggunakan mikrokontroler Arduino-uno dan modul GSM. Pengontrolan secara otomatis tersebut cukup kompleks dan memerlukan berbagai komponen yang terintegrasi dengan kemampuan pembacaan masukan, pemrosesan data dan pengontrolan keluaran secara bersamaan dan terprogram.  A remote door automatic alarm and door lock system for home security has been designed. This home door lock automation operates using commands sent by homeowners via short messages from handphone so that home security will remain controllable even from a long distance. This study aims to build smart home automation that can do two things: lock the door and turn on the alarm by using Arduino-uno microcontroller and GSM module. The automatic control is quite complex and requires a variety of integrated components with the ability to read input, data processing and control the output simultaneously and programmed.   Keywords: Arduino, GSM, Automatic Doors, SMS Rerefences Depari, G.S. (1985. Belajar Teori dan Keterampilan Elektronika. Bandung: Armico Daryanto, 2005. Pengetahuan Teknik Elektronika. Erlangga. Jakarta. Session, Kendall Webster, 2003. 1001 Rangkaian Elektronika. PT. Elek Media Komputindo Kelompok Gramedia, Jakarta. Sustrisno, 1986, Elektronika Teori dan penerapanya. Penerbit ITB, Bandung

  12. 'Remixing Rasmussen': The evolution of Accimaps within systemic accident analysis. (United States)

    Waterson, Patrick; Jenkins, Daniel P; Salmon, Paul M; Underwood, Peter


    Throughout Jens Rasmussen's career there has been a continued emphasis on the development of methods, techniques and tools for accident analysis and investigation. In this paper we focus on the evolution and development of one specific example, namely Accimaps and their use for accident analysis. We describe the origins of Accimaps followed by a review of 27 studies which have applied and adapted Accimaps over the period 2000-2015 to a range of domains and types of accident. Aside from demonstrating the versatility and popularity of the method, part of the motivation for the review of the use of Accimaps is to address the question of what constitutes a sound, usable, valid and reliable approach to systemic accident analysis. The findings from the review demonstrate continuity with the work carried out by Rasmussen, as well as significant variation (e.g., changes to the Accimap, used of additional theoretical and practice-oriented perspectives on safety). We conclude the paper with some speculations regarding future extension and adaptation of the Accimap approach including the possibility of using hybrid models for accident analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Central nervous system affecting drugs and road traffic accidents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These accidents (RTA) have been attributed to various causes including driving under the influence of drugs that affect the central nervous system (CNS). Objective: This study was aimed at determining the role of CNS affecting drugs in the causation of RTA among these motorcyclists and also to make recommendations ...

  14. 78 FR 6732 - Changes to Standard Numbering System, Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report... (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 173, 174, 181, and 187 RIN 1625-AB45 Changes to Standard Numbering System, Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report Database AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Rule... Numbering System, Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report Database rule became effective...

  15. 77 FR 18689 - Changes to Standard Numbering System, Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report... (United States)


    ..., Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report Database AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Standard Numbering System (SNS), the Vessel Identification System, and accident reporting; require... Vessel Identification System II. Regulatory History On May 7, 2010, we published a notice of proposed...

  16. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  17. Automatically Identifying and Predicting Unplanned Wind Turbine Stoppages Using SCADA and Alarms System Data: Case Study and Results (United States)

    Leahy, Kevin; Gallagher, Colm; Bruton, Ken; O’Donovan, Peter; O’Sullivan, Dominic T. J.


    Using 10-minute wind turbine SCADA data for fault prediction offers an attractive way of gaining additional prognostic capabilities without needing to invest in extra hardware. To use these data-driven methods effectively, the historical SCADA data must be labelled with the periods when the turbine was in faulty operation as well the sub-system the fault was attributed to. Manually identifying faults using maintenance logs can be effective, but is also highly time consuming and tedious due to the disparate nature of these logs across manufacturers, operators and even individual maintenance events. Turbine alarm systems can help to identify these periods, but the sheer volume of alarms and false positives generated makes analysing them on an individual basis ineffective. In this work, we present a new method for automatically identifying historical stoppages on the turbine using SCADA and alarms data. Each stoppage is associated with either a fault in one of the turbine’s sub-systems, a routine maintenance activity, a grid-related event or a number of other categories. This is then checked against maintenance logs for accuracy and the labelled data fed into a classifier for predicting when these stoppages will occur. Results show that the automated labelling process correctly identifies each type of stoppage, and can be effectively used for SCADA-based prediction of turbine faults.

  18. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Rollstin, J.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Helton, J.C. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))


    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs.

  19. Development of Integrated Evaluation System for Severe Accident Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. H.; Park, S. Y.; Park, J. H.; Song, Y. M.; Ahn, K. I.; Choi, Y


    The objective of the project is twofold. One is to develop a severe accident database (DB) for the Korean Standard Nuclear Power plant (OPR-1000) and a DB management system, and the other to develop a localized computer code, MIDAS (Multi-purpose IntegrateD Assessment code for Severe accidents). The MELCOR DB has been constructed for the typical representative sequences to support the previous MAAP DB in the previous phase. The MAAP DB has been updated using the recent version of MAAP 4.0.6. The DB management system, SARD, has been upgraded to manage the MELCOR DB in addition to the MAAP DB and the network environment has been constructed for many users to access the SARD simultaneously. The integrated MIDAS 1.0 has been validated after completion of package-wise validation. As the current version of MIDAS cannot simulate the anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) sequence, point-kinetics model has been implemented. Also the gap cooling phenomena after corium relocation into the RPV can be modeled by the user as an input parameter. In addition, the subsystems of the severe accident graphic simulator are complemented for the efficient severe accident management and the engine of the graphic simulator was replaced by the MIDAS instead of the MELCOR code. For the user's convenience, MIDAS input and output processors are upgraded by enhancing the interfacial programs.

  20. Fundamental Principles of Alarm Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Us, Tolga; Jensen, Niels; Lind, Morten


    be applied to any engineering system which can be modeled by MFM. The methodology provides a set of alarms which can facilitate event interpretation and operator support for abnormal situation management. The proposed design methodology provides the information content of the alarms, but does not deal...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Cieplak


    Full Text Available The article shows a case study of Cloud Computing model combined with AT-Mega microcontrollers for educational purposes. The presented system takes advantage of many aspects of Internet of Things model, thus conjoining Cloud Management system with measurement-execution module based on Arduino platform. One benefit of this solution is a cost-effective way of showcasing machine and device integration with distinct cloud services. This article is based on practical experience with students' projects and an home alarm system with use of a Cloud Computing services will be described.

  2. Fault Analysis and Solution on Bucket Dropping Accident in Hoisting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Liu


    Full Text Available Overwinding was the main accident in lifting systems of coal mine and bucket dropping accident was the most serious overwinding accident. According to the cause and mechanism of the bucket dropping accident in main shaft hoisting systems, the conclusion that overloading promotion was the main cause of bucket crash accident was obtained with the fault tree analysis method. One theoretical analysis model was established in order to prevent the occurrence of overloaded bucket dropping accident. The model provided scientific basis and steps in theory for qualitative and quantitative analysis on the cause of falling bucket accident and for the study on accident prediction and prevention. This article proposed several feasible technical measures to prevent the bucket crash accident, which had important guiding significance in practical application.

  3. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China. (United States)

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin


    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP) was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.

  4. Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRS - A Preliminary Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles Youinou; R. Sonat Sen


    The severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plants illustrates the need for continuous improvements through developing and implementing technologies that contribute to safe, reliable and cost-effective operation of the nuclear fleet. Development of enhanced accident tolerant fuel contributes to this effort. These fuels, in comparison with the standard zircaloy – UO2 system currently used by the LWR industry, should be designed such that they tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, and design-basis events. This report presents a preliminary systems analysis related to most of these concepts. The potential impacts of these innovative LWR fuels on the front-end of the fuel cycle, on the reactor operation and on the back-end of the fuel cycle are succinctly described without having the pretension of being exhaustive. Since the design of these various concepts is still a work in progress, this analysis can only be preliminary and could be updated as the designs converge on their respective final version.

  5. Improvement of the following accident dose assessment system (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Enn Han; Han, Moon Hee; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae; Choi, Young Gil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)


    The FADAS and its database have been updates for calculating the real-time wind fields continuously at the nuclear sites in Korea. The system has been constructed to compute the wind fields using its own process for the dummy meteorological data, and does not effect on the overall wind field module. If the radioactive materials are released into the atmosphere in real situation, the calculations of wind fields and exposure dose in the previous FADAS are performed in the case of the recognition of the above situation in the source term evaluation module. The current version of FADAS includes the program for evaluating the effect of the predicted accident and the assumed scenario together. The dose assessment module is separated into the real-time and the supposed accident respectively. 7 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  6. Improvement of the following accident dose assessment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Enn Han; Han, Moon Hee; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae; Choi, Young Gil [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The FADAS has been updates for calculating the real-time wind fields continuously at the nuclear sites in Korea. The system has been constructed to compute the wind fields using its own process for the dummy meteorological data, and dose not effect on the overall wind field module. If the radioactive materials are released into the atmosphere in real situation, the calculations of wind fields and exposure dose in the previous FADAS are performed in the case of the recognition of the above situation in the source term evaluation module. The current version of FADAS includes the program for evaluating the effect of the predicted accident and the assumed scenario together. The dose assessment module is separated into the real-time and the supposed accident respectively.

  7. Predicting System Accidents with Model Analysis During Hybrid Simulation (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land D.; Throop, David R.


    Standard discrete event simulation is commonly used to identify system bottlenecks and starving and blocking conditions in resources and services. The CONFIG hybrid discrete/continuous simulation tool can simulate such conditions in combination with inputs external to the simulation. This provides a means for evaluating the vulnerability to system accidents of a system's design, operating procedures, and control software. System accidents are brought about by complex unexpected interactions among multiple system failures , faulty or misleading sensor data, and inappropriate responses of human operators or software. The flows of resource and product materials play a central role in the hazardous situations that may arise in fluid transport and processing systems. We describe the capabilities of CONFIG for simulation-time linear circuit analysis of fluid flows in the context of model-based hazard analysis. We focus on how CONFIG simulates the static stresses in systems of flow. Unlike other flow-related properties, static stresses (or static potentials) cannot be represented by a set of state equations. The distribution of static stresses is dependent on the specific history of operations performed on a system. We discuss the use of this type of information in hazard analysis of system designs.

  8. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the smoke...

  9. Identifying Causality from Alarm Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten

    on an abstracted model of the mass and energy flows in the system. The application of MFM for root cause analysis based alarm grouping has been demonstrated and can be extended to reason about the direction of causality considering the entirety of the alarms present in the system for more comprehensive decision...... and consequences. This extended analysis results in causal paths from likely root causes to tentative consequences, providing the operator with a comprehensive tool to not only identify but also rank the criticality of a large number of concurrent alarms in the system....... support. This contribution presents the foundation for combining the cause and consequence propagation of multiple observations from the system based on an MFM model. The proposed logical reasoning matches actually observed alarms to the propagation analysis in MFM to distinguish plausible causes...

  10. An Accident Precursor Analysis Process Tailored for NASA Space Systems (United States)

    Groen, Frank; Stamatelatos, Michael; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Maggio, Gaspare


    Accident Precursor Analysis (APA) serves as the bridge between existing risk modeling activities, which are often based on historical or generic failure statistics, and system anomalies, which provide crucial information about the failure mechanisms that are actually operative in the system and which may differ in frequency or type from those in the various models. These discrepancies between the models (perceived risk) and the system (actual risk) provide the leading indication of an underappreciated risk. This paper presents an APA process developed specifically for NASA Earth-to-Orbit space systems. The purpose of the process is to identify and characterize potential sources of system risk as evidenced by anomalous events which, although not necessarily presenting an immediate safety impact, may indicate that an unknown or insufficiently understood risk-significant condition exists in the system. Such anomalous events are considered accident precursors because they signal the potential for severe consequences that may occur in the future, due to causes that are discernible from their occurrence today. Their early identification allows them to be integrated into the overall system risk model used to intbrm decisions relating to safety.

  11. Informational ecology and care workers: Safety alarm systems in Finnish elderly-care organizations. (United States)

    Melkas, Helinä


    This article explores the use of information and communication technologies including safety alarm technologies and their impacts on elderly-care organizations' informational ecology, or internal information environment. Results are reported from a case study on the use of safety telephones and high-tech well-being wristbands that monitor vital signs in Finnish elderly-care organizations. Data collection involved human impact assessment methodologies including interviews and longer-term assessment processes among 78 care workers at 8 workplaces offering sheltered accommodation. The assessment results were analyzed qualitatively, also with the help of the concept of information quality. Changes in the informational ecology were identified; informational ecology in a care unit is in many ways affected by technology use. The human impact assessment methodologies and the topic of information quality offered useful and novel points of view about daily care work in increasingly technological environments.

  12. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Three bounding accidents postdated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing, and a hydrogen explosion. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  13. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PIEPHO, M.G.


    Four bounding accidents postulated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing a hydrogen explosion, and a fire breaching filter vessel and enclosure. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  14. Future Integrated Systems Concept for Preventing Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accidents (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Jacobson, Steven r.


    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper presents future system concepts and research directions for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents.

  15. Analysis of Alerting System Failures in Commercial Aviation Accidents (United States)

    Mumaw, Randall J.


    The role of an alerting system is to make the system operator (e.g., pilot) aware of an impending hazard or unsafe state so the hazard can be avoided or managed successfully. A review of 46 commercial aviation accidents (between 1998 and 2014) revealed that, in the vast majority of events, either the hazard was not alerted or relevant hazard alerting occurred but failed to aid the flight crew sufficiently. For this set of events, alerting system failures were placed in one of five phases: Detection, Understanding, Action Selection, Prioritization, and Execution. This study also reviewed the evolution of alerting system schemes in commercial aviation, which revealed naive assumptions about pilot reliability in monitoring flight path parameters; specifically, pilot monitoring was assumed to be more effective than it actually is. Examples are provided of the types of alerting system failures that have occurred, and recommendations are provided for alerting system improvements.

  16. Centrifugal Filtration System for Severe Accident Source Term Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shu Chang; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The objective of this paper is to present the conceptual design of a filtration system that can be used to process airborne severe accident source term. Reactor containment may lose its structural integrity due to over-pressurization during a severe accident. This can lead to uncontrolled radioactive releases to the environment. For preventing the dispersion of these uncontrolled radioactive releases to the environment, several ways to capture or mitigate these radioactive source term releases are under investigation at KAIST. Such technologies are based on concepts like a vortex-like air curtain, a chemical spray, and a suction arm. Treatment of the radioactive material captured by these systems would be required, before releasing to environment. For current filtration systems in the nuclear industry, IAEA lists sand, multi-venturi scrubber, high efficiency particulate arresting (HEPA), charcoal and combinations of the above in NS-G-1-10, 4.143. Most if not all of the requirements of the scenario for applying this technology near the containment of an NPP site and the environmental constraints were analyzed for use in the design of the centrifuge filtration system.

  17. A Modular Telerobot Control System for Accident Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Robert J.; Shirey, David L.


    The Accident Response Mobile Manipulator System (ARMMS) is a teleoperated emergency response vehicle that deploys two hydraulic manipulators, five cameras, and an array of sensors to the scene of an incident. It is operated from a remote base station that can be situated up to four kilometers away from the site. Recently, a modular telerobot control architecture called SMART (Sandia's Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) was applied to ARMMS to improve the precision, safety, and operability of the manipulators on board. Using SMART, a prototype manipulator control system was developed in a couple of days, and an integrated working system was demonstrated within a couple of months. New capabilities such as camera teleoperation, autonomous tool changeout and dual manipulator control have been incorporated. The final system incorporates twenty-two separate modules and implements eight different behavior modes. This paper describes the integration of SMART into the ARMMS system.

  18. Development of the severe accident risk information database management system SARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kwang Il; Kim, Dong Ha


    The main purpose of this report is to introduce essential features and functions of a severe accident risk information management system, SARD (Severe Accident Risk Database Management System) version 1.0, which has been developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, and database management and data retrieval procedures through the system. The present database management system has powerful capabilities that can store automatically and manage systematically the plant-specific severe accident analysis results for core damage sequences leading to severe accidents, and search intelligently the related severe accident risk information. For that purpose, the present database system mainly takes into account the plant-specific severe accident sequences obtained from the Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs), base case analysis results for various severe accident sequences (such as code responses and summary for key-event timings), and related sensitivity analysis results for key input parameters/models employed in the severe accident codes. Accordingly, the present database system can be effectively applied in supporting the Level 2 PSA of similar plants, for fast prediction and intelligent retrieval of the required severe accident risk information for the specific plant whose information was previously stored in the database system, and development of plant-specific severe accident management strategies.

  19. Developement of integrated evaluation system for severe accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, H. D.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. H.; Choi, Y.; Song, Y. M.; Ahn, K. I.; Park, J. H


    The scope of the project includes four activities such as construction of DB, development of data base management tool, development of severe accident analysis code system and FP studies. In the construction of DB, level-1,2 PSA results and plant damage states event trees were mainly used to select the following target initiators based on frequencies: LLOCA, MLOCA, SLOCA, station black out, LOOP, LOFW and SGTR. These scenarios occupy more than 95% of the total frequencies of the core damage sequences at KSNP. In the development of data base management tool, SARD 2.0 was developed under the PC microsoft windows environment using the visual basic 6.0 language. In the development of severe accident analysis code system, MIDAS 1.0 was developed with new features of FORTRAN-90 which makes it possible to allocate the storage dynamically and to use the user-defined data type, leading to an efficient memory treatment and an easy understanding. Also for user's convenience, the input (IEDIT) and output (IPLOT) processors were developed and implemented into the MIDAS code. For the model development of MIDAS concerning the FP behavior, the one dimensional thermophoresis model was developed and it gave much improvement to predict the amount of FP deposited on the SG U-tube. Also the source term analysis methodology was set up and applied to the KSNP and APR1400.

  20. Development of ultrasonic high temperature system for severe accidents research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Young Ro and others


    The aims of this study are to find a gap formation between corium melt and the reactor lower head vessel, to verify the principle of the gap formation and to analyze the effect of the gap formation on the thermal behavior of corium melt and the lower plenum. This report aims at suggesting development of a new high temperature measuring system using an ultrasonic method which overcomes the limitations of the present thermocouple method used for severe accident experiments. Also, this report describes the design and manufacturing method of the ultrasonic system. At that time, the sensor element is fabricated to a reflective element using 1mm diameter and 50 mm and 80 mm long tungsten alloy wires. This temperature measuring system is intended to measure up to 2800 deg C.

  1. Overview of main accident parameters in car-to-cyclist accidents for use in AEB-system test protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, J.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Montfort, S. van


    The number of fatalities in road traffic accidents in Europe is decreasing. Unfortunately, the number of fatalities among cyclists does not follow this trend with the same rate [1]. The au-tomotive industry is making a significant effort in the development and implementation of safety systems in

  2. A database system for the management of severe accident risk information, SARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, K. I.; Kim, D. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this paper is to introduce main features and functions of a PC Windows-based database management system, SARD, which has been developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for automatic management and search of the severe accident risk information. Main functions of the present database system are implemented by three closely related, but distinctive modules: (1) fixing of an initial environment for data storage and retrieval, (2) automatic loading and management of accident information, and (3) automatic search and retrieval of accident information. For this, the present database system manipulates various form of the plant-specific severe accident risk information, such as dominant severe accident sequences identified from the plant-specific Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and accident sequence-specific information obtained from the representative severe accident codes (e.g., base case and sensitivity analysis results, and summary for key plant responses). The present database system makes it possible to implement fast prediction and intelligent retrieval of the required severe accident risk information for various accident sequences, and in turn it can be used for the support of the Level 2 PSA of similar plants and for the development of plant-specific severe accident management strategies.

  3. Technical Basis for the Use of Alarming Personal Criticality Detectors to Augment Permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in Areas Not Normally Occupied

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, K R


    The technical basis for the use of alarming personal criticality detectors (APCDs) to augment permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in areas not normally occupied is evaluated. All applicable DOE O 420.1A and ANSI/ANS-8.3-1997 criticality alarm system requirements and recommendations are evaluated for applicability to APCDs. Based on this evaluation, design criteria and administrative requirements are presented for APCDs. Siemens EPD/Mk-2 and EPD-N devices are shown to meet the design criteria. A definition of not normally occupied is also presented.

  4. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” ...

  5. Accidental knowledge: Using accidents and other project failures to inform research in systems engineering (United States)

    Sorenson, Diane C.

    Projects experience cost overruns, late deliveries, quality issues, cancellation, and accidents despite the best efforts of the systems engineering community. There is relatively little research on why systems engineering failures in general happen, but a substantial body of work on accident causation. Here, we investigate whether systems failures in general exhibit the same patterns of causation as accidents. We conducted a review of existing accident models to develop a model that could be applied to all types of project failures. Our model helped us to classify where the factors occur during the system development/system operation phases and which entity was involved in each factor. We analyzed 58 failure case studies. The failure cases span non-accidents, accidents, and dual failures. The sources for each subset had varying depth and scope of investigation. We developed a coding method to compare the factors between failure cases that broke each factor down into an "actor-action-object" structure. We further generalized the actions from the "actor-action-object" strings into control flaws so that we could analyze the failure cases at a high level. We analyzed the control flaws, actions, and actors for each failure case and compared the results for accidents and non-accidents. Of our results that we could not attribute to study biases, we found similarities and differences between project failure causation. We also identified which control flaws, actions, and actors were the most prevalent in the different types of project failures. Of all the actions, "failure to consider factor in system development" contributed most to non-accidents, while "failure to consider step in risk management" contributed the most to accidents. Of all the actors, "company management" contributed the most to non-accidents and accidents.

  6. 46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations... (United States)


    ... more gross tons with sleeping accommodations for more than six persons. 113.25-30 Section 113.25-30... for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations for more than six persons. The general emergency alarm system for a barge of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations for more...

  7. 33 CFR 149.421 - What is the requirement for a previously approved fire detection and alarm system on a deepwater... (United States)


    ... previously approved fire detection and alarm system on a deepwater port? 149.421 Section 149.421 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting...

  8. Midair collisions - The accidents, the systems, and the Realpolitik (United States)

    Wiener, E. L.


    Two midair collisions occurring in 1978 are described, and the air traffic control system and procedures in use at the time, human factors implications and political consequences of the accidents are examined. The first collision occurred in Memphis and involved a Falcon jet and a Cessna 150 in a situation in which the controllers handling each aircraft were not aware of the presence of the other aircraft until it was too late. The second occurred in San Diego four months later, when a Boeing 727 on a visual approach struck a Cessna 172 from the rear. Following the San Diego collision there arose a great deal of investigative activity, resulting in suggestions for tighter control on visual flight rules aircraft and the expansion of positive control airspace. These issues then led to a political battle involving general aviation, the FAA and the Congress. It is argued, however, that the collisions were in fact system-induced errors resulting from an air traffic control system which emphasizes airspace allocation and politics rather than the various human factors problems facing pilots and controllers.

  9. Implementation guidance for industrial-level security systems using radio frequency alarm links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swank, R.G.


    Spread spectrum (SS) RF transmission technologies have properties that make the transmitted signal difficult to intercept, interpret, and jam. The digital code used in the modulation process results in a signal that has high reception reliability and supports multiple use of frequency bands and selective addressing. These attributes and the relatively low installation cost of RF systems make SSRF technologies candidate for communications links in security systems used for industrial sites, remote locations, and where trenching or other disturbances of soil or structures may not be desirable or may be costly. This guide provides a description of such a system and presents implementation methods that may be of engineering benefit.

  10. False alarms and missed events: the impact and origins of perceived inaccuracy in tornado warning systems. (United States)

    Ripberger, Joseph T; Silva, Carol L; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Carlson, Deven E; James, Mark; Herron, Kerry G


    Theory and conventional wisdom suggest that errors undermine the credibility of tornado warning systems and thus decrease the probability that individuals will comply (i.e., engage in protective action) when future warnings are issued. Unfortunately, empirical research on the influence of warning system accuracy on public responses to tornado warnings is incomplete and inconclusive. This study adds to existing research by analyzing two sets of relationships. First, we assess the relationship between perceptions of accuracy, credibility, and warning response. Using data collected via a large regional survey, we find that trust in the National Weather Service (NWS; the agency responsible for issuing tornado warnings) increases the likelihood that an individual will opt for protective action when responding to a hypothetical warning. More importantly, we find that subjective perceptions of warning system accuracy are, as theory suggests, systematically related to trust in the NWS and (by extension) stated responses to future warnings. The second half of the study matches survey data against NWS warning and event archives to investigate a critical follow-up question--Why do some people perceive that their warning system is accurate, whereas others perceive that their system is error prone? We find that subjective perceptions are--in part-a function of objective experience, knowledge, and demographic characteristics. When considered in tandem, these findings support the proposition that errors influence perceptions about the accuracy of warning systems, which in turn impact the credibility that people assign to information provided by systems and, ultimately, public decisions about how to respond when warnings are issued. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. W-026, acceptance test report fire alarm system (submittal number 1571.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, T.L., Westinghouse Hanford


    This Acceptance Test Report was written by 3-D Protection Systems, Inc., and PCL Construction. WRAP I Facility Engineering, Solid Waste Fire Safety, Kaiser Acceptance Inspector and Hanford Fire Department personnel witnessed this test. All exceptions were resolved. The resolutions are attached. Contractor`s Material and Test Certificates are attached. Results from Solid Waste Industrial Hygiene sound level surveys are also included.

  12. Analysis of Waste Leak and Toxic Chemical Release Accidents from Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Diluent System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Radiological and toxicological consequences are calculated for 4 postulated accidents involving the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) diluent addition systems. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated. This analysis contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences for the River Protection Project (RPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).

  13. Application of the Severe Accident Code ATHLET-CD. Coolant injection to primary circuit of a PWR by mobile pump system in case of SBLOCA severe accident scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobst, Matthias; Wilhelm, Polina; Kliem, Soeren; Kozmenkov, Yaroslav [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Reactor Safety


    The improvement of the safety of nuclear power plants is a continuously on-going process. The analysis of transients and accidents is an important research topic, which significantly contributes to safety enhancements of existing power plants. In case of an accident with multiple failures of safety systems, core uncovery and heat-up can occur. In order to prevent the accident to turn into a severe one or to mitigate the consequences of severe accidents, different accident management measures can be applied. By means of numerical analyses performed with the compute code ATHLET-CD, the effectiveness of coolant injection with a mobile pump system into the primary circuit of a PWR was studied. According to the analyses, such a system can stop the melt progression if it is activated prior to 10 % of total core is molten.

  14. Analysis of Fukushima unit 2 accident considering the operating conditions of RCIC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il, E-mail:; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon; Cho, Song-Won; Song, JinHo


    Highlights: • Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR 1.8.6. • RCIC operating conditions were assumed and best case was selected. • Effect of RCIC operating condition on accident scenario was found. - Abstract: A severe accident in Fukushima occurred on March 11, 2011 and units 1, 2 and 3 were damaged severely. A tsunami following an earthquake made the supply of electricity power stop, and the safety systems, which use AC or DC power in plants could not operate properly. It is supposed that the degree of core degradation of unit 2 is less serious than in the other plants, and it was estimated that the operation of reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at the initial stage of the accident minimized the core damage through decay heat removal. Although the operating conditions of the RCIC system are not known clearly, it can be important to analyze the accident scenario of unit 2. In this study, best case of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was presented considering the operating conditions of the RCIC system. The effects of operating condition on core degradation and fission product release rate to environment were also examined. In addition, importance of torus room flooding level in the accident analysis was discussed. MELCOR 1.8.6 was used in this research, and the geometries of plant and operating conditions of safety system were obtained from TEPCO through OECD/NEA BSAF Project.

  15. Study on Mobile Object Positioning and Alarming System Based on the “Map World” in the Core Area of the Silk Road Economic Belt (United States)

    Mu, Kai


    The established “Map World” on the National Geographic Information Public Service Platform offers free access to many geographic information in the Core Area of the Silk Road Economic Belt. Considering the special security situation and severe splittism and anti-splittism struggles in the Core Area of the Silk Road Economic Belt, a set of moving target positioning and alarming platform based on J2EE platform and B/S structure was designed and realized by combining the “Map World” data and global navigation satellite system. This platform solves various problems, such as effective combination of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and “Map World” resources, moving target alarming setting, inquiry of historical routes, system management, etc.

  16. Causative Chain Difference for each Type of Accidents in Japanese Maritime Traffic Systems (MTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanginingastuti Mutmainnah


    Full Text Available Causative chain (CC is a failure chain that cause accident as an outcome product of the second step of MOP model, namely line relation analysis (LRA. This CC is a connection of several causative factors (CF, an outcome product of first step of MOP model, namely corner analysis (CA. MOP Model is an abbreviation from 4M Overturned Pyramid, created by authors by combining 2 accident analysis models. There are two steps in this model, namely CA and LRA. Utilizing this model can know what is CF that happen dominantly to the accidents and what is a danger CC that characterize accidents in a certain place and certain period. By knowing the characteristics, the preventive action can be decided to decrease the number of accident in the next period. The aim of this paper is providing the development of MOP Model that has been upgraded and understanding the characteristics of each type accident. The data that is analyzed in this paper is Japanese accidents from 2008 until 2013, which is available on Japan Transportation Safety Board (JTSB’s website. The analysis shows that every type of accidents has a unique characteristic, shown by their CFs and CCs. However, Man Factor is still playing role to the system dominantly.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian Dyre; Ronald Boring; David Gertman


    Decision support for operators is not new, and much has been written regarding the potential usefulness of digital support systems and alarm filtering strategies. However, determining the appropriate characteristics of decision support tools is difficult, especially when alarms can vary in the manner which diagnostic information is formulated and displayed and when event scenario types are complex and numerous. When first reviewed, the advantages or disadvantages of a particular alarm approach may not be apparent to the designer or analyst. The present research focuses on the review of two particular alarm strategies, binary alarm type (BAT) and likelihood alarm type (LAT), and reviews their influence upon accuracy, bias, and trust for tasks performed at a computer workstation capable of replicating a series of control-room-like alarms. The findings are discussed in terms of the of the performance advantages of likelihood alarm technology and related research as an aid to the alarm design process.

  18. Human error analysis of commercial aviation accidents using the human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS) (United States)


    The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is a general human error framework : originally developed and tested within the U.S. military as a tool for investigating and analyzing the human : causes of aviation accidents. Based upon ...

  19. Cellular automata model simulating traffic car accidents in the on-ramp system (United States)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.


    In this paper, using Nagel-Schreckenberg model we study the on-ramp system under the expanded open boundary condition. The phase diagram of the two-lane on-ramp system is computed. It is found that the expanded left boundary insertion strategy enhances the flow in the on-ramp lane. Furthermore, we have studied the probability of the occurrence of car accidents. We distinguish two types of car accidents: the accident at the on-ramp site (Prc) and the rear-end accident in the main road (Pac). It is shown that car accidents at the on-ramp site are more likely to occur when traffic is free on road A. However, the rear-end accidents begin to occur above a critical injecting rate αc1. The influence of the on-ramp length (LB) and position (xC0) on the car accidents probabilities is studied. We found that large LB or xC0 causes an important decrease of the probability Prc. However, only large xC0 provokes an increase of the probability Pac. The effect of the stochastic randomization is also computed.

  20. Smart smoke alarm (United States)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A; Frank, Steven Shane


    Methods and apparatus for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a smoke detector uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether observed conditions indicate that an alarm is warranted.

  1. Security Alarm for Motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ismail


    Full Text Available A security alarm for motorcycle has been developed. This equipment consists of two parts. Part one is as a remote control, where it produces a radio signal with frequency of 37.5 MHz to turn on (activate or to turn off alarm. Part two consists of sensor, receiver to receive signal from part one, and alarm. This part two will be attached to motorcycle while part one will be kept as a key by the owner of motorcycle. This equipment has been tested in the laboratory and it worked well. When part two is activated by pushing the “set button” in part one, then any movement of part two (as a movement of motor cycle by about 20 cm from initial position will cause the alarm sounds continuously. The alarm will be off whenever the “reset button” in part one is pushed. Part one (a remote control can activate part two with a maximum of twelve meter separation apart. This shows that the equipment can be used as a security alarm to prevent the motorcycle to be stolen in the future.

  2. Development of a system of computer codes for severe accident analysis and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, S. H.; Chun, S. W.; Jang, H. S. and others [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    As a continuing study for the development of a system of computer codes to analyze severe accidents which had been performed last year, major focuses were on the aspect of application of the developed code systems. As the first step, two most commonly used code packages other than STCP, i.e., MELCOR of NRC and MAAP of IDCOR were reviewed to compare the models that they used. Next, important heat transfer phenomena were surveyed as severe accident progressed. Particularly, debris bed coolability and molten core-concrete interaction were selected as sample models, and they were studied extensively. The recent theoretical works and experiments for these phenomena were surveyed, and also the relevant models adopted by major code packages were compared and assessed. Based on the results obtained in this study, it is expected to be able to take into account these phenomenological uncertainties when one uses the severe accident code packages for probabilistic safety assessments or accident management programs.

  3. Study on the code system for the off-site consequences assessment of severe nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sora; Mn, Byung Il; Park, Ki Hyun; Yang, Byung Mo; Suh, Kyung Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The importance of severe nuclear accidents and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) were brought to international attention with the occurrence of severe nuclear accidents caused by the extreme natural disaster at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. In Korea, studies on level 3 PSA had made little progress until recently. The code systems of level 3 PSA, MACCS2 (MELCORE Accident Consequence Code System 2, US), COSYMA (COde SYstem from MAria, EU) and OSCAAR (Off-Site Consequence Analysis code for Atmospheric Releases in reactor accidents, JAPAN), were reviewed in this study, and the disadvantages and limitations of MACCS2 were also analyzed. Experts from Korea and abroad pointed out that the limitations of MACCS2 include the following: MACCS2 cannot simulate multi-unit accidents/release from spent fuel pools, and its atmospheric dispersion is based on a simple Gaussian plume model. Some of these limitations have been improved in the updated versions of MACCS2. The absence of a marine and aquatic dispersion model and the limited simulating range of food-chain and economic models are also important aspects that need to be improved. This paper is expected to be utilized as basic research material for developing a Korean code system for assessing off-site consequences of severe nuclear accidents.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study suggests Bonus-Malus System (BMS to minimize the occupational accidents in Turkey. Having a 12-class structure with a specific premium ratio for each class considering the number of accidents, the suggested system depends on the principle that the premium ratios should vary according to the number of accidents occurring in a given business. To enter the system, all businesses start from class 6, with a premium ratio of 2%. For the calculation of premium ratios for each class, the expected value principle is used. It is observed by using Markov chains that the system reaches the steady state in 45 years’ time and the changes in the premium income of Social Security Institution (SSI according to the distribution of businesses according to accident in the 5th, 10th, 20th, and 45th years are investigated. As a result, it is seen that the premium income of SSI will, in the course of time, decrease with BMS. In return, it is predicted that business are likely to try to escape punishment and turn to reward and increase measures against occupational accidents with a decrease in the number of accidents.

  5. Classification Of Road Accidents From The Perspective Of Vehicle Safety Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirovský Václav


    Full Text Available Modern road accident investigation and database structures are focused on accident analysis and classification from the point of view of the accident itself. The presented article offers a new approach, which will describe the accident from the point of view of integrated safety vehicle systems. Seven main categories have been defined to specify the level of importance of automated system intervention. One of the proposed categories is a new approach to defining the collision probability of an ego-vehicle with another object. This approach focuses on determining a 2-D reaction space, which describes all possible positions of the vehicle or other moving object in the specified amount of time in the future. This is to be used for defining the probability of the vehicles interacting - when the intersection of two reaction spaces exists, an action has to be taken on the side of ego-vehicle. The currently used 1-D quantity of TTC (time-to-collision can be superseded by the new reaction space variable. Such new quantity, whose basic idea is described in the article, enables the option of counting not only with necessary braking time, but mitigation by changing direction is then easily feasible. Finally, transparent classification measures of a probable accident are proposed. Their application is highly effective not only during basic accident comparison, but also for an on-board safety system.

  6. Panic, Suffocation False Alarms, Separation Anxiety and Endogenous Opioids


    Preter, Maurice; Klein, Donald F.


    This review paper presents an amplification of the suffocation false alarm theory (SFA) of spontaneous panic (Klein, 1993). SFA postulates the existence of an evolved physiologic suffocation alarm system that monitors information about potential suffocation. Panic attacks maladaptively occur when the alarm is erroneously triggered. That panic is distinct from Cannon’s emergency fear response and Selye’s General Alarm Syndrome is shown by the prominence of intense air hunger during these attac...

  7. 46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse, clearly...

  8. Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the design, supply, installation and maintenance of automatic fire-detection, fire-protection and voice-alarm systems for the Super Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server


    Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the design, supply, installation and maintenance of automatic fire-detection, fire-protection and voice-alarm systems for the Super Proton Synchrotron

  9. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  10. Increase the Safety of Road Traffic Accidents by Applying Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Goran


    Full Text Available In terms of continual increase of number of traffic accidents and alarming trend of increasing number of traffic accidents with catastrophic consequences for human life and health, it is necessary to actively research and develop methods to combat these trends. One of the measures is the implementation of advanced information systems in existing traffic environment. Accidents clusters, as databases of traffic accidents, introduce a new dimension in traffic systems in the form of experience, providing information on current accidents and the ones that have previously occurred in a given period. This paper proposes a new approach to predictive management of traffic processes, based on the collection of data in real time and is based on accidents clusters. The modern traffic information services collects road traffic status data from a wide variety of traffic sensing systems using modern ICT technologies, creating the most accurate road traffic situation awareness achieved so far. Road traffic situation awareness enhanced by accident clusters' data can be visualized and distributed in various ways (including the forms of dynamic heat maps and on various information platforms, suiting the requirements of the end-users. Accent is placed on their significant features that are based on additional knowledge about existing traffic processes and distribution of important traffic information in order to prevent and reduce traffic accidents.

  11. Coordinability and consistency in accident causation and prevention: formal system theoretic concepts for safety in multilevel systems. (United States)

    Cowlagi, Raghvendra V; Saleh, Joseph H


    Although a "system approach" to accidents in sociotechnical systems has been frequently advocated, formal system theoretic concepts remain absent in the literature on accident analysis and system safety. To address this gap, we introduce the notions of coordinability and consistency from the hierarchical and multilevel systems theory literature. We then investigate the applicability and the importance of these concepts to accident causation and safety. Using illustrative examples, including the worst disaster in aviation history, and recent incidents in the United States of aircraft clipping each other on the tarmac, we propose that the lack of coordinability is a fundamental failure mechanism causing or contributing to accidents in multilevel systems. We make a similar case for the lack of consistency. Coordinability and consistency become ingredients for accident prevention, and their absence fundamental failure mechanisms that can lead to system accidents. Finally, using the concepts introduced in this work, we identify several venues for further research, including the development of a theory of coordination in multilevel systems, the investigation of potential synergies between coordinability, consistency, and the high reliability organizations paradigm, and the possibility of reframing the view that "sloppy management is the root cause of many industrial accidents" as one of lack of coordinability and/or consistency between management and operations. By introducing and expanding on the concepts of coordinability and consistency, we hope to contribute to the thinking about, and the to language of, accident causation, and prevention and to add to the intellectual toolkit of safety professionals and academics. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. The system of emergency cards for primary actions in accident at radioactive material transport in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananiev, V.V. [Div. of the Decommission of Nuclear and Radiation-Hazardous Object of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ermakov, S.V.; Ershov, V.N.; Stovbur, V.I. [FGUP ' ' Emergency Response Centre of Minatom of Russia' ' , St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shvedov, M.O. [Div. of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    In the paper are reviewed the current and new designed system of the emergency cards for consignments of radioactive materials in Russian Federation, within the framework of a uniform state system of warning and liquidation of consequences of extraordinary situations and functional subsystem of warning and liquidation of accident situations of Federal Agency for Atomic Energy.

  13. Investigation into the causes of accidents on scraper systems in the gold and platinum mining sectors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moseme, R


    Full Text Available and cleaning operations of the scraper winch systems that require identification. This research report identifies the risk and hazards associated with scraper winch systems that may lead to potential accidents in the gold and platinum sector. The research also...

  14. The Level of Europium-154 Contaminating Samarium-153-EDTMP Activates the Radiation Alarm System at the US Homeland Security Checkpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Najeeb Al Hallak


    Full Text Available 153Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical composed of EDTMP (ethylenediamine-tetramethylenephosphonate and Samarium-153 [1]. 153Sm-EDTMP has an affinity for skeletal tissue and concentrates in areas with increased bone turnover; thus, it is successfully used in relieving pain related to diffuse bone metastases [1]. The manufacturing process of 153Sm-EDTMP leads to contamination with 154Eu (Europium-154 [2]. A previous study only alluded to the retention of 154Eu in the bones after receiving treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP [2]. Activation of the alarm at security checkpoints after 153Sm-EDTMP therapy has not been previously reported. Two out of 15 patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center (Fargo, N. Dak., USA activated the radiation activity sensors while passing through checkpoints; one at a US airport and the other while crossing theAmerican-Canadian border. We assume that the 154Eu which remained in the patients’ bones activated the sensors. Methods: In order to investigate this hypothesis, we obtained the consent from 3 of our 15 patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP within the previous 4 months to 2 years, including the patient who had activated the radiation alarm at the airport. The patients were scanned with a handheld detector and a gamma camera for energies from 511 keV to 1.3 MeV. Results: All three patients exhibited identical spectral images, and further analysis showed that the observed spectra are the result of 154Eu emissions. Conclusion: Depending on the detection thresholds and windows used by local and federal authorities, the remaining activity of 154Eu retained in patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP could be sufficient enough to increase the count rates above background levels and activate the sensors. At Roger Maris Cancer Center, patients are now informed of the potential consequences of 153Sm-EDTMP therapy prior to initiating treatment. In addition, patients treated with 153Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center

  15. The Level of Europium-154 Contaminating Samarium-153-EDTMP Activates the Radiation Alarm System at the US Homeland Security Checkpoints. (United States)

    Najeeb Al Hallak, Mohammed; McCurdy, Matt; Zouain, Nicolas; Hayes, Justin


    (153)Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical composed of EDTMP (ethylenediamine-tetramethylenephosphonate) and Samarium-153 [1]. (153)Sm-EDTMP has an affinity for skeletal tissue and concentrates in areas with increased bone turnover; thus, it is successfully used in relieving pain related to diffuse bone metastases [1]. The manufacturing process of (153)Sm-EDTMP leads to contamination with (154)Eu (Europium-154) [2]. A previous study only alluded to the retention of (154)Eu in the bones after receiving treatment with (153)Sm-EDTMP [2]. Activation of the alarm at security checkpoints after (153)Sm-EDTMP therapy has not been previously reported. Two out of 15 patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center (Fargo, N. Dak., USA) activated the radiation activity sensors while passing through checkpoints; one at a US airport and the other while crossing the American-Canadian border. We assume that the (154)Eu which remained in the patients' bones activated the sensors. METHODS: In order to investigate this hypothesis, we obtained the consent from 3 of our 15 patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP within the previous 4 months to 2 years, including the patient who had activated the radiation alarm at the airport. The patients were scanned with a handheld detector and a gamma camera for energies from 511 keV to 1.3 MeV. RESULTS: All three patients exhibited identical spectral images, and further analysis showed that the observed spectra are the result of (154)Eu emissions. CONCLUSION: Depending on the detection thresholds and windows used by local and federal authorities, the remaining activity of (154)Eu retained in patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP could be sufficient enough to increase the count rates above background levels and activate the sensors. At Roger Maris Cancer Center, patients are now informed of the potential consequences of (153)Sm-EDTMP therapy prior to initiating treatment. In addition, patients treated with (153)Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer

  16. Possibility of the development of a Serbian protection system against chemical accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan R. Inđić


    Full Text Available The paper presents a draft of a system model for responding in case of chemical accidents in accordance with the current legislation regarding the environment protection, the structure and elements of the existing response system in case of chemical accidents, other works dealing with the issue as well as the prospects planned by those responsible for the environmental protection. The paper discuss the possibilities of different institutions and agencies of the Republic of Serbia to engage in specialized methods of cooperation and protection against chemical hazards in accordance with Article X of the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.

  17. Multi-phase model development to assess RCIC system capabilities under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkland, Karen Vierow [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ross, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beeny, Bradley [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Luthman, Nicholas [Texas A& M Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States); Strater, Zachary [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    The Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (RCIC) System is a safety-related system that provides makeup water for core cooling of some Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) with a Mark I containment. The RCIC System consists of a steam-driven Terry turbine that powers a centrifugal, multi-stage pump for providing water to the reactor pressure vessel. The Fukushima Dai-ichi accidents demonstrated that the RCIC System can play an important role under accident conditions in removing core decay heat. The unexpectedly sustained, good performance of the RCIC System in the Fukushima reactor demonstrates, firstly, that its capabilities are not well understood, and secondly, that the system has high potential for extended core cooling in accident scenarios. Better understanding and analysis tools would allow for more options to cope with a severe accident situation and to reduce the consequences. The objectives of this project were to develop physics-based models of the RCIC System, incorporate them into a multi-phase code and validate the models. This Final Technical Report details the progress throughout the project duration and the accomplishments.

  18. Developing a Minimum Data Set for an Information Management System to Study Traffic Accidents in Iran. (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Ahmadi, Maryam; Gharagozlu, Alireza


    Each year, around 1.2 million people die in the road traffic incidents. Reducing traffic accidents requires an exact understanding of the risk factors associated with traffic patterns and behaviors. Properly analyzing these factors calls for a comprehensive system for collecting and processing accident data. The aim of this study was to develop a minimum data set (MDS) for an information management system to study traffic accidents in Iran. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in 2014. Data were collected from the traffic police, trauma centers, medical emergency centers, and via the internet. The investigated resources for this study were forms, databases, and documents retrieved from the internet. Forms and databases were identical, and one sample of each was evaluated. The related internet-sourced data were evaluated in their entirety. Data were collected using three checklists. In order to arrive at a consensus about the data elements, the decision Delphi technique was applied using questionnaires. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaires were assessed by experts' opinions and the test-retest method, respectively. An (MDS) of a traffic accident information management system was assigned to three sections: a minimum data set for traffic police with six classes, including 118 data elements; a trauma center with five data classes, including 57 data elements; and a medical emergency center, with 11 classes, including 64 data elements. Planning for the prevention of traffic accidents requires standardized data. As the foundation for crash prevention efforts, existing standard data infrastructures present policymakers and government officials with a great opportunity to strengthen and integrate existing accident information systems to better track road traffic injuries and fatalities.

  19. Fact-finding Survey in Response to the Manipulation of Personal Alarm Dosimeter Collection Efficiency: Lessons Learned About Post-Emergency Radiation Protection from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi APP Accident. (United States)

    Yasui, Shojiro


    During emergency work at TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant on December 1, 2011 a subcontractor demanded that its contracted workers cover their personal alarm dosimeters (PAD) with 3-cm-thick lead plates to lower dosimeter readings. As a response, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) conducted a fact-finding survey to identify similar cases and devise measures to prevent a recurrence of this incident. To screen the suspected cases, the MHLW extracted: a) cases in which a PAD reading was at least 15% higher than the reading obtained from a radio-photolumine-scence dosimeter (RPD), where the dose was greater than 5 mSv in a month (1813 data points), and b) dose data in which PAD readings were less than 50% of the expected dose, where exposure dose may exceed 1 mSv in a day (56 workers, 17,148 data points). From these screenings, the MHLW identified 50 instances from TEPCO and nine primary contractors, including four general contractors, two plant manufacturers, and three plant maintenance companies as the subjects of the due diligence study of exposure data, including interviews. The results of the survey provide lessons that can also be applied to transition from emergency radiation protection to normal operation, as the application of emergency dose limits had ceased on December 16, 2011, in the affected plant. Based on the results of the survey, the MHLW provided administrative guidance documents to TEPCO and 37 primary contractors. The major points of these documents include: a) identification of recorded dose values by comparison of PAD readings to RPD readings, b) storage and management of RPDs and control badges, c) circulation management of PADs and access control to the affected plant, d) estimation of planned doses and setting of alarm values of PADs, e) actions to be taken by contractors if worker dose limits are reached, and f) physical measures to prevent recurrence of the incident.

  20. Impact of advanced systems on LMFBR accident analysis code development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, F. E.; Kyser, J. M.


    In order to investigate the ability of an advanced computer, using currently available software, to handle large LMFBR accident analysis codes, the SAS3D code has been run on the NCAR CRAY-1. SAS3D is a large code (56,000 Fortran cards) using many different physical models and numerical algorithms, no one of which dominates the computing time. Even though SAS3D was developed on IBM computers, remarkably little effort was required to run it on the CRAY-1. Making limited use of the CRAY-1 vector capabilities, it runs a factor of 2.5 to 4 times faster on the NCAR CRAY-1 than on the ANL IBM 370-195. With minor modifications, an additional 20 to 30% speed improvement on the CRAY-1 is achieved. In the current process of completely re-writing SAS3D to make SAS4A, much of the coding is being vectorized for the CRAY-1 without sacrificing IBM, CDC 7600, or UNIVAC performance and portability. An initial SAS4A test case runs a factor of 7.1 faster on the CRAY-1 than on the IBM 370-195.

  1. Gynecological cancer alarm symptoms:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; dePont Christensen, René


    AND METHODS: Nationwide population-based prospective cohort study in Denmark, based on a random sample of 51 090 women aged 20 years or older from the general population. A web-based questionnaire regarding gynecological alarm symptoms and lifestyle was distributed to the invited individuals. Data about...... and odds ratios (ORs) for associations between specialist care contact, lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The study included 25 866 non-pregnant women; 2957 reported the onset of at least one gynecological cancer alarm symptom, and 683 of these (23.1%) reported symptoms to their general...... practitioner. The proportion of individuals having contact with specialist care ranged from 39.3% (pain during intercourse) to 47.8% (bleeding during intercourse) Individuals with higher educational level had significantly higher odds of contact with a specialist (OR 1.86, CI; 1.17-2.95). CONCLUSIONS...

  2. A systemic analysis of South Korea Sewol ferry accident - Striking a balance between learning and accountability. (United States)

    Kee, Dohyung; Jun, Gyuchan Thomas; Waterson, Patrick; Haslam, Roger


    The South Korea Sewol ferry accident in April 2014 claimed the lives of over 300 passengers and led to criminal charges of 399 personnel concerned including imprisonment of 154 of them as of Oct 2014. Blame and punishment culture can be prevalent in a more hierarchical society like South Korea as shown in the aftermath of this disaster. This study aims to analyse the South Korea ferry accident using Rasmussen's risk management framework and the associated AcciMap technique and to propose recommendations drawn from an AcciMap-based focus group with systems safety experts. The data for the accident analysis were collected mainly from an interim investigation report by the Board of Audit and Inspection of Korea and major South Korean and foreign newspapers. The analysis showed that the accident was attributed to many contributing factors arising from front-line operators, management, regulators and government. It also showed how the multiple factors including economic, social and political pressures and individual workload contributed to the accident and how they affected each other. This AcciMap was presented to 27 safety researchers and experts at 'the legacy of Jens Rasmussen' symposium adjunct to ODAM2014. Their recommendations were captured through a focus group. The four main recommendations include forgive (no blame and punishment on individuals), analyse (socio-technical system-based), learn (from why things do not go wrong) and change (bottom-up safety culture and safety system management). The findings offer important insights into how this type of accident should be understood, analysed and the subsequent response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical alarm hazards: a "top ten" health technology safety concern. (United States)

    Keller, James P


    For the past several years ECRI Institute has published a list of Top Ten Health Technology Hazards. This list is based on ECRI's extensive research in health technology safety and on data provided to its problemreporting systems. For every year that the Top Ten list has been published, Alarm Hazards have been at or near the top of the list. Improving alarm safety requires a systematic review of a hospital's alarm-based technologies and analysis of alarm management policies like alarm escalation strategies and staffing patterns. It also requires careful selection of alarm setting criteria for each clinical care area. This article will overview the clinical alarm problems that have been identified through ECRI Institute's research and analysis of various problem reporting databases, including those operated by ECRI Institute. It will also highlight suggestions for improvement, particularly from a technology design and technology management perspective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Control of ELT false alarms (United States)

    Toth, S.; Gershkoff, I.


    The statistics of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) alarms are presented. The primary sources of data include ELT Incident Logs, Service Difficulty Reports, and Frequency Interference Reports. The number of reported and unreported alarms is discussed, as are seasonal variations, duration of ELT transmissions, and cost of silencing. Origin, causes, and possible strategies for reducing the impact of alarms on the aviation community are considered.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, Logan M [ORNL


    The market share of home security systems has substantially increased as vendors incorporate more desirable features: intrusion detection, automation, wireless, and LCD touch panel controls. Wireless connectivity allows vendors to manufacture cheaper, more featureful products that require little to no home modification to install. Consumer win, since adding devices is easier. The result: an ostensibly more secure, convenient, and connected home for a larger number of citizens. Sadly, this hypothesis is flawed; the idea of covering a home with more security sensors does not translate into a more secure home. Additionally, the number of homes using these vulnerable systems is large, and the growth rate is increasing producing a even larger problem. In this talk, I will demonstrate a generalized approach for compromising three systems: ADT, the largest home security dealer in North America; Honeywell, one of the largest manufacturers of security devices; and Vivint, a top 5 security dealer. We will suppress alarms, create false alarms, and collect artifacts that facilitate tracking the movements of individuals in their homes.

  6. Modelling of stochastic hybrid systems with applications to accident risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krystul, J.


    Stochastic dynamical modelling of accident risk is of high interest for the safe design of complex safety-critical systems and operations, such as in nuclear and chemical industries, and advanced air traffic management. In comparison with statistical analysis of collected data, stochastic dynamical

  7. Modelling of stochastic hybrid systems with applications to accident risk assessment


    Krystul, J.


    Stochastic dynamical modelling of accident risk is of high interest for the safe design of complex safety-critical systems and operations, such as in nuclear and chemical industries, and advanced air traffic management. In comparison with statistical analysis of collected data, stochastic dynamical modelling approach has the advantage of enabling the use of stochastic analysis and advanced Monte Carlo simulation approaches.

  8. Nurses' Perceptions and Practices Toward Clinical Alarms in a Transplant Cardiac Intensive Care Unit: Exploring Key Issues Leading to Alarm Fatigue. (United States)

    Sowan, Azizeh Khaled; Tarriela, Albert Fajardo; Gomez, Tiffany Michelle; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Rapp, Kami Marie


    Intensive care units (ICUs) are complex work environments where false alarms occur more frequently than on non-critical care units. The Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal .06.01.01 targeted improving the safety of clinical alarm systems and required health care facilities to establish alarm systems safety as a hospital priority by July 2014. An important initial step toward this requirement is identifying ICU nurses' perceptions and common clinical practices toward clinical alarms, where little information is available. Our aim was to determine perceptions and practices of transplant/cardiac ICU (TCICU) nurses toward clinical alarms and benchmark the results against the 2011 Healthcare Technology Foundation's (HTF) Clinical Alarms Committee Survey. A quality improvement project was conducted on a 20-bed TCICU with 39 full- and part-time nurses. Nurses were surveyed about their perceptions and attitudes toward and practices on clinical alarms using an adapted HTF clinical alarms survey. Results were compared to the 2011 HTF data. Correlations among variables were examined. All TCICU nurses provided usable responses (N=39, 100%). Almost all nurses (95%-98%) believed that false alarms are frequent, disrupt care, and reduce trust in alarm systems, causing nurses to inappropriately disable them. Unlike the 2011 HTF clinical alarms survey results, a significantly higher percentage of our TCICU nurses believed that existing devices are complex, questioned the ability and adequacy of the new monitoring systems to solve alarm management issues, pointed to the lack of prompt response to alarms, and indicated the lack of clinical policy on alarm management (Ppractices related to clinical alarms are key elements for designing contextually sensitive quality initiatives to fight alarm fatigue. Alarm management in ICUs is a multidimensional complex process involving usability of monitoring devices, and unit, clinicians, training, and policy-related factors. This

  9. An advanced accident-protective network system for the nuclear energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosaka, Atsuo [Nuclear Safety Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    As an opportunity of the TMI accident formed on March, 1979, some improvements on accident-protective countermeasure of nuclear energy by government and so on have been intended. Along this planning, the Atomic Energy Safety Technical Center has practised a business on accident-protection of nuclear energy under trust of government and so on. And then, the Center expanded some business, such as intention to spread the SPEEDI (system for prediction of environmental emergency dose information) network for the Center for First-aid Countermeasure in Emergency (called Off-site Center) and so on. Here were described on present status and future development of the business on accident protection at a center of the SPEEDI network system, which was a system rapidly to predict in-air concentration of radioactive materials, exposed dose, and so on at circumferential environment under informations on their emission sources (emitted nuclides, emission, emission time, and so on), meteorological conditions and topographical data if a lot of radioactive materials were or anxious to be emitted from a nuclear power station and so on. (G.K.)

  10. Design and implementation of an identification system in construction site safety for proactive accident prevention. (United States)

    Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David A S; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhipeng; Li, Qiming


    Identifying accident precursors using real-time identity information has great potential to improve safety performance in construction industry, which is still suffering from day to day records of accident fatality and injury. Based on the requirements analysis for identifying precursor and the discussion of enabling technology solutions for acquiring and sharing real-time automatic identification information on construction site, this paper proposes an identification system design for proactive accident prevention to improve construction site safety. Firstly, a case study is conducted to analyze the automatic identification requirements for identifying accident precursors in construction site. Results show that it mainly consists of three aspects, namely access control, training and inspection information and operation authority. The system is then designed to fulfill these requirements based on ZigBee enabled wireless sensor network (WSN), radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and an integrated ZigBee RFID sensor network structure. At the same time, an information database is also designed and implemented, which includes 15 tables, 54 queries and several reports and forms. In the end, a demonstration system based on the proposed system design is developed as a proof of concept prototype. The contributions of this study include the requirement analysis and technical design of a real-time identity information tracking solution for proactive accident prevention on construction sites. The technical solution proposed in this paper has a significant importance in improving safety performance on construction sites. Moreover, this study can serve as a reference design for future system integrations where more functions, such as environment monitoring and location tracking, can be added. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. General methods for alarm reduction; Larmsanering med generella metoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnlund, Jonas; Bergquist, Tord; Raaberg, Martin [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Information Technology


    The information in the control rooms has increased due to the technological advances in process control. Large industries produce large data quantities, where some information is unnecessary or even incorrect. The operator needs support from an advanced and well-adjusted alarm system to be able to separate a real event from a minor disturbance. The alarms must be of assistance and not a nuisance. An enhanced alarm situation qualifies an increased efficiency with fewer production disturbances and an improved safety. Yet, it is still unusual that actions are taken to improve the situation. An alarm cleanup with general methods can shortly be described as taking advantage of the control systems built-in functions, the possibility to modify or create function blocks and fine-tune the settings in the alarm system. In this project, we make use of an intelligent software, Alarm Cleanup Toolbox, that simulate different signal processing methods and tries to find improved settings on all the signals in the process. This is a fast and cost-efficient way to improve the overall alarm situation, and lays a foundation for more advanced alarm systems. An alarm cleanup has been carried out at Flintraennan district heating plant in Malmoe, where various signal processing methods has been implemented in a parallel alarm system. This made it possible to compare the two systems under the same conditions. The result is very promising, and shows that a lot of improvements can be achieved with very little effort. An analysis of the alarm system at Vattenreningen (the water purification process) at Heleneholmsverket in Malmoe has been carried out. Alarm Cleanup Toolbox has, besides suggesting improved settings, also found logical errors in the alarm system. Here, no implementation was carried out and therefore the results are analytical, but they validate the efficiency of the general methods. The project has shown that an alarm cleanup with general methods is cost-efficient, and that the

  12. Evaluation of nine different types of enuresis alarms. (United States)

    Goel, K M; Thomson, R B; Gibb, E M; McAinsh, T F


    One hundred enuretic children were treated in closely supervised trial conditions with nine commonly used enuresis alarm systems available commercially in the United Kingdom. Although there was little difference between the systems in terms of their effectiveness in stopping bed wetting, parents preferred the Eastleigh and Urilarm De-Luxe models which had distinct advantages in respect of false alarms, breakdowns, and durability of pads. Enuresis alarms that perform poorly in these respects may lead to loss of enthusiasm and non-compliance. The systems vary widely in price, but a private buyer may find a cheaper alarm just as effective. PMID:6476872

  13. Fukushima Daiichi accident as a stress test for the national system for the protection of the public in event of severe accident at NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kutkov


    Full Text Available It is proposed that the circumstances of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on 11 March 2011 in Japan should be used as the framework for the stress test of the national system for the protection of public in the beyond design extension conditions at NPP. Stress tests of the public protection strategy show to what extent the national system is stable under the most unfavorable NPP conditions and give an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities and the ways to resolve them. A definition of the Fukushima stress test model has been provided, and the actions undertaken by Japanese authorities under the conditions of the Fukushima Daiichi accident have been considered as the response to this stress test. The stress test has revealed major vulnerabilities in the strategy for the protection of public in the event of an accident at an NPP, which was successfully proven many times by over a hundred exercises at different levels. The stress test showed that the principal vulnerability of protection strategy being in use in Japan in 2011 was the reliance on computer systems in the assessment of the emergency exposure for decision-making during the emergency response phase. It is proposed, that the Fukushima stress test should be used to identify the vulnerabilities in the Russian Federation's strategy for the protection of public in the event of a nuclear accident and to use the lessons learnt from the test results to perfect this strategy.

  14. Alarm management in gas pipeline plant: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Juliano; Lima, Marcelo; Leitao, Gustavo; Guedes, Luiz Affonso [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Branco, Nicolau; Coelho, Robson; Elias, Gustavo Passos; Nunes, Marcelo [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil (TBG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    In order to improve the requirements of industrial processes, many decision support systems have been introduced in recent years. In this context, the alarm management systems have great relevance. On the other hand, the informatics revolution allowed a great increase of information concerning the operation of the industrial processes. Currently, process operators handle an excessive number of about 1.500 alarms per day. Thus, this overdose of information implies in the discredit of alarms. Then, in order to improve the operation activities of industrial processes, it is mandatory to incorporate procedures to evaluate and rationalize alarms. Since the EMMUA191 Standard is the reference guide to alarm management, but it does not specify how to execute an alarm management procedure, in this paper, a systematic procedure to evaluate alarms configurations in industrial processes is proposed. This procedure is in line with EMMUA191 and is composed by the following steps: to use statistics analyses to identify problematic alarms, such as occurrence, intermittency, correlation, and flooding calculation; to indicate problematic alarm group; and to propose a set of actions to be implemented. To validate our proposal, we present a case study in a gas pipeline plant using the BR-AlarmExpert software. (author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Ronald L. Boring


    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  16. Geographic Information System (GIS) capabilities in traffic accident information management: a qualitative approach. (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Valinejadi, Ali; Goodarzi, Afshin; Safari, Ameneh; Hemmat, Morteza; Majdabadi, Hesamedin Askari; Mohammadi, Ali


    Traffic accidents are one of the more important national and international issues, and their consequences are important for the political, economical, and social level in a country. Management of traffic accident information requires information systems with analytical and accessibility capabilities to spatial and descriptive data. The aim of this study was to determine the capabilities of a Geographic Information System (GIS) in management of traffic accident information. This qualitative cross-sectional study was performed in 2016. In the first step, GIS capabilities were identified via literature retrieved from the Internet and based on the included criteria. Review of the literature was performed until data saturation was reached; a form was used to extract the capabilities. In the second step, study population were hospital managers, police, emergency, statisticians, and IT experts in trauma, emergency and police centers. Sampling was purposive. Data was collected using a questionnaire based on the first step data; validity and reliability were determined by content validity and Cronbach's alpha of 75%. Data was analyzed using the decision Delphi technique. GIS capabilities were identified in ten categories and 64 sub-categories. Import and process of spatial and descriptive data and so, analysis of this data were the most important capabilities of GIS in traffic accident information management. Storing and retrieving of descriptive and spatial data, providing statistical analysis in table, chart and zoning format, management of bad structure issues, determining the cost effectiveness of the decisions and prioritizing their implementation were the most important capabilities of GIS which can be efficient in the management of traffic accident information.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report documents the accident analyses and nuclear safety control options for use in Revision 7 of HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, ''K Basins Safety Analysis Report'' and Revision 4 of HNF-SD-SNF-TSR-001, ''Technical Safety Requirements - 100 KE and 100 KW Fuel Storage Basins''. These documents will define the authorization basis for Sludge Water System (SWS) operations. This report follows the guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', for calculating onsite and offsite consequences. The accident analysis summary is shown in Table ES-1 below. While this document describes and discusses potential control options to either mitigate or prevent the accidents discussed herein, it should be made clear that the final control selection for any accident is determined and presented in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062.

  18. A smart phone-based pocket fall accident detection, positioning, and rescue system. (United States)

    Kau, Lih-Jen; Chen, Chih-Sheng


    We propose in this paper a novel algorithm as well as architecture for the fall accident detection and corresponding wide area rescue system based on a smart phone and the third generation (3G) networks. To realize the fall detection algorithm, the angles acquired by the electronic compass (ecompass) and the waveform sequence of the triaxial accelerometer on the smart phone are used as the system inputs. The acquired signals are then used to generate an ordered feature sequence and then examined in a sequential manner by the proposed cascade classifier for recognition purpose. Once the corresponding feature is verified by the classifier at current state, it can proceed to next state; otherwise, the system will reset to the initial state and wait for the appearance of another feature sequence. Once a fall accident event is detected, the user's position can be acquired by the global positioning system (GPS) or the assisted GPS, and sent to the rescue center via the 3G communication network so that the user can get medical help immediately. With the proposed cascaded classification architecture, the computational burden and power consumption issue on the smart phone system can be alleviated. Moreover, as we will see in the experiment that a distinguished fall accident detection accuracy up to 92% on the sensitivity and 99.75% on the specificity can be obtained when a set of 450 test actions in nine different kinds of activities are estimated by using the proposed cascaded classifier, which justifies the superiority of the proposed algorithm.

  19. Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) in case of nuclear accident with exposure doses estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.; Slavov, K.; Veleva, B.


    A PC-oriented Emergency Response System in case of nuclear accident (BERS) is developed and works operationally in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH). The creation and development of BERS was highly stimulated by the ETEX (European Tracer Experiment) project. BERS comprises two main parts - the operational and the accidental ones. The operational part, run automatically every 12 hours, prepares the input meteorological file used by both trajectory and dispersion models, runs the trajectory models, visualizes the results and uploads the maps of trajectories to a dedicated web-site. The accidental part is activated manually when a real radioactive releases occur or during emergency exercises. Its core is the Bulgarian dispersion models EMAP. Outputs are concentration, accumulated deposition and selected doses fields. In the paper, the BERS overall structure is described and examples of its products are presented. Key words: nuclear accident, emergency response, early warning system, air dispersion models, radioactive exposure dose. (Author)

  20. The effect of traffic light on accident probability in open and periodic boundaries system (United States)

    Mhirech, Abdelaziz; Alaoui-Ismaili, Assia


    In this paper we numerically study the dependence of car accident probability Pac, per site and per time step on cycle time T of traffic light, both in open and periodic boundaries system. In this study one traffic light is placed in the middle of the system. This work is based on Nagel and Schreckenberg (NaSch) model (Nagel and Schreckenberg (1992)) in parallel dynamics. The Pac dependence on T and the (α, β) phase diagrams are established. α and β are the injecting and extracting rates of cars in the traffic lane respectively. The increase of the cycle time light T causes an important decrease of the accident probability Pac both in the open and periodic cases.

  1. Accident identification system with automatic detection of abnormal condition using quantum computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, Andressa dos Santos; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Alan Miranda Monteiro de [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Transient identification systems have been proposed in order to maintain the plant operating in safe conditions and help operators in make decisions in emergency short time interval with maximum certainty associated. This article presents a system, time independent and without the use of an event that can be used as a starting point for t = 0 (reactor scram, for instance), for transient/accident identification of a pressurized water nuclear reactor (PWR). The model was developed in order to be able to recognize the normal condition and three accidents of the design basis list of the Nuclear Power Plant Angra 2, postulated in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Were used several sets of process variables in order to establish a minimum set of variables considered necessary and sufficient. The optimization step of the identification algorithm is based upon the paradigm of Quantum Computing. In this case, the optimization metaheuristic Quantum Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm (QEA) was implemented and works as a data mining tool. The results obtained with the QEA without the time variable are compatible to the techniques in the reference literature, for the transient identification problem, with less computational effort (number of evaluations). This system allows a solution that approximates the ideal solution, the Voronoi Vectors with only one partition for the classes of accidents with robustness. (author)

  2. Can cultural differences lead to accidents? Team cultural differences and sociotechnical system operations. (United States)

    Strauch, Barry


    I discuss cultural factors and how they may influence sociotechnical system operations. Investigations of several major transportation accidents suggest that cultural factors may have played a role in the causes of the accidents. However, research has not fully addressed how cultural factors can influence sociotechnical systems. I review literature on cultural differences in general and cultural factors in sociotechnical systems and discuss how these differences can affect team performance in sociotechnical systems. Cultural differences have been observed in social and interpersonal dimensions and in cognitive and perceptual styles; these differences can affect multioperator team performance. Cultural factors may account for team errors in sociotechnical systems, most likely during high-workload, high-stress operational phases. However, much of the research on cultural factors has methodological and interpretive shortcomings that limit their applicability to sociotechnical systems. Although some research has been conducted on the role of cultural differences on team performance in sociotechnical system operations, considerable work remains to be done before the effects of these differences can be fully understood. I propose a model that illustrates how culture can interact with sociotechnical system operations and suggest avenues of future research. Given methodological challenges in measuring cultural differences and team performance in sociotechnical system operations, research in these systems should use a variety of methodologies to better understand how culture can affect multioperator team performance in these systems.

  3. Modeling of Spray System Operation under Hydrogen and Steam Emissions in NPP Containment during Severe Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Seleznev


    Full Text Available The paper describes one of the variants of mathematical models of a fluid dynamics process inside the containment, which occurs in the conditions of operation of spray systems in severe accidents at nuclear power plant. The source of emergency emissions in this case is the leak of the coolant or rupture at full cross-section of the main circulating pipeline in a reactor building. Leak or rupture characteristics define the localization and the temporal law of functioning of a source of emergency emission (or accrued operating of warmed up hydrogen and steam in the containment. Operation of this source at the course of analyzed accident models should be described by the assignment of the relevant Dirichlet boundary conditions. Functioning of the passive autocatalytic recombiners of hydrogen is described in the form of the complex Newton boundary conditions.

  4. STAMP-Based HRA Considering Causality Within a Sociotechnical System: A Case of Minuteman III Missile Accident. (United States)

    Rong, Hao; Tian, Jin


    The study contributes to human reliability analysis (HRA) by proposing a method that focuses more on human error causality within a sociotechnical system, illustrating its rationality and feasibility by using a case of the Minuteman (MM) III missile accident. Due to the complexity and dynamics within a sociotechnical system, previous analyses of accidents involving human and organizational factors clearly demonstrated that the methods using a sequential accident model are inadequate to analyze human error within a sociotechnical system. System-theoretic accident model and processes (STAMP) was used to develop a universal framework of human error causal analysis. To elaborate the causal relationships and demonstrate the dynamics of human error, system dynamics (SD) modeling was conducted based on the framework. A total of 41 contributing factors, categorized into four types of human error, were identified through the STAMP-based analysis. All factors are related to a broad view of sociotechnical systems, and more comprehensive than the causation presented in the accident investigation report issued officially. Recommendations regarding both technical and managerial improvement for a lower risk of the accident are proposed. The interests of an interdisciplinary approach provide complementary support between system safety and human factors. The integrated method based on STAMP and SD model contributes to HRA effectively. The proposed method will be beneficial to HRA, risk assessment, and control of the MM III operating process, as well as other sociotechnical systems. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  5. Development of solution behavior observation system under criticality accident conditions in TRACY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Yanagisawa, Hiroshi; Ohno, Aiko; Aizawa, Eijyu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    Understanding of radiolytic gas behavior in fissile solution is very important to evaluate feedback reactivity, amount of released radioactive materials and pressure increase under criticality accident conditions. For this purpose, an observation system has been developed to observe behavior of the solution and radiolytic gas on the solution surface in TRACY (Transient Experiment Critical Facility). The system has been provided clear motion pictures, which can contribute the development of a computational code. This paper summarizes an outline of the system and experimental results. (author)

  6. An integrated alarm display design in digital nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaojun [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Zhizhong, E-mail: [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, Fei; Sang, Wei [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute, Shanghai 200233 (China)


    Highlights: • The effect of integrating system information into alarm displays in ACR was explored. • A bar-based integrated alarm display design was validated through a lab experiment. • The bar-based integrated design was preferred in detecting parameter trends. • The bar-based integrated design helped better understanding of the current scenario. - Abstract: In main control rooms of nuclear power plants (NPPs), operators often have to frequently switch their attention between alarm displays and system information displays to incorporate information from different screens. In this study, we proposed the idea of integrating system information into alarm displays. A bar-based integrated design of alarm display was proposed, and it was compared against a tile-based integrated design, and a traditional separate design through a lab experiment. To verify the idea of integration, forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to the three integration conditions to perform basic alarm response tasks, and their situation awareness levels and subjective evaluations were collected. The results indicated that the participants preferred the idea of integrating system information into alarm displays. Besides, the bar-based integrated display supported higher correct rate of answers to situation awareness questions related to the developing scenario than the tile-based integrated design. The idea of integrating system information into alarm displays merits further research and may be applicable to other safety–critical industries.

  7. Defining a fusion-gain system operation characteristic (SOC) curve based on probability of detection and probability of false alarms (United States)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Hoffman, Jim; Petty, Joe


    One issue that concerns the data fusion community is whether or not fusion of sensory information is beneficial. Beneficial results from fusion can be understood from a logical argument that if two types of sensors are measuring an object and only one source is available, then fusion is beneficial. Such an argument holds in the case of person identification system with the fusion of audio and video information. If only video is available, then a system comprising of audio alone could not identify the person. We further refine the fusion benefit to assess what is the measure of fusion gain? A fusion gain system operator characteristic (FG-SOC) metric and a system reliability (SR) metric are used to define a fusion gain. A multi-source data fusion system performance modeling gain directly addresses both system performance and data sufficiency using system simulation and functional modeling methods. The FG- SOC approach models the relationships between sensor performance, revisit rate, and object density by extending current statistical tracking performance models to asynchronous sensing situations. The FG-SCO application establishes a method for the relative comparison of multiple sensor collection alternatives using a functional performance characterization and can be used to evaluate sensor fusion planning and control alternatives based on fusion system performance.

  8. Experimental assessment of accident scenarios for the high temperature reactor fuel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, O.; Avincola, V.; Bottomley, P.D.W.; Rondinella, V.V. [European Commission Joint Research Centre - Institute for Transuranium Elements (JRC-ITU) (Germany)


    The High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is an advanced reactor concept with particular safety features. Fuel elements are constituted by a graphite matrix containing sub-mm-sized fuel particles with TRISO (tri-isotropic) coating designed to provide high fission product retention. Passive safety features of the HTR include a low power density in the core compared to other reactor designs; this ensures sufficient heat transport in a loss of coolant accident scenario. The temperature during such events would not exceed 1600 C, remaining well below the melting point of the fuel. An experimental assessment of the fuel behaviour under severe accident conditions is necessary to confirm the fission product retention of TRISO coated particles and to validate relevant computer codes. Though helium is used as coolant for the HTR system, additional corrosion effects come into play in case of an in-leakage affecting the primary circuit. The experimental scope of the present work focuses on two key aspects associated with the HTR fuel safety. Fission product retention at high temperatures (up to {proportional_to}1800 C) is analyzed with the so-called cold finger apparatus (KueFA: Kuehlfinger-Apparatur), while the performance of HTR fuel elements in case of air/steam ingress accidents is assessed with a high temperature corrosion apparatus (KORA: Korrosions-Apparatur). (orig.)

  9. Incident warning systems : accident review. DRIVE II Project V2002 Horizontal Project for the Evaluation of Safety HOPES, Deliverable 17, Workpackage 31, Activity 31.2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S. Lindeijer, J.E. & Barjonet, P.


    The objective of this accident review is to check what proportion of accidents recorded in the past could in principle have been prevented by using an incident warning system (IWS). The accident review was carried out for all three IWS test sites that are part of the HOPES evaluation study. These

  10. 78 FR 2683 - Carriage Standards for Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm Systems (BNWAS) Aboard U.S. Flagged Vessels (United States)


    ... Systems (BNWAS), in accordance with the Articles of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Chapter V, Regulation 19, for U.S. flagged vessels engaged on international voyages. The... effective date for the BNWAS standard, according to the terms of SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation 19, was January...

  11. An Ontology-Underpinned Emergency Response System for Water Pollution Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Meng


    Full Text Available With the unceasing development and maturation of environment geographic information system, the response to water pollution accidents has been digitalized through the combination of monitoring sensors, management servers, and application software. However, most of these systems only achieve the basic and general geospatial data management and functional process tasks by adopting mechanistic water-quality models. To satisfy the sustainable monitoring and real-time emergency response application demand of the government and public users, it is a hotspot to study how to make the water pollution information being semantic and make the referred applications intelligent. Thus, the architecture of the ontology-underpinned emergency response system for water pollution accidents is proposed in this paper. This paper also makes a case study for usability testing of the water ontology models, and emergency response rules through an online water pollution emergency response system. The system contributes scientifically to the safety and sustainability of drinking water by providing emergency response and decision-making to the government and public in a timely manner.

  12. The control, monitor, and alarm system for the ICT equipment of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (United States)

    Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tanci, Claudio; Conforti, Vito; Tacchini, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Gallozzi, Stefano; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Trifoglio, Massimo; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Zoli, Andrea


    ASTRI is an Italian flagship project whose first goal is the realization of an end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype will be installed in Italy during Fall 2014. A second goal will be the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment necessary to drive the infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype is being designed as a complete and stand-alone computer center. The design goal is to obtain basic ICT equipment that might be scaled, with a low level of redundancy, for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. The ICT equipment envisaged at the Serra La Nave observing station in Italy, where the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype will operate, includes computers, servers and workstations, network devices, an uninterruptable power supply system, and air conditioning systems. Suitable hardware and software tools will allow the parameters related to the behavior and health of each item of equipment to be controlled and monitored. This paper presents the proposed architecture and technical solutions that integrate the ICT equipment in the framework of the Observatory Control System package of the ASTRI/CTA Mini- Array Software System, MASS, to allow their local and remote control and monitoring. An end-toend test case using an Internet Protocol thermometer is reported in detail.

  13. Estimate of physical sequelae in victims of road traffic accidents hospitalized in the Public Health System. (United States)

    Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Jorge, Maria Helena Prado de Mello


    To describe the profile of the victims of road accidents presenting physical sequelae, according to the criteria established by researchers and analyze the trends in hospitalization for this cause in Brazil, from 2000 to 2013. An ecological time-series study was performed using the data from the Hospital Information System of the National Health System (SUS). Trends in hospitalization were estimated using Prais-Winstein regression. During this period, a total of 1,747,191 hospitalizations for traffic accidents were registered; 410,448 were victims with physical sequelae. About 77.7% of them were male subjects, 26.5% belonged to the age group of 20 - 29 years, 46.4% lived in Southeast Brazil, 44.0% were pedestrians, and 31.1% were motorcyclists. In total, 51,189 cases were "confirmed" sequelae (12.5%), and pedestrians accounted for 43.8% of cases. There were 359,259 hospitalizations for the diagnosis of "possible" sequelae, and motorcyclists accounted for 43.3% of these cases. There was a trend of stability for all the patients with confirmed and possible sequelae, but there was a significant rise in hospitalization rates owing to confirmed sequelae among the men in North and Central-West regions. The hospitalizations associated with physical sequelae were responsible for about one-fourth of the hospitalizations in the Hospital Information System in the studied period. Most events involved men, young adults, residents in Southeast Brazil, and pedestrians. Hospitalization rates for traffic accidents associated with physical sequelae were stable in Brazil and regions, but a significant increase was observed for confirmed sequelae among men in the North and Central-West regions.

  14. Stand-alone tsunami alarm equipment (United States)

    Katsumata, Akio; Hayashi, Yutaka; Miyaoka, Kazuki; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Baba, Toshitaka; Catalán, Patricio A.; Zelaya, Cecilia; Riquelme Vasquez, Felipe; Sanchez-Olavarria, Rodrigo; Barrientos, Sergio


    One of the quickest means of tsunami evacuation is transfer to higher ground soon after strong and long ground shaking. Ground shaking itself is a good initiator of the evacuation from disastrous tsunami. Longer period seismic waves are considered to be more correlated with the earthquake magnitude. We investigated the possible application of this to tsunami hazard alarm using single-site ground motion observation. Information from the mass media is sometimes unavailable due to power failure soon after a large earthquake. Even when an official alarm is available, multiple information sources of tsunami alert would help people become aware of the coming risk of a tsunami. Thus, a device that indicates risk of a tsunami without requiring other data would be helpful to those who should evacuate. Since the sensitivity of a low-cost MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) accelerometer is sufficient for this purpose, tsunami alarm equipment for home use may be easily realized. Amplitude of long-period (20 s cutoff) displacement was proposed as the threshold for the alarm based on empirical relationships among magnitude, tsunami height, hypocentral distance, and peak ground displacement of seismic waves. Application of this method to recent major earthquakes indicated that such equipment could effectively alert people to the possibility of tsunami.

  15. Una nueva metodología para el análisis de alarmas masivas en sistemas de potencia basada en sistemas cognitivos; A New Congnitive-Based Methodology for Massive alarm management System in Electrical Power Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Aizpurúa P


    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una metodología que integra las técnicas disponibles en la gestión de alarmasmasivas en los centros de control y despacho de energía eléctrica, así como el aporte de cada entidad queestá involucrada en el sistema. Se abordan las técnicas de inteligencia artificial que se pueden utilizar asícomo los recursos de información de que se dispone. El objetivo ulterior se fundamenta en encontrar lacausa raíz de la avalancha de alarmas (árbol de alarmas y reducir la cantidad de ellas utilizando técnicas deasociación o agrupamiento de forma que se cumplan con los estándares establecidos por la norma EEMUA191. Sobre este tema se han desarrollado otros trabajos, sin embargo el problema de la administración dealarmas en la industria sigue siendo un problema sin resolver de forma adecuada. La integración sedesarrolla utilizando la ontología de cada uno de los dominios del sistema, i.e., la ontología de las alarmas,del control, de los eventos, del flujo de energía y la ontología de secuencia de disparo. A la metodología sesuman el uso de los sistemas expertos para el tratamiento de las alarmas en forma de reglas y el uso desistemas neuro-borrosos para tratar la base histórica de datos de alarmas y fallos. This paper presents a methodology that integrates several available techniques to manage the massiveamount of alarm signals in electrical power dispatch control centers, as well as the contribution of eachentity involved in the system. Artificial intelligence techniques that can be used in this problem arereviewed here, based on the information resources available. The final objective is to find the root cause ofavalanches of alarms (Alarm Tree and to reduce their number through grouping or clustering techniquesso that the EEMUA 191 standards are followed. Even though other contributions in this topic have beenmade before, the alarm management problem continues to be practically unsolved for many applicationsin

  16. Development of highly reliable power and communication system for essential instruments under severe accidents in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bo Hwan; Jang, Gi Chan; Shin, Sung Min; Kang, Hyun Gook; Rim, Chun Taek [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Ill [I and C Group, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd, Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    This article proposes a highly reliable power and communication system that guarantees the protection of essential instruments in a nuclear power plant under a severe accident. Both power and communication lines are established with not only conventional wired channels, but also the proposed wireless channels for emergency reserve. An inductive power transfer system is selected due to its robust power transfer characteristics under high temperature, high pressure, and highly humid environments with a large amount of scattered debris after a severe accident. A thermal insulation box and a glass-fiber reinforced plastic box are proposed to protect the essential instruments, including vulnerable electronic circuits, from extremely high temperatures of up to 627 .deg. C and pressure of up to 5 bar. The proposed wireless power and communication system is experimentally verified by an inductive power transfer system prototype having a dipole coil structure and prototype Zigbee modules over a 7-m distance, where both the thermal insulation box and the glass-fiber reinforced plastic box are fabricated and tested using a high-temperature chamber. Moreover, an experiment on the effects of a high radiation environment on various electronic devices is conducted based on the radiation test having a maximum accumulated dose of 27 Mrad.

  17. Development of Highly Reliable Power and Communication System for Essential Instruments Under Severe Accidents in NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hwan Choi


    Full Text Available This article proposes a highly reliable power and communication system that guarantees the protection of essential instruments in a nuclear power plant under a severe accident. Both power and communication lines are established with not only conventional wired channels, but also the proposed wireless channels for emergency reserve. An inductive power transfer system is selected due to its robust power transfer characteristics under high temperature, high pressure, and highly humid environments with a large amount of scattered debris after a severe accident. A thermal insulation box and a glass-fiber reinforced plastic box are proposed to protect the essential instruments, including vulnerable electronic circuits, from extremely high temperatures of up to 627°C and pressure of up to 5 bar. The proposed wireless power and communication system is experimentally verified by an inductive power transfer system prototype having a dipole coil structure and prototype Zigbee modules over a 7-m distance, where both the thermal insulation box and the glass-fiber reinforced plastic box are fabricated and tested using a high-temperature chamber. Moreover, an experiment on the effects of a high radiation environment on various electronic devices is conducted based on the radiation test having a maximum accumulated dose of 27 Mrad.

  18. The development of a nuclear accident risk information system(NARIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Jung, Won Dea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)


    The computerized system, NARIS(Nuclear Accident Risk Information System) was developed in order to support the estimation of health effects and the establishment the effective risk reduction strategies. Using the system, we can analyze the distribution of health effects easily by displaying the results on the digital map of the site. Also, the thematic mapping allows the diverse analysis of the distribution of the health effects.The NARIS can be used in the emergency operation facilities in order to analyze the distribution of the health effects resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant. Also, the rapid analysis of the health effect is possible by storing the health effect results in the form of a database. Therefore, the staffs of the emergency operation facilities can establish the rapid and effective emergency response strategies. The module for the optimization of the costs and benefits and the decision making support will be added. The technical support for the establishment of the optimum and effective emergency response strategies will be possible using this system. 23 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  19. Mathematical modeling of radionuclide dispersion in the Pripyat-Dnieper aquatic system after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheleznyak, M.J.; Demchenko, R.I.; Khursin, S.L.; Kuzmenko, Y.I.; Tkalich, P.V.; Vitiuk, N.Y. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Kibernetiki)


    The Chernobyl accident heavily contaminated the largest aquatic system in the Ukraine, requiring the development of a model-based detection support system in the field of aquatic radioecology. The main objectives of the system were to simulate and predict radionuclide dispersion in the Pripyat-Dnieper River-reservoir system, assess the effectiveness of special hydraulic countermeasures designed to decrease the rate of radionuclide dispersion in the water bodies, and support the Dnieper reservoirs' management operations. A hierarchy of mathematical models was developed. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical-longitudinal model, a 2D lateral-longitudinal model, a 1D channel model and a box-type model are briefly presented. These models describe the main features of radionuclide dispersion, including the processes governing radionuclide-sediment interactions. Examples of the models' applications are presented to show the peculiarities of radionuclide dispersion in this aquatic system. (author). 34 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs.

  20. Electromagnetic system for detection and localization of miners caught in mine accidents (United States)

    Pronenko, Vira; Dudkin, Fedir


    The profession of a miner is one of the most dangerous in the world. Among the main causes of fatalities in underground coal mines are the delayed alert of the accident and the lack of information regarding the actual location of the miners after the accident. In an emergency situation (failure or destruction of underground infrastructure), personnel search behind and beneath blockage needs to be performed urgently. However, none of the standard technologies - radio-frequency identification (RFID), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT), Wi-Fi, emitting cables, which use the stationary technical devices in mines - provide information about the miners location with the necessary precision. The only technology that is able to provide guaranteed delivery of messages to mine personnel, regardless of their location and under any destruction in the mine, is low-frequency radio technology, which is able to operate through the thickness of rocks even if they are wet. The proposed new system for miner localization is based on solving the inverse problem of determining the magnetic field source coordinates using the data of magnetic field measurements. This approach is based on the measurement of the magnetic field radiated by the miner's responder beacon using two fixed and spaced three-component magnetic field receivers and the inverse problem solution. As a result, a working model of the system for miner's beacon search and localization (MILES - MIner's Location Emergency System) was developed and successfully tested. This paper presents the most important aspects of this development and the results of experimental tests.

  1. A Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) Examination of Commercial Vessel Accidents (United States)


    analysis identified relationships among the HFACS levels and collision , allision, and grounding accidents . Logistic regression analysis identified six...determined for HFACS Level I. HFACS analysis identified relationships among the HFACS levels and collision , allision, and grounding accidents . Logistic...HFACS Level II Codes for Each Accident Type ............ 59 Table 14. Collisions Compared to All HFACS Level I Categories ....................... 60

  2. Systems thinking, the Swiss Cheese Model and accident analysis: a comparative systemic analysis of the Grayrigg train derailment using the ATSB, AcciMap and STAMP models. (United States)

    Underwood, Peter; Waterson, Patrick


    The Swiss Cheese Model (SCM) is the most popular accident causation model and is widely used throughout various industries. A debate exists in the research literature over whether the SCM remains a viable tool for accident analysis. Critics of the model suggest that it provides a sequential, oversimplified view of accidents. Conversely, proponents suggest that it embodies the concepts of systems theory, as per the contemporary systemic analysis techniques. The aim of this paper was to consider whether the SCM can provide a systems thinking approach and remain a viable option for accident analysis. To achieve this, the train derailment at Grayrigg was analysed with an SCM-based model (the ATSB accident investigation model) and two systemic accident analysis methods (AcciMap and STAMP). The analysis outputs and usage of the techniques were compared. The findings of the study showed that each model applied the systems thinking approach. However, the ATSB model and AcciMap graphically presented their findings in a more succinct manner, whereas STAMP more clearly embodied the concepts of systems theory. The study suggests that, whilst the selection of an analysis method is subject to trade-offs that practitioners and researchers must make, the SCM remains a viable model for accident analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A systems perspective of slip and fall accidents on icy and snowy surfaces. (United States)

    Gao, Chuansi; Abeysekera, John


    Current research on slips and falls has mainly focused on floors and/or contaminated floors. Although icy and snowy surfaces near melting temperature are more slippery, more important still, slip and falls on icy and snowy surfaces involve not only outdoor workers, but also pedestrians and the general public; and occur in cold regions and in the winter season in many parts of the world. However, in comparison with the size of the problem, research work done so far in this area has been limited. The objective of this paper is to present a systems perspective of slip and fall accidents, with special focus on its occurrence on icy and snowy surfaces. In order to explore the aetiology of slip and fall accidents further, and to provide the basis for prevention, the authors put forward a systems model towards the slips and falls on icy and snowy surfaces based on a review of literature and current knowledge. Various contributing factors are systematically discussed to highlight the multi-factorial nature of the problem, providing the possibility of a multi-faceted approach to reach systematic prevention. Unresolved issues related to slips and falls on ice and snow are also identified, which necessitate further research.

  4. Visualization of Traffic Accidents (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad


    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Development and operation of the network system for nuclear safety - Improvement of the following accident dose assessment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Enn Han; Han, Moon Hee; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    The FADAS has been updates for calculating the real-time wind fields continuously at the nuclear sites in Korea. The system has been constructed to compute the wind fields using its own process for the dummy meteorological data, and does not effect on the overall wind field module. If the radioactive materials are released into the atmosphere in real situation, the calculations of wind fields and exposure dose in the previous FADAS are performed in the case of the recognition of the above situation in the source term evaluation module. The current version of FADAS includes the program for evaluating the effect of the predicted accident and the assumed scenario together. The dose assessment module is separated into the real-time and the supposed accident respectively. 8 refs., 17 figs., 10 tabs. (Author)

  6. Gepsus: simulation-based decision making system for air pollution accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Radovan


    Full Text Available We describe a GIS-based real-time system for emergency response and management of air pollution accidents in an urban area. The system architecture emphasises the integration of meteorological, chemical and GIS data, dispersion modeling, decision-making and geo-spatial visualization. The threat zones, unsafe areas and safe traffic routes are obtained using an improved Gaussian plume model with a decision-making module and then exported to the Google Earth browser via “kml” file format. Several simulation scenarios were conducted and verified for notable industrial sites in Montenegro using recorded meteorological data. The results demonstrate that emergency response authorities can use the proposed methodology and system as a cost effective and accurate support tool in case of industrial or deliberate air pollution incidents.

  7. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations. 62.25... Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations. (a) General. Minimum instrumentation and alarms required for specific types of automated vital systems are listed in Table 62.35-50. (b) Instrumentation Location. (1...

  8. Investigation of Stability Alarming for Retaining Wall Structures with Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu


    Full Text Available To warn of the stability of retaining wall structures with damage, a simplified mechanical model and a finite element model of this retaining wall-soil coupling system are established. Via finite element model updating, a baseline finite element model of the wall-soil system is acquired. A damage alarming index ERSD (Energy Ratio Standard Deviation is proposed via the wavelet packet analysis of a virtual impulse response function of dynamic responses to this baseline finite element model. The internal relationships among the alarming index, earth pressure, and damage stability of the wall are analyzed. Then, a damage stability alarming method for the retaining walls is advanced. To verify the feasibility and validity of this alarming method, vibration tests on the baseline finite element model of a pile plate retaining wall are performed. The ERSD is used as an alarm for the damage stability of the wall. Analysis results show that, with an increase in the ERSD, the stability of the wall changes from a stable state to an unstable one. The wall reaches a critical stable state when the alarming index reaches its threshold value. Thus, the damage stability of this pile plate retaining wall can be alarmed via ERSD.

  9. Electromagnetic system for detection and localization of the miners caught by accident in mine (United States)

    Pronenko, Vira; Dudkin, Fedir


    It is well known that the profession of a miner is one of the most dangerous in the world. Among the main causes of the people death in the underground coal mining enterprises is their untimely alerting of the accident, as well as the lack of information for the rescuers about the actual location of the miners after the accident. As world practice shows, the electromagnetic (EM) systems for the search and detection of people across a massive layer of rock are the most effective. Such systems are under development almost half a century in many countries dealing with mine industry. However, substantial progress related to the localization of personnel at a distance at least of 20-30 meters through the rock is not reached. In an emergency situation (failure or destruction of underground infrastructure), personnel search behind and beneath of obstruction should be provided urgently. But none of the standard technologies (RFID, DECT, WiFi, emitting cable), which use the stationary technical devices in mines, do not provide notification of people caught by accident location. The only technology that provides guaranteed delivery of messages about the accident to the mine personnel, regardless of their location and under any destruction in the mine, is low-frequency radio technology able to operate through the thickness of rocks. From the general theoretical considerations, it is clear that the miners localization system requires solving the inverse problem of the magnetic field source coordinates determining using the data of 3-component magnetic field measurements. A fundamentally new approach, based on the measurement of the magnetic field of the miner's responder beacon by two fixed and spaced three-component magnetic field receivers and solution of the inverse problem using the results of the magnetic field measurement, was proposed. As a result, the concept of the equipment for miners beacon search and localization implementation (MILES - miner's location emergency

  10. Experimental assessment of accident scenarios for the high temperature reactor fuel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, O.; Laurie, M.; Bottomley, P.D.W.; Rondinella, V.V. [European Commission, Joint Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements; Avincola, V. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Materialien (IAM-AWP); Allelein, H.J. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Reaktorsicherheit und -technik


    case of breaches on the vessel or in other components, the pressure drops and air enters the reactor cavity. This scenario can affect the stability of graphite, which is used as a structural material for parts of the reactor core and the fuel. The presence of an oxidizing atmosphere leads to graphite corrosion and increases the risk for mechanical failure of TRISO coated particles, impeding the fission product retention barriers of the fuel and particularly leading to a sudden release of fission gases. In order to quantify such releases KORA was designed and operated in FZJ between 1992 and 1996: a high temperature furnace was installed in hot cell and able to simulate accident conditions in an oxidizing atmosphere. A successive version is planned to be installed at JRC-ITU in order to perform more tests. Currently, a non-radioactive 'cold' prototype is operated to investigate the oxidation behaviour of materials relevant for the HTR fuel system. Recent tests have been conducted on nuclear graphite. (orig.)

  11. [Road and home-accident injuries of infants and adolescents in the Lazio region. Results of an integrated surveillance system]. (United States)

    Chini, Francesco; Farchi, Sara; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Camilloni, Laura; Borgia, Piero; Guasticchi, Gabriella


    road traffic and home accidents are one of the leading causes of death for infants and adolescents between 0-18 years of age. This study aimed to describe the injuries of children in the Lazio Region, in the year 2000. retrospective cohort study. road traffic and home accident injury visits to all Emergency Departments (ED) in the Lazio region during 2000, Hospital discharges in the region during 2000-2001, integrated through deterministic linkage strategy all children aged 0-18 who visited one of the ED for home or road traffic injuries. we computed ED visits and hospitalisation rates and stratified them by sex, age and place of residence. Cases were classified by body region and type of lesion. IRR and 95% confidence intervals have been estimated using Poisson Regression. the rate of home accident visits was particularly high among children aged 1-5 years (55.2/1000), while the highest rate for road traffic injuries was in 14-18 year old children (53.8/1000). Girls had a lower hospitalisation rate than boys. Higher hospitalisation rates were found for children living outside of Rome. The body region most frequently injured in road traffic accidents was the lower extremities (28.4%), while most frequently injured in home accidents was the head and neck (34.8%). this study shows how integrating different systems of surveillance can provide a more complete picture of injuries from road and home accidents, that is difficult to obtain using other sources. The youngest children are at high risk of home accidents while teen-agers are at risk for road traffic injuries.

  12. Motorcycle accident

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    demic proportions “-. Motorcycle accidents are the second most common cause of road traffic accidents in both developed and developing countries 3'5. The proportion of road traffic accident victims made up of motorcycle falls within 9% and 35% 3 '9. Both the case fatality and the injury rate are higher in motorcycle acci~.

  13. Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) in case of nuclear accident with exposure doses’estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrakov, M.; Prodanova, M.; Slavov, K.; Veleva, B.


    A PC-oriented Emergency Response System in case of nuclear accident (BERS) is developed and works operationally in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH). The creation and development of BERS was highly stimulated by the ETEX (European Tracer Experiment) project. BERS comprises two main parts - the operational and the accidental ones. The operational part, run automatically every 12 hours, prepares the input meteorological file used by both trajectory and dispersion models, runs the trajectory models, visualizes the results and uploads the maps of trajectories to a dedicated web-site. The accidental part is activated manually when a real radioactive releases occur or during emergency exercises. Its core is the Bulgarian dispersion models EMAP. Outputs are concentration, accumulated deposition and selected doses fields. In the paper, the BERS overall structure is described and examples of its products are presented. (Author)

  14. A weighted dissimilarity index to isolate faults during alarm floods

    CERN Document Server

    Charbonnier, S; Gayet, P


    A fault-isolation method based on pattern matching using the alarm lists raised by the SCADA system during an alarm flood is proposed. A training set composed of faults is used to create fault templates. Alarm vectors generated by unknown faults are classified by comparing them with the fault templates using an original weighted dissimilarity index that increases the influence of the few alarms relevant to diagnose the fault. Different decision strategies are proposed to support the operator in his decision making. The performances are evaluated on two sets of data: an artificial set and a set obtained from a highly realistic simulator of the CERN Large Hadron Collider process connected to the real CERN SCADA system.

  15. SCADA alarms processing for wind turbine component failure detection (United States)

    Gonzalez, E.; Reder, M.; Melero, J. J.


    Wind turbine failure and downtime can often compromise the profitability of a wind farm due to their high impact on the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Early detection of failures can facilitate the changeover from corrective maintenance towards a predictive approach. This paper presents a cost-effective methodology to combine various alarm analysis techniques, using data from the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, in order to detect component failures. The approach categorises the alarms according to a reviewed taxonomy, turning overwhelming data into valuable information to assess component status. Then, different alarms analysis techniques are applied for two purposes: the evaluation of the SCADA alarm system capability to detect failures, and the investigation of the relation between components faults being followed by failure occurrences in others. Various case studies are presented and discussed. The study highlights the relationship between faulty behaviour in different components and between failures and adverse environmental conditions.

  16. An international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident having transboundary implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, I.M.G.; Andersen, C.E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.


    Since the Chernobyl accident many countries now operate large national networks of radiation detectors that continuously monitor radiation levels in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications. The networks are used to provide data to assist in determining...... of these detectors are used. During an accident the data produced by such systems will be exchanged between countries within the European Communities, (EC) and as required by the IAEA's Early Warning Convention between the rest of the world and Europe. It is therefore important to ensure that such data should...... be harmonised so that it can be accurately interpreted by other countries and by international organisations. To assist with such harmonisation an intercomparison was held during May/June 1999 at the Riso Natural Environmental Radiation Measurement Station in Denmark and at the PTB underground laboratory...

  17. Generating a 3D Simulation of a Car Accident from a Formal Description : the CarSim System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egges, A.; Nijholt, A.; Nugues, P.


    The problem of generating a 3D simulation of a car accident from a written description can be divided into two subtasks: the linguistic analysis and the virtual scene generation. As a means of communication between these two system parts, we designed a template formalism to represent a written

  18. An experimental investigation of the effects of alarm processing and display on operator performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.; Brown, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Hallbert, B.; Skraaning, G. [Halden Reactor Project (Norway); Wachtel, J.; Persensky, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research


    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. As part of this program, guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. In the course of guidance development, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support complete guidance development were identified. The primary purpose of the research reported in this paper was to evaluate the effects of three of these alarm system design characteristics on operator performance in order to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and to provide data to support the development of design review guidance in these areas. Three alarm system design characteristics studied were (1) alarm processing (degree of alarm reduction), (2) alarm availability (dynamic prioritization and suppression), and (3) alarm display (a dedicated tile format, a mixed tile and message list format, and a format in which alarm information is integrated into the process displays). A secondary purpose was to provide confirmatory evidence of selected alarm system guidance developed in an earlier phase of the project. The alarm characteristics were combined into eight separate experimental conditions. Six, two-person crews of professional nuclear power plant operators participated in the study. Following training, each crew completed 16 test trials which consisted of two trials in each of the eight experimental conditions (one with a low-complexity scenario and one with a high-complexity scenario). Measures of process performance, operator task performance, situation awareness, and workload were obtained. In addition, operator opinions and evaluations of the alarm processing and display conditions were collected. No deficient

  19. How Drivers Respond to Alarms Adapted to Their Braking Behaviour? (United States)

    Abe, Genya; Itoh, Makoto

    Determining appropriate alarm timing for Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) may play an important role in enhancing system acceptance by drivers. It is not always true that a common alarm trigger logic is suitable for all drivers, because presented alarms may be differently viewed for each driver, i.e., paying attention or requiring appropriate actions. The current study focused on adaptive alarm timing which was adjusted in response to braking behaviour for collision avoidance for the individual. In Experiment I, the braking performance of individual driver was measured repeatedly to assess the variation of each performance. We utilised the following two indices: elapsed time from the deceleration of the lead car to release of the accelerator (accelerator release time) and elapsed time to application of the brakes (braking response time). Two alarm timings were then determined based on these two indices: (i) the median of the accelerator release time of the driver and (ii) the median of the braking response time of the driver. Experiment II compared the two alarm timings for each driver in order to investigate which timing is more appropriate for enhancing driver trust in the driver-adaptive FCWS and the system effectiveness. The results showed that the timing of the accelerator release time increased the trust ratings more than the timing of braking response. The timing of the braking response time induced a longer response time to application of the brakes. Moreover, the degree to which the response time was longer depended on alarm timing preference of the driver. The possible benefit and drawback of driver-adaptive alarm timing are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alvarez


    - ministry of interior (ONEMI and hydrographic and oceanographic service of Chilean navy (SHOA. This article deals with experiences carried out in order to activate the warning systems, generating fictional telluric events and / or historical telluric events capable of triggering tsunami occurrences. It also proposes a working hypothesis that will allow monitoring the response of the state agencies, through the procedures established by law in the Republic of Chile. Our research delivers results that allow us to affirm that there are areas for hypothetical events that could generate tsunamis in which the To carry out this research we have used a software called STLAT based on simplified equations of the propagation of a tsunami wave, which has allowed us to get quick results. We have also carried out tests with official data which have shown that the alarm system was not able to respond appropriately to the 8.4 M Atico event that occurred in Peru in 2001.

  1. Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls (United States)

    Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick


    Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

  2. Wireless intelligent alarm technology with pyroelectric infrared sensor (United States)

    Chen, Xiao


    Aiming at the defects of monitoring conducted by man in the conventional practice, we study the passive intelligent automatic alarm technology based on the pyroelectric infrared sensor and wireless communication technology. The designed passive infrared wireless alarm is composed of pyroelectric infrared sensors, infrared special chip BISS0001 and their peripheral circuits. When someone enters into the detecting and monitoring range, the alarm will detect the infrared ray of the human radiation by the contactless form and detect the signals of circuit output. Then it translates them into low frequency signals relative with human sports speed, distance and direction, produce corresponding output signals through amplifying by the back state controller, switch on the work power of the wireless transmitting circuit and make it emit the alarm signals. The system enhances the monitoring level and effects and possesses many advantages such as wide detecting range, long detecting distance and high reliability.

  3. Panic, suffocation false alarms, separation anxiety and endogenous opioids. (United States)

    Preter, Maurice; Klein, Donald F


    This review paper presents an amplification of the suffocation false alarm theory (SFA) of spontaneous panic [Klein DF (1993). False suffocation alarms, spontaneous panics, and related conditions. An integrative hypothesis. Arch Gen Psychiatry; 50:306-17.]. SFA postulates the existence of an evolved physiologic suffocation alarm system that monitors information about potential suffocation. Panic attacks maladaptively occur when the alarm is erroneously triggered. That panic is distinct from Cannon's emergency fear response and Selye's General Alarm Syndrome is shown by the prominence of intense air hunger during these attacks. Further, panic sufferers have chronic sighing abnormalities outside of the acute attack. Another basic physiologic distinction between fear and panic is the counter-intuitive lack of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation in panic. Understanding panic as provoked by indicators of potential suffocation, such as fluctuations in pCO(2) and brain lactate, as well as environmental circumstances fits the observed respiratory abnormalities. However, that sudden loss, bereavement and childhood separation anxiety are also antecedents of "spontaneous" panic requires an integrative explanation. Because of the opioid system's central regulatory role in both disordered breathing and separation distress, we detail the role of opioidergic dysfunction in decreasing the suffocation alarm threshold. We present results from our laboratory where the naloxone-lactate challenge in normals produces supportive evidence for the endorphinergic defect hypothesis in the form of a distress episode of specific tidal volume hyperventilation paralleling challenge-produced and clinical panic.



    Vásquez Capacho, John William


    Thèse en cotutelle avec l'Universidad de los Andes, Colombie; National audience; This thesis work was carried out in the framework of a co-tutelle between INSA, Toulouse, and the University of the Andes, Colombia, with financial support of Colciencias. This work is motivated by the need of the industry to detect abnormal situations in the plant startup and shutdown stages. Industrial plants involve integrated management of all the events that may cause accidents and translate into alarms. Pro...

  5. Reliable and Efficient Access for Alarm-initiated and Regular M2M Traffic in IEEE 802.11ah Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar


    IEEE 802.11ah is a novel WiFi-based protocol, aiming to provide an access solution for the machine-to-machine (M2M) communications. In this paper, we propose an adaptive access mechanism that can be seamlessly incorporated into IEEE 802.11ah protocol operation and that supports all potential M2M...... reporting regimes, which are periodic, on-demand and alarm reporting. The proposed access method is based a periodically re- occurring pool of time slots, whose size is proactively determined on the basis of the reporting activity in the cell. We show that it is possible to both efficiently and reliably...

  6. The development of design technology on the safety parameter display system for the operability improvement of the nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Young Joon; Choi, Hae Yoon; Ahn, Jang Sun; Lee, Tae Woo; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Kil Kon; Baek, Seong Min; Sul, Young Sil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study is, basically, threefold. Firstly, through detailed comparison, the difference between the safety parameters used in the EPG and CFMS is analyzed. Furthermore, to anticipate and extrapolate the problems that might be encountered when developing the CFMS system that utilizes safety parameters consistent with that of the EPG. Secondly, the setpoint analysis of the CFMS alarm algorithm was done for there is a possibility of causing spurious alarms since the alarm setpoint of the YGN 3,4 CFMS is not reflective of the plant operating conditions nor accident progression. Lastly, the analysis of the success path for each accident was done to help operator in mitigating the accident by using the pictorial path of the success path during an accident condition. Moreover, in this analysis, the contents of the concerns that KINS raised regarding the YGN 3,4 SPDS has been addressed from the designer`s perspective. 33 figs., 16 refs. (Author) .new.

  7. Road Traffic Accidents In Uyo Urban, Akwa Ibom State: The Scourge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... while radius and ulna bones accounted for 20 each (2.5%). significantly relevant to these accidents were the alarming number of motor cycles on the roads, the personality and comportment of the individual riders, the time or period of occurrence of the accidents. Key words: Road Traffic Accidents, Motor cycles, Trauma

  8. Smart House Interconnected System Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBU Răzvan-Daniel


    Full Text Available In this research work we will present the architecture of an intelligent house system capable to detect accidents cause by floods, gas, and to protect against unauthorized access or burglary. Our system is not just an alarm, it continuously monitors the house and reports over internet its state. Most of the current smart house systems available on the market alarms the user via email or SMS when an unwanted event happens. Thus, the user assumes that the house is not affected if an alarm message is not received. This is not always true, since the monitoring system components can also damage, or the entire system can become unable to send an alarm message even if it detects an unwanted event. This article presents also details about both hardware and software implementation.

  9. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and... GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis... type of device includes conditioned response enuresis alarms. (b) Classification. Class II (special...

  10. Development of the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of nuclear power plant severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naitoh, Masanori; Ujita, Hiroshi; Nagumo, Hiroichi [Nuclear Power Corp. (Japan)] [and others


    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has initiated a long-term program to develop the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of hypothetical severe accidents in nuclear power plants. IMPACT employs advanced methods of physical modeling and numerical computation, and can simulate a wide spectrum of senarios ranging from normal operation to hypothetical, beyond-design-basis-accident events. Designed as a large-scale system of interconnected, hierarchical modules, IMPACT`s distinguishing features include mechanistic models based on first principles and high speed simulation on parallel processing computers. The present plan is a ten-year program starting from 1993, consisting of the initial one-year of preparatory work followed by three technical phases: Phase-1 for development of a prototype system; Phase-2 for completion of the simulation system, incorporating new achievements from basic studies; and Phase-3 for refinement through extensive verification and validation against test results and available real plant data.

  11. Sun-glint false alarm mitigation in a maritime scenario (United States)

    Rossi, Alessandro; Riccobono, Aldo; Landini, Stefano


    Airborne hyperspectral imaging can be exploited to detect anomalous objects in the maritime scenario. Due to the objects high contrast with respect to the sea surface, detection can be easily accomplished by means of local anomaly detectors, such as the well-known Reed-Xiaoli (RX) algorithm. During the development of a real-time system for the detection of anomalous pixels, it has been noticed that the performance of detection is deeply affected by the presence of sun-glint. The reflection on the sea surface of the solar radiation produces a high density of alarms, that makes challenging the task of detecting the objects of interest. In this paper, it is introduced a strategy aimed at discriminating the sun-glint false alarms from the effective alarms related to targets of potential interest. False alarms due to glint are mitigated performing a local spatio-spectral analysis on each alarm furnished by the anomaly detector. The technique has been tested on hyperspectral images collected during a measurement campaign carried out near Pisa, Italy. The Selex ES SIMGA hyperspectral sensor was mounted on board of an airplane to collect high spectral resolution images in both the VNIR and SWIR spectral channels. Several experiments were carried out, setting up scenarios with small man-made objects deployed on the sea surface, so as to simulate search and rescue operations. The results have highlighted the effectiveness of the proposed solution in terms of mitigation of false alarms due to sun-glints on the maritime scenario.

  12. Electromagnetic system for detection and localization of miners caught in mine accidents


    Pronenko, V.; F. Dudkin


    The profession of a miner is one of the most dangerous in the world. Among the main causes of fatalities in underground coal mines are the delayed alert of the accident and the lack of information regarding the actual location of the miners after the accident. In an emergency situation (failure or destruction of underground infrastructure), personnel search behind and beneath blockage needs to be performed urgently. However, none of the standard technologies – radio-frequenc...

  13. A parametric study of MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2 (MACCS2) Input Values for the Predicted Health Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, So Ra; Min, Byung Il; Park, Ki Hyun; Yang, Byung Mo; Suh, Kyung Suk [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2, MACCS2, has been the most widely used through the world among the off-site consequence analysis codes. MACCS2 code is used to estimate the radionuclide concentrations, radiological doses, health effects, and economic consequences that could result from the hypothetical nuclear accidents. Most of the MACCS model parameter values are defined by the user and those input parameters can make a significant impact on the output. A limited parametric study was performed to identify the relative importance of the values of each input parameters in determining the predicted early and latent health effects in MACCS2. These results would not be applicable to every case of the nuclear accidents, because only the limited calculation was performed with Kori-specific data. The endpoints of the assessment were early- and latent cancer-risk in the exposed population, therefore it might produce the different results with the parametric studies for other endpoints, such as contamination level, absorbed dose, and economic cost. Accident consequence assessment is important for decision making to minimize the health effect from radiation exposure, accordingly the sufficient parametric studies are required for the various endpoints and input parameters in further research.

  14. Central nervous system infections masquerading as cerebrovascular accidents: Case series and review of literature. (United States)

    Hayes, Lisa; Malhotra, Prashant


    Central nervous system (CNS) infections can have various presentations including Cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) which may go unrecognized as a presentation of infection. We describe three cases of different CNS infections complicated by CVA. Case 1 describes a 27-year-old man, presenting with symptoms consistent with a transient ischemic attack found to have racemose neurocysticercosis. Case 2 describes a 55-year-old man with low grade fevers for 4 weeks accompanied by visual and gait disturbances and delayed speech diagnosed with multiple small left thalamocapsular and superior cerebellar infarcts secondary to cryptococcal meningitis. The third case describes a man with pneumococcal meningitis complicated by cerebellar infarcts. CNS vascular compromise secondary to infections may be due to vasculitis, an immune-mediated parainfectious process causing vasospasm or thrombosis, or a hypercoagulable state with endothelial dysfunction. Patients with CVAs are at risk for aspiration pneumonia, urinary tract infections (especially catheter related) and other nosocomial infections and their clinical presentation may be very similar to CNS infections. The cases described demonstrate that CNS infections need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of CVAs presenting with fevers. The signs and symptoms of non-CNS infections associated with CVAs may be clinically indistinguishable from those of CNS infections. The outcomes of untreated CNS infections are extremely poor. It is thus imperative to have a high index of suspicion for CNS infection when evaluating CVAs with fevers or other signs of infection.

  15. Criticality accident dosimetry systems: an international intercomparison at the SILENE reactor in 2002. (United States)

    Médioni, R; Asselineau, B; Verrey, B; Trompier, F; Itié, C; Texier, C; Muller, H; Pelcot, G; Clairand, I; Jacquet, X; Pochat, J L


    In criticality accident dosimetry and more generally for high dose measurements, special techniques are used to measure separately the gamma ray and neutron components of the dose. To improve these techniques and to check their dosimetry systems (physical and/or biological), a total of 60 laboratories from 29 countries (America, Europe, Asia) participated in an international intercomparaison, which took place in France from 9 to 21 June 2002, at the SILENE reactor in Valduc and at a pure gamma source in Fontenay-aux-Roses. This intercomparison was jointly organised by the IRSN and the CEA with the help of the NEA/OCDE and was partly supported by the European Communities. This paper describes the aim of this intercomparison, the techniques used by the participants and the two radiation sources and their characteristics. The experimental arrangements of the dosemeters for the irradiations in free air or on phantoms are given. Then the dosimetric quantities measured and reported by the participants are summarised, analysed and compared with the reference values. The present paper concerns only the physical dosimetry and essentially experiments performed on the SILENE facility. The results obtained with the biological dosimetry are published in two other papers of this issue.

  16. The simulation of a criticality accident excursion occurring in a simple fast metal system using the coupled neutronic-hydrodynamic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, W.L.


    Analysis of a criticality accident scenario occuring in a simple fast metal system using the coupled neutronic-hydrodynamic method is demonstrated by examining the last Godiva-I criticality accident. The basis tools and information for creating a coupled neutronic-hydrodynamic code are presented. Simplifying assumptions and approximations for creating an idealized model for the Godiva-I system are discussed. Estimates of the total energy generation and the maximum attainable kinetic energy yield are the most important results that are obtained from the code. With modifications, the methodology presented in this paper can be extended to analyze criticality accident excursions in other kinds of nuclear systems.

  17. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heams, T J [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, D A; Johns, N A; Mason, A [UKAEA, Winfrith, (England); Bixler, N E; Grimley, A J [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheatley, C J [UKAEA, Culcheth (England); Dickson, L W [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Osborn-Lee, I [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Domagala, P; Zawadzki, S; Rest, J [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Alexander, C A [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Lee, R Y [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)


    The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided.

  18. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Helium-Gas Accident Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Helium Supply Rupture into Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.


    The model results are used to determine if beam power shutdown is necessary (or not) as a result of the LOHGA accident to maintain the blanket system well below any of the thermal-hydraulic constraints imposed on the design. The results also provide boundary conditions to the detailed bin model to study the detailed temperature response of the hot blanket module structure. The results for these two cases are documented in the report.

  19. Community social alarm network in Slovenia. (United States)

    Premik, M; Rudel, D


    The article deals with a case report on the technology transfer of the Lifeline community social alarm system to Slovenia. The main reason the project was initiated is the ageing of the Slovenian population (11% of the population is 65 or over). With this system we intend to support the public's wish to allow the elderly to remain in their own homes for as long as possible instead of placing them in institutional care. Between 1992 and 1995 the following results were achieved: the acceptability of the system in the social environment was increased; a pilot control centre in Ljubljana was established and has been operational for two-and-a-half years; a national dissemination plan was prepared; the integration of the programme into other information systems has been started. One of the main conclusions is that for the successful transfer of a technology which also affects social values in society, a social innovation must support the process.

  20. Alarm reduction with correlation analysis; Larmsanering genom korrelationsanalys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergquist, Tord; Ahnlund, Jonas; Johansson, Bjoern; Gaardman, Lennart; Raaberg, Martin [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Information Technology


    This project's main interest is to improve the overall alarm situation in the control rooms. By doing so, the operators working environment is less overstrained, which simplifies the decision-making. According to a study of the British refinery industry, the operators make wrong decisions in four times out of ten due to badly tuned alarm systems, with heavy expenses as a result. Furthermore, a more efficiently alarm handling is estimated to decrease the production loss with between three and eight percent. This sounds, according to Swedish standards, maybe a bit extreme, but there is no doubt about the benefits of having a well-tuned alarm system. This project can be seen as an extension of 'General Methods for Alarm Reduction' (VARMEFORSK--835), where the process improvements were the result of suggestions tailored for every signal. Here, instead causal dependences in the process are examined. A method for this, specially designed to fit process signals, has been developed. It is called MLPC (Multiple Local Property Correlation) and could be seen as an unprejudiced way of increase the information value in the process. There are a number of ways to make use of the additional process understanding a correlation analysis provides. In the report some are mentioned, foremost aiming to improve the alarm situation for operators. Signals from two heating plants have been analyzed with MLPC. In simulations, with the use of the result from these analyses as a base, a large number of alarms have been successfully suppressed. The results have been studied by personal with process knowledge, and they are very positive to the use of MLPC and they express many benefits by the clarification of process relations. It was established in 'General Methods for Alarm Reduction' that low pass filter are superior to mean value filter and time delay when trying to suppress alarms. As a result, a module for signal processing has been developed. The main purpose is

  1. Developing Off-site Emergency Preparedness and Response Model (OEPRM) for Severe Accident of NPP in a Densely Populated Country Using System Dynamics Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossena, Muhammed Mufazzal; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Song, Jin Ho [KAERI, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The main objectives of this study are to find the influencing factors of systems and sub-systems of OEPRM, to find the interdependency among the influencing factors, and to develop a conceptual qualitative OEPRM for densely populated NPP country in case of SA using system dynamics (SD). NPP accidents are classified as nuclear accidents and incidents depending on the severity. Severe accident (SA) is certain low probability accident that are beyond design basis accident which may arise due to multiple failures of safety systems leading to significant core degradation and jeopardize the integrity of many or all of the barriers to the release of radioactive material. The weakness to the off-site emergency response in the time of Fukushima accident was observed. So, it is crucial to develop an off-site emergency preparedness and responses model (OEPRM) for radiological emergency in densely populated country from the Fukushima emergency response lesson. In this study, an OEPRM is developed for densely populated NPP country to mitigate radiological effects in case of SA using SD approach. Besides, this study focuses the weakness of emergency response in Fukushima accident and proposed solution approach. The development of OEPRM in case of SA of NPP is very complex because of the involvement of various organization and it requires highly specialized agencies and technical experts. Moreover, if the country is agriculture based, it will make completely sophisticated.

  2. Construction of a technique plan repository and evaluation system based on AHP group decision-making for emergency treatment and disposal in chemical pollution accidents. (United States)

    Shi, Shenggang; Cao, Jingcan; Feng, Li; Liang, Wenyan; Zhang, Liqiu


    The environmental pollution resulting from chemical accidents has caused increasingly serious concerns. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine in advance the appropriate emergency treatment and disposal technology for different types of chemical accidents. However, the formulation of an emergency plan for chemical pollution accidents is considerably difficult due to the substantial uncertainty and complexity of such accidents. This paper explains how the event tree method was used to create 54 different scenarios for chemical pollution accidents, based on the polluted medium, dangerous characteristics and properties of chemicals involved. For each type of chemical accident, feasible emergency treatment and disposal technology schemes were established, considering the areas of pollution source control, pollutant non-proliferation, contaminant elimination and waste disposal. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs from the plan repository, the technique evaluation index system was developed based on group decision-improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and has been tested by using a sudden aniline pollution accident that occurred in a river in December 2012. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A comprehensive review of rollover accidents involving vehicles equipped with Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems. (United States)

    Padmanaban, Jeya; Shields, Leland E; Scheibe, Robert R; Eyges, Vitaly E


    This study investigated 478 police accident reports from 9 states to examine and characterize rollover crashes involving ESC-equipped vehicles. The focus was on the sequence of critical events leading to loss of control and rollover, and the interactions between the accident, driver, and environment. Results show that, while ESC is effective in reducing loss of control leading to certain rollover crashes, its effectiveness is diminished in others, particularly when the vehicle departs the roadway or when environmental factors such as slick road conditions or driver factors such as speeding, distraction, fatigue, impairment, or overcorrection are present.

  4. Annual incidence and standardized incidence ratio of cerebrovascular accidents in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Mok, C C; Ho, L Y; To, C H


    To study the annual incidence and standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The annual incidence of CVA from 1999 to 2007 in a longitudinal cohort of SLE patients was calculated each year and compared with that of the regional population within the same study period. Age-specific SIRs and outcome of CVA in SLE patients were also studied. In 2007, there were 490 SLE patients in our cohort. The mean annual incidence of CVA between 1999 and 2007 was 6.45/1000 patients and no obvious trend over time was observed. Of the 20 CVAs in patients with SLE, 18 (90%) were ischaemic stroke whereas two (10%) were haemorrhagic stroke. The mean SIR of all types of CVA in SLE patients was 2.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-3.81; p = 0.002]. The SIR of ischaemic stroke decreased with age and the stroke incidence was no longer significantly higher than that of the population in patients aged >or= 60 years. Haemorrhagic stroke occurred mainly in younger SLE patients. The duration of hospitalization and the mortality rate for CVA was non-significantly higher in SLE than in non-SLE patients. The incidence of CVA in SLE remained constant over the 8 years between 1999 and 2007. Younger SLE patients are at substantially increased risk of CVA compared to age-matched population. The duration of hospitalization and the mortality rate for CVA are similar in SLE and non-SLE patients.

  5. Outcomes of hospitalizations for myocardial infarctions and cerebrovascular accidents in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Ward, Michael M


    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have increased risks of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA), but it is not known whether they have worse outcomes after AMI or CVA compared with patients without SLE. This study compared in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and other measures of severity (congestive heart failure or need for coronary artery bypass grafting after AMI; discharge to a skilled nursing facility after CVA) between patients with SLE and patients without SLE who were hospitalized for AMI or CVA. Data on all patients hospitalized in California with either AMI or CVA from 1996 to 2000 were abstracted from a state hospitalization database. Outcomes after AMI were compared between 519 patients with SLE and 214,771 patients without SLE, and outcomes after CVA were compared between 905 patients with SLE and 293,326 patients without SLE. Analyses were performed separately for men and women. Among women with AMI, there were no differences in the risk of in-hospital mortality, long length of stay, or congestive heart failure between patients with SLE and those without SLE, but women with SLE were less likely to undergo coronary artery bypass grafting. Outcomes after AMI did not differ between men with SLE and men without SLE. Among women with CVA, there were no differences in outcomes between patients with SLE and patients without SLE. Men with SLE were almost twice as likely to have a long length of stay after CVA than were men without SLE. Outcomes after AMI and CVA are generally similar between patients with SLE and those without SLE. Copyright 2004 American College of Rheumatology

  6. Development and experimental evaluation of an alarm concept for an integrated surgical workstation. (United States)

    Zeißig, Eva-Maria; Janß, Armin; Dell'Anna-Pudlik, Jasmin; Ziefle, Martina; Radermacher, Klaus


    Alarm conditions of the technical equipment in operating rooms represent a prevalent cause for interruptions of surgeons and scrub nurses, resulting in an increase of workload and potential reduction of patient safety. In this work, an alarm concept for an integrated operating room system based on open communication standards is developed and tested. In a laboratory experiment, the reactions of surgeons were analysed, comparing the displaying of alarms on an integrated workstation and on single devices: disruptive effects of alarm handling on primary task (ratings of perceived distraction, resumption lag, deterioration of speed, accuracy, and prospective memory), efficiency and effectiveness of identification of alarms, as well as perceived workload were included. The identification of the alarm cause is significantly more efficient and effective with the integrated alarm concept. Moreover, a slightly lower deterioration of performance of the primary task due to the interruption of alarm handling was observed. Displaying alarms on an integrated workstation supports alarm handling and consequently reduces disruptive effects on the primary task. The findings show that even small changes can reduce workload in a complex work environment like the operating room, resulting in improved patient safety.

  7. Time to death analysis of road traffic accidents in relation to delta V, drunk driving, and restraint systems. (United States)

    Ju, Yonghan; Sohn, So Young


    The main goal of this research is to identify variables related to the expected time to death due to road traffic accidents (RTAs). Such research is expected to be useful in improving safety laws and regulations and developing new safety systems. The resulting information is crucial not only for reducing accident fatalities but for assessing related insurance policies. In this article, we analyze factors that are potentially associated with variation in the expected survival time after a road traffic accident using Weibull regression. In particular, we consider the association with alcohol involvement, delta V, and restraint systems. Our empirical results, obtained based on the NASS-CDS, indicate that the expected survival time for non-alcohol-impaired drivers is 3.23 times longer at a delta V of 50 km/h than that for alcohol-impaired drivers under the same conditions. In addition, it was observed that, even when occupants were alcohol-impaired, if they were protected by both air bags and seat belts, their expected survival time after an RTA increased 2.59-fold compared to alcohol-impaired drivers who used only seat belts. Our findings may be useful in improving road traffic safety and insurance policies by offering insights into the factors that reduce fatalities.

  8. Conceptual Design of Portable Filtered Air Suction Systems For Prevention of Released Radioactive Gas under Severe Accidents of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Yim, Man S.; Rim, Chun T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    It becomes evident that severe accidents may occur by unexpected disasters such as tsunami, heavy flood, or terror. Once radioactive material is released from NPP through severe accidents, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gas spreading in the air. As a remedy for this problem, the idea on the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for the prevention of released radioactive gas under severe accidents was proposed. In this paper, the conceptual design of a PoFASS focusing on the number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are proposed. In order to design a flexible robot suction nozzle, mathematical models for the gaps which represent the lifted heights of extensible covers for given convex shapes of pipes and for the covered areas are developed. In addition, the system requirements for the design of the robot arms of PoFASS are proposed, which determine the accessible range of leakage points of released radioactive gas. In this paper, the conceptual designs of the flexible robot suction nozzle and robot arm have been conducted. As a result, the minimum number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are defined to be four and three, respectively. For further works, extensible cover designs on the flexible robot suction nozzle and the application of the PoFASS to the inside of NPP should be studied because the radioactive gas may be released from connection pipes between the containment building and auxiliary buildings.

  9. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Flow Accident (LOFA) Analysis Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 1: with Beam Shutdown and Active RHR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.


    This report is one of a series of reports that document normal operation and accident simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal system. These simulations were performed for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report.

  10. Accident Statistics (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  11. Decision support systems for major accident prevention in the chemical process industry : A developers' survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Ale, B. J.M.; Dullaert, W.; Foubert, B.


    Solid major accident prevention management is characterized by efficient and effective risk assessments. As a means of addressing the efficiency aspect, decision support analysis software is becoming increasingly available. This paper discusses the results of a survey of decision support tools for

  12. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia



    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  13. Implementation of numerical simulation techniques in analysis of the accidents in complex technological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klishin, G.S.; Seleznev, V.E.; Aleoshin, V.V. [RFNC-VNIIEF (Russian Federation)


    Gas industry enterprises such as main pipelines, compressor gas transfer stations, gas extracting complexes belong to the energy intensive industry. Accidents there can result into the catastrophes and great social, environmental and economic losses. Annually, according to the official data several dozens of large accidents take place at the pipes in the USA and Russia. That is why prevention of the accidents, analysis of the mechanisms of their development and prediction of their possible consequences are acute and important tasks nowadays. The accidents reasons are usually of a complicated character and can be presented as a complex combination of natural, technical and human factors. Mathematical and computer simulations are safe, rather effective and comparatively inexpensive methods of the accident analysis. It makes it possible to analyze different mechanisms of a failure occurrence and development, to assess its consequences and give recommendations to prevent it. Besides investigation of the failure cases, numerical simulation techniques play an important role in the treatment of the diagnostics results of the objects and in further construction of mathematical prognostic simulations of the object behavior in the period of time between two inspections. While solving diagnostics tasks and in the analysis of the failure cases, the techniques of theoretical mechanics, of qualitative theory of different equations, of mechanics of a continuous medium, of chemical macro-kinetics and optimizing techniques are implemented in the Conversion Design Bureau {number_sign}5 (DB{number_sign}5). Both universal and special numerical techniques and software (SW) are being developed in DB{number_sign}5 for solution of such tasks. Almost all of them are calibrated on the calculations of the simulated and full-scale experiments performed at the VNIIEF and MINATOM testing sites. It is worth noting that in the long years of work there has been established a fruitful and effective

  14. Development of the scenario-based training system to reduce hazards and prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Choi, Jong-Won; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, IkJune; Kim, GeunHo; Kang, ShinYoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities has to be accomplished by assuring the safety of workers. Decommissioning workers need familiarization with working environments because working environment is under high radioactivity and work difficulty during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. On-the-job training of decommissioning works could effectively train decommissioning workers but this training approach could consume much costs and poor modifications of scenarios. The efficiency of virtual training system could be much better than that of physical training system. This paper was intended to develop the training system to prevent accidents for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The requirements for the training system were drawn. The data management modules for the training system were designed. The training system of decommissioning workers was developed on the basis of virtual reality which is flexibly modified. The visualization and measurement in the training system were real-time done according as changes of the decommissioning scenario. It can be concluded that this training system enables the subject to improve his familiarization about working environments and to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. In the end, the safety during decommissioning of nuclear facilities will be guaranteed under the principle of ALARA.

  15. Alarm management for storage and transportation terminals; Gerenciamento de alarmes para terminais de transferencia e estocagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Patricia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Feldman, Rafael Noac [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Recently, in many industrial segments, it has been taken into account the issues related to the high amount of alarms that are announced in the control rooms, even if the industrial process is under normal conditions. Recent studies and surveys have shown that the three major problems related to it are: alarms that remain active during normal operation; alarms that remain chattering during an operational period; the phenomenon called Alarm flood, that occurs when an extensive amount of alarms is announced and the operator does not have enough time to take effective actions. In order to reduce or to eliminate the two above mentioned causes, alarm analysis and housekeeping, called Alarm Rationalization, have been efficient in major cases, because such facts occur mainly due to inadequate limits definition and/or equipment and instruments out of service or in maintenance. Such alarms are called in the literature as bad-actors or villains, and their occurrences may reach up to 50% of the daily total amount of alarms. This paper aims to present the main results of a project named Alarm Management for Transfer and Storage Terminals. The project development is based on two different terminal surveys, in order not only to identify the most frequent causes of undesirable alarms, but also to generate design standards. The main phases of the project are: alarm rationalization based on bad-actors detection; generate a set of design and operation standards; generate an Alarm Philosophy document for the Terminals. (author)

  16. Identification and Isolation of Human Alarm Pheromones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Strey, Helmut


    .... Task I, Optimization of Sample Collection, focused on the collection of the putative alarm pheromone via axillary sweat samples obtained during reference (physical exercise) and arousal (skydive) conditions...

  17. Effect of Spray System on Fission Product Distribution in Containment During a Severe Accident in a Two-Loop Pressurized Water Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehjourian


    Full Text Available The containment response during the first 24 hours of a low-pressure severe accident scenario in a nuclear power plant with a two-loop Westinghouse-type pressurized water reactor was simulated with the CONTAIN 2.0 computer code. The accident considered in this study is a large-break loss-of-coolant accident, which is not successfully mitigated by the action of safety systems. The analysis includes pressure and temperature responses, as well as investigation into the influence of spray on the retention of fission products and the prevention of hydrogen combustion in the containment.

  18. Agricultural countermeasure program - AGRICP: food and dose module in ARGOS- accident reporting and Guidance Operational System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calábria, Jaqueline A.A.; Morais, Gustavo F., E-mail:, E-mail: [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Nuclear or radiological emergencies can affect food, feed and commodities grown. The regulatory bodies has a role in the post-accident phase instructing the population regarding the consumption of agricultural products, monitoring and recovering the contaminated areas and disposing the generated waste. To deal with nuclear/radiological emergencies, in the end of 2007, Brazil took part of the ARGOS consortium. ARGOS is a software used for support the Preparedness and Response of a nuclear emergency. Specifically for use during the recovery phase, ARGOS has a module called AgriCP (Agricultural Countermeasure Program). This functionality was add to the version 9.0 of ARGOS, in 2012, replacing FMD (Food and Dose Module) model. AgriCP can be very useful in the post-accident phasing, helping to planning the actions that must be taken, saving human and budged resources. However, most of the parameters used by default for the model are specific for Central Europe and must be adapted to the Brazilian characteristics. In this paper the basic functionalities of AgriCP are presented and a general view of the issues to be addressed while implementing AgriCP for the Brazilian case is given. Besides the lack of specific parameters for the Brazilian reality, the definition of the area to be considering for intervention in an accident, taking into account the very complex meteorological characteristic of the Brazilian NPPs (nuclear power plants) site, are some of the matters of concern. (author)

  19. Cost effectiveness of residential carbon monoxide alarms. (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B


    While residential carbon monoxide (CO) alarms are now required in a majority of states, the cost effectiveness of the devices is unknown. This analysis was performed to determine the degree of prevention efficacy necessary from home carbon monoxide alarms for their expense to be cost-effective. Data regarding numbers of individuals affected in the United States annually from accidental, non-fire, residential non-fatal and fatal carbon monoxide poisoning were obtained from published literature. Federal governmental estimates of societal costs associated with medical care, lost wages and earnings, value of pain and suffering, and value of a statistical life were applied. The cost of uniform residential carbon monoxide alarm installation was compared to those societal costs in order to calculate what degree of efficiency makes alarms cost-effective. Societal costs for accidental, non-fire, residential CO poisoning are approximately $3.47 billion annually. With an estimated cost of $348 million annually for alarms, prevention of greater than 10% of residential CO poisoning costs must be achieved in order for alarms to be cost-effective. While the true effectiveness of residential carbon monoxide alarms has yet to be determined, current state legislation requiring residential installation of CO alarms is probably cost-effective. .

  20. Display-And-Alarm Circuit For Accelerometer (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.


    Compact accelerometer assembly consists of commercial accelerometer retrofit with display-and-alarm circuit. Provides simple means for technician attending machine to monitor vibrations. Also simpifies automatic safety shutdown by providing local alarm or shutdown signal when vibration exceeds preset level.

  1. Application of the Bulgarian emergency response system in case of nuclear accident in environmental assessment study (United States)

    Syrakov, Dimiter; Veleva, Blagorodka; Georgievs, Emilia; Prodanova, Maria; Slavov, Kiril; Kolarova, Maria


    The development of the Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) for short term forecast in case of accidental radioactive releases to the atmosphere has been started in the mid 1990's [1]. BERS comprises of two main parts - operational and accidental, for two regions 'Europe' and 'Northern Hemisphere'. The operational part runs automatically since 2001 using the 72 hours meteorological forecast from DWD Global model, resolution in space of 1.5o and in time - 12 hours. For specified Nuclear power plants (NPPs), 3 days trajectories are calculated and presented on NIMH's specialized Web-site ( The accidental part is applied when radioactive releases are reported or in case of emergency exercises. BERS is based on numerical weather forecast information and long-range dispersion model accounting for the transport, dispersion, and radioactive transformations of pollutants. The core of the accidental part of the system is the Eulerian 3D dispersion model EMAP calculating concentration and deposition fields [2]. The system is upgraded with a 'dose calculation module' for estimation of the prognostic dose fields of 31 important radioactive gaseous and aerosol pollutants. The prognostic doses significant for the early stage of a nuclear accident are calculated as follows: the effective doses from external irradiation (air submersion + ground shinning); effective dose from inhalation; summarized effective dose and absorbed thyroid dose [3]. The output is given as 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours prognostic dose fields according the updated meteorology. The BERS was upgraded to simulate the dispersion of nuclear materials from Fukushima NPP [4], and results were presented in NIMH web-site. In addition BERS took part in the respective ENSEMBLE exercises to model 131I and 137Cs in Fukushima source term. In case of governmental request for expertise BERS was applied for environmental impact assessment of hypothetical accidental transboundary

  2. Non-specific alarm calls trigger mobbing behavior in Hainan gibbons (Nomascus hainanus). (United States)

    Deng, Huaiqing; Gao, Kai; Zhou, Jiang


    Alarm calls are important defensive behaviors. Here, we report the acoustic spectrum characteristics of alarm calls produced by Hainan gibbons (Nomascus hainanus) inhabiting Bawangling National Nature Reserve in Hainan, China. Analysis of call data collected from 2002-2014 shows that alarm calls are emitted by all family group members, except infants. Alarm behavior included simple short alarming calls (7-10 min) followed by longer variable-frequency mobbing calls lasting 5-12 min. The duration of individual alarming and mobbing calls was 0.078 ± 0.014 s and 0.154 ± 0.041 s at frequency ranges of 520-1000 Hz and 690-3920 Hz, respectively. Alarming call duration was positively associated with group size. The alarm calls can trigger mobbing behavior in Hainan gibbons; this is a defense way of social animals, and first report among the primates' species. The system of vocal alarm behavior described in this critically endangered species is simple and effective.

  3. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a...

  4. Safety Bulletin 2013-1: When the alarm rings, you must leave!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit


    The HSE Unit just released the Safety Bulletin 2013-1 entitled “When the alarm rings, you must leave!”. The Bulletin is available on EDMS under the following number: 1307611. Be reminded  that HSE Safety Bulletins are published in English and French and share feedbacks of incidents/near miss/accidents that happened on the CERN site with the aim to improve prevention.

  5. Development of Public Training System for Emergency Exercise Using Virtual Reality Technology Based on Radioactive Release Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Il; Park, Seong Jun; Lee, Dewhey; Song, Sub Lee; Park, Younwon [BEES Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    An exercise is normally conducted for a day or two days depending on the scale of the exercise. What we have experienced up to date there are several limitations in the radiological emergency exercises such as low public acceptance, poor enthusiasm in the exercise participation, not very attracting exercise scenarios, low efficiency in conducting an exercise, and so on. In order to overcome the limitations of the present exercising system, we would like to develop a radiological emergency exercise system using VR (virtual reality) technology based on a radioactive release accident. In this paper, we just introduce some basic development methods and event tree based scenario as a beginning stage. After the accident in Fukushima Daiichi NPP, the importance of emergency exercise especially for the public is far more emphasized around the world more and more. However, the human labor focused radiological emergency exercise up to now has many limitations. After developing this system properly and by using it, we could even expect to estimate the weak points of the emergency arrangements and strategy we have.

  6. Alarm management in TRANSPETRO National Oil Control Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, Helio; Costa, Luciano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    For sure Alarm Management is not a new issue. EEMUA 191 has been around since 1999 and everyone has received visits from consultants in this area. Besides this regulators have requested that operators have a policy for it. However there are few papers showing actual pipeline operator experience in alarm management. In this paper we present the work developed in TRANSPETRO National Oil Control Center since 2006, where we operate 5509 km of crude oil and refined products pipelines. Since the beginning of the centralized operation in 2002, alarm management has been a concern but a systematic approach has been taken since 2006. Initially we will make a brief revision of the literature and show trends for regulations. Then we will show the tools and the approach we have taken. Finally, the further developments we see. The point that we want to discuss is that, it has been very difficult to implement the system in a linear way and we believe that companies that have huge legacy systems, the same probably will occur. Putting in simple words, our main conclusion is: Implementing an Alarm Management policy produces good results however probably sometimes is better not to follow strictly the traditional steps. (author)

  7. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)


    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  8. Development of an extension of the CAMS system to severe accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Cesar; Lopez, Nuria; Gomez, Pedro M.; Rapun, J. Luis; Gomez, Carlos; Martin, Manuel; Martinez, Antonio J.


    CAMS was designed at the Halden Project to assist operators during the development of an abnormal transient, in order to avoid core melt and/or containment failure. Management of the accident after core geometry changes was not within the scope of the first prototype. This report describes the development of a CAMS extension to severe accidents, where the predictive simulation function is performed by the code MAAP4, instead of APROS. The study focused on both BWRs and PWRs, without any customisation to actual operating plants. Chapter 1 gives an introduction that includes purpose, scope, references to other documents and a summary of the content. Chapter 2 gives a description of the methodology that has been developed to integrate the MAAP code into the CAMS structure. Chapter 3 describes the validation and verification activities that have been accomplished and their results. Chapter 4 gives the final conclusions of the project. The theoretical developments of the Diagnosis and Fitting Modules for BWRs and PWR's are given in the appendixes (author) (ml)

  9. Linking road accident data to other files : an integrated road accident recordkeeping system. Contribution in Proceedings of Seminar P 'Road Safety' held at the 14th PTHC Summer Annual Meeting, University of Sussex, England, from 14-17 July 1986. Volume P 284, p. 55-86.


    Harris, S


    The road accident data which the police collect is of great value to road safety research and is used extensively. This data increases greatly in value if it can be linked to other files which contain more detailed information on exposure. Linking road accident data to other files results in what we call an Integrated Road Accident Recordkeeping System in -which the combined value of the linked files is greater than that of the sum of their individual values.

  10. Lessons learnt from an international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-Vergara, J.C.; Thompson, I.M.G.; Funck, E.


    radiation quantities were measured by the systems (namely exposure, air kerma and ambient dose equivalent), the initial analysis of the intercomparison results was made in terms of the quantity air kerma rate. This report completes the analysis of the results and these are given in terms of air kerma rate......As part of the European Research Council's Fourth Framework Programme, the EURADOS Action Group on Monitoring of External Exposures held an intercomparison of national network systems. This took place during May/June 1999 at the Riso Natural Environmental Radiation Measurement Station in Denmark...... and at the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry (UDO) of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. The network systems are used continuously to monitor radiation levels throughout a country in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications...

  11. Fatal road traffic accidents in Mauritius (2006 – 2011) – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Road traffic accidents are becoming alarming in Mauritius and the present study was carried out to analyze the trends of fatal road traffic accidents in Mauritius from January 2006 to December 2011. The data was reviewed from the records of Traffic Management and Road Safety Unit, and the Ministry of Public Infrastructure, ...

  12. The alarming increase of incapacity for work

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thibaut, P


    The alarming increase of incapacity for work The increase of incapacity for work in Belgium and in Europe is not a new phenomenon but only the transposition of an experience already lived on others continents (Canada--USA...

  13. Accident: Reminder

    CERN Multimedia


    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  14. Electrochemical behavior of simulated debris from a severe accident using a molten salt system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yuya; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Yamada, Akira; Mizuguchi, Koji; Fujita, Reiko [Toshiba Corporation, 4-1 Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0862 (Japan)


    In a severe nuclear accident, the fuel in the reactor may melt, forming debris, which contains a UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} stable oxide mixture and parts of the reactor, such as Zircaloy and iron components. Proper handling of the debris is a critically important issue. The debris does not have the same composition as spent fuel, and so it is impossible to apply conventional reprocessing technology directly. In this study, we successfully separated Zr and Fe from simulated debris using NaCl-KCl molten salt electrolysis, and we selectively recovered the Zr and Fe. The simulated debris was made from Zr, Fe, and CeO{sub 2}. The CeO{sub 2} was used for simulating stable UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}. With this approach, it should be possible to reduce the volume of the debris by recovering metals, which can then be treated as low level radioactive wastes.

  15. Effects of a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident on a Mark I Boiling Water Reactor pressure-suppression system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, J.H.; McCauley, E.W.


    A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a boiling-water-reactor (BWR) power plant has never occurred. However, because this type of accident could be particularly severe, it is used as a principal theoretical basis for design. A series of consistent, versatile, and accurate air-water tests that simulate LOCA conditions has been completed on a /sup 1///sub 5/-scale Mark I BWR pressure-suppression system. Results from these tests are used to quantify the vertical-loading function and to study the associated fluid dynamics phenomena. Detailed histories of vertical loads on the wetwell are shown. In particular, variation of hydrodynamic-generated vertical loads with changes in drywell-pressurization rate, downcomer submergence, and the vent-line loss coefficient are established. Initial drywell overpressure, which partially preclears the downcomers of water, substantially reduces the peak vertical loads. Scaling relationships, developed from dimensional analysis and verified by bench-top experiments, allow the /sup 1///sub 5/-scale results to be applied to a full-scale BWR power plant. This analysis leads to dimensionless groupings that are invariant. These groupings show that, if water is used as the working fluid, the magnitude of the forces in a scaled facility is reduced by the cube of the scale factor and occurs in a time reduced by the square root of the scale factor.

  16. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13...

  17. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I. ...

  18. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention. ...

  19. Prevention of pedestrian accidents.


    Kendrick, D.


    Child pedestrian accidents are the most common road traffic accident resulting in injury. Much of the existing work on road traffic accidents is based on analysing clusters of accidents despite evidence that child pedestrian accidents tend to be more dispersed than this. This paper analyses pedestrian accidents in 573 children aged 0-11 years by a locally derived deprivation score for the years 1988-90. The analysis shows a significantly higher accident rate in deprived areas and a dose respo...

  20. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.


    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...... method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents...

  1. Safety assessment for electricity generation failure accident of gas cooled nuclear power plant using system dynamics (SD) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering


    The power production failure happens in the loss of coolant of the nuclear power plants (NPPs). The air ingress is a serious accident in gas cooled NPPs. The quantification of the study performed by the system dynamics (SD) method which is processed by the feedback algorithms. The Vensim software package is used for the simulation, which is performed by the Monte-Carlo method. Two kinds of considerations as the economic and safety properties are important in NPPs. The result shows the stability of the operation when the power can be decided. The maximum value of risk is the 11.77 in 43rd and the minimum value is 0.0 in several years. So, the success of the circulation of coolant is simulated by the dynamical values. (orig.)

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b) ...

  3. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  4. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next to...

  5. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  6. [Value of the radionetwork of the transportation company in Besançon for alarm forwarding]. (United States)

    Flicoteaux, H; Fergane, B; Neidhardt, A; Costes, Y; Bachour, K


    The C.B. users offered for a few years a way for putting-out the distress on the highway. There were 2,000 in Besançon and surroundings in 1982. Today they are becoming no existent. Since then a new system of alarm run is born with 150 buses, 178 kilometers of net-travel and a sweep frequency of 10 min from 6h30 a.m., to 8h p.m, and of 30 min until 12h p.m. The 250 "C.T.B." drivers assume a regular surveillance of the urban and suburban highways. A standard message in used between the C.T.B. (Besançon Company of Buses.) regulation and Samu 25, regulation which allows to fix circumstances, place of road accident and inventory of casualties: 27 emergency calls are received in 1987, 50 in 1988. It might be possible to use other private or public radiotelephonic network.

  7. Automated information-analytical system for thunderstorm monitoring and early warning alarms using modern physical sensors and information technologies with elements of artificial intelligence (United States)

    Boldyreff, Anton S.; Bespalov, Dmitry A.; Adzhiev, Anatoly Kh.


    Methods of artificial intelligence are a good solution for weather phenomena forecasting. They allow to process a large amount of diverse data. Recirculation Neural Networks is implemented in the paper for the system of thunderstorm events prediction. Large amounts of experimental data from lightning sensors and electric field mills networks are received and analyzed. The average recognition accuracy of sensor signals is calculated. It is shown that Recirculation Neural Networks is a promising solution in the forecasting of thunderstorms and weather phenomena, characterized by the high efficiency of the recognition elements of the sensor signals, allows to compress images and highlight their characteristic features for subsequent recognition.

  8. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth


    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  9. Development and Application of a Clinical Microsystem Simulation Methodology for Human Factors-Based Research of Alarm Fatigue. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Leo; Gosbee, John W; Merck, Derek L


    (1) To develop a clinical microsystem simulation methodology for alarm fatigue research with a human factors engineering (HFE) assessment framework and (2) to explore its application to the comparative examination of different approaches to patient monitoring and provider notification. Problems with the design, implementation, and real-world use of patient monitoring systems result in alarm fatigue. A multidisciplinary team is developing an open-source tool kit to promote bedside informatics research and mitigate alarm fatigue. Simulation, HFE, and computer science experts created a novel simulation methodology to study alarm fatigue. Featuring multiple interconnected simulated patient scenarios with scripted timeline, "distractor" patient care tasks, and triggered true and false alarms, the methodology incorporated objective metrics to assess provider and system performance. Developed materials were implemented during institutional review board-approved study sessions that assessed and compared an experimental multiparametric alerting system with a standard monitor telemetry system for subject response, use characteristics, and end-user feedback. A four-patient simulation setup featuring objective metrics for participant task-related performance and response to alarms was developed along with accompanying structured HFE assessment (questionnaire and interview) for monitor systems use testing. Two pilot and four study sessions with individual nurse subjects elicited true alarm and false alarm responses (including diversion from assigned tasks) as well as nonresponses to true alarms. In-simulation observation and subject questionnaires were used to test the experimental system's approach to suppressing false alarms and alerting providers. A novel investigative methodology applied simulation and HFE techniques to replicate and study alarm fatigue in controlled settings for systems assessment and experimental research purposes.

  10. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all or...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, C; David Tamburello, D; Joshua Gray, J; Kyle Brinkman, K; Bruce Hardy, B; Donald Anton, D


    It is important to understand and quantify the potential risk resulting from accidental environmental exposure of condensed phase hydrogen storage materials under differing environmental exposure scenarios. This paper describes a modeling and experimental study with the aim of predicting consequences of the accidental release of 2LiBH{sub 4}+MgH{sub 2} from hydrogen storage systems. The methodology and results developed in this work are directly applicable to any solid hydride material and/or accident scenario using appropriate boundary conditions and empirical data. The ability to predict hydride behavior for hypothesized accident scenarios facilitates an assessment of the of risk associated with the utilization of a particular hydride. To this end, an idealized finite volume model was developed to represent the behavior of dispersed hydride from a breached system. Semiempirical thermodynamic calculations and substantiating calorimetric experiments were performed in order to quantify the energy released, energy release rates and to quantify the reaction products resulting from water and air exposure of a lithium borohydride and magnesium hydride combination. The hydrides, LiBH{sub 4} and MgH{sub 2}, were studied individually in the as-received form and in the 2:1 'destabilized' mixture. Liquid water hydrolysis reactions were performed in a Calvet calorimeter equipped with a mixing cell using neutral water. Water vapor and oxygen gas phase reactivity measurements were performed at varying relative humidities and temperatures by modifying the calorimeter and utilizing a gas circulating flow cell apparatus. The results of these calorimetric measurements were compared with standardized United Nations (UN) based test results for air and water reactivity and used to develop quantitative kinetic expressions for hydrolysis and air oxidation in these systems. Thermodynamic parameters obtained from these tests were then inputted into a computational fluid dynamics

  12. Incidence of Cancer: Alarming Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Lourdes Iglesias Armenteros


    Full Text Available Cancer is an important health problem worldwide. It affects all of the countries, independently of the race, culture, level of economical development and political system. Around 10 million of new cases of cancer are detected every year. At present approximately 50 000 women died because of this disease.

  13. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms. (United States)


    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS General... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table 62...

  14. Mianserin affects alarm reaction to conspecific chemical alarm cues in Nile tilapia. (United States)

    Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio


    In this study, I show that mianserin, a chemical with serotonin and adrenoceptor antagonist activities, increases fish vulnerability to a potential predator threat, when prey fish must deal with this threat based on conspecific chemical alarm cues. For that, I evaluated whether mianserin, diluted in the water, influences the behavioral responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to conspecific skin extract (chemical alarm cues). I found that, while mianserin did not abolished antipredator responses, this drug mitigates some components of this defensive reaction. Thus, a potential decrease in serotonin and adrenergic activities reduces the ability of dealing with predators when perceiving conspecific chemical alarm cues.

  15. Do nuisance alarms decrease functionality of smoke alarms near the kitchen? Findings from a randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Yang, Jingzhen; Jones, Michael P; Cheng, Gang; Ramirez, Marizen; Taylor, Craig; Peek-Asa, Corinne


    Many home fires begin in the kitchen. Kitchen smoke alarms are more likely to produce nuisance alarms, but few previous studies have examined the role of alarm sensor and battery types on the functionality of smoke alarms located nearest to the kitchen. Data were analysed from a 2×2 factorial randomised controlled trial conducted in rural Iowa homes (n=628). Enrolled households were randomly assigned into one of four smoke alarm/battery combinations: ionisation/zinc, ionisation/lithium, photoelectric/zinc and photoelectric/lithium. Alarm functionality was determined using a smoke test. Alarm type and battery type were compared using an intent-to-treat analysis. Logistic regression was used to identify factors that might impact the functionality of smoke alarms located nearest to the kitchen 42 months after installation. Photoelectric alarms with lithium batteries had the highest rate of functionality (90.2%), whereas ionisation alarms with carbon/zinc batteries had the lowest (76.5%). Forty-two months following installation, 6.4% more of photoelectric alarms were functional than ionisation alarms, and 7.9% more of alarms with lithium batteries were functional than those with carbon/zinc batteries. Logistic regression revealed that when the indicator of nuisance alarms was included, the effect of alarm type became statistically insignificant and ionisation alarms were less likely to be functional at 42 months, partly due to increased nuisance alarms. Alarm type is an important consideration for certain locations. Photoelectric alarms may be more appropriate for installation nearest to the kitchen despite their increased cost. These findings can help guide consumer choices to increase protection against home fire-related injuries and deaths.

  16. Attitude of resident doctors towards intensive care units′ alarm settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg


    Full Text Available Intensive care unit (ICU monitors have alarm options to intimate the staff of critical incidents but these alarms needs to be adjusted in every patient. With this objective in mind, this study was done among resident doctors, with the aim of assessing the existing attitude among resident doctors towards ICU alarm settings. This study was conducted among residents working at ICU of a multispeciality centre, with the help of a printed questionnaire. The study involved 80 residents. All residents were in full agreement on routine use of ECG, pulse oximeter, capnograph and NIBP monitoring. 86% residents realised the necessity of monitoring oxygen concentration, apnoea monitoring and expired minute ventilation monitoring. 87% PGs and 70% SRs routinely checked alarm limits for various parameters. 50% PGs and 46.6% SRs set these alarm limits. The initial response to an alarm among all the residents was to disable the alarm temporarily and try to look for a cause. 92% of PGs and 98% of SRs were aware of alarms priority and colour coding. 55% residents believed that the alarm occurred due to patient disturbance, 15% believed that alarm was due to technical problem with monitor/sensor and 30% thought it was truly related to patient′s clinical status. 82% residents set the alarms by themselves, 10% believed that alarms should be adjusted by nurse, 4% believed the technical staff should take responsibility of setting alarm limits and 4% believed that alarm levels should be pre-adjusted by the manufacturer. We conclude that although alarms are an important, indispensable, and lifesaving feature, they can be a nuisance and can compromise quality and safety of care by frequent false positive alarms. We should be familiar of the alarm modes, check and reset the alarm settings at regular interval or after a change in clinical status of the patient.

  17. Response of the SPND measurement system to temperature during the Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident. [Self-Powered Neutron Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, N.; Morrison, J.L. Jr.


    The Self-Powered Neutron Detector (SPND) Measuring System is evaluated to determine its ability to indicate temperatures of the fuel rods in the TMI-2 reactor core during the accident. It is concluded for the following reasons that the SPND Measuring System did not provide fuel rod temperatures during the accident: the heat transfer characteristics vary over a range of five octaves; within the range of 1200 to 1800/sup 0/F, the SPND responds to temperature from convection radiation from the fuel rods and self-heating from the gamma flux; within the range of 1200 to 1800/sup 0/F, the signal cable introduces masking signals that are a function of gamma heating, integrated temperature over the cable, and core water level velocity; the data system's worst-case signal-to-noise ratio from aliasing is 0dB; and the recorder system's worst-case signal-to-noise ratio from aliasing is -24dB.

  18. Constant false alarm rate algorithm for the dim-small target detection based on the distribution characteristics of target coordinates (United States)

    Fei, Xiao-Liang; Ren, Kan; Qian, Wei-xian; Wang, Peng-cheng


    CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) is a key technology in Infrared dim-small target detection system. Because the traditional constant false alarm rate detection algorithm gets the probability density distribution which is based on the pixel information of each area in the whole image and calculates the target segmentation threshold of each area by formula of Constant false alarm rate, the problems including the difficulty of probability distribution statistics and large amount of algorithm calculation and long delay time are existing. In order to solve the above problems effectively, a formula of Constant false alarm rate based on target coordinates distribution is presented. Firstly, this paper proposes a new formula of Constant false alarm rate by improving the traditional formula of Constant false alarm rate based on the single grayscale distribution which objective statistical distribution features are introduced. So the control of false alarm according to the target distribution information is implemented more accurately and the problem of high false alarm that is caused of the complex background in local area as the cloud reflection and the ground clutter interference is solved. At the same time, in order to reduce the amount of algorithm calculation and improve the real-time characteristics of algorithm, this paper divides the constant false-alarm statistical area through two-dimensional probability density distribution of target number adaptively which is different from the general identifying methods of constant false-alarm statistical area. Finally, the target segmentation threshold of next frame is calculated by iteration based on the function of target distribution probability density in image sequence which can achieve the purpose of controlling the false alarm until the false alarm is down to the upper limit. The experiment results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the operation time and meet the real-time requirements on


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diana Elizabeth Cuervo Díaz; Marisol Moreno Angarita


    .... It focusses on the occupational diseases and work accident, shown in data reported by insurance sector, and their respective analysis from the perspective of the work disability prevention and management...

  20. A new approach to modeling aviation accidents (United States)

    Rao, Arjun Harsha

    General Aviation (GA) is a catchall term for all aircraft operations in the US that are not categorized as commercial operations or military flights. GA aircraft account for almost 97% of the US civil aviation fleet. Unfortunately, GA flights have a much higher fatal accident rate than commercial operations. Recent estimates by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) showed that the GA fatal accident rate has remained relatively unchanged between 2010 and 2015, with 1566 fatal accidents accounting for 2650 fatalities. Several research efforts have been directed towards betters understanding the causes of GA accidents. Many of these efforts use National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident reports and data. Unfortunately, while these studies easily identify the top types of accidents (e.g., inflight loss of control (LOC)), they usually cannot identify why these accidents are happening. Most NTSB narrative reports for GA accidents are very short (many are only one paragraph long), and do not contain much information on the causes (likely because the causes were not fully identified). NTSB investigators also code each accident using an event-based coding system, which should facilitate identification of patterns and trends in causation, given the high number of GA accidents each year. However, this system is susceptible to investigator interpretation and error, meaning that two investigators may code the same accident differently, or omit applicable codes. To facilitate a potentially better understanding of GA accident causation, this research develops a state-based approach to check for logical gaps or omissions in NTSB accident records, and potentially fills-in the omissions. The state-based approach offers more flexibility as it moves away from the conventional event-based representation of accidents, which classifies events in accidents into several categories such as causes, contributing factors, findings, occurrences, and phase of flight. The method

  1. Sequence and batch language programs and alarm-related ``C`` programs for the 242-A MCS. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, J.F.


    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, ``242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades``. This control system, called the Monitor and Control System (MCS), was installed in the 242-A Evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme which uses special programs, annunciator keys, and process graphics. The special programs are written in two languages; Sequence and Batch Language (SABL), and ``C`` language. The WTSE-developed alarm scheme works as described below: SABL relates signals and alarms to the annunciator keys, called SKID keys. When an alarm occurs, a SABL program causes a SKID key to flash, and if the alarm is of yellow or white priority then a ``C`` program turns on an audible horn (the D/3 system uses a different audible horn for the red priority alarms). The horn and flashing key draws the attention of the operator.

  2. Death of a 23-year-old man from cardiac conduction system injury through a blunt chest impact after a car accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zerbo


    The authors report a case of death due to a cardiac conduction system injury from a blunt chest impact following a car accident. The autopsy showed no external signs of thoracic trauma, no evident rib or sternum fractures. A small sub-endocardial hemorrhage was found in the region of the atrioventricular node. Histological examination revealed an injury of the atrioventricular node and His’ bundle. The cause of the death was attributed to the arrhythmia induced by contusion of the cardiac conduction system.

  3. PF-4 simulated fire accident analysis: Filter-spray cool-down system reevaluation implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, B.W.; Gregory, W.S.


    The Los Alamos National Laboratory PF-4 facility was designed with spray cool down systems within the building's ventilation systems. The Engineering and Safety Analysis Group was asked, in cooperation with ENG-8 and MST-8, to evaluate whether the spray cool-down system still need to be classified as safety class'' systems. The study was performed using the FIRAC computer code. Given the fire source terms (hypothetical fire energy or time-temperature history), FIRAC can predict the pertinent transient flow parameters (pressures, flows, and temperatures) throughout a previously defined and selected fire zone. A computer model for the study that had all of the main ventilation systems in the south half of the PF-4 facility was used. Because the most hazardous room is located in the 400 Section, all ventilation systems but the 400 Section's one were simplified. The impetus for simplification was to keep the computer model tractable, and this was possible with the following assumptions: the fire cannot spread from one room to another, all corridor connecting doors are closed and will not fail under the pressures generated by the fire, and the principal pathway for potential release is the ventilation system. All of the blowers continue to operate, and all fire retardant systems fail to operate during the fire. The ASTM time-temperature curve was the source for the burn-room temperature, and smoke injection was used as input as well. Five different computer runs were made using different combinations of source terms and heat transfer. A connection from the burn room to the glovebox ventilation system was created by burning the glovebox plastic shielding; it was modeled by a branch having an initial flow 75 ft{sup 3}/min. 7 refs., 35 refs., 15 tabs.

  4. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin


    ...) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study...

  5. Patient Safety Implications of Electronic Alerts and Alarms of Maternal - Fetal Status During Labor. (United States)

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Lyndon, Audrey; Davidson, Leigh Ann


    When nurses care for women during labor, they encounter numerous alerts and alarms from electronic fetal monitors and their surveillance systems. Notifications of values of physiologic parameters for a woman and fetus that may be outside preset limits are generated via visual and audible cues. There is no standardization of these alert and alarm parameters among electronic fetal monitoring vendors in the United States, and there are no data supporting their sensitivity and specificity. Agreement among professional organizations about physiologic parameters for alerts and alarms commonly used during labor is lacking. It is unknown if labor nurses view the alerts and alarms as helpful or a nuisance. There is no evidence that they promote or hinder patient safety. This clinical issue warrants our attention as labor nurses. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  6. Real-time management (RTM) by cloud computing system dynamics (CCSD) for risk analysis of Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyo Sung [Yonsei Univ., Wonju Gangwon-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Convergence Engineering; Woo, Tae Ho [Yonsei Univ., Wonju Gangwon-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Convergence Engineering; The Cyber Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical and Control Engineering


    The earthquake and tsunami induced accident of nuclear power plant (NPP) in Fukushima disaster is investigated by the real-time management (RTM) method. This non-linear logic of the safety management is applied to enhance the methodological confidence in the NPP reliability. The case study of the earthquake is modeled for the fast reaction characteristics of the RTM. The system dynamics (SD) modeling simulations and cloud computing are applied for the RTM method where the real time simulation has the fast and effective communication for the accident remediation and prevention. Current tablet computing system can improve the safety standard of the NPP. Finally, the procedure of the cloud computing system dynamics (CCSD) modeling is constructed.

  7. HANARO thermal hydraulic accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Heon Il; Lee, Bo Yook; Lee, Sang Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    For the safety assessment of HANARO, accident analyses for the anticipated operational transients, accident scenarios and limiting accident scenarios were conducted. To do this, the commercial nuclear reactor system code. RELAP5/MOD2 was modified to RELAP5/KMRR; the thermal hydraulic correlations and the heat exchanger model was changed to incorporate HANARO characteristics. This report summarizes the RELAP/KMRR calculation results and the subchannel analyses results based on the RELAP/KMRR results. During the calculation, major concern was placed on the integrity of the fuel. For all the scenarios, the important accident analysis parameters, i.e., fuel centerline temperatures and the minimum critical heat flux ratio(MCHFR), satisfied safe design limits. It was verified, therefore, that the HANARO was safely designed. 21 tabs., 89 figs., 39 refs. (Author) .new.

  8. Life-saving systemic thrombolysis in a patient with massive pulmonary embolism and a recent hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident. (United States)

    Bottinor, Wendy; Turlington, Jeremy; Raza, Syed; Roberts, Charlotte S; Malhotra, Rajiv; Jovin, Ion S; Abbate, Antonio


    Massive pulmonary embolism is associated with mortality rates exceeding 50%. Current practice guidelines include the immediate administration of thrombolytic therapy in the absence of contraindications. However, thrombolysis for pulmonary embolism is said to be absolutely contraindicated in the presence of recent hemorrhagic stroke and other conditions. The current contraindications to thrombolytic therapy have been extrapolated from data on acute coronary syndrome and are not specific for venous thromboembolic disease. Some investigators have proposed that the current contraindications be viewed as relative, rather than absolute, in cases of high-risk pulmonary embolism. We present the case of a 60-year-old woman in whom massive pulmonary embolism led to cardiac arrest with pulseless electrical activity. Eight weeks earlier, she had sustained a hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident-a classic absolute contraindication to thrombolytic therapy. Despite this practice guideline, we administered tissue plasminogen activator systemically in order to save the patient's life. This therapy did not evoke intracranial bleeding, and the patient was eventually discharged from the hospital. Until guidelines specific to venous thromboembolic disease are developed, we think that the current contraindications to thrombolysis should be considered on an individual basis in patients who are at high risk of death from massive pulmonary embolism.

  9. Radiation Measurement Systems and Experiences in Japan after the Fukushima Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In the approximately 4 years since the March 2011 earthquake and subsequent Tsunami damaged the three Dai-Ichi nuclear power plants, the AREVA and Canberra team have deployed a variety of different radiation measurement machines in Japan. These measurement projects or instruments include: - Dose-rate mapping of the close-in areas on the damaged reactor site using the stored output of dose rate meters carried by workers planning for the installing of a water processing unit; - Spectroscopic on-line measurements of the first water processing unit on the site, where these nuclide-specific measurements at multiple points allowed remote users to determine the optimum processing parameters - General purpose food measurement units, both high precision HPGe systems and low cost NaI systems, which were used throughout the country for food quality measurements; - In-vivo measurement systems, both fixed and mobile whole body counting units, that were used on at least 500,000 people, demonstrating to them that internal doses were very low; - In-vivo measurements with special high-sensitivity whole body counters on babies and children, demonstrating to the parents of these children that internal doses are very low; - Automatic systems for high throughput assay of bags of rice that are part of the consumer confidence plan to prove to customers that Fukushima Prefecture rice is safe; - High sensitivity automatic system to assay boxes of special semi-dry persimmons and to report the activity of each individual item within the box meets the regulatory limit; - System to assay soil on a conveyor belt and sort the output according to level of radioactivity, which would then reduce the volume of material that must be treated as radioactive; - System to assay a truck loaded with 1 cubic meter sacks of soil and vegetation, and report the results of each individual sack. - On-line water measurement system for SrY90 at levels that are suitable for release to the environment; - Mobile

  10. A Review of Accident Modelling Approaches for Complex Critical Sociotechnical Systems (United States)


    Bhopal is the site of probably the greatest industrial disaster in history. In the early hours of 3rd December 1984, a pesticide plant owned by...Cognitive Systems Engineering: New wine in new bottles. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 18, 583-600. Reprinted in International Journal of

  11. Human factors study of driver assistance systems to reduce lane departures and side collision accidents. (United States)


    This study investigated the human factors issues related to the implementation of lane departure warning systems (LDWS) to reduce side collision and run-off-road crashes for heavy trucks. Lane departures can be either intentional (e.g., to pass anoth...

  12. Technological Distractions (Part 2): A Summary of Approaches to Manage Clinical Alarms With Intent to Reduce Alarm Fatigue. (United States)

    Winters, Bradford D; Cvach, Maria M; Bonafide, Christopher P; Hu, Xiao; Konkani, Avinash; O'Connor, Michael F; Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Selby, Nicholas M; Pelter, Michele M; McLean, Barbara; Kane-Gill, Sandra L


    Alarm fatigue is a widely recognized safety and quality problem where exposure to high rates of clinical alarms results in desensitization leading to dismissal of or slowed response to alarms. Nonactionable alarms are thought to be especially problematic. Despite these concerns, the number of clinical alarm signals has been increasing as an everincreasing number of medical technologies are added to the clinical care environment. PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, and CINAHL. We performed a systematic review of the literature focused on clinical alarms. We asked a primary key question; "what interventions have been attempted and resulted in the success of reducing alarm fatigue?" and 3-secondary key questions; "what are the negative effects on patients/families; what are the balancing outcomes (unintended consequences of interventions); and what human factor approaches apply to making an effective alarm?" Articles relevant to the Key Questions were selected through an iterative review process and relevant data was extracted using a standardized tool. We found 62 articles that had relevant and usable data for at least one key question. We found that no study used/developed a clear definition of "alarm fatigue." For our primary key question 1, the relevant studies focused on three main areas: quality improvement/bundled activities; intervention comparisons; and analysis of algorithm-based false and total alarm suppression. All sought to reduce the number of total alarms and/or false alarms to improve the positive predictive value. Most studies were successful to varying degrees. None measured alarm fatigue directly. There is no agreed upon valid metric(s) for alarm fatigue, and the current methods are mostly indirect. Assuming that reducing the number of alarms and/or improving positive predictive value can reduce alarm fatigue, there are promising avenues to address patient safety and quality problem. Further investment is warranted not only in interventions that may reduce

  13. Alarm annunciation in a graphical environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.G.


    Well-designed graphical user interfaces, such as Microsoft Windows{trademark} or UNIX{trademark} -- based X-Windows, provide a capability for enhanced display of security alarm information. Conversely, a poorly designed interface can quickly overwhelm an operator. This paper describes types of graphical information that can be displayed and offers guidance on how to best display that information. Limits are proposed for the complexity of the user interface, and guidelines are suggested for the display of maps and sensors.

  14. Use of artificial intelligence in severe accident diagnosis for PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zheng; Okrent, D. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kastenberg, W.E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    A combination approach of an expert system and neural networks is used to implement a prototype severe accident diagnostic system which would monitor the progression of the severe accident and provide necessary plant status information to assist the plant staff in accident management during the accident. The station blackout accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is used as the study case. The current phase of research focus is on distinguishing different primary system failure modes and following the accident transient before and up to vessel breach.

  15. [Oxygen therapy in diving accidents]. (United States)

    Piepho, T; Ehrmann, U; Werner, C; Muth, C M


    Diving accidents represent a departure from the routine practice of emergency physicians. The incidence of non-fatal diving accidents is reported as 1-2 per 10,000 dives. Apart from adequate intravenous hydration, oxygen is the only medication with a proven effect in the treatment of diving accidents. After a typical diving accident, administration of oxygen at an inspired concentration (F(I)O(2) 1.0) as high as possible is recommended. Many divers bring along their own oxygen administration systems to the diving sites and these are often better suited for the treatment of diving accidents than the oxygen systems of many emergency responders. Pressure regulators supplying low constant flow oxygen, nasal prongs and inhalation masks are inappropriate. When using artificial ventilation bags with face masks, an oxygen flow of at least 15 l/min should be used. Demand regulators are simple to use and able to deliver a F(I)O2 of 1.0. Their ease of use has earned them high marks in the emergency management of diving accidents and their similarity to standard diving equipment has also aided relatively widespread acceptance. Circulation breathing systems are more technologically complex oxygen delivery systems which permit CO2 absorption and re-breathing at low oxygen flow. In contrast to the demand modules, the likelihood of mistakes during their usage is higher. In diving accidents, the administration of normobaric oxygen, already begun in the field, is the most important therapy and should not be interrupted. Presented with an inadequate supplemental oxygen supply, the inspired oxygen concentration should not be decreased, rather the duration of the oxygen administration should be reduced. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy should be the mainstay of further treatment.

  16. The response of theatre personnel to the pulse oximeter alarm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: False alarms and sounds in the operating theatre (OT) that alert personnel to a crisis can be irritating. This can result in personnel ignoring genuine alarm warnings. This study was carried out to determine how alert OT personnel are in response to the pulse oximeter alarm. Method: For the purposes of the ...

  17. 46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked “GENERAL ALARM” on a plate or other firm noncorrosive backing. ...

  18. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood pressure...

  19. Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) / Emergency Core Coolant System (ECCS Evaluation of Risk-Informed Margins Management Strategies for a Representative Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    A Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) toolkit and methodology are proposed for investigating nuclear power plant core, fuels design and safety analysis, including postulated Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis. This toolkit, under an integrated evaluation model framework, is name LOCA toolkit for the US (LOTUS). This demonstration includes coupled analysis of core design, fuel design, thermal hydraulics and systems analysis, using advanced risk analysis tools and methods to investigate a wide range of results.

  20. Poison and alarm: the Asian hornet Vespa velutina uses sting venom volatiles as an alarm pheromone. (United States)

    Cheng, Ya-Nan; Wen, Ping; Dong, Shi-Hao; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James C


    In colonial organisms, alarm pheromones can provide a key fitness advantage by enhancing colony defence and warning of danger. Learning which species use alarm pheromone and the key compounds involved therefore enhances our understanding of how this important signal has evolved. However, our knowledge of alarm pheromones is more limited in the social wasps and hornets compared with the social bees and ants. Vespa velutina is an economically important and widespread hornet predator that attacks honey bees and humans. This species is native to Asia and has now invaded Europe. Despite growing interest in V. velutina, it was unknown whether it possessed an alarm pheromone. We show that these hornets use sting venom as an alarm pheromone. Sting venom volatiles were strongly attractive to hornet workers and triggered attacks. Two major venom fractions, consisting of monoketones and diketones, also elicited attack. We used gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) to isolate 13 known and 3 unknown aliphatic ketones and alcohols in venom that elicited conspicuous hornet antennal activity. Two of the unknown compounds may be an undecen-2-one and an undecene-2,10-dinone. Three major compounds (heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one and undecan-2-one) triggered attacks, but only nonan-2-one did so at biologically relevant levels (10 hornet equivalents). Nonan-2-one thus deserves particular attention. However, the key alarm releasers for V. velutina remain to be identified. Such identification will help to illuminate the evolution and function of alarm compounds in hornets. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Interfacing systems LOCA (loss-of-coolant accidents): Pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozoki, G.; Kohut, P.; Fitzpatrick, R.


    This report summarizes a study performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Reactor and Plant Safety Issues Branch, Division of Reactor and Plant Systems, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This study was requested by the NRC in order to provide a technical basis for the resolution of Generic Issue 105 ''Interfacing LOCA at LWRs.'' This report deals with pressurized water reactors (PWRs). A parallel report was also accomplished for boiling water reactors. This study focuses on three representative PWRs and extrapolates the plant-specific findings for their generic applicability. In addition, a generic analysis was performed to investigate the cost-benefit aspects of imposing a testing program that would require some minimum level of leak testing of the pressure isolation valves on plants that presently have no such requirements. 28 refs., 31 figs., 64 tabs.

  2. False Alarm Reduction in BSN-Based Cardiac Monitoring Using Signal Quality and Activity Type Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanatorn Tanantong


    Full Text Available False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs, the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring.

  3. A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopalakrishnan


    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents (RTAs have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country.

  4. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, in...

  5. Clinical Alarms in intensive care: implications of alarm fatigue for the safety of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carla Bridi


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to identify the number of electro-medical pieces of equipment in a coronary care unit, characterize their types, and analyze implications for the safety of patients from the perspective of alarm fatigue.METHOD: this quantitative, observational, descriptive, non-participatory study was conducted in a coronary care unit of a cardiology hospital with 170 beds.RESULTS: a total of 426 alarms were recorded in 40 hours of observation: 227 were triggered by multi-parametric monitors and 199 were triggered by other equipment (infusion pumps, dialysis pumps, mechanical ventilators, and intra-aortic balloons; that is an average of 10.6 alarms per hour.CONCLUSION: the results reinforce the importance of properly configuring physiological variables, the volume and parameters of alarms of multi-parametric monitors within the routine of intensive care units. The alarms of equipment intended to protect patients have increased noise within the unit, the level of distraction and interruptions in the workflow, leading to a false sense of security.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Post-Accident Confinement High-Level Radiation Monitoring System'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS (Attachment 1). This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians in reducing risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Unit 2, through improved accident detection capability, specifically by the installation of a dual train high-level radiation detection system in the confinement of Unit 2 of the Kola NPP. The major technical objective of this project was to provide, install and make operational the necessary hardware inside the confinement of the Kola NPP Unit 2 to provide early and reliable warning of the release of radionuclides from the reactor into the confinement air space as an indication of the occurrence of a severe accident at the plant. In addition, it was intended to provide hands-on experience and training to the Russian plant workers in the installation, operation, calibration and maintenance of the equipment in order that they may use the equipment without continued US assistance as an effective measure to improve reactor safety at the plant.

  7. LBTO Alarm Notification/Management and Error Diagnostic Tools (United States)

    De La Peña, M. D.; Biddick, C.; Summers, K.; Summers, D.


    The Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO) Telescope Control System (TCS) is comprised of fifteen subsystems and accepts commands from the operator, as well as from six pairs of instruments. To the operator the TCS presents as a high-level set of GUIs with each GUI corresponding to one specific subsystem and providing full state information and varying degrees of control. The TCS GUIs not only provide the operators with broad control over all aspects of the telescope, but each individual GUI also reports problems within its domain through the use of color-coded messages and widgets indicating the seriousness of the issue. While there is significant problem reporting available to the operator, until recently there was no centralized and persistent visual indication or “annunciator” display for issues. In order to provide a way to present problems in a centralized and persistent fashion with “on-the-spot guidance” to ease the job of the operator and to have an acknowledge capability, the LBTO project decided to leverage an existing Alarm Handler which is a GUI client application associated with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS)1. This paper briefly describes the TCS sources of problem reporting information and how the EPICS Alarm Handler supplements the current system.

  8. A Preliminary Study for Chemical Ranking System in Terms of Soil and Groundwater Contamination by Chemical Accidents (United States)

    Park, J.; Jeong, Y. C.; Kim, K. E.; Lee, D.; Yoo, K.; Kim, J.; Hwang, S.


    A variety of chemicals could affect human health and ecosystems by chemical accidents such as fire, explosion, and/or spill. Chemical accidents make chemicals spread to the environment via various routes such as dispersion into ambient air, soil, and surface/ground water media. Especially, soil and groundwater contamination by chemical accidents become a secondary source to have a long term effect on human health and environment. Strength of long term effect by soil and groundwater contamination depends largely on inherent characteristics of a chemical and its fate in soil and groundwater. Therefore, in this study, we developed a framework on how to determine what kind of chemicals is more important in management scheme in terms of soil and groundwater contamination during chemical accidents. We ranked approximately fifty chemicals using this framework which takes into account an exposure into soil and groundwater, toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation of a chemical. This framework helps to prepare systematically the management plan for chemical related facilities. Furthermore, results from our study can make a policy maker have interests in highly ranked chemicals and facilities.

  9. Sequence and batch language programs and alarm related C Programs for the 242-A MCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, J.F.


    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades. This control system, called the Monitor and Control system (MCS), was installed in the 242-A evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme.

  10. A preview of the efficiency of systemic family therapy in treatment of children with posttraumatic stress disorder developed after car accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miodrag


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Traumatic stress refers to physical and emotional reactions caused by events which represent a life threat or a disturbance of physical and phychological integrity of a child, as well as their parents or gaerdians. Car accidents are the main cause of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in children. The aim of this study was to preview clinical efficiency of systemic family therapy (SFT as therapy intervention in treatment of children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD traumatized in car accident under identical circumstances of exposure. We pointed out the importance of specific family factors (family cohesion and adaptability, emotional reaction of the parents on PTSD clinical outcome. Methods. The sample of this clinical observational study included 7-sixth grade pupiles - 5 boys and 2 girls, aged 13. All of the pupils were involved in car accident with one death. Two groups were formed - one group included three children who were involved in 8 SFT sessions together with their families. The second group included 4 children who received an antidepressant sertraline in the period of three months. Results. Two months after the car accident, before the beginning of the therapy, all of the children were the members of rigidly enmeshed family systems, considering the high average cohesion scores and the low average adaptability scores on the FACES III. Three months after the received therapy, having evaluated the results of the therapeutic approaches, we established that the adaptability scores of the families included in the SFT were higher than the scores of the families of the children who received pharmacotherapy with one boy still meeting the criteria for PTSD. Conclusion. Systemic family therapy was efficient in the treatment of children with PTSD, traumatized in car accident. Therapy efficiency was higher when both parents and children were included in SFT than in the case when they were not included in the family

  11. Kidkit guides children into alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie


    on the development and evaluation of Kidkit, which is interactive furniture designed for young children who are going to visit a hospitalized relative with fatal injuries for the first time. Kidkit empowers the child to engage and be present by shaping Middle Ground Experiences in the hospital ward environment...... that is full of intimidating medical equipment and alarms. The evaluation results indicate collective rewards gained when children succeed in Embodied Habituation. Finally, the paper discusses how Middle Ground Experiences inevitably establish grounds for how we design for spatial experiences within...

  12. Monitoring techniques and alarm procedures for CMS services and sites in WLCG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Perez, J. [UC, San Diego; Bonacorsi, D. [Bologna U.; Gutsche, O. [Fermilab; Sciaba, A. [CERN; Flix, J. [Madrid, CIEMAT; Kreuzer, P. [CERN; Fajardo, E. [Andes U., Bogota; Boccali, T. [INFN, Pisa; Klute, M. [MIT; Gomes, D. [Rio de Janeiro State U.; Kaselis, R. [Vilnius U.; Du, R. [Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Magini, N. [CERN; Butenas, I. [Vilnius U.; Wang, W. [Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.


    The CMS offline computing system is composed of roughly 80 sites (including most experienced T3s) and a number of central services to distribute, process and analyze data worldwide. A high level of stability and reliability is required from the underlying infrastructure and services, partially covered by local or automated monitoring and alarming systems such as Lemon and SLS, the former collects metrics from sensors installed on computing nodes and triggers alarms when values are out of range, the latter measures the quality of service and warns managers when service is affected. CMS has established computing shift procedures with personnel operating worldwide from remote Computing Centers, under the supervision of the Computing Run Coordinator at CERN. This dedicated 24/7 computing shift personnel is contributing to detect and react timely on any unexpected error and hence ensure that CMS workflows are carried out efficiently and in a sustained manner. Synergy among all the involved actors is exploited to ensure the 24/7 monitoring, alarming and troubleshooting of the CMS computing sites and services. We review the deployment of the monitoring and alarming procedures, and report on the experience gained throughout the first two years of LHC operation. We describe the efficiency of the communication tools employed, the coherent monitoring framework, the proactive alarming systems and the proficient troubleshooting procedures that helped the CMS Computing facilities and infrastructure to operate at high reliability levels.

  13. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52.236-13 Section 52.236-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention...

  14. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)


    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  15. Aircraft accident construction set: performance engineering applied to accident reconstruction (United States)

    Blanchard, James W.


    For some time aircraft accident investigation has been a reverse engineering procedure. Failure analysis has taken a strict engineering approach, disregarding many of the alternatives relating to cause. As aircraft become automated, many relating factors will need to be considered in order to build an accurate reconstruction of an accident. The Aircraft Accident Construction Set will provide the investigator with the opportunity to investigate 'What if?' questions relating to causal factors. The system addressed both the vehicle and the human elements of performance. Significant integration of engineering principles and human factors probability data enhance the outcomes assessment. The pictorial display provides a near real- time image of the vehicle as supported by the engineering data, rather than the more traditional approach of line graphs and interpolative tables. This enables the investigator to consider far more data at a given time than in the past. Interaction between the workstation and the investigator is through a menu system derived from data tables and displayed as ICON symbology. Relational database operations and a user toolbox round out the system. Presentation of this system will provide a fundamental understanding of the capabilities of the system, and an actual air carrier accident will be examined briefly.

  16. Communication strategies and timeliness of response to life critical telemetry alarms. (United States)

    Bonzheim, Kimberly A; Gebara, Rani I; O'Hare, Bridget M; Ellis, R Darin; Brand, Monique A; Balar, Salil D; Stockman, Rita; Sciberras, Annette M; Haines, David E


    A centralized electrocardiogram telemetry monitoring system (TMS) facilitates early identification of critical arrhythmias and acute medical decompensation. Timely intervention can only be performed if abnormalities are communicated rapidly to the direct caregiver. The study objectives were to measure effectiveness of bi-directional voice communication badges versus one-way alphanumeric pagers for telemetry alarm response and communication loop closure. A sequential observational pilot study of nursing response to TMS alarms compared communication technologies on four nursing units in a 1,061 bed tertiary care hospital with 264 TMS channels of telemetry over a 2-year period. Subsequently, the communication technologies were compared in a randomized fashion on a 68-bed progressive cardiac care unit. Caregivers were blinded to the protocol. All alarm responses were recorded during two periods using either pagers or voice communication devices. Alarm response time and closure of the communication loop were analyzed in a blinded fashion. The direct communication functionality of the badge significantly shortened the time to first contact, time to completion, and rate of closure of the communication loop in both the pilot and study phases. Median time to first contact with the communication badge was 0.5  min, compared to 1.6  min with pager communication (p Communication loop closure was achieved in 100% of clinical alarms using the badge versus 19% with the pager (p Communication badge technology reduced alarm time to first contact and completion as well as facilitated communication loop closures. Immediate two-way communication significantly impacted practice, alarm management, and resulted in faster bedside care.

  17. "Alarm-corrected" ergonomic armrest use could improve learning curves of novices on robotic simulator. (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Perez, Manuela; Hossu, Gabriela; Hubert, Nicolas; Perrenot, Cyril; Hubert, Jacques


    In robotic surgery, the professional ergonomic habit of using an armrest reduces operator fatigue and increases the precision of motion. We designed and validated a pressure surveillance system (PSS) based on force sensors to investigate armrest use. The objective was to evaluate whether adding an alarm to the PSS system could shorten ergonomic training and improve performance. Twenty robot and simulator-naïve participants were recruited and randomized in two groups (A and B). The PSS was installed on a robotic simulator, the dV-Trainer, to detect contact with the armrest. The Group A members completed three tasks on the dV-Trainer without the alarm, making 15 attempts at each task. The Group B members practiced the first two tasks with the alarm and then completed the final tasks without the alarm. The simulator provided an overall score reflecting the trainees' performance. We used the new concept of an "armrest load" score to describe the ergonomic habit of using the armrest. Group B had a significantly higher performance score (p ergonomic errors and accelerated professional ergonomic habit acquisition. The combination of the PSS and alarm is effective in significantly shortening the learning curve in the robotic training process.

  18. Encountering bird alarms in full-stare IRSTs (United States)

    de Jong, Arie N.; Winkel, Hans; Kemp, Rob A. W.


    Birds are a potential source of frequent false alarms in Infrared Search and Track (IRST) systems. One reason is that the signals, generated by birds at short ranges (1-2 km) in IR sensors may be of the same magnitude as the signals generated by real targets (missiles) at long ranges (10-20 km). Another reason is that new generations of IRSTs have more sensitivity which brings more birds within the detection range. Furthermore military operations tend to be held more and more in coastal zones, where the frequency of occurrence of birds is greater than in the open ocean. Finally, the variety in type of birds and their flight characteristics and signature is larger. In the paper attention is spent on the IR signatures of birds in various backgrounds, including rapid variations in signature due to wing motions. Basically, these fluctuations and the flight pattern of a bird provide opportunities to encounter bird alarms in next generation IRSTs, using multiple Focal Plan Array cameras with high frame rates. One has to take into account in this process the difference between signal variations due to wing motions and scintillation for long range targets above the horizon.

  19. Is the Sequence of SuperAlarm Triggers More Predictive Than Sequence of the Currently Utilized Patient Monitor Alarms? (United States)

    Bai, Yong; Do, Duc; Ding, Quan; Palacios, Jorge Arroyo; Shahriari, Yalda; Pelter, Michele M; Boyle, Noel; Fidler, Richard; Hu, Xiao


    Our previous studies have shown that "code blue" events can be predicted by SuperAlarm patterns that are multivariate combinations of monitor alarms and laboratory test results cooccurring frequently preceding the events but rarely among control patients. Deploying these patterns to the monitor data streams can generate SuperAlarm sequences. The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that SuperAlarm sequences may contain more predictive sequential patterns than monitor alarms sequences. Monitor alarms and laboratory test results are extracted from a total of 254 adult coded and 2213 control patients. The training dataset is composed of subsequences that are sampled from complete sequences and then further represented as fixed-dimensional vectors by the term frequency inverse document frequency method. The information gain technique and weighted support vector machine are adopted to select the most relevant features and train a classifier to differentiate sequences between coded patients and control patients. Performances are assessed based on an independent dataset using three metrics: sensitivity of lead time (Sen L @T), alarm frequency reduction rate (AFRR), and work-up to detection ratio (WDR). The performance of 12-h-long sequences of SuperAlarm can yield a Sen L@2 of 93.33%, an AFRR of 87.28%, and a WDR of 3.01. At an AFRR = 87.28%, Sen L@2 for raw alarm sequences and discretized alarm sequences are 73.33% and 70.19%, respectively. At a WDR = 3.01, Sen L@2 are 49.88% and 43.33%. The results demonstrate that SuperAlarm sequences indeed outperform monitor alarm sequences and suggest that one can focus on sequential patterns from SuperAlarm sequences to develop more precise patient monitoring solutions.

  20. ANSI/ANS-8.23-1997: nuclear criticality accident emergency planning and response.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J. S. (James S.)


    American National Standard ANSUANS-8.23 was developed to expand upon the basic emergency response guidance given in American National Standard, 'Administrative Practices for Nuclear Criticality Safety' ANSI/ANS-8.19-1996 (Ref. 1). This standard provides guidance for minimizing risks to personnel during emergency response to a nuclear criticality accident outside reactors. This standard is intended to apply to those facilities for which a criticality accident alarm system, as specified in American National Standard, 'Criticality Accident Alarm System', ANSI/ANS-8.3-1997 (Ref. 2) is in use. The Working Group was established in 1990, with Norman L. Pruvost as chairman. The Working Group had up to twenty-three members representing a broad range of the nuclear industry, and has included members from Canada, Japan and the United Kingdom. The initial edition of ANSI/ANS-8.23 was approved by the American National Standards Institute on December 30, 1997. It provides guidance for the following topics: (1) Management and technical staff responsibilities; (2) Evaluation of a potential criticality accident; (3) Emergency plan provisions; (4) Evacuation; (5) Re-entry, rescue and stabilization; and (6) Classroom training, exercises and evacuation drills. This guidance is not for generic emergency planning issues, but is specific to nuclear criticality accidents. For example, it assumes that an Emergency Plan is already established at facilities that implement the standard. During the development of the initial edition of ANSI/ANS-8.23, each Working Group member evaluated potential use of the standard at a facility with which the member was familiar. This revealed areas where a facility could have difficulty complying with the standard. These reviews helped identify and eliminate many potential problems and ambiguities with the guidance. The Working Group has received very limited feedback from the user community since the first edition of the standard was

  1. Effect of Occupational Health and Safety Management System on Work-Related Accident Rate and Differences of Occupational Health and Safety Management System Awareness between Managers in South Korea's Construction Industry. (United States)

    Yoon, Seok J; Lin, Hsing K; Chen, Gang; Yi, Shinjea; Choi, Jeawook; Rui, Zhenhua


    The study was conducted to investigate the current status of the occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) in the construction industry and the effect of OHSMS on accident rates. Differences of awareness levels on safety issues among site general managers and occupational health and safety (OHS) managers are identified through surveys. The accident rates for the OHSMS-certified construction companies from 2006 to 2011, when the construction OHSMS became widely available, were analyzed to understand the effect of OHSMS on the work-related injury rates in the construction industry. The Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency 18001 is the certification to these companies performing OHSMS in South Korea. The questionnaire was created to analyze the differences of OHSMS awareness between site general managers and OHS managers of construction companies. The implementation of OHSMS among the top 100 construction companies in South Korea shows that the accident rate decreased by 67% and the fatal accident rate decreased by 10.3% during the period from 2006 to 2011. The survey in this study shows different OHSMS awareness levels between site general managers and OHS managers. The differences were motivation for developing OHSMS, external support needed for implementing OHSMS, problems and effectiveness of implementing OHSMS. Both work-related accident and fatal accident rates were found to be significantly reduced by implementing OHSMS in this study. The differences of OHSMS awareness between site general managers and OHS managers were identified through a survey. The effect of these differences on safety and other benefits warrants further research with proper data collection.

  2. Levels of alarm thresholds of meningitis outbreaks in Hamadan Province, west of Iran. (United States)

    Faryadres, Mohammad; Karami, Manoochehr; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Esmailnasab, Nader; Pazhouhi, Khabat


    Few studies have focused on syndromic data to determine levels of alarm thresholds to detection of meningitis outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to determine threshold levels of meningitis outbreak in Hamadan Province, west of Iran. Data on both confirmed and suspected cases of meningitis (fever and neurological symptom) form 21 March 2010 to 20 March 2012 were used in Hamadan Province, Iran. Alarm threshold levels of meningitis outbreak were determined using four different methods including absolute values or standard method, relative increase, statistical cutoff points and upper control limit of exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) algorithm. Among 723 reported cases, 41 were diagnosed to have meningitis. Standard level of alarm thresholds for meningitis outbreak was determined as incidence of 5/100000 persons. Increasing 1.5 to two times in reported cases of suspected meningitis per week was known as the threshold levels according to relative increase method. An occurrence four cases of suspected meningitis per week that equals to 90th percentile was chosen as alarm thresholds by statistical cut off point method. The corresponding value according to EWMA algorithm was 2.57 i.e. three cases. Policy makers and staff of syndromic surveillance systems are highly recommended to apply the above different methods to determine the levels of alarm threshold.

  3. Aplikasi Sensor Cahaya Untuk Alarm Anti Pencuri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asita Shoman Muzaki


    Full Text Available Kasus pencurian di rumah kosong yang ditinggal pergi oleh pemiliknya belakangan ini marak terjadi. Berangkat dari pemikiran ini penulis mencoba merancang alarm yang dapat mendeteksi pergerakan seseorang saat rumah dalam kondisi kosong, ditinggalkan oleh pemiliknya. Alat ini mempunyai prinsip kerja yaitu mendeteksi bayangan seseorang yang melewati titik tertentu. Perancangan dan pembuatan perangkat ini menggunakan sensor cahaya berupa LASER dan LDR yang dirangkai dengan transistor sebagai saklar otomatis serta LED dan telepon rumah untuk melakukan panggilan kepada nomor telepon pemilik rumah. Komponen yang dipakai dalam pembuatan perangkat ini antara lain IC LM7805, LASER pointer, resistor, transistor BC108, LED, relay dan telepon rumah. Perancangan dan pembuatan alat menggunakan software multisim 10.1 sebagai simulator rangkaian, dan software eagle 5.1.1 untuk mendesain jalur rangkaian pada papan PCB. Saat cahaya LASER tidak sampai ke LDR karena terhalang oleh sesuatu, maka rangkaian output yang berupa indikator LED dan panggilan dari telepon rumah akan aktif

  4. [The alarming increase of incapacity for work]. (United States)

    Thibaut, P


    The alarming increase of incapacity for work The increase of incapacity for work in Belgium and in Europe is not a new phenomenon but only the transposition of an experience already lived on others continents (Canada--USA). The bio-psycho-social model proves to be, on the international level, as the more efficient view for the understanding of the mechanisms production of the disability and therefore of the incapacity for work. Following this approach, the chronic pain is the result of the dynamic interaction between physiological, psychological and social factors. It mentions also an existing link between the pain and the depression itself being a determining factor in the persistence of the incapacity for work. The bio-psycho-social model can only be conceived in the interdisciplinary approach, and will for sure allow to optimize the support and the use of medicines with a painkiller and depressive aim. The socio-economic impact created represents actually a real health problem.

  5. Spatial Analysis of Accident Spots Using Weighted Severity Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Spatial analysis of the distribution of these accident spots using Weighted Severity Index (WSI) was carried out. A Density-based Clustering Algorithm for. Traffic Accident Risk (DBCTAR) was used to determine accident concentrations with severity levels in a Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) environment. This work is ...

  6. 49 CFR 233.5 - Accidents resulting from signal failure. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents resulting from signal failure. 233.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.5 Accidents resulting... by toll free telephone, number 800-424-0201, whenever it learns of the occurrence of an accident...

  7. 41 CFR 101-39.407 - Accident records. (United States)


    ...-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.407 Accident records. If GSA's records... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Accident records. 101-39.407 Section 101-39.407 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  8. 41 CFR 101-39.401 - Reporting of accidents. (United States)


    ...-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.401 Reporting of accidents. (a) The... manager of the GSA IFMS fleet management center issuing the vehicle; (2) The employee's supervisor; and (3... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reporting of accidents...

  9. Shadow Probability of Detection and False Alarm for Median-Filtered SAR Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynal, Ann Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). ISR Analysis and Applications Dept.; Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). ISR Mission Engineering Dept.; Miller, John A. [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Mission Systems; Bishop, Edward E. [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Mission Systems; Horndt, Volker [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Mission Systems


    Median filtering reduces speckle in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery while preserving edges, at the expense of coarsening the resolution, by replacing the center pixel of a sliding window by the median value. For shadow detection, this approach helps distinguish shadows from clutter more easily, while preserving shadow shape delineations. However, the nonlinear operation alters the shadow and clutter distributions and statistics, which must be taken into consideration when computing probability of detection and false alarm metrics. Depending on system parameters, median filtering can improve probability of detection and false alarm by orders of magnitude. Herein, we examine shadow probability of detection and false alarm in a homogeneous, ideal clutter background after median filter post-processing. Some comments on multi-look processing effects with and without median filtering are also made.

  10. Smoke alarm installation and function in inner London council housing (United States)

    DiGuiseppi, C.; Roberts, I.; Speirs, N.


    AIM—To determine the prevalence of and predictors for installed, functioning smoke alarms in council (public) housing in a low income, multi-ethnic urban area.
DESIGN—Cross sectional study.
SETTING—40 materially deprived electoral wards in two inner London boroughs.
PARTICIPANTS—Occupants of 315 addresses randomly selected from council housing lists, with 75% response rate.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Installation and function of smoke alarms based on inspection and testing.
RESULTS—39% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33% to 46%) of council tenants owned a smoke alarm, 31% (95% CI 25% to 38%) had an installed alarm (of which 54% were correctly installed), and 16% (95% CI 12% to 22%) had at least one installed, functioning alarm. Alarms most commonly failed because they lacked batteries (72%). In multivariate modelling, having an installed, functioning alarm was most strongly associated with living in a house versus a flat (apartment) (odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.0), having two resident adults versus one (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 6.5), and recognising stills from a Home Office television smoke alarm campaign (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.5).
CONCLUSIONS—Fires are a leading cause of child injury and death, particularly among those younger than 5 years of age and those in social classes IV and V. Smoke alarms are associated with a significantly reduced risk of death in residential fires, and are more protective in households with young children. Few council properties in a multi-ethnic, materially deprived urban area had any installed, functioning smoke alarms, despite a high risk of residential fires and fire related injuries in such areas. Effective methods to increase the prevalence of installed and functioning alarms must be identified.


  11. Driving risk and Accidents


    Sagaspe, P; Philip, P.


    For many years fatigue has been associated with an increased risk of accidents, but the causes were unclear. Work or driving that is extensive or conducted during the night-time hours is associated with accidents but few reports have differentiated fatigue, which is usually seen as owing to driving time, from sleepiness, which is owing to reduced sleep extended time awake or being awake at the circadian trough, or drugs. Epidemiological studies from the1990s showed that sleep-related accident...

  12. Accident investigation and analysis


    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.


    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next step. A thorough accident or incident investigation may uncover a wealth of knowledge about safety management practices in the organisation. Previously overlooked weaknesses of safety management or sa...

  13. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K


    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  14. Nurses' response to frequency and types of electrocardiography alarms in a non-critical care setting: a descriptive study. (United States)

    Gazarian, Priscilla K


    An important role of the registered nurse is to identify patient deterioration by monitoring the patient condition and vital signs. Increasingly, this is supplemented with continuous electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring. Continuous monitoring is inefficient in identifying deterioration because of the high number of false and nuisance alarms. Lack of strong evidence or formal guidelines for the care of patients receiving ECG monitoring has led clinicians to rely too heavily on this technology without consideration of its limitations. The nursing workload associated with alarm management remains unexamined. To describe nurses' routine practices related to continuous ECG monitoring, frequency and types of alarms, their associated nursing interventions, and the impact on the patient's plan of care. Design. Prospective, descriptive, observational study. Setting and participants. Between January 2011 and March 2011 we observed nine Registered Nurses providing care for patients receiving continuous ECG monitoring in non-critical care areas. The PI and two research assistants observed each nurse for two 3-h observation periods and recorded data on a researcher designed observation tool. At the end of each observation period, the observers printed the alarm events as recorded by the central monitoring computer. Nurses responded to 46.8% of all alarms. During the observation period, there were no dysrhythmia adverse events. One patient had a change in condition requiring transfer to a higher level of care. A range of nursing interventions occurred in response to alarms. Nurses routine practices related to monitoring continue to reveal gaps in practice related to alarm management. Observations of practice also revealed the difficulties and complexities of managing alarm systems and the range of nursing interventions associated with managing alarms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Accidents (FARS) (National) (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Accident - (1975-current): This data file (NTAD) contains information about crash characteristics and environmental conditions at the time of the crash. There is one...

  16. General radiation management situation at the first stage of accident occurrence. Fire and explosion of asphalt solidification processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kimio; Shimizu, Takehiko; Ishiguro, Shuji [Health and Safety Division, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Fire accident in the cell of Asphalt Solidification Processing Facility (ASP) in PNC took placed at 10:06 a.m., March 11, 1997. Explosion accident occurred subsequently in the ASP at 8:04 p.m. of the day about 10 hours later. The accident which included loss of confinement function of the cell, release of radioactive materials to the working environment, evacuation of many workers, radioactive materials intake of the workers, alarm of many radiation monitoring system, diffusion of radiation materials to off-site, required the radiation management division to take a prompt and wide-ranging protective action. No one was inflicted an external injury by the accident. The workers who inhaled a few radioactive materials, such as Cs-137, were 37 in number. The maximum committed effective dose equivalent or a person was estimated 0.4-1.6 mSv, taking account of the effects of alpha-ray emission nuclides. Radioactive materials were released outside through the raptured windows of the facility. Radioactive nuclides, such as Cs, Sr, Pu, and Am were detected in site by the environmental monitoring. A small quantity of Cs was detected in the aerosols of Oarai area, where is located at about 20 km south-south-west distant from the accidental site. The total amount of effluent throughout the accident was estimated about 1-4 GBq for {beta}-ray emission nuclides, excluding C-14, and about 1x10{sup -4}-4 x 10{sup -3} GBq for {alpha}-ray emission nuclides. The maximum committed effective dose equivalent for the general public was estimated about 1x10{sup -3}-2 x 10{sup -2} mSv. (M. Suetake)

  17. Alarm calls of Bronze Mannikins communicate predator size to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These groups were exposed to latex terrestrial snakes and mounted aerial raptors, and their alarm calls and predator response behaviours recorded. The Bronze Mannikins were able to discriminate between predators of different sizes, and increased their calling rate and decreased the end frequency of the alarm call in ...

  18. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a) A...

  19. Statistical Study of False Alarms of Geomagnetic Storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Kristoffer; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Veronig, A.

    alarms is considered as an important factor when forecasting geomagnetic storms. It would therefore be very helpful if there were a signature in the solar data that could indicate that a CME is a false alarm. The strength and position of associated flares have been considered as possible candidates...

  20. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests. (United States)


    ..., the mixture pressure is reduced to one-half of the alarm's maximum design pressure. If the alarm has a... minutes and then with a mixture of Test Fluid A and water in the following concentrations: 0 ppm, 15 ppm, and the highest oil concentration that can be read on the monitor. A sample of the mixture causing...

  1. Successful Use of the Nocturnal Urine Alarm for Diurnal Enuresis. (United States)

    Friman, Patrick C.; Vollmer, Dennis


    A urine alarm, typically used to treat nocturnal enuresis, was effectively used to treat diurnal enuresis in a 15-year-old female with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder. The study indicated that the alarm eliminated wetting in both treatment phases and that continence was maintained at three-month and…

  2. 46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell, switch. 131.805 Section 131.805 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.805 General alarm bell, switch. The switch in the...

  3. 33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Autopilot alarm or indicator. 157.440 Section 157.440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... § 157.440 Autopilot alarm or indicator. (a) A tankship owner or operator shall ensure that each...

  4. A model of objects based on KKS for the processing of alarms at the Angra 2 nuclear power plant; Um modelo de objetos baseado em KKS para o processamento de alarmes da usina nuclear de Angra 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paulo Adriano da


    The purpose of this work is to present a new model of the alarm annunciation system of the Angra 2 nuclear power plant, using concepts of object based modeling and having as basic the Angra 2 Systems and Components Identification System - KKS. The present structure of the Computerized Alarm System - CAS of Angra 2 does not permit a fast visualization of the incoming alarms in case that a great number of them go off, because the monitors can only show 7 indications at a time. The herein proposed model permits a fast identification of the generated alarms, making possible for the operator to have a general view of the current nuclear power plant status. Its managing tree structure has an hierarchical dependence among its nodes, from where, the presently activated alarms are shown. Its man-machine interface is easy interaction and understand because it is based on structure well known by the Angra 2 operators which is the Angra 2 Systems and Components Identification System - KKS. The project was implemented in the format of an Angra 2 Alarms Supervision System (SSAA), and, for purpose of simulation, 5 system of the Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant have been chosen. The data used in the project like measurement KKS, measurement limits, unity, setpoints, alarms text and systems flow diagrams, are actual data of the Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant. The Visual Basic programming Language has been used, with emphasis to the object oriented programming, which and modification, without modifying the program code. Event hough using the Visual Basic for programming, the model has shown, for its purpose, a satisfactory real time execution. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocket Chandra


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In the present scenario, road traffic accidents have become a major cause of human mortality and morbidity. Accidents are increasing at alarming rates in India. The objective of our study was to assess the socio-demographic profile of road traffic accident victims admitted in a tertiary care setting, and to assess the pattern of injuries. METHODOLOGY The present study is prospective and analytical hospital based study. RESULTS The present studies show that more than 70% of the victims are in the age group of below 45 years (n=3196 and with male preponderance. Out of 14364 accident patients visiting the emergency department of Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, 4953 patients were admitted. The majorities of the patients (n=2995 were admitted in surgery department and 1586 in orthopaedic department. CONCLUSIONS Several factors are responsible for causing road accidents such as drunk driving, lack of awareness of traffic rules, nonadherence to safety measures. To reduce morbidity and mortality following road accidents, comprehensive policy has to be adopted by the government

  6. Prioritizing alarms from sensor-based detection models in livestock production - A review on model performance and alarm reducing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominiak, Katarina Sylow; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard


    to be improved through the combination of different methods (12 papers) and “Prioritizing models” where the models include a method of ranking or prioritizing alerts in order to reduce the number of false alarms (3 papers). Of the three methods that rank or prioritize alerts; Fuzzy Logic, Naive Bayesian Network...... (NBN) and Hidden phase-type Markov model, the NBN shows the greatest potential for future reduction of alerts from sensor-based detection models in livestock production. The included detection models are evaluated on three criteria; performance, time-window and similarity to determine whether...... monitoring and early warning systems offer an opportunity to observe certain aspects of animal health, welfare, and productivity more closely than traditionally accomplished through human observation, and the opportunities for improving animal welfare should continue to be a driving force throughout...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Adequacy of current safety goals are also discussed in view of the socio-economic impact of the Fukushima accident. As a conclusion, it is suggested that an investigation on a coherent integrated safety principle for the severe accident and development of innovative mitigation features is necessary for robust and resilient nuclear power system.

  8. Analysis of traffic accidents in Romania, 2009. (United States)

    Călinoiu, Geovana; Minca, Dana Galieta; Furtunescu, Florentina Ligia


    This paper aimed to underline the main consequences of traffic accidents in Romania 2009 and their associated causes or circumstances. We identified some problematic geographic areas, some critical months or moments of the day and also the most frequent causes; all these should become targets for the future planning. The current analysis provides some priority criteria for public health interventions. So, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Romania is far away from the average EU target for 2010 of halving the death by traffic accidents registered in 2001. To describe the circumstances and the consequences related to traffic accidents registered in Romania, for the year 2009. An ecological study was conducted. The traffic accidents circumstances were analyzed in terms of magnitude, geographic space, time and cause. The consequences were analyzed as affected people and damaged cars. A total of 28,627 traffic accidents were registered in Romania during the year 2009. 2,796 people were killed and 27,968 were hospitalized and 42,443 cars were damaged. 3 of 4 accidents were caused by violations on behalf of the car drivers. Most common violations in car drivers were excess of speed and priority violations (52.4%). Among the pedestrians, 7 of 10 accidents were caused by illegal crossing. A higher number of accidents occurred during the summer months and during the evening hours (from 5.00 pm till 8.00 pm). The traffic accidents represent a real public health problem in Romania and a serious burden for the health system. The gap between Romania and the other EU member states needs to be diminished in the next decade. In this purpose, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Research is needed to understand the causes and the socio-economical impact of traffic accidents and to define appropriate national

  9. Bicycle accidents among teenagers (United States)


    The report shows that knowledge of traffic rules does not contribute to reduce the accident risk, or injury risk of young cyclists. Running red lights and cycling in the wrong direction in one-way traffic increase accident and injury risk. Using cycl...

  10. Accident investigation and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.


    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next

  11. Youth and Traffic Accidents


    Simpson, H.M.; Mayhew, D.R.


    This paper addresses the problem of traffic accidents involving young adults: specifically, what is known about the causes of their accidents, and what preventive action seems warranted. In this context, we consider what role the family physician might play in dealing with this major public health problem.

  12. RECASS source term estimation sub-system and its application for reconstruction of the source rate of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goloubenkov, A.V.; Borodin, R.V. [SPA `Typhoon`, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Sohier, A. [Centre d`Etude de l`Energie Nucleaire, Brussels (Belgium)


    The work discusses the algorithm which is used in the RECASS for reconstruction of the dynamics of a multi-isotope source from outdoor measurements. The algorithm is based on applying projective geometry to minimise the objective. The contamination surface and/or space is divided into several domains of different area/volume and equal contamination. Squares of deviations of calculated and modelled contamination in these domains are minimised. The algorithm allows the use of some linear restrictions (non-negativity of source rate, assumption of dynamics of the source, known relative concentrations of isotopes, direct measurements in the source, etc). The algorithm also calculates the covariance matrix of the source rate. The way in which the software was applied to calculate the dynamics of the release of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 100}Ru, {sup 144}Ce for the early period of the Chernobyl accident, based on measurements of depositions, is discussed. (Author).

  13. The peculiarities of formation of circulatory system pathology of evacuated adult population exposed to ionizing radiation on thyroid gland after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustinskaia O.A.


    Full Text Available The aim of the research - analysis of the structure and dynamics of the morbidity among eva¬cuated population, the peculiarities of pathogenesis of the most widespread forms of circulatory system (CS pathology in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Materials and methods. Three groups of persons evacuated from Chernobyl zone of alienation were researched: persons aged 10-17 (6517 persons, 18-39 (496 persons, 40-60 (458 persons. The data on the individual radiation doses which affected thyroid gland were selected at the State Register of Ukraine on persons affected by the Chernobyl disaster. Morbidity rate was estimated per 103 man-year for 5-years periods of monitoring. The main results: Time from the moment of Chernobyl accident affected the formation of morbidity structure of evacuated population. It was fixed two peaks of morbidity incidence - initial and in 12 years. The most essential changes in CS morbidity of evacuated population were fixed 26 years later mainly in cere¬brovascular diseases. The coronary artery disease takes the first place in the morbidity structure. Significant dif¬ferences were detected at age-specific aspect. The evacuated adult population aged 18-39 years was the most vulnerable for the development of CS diseases. Adverse health effects confirmed the necessity of further research of CS morbidity with the differentiation of doses affected thyroid gland.

  14. Development of a new aerosol monitoring system and its application in Fukushima nuclear accident related aerosol radioactivity measurement at the CTBT radionuclide station in Sidney of Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Weihua, E-mail: [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 1C1 (Canada); Bean, Marc; Benotto, Mike; Cheung, Jeff; Ungar, Kurt; Ahier, Brian [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 1C1 (Canada)


    A high volume aerosol sampler ('Grey Owl') has been designed and developed at the Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable sampler to provide daily aerosol monitoring samples that can be used as reference samples for radiological studies. It has been developed to provide a constant air flow rate at low pressure drops ({approx}3 kPa for a day sampling) with variations of less than {+-}1% of the full scale flow rate. Its energy consumption is only about 1.5 kW for a filter sampling over 22,000 standard cubic meter of air. It has been demonstrated in this Fukushima nuclear accident related aerosol radioactivity monitoring study at Sidney station, B.C. that the sampler is robust and reliable. The results provided by the new monitoring system have been used to support decision-making in Canada during an emergency response. - Highlights: > A new high volume aerosol sampler ('Grey Owl') has been developed in this study. > It operates at low pressure drops with low energy consumption. > The variation of air flow rate is less than {+-}1% of the full scale. > Fukushima accident nuclide monitoring at Sidney shows that it is robust and reliable.

  15. Review of the chronic exposure pathways models in MACCS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) and several other well-known probabilistic risk assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway))


    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the work performed by the author in connection with the following task, performed for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, (USNRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Division of Systems Research: MACCS Chronic Exposure Pathway Models: Review the chronic exposure pathway models implemented in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) and compare those models to the chronic exposure pathway models implemented in similar codes developed in countries that are members of the OECD. The chronic exposures concerned are via: the terrestrial food pathways, the water pathways, the long-term groundshine pathway, and the inhalation of resuspended radionuclides pathway. The USNRC has indicated during discussions of the task that the major effort should be spent on the terrestrial food pathways. There is one chapter for each of the categories of chronic exposure pathways listed above.

  16. Comparative Assessment of Severe Accidents in the Chinese Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschberg, S.; Burgherr, P.; Spiekerman, G.; Cazzoli, E.; Vitazek, J.; Cheng, L


    This report deals with the comparative assessment of accidents risks characteristic for the various electricity supply options. A reasonably complete picture of the wide spectrum of health, environmental and economic effects associated with various energy systems can only be obtained by considering damages due to normal operation as well as due to accidents. The focus of the present work is on severe accidents, as these are considered controversial. By severe accidents we understand potential or actual accidents that represent a significant risk to people, property and the environment and may lead to large consequences. (author)

  17. Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs. (United States)

    Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J


    Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430].


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document analyzes aboveground tank failure accident scenarios for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification system (DBVS). The radiological and toxicological consequences are determined for a range of aboveground tank failure accident scenarios to determine the representative accident for DBVS. Based on the consequence results and accident frequency evaluations, risk bins are determined and control decisions are made.

  19. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 3: diversion of crops grown for human consumption to animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.; Wilkins, B.T.; Nisbet, A.F


    This report forms part of a series describing a study to evaluate selected options for the management of food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. This report considers the scope for the redirection of contaminated foods grown for human consumption to animal feeds and addresses whether crops grown for human consumption can be used as animal feeds for animal production systems; what the likely impact on contamination levels in animal products is; whether amounts of waste food could be reduced in the event of a nuclear accident; and whether the option is acceptable to the farming industry, retail trade and consumers. The study identified that foods intended for human consumption can be used as animal feeds for beef cattle and sheep and, to a limited extent, for breeding sows but it is essential that a suitable nutritional balance is maintained. The scope to provide suitable alternative diets is, however, limited and is dependent upon the time of year at which the deposition occurs. If crops were contaminated at the relevant CFIL, not all of the alternative diets considered would result in animal products that were below the corresponding CFIL value, thus limiting any benefit in implementing the option. Except possibly in the most extreme of circumstances, this management option would not be considered acceptable by consumers or by the retail trade and farmers would only implement such a measure if there was a suitable market for the resultant produce. This work was undertaken under the Environmental Assessments Department and Emergency Response Group's Quality Management System, which has been approved by Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance to the Quality Management Standards ISO 9001:2000 and TickIT Guide Issue 5, certificate number 956546. (author)

  20. Sleep related vehicle accidents. (United States)

    Horne, J A; Reyner, L A


    To assess the incidence, time of day, and driver morbidity associated with vehicle accidents where the most likely cause was the driver falling asleep at the wheel. Two surveys were undertaken, in southwest England and the midlands, by using police databases or on the spot interviews. Drivers involved in 679 sleep related vehicle accidents. Of all vehicle accidents to which the police were summoned, sleep related vehicle accidents comprised 16% on major roads in southwest England, and over 20% on midland motorways. During the 24 hour period there were three major peaks: at around 0200, 0600, and 1600. About half these drivers were men under 30 years; few such accidents involved women. Sleep related vehicle accidents are largely dependent on the time of day and account for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents, especially those on motorways and other monotonous roads. As there are no norms for the United Kingdom on road use by age and sex for time of day with which to compare these data, we cannot determine what the hourly exposure v risk factors are for these subgroups. The findings are in close agreement with those from other countries.

  1. Persistence of airline accidents. (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko


    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  2. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain. (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa


    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.


    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  4. Social impact of accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Isao [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)


    There is the quite big difference between technological risk and social risk feeling. Various biases of social and sensational factors on accidents must be considered to recognize this difference. `How safe is safe enough` is the perpetual thema concerning with not only technology but also sociology. The safety goal in aircraft design and how making effort to improve the present safety status in civil jet aircrafts is discussed as an example of social risk allowance. INSAG under IAEA started to discuss the safety culture after Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident on 1986. Safety culture and risk communication are the most important procedures to relieve the social impact for accidents. (author)

  5. Size-dependent distribution of radiocesium in riverbed sediments and its relevance to the migration of radiocesium in river systems after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Iwatani, Hokuto; Sakaguchi, Aya; Fan, Qiaohui; Takahashi, Yoshio


    We investigated the particle size distribution of radiocesium in riverbed sediments after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Riverbed sediments were collected in the Abukuma River system in Fukushima and Miyagi Prefectures. The collected sediments were separated into 11 fractions, ranging from granular size (>2000 μm) to clay size (<2 μm) fractions. Cesium-137 concentrations were higher in the smaller particle size fractions, possibly reflecting specific surface areas and the mineralogy, in particular the clay mineral content. A gap in (137)Cs concentration was observed between the silt size and sand size fractions of riverbed sediments at downstream sites, whereas riverbed sediments at an upstream site did not show such a concentration gap. It is likely that selective transport of small particles in suspended state from upstream areas resulted in an accumulation of radiocesium in downstream areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Termination of light-water reactor core-melt accidents with a chemical core catcher: the core-melt source reduction system (COMSORS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Osborne-Lee, I.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kenton, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Westmont, IL (United States)


    The Core-Melt Source Reduction System (COMSORS) is a new approach to terminate light-water reactor core melt accidents and ensure containment integrity. A special dissolution glass is placed under the reactor vessel. If core debris is released onto the glass, the glass melts and the debris dissolves into the molten glass, thus creating a homogeneous molten glass. The molten glass, with dissolved core debris, spreads into a wide pool, distributing the heat for removal by radiation to the reactor cavity above or by transfer to water on top of the molten glass. Expected equilibrium glass temperatures are approximately 600 degrees C. The creation of a low-temperature, homogeneous molten glass with known geometry permits cooling of the glass without threatening containment integrity. This report describes the technology, initial experiments to measure key glass properties, and modeling of COMSORS operations.

  7. Honey Bees Modulate Their Olfactory Learning in the Presence of Hornet Predators and Alarm Component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwei Wang

    Full Text Available In Southeast Asia the native honey bee species Apis cerana is often attacked by hornets (Vespa velutina, mainly in the period from April to November. During the co-evolution of these two species honey bees have developed several strategies to defend themselves such as learning the odors of hornets and releasing alarm components to inform other mates. However, so far little is known about whether and how honey bees modulate their olfactory learning in the presence of the hornet predator and alarm components of honey bee itself. In the present study, we test for associative olfactory learning of A. cerana in the presence of predator odors, the alarm pheromone component isopentyl acetate (IPA, or a floral odor (hexanal as a control. The results show that bees can detect live hornet odors, that there is almost no association between the innately aversive hornet odor and the appetitive stimulus sucrose, and that IPA is less well associated with an appetitive stimulus when compared with a floral odor. In order to imitate natural conditions, e.g. when bees are foraging on flowers and a predator shows up, or alarm pheromone is released by a captured mate, we tested combinations of the hornet odor and floral odor, or IPA and floral odor. Both of these combinations led to reduced learning scores. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the prey-predator system between A. cerana and V. velutina.

  8. Honey Bees Modulate Their Olfactory Learning in the Presence of Hornet Predators and Alarm Component. (United States)

    Wang, Zhengwei; Qu, Yufeng; Dong, Shihao; Wen, Ping; Li, Jianjun; Tan, Ken; Menzel, Randolf


    In Southeast Asia the native honey bee species Apis cerana is often attacked by hornets (Vespa velutina), mainly in the period from April to November. During the co-evolution of these two species honey bees have developed several strategies to defend themselves such as learning the odors of hornets and releasing alarm components to inform other mates. However, so far little is known about whether and how honey bees modulate their olfactory learning in the presence of the hornet predator and alarm components of honey bee itself. In the present study, we test for associative olfactory learning of A. cerana in the presence of predator odors, the alarm pheromone component isopentyl acetate (IPA), or a floral odor (hexanal) as a control. The results show that bees can detect live hornet odors, that there is almost no association between the innately aversive hornet odor and the appetitive stimulus sucrose, and that IPA is less well associated with an appetitive stimulus when compared with a floral odor. In order to imitate natural conditions, e.g. when bees are foraging on flowers and a predator shows up, or alarm pheromone is released by a captured mate, we tested combinations of the hornet odor and floral odor, or IPA and floral odor. Both of these combinations led to reduced learning scores. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the prey-predator system between A. cerana and V. velutina.

  9. Preliminary Modeling of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts under Accident Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Kyle A.; Hales, Jason D.


    The catastrophic events that occurred at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have led to widespread interest in research of alternative fuels and claddings that are proposed to be accident tolerant. Thus, the United States Department of Energy through its NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) program has funded an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The ATF HIP is funded for a three-year period. The purpose of the HIP is to perform research into two potential accident tolerant concepts and provide an in-depth report to the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) describing the behavior of the concepts, both of which are being considered for inclusion in a lead test assembly scheduled for placement into a commercial reactor in 2022. The initial focus of the HIP is on uranium silicide fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy cladding. Utilizing the expertise of three national laboratory participants (INL, LANL, and ANL) a comprehensive mulitscale approach to modeling is being used including atomistic modeling, molecular dynamics, rate theory, phase-field, and fuel performance simulations. In this paper, we present simulations of two proposed accident tolerant fuel systems: U3Si2 fuel with Zircaloy-4 cladding, and UO2 fuel with FeCrAl cladding. The simulations investigate the fuel performance response of the proposed ATF systems under Loss of Coolant and Station Blackout conditions using the BISON code. Sensitivity analyses are completed using Sandia National Laboratories’ DAKOTA software to determine which input parameters (e.g., fuel specific heat) have the greatest influence on the output metrics of interest (e.g., fuel centerline temperature). Early results indicate that each concept has significant advantages as well as areas of concern. Further work is required prior to formulating the proposition report for the Advanced Fuels Campaign.

  10. Alarm Variables for Dengue Outbreaks: A Multi-Centre Study in Asia and Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh R Bowman

    Full Text Available Worldwide, dengue is an unrelenting economic and health burden. Dengue outbreaks have become increasingly common, which place great strain on health infrastructure and services. Early warning models could allow health systems and vector control programmes to respond more cost-effectively and efficiently.The Shewhart method and Endemic Channel were used to identify alarm variables that may predict dengue outbreaks. Five country datasets were compiled by epidemiological week over the years 2007-2013. These data were split between the years 2007-2011 (historic period and 2012-2013 (evaluation period. Associations between alarm/ outbreak variables were analysed using logistic regression during the historic period while alarm and outbreak signals were captured during the evaluation period. These signals were combined to form alarm/ outbreak periods, where 2 signals were equal to 1 period. Alarm periods were quantified and used to predict subsequent outbreak periods. Across Mexico and Dominican Republic, an increase in probable cases predicted outbreaks of hospitalised cases with sensitivities and positive predictive values (PPV of 93%/ 83% and 97%/ 86% respectively, at a lag of 1-12 weeks. An increase in mean temperature ably predicted outbreaks of hospitalised cases in Mexico and Brazil, with sensitivities and PPVs of 79%/ 73% and 81%/ 46% respectively, also at a lag of 1-12 weeks. Mean age was predictive of hospitalised cases at sensitivities and PPVs of 72%/ 74% and 96%/ 45% in Mexico and Malaysia respectively, at a lag of 4-16 weeks.An increase in probable cases was predictive of outbreaks, while meteorological variables, particularly mean temperature, demonstrated predictive potential in some countries, but not all. While it is difficult to define uniform variables applicable in every country context, the use of probable cases and meteorological variables in tailored early warning systems could be used to highlight the occurrence of dengue

  11. Patient characteristics associated with false arrhythmia alarms in intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris PR


    Full Text Available Patricia R Harris,1,2 Jessica K Zègre-Hemsey,3,4 Daniel Schindler,5 Yong Bai,6 Michele M Pelter,2,7 Xiao Hu2,8 1Department of Nursing, School of Health and Natural Sciences, Dominican University of California, San Rafael, 2Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 3School of Nursing, 4Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, 5Intensive Care Unit, The Neuroscience Center, Sutter Eden Medical Center, Castro Valley, 6Hu Research Laboratory, Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, 7ECG Monitoring Research Lab, Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, 8Physiological Nursing and Neurological Surgery, Affiliate Faculty of Institute for Computational Health Sciences Core Faculty UCB/UCSF Joint Bio-Engineering Graduate Program, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Introduction: A high rate of false arrhythmia alarms in the intensive care unit (ICU leads to alarm fatigue, the condition of desensitization and potentially inappropriate silencing of alarms due to frequent invalid and nonactionable alarms, often referred to as false alarms. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify patient characteristics, such as gender, age, body mass index, and diagnosis associated with frequent false arrhythmia alarms in the ICU. Methods: This descriptive, observational study prospectively enrolled patients who were consecutively admitted to one of five adult ICUs (77 beds at an urban medical center over a period of 31 days in 2013. All monitor alarms and continuous waveforms were stored on a secure server. Nurse scientists with expertise in cardiac monitoring used a standardized protocol to annotate six clinically important types of arrhythmia alarms (asystole, pause, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, accelerated ventricular rhythm, and

  12. Age and airline accidents. (United States)

    Tenney, D P


    The issuance of a commercial pilot's license is contingent upon the fulfillment of stated minimum flight time. These requirements imply that total flight time and aircraft flight time can be equated with safety. For this reason, aircraft accidents involving licensed, professional pilots become difficult to explain. This study examined the relationship of pilot experience to accidents by comparing pilots' age and experience in 188 accidents involving corporate/executive pilots. The more severe accidents were expected to involve younger, less experienced pilots. The data in this study, however, refute this expectation. The age, aircraft time, or total time difference between groups was not significant. More research, both in the field and under controlled conditions, may bring in the psychological concept of cognitive dissonance.

  13. Accident resistant transport container (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  14. Boating Accident Statistics (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  15. Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Grant


    Full Text Available In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of “frog swarms” from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010. All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads. It was concluded that most reported “frog swarms” are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by juvenile animals migrating away from their breeding pond, after a fruitful reproductive season. As amphibian populations undergo large fluctuations in numbers from year to year, this phenomenon will not occur on a yearly basis but will depend on successful reproduction, which is related to numerous climatic and geophysical factors. Hence, most large swarms of amphibians, particularly those involving very small frogs and occurring in late spring or summer, are not unusual and should not be considered earthquake precursors. In addition, it is likely that reports of several mass migration of small toads prior to the Great Sichuan Earthquake in 2008 were not linked to the subsequent M = 7.9 event (some occurred at a great distance from the epicentre

  16. [Citalopram, escitalopram and prolonged QT: warning or alarm?]. (United States)

    Alvarez, Enric; Vieira, Sara; Garcia-Moll, Xavier


    The alerts issued by regulatory agencies on the potential cardiac toxicity of citalopram and escitalopram have caused alarm among clinicians. A review of the data concerning this topic shows that the alarm should be limited to patients with a history of syncope or poisoning. As a precautionary measure, an electrocardiogram should be performed on elderly patients. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Violências e acidentes entre adultos mais velhos em comparação aos mais jovens: evidências do Sistema de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes (VIVA, Brasil Violence and accidents among older and younger adults: evidence from the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Chama Borges Luz


    Full Text Available Dados do Sistema de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes (VIVA de 2009 foram utilizados para examinar características sociodemográficas, desfechos e tipos de acidentes e violências que levaram a atendimento em 74 serviços sentinela situados em 23 capitais brasileiras e no Distrito Federal. A análise incluiu 25.201 indivíduos com idade > 20 anos (10,1% com > 60 anos, dos quais 89,3% foram vítimas de acidentes e 11,9% de violências. A hospitalização foi o desfecho de 11,1% dos casos. Em comparação à população geral, observou-se ainda um excesso de homens e da cor da pele não branca entre vítimas de acidentes e, sobretudo, de violência. O perfil desses eventos entre os mais velhos diferiu dos mais jovens (20-59 anos, com destaque para a menor contribuição do álcool, o predomínio de ocorrências no domicílio, a maior importância relativa das quedas e a maior vulnerabilidade a atropelamentos e a agressões por familiares. Políticas para a prevenção de acidentes e violências devem levar em conta as especificidades desses eventos na população mais velha.Data from the Brazilian Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA in 2009 were used to examine socio-demographic characteristics, outcomes, and types of accidents and violence treated at 74 sentinel emergency services in 23 Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District. The analysis included 25,201 individuals aged > 20 years (10.1% > 60 years; 89.3% were victims of accidents and 11.9% victims of violence. Hospitalization was the outcome in 11.1% of cases. Compared to the general population, there were more men and non-white individuals among victims of accidents, and especially among victims of violence. As compared to younger adults (20-59 years, accidents and violence against elderly victims showed less association with alcohol, a higher proportion of domestic incidents, more falls and pedestrian accidents, and aggression by family members. Policies for

  18. Characterization of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) Materials for Return-to-Flight following the Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation (United States)

    Wingard, Doug


    During the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation, it was determined that a large chunk of polyurethane insulating foam (= 1.67 lbs) on the External Tank (ET) came loose during Columbia's ascent on 2-1-03. The foam piece struck some of the protective Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels on the leading edge of Columbia's left wing in the mid-wing area. This impact damaged Columbia to the extent that upon re-entry to Earth, superheGed air approaching 3,000 F caused the vehicle to break up, killing all seven astronauts on board. A paper after the Columbia Accident Investigation highlighted thermal analysis testing performed on External Tank TPS materials (1). These materials included BX-250 (now BX-265) rigid polyurethane foam and SLA-561 Super Lightweight Ablator (highly-filled silicone rubber). The large chunk of foam from Columbia originated fiom the left bipod ramp of the ET. The foam in this ramp area was hand-sprayed over the SLA material and various fittings, allowed to dry, and manually shaved into a ramp shape. In Return-to-Flight (RTF) efforts following Columbia, the decision was made to remove the foam in the bipod ramp areas. During RTF efforts, further thermal analysis testing was performed on BX-265 foam by DSC and DMA. Flat panels of foam about 2-in. thick were sprayed on ET tank material (aluminum alloys). The DSC testing showed that foam material very close to the metal substrate cured more slowly than bulk foam material. All of the foam used on the ET is considered fully cured about 21 days after it is sprayed. The RTF culminated in the successful launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on 7-26-05. Although the flight was a success, there was another serious incident of foam loss fiom the ET during Shuttle ascent. This time, a rather large chunk of BX-265 foam (= 0.9 lbs) came loose from the liquid hydrogen (LH2) PAL ramp, although the foam did not strike the Shuttle Orbiter containing the crew. DMA testing was performed on foam samples taken fiom

  19. Bilateral cerebrovascular accidents in incontinentia pigmenti. (United States)

    Fiorillo, Loretta; Sinclair, D Barry; O'Byrne, Mary L; Krol, Alfons L


    Incontinentia Pigmenti is an X-linked dominant neurocutaneous disorder with central nervous system manifestations in 30% of cases, including seizures and mental retardation. Ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accidents have been reported rarely in incontinentia pigmenti. Chart review and literature search was performed following identification of the index case. We describe a patient with incontinentia pigmenti who developed bilateral cerebrovascular accidents in the neonatal period, with resultant severe neurologic sequelae. This is the second reported case of bilateral cerebrovascular accidents in a patient with incontinentia pigmenti. This finding may be secondary to cerebrovascular anomalies, similar to those observed in the retina. Recognition of cerebrovascular accidents as a complication of incontinentia pigmenti will hopefully lead to earlier recognition and treatment.

  20. Organizational Learning Post Catastrophic Events: A Descriptive Case Study Exploring NASA's Learning over Time Following Two Catastrophic Shuttle Accidents Using the Schwandt's Organizational Learning System Model (United States)

    Castro, Edgar Oscar


    A 30-year contribution of the Space Shuttle Program is the evolution of NASA's social actions through organizational learning. This study investigated how NASA learned over time following two catastrophic accidents. Schwandt's (1997) organizational Learning System Model (OLSM) characterized the learning in this High Reliability…

  1. Accident progression event tree analysis for postulated severe accidents at N Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyss, G.D.; Camp, A.L.; Miller, L.A.; Dingman, S.E.; Kunsman, D.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Medford, G.T. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))


    A Level II/III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for N Reactor, a Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford reservation in Washington. The accident progression analysis documented in this report determines how core damage accidents identified in the Level I PRA progress from fuel damage to confinement response and potential releases the environment. The objectives of the study are to generate accident progression data for the Level II/III PRA source term model and to identify changes that could improve plant response under accident conditions. The scope of the analysis is comprehensive, excluding only sabotage and operator errors of commission. State-of-the-art methodology is employed based largely on the methods developed by Sandia for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of the NUREG-1150 study. The accident progression model allows complex interactions and dependencies between systems to be explicitly considered. Latin Hypecube sampling was used to assess the phenomenological and systemic uncertainties associated with the primary and confinement system responses to the core damage accident. The results of the analysis show that the N Reactor confinement concept provides significant radiological protection for most of the accident progression pathways studied.

  2. System thermalhydraulics for design basis accident analysis and simulation: Status of tools and methods and direction for future R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestion, D., E-mail:


    Highlights: • A state of the art on system code application is presented. • Requirements for demonstration of code up-scaling capabilities are proposed. • The role of multi-scale analysis in safety analysis is explained. • Uncertainty quantifications methodologies for system codes and CFD codes are compared and discussed. - Abstract: System thermalhydraulic investigations of Design Basis Accident require several tools and methods including the Process Identification and Ranking Table, the scaling, experiment analysis, modelling, code development, code Validation and Verification, and Uncertainty Quantification. This paper intends to give an overview of these methods and tools showing what the state of the art is, and presenting some recent advances. Recommendations are made with future direction for R&D including the need of new advanced experiments and instrumentation, and the future role of CFD and multi-scale analyses. For many people it is not clear what current system codes are, and what they can be. Then the main characteristics of these codes are recalled and propositions are made to clarify the code capabilities and limitations and to improve the knowledge of the conditions for a correct application of the codes for safety in a Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty approach. Also, the on-going developments of 3-field models and Transport of Interfacial Area are summarized and associated experimental needs are identified. The growing role of 3D modelling of reactor core and Pressure Vessel requires additional experimental data for a proper validation. CFD in open medium also contributes to investigations when 3D geometrical aspects play an important role. Recent activities performed in the OECD-NEA Working Group for Analysis and Management of Accidents is summarized and recent applications of two-phase CFD to boiling flows and two-phase PTS scenarios are reported. The role of a multi-scale approach for safety issues is illustrated with the LOCA transients

  3. Quantitative Index and Abnormal Alarm Strategy Using Sensor-Dependent Vibration Data for Blade Crack Identification in Centrifugal Booster Fans. (United States)

    Chen, Jinglong; Sun, Hailiang; Wang, Shuai; He, Zhengjia


    Centrifugal booster fans are important equipment used to recover blast furnace gas (BFG) for generating electricity, but blade crack faults (BCFs) in centrifugal booster fans can lead to unscheduled breakdowns and potentially serious accidents, so in this work quantitative fault identification and an abnormal alarm strategy based on acquired historical sensor-dependent vibration data is proposed for implementing condition-based maintenance for this type of equipment. Firstly, three group dependent sensors are installed to acquire running condition data. Then a discrete spectrum interpolation method and short time Fourier transform (STFT) are applied to preliminarily identify the running data in the sensor-dependent vibration data. As a result a quantitative identification and abnormal alarm strategy based on compound indexes including the largest Lyapunov exponent and relative energy ratio at the second harmonic frequency component is proposed. Then for validation the proposed blade crack quantitative identification and abnormality alarm strategy is applied to analyze acquired experimental data for centrifugal booster fans and it has successfully identified incipient blade crack faults. In addition, the related mathematical modelling work is also introduced to investigate the effects of mistuning and cracks on the vibration features of centrifugal impellers and to explore effective techniques for crack detection.

  4. A Microcontroller Based Car-Safety System Implementing Drowsiness Detection And Vehicle-Vehicle Distance Detection In Parallel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragyaditya Das.


    Full Text Available Abstract Accidents due to drowsiness can be controlled and prevented with the help of eye blink sensor using IR rays. It consists of IR transmitter and an IR receiver. The transmitter transmits IR rays into the eye. If the eye is shut then the output is high. If the eye is open then the output is low. This output is interfaced with an alarm inside and outside the vehicle. This module can be connected to the braking system of the vehicle and can be used to reduce the speed of the vehicle. The alarm inside the vehicle will go on for a period of time until the driver is back to his senses. If the driver is unable to take control of the vehicle after that stipulated amount of time then the alarm outside the vehicle will go on to warn and tell others to help the driver.

  5. Modelling Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory; Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence [Idaho National Laboratory


    The catastrophic events that occurred at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have led to widespread interest in research of alternative fuels and claddings that are proposed to be accident tolerant. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) through its Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program has funded an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The ATF HIP is a three-year project to perform research on two accident tolerant concepts. The final outcome of the ATF HIP will be an in-depth report to the DOE Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) giving a recommendation on whether either of the two concepts should be included in their lead test assembly scheduled for placement into a commercial reactor in 2022. The two ATF concepts under investigation in the HIP are uranium silicide fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy cladding. Utilizing the expertise of three national laboratory participants (Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Argonne National Laboratory), a comprehensive multiscale approach to modeling is being used that includes atomistic modeling, molecular dynamics, rate theory, phase-field, and fuel performance simulations. Model development and fuel performance analysis are critical since a full suite of experimental studies will not be complete before AFC must prioritize concepts for focused development. In this paper, we present simulations of the two proposed accident tolerance fuel systems: U3Si2 fuel with Zircaloy-4 cladding, and UO2 fuel with FeCrAl cladding. Sensitivity analyses are completed using Sandia National Laboratories’ Dakota software to determine which input parameters (e.g., fuel specific heat) have the greatest influence on the output metrics of interest (e.g., fuel centerline temperature). We also outline the multiscale modelling approach being employed. Considerable additional work is required prior to preparing the recommendation report for the Advanced

  6. An algorithm for assessing the risk of traffic accident. (United States)

    Ng, Kwok-Suen; Hung, Wing-Tat; Wong, Wing-Gun


    This study is aimed at developing an algorithm to estimate the number of traffic accidents and assess the risk of traffic accidents in a study area. The algorithm involves a combination of mapping technique (Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques) and statistical methods (cluster analysis and regression analysis). Geographical Information System is used to locate accidents on a digital map and realize their distribution. Cluster analysis is used to group the homogeneous data together. Regression analysis is performed to realize the relation between the number of accident events and the potential causal factors. Negative binomial regression model is found to be an appropriate mathematical form to mimic this relation. Accident risk of the area, derived from historical accident records and causal factors, is also determined in the algorithm. The risk is computed using the Empirical Bayes (EB) approach. A case study of Hong Kong is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the algorithm improves accident risk estimation when comparing to the estimated risk based on only the historical accident records. The algorithm is found to be more efficient, especially in the case of fatality and pedestrian-related accident analysis. The output of the proposed algorithm can help authorities effectively identify areas with high accident risk. In addition, it can serve as a reference for town planners considering road safety.

  7. Computer system for the assessment of radiation situation in the cases of radiological accidents and extreme weather conditions in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talerko, M.; Garger, E.; Kuzmenko, A. [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants (Ukraine)


    Radiation situation within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) is determined by high radionuclides contamination of the land surface formed after the 1986 accident, as well as the presence of a number of potentially hazardous objects (the 'Shelter' object, the Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Facility ISF-1, radioactive waste disposal sites, radioactive waste temporary localization sites etc.). The air concentration of radionuclides over the ChEZ territory and radiation exposure of personnel are influenced by natural and anthropogenic factors: variable weather conditions, forest fires, construction and excavation activity etc. The comprehensive radiation monitoring and early warning system in the ChEZ was established under financial support of European Commission in 2011. It involves the computer system developed for assessment and prediction of radiological emergencies consequences in the ChEZ ensuring the protection of personnel and the population living near its borders. The system assesses radiation situation under both normal conditions in the ChEZ and radiological emergencies which result in considerable radionuclides emission into the air (accidents at radiation hazardous objects, extreme weather conditions). Three different types of radionuclides release sources can be considered in the software package. So it is based on a set of different models of emission, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides: 1) mesoscale model of radionuclide atmospheric transport LEDI for calculations of the radionuclides emission from stacks and buildings; 2) model of atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides due to anthropogenic resuspension from contaminated area (area surface source model) as a result of construction and excavation activity, heavy traffic etc.; 3) model of resuspension, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the ChEZ. The system calculates the volume and surface

  8. APRI-6. Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garis, Ninos; Ljung, J (eds.) (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Agrenius, Lennart (ed.) (Agrenius Ingenjoersbyraa AB, Stockholm (Sweden))


    Since the early 1980s, nuclear power utilities in Sweden and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) collaborate on the research in severe reactor accidents. In the beginning focus was mostly on strengthening protection against environmental impacts after a severe reactor accident, for example by develop systems for the filtered relief of the reactor containment. Since the early 90s, this focus has shifted to the phenomenological issues of risk-dominant significance. During the years 2006-2008, the partnership continued in the research project APRI-6. The aim was to show whether the solutions adopted in the Swedish strategy for incident management provides adequate protection for the environment. This is done by studying important phenomena in the core melt estimating the amount of radioactivity that can be released to the atmosphere in a severe accident. To achieve these objectives the research has included monitoring of international research on severe accidents and evaluation of results and continued support for research of severe accidents at the Royal Inst. of Technology (KTH) and Chalmers University. The follow-up of international research has promoted the exchange of knowledge and experience and has given access to a wealth of information on various phenomena relevant to events in severe accidents. The continued support to KTH has provided increased knowledge about the possibility of cooling the molten core in the reactor tank and the processes associated with coolability in the confinement and about steam explosions. Support for Chalmers has increased knowledge of the accident chemistry, mainly the behavior of iodine and ruthenium in the containment after an accident.

  9. The development of severe accident analysis technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heuy Dong; Cho, Sung Won; Kim, Sang Baek; Park, Jong Hwa; Lee, Kyu Jung; Park, Lae Joon; Hu, Hoh; Hong, Sung Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The objective of the development of severe accident analysis technology is to understand the severe accident phenomena such as core melt progression and to provide a reliable analytical tool to assess severe accidents in a nuclear power plant. Furthermore, establishment of the accident management strategies for the prevention/mitigation of severe accidents is also the purpose of this research. The study may be categorized into three areas. For the first area, two specific issues were reviewed to identify the further research direction, that is the natural circulation in the reactor coolant system and the fuel-coolant interaction as an in-vessel and an ex-vessel phenomenological study. For the second area, the MELCOR and the CONTAIN codes have been upgraded, and a validation calculation of the MELCOR has been performed for the PHEBUS-B9+ experiment. Finally, the experimental program has been established for the in-vessel and the ex-vessel severe accident phenomena with the in-pile test loop in KMRR and the integral containment test facilities, respectively. (Author).

  10. Monitoring techniques and alarm procedures for CMS services and sites in WLCG

    CERN Document Server

    Molina-Perez, Jorge Amando


    The CMS offline computing system is composed of roughly 80 sites (including most experienced T3s) and a number of central services to distribute, process and analyze data worldwide. A high level of stability and reliability is required from the underlying infrastructure and services, partially covered by local or automated monitoring and alarming systems such as Lemon and SLS; the former collects metrics from sensors installed on computing nodes and triggers alarms when values are out of range, the latter measures the quality of service and warns managers when service is affected. CMS has established computing shift procedures with personnel operating worldwide from remote Computing Centers, under the supervision of the Computing Run Coordinator on duty at CERN. This dedicated 24/7 computing shift personnel is contributing to detect and react timely on any unexpected error and hence ensure that CMS workflows are carried out efficiently and in a sustained manner. Synergy among all the involved actors is explo...

  11. A framework for the assessment of severe accident management strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastenberg, W.E. [ed.; Apostolakis, G.; Dhir, V.K. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering] [and others


    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and/or altemative resources, systems and actors to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident. For each accident sequence and each combination of severe accident management strategies, there may be several options available to the operator, and each involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. Operational uncertainties include operator, system and instrumentation behavior during an accident. A framework based on decision trees and influence diagrams has been developed which incorporates such criteria as feasibility, effectiveness, and adverse effects, for evaluating potential severe accident management strategies. The framework is also capable of propagating both data and model uncertainty. It is applied to several potential strategies including PWR cavity flooding, BWR drywell flooding, PWR depressurization and PWR feed and bleed.

  12. School accidents in Austria. (United States)

    Schalamon, Johannes; Eberl, Robert; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Singer, Georg; Spitzer, Peter; Mayr, Johannes; Schober, Peter H; Hoellwarth, Michael E


    The aim of this study was to obtain information about the mechanisms and types of injuries in school in Austria. Children between 0 and 18 years of age presenting with injuries at the trauma outpatient in the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz and six participating hospitals in Austria were evaluated over a 2-year prospective survey. A total of 28,983 pediatric trauma cases were registered. Personal data, site of the accident, circumstances and mechanisms of accident and the related diagnosis were evaluated. At the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz 21,582 questionnaires were completed, out of which 2,148 children had school accidents (10%). The remaining 7,401 questionnaires from peripheral hospitals included 890 school accidents (12%). The male/female ratio was 3:2. In general, sport injuries were a predominant cause of severe trauma (42% severe injuries), compared with other activities in and outside of the school building (26% severe injuries). Injuries during ball-sports contributed to 44% of severe injuries. The upper extremity was most frequently injured (34%), followed by lower extremity (32%), head and neck area (26%) and injuries to thorax and abdomen (8%). Half of all school related injuries occur in children between 10 and 13 years of age. There are typical gender related mechanisms of accident: Boys get frequently injured during soccer, violence, and collisions in and outside of the school building and during craft work. Girls have the highest risk of injuries at ball sports other than soccer.

  13. Study on emergency response to critical accident of the nuclear fuel processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urabe, Itsumasa [Fukuyama Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    On the review of information concerning JCO accident sent to the authorities of government, prefecture and Tokaimura and their responses, the author studied what the early emergency response should be. The time series of the information and response after the accident, from 10:35, September 30, 1999 (alarm at the JCO office site) to October 7, 1999, described in detail in this review, revealed the slight difference in the earliest understanding of the emergency between the government and the actual accident regions: At the early stage, the possibility of criticality was recognized by people near the actual site. The importance of decision making based on professional knowledge at the actual region was emphasized for the effective response to nuclear power accident. (K.H.)

  14. Improving alarm performance in the medical intensive care unit using delays and clinical context. (United States)

    Görges, Matthias; Markewitz, Boaz A; Westenskow, Dwayne R


    In an intensive care unit, alarms are used to call attention to a patient, to alert a change in the patient's physiology, or to warn of a failure in a medical device; however, up to 94% of the alarms are false. Our purpose in this study was to identify a means of reducing the number of false alarms. An observer recorded time-stamped information of alarms and the presence of health care team members in the patient room; each alarm response was classified as effective (action taken within 5 min), ineffective (no response to the alarm), and ignored (alarm consciously ignored or actively silenced). During the 200-h study period, 1271 separate entries by an individual to the room being observed were recorded, 1214 alarms occurred and 2344 tasks were performed. On average, alarms occurred 6.07 times per hour and were active for 3.28 min per hour; 23% were effective, 36% were ineffective, and 41% were ignored. The median alarm duration was 17 s. A 14-s delay before alarm presentation would remove 50% of the ignored and ineffective alarms, and a 19-s delay would remove 67%. Suctioning, washing, repositioning, and oral care caused 152 ignored or ineffective ventilator alarms. Introducing a 19-s alarm delay and automatically detecting suctioning, repositioning, oral care, and washing could reduce the number of ineffective and ignored alarms from 934 to 274. More reliable alarms could elicit more timely response, reduce workload, reduce noise pollution, and potentially improve patient safety.

  15. Auditory backup alarms: distance-at-first-detection via in-situ experimentation on alarm design and hearing protection effects. (United States)

    Alali, Khaled; Casali, John G


    The purpose of this study was to assess normal hearing listeners' performance in detecting a stationary backup alarm signal and to quantify the linear distance at detection point. Detection distances for 12 participants with normal hearing were measured while they were fitted with 7 hearing protectors and while they were unoccluded (open ear). A standard (narrowband) backup alarm signal and a broadband (pulsed white noise) backup alarm signal from Brigade[1] were used. The method of limits, with distance as the physical measurement variable and threshold detection as the task, was employed to find at which distance the participant could first detect the backup alarms. A within-subject Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant main effect of the listening conditions on the detection distance in feet. Post hoc analyses indicated that the Bilsom L3HV conventional passive earmuff (at 1132.2 ft detection distance) was significantly poorer compared to all other HPDs and the open ear in detection distance achieved, and that there were no statistically-significant differences between the unoccluded ear (1652.3 ft), EB-15-Lo BlastPLGTM (1546.2 ft), EB-15-Hi BlastPLGTM (1543.4 ft), E-A-R/3M Combat ArmsTM earplug-nonlinear, level-dependent state (1507.8 ft), E-A-R/3M HiFiTM earplug (1497.7 ft), and Bilsom ImpactTM dichotic electronic earmuff (1567.2 ft). In addition, the E-A-R/3M Combat ArmsTM earplug-passive steady state resulted in significantly longer detection distances than only the open ear condition, at 1474.1 ft versus 1652.3 ft for the open ear. ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of the backup alarm type on detection distance. The means were 1600.9 ft for the standard (narrowband) backup alarm signal, and a significantly closer 1379.4 ft was required for the Brigade broadband backup alarm signal. For on-ground workers, it is crucial to detect backup alarm signals as far away as possible rather than at close distances since this will provide them

  16. Aid system in the attention direction for accidents diagnosis at nuclear power plants based on artificial intelligence; Sistema de auxilio para o direcionamento da atencao no diagnostico de acidentes em usinas nucleares baseado em inteligencia artificial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Rafael Gomes da


    Transient identification in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is often a very hard task and may involve a great amount of human cognition. The early identification of unexpected departures from steady state behavior is an essential step for the operation, control and accident management in NPPs. The bases for the transient identification relay on the evidence that different system faults and anomalies lead to different pattern evolution in the involved process variables. During an abnormal event, the operator must monitor a great amount of information from the instruments that represents a specific type of event Several systems based on specialist systems, neural-networks, and fuzzy logic have been developed for transient identification. In the work, we investigate the possibility of using a Neuro Fuzzy modeling tool for efficient transient identification, aiming to helping the operator crew to take decisions relative to the procedure to be followed in situations of accidents/transients at NPPs. The proposed system uses artificial neural networks (ANN) as first level transient diagnostic After the ANN has done the preliminary transient type identification, a fuzzy-logic system analyzes the results emitting reliability degree of it. A preliminary evaluation of the developed system was made at the Human-System Interface Laboratory (LABIHS). The obtained results show that the system can help the operators to take decisions during transients/accidents in the plant (author)

  17. Accidents of surface effect ships and hydrofoil craft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korotkin, I.M.


    The work describes 200 accidents and disasters of hovercraft and hydrofoil craft of the United States, Great Britain, France, and other fleets which occurred in the 1960s and 1970s as a result of capsizing, storm damage, collisions, fires, explosions, etc. The causes of the accidents, the functioning of various craft systems, and the actions of the crews are examined. Recommendations on the prevention of such accidents are discussed.

  18. Quantitative trait loci influencing honeybee alarm pheromone levels. (United States)

    Hunt, G J; Collins, A M; Rivera, R; Page, R E; Guzmán-Novoa, E


    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping procedures were used to identify loci that influence the levels of alarm pheromones found in the stinging apparatus of worker honeybees. An F1 queen was produced from a cross between a queen of European origin and a drone descended from an African subspecies. Haploid drones from the hybrid queen were individually backcrossed to European queens to produce 172 colonies. Samples of stings were taken from backcross workers of these colonies. Alarm pheromone levels were determined by gas chromatography. RAPD markers were scored from the haploid drone fathers of these colonies. The multiple-QTL model (MQM) of MapQTL was used to identify QTLs that influence the levels of four alarm pheromone components. Seven independent, potential QTLs were identified with LOD scores greater than two, and one at LOD 1.88. We identified one QTL for n-decyl acetate, three for n-octanol, four for isopentyl acetate, and one for hexyl acetate. One region of linkage group XI shows a strong influence on body size and the levels of three alarm pheromone components. This locus explained 40% of the variance for the amount of n-decyl acetate (LOD 6.57). In general, the QTLs influencing alarm pheromone levels were independent of previously identified loci that influenced the stinging behavior of these colonies. The only exception was a potential locus influencing levels of n-octanol, which was inversely correlated with stinging behavior.

  19. Interdisciplinary safety analysis of complex socio-technological systems based on the functional resonance accident model: An application to railway trafficsupervision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmonte, Fabien, E-mail: [Alstom Transport, 48 rue Albert Dhalenne, 93482 Saint-Ouen cedex (France); Schoen, Walter [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, Laboratoire Heudiasyc, Centre de Recherches de Royallieu, BP20529, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France); Heurley, Laurent [Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Equipe Cognition, Langage, Emotion et Acquisition (CLEA), EA 4296, UFR de Philosophie, Sciences Humaines et Sociales, Chemin du Thil, 80025 Amiens, Cedex 1 (France); Capel, Robert [Alstom Transport, 48 rue Albert Dhalenne, 93482 Saint-Ouen cedex (France)


    This paper presents an application of functional resonance accident models (FRAM) for the safety analysis of complex socio-technological systems, i.e. systems which include not only technological, but also human and organizational components. The supervision of certain industrial domains provides a good example of such systems, because although more and more actions for piloting installations are now automatized, there always remains a decision level (at least in the management of degraded modes) involving human behavior and organizations. The field of application of the study presented here is railway traffic supervision, using modern automatic train supervision (ATS) systems. Examples taken from railway traffic supervision illustrate the principal advantage of FRAM in comparison to classical safety analysis models, i.e. their ability to take into account technical as well as human and organizational aspects within a single model, thus allowing a true multidisciplinary cooperation between specialists from the different domains involved. A FRAM analysis is used to interpret experimental results obtained from a real ATS system linked to a railway simulator that places operators (experimental subjects) in simulated situations involving incidents. The first results show a significant dispersion in performances among different operators when detecting incidents. Some subsequent work in progress aims to make these 'performance conditions' more homogeneous, mainly by ergonomic modifications. It is clear that the current human-machine interface (HMI) in ATS systems (a legacy of past technologies that used LED displays) has reached its limits and needs to be improved, for example, by highlighting the most pertinent information for a given situation (and, conversely, by removing irrelevant information likely to distract operators).

  20. Road Traffic Accidents - The Number One Killer in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajid Ahmed Ali


    Full Text Available To The Editor: It is estimated that 1.26 million people worldwide died in 2000 from road traffic accidents, 90% of them in low and middle-income countries. In 2000, the road traffic injury mortality rate for the world was 20.8 per 100,000 populations (30.8 in males, 11.0 in females [1].The Arab population constitutes 3.6% of the world’s population and it owns 1% of the world’s vehicles. Its human losses as a result of road traffic accidents (RTA account for 4.8% of that of the world’s losses [2]. It is estimated that the annual cost of road crashes is about 1% of the Gross National Product (GNP in developing countries, 1.5 in transitional countries and 2% in highly motorised countries [3].In Libya the situation is worse. It is a sad fact that road traffic accidents are the number one killer in Libya. As a matter of fact I consider it to be an ‘epidemic’ in all sectors of the Libyan society. There is not a day that goes by in Libya without us hearing about families, young men, women and children getting killed in horrific car accidents.It is alarming that young children are knocked down on a daily basis by speeding young drivers, whose understanding of driving skills may have been acquired from "playstation games"! (You can watch some of the shameful video clips sent by some of these drivers on this link feel it is our responsibility as physicians observing the situation to raise awareness about the scale of the problem, possible causes, and how to tackle it. POSSIBLE CAUSES:• A driving licence in Libya is not issued on the basis of how much you know. Therefore the majority of drivers know little or nothing about the law.• Wearing seat belts is not compulsory in most parts of Libya. In some places, especially in the Eastern part of Libya, you could be penalised for wearing one. I was stopped many years ago by the traffic police in the Eastern part of Libya because I was wearing sunglasses

  1. Radiation management at the occurrence of accident and restoration works. Fire and explosion of asphalt solidification processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyabe, Kenjiro; Jin, K.; Namiki, A.; Mizutani, K.; Horiuchi, N.; Saruta, J. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Health and Safety Division, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ninomiya, Kazushige [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan). Monju Construction Office


    Fire and explosion accident in the cell of Asphalt Solidification Processing Facility(ASP) in PNC took placed at March 11 in 1997. Following to the alarm of many radiation monitoring system in the facility, some of workers inhale radioactive materials in their bodies. Indication values of an exhaust monitor installed in the first auxiliary exhaust stack increased suddenly. A large number of windows, doors, and shutters in the facility were raptured by the explosion. A lot of radioactive materials blew up and were released to the outside of the facility. Reinforcement of radiation surveillance function, nose smearing test for the workers and confirmation of contamination situation were implemented on the fire. Investigation of radiation situation, radiation management on the site, exposure management for the workers, surveillance of exhaustion, and restoration works of the damaged radiation management monitoring system were carried out after the explosion. The detailed data of radiation management measures taken during three months after the accident are described in the paper. (M. Suetake)

  2. The Fukushima radiation accident: consequences for radiation accident medical management. (United States)

    Meineke, Viktor; Dörr, Harald


    The March 2011 radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan, is a textbook example of a radiation accident of global significance. In view of the global dimensions of the accident, it is important to consider the lessons learned. In this context, emphasis must be placed on consequences for planning appropriate medical management for radiation accidents including, for example, estimates of necessary human and material resources. The specific characteristics of the radiation accident in Fukushima are thematically divided into five groups: the exceptional environmental influences on the Fukushima radiation accident, particular circumstances of the accident, differences in risk perception, changed psychosocial factors in the age of the Internet and globalization, and the ignorance of the effects of ionizing radiation both among the general public and health care professionals. Conclusions like the need for reviewing international communication, interfacing, and interface definitions will be drawn from the Fukushima radiation accident.

  3. Status Report on Activities of the Systems Assessment Task Force, OECD-NEA Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon Michelle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development /Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) Nuclear Science Committee approved the formation of an Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) for LWRs (EGATFL) in 2014. Chaired by Kemal Pasamehmetoglu, INL Associate Laboratory Director for Nuclear Science and Technology, the mandate for the EGATFL defines work under three task forces: (1) Systems Assessment, (2) Cladding and Core Materials, and (3) Fuel Concepts. Scope for the Systems Assessment task force includes definition of evaluation metrics for ATF, technology readiness level definition, definition of illustrative scenarios for ATF evaluation, parametric studies, and selection of system codes. The Cladding and Core Materials and Fuel Concepts task forces will identify gaps and needs for modeling and experimental demonstration; define key properties of interest; identify the data necessary to perform concept evaluation under normal conditions and illustrative scenarios; identify available infrastructure (internationally) to support experimental needs; and make recommendations on priorities. Where possible, considering proprietary and other export restrictions (e.g., International Traffic in Arms Regulations), the Expert Group will facilitate the sharing of data and lessons learned across the international group membership. The Systems Assessment Task Force is chaired by Shannon Bragg-Sitton (INL), while the Cladding Task Force will be chaired by a representative from France (Marie Moatti, Electricite de France [EdF]) and the Fuels Task Force will be chaired by a representative from Japan (Masaki Kurata, Japan Atomic Energy Agency [JAEA]). This report provides an overview of the Systems Assessment Task Force charter and status of work accomplishment.

  4. Status Report on Activities of the Systems Assessment Task Force, OECD-NEA Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon Michelle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development /Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) Nuclear Science Committee approved the formation of an Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) for LWRs (EGATFL) in 2014. Chaired by Kemal Pasamehmetoglu, INL Associate Laboratory Director for Nuclear Science and Technology, the mandate for the EGATFL defines work under three task forces: (1) Systems Assessment, (2) Cladding and Core Materials, and (3) Fuel Concepts. Scope for the Systems Assessment task force (TF1) includes definition of evaluation metrics for ATF, technology readiness level definition, definition of illustrative scenarios for ATF evaluation, and identification of fuel performance and system codes applicable to ATF evaluation. The Cladding and Core Materials (TF2) and Fuel Concepts (TF3) task forces will identify gaps and needs for modeling and experimental demonstration; define key properties of interest; identify the data necessary to perform concept evaluation under normal conditions and illustrative scenarios; identify available infrastructure (internationally) to support experimental needs; and make recommendations on priorities. Where possible, considering proprietary and other export restrictions (e.g., International Traffic in Arms Regulations), the Expert Group will facilitate the sharing of data and lessons learned across the international group membership. The Systems Assessment task force is chaired by Shannon Bragg-Sitton (Idaho National Laboratory [INL], U.S.), the Cladding Task Force is chaired by Marie Moatti (Electricite de France [EdF], France), and the Fuels Task Force is chaired by a Masaki Kurata (Japan Atomic Energy Agency [JAEA], Japan). The original Expert Group mandate was established for June 2014 to June 2016. In April 2016 the Expert Group voted to extend the mandate one additional year to June 2017 in order to complete the task force deliverables; this request was subsequently approved by the Nuclear Science Committee. This

  5. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003-2012. (United States)

    Ye, Yunfeng; Zhang, Siheng; Rao, Jiaming; Wang, Haiqing; Li, Yang; Wang, Shengyong; Dong, Xiaomei


    This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths. Data from 2003-2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents. A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 10(6) populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death. Ten years' major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of eaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments.

  6. Lifestyle factors and contact to general practice with respiratory alarm symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Lisa Maria Falk; Elnegaard, Sandra; Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran


    , and lifestyle factors (smoking status, alcohol intake, and body mass index) were included. RESULTS: In total 49 706 (52.5 %) individuals answered the questionnaire. Overall 7870 reported at least one respiratory alarm symptom, and of those 39.6 % (3 080) had contacted a GP. Regarding specific symptoms......BACKGROUND: A prerequisite for early lung cancer diagnosis is that individuals with respiratory alarm symptoms (RAS) contact a general practitioner (GP). This study aims to determine the proportion of individuals in the general population who contact a GP with RAS and to analyse the association...... between lifestyle factors and contact to GPs with RAS. METHODS: A web-based survey of 100 000 individuals randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. Items regarding experience of RAS (prolonged coughing, shortness of breath, coughing up blood, and prolonged hoarseness), GP contacts...

  7. Impaired behavioural response to alarm substance in rainbow trout exposed to copper nanoparticles. (United States)

    Sovová, Tereza; Boyle, David; Sloman, Katherine A; Vanegas Pérez, Cecilia; Handy, Richard D


    To date, studies of the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in fish have not fully considered effects on olfactory-mediated behaviours, despite their ecological importance. In this study the effects of copper NPs (Cu NPs) on the anti-predator behavioural responses of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to trout alarm substance was investigated. Individual fish were exposed for 12h to a control (no added Cu), 50μgl(-1) of Cu as Cu NPs, or 50μgl(-1) Cu as CuSO4, after which fish behaviours were analyzed in 10min periods before and after the addition of the alarm substance stimulus. The response of control fish to deionised water (negative control, no alarm substance stimulus) was also analyzed. The alarm substance elicited a behavioural response in the control fish characterized by an immediate freeze response and the slower resumption of swimming activity compared to negative controls exposed to the sham deionised water stimuli. In fish exposed to Cu NPs, the behavioural response to alarm substance was eliminated, with no significant difference in behaviours compared to negative controls. In comparison, exposure to 50μgl(-1) Cu as CuSO4 decreased, but did not eliminate the response of fish to alarm substance, which indicated a significantly greater effect of Cu NPs on olfactory mediated behaviours than of the equivalent concentration of Cu as CuSO4. Measurement of total Cu concentrations in the tissues of fish demonstrated no significant accumulation of Cu from any treatment in gill, liver or brain, confirming the effects of Cu NPs, and to a lesser extent CuSO4, on behavioural responses were mostly associated with the interaction of the materials with the external surfaces of the fish. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Cu as CuSO4 caused a pronounced depletion of ciliated sensory and non-sensory cells in the olfactory rosette surrounding the midline raphe, whereas Cu NPs had no impact on the structure of the rosette. However, exposure to

  8. Anthropogenic noise alters dwarf mongoose responses to heterospecific alarm calls. (United States)

    Morris-Drake, Amy; Bracken, Anna M; Kern, Julie M; Radford, Andrew N


    Anthropogenic noise is an evolutionarily novel and widespread pollutant in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Despite increasing evidence that the additional noise generated by human activities can affect vocal communication, the majority of research has focused on the use of conspecific acoustic information, especially sexual signals. Many animals are known to eavesdrop on the alarm calls produced by other species, enhancing their likelihood of avoiding predation, but how this use of heterospecific information is affected by anthropogenic noise has received little empirical attention. Here, we use two field-based playback experiments on a habituated wild population of dwarf mongooses (Helogale parvula) to determine how anthropogenic noise influences the response of foragers to heterospecific alarm calls. We begin by demonstrating that dwarf mongooses respond appropriately to the alarm calls of sympatric chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) and tree squirrels (Paraxerus cepapi); fleeing only to the latter. We then show that mongoose foragers are less likely to exhibit this flee response to tree squirrel alarm calls during road-noise playback compared to ambient-sound playback. One explanation for the change in response is that noise-induced distraction or stress result in maladaptive behaviour. However, further analysis revealed that road-noise playback results in increased vigilance and that mongooses showing the greatest vigilance increase are those that do not subsequently exhibit a flee response to the alarm call. These individuals may therefore be acting appropriately: if the greater gathering of personal information indicates the absence of an actual predator despite an alarm call, the need to undertake costly fleeing behaviour can be avoided. Either way, our study indicates the potential for anthropogenic noise to interfere with the use of acoustic information from other species, and suggests the importance of considering how heterospecific networks are

  9. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)


    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  10. Determining the alarm signal in pulse interferometric fibre sensor by two independent criteria (United States)

    Życzkowski, Marek; Karol, Mateusz


    The article describes the construction and operation principle of the fibre optic pulse interferometer, which allows detection of mechanical disorders in fibre optic transmission line. Operation of this system is based on the optical pulses interference. Configuration of the system allows stable work of pulse interferometer over distances of several kilometres, with compensation impact of environmental conditions. Unique system detection capabilities obtained by using two independent criteria for alarm signal excitation. The aim of the research was to determine the usefulness of the proposed system to protection of information transmission via fibre-optic transmission networks.

  11. Are anesthetic accidents unavoidable? (United States)

    Van De Walle, J


    Fatal anesthetic accidents still occur frequently. Origins and causes are being reviewed especially in the light of lawsuits against anesthetists. The importance of utmost continuous supervision and care for both the vital functions: respiration and circulation, is stressed. General recommendations for security during anesthesia are advanced.

  12. Hemijski udesi i procena rizika / Chemical accidents and hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Biočanin


    Full Text Available Brojni su udesi vezani za transport i upotrebu hemijskih materija. Ova činjenica je važna i zbog toga što se naša zemlja nalazi na raskrsnici značajnih svetskih komunikacija kojima se ovakvi tereti prevoze. Veliki broj vrsta hemijskih materija može znatno da naruši životnu sredinu za duži period. Ovaj rad, kroz različite parametre, nastoji da prouči takvu mogućnost i ukaže na načine za prevenciju sličnih događaja i zaštitu stanovništva u miru i tokom ratnih dejstava. Ostvarenje projekta jedinstvenog sistema ABHO daje mogućnost da se, korišćenjem savremene opreme za komunikaciju i efikasnih jedinica za brzo reagovanje u realnom vremenu, uspešno obavi monitoring opasnosti, uzbunjivanje, zaštita i dekontaminacija. / There is a growing number of accidents involving hazardous chemical substances during transportation. Serbia and Montenegro are at the crossroads of numerous important European transport links where a lot of such transports pass through. A great number of such substances can considerably damage environment for a very long period of time. This paper studies such events applying different parameters; it tries to point at successful prevention and protection from this threat at peace, as well as during war operations. The realization of the universal and united system of the NBCD of the Army of Serbia and Montenegro, together with modern communication equipment and very effective mobile units, enables on - time reaction and successful monitoring, alarming, protection and decontamination.

  13. The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the problem of estimating the consequences of radioactive contamination of natural and agricultural ecological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexakhin, R.M.; Geraskin, S.A.; Fesenko, S.V. [Russian Inst. of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)


    Heavy radiation accidents cause long-term low-dose biota irradiation on large territories. In this situation of great importance is a correct estimation of danger of low-dose irradiation. Approaches now in use to assess the genetic consequences of irradiation are based on linear extrapolation of biological effects induced by high and medium doses to the region of low doses. However, models based on the linear non threshold hypothesis lack strong biological justification and come into conflict with the experimental data available. Our experiments with agricultural crops aimed at studying regularities in the induction cytogenetic damages using test-systems have demonstrated that the form of the dose-effect curve in the domain of low exposure values shows a pronounced linearity and the presence of a dose-independent region. A comparison of the experimentally revealed form of the empirical curve with results obtained for other objects (human lymphocytes, fibroblasts of Chinese hamster, seedlings of horse beans, etc.) allows a conclusion to be made that the relationship between the yield of radiation induced cytogenetic disturbances and dose is non-linear and universal in character, varying for different objects only in dose values at which changes in the relationship nature occur. So, the observed genetic effects in the region of low doses result from peculiarities in the cellular response to weak external action rather than damaging impact of ionising radiation or other factors of physical or chemical nature.

  14. Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS.

  15. Alarm calls evoke a visual search image of a predator in birds. (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N


    One of the core features of human speech is that words cause listeners to retrieve corresponding visual mental images. However, whether vocalizations similarly evoke mental images in animal communication systems is surprisingly unknown. Japanese tits (Parus minor) produce specific alarm calls when and only when encountering a predatory snake. Here, I show that simply hearing these calls causes tits to become more visually perceptive to objects resembling snakes. During playback of snake-specific alarm calls, tits approach a wooden stick being moved in a snake-like fashion. However, tits do not respond to the same stick when hearing other call types or if the stick's movement is dissimilar to that of a snake. Thus, before detecting a real snake, tits retrieve its visual image from snake-specific alarm calls and use this to search out snakes. This study provides evidence for a call-evoked visual search image in a nonhuman animal, offering a paradigm to explore the cognitive basis for animal vocal communication in the wild.

  16. Spatial Analysis of Accident Spots Using Weighted Severity Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    A Density-based Clustering Algorithm for. Traffic Accident Risk (DBCTAR) was used to determine accident concentrations with severity levels in a Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) environment. This work is only limited to highways and expressways, and does not cover access roads and core engineering road design.

  17. No more moody mornings : Alarm clock anticipates sleepers' emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensveen, S.; Overbeeke, K.; Van Kasteren, J.


    More eloquent alternatives to the harsh tones of the oldfashioned alarm-clock bells abound, including a newsreaders voice summing up last nights disasters, or a tape of your favourite early morning music. Still, getting out of bed has its difficult moments. All this could well change in the near

  18. Context‐dependent chemical communication: Alarm pheromones of thrips larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, P.J.A.


    Thrips have several advantages that make them particularly suitable for the study of the evolution of alarm signalling. When in danger, thrips larvae defend themselves by the excretion of ‘anal droplets’: a predator touched by such a droplet interrupts the attack and switches to cleaning. These

  19. Development of a blood pressure alarm detector based on seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper introduces the development of a blood pressure alarm detector, meant to be incorporated into an electronic blood pressure tracking unit, from which it detects signals for the measured blood pressure (BP), that is, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). It simultaneously displays the ...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements. (United States)


    ... of 177 candela, except that when the visible notification appliance is wall-mounted or suspended more than 24 inches below the ceiling, a minimum rating of 110 candela is permitted. (3) A visible... candela. (f) Testing and maintenance. (1) Each required smoke alarm installed at the factory must be...

  1. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification. (United States)


    ..., AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162... the ppm display. Calibrating the bilge alarm must not be necessary once installed on board the vessel... each change in oil content of the mixture it is measuring within 5 seconds after the change occurs. (f...

  2. Human error risk management for engineering systems: a methodology for design, safety assessment, accident investigation and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacciabue, P.C


    The objective of this paper is to tackle methodological issues associated with the inclusion of cognitive and dynamic considerations into Human Reliability methods. A methodology called Human Error Risk Management for Engineering Systems is presented that offers a 'roadmap' for selecting and consistently applying Human Factors approaches in different areas of application and contains also a 'body' of possible methods and techniques of its own. Two types of possible application are discussed to demonstrate practical applications of the methodology. Specific attention is dedicated to the issue of data collection and definition from specific field assessment.

  3. Solar Energetic Particle Forecasting Algorithms and Associated False Alarms (United States)

    Swalwell, B.; Dalla, S.; Walsh, R. W.


    Solar energetic particle (SEP) events are known to occur following solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). However, some high-energy solar events do not result in SEPs being detected at Earth, and it is these types of event which may be termed "false alarms". We define two simple SEP forecasting algorithms based upon the occurrence of a magnetically well-connected CME with a speed in excess of 1500 km s^{-1} (a "fast" CME) or a well-connected X-class flare and analyse them with respect to historical datasets. We compare the parameters of those solar events which produced an enhancement of {>} 40 MeV protons at Earth (an "SEP event") and the parameters of false alarms. We find that an SEP forecasting algorithm based solely upon the occurrence of a well-connected fast CME produces fewer false alarms (28.8%) than an algorithm which is based solely upon a well-connected X-class flare (50.6%). Both algorithms fail to forecast a relatively high percentage of SEP events (53.2% and 50.6%, respectively). Our analysis of the historical datasets shows that false-alarm X-class flares were either not associated with any CME, or were associated with a CME slower than 500 km s^{-1}; false-alarm fast CMEs tended to be associated with flare classes lower than M3. A better approach to forecasting would be an algorithm which takes as its base the occurrence of both CMEs and flares. We define a new forecasting algorithm which uses a combination of CME and flare parameters, and we show that the false-alarm ratio is similar to that for the algorithm based upon fast CMEs (29.6%), but the percentage of SEP events not forecast is reduced to 32.4%. Lists of the solar events which gave rise to {>} 40 MeV protons and the false alarms have been derived and are made available to aid further study.

  4. Controlling misses and false alarms in a machine learning framework for predicting uniformity of printed pages (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Q.; Allebach, Jan P.


    In our previous work1 , we presented a block-based technique to analyze printed page uniformity both visually and metrically. The features learned from the models were then employed in a Support Vector Machine (SVM) framework to classify the pages into one of the two categories of acceptable and unacceptable quality. In this paper, we introduce a set of tools for machine learning in the assessment of printed page uniformity. This work is primarily targeted to the printing industry, specifically the ubiquitous laser, electrophotographic printer. We use features that are well-correlated with the rankings of expert observers to develop a novel machine learning framework that allows one to achieve the minimum "false alarm" rate, subject to a chosen "miss" rate. Surprisingly, most of the research that has been conducted on machine learning does not consider this framework. During the process of developing a new product, test engineers will print hundreds of test pages, which can be scanned and then analyzed by an autonomous algorithm. Among these pages, most may be of acceptable quality. The objective is to find the ones that are not. These will provide critically important information to systems designers, regarding issues that need to be addressed in improving the printer design. A "miss" is defined to be a page that is not of acceptable quality to an expert observer that the prediction algorithm declares to be a "pass". Misses are a serious problem, since they represent problems that will not be seen by the systems designers. On the other hand, "false alarms" correspond to pages that an expert observer would declare to be of acceptable quality, but which are flagged by the prediction algorithm as "fails". In a typical printer testing and development scenario, such pages would be examined by an expert, and found to be of acceptable quality after all. "False alarm" pages result in extra pages to be examined by expert observers, which increases labor cost. But "false

  5. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten


    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... accidents happened on deck. Conclusions: It was possible to clearly identify work situations and specific risk factors for accidents aboard merchant ships. Most accidents happened while performing daily routine duties. Preventive measures should focus on workplace instructions for all important functions...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...

  6. Sounding the Alarm: Health in the Anthropocene. (United States)

    Butler, Colin D


    There is growing scientific and public recognition that human actions, directly and indirectly, have profoundly changed the Earth system, in a still accelerating process, increasingly called the "Anthropocene". Planetary transformation, including of the atmosphere, climate, ecosystems and biodiversity, has enormous implications for human health, many of which are deeply disturbing, especially in low-income settings. A few health consequences of the Anthropocene have been partially recognized, including within environmental epidemiology, but their long-term consequences remain poorly understood and greatly under-rated. For example Syria could be a "sentinel" population, giving a glimpse to a much wider dystopian future. Health-Earth is a research network, co-founded in 2014, which seeks, with other groups, to catalyse a powerful curative response by the wider health community. This paper builds on a symposium presented by Health-Earth members at the 2015 conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology. It reviews and synthesizes parts of the large literature relevant to the interaction between the changing Earth system and human health. It concludes that this topic should be prominent within future environmental epidemiology and public health. Created by our species, these challenges may be soluble, but solutions require far more understanding and resources than are currently being made available.

  7. Performance of collision damage mitigation braking systems and their effects on human injury in the event of car-to-pedestrian accidents. (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Han, Yong; Mizuno, Koji


    The number of traffic deaths in Japan was 4,863 in 2010. Pedestrians account for the highest number (1,714, 35%), and vehicle occupants the second highest (1,602, 33%). Pedestrian protection is a key countermeasure to reduce casualties in traffic accidents. A striking vehicle's impact velocity could be considered a parameter influencing the severity of injury and possibility of death in pedestrian crashes. A collision damage mitigation braking system (CDMBS) using a sensor to detect pedestrians could be effective for reducing the vehicle/pedestrian impact velocity. Currently in Japan, cars equipped with the CDMBS also have vision sensors such as a stereo camera for pedestrian detection. However, the ability of vision sensors in production cars to properly detect pedestrians has not yet been established. The effect of reducing impact velocity on the pedestrian injury risk has also not been determined. The first objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the CDMBS in detecting pedestrians when it is installed in production cars. The second objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of reducing impact velocity on mitigating pedestrian injury. Firstly, impact experiments were performed using a car with the CDMBS in which the car collided with a pedestrian surrogate. In these tests, the velocity was chosen for the various test runs to be 20, 40 and 60 km/h, respectively, which were based on the velocity distribution in real-world pedestrian crashes. The results indicated that the impact velocity reduction ranged approximately from 10 to 15 km/h at the standing location of a pedestrian surrogate at both daytime and nighttime lighting conditions. These results show that the system has the potential to reduce pedestrian casualties from car-to-pedestrian contacts. Secondly, finite-element analyses were performed simulating vehicle-to- pedestrian impacts with the THUMS pedestrian models. The vehicle models selected for the study included a medium sedan

  8. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Efficacy of insurance and third party inspection system. Capability margins of insurance, in view of bitter experience at JCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Taiichiro [Songaihokenryoritsusanteikai (Japan)


    Among persons relating to safety engineering, most of them point out merit and demerit of safety theory in Japan since a long term before. Under national policy aiming at growth and expansion due to a policy under leading of government after war, running for about 50 years remained some strains containing a number of contradictions and absurdities in various fields. Here was described mainly on how to be done safety accident protection and inspection on a base of happenings incidentally seen at a chance of the criticality accident. Therefore, here were also established some viewpoints such as transferable risk, limit from insurance feature, genealogy of insurance, under-writing, and risk management, to mention effectiveness of the third party inspection with closed relationship with accident insurance. (G.K.)

  9. Assessment of CRBR core disruptive accident energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Bell, C.R.


    The results of an independent assessment of core disruptive accident energetics for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor are presented in this document. This assessment was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under the direction of the CRBR Program Office within the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It considered in detail the accident behavior for three accident initiators that are representative of three different classes of events; unprotected loss of flow, unprotected reactivity insertion, and protected loss of heat sink. The primary system's energetics accommodation capability was realistically, yet conservatively, determined in terms of core events. This accommodation capability was found to be equivalent to an isentropic work potential for expansion to one atmosphere of 2550 MJ or a ramp rate of about 200 $/s applied to a classical two-phase disassembly.

  10. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone


    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

  11. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas P. McLaughlin; Shean P. Monahan; Norman L. Pruvost; Vladimir V. Frolov; Boris G. Ryazanov; Victor I. Sviridov


    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report.

  12. Dementia and Traffic Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe


    BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic......-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual's personal...... data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric...

  13. Underestimation of language issues in frequently used accident investigation methods: a new taxonomy problem found in Dutch accident data. (United States)

    Lindhout, P; van Gulijk, C; Ale, B J M


    A wide variety of methods exist in the field of accident investigation. The challenge to find the cause for each and every accident has perpetuated a complicated and fundamental debate. In spite of the different paradigms, the many branch specific investigation methods, decades of accumulated and documented accident investigation experience, the diversity in taxonomy of causal factors, and an increasing depth of general systematic analysis tools, there are still causal factors missing out. A recent study identifies language issues as an underestimated danger. Dutch Labour Inspectorate records identify procedures and communication as an important causal factor area for major accidents. Accident investigation method taxonomies that are frequently used in The Netherlands, were investigated on the content related to language issues. Language issues are found to be either present less than proportional with observed accident rates or not present at all in frequently applied accident investigation classification systems. Hence a new taxonomy problem was found in Dutch accident data. Language issues need more attention in accident investigation methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.



    Jovica Jovanovic


    Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure t...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Jovanovic


    Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

  16. Traffic accidents on expressways: new threat to China. (United States)

    Zhao, Jinbao; Deng, Wei


    As China is building one of the largest expressway systems in the world, expressway safety problems have become serious concerns to China. This article analyzed the trends in expressway accidents in China from 1995 to 2010 and examined the characteristics of these accidents. Expressway accident data were obtained from the Annual Report for Road Traffic Accidents published by the Ministry of Public Security of China. Expressway mileage data were obtained from the National Statistics Yearbook published by the National Bureau of Statistics of China. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted based on these data. Expressway deaths increased by 10.2-fold from 616 persons in 1995 to 6300 persons in 2010, and the average annual increase was 17.9 percent over the past 15 years, and the overall other road traffic deaths was -0.33 percent. China's expressway mileage accounted for only 1.85 percent of highway mileage driven in 2010, but expressway deaths made up 13.54 percent of highway traffic deaths. The average annual accident lethality rate [accident deaths/(accident deaths + accident injuries)] for China's expressways was 27.76 percent during the period 1995 to 2010, which was 1.33 times higher than the accident lethality rate of highway traffic accidents. China's government should pay attention to expressway construction and safety interventions during the rapid development period of expressways. Related causes, such as geographic patterns, speeding, weather conditions, and traffic flow composition, need to be studied in the near future. An effective and scientific expressway safety management services system, composed of a speed monitoring system, warning system, and emergency rescue system, should be established in developed and underdeveloped provinces in China to improve safety on expressway.

  17. The use of safety management systems to avoid accidents at the work; El uso de sistemas de administracion de seguridad para evitar accidentes en el trabajo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios Garcia, Jose Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)


    In accordance with a study of the International Organization of Work (OIT), to the year around 250 million labor accidents occur, most of them in non-developed or developing countries, and a smaller percentage occurs in the industrialized countries. Analyzing the reason for that difference, it is possible to say that it is mainly due to the fact that in developed countries a greater conscience for the safety has been taken, as much for the personnel as for the facilities within the company, and have developed what is known as the management of the safety systems (SAS), where the safety task no longer corresponds only to the safety department but to the entire personnel, from the direction to the last one of the workers. [Spanish] De acuerdo con un estudio de la Organizacion Internacional del Trabajo (OIT), al ano se producen alrededor de 250 millones de accidentes laborales. La mayoria de ellos se presentan en los paises no desarrollados o en vias de desarrollo, y un porcentaje menor se da en los paises industrializados. Analizando el porque de esa diferencia, se puede decir que se debe principalmente a que en los paises desarrollados se ha tomado una mayor conciencia por la seguridad, tanto del personal como de las instalaciones, dentro de las empresas y han desarrollado lo que se conoce como los sistemas de administracion de seguridad (SAS), en donde la tarea de seguridad ya no solo corresponde al departamento de seguridad si no a todo el personal, desde la direccion hasta el ultimo de los trabajadores.

  18. Preliminary Effect of Synthetic Vision Systems Displays to Reduce Low-Visibility Loss of Control and Controlled Flight Into Terrain Accidents (United States)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Takallu, Mohammad A.


    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effectiveness of Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) flight displays as a means of eliminating Low Visibility Loss of Control (LVLOC) and Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) accidents by low time general aviation (GA) pilots. A series of basic maneuvers were performed by 18 subject pilots during transition from Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC), with continued flight into IMC, employing a fixed-based flight simulator. A total of three display concepts were employed for this evaluation. One display concept, referred to as the Attitude Indicator (AI) replicated instrumentation common in today's General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The second display concept, referred to as the Electronic Attitude Indicator (EAI), featured an enlarged attitude indicator that was more representative of a glass display that also included advanced flight symbology, such as a velocity vector. The third concept, referred to as the SVS display, was identical to the EAI except that computer-generated terrain imagery replaced the conventional blue-sky/brown-ground of the EAI. Pilot performance parameters, pilot control inputs and physiological data were recorded for post-test analysis. Situation awareness (SA) and qualitative pilot comments were obtained through questionnaires and free-form interviews administered immediately after the experimental session. Initial pilot performance data were obtained by instructor pilot observations. Physiological data (skin temperature, heart rate, and muscle flexure) were also recorded. Preliminary results indicate that far less errors were committed when using the EAI and SVS displays than when using conventional instruments. The specific data example examined in this report illustrates the benefit from SVS displays to avoid massive loss of SA conditions. All pilots acknowledged the enhanced situation awareness provided by the SVS display concept. Levels of

  19. Prevalence and Prognosis of Cerebrovascular Accidents and its Subtypes Among Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Isfahan, Iran: A Hospital Clinic-based Study. (United States)

    Saadatnia, Mohammad; Sayed-Bonakdar, Zahra; Mohammad-Sharifi, Ghasem; Sarrami, Amir Hossein


    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and prognosis of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and its subtypes among Iranian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In a cross-sectional study, medical records of 575 SLE patients were reviewed. The patients developing CVA in their course of disease were extracted. In these patients, data about demographic features, lupus anti bodies, duration of the disease until CVA, CVA manifestation(s) and follow-up duration were gathered. In the next step, patients with any kinds of CVA were summoned to Neurology clinic to identify the grade of disability in each patient with CVA. We identified 38 patients with CVA of which 6 (15.8%) were men and 32 (84.2%) were women. The most common subtype of CVA was small vessels thrombosis (21.05%) among the study patients and hemi paresis was the most prevalent initial presentation (39.47%). In 11 (28.9%) patients, SLE was initiated with CVA and in 3 (7.9%) patients CVA had happened in the 1(st) year of SLE. Anti-phospholipid antibodies (APLA) were positive in 29 (76.3%) patients. Mean modified Rankin Scale in patient with positive and negative serology for APLA was 0.93 ± 1.11 and 0.22 ± 0.66 respectively (P = 0.006). Our study shows that 6.6% of Iranian SLE patients have CVA during their course of the disease. Small vessels thrombosis is the most common CVA subtype and hemi paresis is the most prevalent initial presentation. Moreover, we showed that the prognosis of CVA in Iranian SLE patients is not unfavorable.

  20. The survey of occupational accidents in Yazd gas agency (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Khoshakhlagh


    Full Text Available Background: Existence of coordinated and professional safety system to prevent occurrence of accidents and potential hazards seem to be essential in installing networks of gas distribution projects. Objective: To survey work-related accidents and safety performance indices in project implementation unit of Yazd gas agency. Methods: This analytical study was conducted on 197 of workforce in Yazd gas agency in 2013 that were selected by census and they were male. Demographic and accident information were gathered using a self-made questionnaire and face- to- face interview, and required information obtained from dossier to determine the safety performance indicators. Safety performance indicators were calculated in separately of 13 types occupations in project implementation unit of gas agency and data were analyzed using T-test. Findings: The highest accident frequency and severity rate were related to digging occupation and then metal line welding. Consequences of accidents were cuts (%56.7 and soreness (%14.9. The causes of accidents were related to uselessness of personal protective equipment (%25.2 and lack of precision in the task (%19.3. The highest rate of accident was observed among the age group 20-29 years with work experience of 4-6 years. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study and the risk of gas processes, it seems to be necessary the implementation of integrated management systems and training of workers about safety rules to improve the safety culture and prevent accidents.

  1. A rule-based approach for the correlation of alarms to support Disaster and Emergency Management (United States)

    Gloria, M.; Minei, G.; Lersi, V.; Pasquariello, D.; Monti, C.; Saitto, A.


    Key words: Simple Event Correlator, Agent Platform, Ontology, Semantic Web, Distributed Systems, Emergency Management The importance of recognition of emergency's typology to control the critical situation for security of citizens has been always recognized. It follows this aspect is very important for proper management of a hazardous event. In this work we present a solution for the recognition of emergency's typology adopted by an Italian research project, called CI6 (Centro Integrato per Servizi di Emergenza Innovativi). In our approach, CI6 receives alarms by citizen or people involved in the work (for example: police, operator of 112, and so on). CI6 represents any alarm by a set of information, including a text that describes it and obtained when the user points out the danger, and a pair of coordinates for its location. The system realizes an analysis of text and automatically infers information on the type of emergencies by means a set of parsing rules and rules of inference applied by a independent module: a correlator of events based on their log and called Simple Event Correlator (SEC). SEC, integrated in CI6's platform, is an open source and platform independent event correlation tool. SEC accepts input both files and text derived from standard input, making it flexible because it can be matched to any application that is able to write its output to a file stream. The SEC configuration is stored in text files as rules, each rule specifying an event matching condition, an action list, and optionally a Boolean expression whose truth value decides whether the rule can be applied at a given moment. SEC can produce output events by executing user-specified shell scripts or programs, by writing messages to files, and by various other means. SEC has been successfully applied in various domains like network management, system monitoring, data security, intrusion detection, log file monitoring and analysis, etc; it has been used or integrated with many


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hamankova


    Full Text Available The article describes the main trends of formation and development of insurance against accidents. Defined position of the social insurance against accidents and professional diseases in the social protection system in Ukraine. Investigated the essence and content of social insurance against accidents.

  3. Effect of Spray System on Fission Product Distribution in Containment During a Severe Accident in a Two-Loop Pressurized Water Reactor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dehjourian, Mehdi; Rahgoshay, Mohammad; Sayareh, Reza; Jahanfarnia, Gholamreza; Shirani, Amir Saied


    The containment response during the first 24 hours of a low-pressure severe accident scenario in a nuclear power plant with a two-loop Westinghouse-type pressurized water reactor was simulated with the CONTAIN 2.0 computer code...

  4. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident]. (United States)

    Takada, Jun


    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  5. Accidents Preventive Practice for High-Rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Kai Chen


    Full Text Available The demand of high-rise projects continues to grow due to the reducing of usable land area in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The rapidly development of high-rise projects has leaded to the rise of fatalities and accidents. An accident that happened in a construction site can cause serious physical injury. The accidents such as people falling from height and struck by falling object were the most frequent accidents happened in Malaysian construction industry. The continuous growth of high-rise buildings indicates that there is a need of an effective safety and health management. Hence, this research aims to identify the causes of accidents and the ways to prevent accidents that occur at high-rise building construction site. Qualitative method was employed in this research. Interview surveying with safety officers who are involved in highrise building project in Kuala Lumpur were conducted in this research. Accidents were caused by man-made factors, environment factors or machinery factors. The accidents prevention methods were provide sufficient Personal Protective Equipment (PPE, have a good housekeeping, execute safety inspection, provide safety training and execute accidents investigation. In the meanwhile, interviewees have suggested the new prevention methods that were develop a proper site layout planning and de-merit and merit system among sub-contractors, suppliers and even employees regarding safety at workplace matters. This research helps in explaining the causes of accidents and identifying area where prevention action should be implemented, so that workers and top management will increase awareness in preventing site accidents.

  6. MDCT findings in sports and recreational accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensch, Frank V; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K (Dept. of Radiology, Toeoeloe Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)), email:


    Background. Sports and recreational accidents involving critical areas of the body occur commonly in the general population. Reports on their demographics and recommendations for screening procedures are, however, few. Purpose. To assess injuries of the craniofacial area, spine, and torso resulting from sports and recreational accidents with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as primary imaging method in a Level I trauma center. Material and Methods. All emergency room CT requests over a time span of 105 months were reviewed retrospectively for trauma mechanism and injury. Patients were identified using an electronic picture archiving and communications system (PACS), and MDCT studies interpreted by two radiologists independently. Results. Of a total of 5898 patients, 492 patients (301 boys/men, 191 girls/women, age range 2-76 years, mean 33.5 years, median 29.5 years) with sports or recreational accidents emerged. A total of 102 traumatic findings were diagnosed, thereof 72 (71%) serious. The three most commonly encountered serious injuries were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The three most common injury mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. Patients from recreational activities were on average significantly younger (29.2 years) than those from sports accidents (36.9 years; P < 0.001). Only age groups <21 years and 41-50 years differed in injury severity from the other age groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.063, respectively). Of all trauma mechanisms, only bicycling had a significantly increased risk of injury (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Injuries in sports and recreational accidents presented with an overall incidence of 21%, of which 71% are serious. The most common mechanisms of injury were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. The largest incidence of serious injury involved bicycling. Because of the high probability of a serious injury and the high energies that are often involved

  7. Smoke Alarms for People Who Are Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing (United States)

    ... topic Toggle this sub-menu open or closed Smoke alarms Wildfire Emergency preparedness Fire and life safety ... Education Public Education By topic Expand sub-navigation Smoke alarms Expand sub-navigation Safety messages about smoke ...

  8. Potential Nematode Alarm Pheromone Induces Acute Avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Loeza-Cabrera, Mario; Liu, Zheng; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Nguyen, Julie K; Jung, Sang-Kyu; Choi, Yuna; Shou, Qingyao; Butcher, Rebecca A; Zhong, Weiwei


    It is crucial for animal survival to detect dangers such as predators. A good indicator of dangers is injury of conspecifics. Here we show that fluids released from injured conspecifics invoke acute avoidance in both free-living and parasitic nematodes. Caenorhabditis elegans avoids extracts from closely related nematode species but not fruit fly larvae. The worm extracts have no impact on animal lifespan, suggesting that the worm extract may function as an alarm instead of inflicting physical harm. Avoidance of the worm extract requires the function of a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated channel TAX-2/TAX-4 in the amphid sensory neurons ASI and ASK. Genetic evidence indicates that the avoidance behavior is modulated by the neurotransmitters GABA and serotonin, two common targets of anxiolytic drugs. Together, these data support a model that nematodes use a nematode-specific alarm pheromone to detect conspecific injury. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL


    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  10. Are Marine Accident Really Accident? Fallacy of Random Marine Accidents in Dry Cargo Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Bulut


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the relation between marine casualty and dry bulk cargo freight rate according to the existence of spurious accident phenomenon in the dry cargo vessel accidents. According to the conventional expectation, the volume of marine accidents is a random process since it is accidently occurred and not a man-made outcome. Under this circumstance, it is expected that the volume of marine accidents should be statistically uncorrelated with the freight market rates and positively correlated with the fleet size. However, the existence statistics on dry cargo marine accidents indicate high level of negative correlation with freight markets (-0.95 for no. of vessels and -0.79 for the volume of accidents in dwt and also high level of negative correlation with the fleet size (-0.81 for the volume of accidents in dwt. The asymmetric interaction between the widely accepted facts and the statistical foundations is the main concern of this paper which is named the “Fallacy of Random Marine Accidents (FRMA”. The possible reasons of the FRMA phenomenon are considered to be based on the man-made marine accidents because of the financial collapse or as the well known term the credit default risk.

  11. Propose an alternative method to generate alarm management KPI utilizing IMS in offshore platforms


    Villoria Yepez, Carlos Rafael


    Weaknesses regarding alarm management practices have been recognized as partial causes of plant incidents with tragic results, for example the Texas City Oil Refinery explosion in 2005. Necessity in alarm regulation was recognized by industry bodies and norms were created (EEMUA 119, ANSI/ISA 18.2) in order to address this. These norms define a complete alarm management lifecycle, including the definition of an alarm performance monitoring process with the supervision of ala...

  12. Propose an alternative method to generate alarm management KPI utilizing IMS in offshore platforms


    Villoria Yepez, Carlos Rafael


    Master's thesis in Offshore technology Weaknesses regarding alarm management practices have been recognized as partial causes of plant incidents with tragic results, for example the Texas City Oil Refinery explosion in 2005. Necessity in alarm regulation was recognized by industry bodies and norms were created (EEMUA 119, ANSI/ISA 18.2) in order to address this. These norms define a complete alarm management lifecycle, including the definition of an alarm performance moni...

  13. PT-SAFE: a software tool for development and annunciation of medical audible alarms. (United States)

    Bennett, Christopher L; McNeer, Richard R


    Recent reports by The Joint Commission as well as the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation have indicated that medical audible alarm effectiveness needs to be improved. Several recent studies have explored various approaches to improving the audible alarms, motivating the authors to develop real-time software capable of comparing such alarms. We sought to devise software that would allow for the development of a variety of audible alarm designs that could also integrate into existing operating room equipment configurations. The software is meant to be used as a tool for alarm researchers to quickly evaluate novel alarm designs. A software tool was developed for the purpose of creating and annunciating audible alarms. The alarms consisted of annunciators that were mapped to vital sign data received from a patient monitor. An object-oriented approach to software design was used to create a tool that is flexible and modular at run-time, can annunciate wave-files from disk, and can be programmed with MATLAB by the user to create custom alarm algorithms. The software was tested in a simulated operating room to measure technical performance and to validate the time-to-annunciation against existing equipment alarms. The software tool showed efficacy in a simulated operating room environment by providing alarm annunciation in response to physiologic and ventilator signals generated by a human patient simulator, on average 6.2 seconds faster than existing equipment alarms. Performance analysis showed that the software was capable of supporting up to 15 audible alarms on a mid-grade laptop computer before audio dropouts occurred. These results suggest that this software tool provides a foundation for rapidly staging multiple audible alarm sets from the laboratory to a simulation environment for the purpose of evaluating novel alarm designs, thus producing valuable findings for medical audible alarm standardization.

  14. Impaired behavioural response to alarm substance in rainbow trout exposed to copper nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovová, Tereza [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Plymouth University, Devon (United Kingdom); Department of Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Boyle, David, E-mail: [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Plymouth University, Devon (United Kingdom); Sloman, Katherine A. [School of Science, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley (United Kingdom); Vanegas Pérez, Cecilia [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Plymouth University, Devon (United Kingdom); Laboratory of Animal Ecophysiology and Aquatic Ecotoxicology, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Handy, Richard D. [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Plymouth University, Devon (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • Copper nanoparticles impaired the behavioural response of trout to alarm substance. • This effect appeared to be greater than in trout exposed to copper sulphate. • Toxicity was mediated by interaction of materials at external surfaces of fish. • Copper nanoparticles did not affect the morphology of the olfactory rosette. • Copper nanoparticles caused a change in glutathione status in brains of fish. - Abstract: To date, studies of the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in fish have not fully considered effects on olfactory-mediated behaviours, despite their ecological importance. In this study the effects of copper NPs (Cu NPs) on the anti-predator behavioural responses of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to trout alarm substance was investigated. Individual fish were exposed for 12 h to a control (no added Cu), 50 μg l⁻¹ of Cu as Cu NPs, or 50 μg l⁻¹ Cu as CuSO₄, after which fish behaviours were analyzed in 10 min periods before and after the addition of the alarm substance stimulus. The response of control fish to deionised water (negative control, no alarm substance stimulus) was also analyzed. The alarm substance elicited a behavioural response in the control fish characterized by an immediate freeze response and the slower resumption of swimming activity compared to negative controls exposed to the sham deionised water stimuli. In fish exposed to Cu NPs, the behavioural response to alarm substance was eliminated, with no significant difference in behaviours compared to negative controls. In comparison, exposure to 50 μg l⁻¹ Cu as CuSO₄ decreased, but did not eliminate the response of fish to alarm substance, which indicated a significantly greater effect of Cu NPs on olfactory mediated behaviours than of the equivalent concentration of Cu as CuSO₄. Measurement of total Cu concentrations in the tissues of fish demonstrated no significant accumulation of Cu from any treatment in gill, liver or brain

  15. Public transportation development and traffic accident prevention in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto Soehodho


    Full Text Available Traffic accidents have long been known as an iceberg for comprehending the discrepancies of traffic management and entire transportation systems. Figures detailing traffic accidents in Indonesia, as is the case in many other countries, show significantly high numbers and severity levels; these types of totals are also evident in Jakarta, the highest-populated city in the country. While the common consensus recognizes that traffic accidents are the results of three different factor types, namely, human factors, vehicle factors, and external factors (including road conditions, human factors have the strongest influence—and figures on a worldwide scale corroborate that assertion. We, however, try to pinpoint the issues of non-human factors in light of increasing traffic accidents in Indonesia, where motorbike accidents account for the majority of incidents. We then consider three important pillars of action: the development of public transportation, improvement of the road ratio, and traffic management measures.

  16. Dominant accident sequences in Oconee-1 pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearing, J F; Henninger, R J; Nassersharif, B


    A set of dominant accident sequences in the Oconee-1 pressurized water reactor was selected using probabilistic risk analysis methods. Because some accident scenarios were similar, a subset of four accident sequences was selected to be analyzed with the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) to further our insights into similar types of accidents. The sequences selected were loss-of-feedwater, small-small break loss-of-coolant, loss-of-feedwater-initiated transient without scram, and interfacing systems loss-of-coolant accidents. The normal plant response and the impact of equipment availability and potential operator actions were also examined. Strategies were developed for operator actions not covered in existing emergency operator guidelines and were tested using TRAC simulations to evaluate their effectiveness in preventing core uncovery and maintaining core cooling.

  17. Myocardial infarction false alarm: initial electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes. (United States)

    Gupta, Esha Das; Sakthiswary, Rajalingham


    The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of a myocardial infarction "false alarm" and evaluate the efficacy of the initial electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes in diagnosing myocardial infarction in Malaysia. We recruited patients who were admitted with suspected myocardial infarction from June to August 2008. The medical records of these patients were reviewed for the initial electrocardiogram, initial cardiac enzyme levels (creatinine kinase-MB and troponin T), and the final diagnosis upon discharge. The subjects were stratified into 2 groups: true myocardial infarction, and false alarm. 125 patients were enrolled in this study. Following admission and further evaluation, the diagnosis was revised from myocardial infarction to other medical conditions in 48 (38.4%) patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the initial ischemic electrocardiographic changes were 54.5% and 70.8%, respectively. Raised cardiac enzymes had a sensitivity of 44.3% and specificity of 95.8%. A significant proportion of patients in Malaysia are admitted with a false-alarm myocardial infarction. The efficacy of the electrocardiogram in diagnosing myocardial infarction in Malaysia was comparable to the findings of Western studies, but the cardiac enzymes had a much lower sensitivity.

  18. Accidents with biological material in workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleonice Andréa Alves Cavalcante


    Full Text Available The objective was to describe the accidents with biological material occurred among workers of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, between 2007 and 2009. Secondary data were collected in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System by exporting data to Excel using Tabwin. Among the types of occupational accidents reported in the state, the biological accidents (no. = 1,170 accounted for 58.3% with a predominance of cases among nurses (48.6%. The percutaneous exposure was the most frequent occurrence and the circumstances of the accidents were related to the handling of sharps and the most common organic material was blood (63.5%. More than 50% of the workers were vaccinated against hepatitis B, but without information regarding the evaluation of vaccine response. The study revealed the need of improvement in the quality of the information, once the sub-entries and inconsistencies make the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System less trustworthy in the characterization of the affected workers.

  19. Emergency control system based on the analytical hierarchy process and coordinated development degree model for sudden water pollution accidents in the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in China. (United States)

    Long, Yan; Xu, Guobin; Ma, Chao; Chen, Liang


    Water transfer projects are important for realizing reasonable allocation of water resources, but once a water pollution accident occurs during such a project, the water environment is exposed to enormous risks. Therefore, it is critical to determine an appropriate emergency control system (ECS) for sudden water pollution accidents that occur in water transfer projects. In this study, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) integrated with the coordinated development degree model (CDDM) was used to develop the ECS. This ECS was developed into two parts, including the emergency risk assessment and the emergency control. Feasible emergency control targets and control technology were also proposed for different sudden water pollution accidents. A demonstrative project was conducted in the Fangshui to Puyang channel, which is part of the Beijing-Shijiazhuang Emergency Water Supply Project (BSP) in the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MR-SNWTP) in China. However, we could not use an actual toxic soluble pollutant to validate our ECS, so we performed the experiment with sucrose to test the ECS based on its concentration variation. The relative error of peak sucrose concentration was less than 20 %.

  20. 47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80.307 Section 80.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... Safety Watches § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto alarm...

  1. Aggregated analysis of in-depth accident causation data. (United States)

    Usami, Davide Shingo; Giustiniani, Gabriele; Persia, Luca; Gigli, Roberto


    Data collected from in-depth road accident investigations are very informative and may contain more than 500 accident-related variables for a single investigated case. These data may be used to get a more detailed knowledge on accident and injury causation associated with a specific accident scenario. However, due to their complexity, studies using in-depth data at aggregated levels are not common. The objective of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyse aggregated accident causation charts in order to highlight strong and weak relationships between crash causes and pre-crash scenarios. These relationships can be taken into account when developing or assessing new road safety measures (e.g. in-vehicle systems). The methodology has been applied to an in-depth accident dataset derived from the European project SafetyNet. Four different pre-crash scenarios associated with the accident scenario 'vehicles encountering something while remaining in their lane' have been investigated. Even if generalization of these results should be done with care because of database representativeness issues, the methodology is promising, highlighting, for example, a well-defined causation pattern related to vehicles striking a vehicle in rear-end accidents.

  2. Predicting Severity and Duration of Road Traffic Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zong


    Full Text Available This paper presents a model system to predict severity and duration of traffic accidents by employing Ordered Probit model and Hazard model, respectively. The models are estimated using traffic accident data collected in Jilin province, China, in 2010. With the developed models, three severity indicators, namely, number of fatalities, number of injuries, and property damage, as well as accident duration, are predicted, and the important influences of related variables are identified. The results indicate that the goodness-of-fit of Ordered Probit model is higher than that of SVC model in severity modeling. In addition, accident severity is proven to be an important determinant of duration; that is, more fatalities and injuries in the accident lead to longer duration. Study results can be applied to predictions of accident severity and duration, which are two essential steps in accident management process. By recognizing those key influences, this study also provides suggestive results for government to take effective measures to reduce accident impacts and improve traffic safety.

  3. [Smoking and nonfatal traffic accidents]. (United States)

    Buñuel Granados, J M; Córdoba García, R; Castillo Pardo Md, M del; Alvarez Pardo, J L; Monreal Hijar, A; Pablo Cerezuela, F


    To investigate the possible associations between smoking and nonfatal traffic accidents, and to evaluate the possible influence of other factors on traffic accidents. Cross-sectional study of associations.Setting. Eight health centers in the city of Zaragoza. 1214 drivers between 25 and 65 years of age, who visited the health center during the months of July to September 2001, and who drove on at least 2 days of the week. MAIN MEASURES. We recorded data on sex, age, marital status, level of education, profession, diseases, use of prescription and nonprescription drugs, drinking, smoking, illegal drug use, accidents and traffic infractions. We found accidents to be most common among unmarried men between 25 and 29 years of age. There were no significant differences in accident rates between drinkers and nondrinkers. The accident rate was 50% higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.49%-3.09%), and there were no significant differences between smokers who smoked while driving and those who refrained from smoking while driving. CONCLUSIONS. The prevalence of accidents is highest in unmarried men younger than 45 years of age. In statistical terms, smokers have twice as many accidents as nonsmokers. The absence of significant differences between smokers who do and do not smoke while driving suggests that smoking increases the risk of being involved in traffic accidents regardless of whether drivers refrain from smoking at the wheel.

  4. The principles of accident investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...; interviewing; isolating the key contributory factors; and determining corrective action. Learning why and how accidents occur is fundamental to making improvements in both working conditions and operational methods...

  5. Occupational Accidents Aboard Merchant Ships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H. L. Hansen; D. Nielsen; M. Frydenberg


    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems. (United States)


    ... emergency action plan, or for reaction time for safe escape of employees from the workplace or the immediate... light levels by all employees in the affected portions of the workplace. Tactile devices may be used to... in the workplace. For those employers with 10 or fewer employees in a particular workplace, direct...

  7. Lifestyle factors and experience of respiratory alarm symptoms in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Lisa Maria Falk; Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Elnegaard, Sandra


    BACKGROUND: The first step in the diagnosis of lung cancer is for individuals in the general population to recognise respiratory alarm symptoms (RAS). Knowledge is sparse about RAS and factors associated with experiencing RAS in the general population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence...... of RAS in the general population, and to analyse possible associations between lifestyle factors and experiencing RAS. METHODS: A web-based survey comprising 100 000 individuals randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. Items regarding experience of RAS (prolonged coughing, shortness...

  8. Children's accidents, accident causation, and remedy : examples from OECD countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.B.M.


    In this paper children's accident data are presented. These data were drawn from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) International Road Traffic and Accident Database (IRTAD), completed with data on separate countries drawn from other sources. Gender differences in

  9. 1976 Hanford americium accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heid, K R; Breitenstein, B D; Palmer, H E; McMurray, B J; Wald, N


    This report presents the 2.5-year medical course of a 64-year-old Hanford nuclear chemical operator who was involved in an accident in an americium recovery facility in August 1976. He was heavily externally contaminated with americium, sustained a substantial internal deposition of this isotope, and was burned with concentrated nitric acid and injured by flying debris about the face and neck. The medical care given the patient, including the decontamination efforts and clinical laboratory studies, are discussed. In-vivo measurements were used to estimate the dose rates and the accumulated doses to body organs. Urinary and fecal excreta were collected and analyzed for americium content. Interpretation of these data was complicated by the fact that the intake resulted both from inhalation and from solubilization of the americium embedded in facial tissues. A total of 1100 was excreted in urine and feces during the first 2 years following the accident. The long-term use of diethylenetriaminepentate (DTPA), used principally as the zinc salt, is discussed including the method, route of administration, and effectiveness. To date, the patient has apparently experienced no complications attributable to this extensive course of therapy, even though he has been given approximately 560 grams of DTPA. 4 figures, 1 table.

  10. [Drugs and traffic accidents]. (United States)

    Mravcík, V; Zabranský, T; Vorel, F


    The aim of the study was to map the prevalence of alcohol and other psychotropic substances in deceased participants of traffic accidents in the Czech Republic. The studied sample included persons autopsied in the departments of forensic medicine and forensic toxicology that died during traffic accidents and were toxicologically tested in 2003. Case definition involved alcohol cases with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) 0,2 g/kg and higher, with cannabis, detections of active THC metabolites only were taken into account; in cases where volatile substances (solvents) were detected we included into the definition only cases with substances not produced post mortem or in some physiological or pathological statuses. We identified 554 cases of whom 440 (79.4%) were males and 114 (20.6%) were females. 35.5% were in the age group 20 - 34 years. The sample has been classified into 4 categories (average age, % of males): pedestrians (45.4, 76.2), bicyclists (51.1, 82.0), drivers (36.3, 91.2) and others (36.1, 66.2). Alcohol was tested in 548 cases, 214 (39.1%) of those were found positive. 380 cases were tested for other psychotropic substances than alcohol; samples taken from 25 bodies (6.6%) were found positive for at least for one of these substances. 8 cases were positive both for alcohol and some other psychotropic substance - i.e. 3.7% out of 214 cases positive for alcohol were positive for other substance and 32.0% out of 25 cases positive at least for any other psychotropic substance were alcohol-positive. When focusing our analysis at the active participants of road traffic accidents only - pedestrians, bicyclists and drivers (altogether 397 cases) - we have found alcohol to be tested in 394 cases, out of which 158 (39.1%) were positive; as for other psychotropic substances, 314 cases were tested and 23 (7.3%) were positive at least for one of them. 7 cases were found positive for alcohol and other psychotropic substance simultaneously; this represents 4.4% out of

  11. The dominance of accidents caused by banalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    Most prevention analysis is focused on high risks, such as explosion, fire, lack of containment for chemicals, crashes in transportation systems, lack of oxygen, or chemical poisoning. In the industrial world, these kinds of risk still lead to incidents with huge consequences, albeit very seldom...... as an example of how much information such systems can offer in general for the work of accident prevention in more traditional and common enterprises....

  12. Effect of Occupational Health and Safety Management System on Work-Related Accident Rate and Differences of Occupational Health and Safety Management System Awareness between Managers in South Korea's Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok J. Yoon


    Conclusion: Both work-related accident and fatal accident rates were found to be significantly reduced by implementing OHSMS in this study. The differences of OHSMS awareness between site general managers and OHS managers were identified through a survey. The effect of these differences on safety and other benefits warrants further research with proper data collection.

  13. Severe Accident Test Station Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL


    Enhancing safety margins in light water reactor (LWR) severe accidents is currently the focus of a number of international R&D programs. The current UO2/Zr-based alloy fuel system is particularly susceptible since the Zr-based cladding experiences rapid oxidation kinetics in steam at elevated temperatures. Therefore, alternative cladding materials that offer slower oxidation kinetics and a smaller enthalpy of oxidation can significantly reduce the rate of heat and hydrogen generation in the core during a coolant-limited severe accident. In the U.S. program, the high temperature steam oxidation performance of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding solutions has been evaluated in the Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 2012. This report summarizes the capabilities of the SATS and provides an overview of the oxidation kinetics of several candidate cladding materials. A suggested baseline for evaluating ATF candidates is a two order of magnitude reduction in the steam oxidation resistance above 1000ºC compared to Zr-based alloys. The ATF candidates are categorized based on the protective external oxide or scale that forms during exposure to steam at high temperature: chromia, alumina, and silica. Comparisons are made to literature and SATS data for Zr-based alloys and other less-protective materials.

  14. [Current situation of accidents in the world]. (United States)

    Aguilar-Zinser, José Valente


    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of traffic accidents is of concern. About 1.2 million people die every year on the roadways and about 20 to 50 million suffer from non-lethal trauma. Countries with low or medium incomes have higher rates of lethality by traffic accidents (21.5 and 19.5 per 100,000 habitants, respectively) than countries with higher incomes (10.3 per 100,000). It is estimated that the cost of traffic accidents in countries that are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), escalate to rates that are between 2-5% of the gross domestic product (GDP). According to data from the health sector in Mexico, these rates are equivalent to 1.3 of GDR The WHO foresees that traffic accident traumas will rise to be the third cause of mortality in 2030. Because of the high complexity of the transport sector, it is necessary that the Transport and Communication Ministry works in a multidisciplinary and intersectorial fashion to ensure that the land transportation systems operate effectively in accordance with national economic development and the quality of life of the Mexican people.

  15. Analysis of the Three Mile Island accident and alternative sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooton, R.O.; Denning, R.S.; Cybulskis, P.


    A number of analyses were performed with the MARCH computer code to assist the TMI Special Inquiry Group. The MARCH code predicts the thermal and hydraulic conditions in the reactor primary system and containment building in core meltdown accidents. The purpose of the analyses was to examine a number of variations in system operation in the TMI accident to evaluate their effect on the extent of core damage.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diksha Sapkota


    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accidents, considered as global tragedies, are in increasing trend however, the safety situation is very severe in developing countries incurring substantial amount of human, economic and social costs. Motorcycle crashes, the commonest form, occur mostly on economically active population. However, there is limited coverage of studies on economic burden of motorcycle crashes. This study aims to estimate the total cost and DALYs lost due to motorbike accidents among victims of Kathmandu Valley.Materials and Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among the patients having history of motorbike accidents within past twelve months and at least 3 months from the date of data collection. Interview was conducted using proforma among 100 victims of accidents and their care giver in case of death from November 15, 2014 to May 15, 2015. Cost estimation of motorbike accident was done based on human capital approach. Data collection tool was pretested and collected data were analyzed by SPSS and Microsoft excel. Results: Males (79% belonging to the economically productive age group shared the highest proportion among total accidents victims. Most common reason for accidents was reported to be poor road condition (41%. Indirect cost was found to be significantly higher than direct costs highlighting its negative impact on economy of family and nation due to productivity loss. Total Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs lost per person was found to be 490 years and national estimation showed large burden of motorbike accidents due to huge DALY loss.Conclusions: For low resource countries like Nepal, high economic costs of motorbike accidents can pose additional burden to the fragile health system. These accidents can be prevented, and their consequences can be alleviated. There is an urgent need for reinforcement of appropriate interventions and legislation to decrease the magnitude of it and its associated grave

  17. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr


    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  18. German aircraft accident statistics, 1930 (United States)

    Weitzmann, Ludwig


    The investigation of all serious accidents, involving technical defects in the airplane or engine, is undertaken by the D.V.L. in conjunction with the imperial traffic minister and other interested parties. All accidents not clearly explained in the reports are subsequently cleared up.

  19. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema


    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  20. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M


    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC...