WorldWideScience

Sample records for accessory subunit kchip2

  1. Accessory subunit KChIP2 modulates the cardiac L-type calcium current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten B; Wang, Chaojian; Ozgen, Nazira

    2009-01-01

    Complex modulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ currents through the interplay among Ca2+ channels and various Ca(2+)-binding proteins is increasingly being recognized. The K+ channel interacting protein 2 (KChIP2), originally identified as an auxiliary subunit for K(V)4.2 and a component of the transie...

  2. Deleting the accessory subunit KChIP2 results in loss of I(to,f) and increased I(K,slow) that maintains normal action potential configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten B; Sosunov, Eugene A; Anyukhovsky, Evgeny P

    2008-01-01

    to characterize ventricular repolarization and its determinants in wild-type and KChIP2(-/-) mice. RESULTS: Despite comparable baseline action potentials, APD was more markedly prolonged by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in KChIP2(-/-) preparations. Peak K(+) current densities were similar in wild-type and KChIP2......BACKGROUND: Four voltage-gated potassium currents, I(to,f) (K(V)4.2), I(to,s) (K(V)1.4), I(K,slow) (K(V)1.5+K(V)2.1), and I(SS) (TASK1), govern murine ventricular repolarization. Although the accessory subunit KChIP2 influences I(to,f) expression, in preliminary experiments we found that action...... potential duration (APD) is maintained in KChIP2 knockout mice. OBJECTIVE: We tested the role of KChIP2 in regulating APD and studied the underlying ionic currents. METHODS: We used microelectrode techniques, whole-cell patch clamp studies, and real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification...

  3. Determinants of CREB degradation and KChIP2 gene transcription in cardiac memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgen, Nazira; Lau, David H.; Shlapakova, Iryna N.; Sherman, Warren; Feinmark, Steven J.; Danilo, Peter; Rosen, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Left ventricular pacing (LVP) to induce cardiac memory (CM) in dogs results in a decreased transient outward K current (Ito) and reduced mRNA and protein of the Ito channel accessory subunit, KChIP2. The KChIP2 decrease is attributed to a decrease in its transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element binding protein). Objective To determine the mechanisms responsible for the CREB decrease that is initiated by LVP. Methods CM was quantified as T wave vector displacement in 18 LVP dogs. In 5 dogs, Ang II receptor blocker, saralasin, was infused before and during pacing. In 3 dogs, proteasomal inhibitor, lactacystin, was injected into the left anterior descending artery before LVP. Epicardial biopsies were taken before and after LVP. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM) were incubated with H2O2 (50 μmol/L) for 1h with or without lactacystin. Results LVP significantly displaced the T wave vector and was associated with increased lipid peroxidation and increased tissue Ang II levels. Saralasin prevented T vector displacement and lipid peroxidation. CREB was significantly decreased after 2h of LVP and was comparably decreased in H2O2–treated NRM. Lactacystin inhibited the CREB decrease in LVP dogs and H2O2 -treated NRM. LVP and H2O2 both induced CREB ubiquitination and the H2O2-induced CREB decrease was prevented by knocking down ubiquitin. Conclusion LVP initiates myocardial Ang II production and ROS synthesis leading to CREB ubiquitination and its proteasomal degradation. This sequence of events would explain the pacing-induced reduction in KChIP2, and contribute to altered repolarization and the T wave changes of cardiac memory. PMID:20346417

  4. KChIP2 is a core transcriptional regulator of cardiac excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassal, Drew M; Wan, Xiaoping; Liu, Haiyan; Maleski, Danielle; Ramirez-Navarro, Angelina; Moravec, Christine S; Ficker, Eckhard; Laurita, Kenneth R; Deschênes, Isabelle

    2017-03-06

    Arrhythmogenesis from aberrant electrical remodeling is a primary cause of death among patients with heart disease. Amongst a multitude of remodeling events, reduced expression of the ion channel subunit KChIP2 is consistently observed in numerous cardiac pathologies. However, it remains unknown if KChIP2 loss is merely a symptom or involved in disease development. Using rat and human derived cardiomyocytes, we identify a previously unobserved transcriptional capacity for cardiac KChIP2 critical in maintaining electrical stability. Through interaction with genetic elements, KChIP2 transcriptionally repressed the miRNAs miR-34b and miR-34c, which subsequently targeted key depolarizing (INa) and repolarizing (Ito) currents altered in cardiac disease. Genetically maintaining KChIP2 expression or inhibiting miR-34 under pathologic conditions restored channel function and moreover, prevented the incidence of reentrant arrhythmias. This identifies the KChIP2/miR-34 axis as a central regulator in developing electrical dysfunction and reveals miR-34 as a therapeutic target for treating arrhythmogenesis in heart disease.

  5. Loss of K+ currents in heart failure is accentuated in KChIP2 deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, Søren Jahn; Speerschneider, Tobias; Occhipinti, Dona

    2014-01-01

    KV 4 together with KV Channel-Interacting Protein 2 (KChIP2) mediate the fast recovering transient outward potassium current (Ito,f ) in the heart. KChIP2 is downregulated in human heart failure (HF), potentially underlying the loss of Ito,f . We investigated remodeling associated with HF...... hypothesizing that KChIP2 plays a central role in the modulation of outward K(+) currents in HF....

  6. Potassium Channel Interacting Protein 2 (KChIP2) is not a transcriptional regulator of cardiac electrical remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Sine V; Tuomainen, Tomi; Borup, Rehannah

    2016-01-01

    not increase KChIP2 content in nuclear protein fractions in anesthetized mice. KChIP2 was expressed in cell lines, and Ca(2+) ionophores were applied in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The cell lines had KChIP2-immunoreactive protein in the nucleus in the absence of treatments to modulate...

  7. Impact of KChIP2 on Cardiac Electrophysiology and the Progression of Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, Søren; Callø, Kirstine; Thomsen, Morten B

    2012-01-01

    Electrophysiological remodeling of cardiac potassium ion channels is important in the progression of heart failure. A reduction of the transient outward potassium current (I(to)) in mammalian heart failure is consistent with a reduced expression of potassium channel interacting protein 2 (KChIP2,...... an overview of the insights into the physiological and pathological roles of KChIP2 and we discuss the limitations of translating the molecular basis of electrophysiological remodeling from animal models of heart failure to the clinical setting.......Electrophysiological remodeling of cardiac potassium ion channels is important in the progression of heart failure. A reduction of the transient outward potassium current (I(to)) in mammalian heart failure is consistent with a reduced expression of potassium channel interacting protein 2 (KChIP2...

  8. KChIP2 regulates the cardiac Ca2+ transient and myocyte contractility by targeting ryanodine receptor activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew M Nassal

    Full Text Available Pathologic electrical remodeling and attenuated cardiac contractility are featured characteristics of heart failure. Coinciding with these remodeling events is a loss of the K+ channel interacting protein, KChIP2. While, KChIP2 enhances the expression and stability of the Kv4 family of potassium channels, leading to a more pronounced transient outward K+ current, Ito,f, the guinea pig myocardium is unique in that Kv4 expression is absent, while KChIP2 expression is preserved, suggesting alternative consequences to KChIP2 loss. Therefore, KChIP2 was acutely silenced in isolated guinea pig myocytes, which led to significant reductions in the Ca2+ transient amplitude and prolongation of the transient duration. This change was reinforced by a decline in sarcomeric shortening. Notably, these results were unexpected when considering previous observations showing enhanced ICa,L and prolonged action potential duration following KChIP2 loss, suggesting a disruption of fundamental Ca2+ handling proteins. Evaluation of SERCA2a, phospholamban, RyR, and sodium calcium exchanger identified no change in protein expression. However, assessment of Ca2+ spark activity showed reduced spark frequency and prolonged Ca2+ decay following KChIP2 loss, suggesting an altered state of RyR activity. These changes were associated with a delocalization of the ryanodine receptor activator, presenilin, away from sarcomeric banding to more diffuse distribution, suggesting that RyR open probability are a target of KChIP2 loss mediated by a dissociation of presenilin. Typically, prolonged action potential duration and enhanced Ca2+ entry would augment cardiac contractility, but here we see KChIP2 fundamentally disrupts Ca2+ release events and compromises myocyte contraction. This novel role targeting presenilin localization and RyR activity reveals a significance for KChIP2 loss that reflects adverse remodeling observed in cardiac disease settings.

  9. Preservation of cardiac function by prolonged action potentials in mice deficient of KChIP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, Søren Jahn; Aistrup, Gary L; Koivumäki, Jussi T

    2015-01-01

    Inherited ion channelopathies and electrical remodeling in heart disease alter the cardiac action potential with important consequences for excitation-contraction coupling. Potassium channel-interacting protein 2 (KChIP2) is reduced in heart failure and interacts under physiological conditions...

  10. Potential role of Arabidopsis PHP as an accessory subunit of the PAF1 transcriptional cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunchung; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Oh, Sookyung; van Nocker, Steven

    2011-08-01

    Paf1C is a transcriptional cofactor that has been implicated in various transcription-associated mechanisms spanning initiation, elongation and RNA processing, and is important for multiple aspects of development in Arabidopsis. Our recent studies suggest Arabidopsis Paf1C is crucial for proper regulation of genes within H3K27me3-enriched chromatin, and that a protein named PHP may act as an accessory subunit of Paf1C that promotes this function.

  11. Specific Mutations in Mammalian P4-ATPase ATP8A2 Catalytic Subunit Entail Differential Glycosylation of the Accessory CDC50A Subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anna L.; Mikkelsen, Stine A.; Coleman, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    P4-ATPases, or flippases, translocate phospholipids between the two leaflets of eukaryotic biological membranes. They are essential to the physiologically crucial phospholipid asymmetry and involved in severe diseases, but their molecular structure and mechanism are still unresolved. Here, we sho...... that in an extensive mutational alanine screening of the mammalian flippase ATP8A2 catalytic subunit, five mutations stand out by leading to reduced glycosylation of the accessory subunit CDC50A. These mutations may disturb the interaction between the subunits....

  12. V-ATPase-Mediated Granular Acidification Is Regulated by the V-ATPase Accessory Subunit Ac45 in POMC-Producing Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Eric J. R.; Hafmans, Theo G. M.

    2010-01-01

    The vacuolar (H+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) is an important proton pump, and multiple critical cell-biological processes depend on the proton gradient provided by the pump. Yet, the mechanism underlying the control of the V-ATPase is still elusive but has been hypothesized to involve an accessory subunit of the pump. Here we studied as a candidate V-ATPase regulator the neuroendocrine V-ATPase accessory subunit Ac45. We transgenically manipulated the expression levels of the Ac45 protein specifically in Xenopus intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells and analyzed in detail the functioning of the transgenic cells. We found in the transgenic melanotrope cells the following: i) significantly increased granular acidification; ii) reduced sensitivity for a V-ATPase-specific inhibitor; iii) enhanced early processing of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) by prohormone convertase PC1; iv) reduced, neutral pH–dependent cleavage of the PC2 chaperone 7B2; v) reduced 7B2-proPC2 dissociation and consequently reduced proPC2 maturation; vi) decreased levels of mature PC2 and consequently reduced late POMC processing. Together, our results show that the V-ATPase accessory subunit Ac45 represents the first regulator of the proton pump and controls V-ATPase-mediated granular acidification that is necessary for efficient prohormone processing. PMID:20702583

  13. Functional Interplay of Two Paralogs Encoding SWI/SNF Chromatin-Remodeling Accessory Subunits During Caenorhabditis elegans Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Iris; Porta-de-la-Riva, Montserrat; Gómez-Orte, Eva; Rubio-Peña, Karinna; Aristizábal-Corrales, David; Cornes, Eric; Fontrodona, Laura; Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Ayuso, Cristina; Askjaer, Peter; Cabello, Juan; Cerón, Julián

    2016-03-01

    SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes have been related to several cellular processes such as transcription, regulation of chromosomal stability, and DNA repair. The Caenorhabditis elegans gene ham-3 (also known as swsn-2.1) and its paralog swsn-2.2 encode accessory subunits of SWI/SNF complexes. Using RNA interference (RNAi) assays and diverse alleles we investigated whether ham-3 and swsn-2.2 have different functions during C. elegans development since they encode proteins that are probably mutually exclusive in a given SWI/SNF complex. We found that ham-3 and swsn-2.2 display similar functions in vulva specification, germline development, and intestinal cell proliferation, but have distinct roles in embryonic development. Accordingly, we detected functional redundancy in some developmental processes and demonstrated by RNA sequencing of RNAi-treated L4 animals that ham-3 and swsn-2.2 regulate the expression of a common subset of genes but also have specific targets. Cell lineage analyses in the embryo revealed hyper-proliferation of intestinal cells in ham-3 null mutants whereas swsn-2.2 is required for proper cell divisions. Using a proteomic approach, we identified SWSN-2.2-interacting proteins needed for early cell divisions, such as SAO-1 and ATX-2, and also nuclear envelope proteins such as MEL-28. swsn-2.2 mutants phenocopy mel-28 loss-of-function, and we observed that SWSN-2.2 and MEL-28 colocalize in mitotic and meiotic chromosomes. Moreover, we demonstrated that SWSN-2.2 is required for correct chromosome segregation and nuclear reassembly after mitosis including recruitment of MEL-28 to the nuclear periphery. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  14. Zolpidem, a selective GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit agonist, induces comparable Fos expression in oxytocinergic neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular and accessory but not supraoptic nuclei in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, Alexander; Søderman, Andreas; Bundzikova, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Functional activation of oxytocinergic (OXY) cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN), supraoptic (SON), and accessory (ACC) nuclei was investigated in response to acute treatment with Zolpidem (a GABA(A) receptor agonist with selectivity for alpha(1) subunits) utilizing dual Fos/OXY immun...

  15. The Crystal Structure of PF-8, the DNA Polymerase Accessory Subunit from Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltz, Jennifer L.; Filman, David J.; Ciustea, Mihai; Silverman, Janice Elaine Y.; Lautenschlager, Catherine L.; Coen, Donald M.; Ricciardi, Robert P.; Hogle, James M.; (UPENN)

    2009-12-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is an emerging pathogen whose mechanism of replication is poorly understood. PF-8, the presumed processivity factor of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus DNA polymerase, acts in combination with the catalytic subunit, Pol-8, to synthesize viral DNA. We have solved the crystal structure of residues 1 to 304 of PF-8 at a resolution of 2.8 {angstrom}. This structure reveals that each monomer of PF-8 shares a fold common to processivity factors. Like human cytomegalovirus UL44, PF-8 forms a head-to-head dimer in the form of a C clamp, with its concave face containing a number of basic residues that are predicted to be important for DNA binding. However, there are several differences with related proteins, especially in loops that extend from each monomer into the center of the C clamp and in the loops that connect the two subdomains of each protein, which may be important for determining PF-8's mode of binding to DNA and to Pol-8. Using the crystal structures of PF-8, the herpes simplex virus catalytic subunit, and RB69 bacteriophage DNA polymerase in complex with DNA and initial experiments testing the effects of inhibition of PF-8-stimulated DNA synthesis by peptides derived from Pol-8, we suggest a model for how PF-8 might form a ternary complex with Pol-8 and DNA. The structure and the model suggest interesting similarities and differences in how PF-8 functions relative to structurally similar proteins.

  16. The Crystal Structure of PF-8, the DNA Polymerase Accessory Subunit from Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltz, Jennifer L.; Filman, David J.; Ciustea, Mihai; Silverman, Janice Elaine Y.; Lautenschlager, Catherine L.; Coen, Donald M.; Ricciardi, Robert P.; Hogle, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is an emerging pathogen whose mechanism of replication is poorly understood. PF-8, the presumed processivity factor of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus DNA polymerase, acts in combination with the catalytic subunit, Pol-8, to synthesize viral DNA. We have solved the crystal structure of residues 1 to 304 of PF-8 at a resolution of 2.8 Å. This structure reveals that each monomer of PF-8 shares a fold common to processivity factors. Like human cytomegalovirus UL44, PF-8 forms a head-to-head dimer in the form of a C clamp, with its concave face containing a number of basic residues that are predicted to be important for DNA binding. However, there are several differences with related proteins, especially in loops that extend from each monomer into the center of the C clamp and in the loops that connect the two subdomains of each protein, which may be important for determining PF-8's mode of binding to DNA and to Pol-8. Using the crystal structures of PF-8, the herpes simplex virus catalytic subunit, and RB69 bacteriophage DNA polymerase in complex with DNA and initial experiments testing the effects of inhibition of PF-8-stimulated DNA synthesis by peptides derived from Pol-8, we suggest a model for how PF-8 might form a ternary complex with Pol-8 and DNA. The structure and the model suggest interesting similarities and differences in how PF-8 functions relative to structurally similar proteins. PMID:19759157

  17. Identification of Domains within the V-ATPase Accessory Subunit Ac45 Involved in V-ATPase Transport and Ca2+-dependent Exocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Eric J. R.; van Bakel, Nick. H. M.; Loohuis, Nikkie F. M. Olde; Hafmans, Theo G. M.; Arentsen, Tim; Coenen, Anthon J. M.; Scheenen, Wim J. J. M.; Martens, Gerard J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The vacuolar (H+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) is crucial for maintenance of the acidic microenvironment in intracellular organelles, whereas its membrane-bound V0-sector is involved in Ca2+-dependent membrane fusion. In the secretory pathway, the V-ATPase is regulated by its type I transmembrane and V0-associated accessory subunit Ac45. To execute its function, the intact-Ac45 protein is proteolytically processed to cleaved-Ac45 thereby releasing its N-terminal domain. Here, we searched for the functional domains within Ac45 by analyzing a set of deletion mutants close to the in vivo situation, namely in transgenic Xenopus intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells. Intact-Ac45 was poorly processed and accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum of the transgenic melanotrope cells. In contrast, cleaved-Ac45 was efficiently transported through the secretory pathway, caused an accumulation of the V-ATPase at the plasma membrane and reduced dopaminergic inhibition of Ca2+-dependent peptide secretion. Surprisingly, removal of the C-tail from intact-Ac45 caused cellular phenotypes also found for cleaved-Ac45, whereas C-tail removal from cleaved-Ac45 still allowed its transport to the plasma membrane, but abolished V-ATPase recruitment into the secretory pathway and left dopaminergic inhibition of the cells unaffected. We conclude that domains located in the N- and C-terminal portions of the Ac45 protein direct its trafficking, V-ATPase recruitment and Ca2+-dependent-regulated exocytosis. PMID:22736765

  18. Accessory Lobes, Accessory Fissures and Prominent Papillary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Often unreported hepatic variations include accessory fissures, lobes and processes. Variant hepatic fissures further show variations in location and depth. Accessory lobes of the liver have different size, shape, situation, connection with maternal organ. These abnormalities in the anatomy of human liver have the ...

  19. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  20. Painful accessory navicular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, J.P.; Ogden, J.A.; Sella, E.; Barwick, K.W.

    1984-11-01

    The accessory navicular is usually considered a normal anatomic and roentgenographic variant. The term may refer to two distinct patterns. First, a sesamoid bone may be present within the posterior tibial tendon (Type 1); this is anatomically separate from the navicular. Second, an accessory ossification center may be medial to the navicular (Type 2). During postnatal development this is within a cartilaginous mass that is continuous with the cartilage of the navicular. At skeletal maturity the accessory center usually fuses with the navicular to form a curvilinear bone. The Type 2 pattern may be associated with a painful foot, particularly in the athletic adolescent, and should not be arbitrarily dismissed as a roentgenologic variant in the symptomatic patient. The clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and surgical findings in ten cases are reviewed. Roentgenographically the ossicle is triangular or heartshaped. sup(99m)Tc MDP imaging may be of value when the significance of the ossicle is uncertain. Even when the roentgenographic variant is bilateral, increased radionuclide activity occurs only on the symptomatic side. Histologic examination of surgically excised specimens reveals inflammatory chondro-osseous changes in the navicular-accessory navicular synchondrosis compatible with chronic trauma and stress fracture. Nonsurgical treatment with orthotics or cast immobilization produces variable results and resection of the accessory navicular may be the treatment of choice.

  1. Dynamic expression pattern of kinesin accessory protein in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    We have identified the Drosophila homologue of the non-motor accessory subunit of kinesin-II motor complex. It is homologous to the SpKAP115 of the sea urchin, KAP3A and KAP3B of the mouse, and SMAP protein in humans. In situ hybridization using a DmKAP specific cRNA probe has revealed a dynamic pattern of ...

  2. Accessory Proteins at ERES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkenberg, Rafael David

    proteins. Together these components co‐operate in cargo‐selection as well as forming, loading and releasing budding vesicles from specific regions on the membrane surface of the ER. Coat components furthermore convey vesicle targeting towards the Golgi. However, not much is known about the mechanisms...... that regulate the COPII assembly at the vesicle bud site. This thesis provides the first regulatory mechanism of COPII assembly in relation to ER‐membrane lipid‐signal recognition by the accessory protein p125A (Sec23IP). The aim of the project was to characterize p125A function by dissecting two main domains...... in the protein; a putative lipid‐associating domain termed the DDHD domain that is defined by the four amino acid motif that gives the domain its name; and a ubiquitously found domain termed Sterile α‐motif (SAM), which is mostly associated with oligomerization and polymerization. We first show, that the DDHD...

  3. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  4. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected to...

  5. Building iPhone OS Accessories

    CERN Document Server

    Maskrey, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a serious, in-depth look at Apple's External Accessory Framework and the iPhone Accessories API. You'll learn how to create new, integrated solutions that combine iPhone apps with dedicated hardware. The iPhone OS Accessories API expands the opportunities for innovative iPhone developers, allowing you to control and monitor external devices, whether you've built them yourself or obtained them from a third party. What you'll learn * Develop accessories and apps for the iPhone and iPod touch. * Use Apple's External Accessory Framework to create hardware/software interaction. *

  6. Accessory nerve palsy following thoracotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, S; Roberson, J R; Rooks, M D

    1989-01-01

    A previously unreported cause of 11th cranial nerve palsy is described in a 53-year-old man. Dysfunction of the trapezius branch of the spinal accessory nerve occurred following median sternotomy and was documented by electromyography. This injury resulted in dysfunction of the trapezius muscle with loss of support of the shoulder girdle and pain. The injury may have been due to stretching from sternal retraction or injury secondary to internal jugular venous cannulation.

  7. On the multiple roles of the voltage gated sodium channel β1 subunit in genetic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora eBaroni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels are intrinsic plasma membrane proteins that initiate the action potential in electrically excitable cells. They are composed of a pore-forming α-subunit and associated β-subunits. The β1-subunit was the first accessory subunit to be cloned. It can be important for controlling cell excitability and modulating multiple aspects of sodium channel physiology. Mutations of β1 are implicated in a wide variety of inherited pathologies, including epilepsy and cardiac conduction diseases. This review summarizes β1-subunit related channelopathies pointing out the current knowledge concerning their genetic background and their underlying molecular mechanisms.

  8. The accessory fallopian tube: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum R Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rare anatomical variation in the form of accessory fallopian tube on right side. The duplication of fallopian tube was observed in a 34-year-old female during routine undergraduate dissection in our department. Fallopian tube is the part of uterus that carries the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. Accessory fallopian tube is the congenital anomaly attached to the ampullary part of main tube. This accessory tube is common site of pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, cystic swelling and torsion. The ovum released by the ovary may also be captured by the blind accessory tube leading to infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Hence, all patients of infertility or pelvic inflammatory disease should be screened to rule out the presence of accessory fallopian tube and if encountered should be removed.

  9. A case report: accessory right renal artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patasi B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations in the origin of the arteries in the abdominal area are very common. The arteries that show frequent variations include the celiac trunk, renal and gonadal arteries. During a routine dissection of a male cadaver, one main and one inferior accessory renal artery were found in the abdominal region. We discovered that the inferior accessory renal artery that originated from the right anterolateral aspect of abdominal aorta was running into the lower pole of the right kidney. The origin of the main right renal artery and the inferior accessory right renal artery were 19.8 mm and 53 mm below the superior mesenteric artery, respectively. The inferior accessory right renal artery ran directly into the inferior pole of the right kidney, in the area where the accessory right renal vein was leaving the right kidney. These anatomical variations and anomalies are important to know before any therapeutic or diagnostic procedures are performed in the abdominal area.

  10. Expression and distribution of Kv4 potassium channel subunits and potassium channel interacting proteins in subpopulations of interneurons in the basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, J; Rainnie, D G

    2010-12-15

    The Kv4 potassium channel α subunits, Kv4.1, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3, determine some of the fundamental physiological properties of neurons in the CNS. Kv4 subunits are associated with auxiliary β-subunits, such as the potassium channel interacting proteins (KChIP1 - 4), which are thought to regulate the trafficking and gating of native Kv4 potassium channels. Intriguingly, KChIP1 is thought to show cell type-selective expression in GABA-ergic inhibitory interneurons, while other β-subunits (KChIP2-4) are associated with principal glutamatergic neurons. However, nothing is known about the expression of Kv4 family α- and β-subunits in specific interneurons populations in the BLA. Here, we have used immunofluorescence, co-immunoprecipitation, and Western Blotting to determine the relative expression of KChIP1 in the different interneuron subtypes within the BLA, and its co-localization with one or more of the Kv4 α subunits. We show that all three α-subunits of Kv4 potassium channel are found in rat BLA neurons, and that the immunoreactivity of KChIP1 closely resembles that of Kv4.3. Indeed, Kv4.3 showed almost complete co-localization with KChIP1 in the soma and dendrites of a distinct subpopulation of BLA neurons. Dual-immunofluorescence studies revealed this to be in BLA interneurons immunoreactive for parvalbumin, cholecystokin-8, and somatostatin. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that KChIP1 was associated with all three Kv4 α subunits. Together our results suggest that KChIP1 is selectively expressed in BLA interneurons where it may function to regulate the activity of A-type potassium channels. Hence, KChIP1 might be considered as a cell type-specific regulator of GABAergic inhibitory circuits in the BLA. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A case of an accessory auricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunali S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available During the embryological development of the ear, certain malformations may occur. Accessory auricle is one of these developmental anomalies, which has a wide range from a small elevation of skin to a large size to resemble an additional auricle, where the latter called polyotia. Here, we present a case of an accessory auricle in a young female adult. The occurence was unilateral; the subject did not have any audiological disorder. We compared our findings with different cases of accessory auricle in the literature. The clinical importance and genetic association are also discussed.

  12. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts or tools and are delivered with the...

  13. Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Parahisian Accessory Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korodi Szilamér

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency catheter ablation of parahisian accessory pathways in pre-excitation syndrome is a challenging task, due to the extremely high risk of complete atrioventricular block. In this brief report we describe the case of a 32 year-old man presenting a parahisian accessory pathway, who has been successfully treated by radiofrequency ablation. Radiofrequency catheter ablation using low-power radiofrequency current is considered to be the most appropiate method of ablation in adult patients.

  14. Salivary duct carcinoma of accessory parotid

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hashim, Mohammed A.; Al-Jazan, Nasser A.

    2017-01-01

    Accessory parotid gland (APG) is seen in around 21%?56% of individuals. Tumors of accessory parotid are uncommon with an incidence rate of 1%?8% of all parotid tumors. Ductal carcinoma of APG is rare, so no reported incidence was seen in the literature. However, salivary gland ductal carcinoma is reported to be 1% of all salivary gland neoplasms. We report here a case of salivary duct carcinoma of APG. Clinical presentation, investigation, and management are discussed. A 69-year-old female pr...

  15. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that is...

  16. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group of...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered device...

  18. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.600 Section...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.600 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part...

  19. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare..., spare parts, or tools will be treated as originating goods if the good is an originating good, and will...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemodialysis system and accessories. 876.5820... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. A hemodialysis system and accessories is a device that is...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ostomy pouch and accessories. 876.5900 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An ostomy pouch and accessories is a device that consists of a bag that is...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4200 - Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. (a) Identification. Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment is a device that has no contact with blood and that is used in the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit to support...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical camera and accessories is a device intended to be used...

  4. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for use...

  5. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices intended...

  7. AN ACCESSORY FLEXOR OF THE FIFTH TOE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The presence of accessory muscles and other organs on the lower limbs of some individuals have variously been reperted in the literature. We report an unusual muscle located on the plantar surface of the left foot of a cadaver. which had not been previously described. This muscle originated from the tendon ...

  8. Biting palsy of the accessory nerve.

    OpenAIRE

    Paljärvi, L; Partanen, J.

    1980-01-01

    A young man was bitten by his girl friend at the anterior border of the left trapezius muscle. Weakness of the trapezius resulted and a longstanding ache in the shoulder developed. Clinically and neurophysiologically, an axonotmesis type crush injury of the accessory nerve was verified.

  9. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... continued operation of the engine must be provided. (e) Each accessory driven by a gearbox that is not approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the... gearbox for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the gearbox oil system and the...

  10. The glossopharyngeal, vagus and spinal accessory nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Cheng Kang [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Health System, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)], E-mail: ongck22@hotmail.com; Chong, Vincent Fook Hin [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Health System, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2010-05-15

    The glossopharyngeal, vagus and spinal accessory nerves are closely related anatomically, and to a certain extent, functionally. We present an overview of their anatomy, highlighting the important clinical and imaging implications. The main pathologic lesions arising from these nerves are also discussed and the imaging features reviewed.

  11. G protein-coupled receptor accessory proteins and signaling: pharmacogenomic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Miles D; Cole, David E C; Jose, Pedro A; Chidiac, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The identification and characterization of the genes encoding G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and the proteins necessary for the processes of ligand binding, GPCR activation, inactivation, and receptor trafficking to the membrane are discussed in the context of human genetic disease. In addition to functional GPCR variants, the identification of genetic disruptions affecting proteins necessary to GPCR functions have provided insights into the function of these pathways. Gsα and Gβ subunit polymorphisms have been found to result in complex phenotypes. Disruptions in accessory proteins that normally modify or organize heterotrimeric G-protein coupling may also result in disease states. These include the contribution of variants of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) protein to hypertension; the role variants of the activator of G protein signaling (AGS) proteins to phenotypes (such as the type III AGS8 variant to hypoxia); the contribution of G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) proteins, such as GRK4, in disorders such as hypertension. The role of accessory proteins in GPCR structure and function is discussed in the context of genetic disorders associated with disruption of the genes that encode them. An understanding of the pharmacogenomics of GPCR and accessory protein signaling provides the basis for examining both GPCR pharmacogenetics and the genetics of monogenic disorders that result from disruption of given receptor systems.

  12. Accessory Renal Arteries: A Cadaveric Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina.K.Katariya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Renal arteries normally arise from the abdominal aorta at the level L1 vertebra. Accessory renal arteries were arising from abdominal aorta below the normal renal artery. Understanding anatomy of the vascular variation of kidney is essential for the clinician to perform procedures such as renal transplantation, interventional radiological procedures and renal vascular operations more safely and efficiently. No medical history of the cadaver was available to corroborate the clinical findings. The aim of the study was to establish the incidence and characteristics of accessory arteries in human kidneys. Methods: The present study was conducted on formalin fixed thirty two cadavers (irrespective of sex during routine dissection of abdomen by the undergraduate medical students from the department of anatomy, B.J.Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Results: In present study we found accessory arteries were seen in three kidneys .All were arising from the abdominal aorta below the normal renal artery. These were more common on the left side and at the lower pole. The artery cranial to the normal renal artery entered the anterior aspect of the kidney 4 cm below the upper pole. Two accessory arteries were seen in one kidney on right side which is cranial & caudal to normal renal artery at the distance of 1.6 cm &3.9 cm from lower part of hilum respectively. Conclusion: Knowledge of the variations in the renal arteries is important for urologists, radiologists and surgeons in general. It is of great importance in performing operations like segmental resections, partial nephrectomy, and renal transplantation

  13. KChIP2 is a core transcriptional regulator of cardiac excitability

    OpenAIRE

    Nassal, Drew M; Wan, Xiaoping; Liu, Haiyan; Maleski, Danielle; Ramirez-Navarro, Angelina; Moravec, Christine S.; Ficker, Eckhard; Laurita, Kenneth R.; Desch?nes, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    eLife digest The heart pumps blood throughout the body to provide oxygen and nourishment. To do so, proteins in the heart create electrical signals that tell the heart muscles to contract in a coordinated manner. Heart disease can cause cells to lose control of the production or activity of these proteins, creating disorganized electrical signals called arrhythmias that interfere with the heart?s ability to pump. Sometimes these arrhythmias lead to sudden death. Researchers do not know exactl...

  14. Interactions of the Ca2+ channel β2 subunit with the ion-conducting α1C subunit and the giant protein Ahnak: Functional analysis and characterization of binding domains

    OpenAIRE

    Hohaus, Annette

    2010-01-01

    L-type Ca2+channels are protein complexes that play a critical role in the regulation of muscle contractility. Gating as well as regulation of voltage-dependent Ca2+channels is for a large part determined by the interaction between ion-conducting a 1 and b subunits. An aim of this study was to analyze modulation of the smooth-muscle Ca2+channel a 1C-b subunit by the accessory b 2a subunit at single-channel level. In addition, the functional role of the a 1-b interaction...

  15. Isolated spinal accessory neuropathy and intracisternal schwannomas of the spinal accessory nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Al-Ajmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 40-year-old female patient presenting with isolated left spinal accessory neuropathy that developed insidiously over 6 years. She complained of ill-defined deep neck and shoulder pain. On examination, prominent sternocleidomastoid and trapezoid muscle weakness and atrophy, shoulder instability, and lateral scapular winging were observed. MRI identified a small mass of the cisternal portion of the spinal accessory nerve. Its appearance was typical of schwannoma. Surgical treatment was not offered because of the small tumor size, lack of mass effect and the questionable functional recovery in the presence of muscular atrophy.

  16. Study on reduction of accessory horsepower requirements. Program summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefferts, C.H.

    1977-06-15

    The objective of this program was to define, evaluate and develop automotive accessory systems to minimize engine power consumption and significantly improve fuel economy. All tasks have been completed and the program objectives have been accomplished. Information is presented on each phase of the program which involved: conceptual design to recommended component improvement and accessory drive systems; performance and sizing analyses; detail design and specifications; fabrication, and performance testing; evaluation of integrated hybrid drive, improved accessories; and an advanced air conditioning concept.

  17. Accessories for Enhancement of the Semi-Automatic Welding Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wheeler, Douglas M; Sawhill, James M

    2000-01-01

    .... The development of these accessories for work normally performed by the semi-automatic welding operator should significantly reduce operator hand-to-eye coordination requirements thereby enhancing...

  18. Inflammatory breast cancer in accessory abdominal breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy C. Miles, MD, MPH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accessory breast tissue results from failure of the embryologic mammary ridge, also known as the milk line, to involute. As a result, ectopic breast tissue can develop anywhere along this ridge, which extends from the axilla—the most common location—to the groin. Primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue is uncommon but has been reported in multiple prior studies. We present a rare case of inflammatory breast cancer presenting in upper abdominal accessory breast tissue in women with a personal history of ipsilateral breast cancer, and highlight the challenges of both diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in accessory breast tissue.

  19. The melanocortin receptors and their accessory proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwetha eRamachandrappa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The five melanocortin receptors named MC1R-MC5R have diverse physiological roles encompassing pigmentation, steroidogenesis, energy homeostasis and feeding behaviour as well as exocrine function. Since their identification almost 20 years ago much has been learnt about these receptors. As well as interacting with their endogenous ligands the melanocortin peptides, there is now a growing list of important peptides that can modulate the way these receptors signal, acting as agonists, antagonists and inverse agonists. The discovery of MRAPs as a novel accessory factor to the melanocortin receptors provides further insight into the regulation of these important GPCRs.

  20. Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenham, Julie

    This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice.

  1. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in the... cavity preparation. The device is stretched around a tooth by inserting a tooth through a hole in the...

  2. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600...

  3. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive diaphragm...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes...

  5. 21 CFR 884.1690 - Hysteroscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hysteroscope and accessories. 884.1690 Section 884.1690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... portals for electrosurgical, laser, or other power sources. Such hysteroscope accessory instruments...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. 876... Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. (1) A peritoneal dialysis system and... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After the...

  7. 21 CFR 884.1175 - Endometrial suction curette and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endometrial suction curette and accessories. 884.1175 Section 884.1175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Diagnostic Devices § 884.1175 Endometrial suction curette and accessories. (a) Identification. An endometrial...

  8. KNOW-BLADE Task-2 report: Aerodynamic accessories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik

    2004-01-01

    In the EC project KNOW-BLADE a work package has been defined to investigate the possibility to numerically model aerodynamic accessories in existing Navier-Stokes solvers. Four different aerodynamic accessories have been investigated. Firstly, thepotential of applying active flow control by means...

  9. High association between accessory soleus muscle and achilles tendonopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, Michael D.; Gordon, Andrew G.; Blebea, Judy S.; Dalinka, Murray K. [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-12-15

    This study investigated the association between accessory soleus muscle and abnormalities of the Achilles tendon. The authors reviewed 15 consecutive cases with a diagnosis of accessory soleus muscle from a computerized database of ankle magnetic resonance (MR) examinations reported between January 1998 and January 2007. On review, two cases were eliminated because of an incorrect initial diagnosis: One patient had a low lying soleus attachment to the Achilles tendon, while the other had a prominent flexor hallucis longus tendon partially obliterating Kager's fat. The remaining 13 cases with accessory soleus muscles were evaluated for Achilles tendon abnormalities. There were 13 cases of accessory soleus muscles in 11 patients; two patients had bilateral accessory soleus muscles (the only study patients with bilateral MR examinations in our sample). There were five male and six female patients ranging from 15 to 81 years of age (mean 48). There were nine cases (69.2%) in which Achilles tendonopathy was associated with accessory soleus muscle, including tendonopathy of each Achilles tendon in the two patients with bilateral accessory muscles. In our small patient population, there was a high association between accessory soleus muscle and Achilles tendonopathy. (orig.)

  10. 21 CFR 884.1600 - Transabdominal amnioscope (fetoscope) and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A transabdominal amnioscope is a device designed to permit direct visual examination of the fetus... following accessories: trocar and cannula, instruments used through an operating channel or through a... transabdominal amnioscope (fetoscope) and accessories that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or...

  11. The scolopidial accessory organ in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Multiple mechanosensory organs form the subgenual organ complex in orthopteroid insects, located in the proximal tibia. In several Ensifera (Orthoptera), a small chordotonal organ, the so-called accessory organ, is the most posterior part of this sensory complex. In order to document the presence of this accessory organ among the Ensifera, the chordotonal sensilla and their innervation in the posterior tibia of two species of Jerusalem crickets (Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus) is described. The sensory structures were stained by axonal tracing. Scolopidial sensilla occur in the posterior subgenual organ and the accessory organ in all leg pairs. The accessory organ contains 10-17 scolopidial sensilla. Both groups of sensilla are commonly spatially separated. However, in few cases neuronal fibres occurred between both organs. The two sensillum groups are considered as separate organs by the general spatial separation and innervation by different nerve branches. A functional role for mechanoreception is considered: since the accessory organ is located closely under the cuticle, sensilla may be suited to detect vibrations transferred over the leg's surface. This study extends the known taxa with an accessory organ, which occurs in several taxa of Ensifera. Comparative neuroanatomy thus suggests that the accessory organ may be conserved at least in Tettigoniidea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Accessory Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Accessory Pathways James Kulig , Bruce ... rate, which can be dangerous. What is Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome? Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is ...

  13. Design of a marine sediment trap and accessories

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Janakiraman, G.; Fernando, V.; Venkatesan, R.; Rajaraman, V.S.

    The marine sediment trap and the mooring accessories were developed indigenously and were used successfully for the collection of settling sediments in the Arabian Sea The experience gained in using sediment trap and further improvements...

  14. ISO and EIGA standards for cryogenic vessels and accessories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The EIGA/WG 6’s scope is cryogenic vessels and accessories, including their design, material compatibility, operational requirements and periodical inspection. The specific responsibilities include monitoring international standardization (ISO, CEN) and regulations (UN, TPED, PED...

  15. Incidence Of The Mandibular Accessory Foramina In Brazilian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, A. R.; Rossi, A. C.; Prado, F. B.; Caria, P. H F; Botacin, Paulo Roberto [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    In adults, the mandibular accessory foramina are variables and are located on the medial surface of the mandible in positions above or below of the mandibular foramen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of the mandibular accessory foramina in Brazilians human mandibles and discuss the clinical aspects related to the presence of these foramina. Were evaluated 222 mandibles, adults, irrespective of gender. Was observed that 27.93% and 43.24% of the mandibles presented at least ...

  16. Invasive lobular carcinoma arising in accessory breast tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Devine, Catriona; Courtney, Carol-Ann; Deb, Rahul; Agrawal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lobular carcinoma in accessory breast tissue is a rare occurrence. We present such a case in a 61-year-old woman. \\ud \\ud Case presentation: A skin nodule in the axillary skin on excision biopsy revealed invasive lobular carcinoma.\\ud \\ud Conclusions: Carcinoma in accessory breast tissue is uncommon especially invasive lobular type. A high index of suspicion may avoid late diagnosis.

  17. Cryoablation of accessory pathways in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzcu, Volkan

    2007-09-01

    Cryoablation is utilized for septal tachycardia substrates due its safety. Considering the recent studies which reveal coronary artery stenosis related to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in children, cryoablation may offer advantages for nonseptal accessory pathways (APs) as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of cryoablation of APs in children. A total of 39 patients (median age = 9.3 years, range 4.8 to 17.2 years) underwent cryoablation of APs. A three-dimensional, surface electrode-based navigation system (EnSite NavX, St. Jude Medical Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) is used to decrease the fluoroscopy exposure. A total of 45 APs were identified. Of these APs, 23 were septal (anteroseptal, midseptal, posteroseptal) and 22 were nonseptal. Acute success rate with cryoablation was 73%. RFA was used when cryoablation failed and overall acute success rate was 84%. To assess for the effect of institutional experience, the initial 23 APs were compared to the recent 22 APs and acute success rate revealed significant improvement (57% vs. 91%). Recurrence rate was 24% during a median follow-up of 282 days. Cryoablation of APs is safe and yields to high acute success rates in children. It can potentially be used as the first ablation option for all APs in children. However, recurrence rate is higher compared to the RFA and there is a need for prospective comparative studies.

  18. Accessory bones of the feet: Radiological analysis of frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Vladica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Accessory bones are most commonly found on the feet and they represent an anatomic variant. They occur when there is a failure in the formation of a unique bone from separated centre of ossification. The aim of this study was to establish their frequency and medical significance. Methods. Anteroposterior and lateral foot radiography was performed in 270 patients aged of 20-80 years with a history of trauma (180 and rheumatology disease (90. The presence and distribution of accessory bones was analysed in relation to the total number of patients and their gender. The results are expressed in numeric values and in terms of percentage. Results. Accessory bones were identified in 62 (22.96% patients: 29 (10.74% of them were found in female patients and 33 (12.22% in males. The most common accessory bones were as follows: os tibiale externum 50%, os peroneum 29.03%, ostrigonum 11.29%, os vaselianum 9.68%. Conclusion. Accessory bones found in 23% of patients with trauma and some of rheumatological diseases. Their significance is demonstrated in the differential diagnosis among degenerative diseases, avulsion fractures, muscle and tendon trauma and other types of injuries which can cause painful affection of the foot, as well as in forensic practice.

  19. Pharmacological consequences of the coexpression of BK channel α and auxiliary β subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Yolima P.; Granados, Sara T.; Latorre, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Coded by a single gene (Slo1, KCM) and activated by depolarizing potentials and by a rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BK) is unique among the superfamily of K+ channels. BK channels are tetramers characterized by a pore-forming α subunit containing seven transmembrane segments (instead of the six found in voltage-dependent K+ channels) and a large C terminus composed of two regulators of K+ conductance domains (RCK domains), where the Ca2+-binding sites reside. BK channels can be associated with accessory β subunits and, although different BK modulatory mechanisms have been described, greater interest has recently been placed on the role that the β subunits may play in the modulation of BK channel gating due to its physiological importance. Four β subunits have currently been identified (i.e., β1, β2, β3, and β4) and despite the fact that they all share the same topology, it has been shown that every β subunit has a specific tissue distribution and that they modify channel kinetics as well as their pharmacological properties and the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of the α subunit in different ways. Additionally, different studies have shown that natural, endogenous, and synthetic compounds can modulate BK channels through β subunits. Considering the importance of these channels in different pathological conditions, such as hypertension and neurological disorders, this review focuses on the mechanisms by which these compounds modulate the biophysical properties of BK channels through the regulation of β subunits, as well as their potential therapeutic uses for diseases such as those mentioned above. PMID:25346693

  20. Accessory liver lobe in the left thoracic cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Serdar; Soylu, Lutfi

    2009-06-01

    Accessory liver of the thoracic cavity is usually asymptomatic, and its incidental detection is extremely rare. In this study, an unusual case of an accessory liver lobe of the thoracic cavity in a 26-year-old woman is described. A chest roentgenogram and thoracic computed tomographic scan revealed a mass in the left thoracic cavity. Left posterolateral thoracotomy was performed by removing a 10 x 8 x 5 cm(3) mass separated from lung. The arterial and venous supply of the mass originated from the abdomen. The diaphragm was found to be intact. The pathologist reported a normal hepatic tissue. This report presented a very rare occurrence of accessory liver in the thoracic cavity.

  1. Accessory tragus: a possible sign of Goldenhar syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, James S; Schwartz, Robert A

    2011-08-01

    The accessory tragus is a relatively common benign congenital anomaly. The tragus is a cartilaginous projection that normally occurs anterior to the external auditory meatus. Although aberrancy of the tragus may occur in isolation and is exclusively derived from the first branchial arch, it may occasionally signal a defect in the first or second branchial arches. Thus it may be a sign of other syndromes, such as oculoauricularvertebral dysplasia (Goldenhar syndrome). In fact, accessory tragus is a constant feature of this syndrome and may be associated with other syndromes. Accessory tragi are polypoid and should be distinguished from acrochordon (skin tags), as the shave excision commonly employed for skin tags may expose cartilage and cause slow healing or chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis.

  2. Aplasia of the parotid glands with accessory parotid tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higley, Meghan J.; Walkiewicz, Thomas W.; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Curran, John G.; Towbin, Richard B. [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Congenital absence of the parotid gland is a rare entity. Absence is most commonly unilateral, and is not associated with accessory glandular tissue. In the majority of reported cases, parotid gland aplasia is seen with craniofacial abnormalities or hypoplasia of other ectodermal structures, particularly the lacrimal glands. We present a 14-year-old male with bilateral parotid gland aplasia detected incidentally on MRI of the brain and then confirmed on neck CT. The studies also revealed accessory parotid tissue superficial to the left masseter muscle. There were no associated craniofacial abnormalities. The lacrimal glands and submandibular glands were normal. (orig.)

  3. Accessory carpal bone luxation in two gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Dominique L; Ellison, Michelle; Clyde, Victoria L; Wallace, Roberta S

    2012-09-01

    Two sibling male castrated gray wolves (Canis lupus) developed acute onset right forelimb lameness, one at 8 and the other at 11 yr of age. In both cases, the right carpus was swollen, carpal hyperextension was notable, and the wolves exhibited significant intermittent lameness of the affected limb. Radiographs revealed right accessory carpal bone luxation in both cases, with type III fracture of the accessory carpal bone in one wolf. Although carpal bone luxation in domestic dogs is frequently treated surgically, conservative medical management resolved the lameness in both wolves with no further complications.

  4. Comparison of hemihypoglossal- and accessory-facial neurorrhaphy for treating facial paralysis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dezhi; Wan, Hong; Feng, Jie; Wang, Shiwei; Su, Diya; Hao, Shuyu; Schumacher, Michael; Liu, Song

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-end (HemiHN-FN) and accessory-facial nerve end-to-end (AN-FN) neurorrhaphy using a predegenerated nerve graft (PNG) for reanimating facial paralysis in a rat FN injury model. A total of 25 rats with complete unilateral facial paralysis resulting from section of the right FN were divided into 5 groups (n=5 each) that were submitted to immediate, delayed (3 months after FN injury) or no (control) FN reconstruction procedures involving HemiHN-FN or AN-FN neurorrhaphy. Approximately 3 months after FN reconstruction, cholera toxin subunit B conjugate Alexa 555 (CTB-Alexa 555) was injected into the ipsilateral whisker pad muscle and CTB-Alexa 555-labeled neurons were observed in the hypoglossal or accessory nuclei of all the FN reconstruction rats, but none of these neurons were found in the controls. There were numerous myelinated and nonmyelinated axons in both PNG and repaired FN of the FN reconstruction rats. No differences were found for these numbers between the two neurorrhaphy methods for each of the treatment time points, indicating the equal effectiveness of axon regeneration. However, a significantly higher number of CTB-Alexa 555-labeled neurons was observed in the hypoglossal nucleus of the immediate HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy-treated rats when compared to that in the accessory nucleus of the immediate AN-FN neurorrhaphy-treated rats, consistent with the surface values of the recorded MAPs at the whisker pad muscle while electro-stimulating the FN. These results suggest that HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy produces more efficient innervation of the paralyzed facial muscles than AN-FN neurorrhaphy without sacrificing ipsilateral hypoglossal function. Taking into consideration the clinical relevance of these findings for postoperative complications and functional reanimation in relation to the central plasticity, we suggest that HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy may be the preferable facial

  5. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of gametes...

  6. Evolutionary dynamics of the accessory genome of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk C den Bakker

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85-3.14 Mb, encode 2,822-3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II.

  7. Accessory enzymes from Aspergillus involved in xylan and pectin degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzyme systems from Aspergillus have been the subject of study for many years. Although the main chain cleaving enzymes and their encoding genes have been studied in detail, little information is available about most of the accessory

  8. Congenital sialoblastoma of the accessory parotid gland | Parag ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sialoblastomas are rare, locally aggressive, perinatal or congenital salivary gland tumours that mostly originate in the parotid gland. Significant variability in histological range and clinical course exists. This report is of a case of congenital sialoblastoma of the accessory parotid gland.

  9. Congenital sialoblastoma of the accessory parotid gland: case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tumours generally originate in the parotid gland but may arise in the submandibular or minor salivary gland. This report presents a case of congenital sialoblastoma of the accessory parotid gland. Case report. A 3-day-old male neonate was referred with a large left facial mass with a provisional diagnosis of a teratoma.

  10. An Accessory Flexor Of The Thumb | Chukwuanukwu | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of accessory muscles, nerves and other tissues/organs in the upper limb and other parts of the body of some individuals have been previously reported. We report the case of a cadaver with an accesort flexor muscle of the left thumb. This muscle is located on the volar aspect of the left forearm. It originates ...

  11. Accessory proteins of SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding Xiang; Fung, To Sing; Chong, Kelvin Kian-Long; Shukla, Aditi; Hilgenfeld, Rolf

    2014-09-01

    The huge RNA genome of SARS coronavirus comprises a number of open reading frames that code for a total of eight accessory proteins. Although none of these are essential for virus replication, some appear to have a role in virus pathogenesis. Notably, some SARS-CoV accessory proteins have been shown to modulate the interferon signaling pathways and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The structural information on these proteins is also limited, with only two (p7a and p9b) having their structures determined by X-ray crystallography. This review makes an attempt to summarize the published knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins, with an emphasis on their involvement in virus-host interaction. The accessory proteins of other coronaviruses are also briefly discussed. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses" (see Introduction by Hilgenfeld and Peiris (2013)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A dual olfactory system, represented by two anatomically distinct but spatially proximate chemosensory epithelia that project to separate areas of the forebrain, is known in several classes of tetrapods. Lungfish are the earliest evolving vertebrates known to have this dual system, comprising a main olfactory and a vomeronasal system (VNO). Lampreys, a group of jawless vertebrates, have a single nasal capsule containing two anatomically distinct epithelia, the main (MOE) and the accessory olfactory epithelia (AOE). We speculated that lamprey AOE projects to specific telencephalic regions as a precursor to the tetrapod vomeronasal system. Results To test this hypothesis, we characterized the neural circuits and molecular profiles of the accessory olfactory epithelium in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Neural tract-tracing revealed direct and reciprocal connections with the dorsomedial telencephalic neuropil (DTN) which in turn projects directly to the dorsal pallium and the rostral hypothalamus. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that the main and the accessory olfactory epithelia have virtually identical profiles of expressed genes. Real time quantitative PCR confirmed expression of representatives of all 3 chemoreceptor gene families identified in the sea lamprey genome. Conclusion Anatomical and molecular evidence shows that the sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system that may serve a chemosensory function. PMID:23957559

  13. Lesions of the accessory parotid gland in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currarino, Guido [Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Votteler, Theodore P. [Children' s Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The accessory parotid gland, a little-known and seldom-mentioned anatomical variant, is a nodule of normal salivary tissue separate from the main parotid gland, located on the masseter muscle and connected to the Stensen duct at that level. It can be the site of both congenital and acquired lesions. (orig.)

  14. Fractionation of plasma globulin for prothrombin, thrombokinase, and accessory thromboplastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILSTONE, J H

    1951-09-01

    1. Crude globulin from more than 1,000 liters of citrated bovine plasma has been used in developing a procedure for moderately large scale separation of clotting factors. Fraction A, prothrombin, kinase, and thrombin fractions were prepared. Fraction A contained both kinase and accessory thromboplastin, the latter predominating when fraction A was diluted. 2. When prothrombin was activated by kinase, the rate of thrombin production was enhanced by the addition of platelets, or brain lipid, or dilute fraction A. These accessory thromboplastins caused this acceleration only when calcium chloride was added. Even with calcium, they were not effective unless kinase was present. 3. In contrast, the action of kinase was not entirely dependent on either ionic calcium or accessory thromboplastin. The concentrated kinase fraction activated prothrombin in the presence of excess oxalate. Although kinase often contaminates highly purified thrombins, it is probably distinct from thrombin. The ratio of kinase to thrombin was 100 times as great in the kinase fraction as in the thrombin fraction. 4. The kinase fraction, diluted 45,000-fold, to protein-nitrogen concentrations as low as 0.02 microgram per ml., accelerated the conversion of crude prokinase in three-stage tests. 5. The findings are consistent with the following concept of the basic enzymatic mechanism: See PDF for Structure It is now added that calcium and accessory thromboplastin exert their effects by impinging on the basic mechanism, in a chemically secondary or indirect manner.

  15. The benefits of using bluetooth accessories with hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pauline; Davis, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the benefits in reported outcomes after providing bluetooth accessories for established hearing aid users. Prospective observational study using validated quantitative outcome measures and detailed patient narrative before and two months after patients were provided with bluetooth accessories. Twelve patients with bilateral NHS hearing aids participated. They had a wide range of ages and hearing loss. After two months, 10 patients reported substantial additional benefit and kept the accessories; two returned them for various reasons. Statistically significant changes were seen in two validated outcome measures: the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile and the International Outcome Inventory - Hearing Aids, but not in the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale. Two notable benefits were reported: some described hearing the emotion and mood in a voice for the first time; others were amazed to report an improved ability to hear film or to hold conversations over the telephone. The provision of bluetooth accessories can give additional reported benefit for some patients - we need better knowledge about who benefits, and whether further support/training to individuals would make a difference.

  16. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism was analysed in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and. D. sulfurigaster neonasuta for the first time, using SDS-PAGE to score polymorphism of these proteins in 2788 individuals of D. n. nasuta and 2232 individuals of D. s. neonasuta from 12 different ...

  17. Colonization, Infection, and the Accessory Genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rebekah M.; Bachman, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen that has a large accessory genome of plasmids and chromosomal gene loci. This accessory genome divides K. pneumoniae strains into opportunistic, hypervirulent, and multidrug-resistant groups and separates K. pneumoniae from two closely related species, Klebsiella variicola and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae. Some strains of K. pneumoniae act as opportunistic pathogens, infecting critically ill and immunocompromised patients. These K. pneumoniae are a common cause of health-care associated infections including pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and bloodstream infections. K. variicola and K. quasipneumoniae are often clinically indistinguishable from opportunistic K. pneumoniae. Other strains of K. pneumoniae are hypervirulent, infecting healthy people in community settings and causing severe infections including pyogenic liver abscess, endophthalmitis, and meningitis. A third group of K. pneumoniae encode carbapenemases, making them highly antibiotic-resistant. These strains act as opportunists but are exceedingly difficult to treat. All of these groups of K. pneumoniae and related species can colonize the gastrointestinal tract, and the accessory genome may determine if a colonizing strain remains asymptomatic or progresses to cause disease. This review will explore the associations between colonization and infection with opportunistic, antibiotic-resistant, and hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains and the role of the accessory genome in distinguishing these groups and related species. As K. pneumoniae infections become progressively more difficult to treat in the face of antibiotic resistance and hypervirulent strains, an increased understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these bacteria is vital. PMID:29404282

  18. Quantitative analysis of solid samples using modified specular reflectance accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Tomasz; Mazurek, Sylwester; Szostak, Roman

    2016-12-01

    Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is a fast, reliable and cost effective analytical method, requiring minimal or no sample preparation. It is commonly used in the course of qualitative and quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical ingredients and food. We demonstrate that simpler and cheaper specular reflectance (SR) accessory working in a DRIFTS like mode (SR-DL) can be an alternative for DIRFTS attachment. An application of a modified SR accessory for quantitative analysis of solids samples is presented. As a case study the concentration of cinnarizine in commercial tablets has been determined from DRIFTS and SR-DL infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra recorded using DTGS (deuterated triglicine sulphate) detector in the IR and NIR regions and InGaAs (indium-gallium arsenide) detector in the NIR range. Based on these spectra Partial Least Squares (PLS) models were constructed and relative standard errors of prediction (RSEP) were calculated for the calibration, validation and analysed data sets. They amounted to 2.4-2.5%, 2.1-2.7% and 2.0-2.6% for the DRIFTS attachment while 2.1-2.2%, 2.0-2.3% and 1.9-2.6%, respectively, for the modified SR accessory. Obtained error values indicate that modified SR accessory can be effectively used for quantification of solid pharmaceutical samples in the mid- and near-infrared regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Colonization, Infection, and the Accessory Genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah M. Martin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen that has a large accessory genome of plasmids and chromosomal gene loci. This accessory genome divides K. pneumoniae strains into opportunistic, hypervirulent, and multidrug-resistant groups and separates K. pneumoniae from two closely related species, Klebsiella variicola and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae. Some strains of K. pneumoniae act as opportunistic pathogens, infecting critically ill and immunocompromised patients. These K. pneumoniae are a common cause of health-care associated infections including pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs, and bloodstream infections. K. variicola and K. quasipneumoniae are often clinically indistinguishable from opportunistic K. pneumoniae. Other strains of K. pneumoniae are hypervirulent, infecting healthy people in community settings and causing severe infections including pyogenic liver abscess, endophthalmitis, and meningitis. A third group of K. pneumoniae encode carbapenemases, making them highly antibiotic-resistant. These strains act as opportunists but are exceedingly difficult to treat. All of these groups of K. pneumoniae and related species can colonize the gastrointestinal tract, and the accessory genome may determine if a colonizing strain remains asymptomatic or progresses to cause disease. This review will explore the associations between colonization and infection with opportunistic, antibiotic-resistant, and hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains and the role of the accessory genome in distinguishing these groups and related species. As K. pneumoniae infections become progressively more difficult to treat in the face of antibiotic resistance and hypervirulent strains, an increased understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these bacteria is vital.

  20. Termination pattern of the main and accessory pancreatic ducts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pancreas has the main and occasionally a patent accessory pancreatic ducts that carry secretions to the duodenum. Anatomical studies on these ducts are limited. The present study observed the anatomy of the two ducts in eighty six Tanzanians' autopsy subjects to find out if the pattern is similar to those reported from ...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... site of surgical incision from microbial and other contamination. The device includes a plastic wound protector that may adhere to the skin around a surgical incision or be placed in a wound to cover its... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical drape and drape accessories. 878.4370...

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Two Wheelchair Accessories for Pushing Doors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Soran Jalal; Shaikh Mohammed, Javeed

    2017-03-27

    Independent mobility is vital to individuals of all ages, and wheelchairs have proven to be great personal mobility devices. The tasks of opening and navigating through a door are trivial for healthy people, while the same tasks could be difficult for some wheelchair users. A wide range of intelligent wheelchair controllers and systems, robotic arms, or manipulator attachments integrated with wheelchairs have been developed for various applications, including manipulating door knobs. Unfortunately, the intelligent wheelchairs and robotic attachments are not widely available as commercial products. Therefore, the current manuscript presents the modeling and simulation of a novel but simple technology in the form of a passive wheelchair accessory (straight, arm-like with a single wheel, and arc-shaped with multiple wheels) for pushing doors open from a wheelchair. From the simulations using different wheel shapes and sizes, it was found that the arc-shaped accessory could push open the doors faster and with almost half the required force as compared to the arm-like accessory. Also, smaller spherical wheels were found to be best in terms of reaction forces on the wheels. Prototypes based on the arc-shaped accessory design will be manufactured and evaluated for pushing doors open and dodging or gliding other obstacles.

  3. Complete Spinal Accessory Nerve Palsy From Carrying Climbing Gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Jess M; Warme, Winston J

    2015-09-01

    We report an unusual case of spinal accessory nerve palsy sustained while transporting climbing gear. Spinal accessory nerve injury is commonly a result of iatrogenic surgical trauma during lymph node excision. This particular nerve is less frequently injured by blunt trauma. The case reported here results from compression of the spinal accessory nerve for a sustained period-that is, carrying a load over the shoulder using a single nylon rope for 2.5 hours. This highlights the importance of using proper load-carrying equipment to distribute weight over a greater surface area to avoid nerve compression in the posterior triangle of the neck. The signs and symptoms of spinal accessory nerve palsy and its etiology are discussed. This report is particularly relevant to individuals involved in mountaineering and rock climbing but can be extended to anyone carrying a load with a strap over one shoulder and across the body. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of fimbrial subunits from Bordetella species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, F.R.; Heide, H.G.J. van der; Avest, A.R. ter; Welinder, K.G.; Livey, I.; Zeijst, B.A.M. van der; Gaastra, W.

    Using antisera raised against serotype 2 and 3 fimbrial subunits from Bordetella pertussis, serologically related polypeptides were detected in Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella avium strains. The two B. pertussis fimbrial subunits, and three of the serologically

  5. Subunit mass analysis for monitoring antibody oxidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sokolowska, Izabela; Mo, Jingjie; Dong, Jia; Lewis, Michael J; Hu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    ... (light chain, Fd' and single chain Fc). These subunits were analyzed by reversed phase-ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with an online quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and the levels of oxidation on each subunit...

  6. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I

    1991-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies.......cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  7. Caudate haemorrhage caused by pseudoaneurysm of accessory middle cerebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Shinichiro; Tokugawa, Joji; Nakao, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Takuji

    2015-12-30

    A 68-year-old man experienced a right caudate haemorrhage with intraventricular haemorrhage. Although a subarachnoid haemorrhage was not shown clearly, our investigation demonstrated an aneurysm-like vascular pouch located in the anomalous vessel arising from the A2 segment of the right anterior cerebral artery. Rupture of the vascular pouch was considered to be the cause of the caudate haemorrhage. Neck clipping was performed. In intraoperative observation, the anomalous vessel was diagnosed as a right accessory middle cerebral artery. Histopathology of the saccular wall showed only an adventitia and a fibrin layer, indicating a pseudoaneurysm. We routinely perform detailed vascular evaluation for any cerebrovascular disease. A meticulous vascular survey makes it possible to obtain valuable clues in cases such as caudate haemorrhage due to pseudoaneurysm of the accessory middle cerebral artery, leading to prevention of rebleeding. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Headgear Accessories Classification Using an Overhead Depth Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Luna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the generation of semantic labels describing the headgear accessories carried out by people in a scene under surveillance, only using depth information obtained from a Time-of-Flight (ToF camera placed in an overhead position. We propose a new method for headgear accessories classification based on the design of a robust processing strategy that includes the estimation of a meaningful feature vector that provides the relevant information about the people’s head and shoulder areas. This paper includes a detailed description of the proposed algorithmic approach, and the results obtained in tests with persons with and without headgear accessories, and with different types of hats and caps. In order to evaluate the proposal, a wide experimental validation has been carried out on a fully labeled database (that has been made available to the scientific community, including a broad variety of people and headgear accessories. For the validation, three different levels of detail have been defined, considering a different number of classes: the first level only includes two classes (hat/cap, and no hat/cap, the second one considers three classes (hat, cap and no hat/cap, and the last one includes the full class set with the five classes (no hat/cap, cap, small size hat, medium size hat, and large size hat. The achieved performance is satisfactory in every case: the average classification rates for the first level reaches 95.25%, for the second one is 92.34%, and for the full class set equals 84.60%. In addition, the online stage processing time is 5.75 ms per frame in a standard PC, thus allowing for real-time operation.

  9. Headgear Accessories Classification Using an Overhead Depth Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Carlos A; Macias-Guarasa, Javier; Losada-Gutierrez, Cristina; Marron-Romera, Marta; Mazo, Manuel; Luengo-Sanchez, Sara; Macho-Pedroso, Roberto

    2017-08-10

    In this paper, we address the generation of semantic labels describing the headgear accessories carried out by people in a scene under surveillance, only using depth information obtained from a Time-of-Flight (ToF) camera placed in an overhead position. We propose a new method for headgear accessories classification based on the design of a robust processing strategy that includes the estimation of a meaningful feature vector that provides the relevant information about the people's head and shoulder areas. This paper includes a detailed description of the proposed algorithmic approach, and the results obtained in tests with persons with and without headgear accessories, and with different types of hats and caps. In order to evaluate the proposal, a wide experimental validation has been carried out on a fully labeled database (that has been made available to the scientific community), including a broad variety of people and headgear accessories. For the validation, three different levels of detail have been defined, considering a different number of classes: the first level only includes two classes (hat/cap, and no hat/cap), the second one considers three classes (hat, cap and no hat/cap), and the last one includes the full class set with the five classes (no hat/cap, cap, small size hat, medium size hat, and large size hat). The achieved performance is satisfactory in every case: the average classification rates for the first level reaches 95.25%, for the second one is 92.34%, and for the full class set equals 84.60%. In addition, the online stage processing time is 5.75 ms per frame in a standard PC, thus allowing for real-time operation.

  10. Species tropism of HIV-1 modulated by viral accessory proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Masako eNomaguchi; Naoya eDoi; Yui eMatsumoto; Yosuke eSakai; Sachi eFujiwara; Akio eAdachi

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is tropic and pathogenic only for humans, and does not replicate in macaque monkeys routinely used for experimental infections. This specially narrow host range (species tropism) has impeded much the progress of HIV-1/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) basic research. Extensive studies on the underlying mechanism have revealed that Vif, one of viral accessory proteins, is critical for the HIV-1 species tropism in addition to Gag-capsid protei...

  11. Headgear Accessories Classification Using an Overhead Depth Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Carlos A.; Marron-Romera, Marta; Mazo, Manuel; Luengo-Sanchez, Sara; Macho-Pedroso, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address the generation of semantic labels describing the headgear accessories carried out by people in a scene under surveillance, only using depth information obtained from a Time-of-Flight (ToF) camera placed in an overhead position. We propose a new method for headgear accessories classification based on the design of a robust processing strategy that includes the estimation of a meaningful feature vector that provides the relevant information about the people’s head and shoulder areas. This paper includes a detailed description of the proposed algorithmic approach, and the results obtained in tests with persons with and without headgear accessories, and with different types of hats and caps. In order to evaluate the proposal, a wide experimental validation has been carried out on a fully labeled database (that has been made available to the scientific community), including a broad variety of people and headgear accessories. For the validation, three different levels of detail have been defined, considering a different number of classes: the first level only includes two classes (hat/cap, and no hat/cap), the second one considers three classes (hat, cap and no hat/cap), and the last one includes the full class set with the five classes (no hat/cap, cap, small size hat, medium size hat, and large size hat). The achieved performance is satisfactory in every case: the average classification rates for the first level reaches 95.25%, for the second one is 92.34%, and for the full class set equals 84.60%. In addition, the online stage processing time is 5.75 ms per frame in a standard PC, thus allowing for real-time operation. PMID:28796177

  12. Unusual insidious spinal accessory nerve palsy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou Nikolaos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Isolated spinal accessory nerve dysfunction has a major detrimental impact on the functional performance of the shoulder girdle, and is a well-documented complication of surgical procedures in the posterior triangle of the neck. To the best of our knowledge, the natural course and the most effective way of handling spontaneous spinal accessory nerve palsy has been described in only a few instances in the literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 36-year-old Caucasian, Greek man with spontaneous unilateral trapezius palsy with an insidious course. To the best of our knowledge, few such cases have been documented in the literature. The unusual clinical presentation and functional performance mismatch with the imaging findings were also observed. Our patient showed a deterioration that was different from the usual course of this pathology, with an early onset of irreversible trapezius muscle dysfunction two months after the first clinical signs started to manifest. A surgical reconstruction was proposed as the most efficient treatment, but our patient declined this. Although he failed to recover fully after conservative treatment for eight months, he regained moderate function and is currently virtually pain-free. Conclusion Clinicians have to be aware that due to anatomical variation and the potential for compensation by the levator scapulae, the clinical consequences of any injury to the spinal accessory nerve may vary.

  13. AcCNET (Accessory Genome Constellation Network): comparative genomics software for accessory genome analysis using bipartite networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Val F; Baquero, Fernando; de la Cruz, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2017-01-15

    AcCNET (Accessory genome Constellation Network) is a Perl application that aims to compare accessory genomes of a large number of genomic units, both at qualitative and quantitative levels. Using the proteomes extracted from the analysed genomes, AcCNET creates a bipartite network compatible with standard network analysis platforms. AcCNET allows merging phylogenetic and functional information about the concerned genomes, thus improving the capability of current methods of network analysis. The AcCNET bipartite network opens a new perspective to explore the pangenome of bacterial species, focusing on the accessory genome behind the idiosyncrasy of a particular strain and/or population. AcCNET is available under GNU General Public License version 3.0 (GPLv3) from http://sourceforge.net/projects/accnet CONTACT: : valfernandez.vf@gmail.comSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Torsion of the accessory spleen with infarction : CT features in a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Jung Kyung; Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Mee Eun; Pyun, Hae Wook; Lee, Il Gi; Lee, Jong Gil; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Ik Su [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    Torsion of the accessory spleen is a rare entity that can have variable clinical presentations. We report case involving an 11-year-old boy with severe abdominal pain and a mass that was found to be due to infarction of the accessory spleen, which was twisted on its pedicle. CT revealed a low-attenuating mass with peripheral inflammatory changes in the left upper abdomen. The mass was pathologically confirmed as torsion of the accessory spleen with infarction. (author)

  15. Stoichiometry of δ subunit containing GABAA receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B; Mortensen, M; Smart, T G

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although the stoichiometry of the major synaptic αβγ subunit-containing GABAA receptors has consensus support for 2α:2β:1γ, a clear view of the stoichiometry of extrasynaptic receptors containing δ subunits has remained elusive. Here we examine the subunit stoichiometry of recombinant α4β3δ receptors using a reporter mutation and a functional electrophysiological approach. Experimental Approach Using site-directed mutagenesis, we inserted a highly characterized 9′ serine to leucine mutation into the second transmembrane (M2) region of α4, β3 and δ subunits that increases receptor sensitivity to GABA. Whole-cell, GABA-activated currents were recorded from HEK-293 cells co-expressing different combinations of wild-type (WT) and/or mutant α4(L297S), β3(L284S) and δ(L288S) subunits. Key Results Recombinant receptors containing one or more mutant subunits showed increased GABA sensitivity relative to WT receptors by approximately fourfold, independent of the subunit class (α, β or δ) carrying the mutation. GABA dose–response curves of cells co-expressing WT subunits with their respective L9′S mutants exhibited multiple components, with the number of discernible components enabling a subunit stoichiometry of 2α, 2β and 1δ to be deduced for α4β3δ receptors. Varying the cDNA transfection ratio by 10-fold had no significant effect on the number of incorporated δ subunits. Conclusions and Implications Subunit stoichiometry is an important determinant of GABAA receptor function and pharmacology, and δ subunit-containing receptors are important mediators of tonic inhibition in several brain regions. Here we demonstrate a preferred subunit stoichiometry for α4β3δ receptors of 2α, 2β and 1δ. PMID:24206220

  16. Incomplete and accessory fissures of the lung evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heřmanová, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.hermanova2@fnol.cz; Čtvrtlík, Filip, E-mail: filip.ctvrtlik@fnol.cz; Heřman, Miroslav, E-mail: herman@fnol.cz

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to assess incomplete and accessory interlobar fissures using volumetric thin-section high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Materials and methods: Retrospective assessment of HRCT examinations of 250 patients was performed. We assessed the localization, extension, and type of the incompleteness of fissures as well as the presence and localization of accessory fissures. We searched for possible correlation among the localization of interlobar fissures, the presence of incompleteness, and accessory fissures. Results: On the left side, an incomplete oblique fissure was found in 24%. The discontinuity was present in the parahilar region and the area of the incompleteness was most frequently between 21% and 40%. The right oblique fissure was incomplete in 35%, mostly parahilarly, with the most frequent discontinuity below 20%. An incomplete horizontal fissure was found in 74%. Accessory fissures were identified in 16% of patients, with the same frequency on both sides. The most frequent finding was accessory horizontal fissure with 8.0% on the left side, superior accessory fissure (7.2%) and inferior accessory fissure (5.2%) on the right side. No correlation was found among the localization of interlobar fissures, the presence of incompleteness, and accessory fissures. Conclusion: Incomplete and accessory fissures are frequent anatomic variations of interlobar fissures.

  17. AMPA receptor/TARP stoichiometry visualized by single-molecule subunit counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Peter; Ulbrich, Maximilian H; Wang, Hui-Li; Arant, Ryan J; Lau, Anthony G; Zhang, Zhenjie; Isacoff, Ehud Y; Chen, Lu

    2013-03-26

    Members of the transmembrane AMPA receptor-regulatory protein (TARP) family modulate AMPA receptor (AMPA-R) trafficking and function. AMPA-Rs consist of four pore-forming subunits. Previous studies show that TARPs are an integral part of the AMPA-R complex, acting as accessory subunits for mature receptors in vivo. The TARP/AMPA-R stoichiometry was previously measured indirectly and found to be variable and dependent on TARP expression level, with at most four TARPs associated with each AMPA-R complex. Here, we use a single-molecule technique in live cells that selectively images proteins located in the plasma membrane to directly count the number of TARPs associated with each AMPA-R complex. Although individual GFP-tagged TARP subunits are observed as freely diffusing fluorescent spots on the surface of Xenopus laevis oocytes when expressed alone, coexpression with AMPA-R-mCherry immobilizes the stargazin-GFP spots at sites of AMPA-R-mCherry, consistent with complex formation. We determined the number of TARP molecules associated with each AMPA-R by counting bleaching steps for three different TARP family members: γ-2, γ-3, and γ-4. We confirm that the TARP/AMPA-R stoichiometry depends on TARP expression level and discover that the maximum number of TARPs per AMPA-R complex falls into two categories: up to four γ-2 or γ-3 subunits, but rarely above two for γ-4 subunit. This unexpected AMPA-R/TARP stoichiometry difference has important implications for the assembly and function of TARP/AMPA-R complexes.

  18. GSM accessories now available from the CERN Stores

    CERN Multimedia

    Labo Telecom

    2001-01-01

    As of 1st October you can order and receive GSM accessories from the CERN stores like any other article. The CERN stores also manage GSM telephones but, for technical reasons, only the Labo Telecom shop (Building 31, Room S026) is able to make the standard sales, repairs and exchanges for authorised persons with a CERN subscription. Labo Telecom will thus become a specialist shop, open from 11 a.m. to 12 a.m., and will apply the usual rules and authorisation procedures of the stores. The paper form for requests for GSM subscriptions is being computerized and will be available on EDH in the near future.

  19. Molecular population genetics of male accessory gland proteins in Drosophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Begun, D J; Whitley, P; Todd, B L; Waldrip-Dail, H M; Clark, A G

    2000-01-01

    Drosophila seminal proteins have an unusually high rate of molecular sequence evolution, suggesting either a high rate of neutral substitution or rapid adaptive evolution. To further quantify patterns of polymorphism and divergence in genes encoding seminal proteins, also called accessory gland proteins (Acp's), we conducted a sequencing survey of 10 Acp genes in samples of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans (Acp29AB, Acp32CD, Acp33A, Acp36DE, Acp53Ea, Acp62F, Acp63F, Acp76A, Acp95EF, an...

  20. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  1. Subunit heterogeneity in the lima bean lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D D; Etzler, M E; Goldstein, I J

    1982-08-10

    Three forms of lectin (components I, II, and III) from lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) have been purified on an affinity support containing the synthetic type A blood group trisaccharide alpha-D-GalNAc-(1 leads to 3)-[alpha-L-Fuc-(1 leads to 2)]-beta-D-Gal-(1 leads to). Conversion of components I and II to component III has been achieved by reduction in 10(-2) M dithiothreitol. Isoelectric focusing of lima bean lectin in the presence of 8 M urea and beta-mercaptoethanol revealed charge heterogeneity of the lectin subunits. Three major subunit classes of apparent pI 7.05, 6.65, and 6.45, designated alpha, beta, and alpha', respectively, were identified; they occur in a relative abundance of 2:5:3. Green lima beans harvested before maturity lacked the alpha' subunit (pI 6.45) which appears to accumulate during seed maturation. The three subunits are glycoproteins of identical size and immunochemical reactivity. Identical NH2-terminal sequences were found for the three subunits. Amino acid analysis and tryptic peptide mapping indicated that the observed charge heterogeneity is probably due to differences in the primary structure of the subunits. Studies of subunit composition of charge isolectins provided evidence of nonrandom subunit assembly. A model is proposed involving pairing of a pI 6.65 subunit with either a pI 7.06 or 6.45 subunit to form dimeric units. Possible roles for subunit heterogeneity and ordered subunit assembly in determining the metal and sugar binding properties of lima bean lectin are discussed.

  2. Iatrogenic injury of the spinal accessory nerve. Results of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, K; Tachibana, S

    1998-11-01

    We reviewed the results of repair of the spinal accessory nerve in seven patients seen between September 1994 and January 1996. The nerve had been injured during biopsy of a cervical lymph node in six patients and during removal of a bullet in one. The average interval between the time of the injury and the repair of the nerve was eight months (range, three to fourteen months). An end-to-end repair of the nerve was performed in six patients, and a neurolysis was done in one. The average duration of follow-up was thirty-two months (range, twenty-four to thirty-nine months). Postoperatively, all seven patients had relief of pain and stiffness in the shoulder girdle. Manual muscle-testing revealed normal strength of the trapezius, which was comparable with that on the unaffected side. Four patients regained normal function of the shoulder. Three patients reported a stretching sensation or discomfort in the neck, periscapular discomfort, and fatigue of the extremity when lifting heavy objects or performing overhead activities. However, these residual symptoms were mild and tolerable and thus were different in nature from the preoperative pain and stiffness. Iatrogenic injury of the spinal accessory nerve should be suspected if a patient has pain or stiffness in the shoulder girdle and a history of a recent operation on the neck. The nerve should be explored if spontaneous recovery does not occur.

  3. The accessory coracobrachialis muscle: ultrasound and MR features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauones, Salem [Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM), Department of Radiology, Hopital Saint-Luc, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Moraux, Antoine [Imagerie Medicale Jacquemars Gielee, Lille (France)

    2015-09-15

    To present the prevalence, clinical relevance, and ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of the accessory coracobrachialis (ACB) muscle. We present an US prospective study of the ACB muscle over a 2-year period. Five of the eight patients with suspected ACB on US were subsequently examined by MRI. An ACB muscle was demonstrated by US in eight patients (eight shoulders), including seven females, one male, with mean age 39 years, over 770 (664 patients) consecutive shoulder US examinations referred to our institution yielding a prevalence of 1.04 %. In dynamic US assessment, one case of subcoracoid impingement secondary to a bulky ACB was diagnosed. No thoracic outlet syndrome was encountered in the remaining cases. MRI confirmed the presence of the accessory muscle in five cases. ACB muscle is a rarely reported yet not uncommon anatomic variation of the shoulder musculature encountered only in eight of 664 patients referred for shoulder US study. Its US and MRI appearance is described. One of our patients presented with subcoracoid impingement related to the presence of an ACB. (orig.)

  4. Accessory subscapularis muscle - A forgotten variation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, L A S; Souza, C F C; Teixeira, A R; Leite, T F O; Babinski, M A; Chagas, C A A

    2017-06-01

    The quadrangular space is a space in the axilla bounded by the inferior margin of the teres minor muscle, the superior margin of the teres major muscle, the lateral margin of the long head of the triceps brachii muscle and the surgical neck of the humerus, medially. The axillary nerve (C5-C6) and the posterior circumflex humeral artery and veins pass through this space in order to supply their territories. The subscapularis muscle is situated into the scapular fossa and inserts itself into the lesser tubercle of the humerus, thus helping stabilize the shoulder joint. A supernumerary muscle known as accessory subscapularis muscle originates from the anterior surface of the muscle and usually inserts itself into the shoulder joint. It is a rare variation with few reports of its existence and incidence. We present a case of the accessory subscapularis muscle in a male cadaver fixated with a 10% formalin solution. The muscle passed anteriorly to the axillary nerve, thus, predisposing an individual to quadrangular space compression syndrome. We perform a review of the literature and address its clinical, anthropological and anatomical significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of the Rubisco Small Subunit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spreitzer, Robert Joseph [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-11-05

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of CO2 fixation in photosynthesis. However, it is a slow enzyme, and O2 competes with CO2 at the active site. Oxygenation initiates the photorespiratory pathway, which also results in the loss of CO2. If carboxylation could be increased or oxygenation decreased, an increase in net CO2 fixation would be realized. Because Rubisco provides the primary means by which carbon enters all life on earth, there is much interest in engineering Rubisco to increase the production of food and renewable energy. Rubisco is located in the chloroplasts of plants, and it is comprised of two subunits. Much is known about the chloroplast-gene-encoded large subunit (rbcL gene), which contains the active site, but much less is known about the role of the nuclear-gene-encoded small subunit in Rubisco function (rbcS gene). Both subunits are coded by multiple genes in plants, which makes genetic engineering difficult. In the eukaryotic, green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, it has been possible to eliminate all the Rubisco genes. These Rubisco-less mutants can be maintained by providing acetate as an alternative carbon source. In this project, focus has been placed on determining whether the small subunit might be a better genetic-engineering target for improving Rubisco. Analysis of a variable-loop structure (βA-βB loop) of the small subunit by genetic selection, directed mutagenesis, and construction of chimeras has shown that the small subunit can influence CO2/O2 specificity. X-ray crystal structures of engineered chimeric-loop enzymes have indicated that additional residues and regions of the small subunit may also contribute to Rubisco function. Structural dynamics of the small-subunit carboxyl terminus was also investigated. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the most-conserved small-subunit residues has identified a

  6. 21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appliances and accessories. 888.3030 Section 888.3030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3030 Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories. (a) Identification...

  7. 77 FR 15390 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on... covering handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof that infringe U.S. Trademark Registration... impact consumers in the United States. Written submissions must be filed no later than by close of...

  8. Origin of left accessory hepatic artery from the left gastric artery in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of accessory hepatic artery that arose from the left gastric artery, entered the liver at an independent site from the porta hepatis to supply the left lobe of the liver. Transplantation of such livers with multi vascular pedicles may pose a challenge during anastomosis of these accessory hepatic arteries of the ...

  9. 14 CFR 221.52 - Airport to airport application, accessorial services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airport to airport application, accessorial... Charges § 221.52 Airport to airport application, accessorial services. Tariffs shall specify whether or not the fares therein include services in addition to airport-to-airport transportation. ...

  10. An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen simulating tumors of the tail of pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sinha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen, a rare condition may present as pseudocyst of pancreas and other cystic tumors of the pancreas. This case report along with the review of literature attributes some clinical features and investigative pattern to differentiate between epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen and other cystic tumor of pancreas.

  11. Design of Fashion Accessories Using Akwa-Ocha Motifs and Symbols

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exploration of Akwa-Ocha motifs and symbols for the design of fashion accessories for obvious reasons include creating an identity, checking the emphasis already placed on foreign fashion accessories, creating awareness and projecting one of Nigeria's rich cultural heritages. Key Words: Akwa-Ocha, motifs, symbols, ...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and....4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a device intended to remove tissue and control...

  13. 77 FR 5420 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for the Aeronautical Accessories Inc. (AAI) High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly (aft... aft crosstube assembly, removing paint and sealant, and fluorescent penetrant inspecting each aft...

  14. 77 FR 37768 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Accessories, Inc. (AAI), High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly (aft crosstube) installed on certain Bell...) Applicability This AD applies to High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly (aft crosstube) part number (P/N) 412...

  15. The KCNE1 beta-subunit exerts a transient effect on the KCNQ1 K+ channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Klærke, Dan Arne

    2007-01-01

      The KCNE1 beta-subunit is a modulatory one-trans-membrane segment accessory protein that alters KCNQ1 K(+) channel current characteristics, though it is not required for channel expression. The KCNE1 and KCNQ1 interaction was investigated by looking for effects of expression time on channel...... currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes. We found that long-time expression of KCNQ1+KCNE1 (2-14 days) resulted in gradual changes in current characteristics resembling a disappearance of KCNE1 from the oocyte plasma membrane. Towards the end of the expression period the current of oocytes expressing KCNQ1+KCNE......1 was indistinguishable from those expressing KCNQ1 alone. No time dependent effect was seen in oocytes expressing KCNQ1 alone or a concatamer of KCNQ1 and KCNE1. Brefeldin A was tested, showing that measured current was independent of exocytosis (decreased capacitance) thus eliminating a continuous...

  16. Accessory mental foramina, incisive nerve plexus and lingual canals with unusual emergence paths: Report of two rare cases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haghanifar, Sina; Poorsattar Bejeh Mir, Arash

    2015-01-01

    .... The first case was 62 years old and was found to have two accessory mental foramina with buccal emergence on the left side and two accessory mental foramina with buccal and lingual emergence paths on the right side...

  17. 28 CFR 51.6 - Political subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subunits. 51.6 Section 51.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.6 Political subunits. All political...

  18. Chloroquine inhibits accessory cell presentation of soluble natural and synthetic protein antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the in vitro effect of the lysosomotrophic agent, chloroquine, on the presentation of soluble protein antigens by guinea pig accessory cells. Chloroquine inhibited the capacity of antigen-pulsed accessory cells to stimulate proliferation in appropriately primed T cells. The effect...... acts on an early event in the antigen handling by accessory cells. Chloroquine is a well known inhibitor of lysosomal proteolysis, and it is likely that its effect on antigen presentation is caused by an inhibition of antigen degradation....... was time- and dose-dependent. A brief treatment solely of the accessory cells with the drug compromised their ability to stimulate primed T cells in a subsequent culture provided the accessory cells were treated with chloroquine before their exposure to the antigen. These results suggest that chloroquine...

  19. Successful catheter ablation of a left anterior accessory pathway from the non-coronary cusp of the aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Sérgio; Oliveira, Mário; Trigo, Conceição

    2015-08-01

    Left anterior accessory pathways are considered to be rare findings. Catheter ablation of accessory pathways in this location remains a challenging target, and few reports about successful ablation of these accessory pathways are available. We describe our experience regarding a case of a manifest left anterior accessory pathway ablation using radiofrequency energy at the junction of the left coronary cusp with the non-coronary cusp.

  20. Structure-function of proteins interacting with the α1 pore-forming subunit of high-voltage-activated calcium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Alan; Hidalgo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Openings of high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channels lead to a transient increase in calcium concentration that in turn activate a plethora of cellular functions, including muscle contraction, secretion and gene transcription. To coordinate all these responses calcium channels form supramolecular assemblies containing effectors and regulatory proteins that couple calcium influx to the downstream signal cascades and to feedback elements. According to the original biochemical characterization of skeletal muscle Dihydropyridine receptors, HVA calcium channels are multi-subunit protein complexes consisting of a pore-forming subunit (α1) associated with four additional polypeptide chains β, α2, δ, and γ, often referred to as accessory subunits. Twenty-five years after the first purification of a high-voltage calcium channel, the concept of a flexible stoichiometry to expand the repertoire of mechanisms that regulate calcium channel influx has emerged. Several other proteins have been identified that associate directly with the α1-subunit, including calmodulin and multiple members of the small and large GTPase family. Some of these proteins only interact with a subset of α1-subunits and during specific stages of biogenesis. More strikingly, most of the α1-subunit interacting proteins, such as the β-subunit and small GTPases, regulate both gating and trafficking through a variety of mechanisms. Modulation of channel activity covers almost all biophysical properties of the channel. Likewise, regulation of the number of channels in the plasma membrane is performed by altering the release of the α1-subunit from the endoplasmic reticulum, by reducing its degradation or enhancing its recycling back to the cell surface. In this review, we discuss the structural basis, interplay and functional role of selected proteins that interact with the central pore-forming subunit of HVA calcium channels. PMID:24917826

  1. Structure-function of proteins interacting with the alpha1 pore-forming subunit of high voltage-activated calcium channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eNeely

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Openings of high-voltage-activated calcium channels lead to a transient increase in calcium concentration that in turn activate a plethora of cellular functions, including muscle contraction, secretion and gene transcription. To coordinate all these responses calcium channels form supramolecular assemblies containing effectors and regulatory proteins that couple calcium influx to the downstream signal cascades and to feedback elements. According to the original biochemical characterization of skeletal muscle Dihydropyridine receptors, high-voltage-activated calcium channels are multi-subunit protein complexes consisting of a pore-forming subunit (α1 associated with four additional polypeptide chains β, α2, δ and γ, often referred to as accessory subunits. Twenty-five years after the first purification of a high-voltage calcium channel, the concept of a flexible stoichiometry to expand the repertoire of mechanisms that regulate calcium channel influx has emerged. Several other proteins have been identified that associate directly with the α1-subunit, including calmodulin and multiple members of the small and large GTPase family. Some of these proteins only interact with a subset of α1-subunits and during specific stages of biogenesis. More strikingly, most of the α1-subunit interacting proteins, such as the β-subunit and small GTPases, regulate both gating and trafficking through a variety of mechanisms. Modulation of channel activity covers almost all biophysical properties of the channel. Likewise, regulation of the number of channels in the plasma membrane is performed by altering the release of the α1-subunit from the endoplasmic reticulum, by reducing its degradation or enhancing its recycling back to the cell surface. In this review, we discuss the structural basis, interplay and functional role of selected proteins that interact with the central pore-forming subunit of high-voltage-activated calcium channels.

  2. Temporal Proteomics of Inducible RNAi Lines of Clp Protease Subunits Identifies Putative Protease Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan C; Martínez-Jaime, Silvia; Schwartzmann, Joram; Karcher, Daniel; Tillich, Michael; Graf, Alexander; Bock, Ralph

    2018-02-01

    The Clp protease in the chloroplasts of plant cells is a large complex composed of at least 13 nucleus-encoded subunits and one plastid-encoded subunit, which are arranged in several ring-like structures. The proteolytic P-ring and the structurally similar R-ring form the core complex that contains the proteolytic chamber. Chaperones of the HSP100 family help with substrate unfolding, and additional accessory proteins are believed to assist with Clp complex assembly and/or to promote complex stability. Although the structure and function of the Clp protease have been studied in great detail in both bacteria and chloroplasts, the identification of bona fide protease substrates has been very challenging. Knockout mutants of genes for protease subunits are of limited value, due to their often pleiotropic phenotypes and the difficulties with distinguishing primary effects (i.e. overaccumulation of proteins that represent genuine protease substrates) from secondary effects (proteins overaccumulating for other reasons). Here, we have developed a new strategy for the identification of candidate substrates of plant proteases. By combining ethanol-inducible knockdown of protease subunits with time-resolved analysis of changes in the proteome, proteins that respond immediately to reduced protease activity can be identified. In this way, secondary effects are minimized and putative protease substrates can be identified. We have applied this strategy to the Clp protease complex of tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) and identified a set of chloroplast proteins that are likely degraded by Clp. These include several metabolic enzymes but also a small number of proteins involved in photosynthesis. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Temporal Proteomics of Inducible RNAi Lines of Clp Protease Subunits Identifies Putative Protease Substrates1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Jaime, Silvia; Karcher, Daniel; Tillich, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The Clp protease in the chloroplasts of plant cells is a large complex composed of at least 13 nucleus-encoded subunits and one plastid-encoded subunit, which are arranged in several ring-like structures. The proteolytic P-ring and the structurally similar R-ring form the core complex that contains the proteolytic chamber. Chaperones of the HSP100 family help with substrate unfolding, and additional accessory proteins are believed to assist with Clp complex assembly and/or to promote complex stability. Although the structure and function of the Clp protease have been studied in great detail in both bacteria and chloroplasts, the identification of bona fide protease substrates has been very challenging. Knockout mutants of genes for protease subunits are of limited value, due to their often pleiotropic phenotypes and the difficulties with distinguishing primary effects (i.e. overaccumulation of proteins that represent genuine protease substrates) from secondary effects (proteins overaccumulating for other reasons). Here, we have developed a new strategy for the identification of candidate substrates of plant proteases. By combining ethanol-inducible knockdown of protease subunits with time-resolved analysis of changes in the proteome, proteins that respond immediately to reduced protease activity can be identified. In this way, secondary effects are minimized and putative protease substrates can be identified. We have applied this strategy to the Clp protease complex of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and identified a set of chloroplast proteins that are likely degraded by Clp. These include several metabolic enzymes but also a small number of proteins involved in photosynthesis. PMID:29229697

  4. A mutation in the DNA polymerase accessory factor of herpes simplex virus 1 restores viral DNA replication in the presence of raltegravir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Yang, Kui; Wills, Elizabeth; Tang, Liang; Baines, Joel D

    2014-10-01

    Previous reports showed that raltegravir, a recently approved antiviral compound that targets HIV integrase, can inhibit the nuclease function of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV terminase) in vitro. In this study, subtoxic levels of raltegravir were shown to inhibit the replication of four different herpesviruses, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, HCMV, and mouse cytomegalovirus, by 30- to 700-fold, depending on the dose and the virus tested. Southern blotting and quantitative PCR revealed that raltegravir inhibits DNA replication of HSV-1 rather than cleavage of viral DNA. A raltegravir-resistant HSV-1 mutant was generated by repeated passage in the presence of 200 μM raltegravir. The genomic sequence of the resistant virus, designated clone 7, contained mutations in 16 open reading frames. Of these, the mutations F198S in unique long region 15 (UL15; encoding the large terminase subunit), A374V in UL32 (required for DNA cleavage and packaging), V296I in UL42 (encoding the DNA polymerase accessory factor), and A224S in UL54 (encoding ICP27, an important transcriptional regulator) were introduced independently into the wild-type HSV-1(F) genome, and the recombinant viruses were tested for raltegravir resistance. Viruses bearing both the UL15 and UL32 mutations inserted within the genome of the UL42 mutant were also tested. While the UL15, UL32, and UL54 mutant viruses were fully susceptible to raltegravir, any virus bearing the UL42 mutation was as resistant to raltegravir as clone 7. Overall, these results suggest that raltegravir may be a valuable therapeutic agent against herpesviruses and the antiviral activity targets the DNA polymerase accessory factor rather than the nuclease activity of the terminase. This paper shows that raltegravir, the antiretrovirus drug targeting integrase, is effective against various herpesviruses. Drug resistance mapped to the herpesvirus DNA polymerase accessory factor, which was an unexpected finding. Copyright © 2014

  5. Anatomical study of spinal accessory nerve using ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canella, Clarissa [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France); Serviço de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem, Universitadade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de janeiro (Brazil); Demondion, Xavier [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France); Laboratoire d’Anatomie, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, 59037, Lille (France); Abreu, Evandro [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France); Marchiori, Edson [Serviço de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem, Universitadade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de janeiro (Brazil); Cotten, Hervé [Anatomie et cytologie pathologiques, Bd de la Liberté, 59000, Lille (France); Cotten, Anne, E-mail: anne.cotten@chru-lille.fr [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France)

    2013-01-15

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to demonstrate that ultrasonography may allow a precise assessment of the course and relationships of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN). Material and methods: This study, initially undertaken in 7 cadavers, was followed by high-resolution ultrasonographic study in 15 volunteers (30 nerves) by two radiologists in consensus. The location, course and relations to the adjacent anatomic structures of the SAN were analyzed. Results: The precise course of the SAN between the lateroposterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the anterior border of the trapezius muscle could be identified by high-resolution ultrasonography. In contrast, clinical bone landmarks were not found helpful for the identification of the nerve. Conclusion: The SAN can be clearly depicted by means of ultrasonography. Knowledge of the nerve's precise location, which may evidence individual variations, may have useful clinical applications.

  6. Multicopper manganese oxidase accessory proteins bind Cu and heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Cristina N; Tao, Lizhi; Chacón, Kelly N; Spiro, Thomas G; Blackburn, Ninian J; Casey, William H; Britt, R David; Tebo, Bradley M

    2015-12-01

    Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) catalyze the oxidation of a diverse group of metal ions and organic substrates by successive single-electron transfers to O2 via four bound Cu ions. MnxG, which catalyzes MnO2 mineralization by oxidizing both Mn(II) and Mn(III), is unique among multicopper oxidases in that it carries out two energetically distinct electron transfers and is tightly bound to accessory proteins. There are two of these, MnxE and MnxF, both approximately 12kDa. Although their sequences are similar to those found in the genomes of several Mn-oxidizing Bacillus species, they are dissimilar to those of proteins with known function. Here, MnxE and MnxF are co-expressed independent of MnxG and are found to oligomerize into a higher order stoichiometry, likely a hexamer. They bind copper and heme, which have been characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry. Cu is found in two distinct type 2 (T2) copper centers, one of which appears to be novel; heme is bound as a low-spin species, implying coordination by two axial ligands. MnxE and MnxF do not oxidize Mn in the absence of MnxG and are the first accessory proteins to be required by an MCO. This may indicate that Cu and heme play roles in electron transfer and/or Cu trafficking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Male accessory gland proteins induce female monogamy in anopheline mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutt, B; Stables, L; Aboagye-Antwi, F; Moran, J; Tripet, F

    2010-03-01

    The role of male accessory gland (MAG) secretions in inducing refractoriness to further mating in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) was established in the late 1960s. In a set of simple experiments, MAG extract was injected intra-thoraxically into the hemocoel of virgin Aedes aegypti (L.), Culex pipiens pipiens (L.) and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say females. This subsequently caused most females to remain unmated when exposed to males. For anophelines these findings were later challenged by a study involving intra-abdominal injections of MAG extracts into Anopheles gambiae Giles s.l. and Anopheles albimanus Wiedmann females, which failed to induce refractoriness to further mating. These findings led to controversy about the respective role of sperm and accessory gland peptides in inducing female monogamy in Anopheles and are at odds with our current understanding of the mating process in Drosophila spp. (Diptera: Drosophillidae) and other dipterans. Here we confirm the function of MAG secretions in anophelines experimentally by showing that intra-thoracic injections in Anopheles stephensi Liston and in the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae s.s. result in the expected female monogamy. Cross-injections of MAG extracts between the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae, two cryptic taxa within An. gambiae s.s. which are thought to be undergoing incipient speciation, also elicited effective refractoriness, suggesting that the two sub-taxa have not diverged with regard to sex peptides responsible for female monogamy. Importantly, this also suggests that the rare cases of re-mating following cross-mating observed in this species may not be a form of reproductive barrier between molecular forms.

  8. Mfa4, an Accessory Protein of Mfa1 Fimbriae, Modulates Fimbrial Biogenesis, Cell Auto-Aggregation, and Biofilm Formation in Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikai, Ryota; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Izumigawa, Masashi; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshida, Yasuo; Kitai, Noriyuki; Lamont, Richard J; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Murakami, Yukitaka

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative obligate anaerobic bacterium, is considered to be a key pathogen in periodontal disease. The bacterium expresses Mfa1 fimbriae, which are composed of polymers of Mfa1. The minor accessory components Mfa3, Mfa4, and Mfa5 are incorporated into these fimbriae. In this study, we characterized Mfa4 using genetically modified strains. Deficiency in the mfa4 gene decreased, but did not eliminate, expression of Mfa1 fimbriae. However, Mfa3 and Mfa5 were not incorporated because of defects in posttranslational processing and leakage into the culture supernatant, respectively. Furthermore, the mfa4-deficient mutant had an increased tendency to auto-aggregate and form biofilms, reminiscent of a mutant completely lacking Mfa1. Notably, complementation of mfa4 restored expression of structurally intact and functional Mfa1 fimbriae. Taken together, these results indicate that the accessory proteins Mfa3, Mfa4, and Mfa5 are necessary for assembly of Mfa1 fimbriae and regulation of auto-aggregation and biofilm formation of P. gingivalis. In addition, we found that Mfa3 and Mfa4 are processed to maturity by the same RgpA/B protease that processes Mfa1 subunits prior to polymerization.

  9. Subunit mass analysis for monitoring antibody oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowska, Izabela; Mo, Jingjie; Dong, Jia; Lewis, Michael J; Hu, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Methionine oxidation is a common posttranslational modification (PTM) of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Oxidation can reduce the in-vivo half-life, efficacy and stability of the product. Peptide mapping is commonly used to monitor the levels of oxidation, but this is a relatively time-consuming method. A high-throughput, automated subunit mass analysis method was developed to monitor antibody methionine oxidation. In this method, samples were treated with IdeS, EndoS and dithiothreitol to generate three individual IgG subunits (light chain, Fd' and single chain Fc). These subunits were analyzed by reversed phase-ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with an online quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and the levels of oxidation on each subunit were quantitated based on the deconvoluted mass spectra using the UNIFI software. The oxidation results obtained by subunit mass analysis correlated well with the results obtained by peptide mapping. Method qualification demonstrated that this subunit method had excellent repeatability and intermediate precision. In addition, UNIFI software used in this application allows automated data acquisition and processing, which makes this method suitable for high-throughput process monitoring and product characterization. Finally, subunit mass analysis revealed the different patterns of Fc methionine oxidation induced by chemical and photo stress, which makes it attractive for investigating the root cause of oxidation.

  10. Bivalent Motif-Ear Interactions Mediate the Association of the Accessory Protein Tepsin with the AP-4 Adaptor Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattera, Rafael; Guardia, Carlos M; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Bonifacino, Juan S

    2015-12-25

    The heterotetrameric (ϵ-β4-μ4-σ4) complex adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) is a component of a non-clathrin coat involved in protein sorting at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Considerable interest in this complex has arisen from the recent discovery that mutations in each of its four subunits are the cause of a congenital intellectual disability and movement disorder in humans. Despite its physiological importance, the structure and function of this coat remain poorly understood. To investigate the assembly of the AP-4 coat, we dissected the determinants of interaction of AP-4 with its only known accessory protein, the ENTH/VHS-domain-containing protein tepsin. Using a variety of protein interaction assays, we found that tepsin comprises two phylogenetically conserved peptide motifs, [GS]LFXG[ML]X[LV] and S[AV]F[SA]FLN, within its C-terminal unstructured region, which interact with the C-terminal ear (or appendage) domains of the β4 and ϵ subunits of AP-4, respectively. Structure-based mutational analyses mapped the binding site for the [GS]LFXG[ML]X[LV] motif to a conserved, hydrophobic surface on the β4-ear platform fold. Both peptide-ear interactions are required for efficient association of tepsin with AP-4, and for recruitment of tepsin to the TGN. The bivalency of the interactions increases the avidity of tepsin for AP-4 and may enable cross-linking of multiple AP-4 heterotetramers, thus contributing to the assembly of the AP-4 coat. In addition to revealing critical aspects of this coat, our findings extend the paradigm of peptide-ear interactions, previously established for clathrin-AP-1/AP-2 coats, to a non-clathrin coat. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Characterization of the core and accessory genomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using bioinformatic tools Spine and AGEnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Egon A; Allen, Jonathan P; Hauser, Alan R

    2014-08-29

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen responsible for many infections in hospitalized and immunocompromised patients. Previous reports estimated that approximately 10% of its 6.6 Mbp genome varies from strain to strain and is therefore referred to as "accessory genome". Elements within the accessory genome of P. aeruginosa have been associated with differences in virulence and antibiotic resistance. As whole genome sequencing of bacterial strains becomes more widespread and cost-effective, methods to quickly and reliably identify accessory genomic elements in newly sequenced P. aeruginosa genomes will be needed. We developed a bioinformatic method for identifying the accessory genome of P. aeruginosa. First, the core genome was determined based on sequence conserved among the completed genomes of twelve reference strains using Spine, a software program developed for this purpose. The core genome was 5.84 Mbp in size and contained 5,316 coding sequences. We then developed an in silico genome subtraction program named AGEnt to filter out core genomic sequences from P. aeruginosa whole genomes to identify accessory genomic sequences of these reference strains. This analysis determined that the accessory genome of P. aeruginosa ranged from 6.9-18.0% of the total genome, was enriched for genes associated with mobile elements, and was comprised of a majority of genes with unknown or unclear function. Using these genomes, we showed that AGEnt performed well compared to other publically available programs designed to detect accessory genomic elements. We then demonstrated the utility of the AGEnt program by applying it to the draft genomes of two previously unsequenced P. aeruginosa strains, PA99 and PA103. The P. aeruginosa genome is rich in accessory genetic material. The AGEnt program accurately identified the accessory genomes of newly sequenced P. aeruginosa strains, even when draft genomes were used. As P. aeruginosa genomes become available

  12. A DNA polymerase alpha accessory protein, Mcl1, is required for propagation of centromere structures in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyoaki Natsume

    Full Text Available Specialized chromatin exists at centromeres and must be precisely transmitted during DNA replication. The mechanisms involved in the propagation of these structures remain elusive. Fission yeast centromeres are composed of two chromatin domains: the central CENP-A(Cnp1 kinetochore domain and flanking heterochromatin domains. Here we show that fission yeast Mcl1, a DNA polymerase alpha (Pol alpha accessory protein, is critical for maintenance of centromeric chromatin. In a screen for mutants that alleviate both central domain and outer repeat silencing, we isolated several cos mutants, of which cos1 is allelic to mcl1. The mcl1-101 mutation causes reduced CENP-A(Cnp1 in the central domain and an aberrant increase in histone acetylation in both domains. These phenotypes are also observed in a mutant of swi7(+, which encodes a catalytic subunit of Pol alpha. Mcl1 forms S-phase-specific nuclear foci, which colocalize with those of PCNA and Pol alpha. These results suggest that Mcl1 and Pol alpha are required for propagation of centromere chromatin structures during DNA replication.

  13. Risk capital allocation with autonomous subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    the sum of the risks of the individual subunits. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the group among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose three......Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a set of independent subunits collaborating in order to reduce risk: that is, when subunit portfolios are merged a diversification benefit arises and the risk of the group as a whole is smaller than...... fairness tests related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies all three tests in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set....

  14. Functional cartography of the ectodomain of the type I interferon receptor subunit ifnar1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamken, Peter; Gavutis, Martynas; Peters, Imke; Van der Heyden, José; Uzé, Gilles; Piehler, Jacob

    2005-07-15

    Ligand-induced cross-linking of the type I interferon (IFN) receptor subunits ifnar1 and ifnar2 induces a pleiotrophic cellular response. Several studies have suggested differential signal activation by flexible recruitment of the accessory receptor subunit ifnar1. We have characterized the roles of the four Ig-like sub-domains (SDs) of the extracellular domain of ifnar1 (ifnar1-EC) for ligand recognition and receptor assembling. Various sub-fragments of ifnar1-EC were expressed in insect cells and purified to homogeneity. Solid phase binding assays with the ligands IFN(alpha)2 and IFN(beta) revealed that all three N-terminal SDs were required and sufficient for ligand binding, and that IFN(alpha)2 and IFN(beta) compete for this binding site. Cellular binding assays with different fragments, however, highlighted the key role of the membrane-proximal SD for the formation of an in situ IFN-receptor complex. Even substitution with the corresponding SD from homologous cytokine receptors did not restore high-affinity ligand binding. Receptor assembling analysis on supported lipid bilayers in vitro revealed that the membrane-proximal SD controls appropriate orientation of the receptor on the membrane, which is required for efficient association of ifnar1 into the ternary complex.

  15. Accessory Mineral Geochronology and Trace Element Fingerprinting of Metamorphic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, A.

    2009-05-01

    Zircon and monazite are the most versatile tools for geochronological studies in magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. New trace element techniques are now used to link growth and modification to pressure and temperature evolution of magmatic and metamorphic rocks and to coexisting minerals. Studies on the distribution of rare earth elements (REE) have mainly focused on garnet and zircon relationships and which distribution patterns constitute equilibrium under different metamorphic conditions. But a more detailed understanding of the growth and modification processes of accessory phases is needed to provide better constraints for genetic models and multiple method datasets (U-Pb, REE, trace element thermometry, imaging) is essential. We use this approach on examples from high-temperature low-pressure granulites of Rogaland (SW Norway) and UHT medium pressure granulites from the Labwor Hills (Uganda) to illustrate the influence of major and accessory mineral reactions on the trace element signature of zircon and monazite. Relatively flat zircon HREE patterns, often associated with coexisting garnet, can also be found in orthopyroxene-bearing, garnet free assemblages. The zircon-opx distribution patterns are similar to zircon-garnet pairs from UHT leucosomes and granulites. Some garnet-bearing granulites are characterized by zircon overgrowths with xenotime inclusions and elevated Y- and HREE-contents, interpreted to reflect garnet breakdown at high T. Zircon and monazite in Labwor Hills metasedimentary granulites both have modified domains. Monazite has low Th rims that yield erroneous high chemical ages, interpreted to be due to loss of Th, while remnants of radiogenic Pb remain during the recrystallization process. Zircon in contrast has high Th rims and domains along sealed cracks that are characterized by anomalously high Th/U ratios (not previously associated with metamorphic growth or modification) and unusual REE patterns. These features are

  16. Competition of chemically related antigens for presentation by accessory cells to T cells requires expenditure of metabolic energy by the accessory cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werdelin, O; Buus, S

    1983-01-01

    antigens for presentation by accessory cells. Furthermore, the two antigens do not compete for presentation when the accessory cells are exposed to them at 1 degree C, suggesting that endocytosis and/or other energy-requiring cellular events are necessary for the competition....... incapable of presenting DNP-PLL to responsive T cells in assays for proliferation, by in vitro exposure of the cells to GL before and during their exposure to DNP-PLL. We demonstrate here that the presence of anti-Ia antibody in the cultures does not interfere with the apparent competition of the two......The immune responsiveness of guinea pigs both to dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine (DNP-PLL) and to the lysine-rich random copolymer of L-glutamic acid and L-lysine (GL) is controlled by the 'poly-L-lysine gene'. We have previously demonstrated that accessory cells of responder strains can be made...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4200 - Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... body cavities other than blood vessels, drain fluids from body cavities, or evaluate certain... accessory is intended to aid in the manipulation of or insertion of the device into the body. Examples of...

  18. The Online Marketing Research on the Factors of Competitiveness of Enterprises in the Computer Accessory Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashkina Oksana I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at identifyng the factors of competitiveness of enterprises in the market for computer accessories (on the example of the «ZONA51» store and suggesting certain actions as to creating and strengthening competitive advantages. The main competitors of the enterprise, which offer computer accessories, as well as the basic preferences of consumers in choosing the game-oriented computer accessories, have been explored. The study has found that price and active Internet communications are the main factors in the competitiveness of enterprises in the market for computer accessories. It is also important to use communicative channels such as «word-of-mouth marketing» for specific types of goods. The target audience of the products analyzed is young people, so it is also important to advertise resources near the places of youth gatherings to provide active communications. Further studies should consider the factors of competitiveness of Internet shops with different orientation.

  19. Hidden female physiological resistance to male accessory gland substances in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodi, Monica; Koene, Joris M

    2017-01-01

    To increase fertilization chances compared with rivals, males are favoured to transfer accessory gland proteins to females during mating. These substances, by influencing female physiology, cause alteration of her sperm usage and remating rate. Simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails with

  20. Self-Image Enhancement through Branded Accessories among Youths: A Phenomenological Study in India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anitha Acharya; Manish Gupta

    2016-01-01

    .... The center of the debate appears to be that branded fashion accessories involvement is likely to be associated with differences in sensitivity to one's social surroundings (Auty & Elliott, 1998). The question...

  1. Expression of accessory molecules and cytokines in acute EAE in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laman, J.D.; Meurs, M. van; Schellekens, M.M.; Boer, M. de; Melchers, B.; Massacesi, L.; Lassmann, H.; Claassen, E.; Hart, B.A. 't

    1998-01-01

    Accessory molecules and cytokines are involved in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rodent models, and are potential targets for immunotherapy. Evaluation of such experimental therapies requires appropriate animal models.

  2. Centrifugal telencephalic afferent connections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; de Moya-Pinilla, Miguel; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2012-01-01

    Parallel to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, which in turn project to adjacent areas of the telencephalon, respectively. New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs partially converge in the rostral telencephalon and are non-overlapping at caudal telencephalic levels. Therefore, the basal telencephalon should be reclassified in olfactory, vomeronasal, and mixed areas. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virtually all olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures send reciprocal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Further, non-chemosensory recipient structures also projects centrifugally to the olfactory bulbs. These feed-back projections appear to be essential modulating processing of chemosensory information. The present work aims at characterizing centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs arising from olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic areas. This issue has been addressed by using tracer injections in the rat and mouse brain. Tracer injections were delivered into the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as in olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic structures. The results confirm that olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Interestingly, olfactory (e.g., piriform cortex), vomeronasal (e.g., posteromedial cortical amygdala), mixed (e.g., the anterior medial amygdaloid nucleus), and non-chemosensory-recipient (e.g., the nucleus of the diagonal band) structures project to the main and to the accessory olfactory bulbs thus providing the possibility of simultaneous modulation and interaction of both systems at different stages of chemosensory processing

  3. Anastomosis between accessory middle cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery diagnosed by magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masao; Uchino, Akira; Suzuki, Chihiro

    2017-06-01

    The accessory middle cerebral artery (MCA) is a common variation of the MCA that arises from the anterior cerebral artery. We report a patient with anastomosis of the accessory MCA with the main MCA, an extremely rare variant that we diagnosed by magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. Both partial maximum-intensity-projection and partial volume-rendering MR angiographic images obtained at 3 T are useful to identify such rare vascular variation.

  4. Hidden female physiological resistance to male accessory gland substances in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    OpenAIRE

    Lodi, Monica; Joris M Koene

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT To increase fertilization chances compared with rivals, males are favoured to transfer accessory gland proteins to females during mating. These substances, by influencing female physiology, cause alteration of her sperm usage and remating rate. Simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails with love-darts are a case in point. During courtship, a love-dart is pierced through the partner's body wall, thereby introducing accessory mucous gland products. This mucus physiologically increases ...

  5. CT demonstration of accessory nasal turbinates: secondary middle turbinate and bifid inferior turbinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksungur, Erol H. [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Bicakci, Kenan [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Inal, Mehmet [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Akguel, Erol [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Binokay, Figen [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Aydogan, Barlas [Department of ENT, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Oguz, Mahmut [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey)

    1999-09-01

    Normally, there are three pairs of nasal turbinates in the nasal cavity. Coronal computed tomographies of 253 cases of sinusitis were examined for the presence of additional turbinates and bilateral secondary middle turbinates were detected in two cases. Also, we describe another accessory turbinate, 'bifid inferior turbinate', in one of these cases. Existence of these accessory turbinates may occur during embryologic development of lateral nasal wall.

  6. Accessory Lesser Metatarsal Sesamoids in All of the Metatarsophalangeal JointsA Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Selim; Saygı, Baransel; Arslan, İlyas; Yıldırım, Yakup

    2017-05-01

    Lesser metatarsal sesamoids are one of the most common accessory bones of the foot and are most commonly seen at the fifth metatarsophalangeal joint. They are rarely seen in other metatarsophalangeal joints. In the literature, there are reports of solitary accessory sesamoid bones seen at lesser metatarsophalangeal joints. We report the case of a 68-year-old woman with lesser metatarsal sesamoids accompanying all of the metatarsophalangeal joints.

  7. Cummins MD & HD Accessory Hybridization CRADA -Annual Report FY15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deter, Dean D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    There are many areas of MD and HD vehicles that can be improved by new technologies and optimized control strategies. Component optimization and idle reduction need to be addressed, this is best done by a two part approach that includes selecting the best component technology, and/or architecture, and optimized controls that are vehicle focused. While this is a common focus in the light duty industry it has been gaining momentum in the MD and HD market as the market gets more competitive and the regulations become more stringent. When looking into systems optimization and idle reduction technologies, affected vehicle systems must first be considered, and if possible included in the new architecture to get the most benefit out of these new capabilities. Typically, when looking into idle reduction or component optimization for MD/HD, the vehicle s accessories become a prime candidate for electrification or hybridization. While this has already been studied on light duty vehicles (especially on hybrids and electric vehicles) it has not made any head way or market penetration in most MD and HD applications. If hybrids and electric MD and HD vehicles begin to break into the market this would be a necessary step into the ability to make those vehicles successful by allowing for independent, optimized operation separate from the engine.

  8. Accessory cardiac bronchus: Proposed imaging classification on multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Min; Kim, Young Tong; Han, Jong Kyu; Jou, Sung Shick [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To propose the classification of accessory cardiac bronchus (ACB) based on imaging using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), and evaluate follow-up changes of ACB. This study included 58 patients diagnosed as ACB since 9 years, using MDCT. We analyzed the types, division locations and division directions of ACB, and also evaluated changes on follow-up. We identified two main types of ACB: blind-end (51.7%) and lobule (48.3%). The blind-end ACB was further classified into three subtypes: blunt (70%), pointy (23.3%) and saccular (6.7%). The lobule ACB was also further classified into three subtypes: complete (46.4%), incomplete (28.6%) and rudimentary (25%). Division location to the upper half bronchus intermedius (79.3%) and medial direction (60.3%) were the most common in all patients. The difference in division direction was statistically significant between the blind-end and lobule types (p = 0.019). Peribronchial soft tissue was found in five cases. One calcification case was identified in the lobule type. During follow-up, ACB had disappeared in two cases of the blind-end type and in one case of the rudimentary subtype. The proposed classification of ACB based on imaging, and the follow-up CT, helped us to understand the various imaging features of ACB.

  9. Protein Tunnels: The Case of Urease Accessory Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiani, Francesco; Gioia, Dario; Masetti, Matteo; Falchi, Federico; Cavalli, Andrea; Recanatini, Maurizio; Ciurli, Stefano

    2017-05-09

    Transition metals are both essential micronutrients and limited in environmental availability. The Ni(II)-dependent urease protein, the most efficient enzyme known to date, is a paradigm for studying the strategies that cells use to handle an essential, yet toxic, metal ion. Urease is a virulence factor of several human pathogens, in addition to decreasing the efficiency of soil organic nitrogen fertilization. Ni(II) insertion in the urease active site is performed through the action of three essential accessory proteins: UreD, UreF, and UreG. The crystal structure of the UreD-UreF-UreG complex from the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori (HpUreDFG) revealed the presence of tunnels that cross the entire length of both UreF and UreD, potentially able to deliver Ni(II) ions from UreG to apo-urease. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations performed on the HpUreDFG complex in explicit solvent and at physiological ionic conditions demonstrate the stability of these protein tunnels in solution and provide insights on the trafficking of water molecules inside the tunnels. The presence of different alternative routes across the identified tunnels for Ni(II) ions, water molecules, and carbonate ions, all involved in urease activation, is highlighted here, and their potential role in the urease activation mechanism is discussed.

  10. Incidence of accessory canals in Japanese anterior maxillary teeth following root canal filling ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, C G; Yoshioka, T; Suda, H

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution and the incidence of accessory canals in Japanese maxillary anterior teeth following root filling. The study included maxillary teeth; 69 central incisors, 61 lateral incisors and 31 canines. After the canal systems had been dyed and root canal instrumentation had been carried out, all prepared canals were filled with gutta-percha without using sealer. Transparent specimens were then obtained and examined with a digital microscope for horizontal and vertical distributions of accessory canals. The incidence of teeth with accessory canals in the apical 3 mm was 46%, 29% and 38% for the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines, respectively. The horizontal distribution was mainly buccal for central incisors, palatal for lateral incisors and distal and palatal for canines. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the apical 3 mm and the rest of the root (16%, 20% and 19% for the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines, respectively) in terms of the presence of accessory canals. A high percentage of accessory canals can be found in apical 3 mm of the root. The horizontal distribution of accessory canals differed amongst the tooth types studied.

  11. Postsplenectomy recurrence of idiopathic thrombocitopenic purpura: role of laparoscopic splenectomy in the treatment of accessory spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, C A; Pravisani, R; Bidinost, S; Baccarani, U; Bresadola, V; Risaliti, A; Terrosu, G

    2015-01-01

    Idiopatic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is the most common indication for splenectomy. The failure rate of surgery is about 8% and the failure rate after splenectomy is approximately 28% for all patients. When the presence of an accessory spleen is diagnosed, splenectomy is recommended. Laparoscopic approach is considered the first choice. At our Department, between July and November 2011 two patients underwent laparoscopic accessory splenectomy for recurrence of ITP. Both patients had a previously laparoscopic splenectomy. Preoperative Magnetic Resonance (MR) was performed in both the cases revealing the presence of an accessory spleen. The operative time was 105 and 100 minutes respectively. No perioperative complications occured. Hospital stay was four days in both cases. The first patient had a disease free period of two months; the second one of one month. Both patients restarted immunosuppressive therapy. The relapse of thrombocytopenia post-splenectomy can be associated with the presence of an accessory spleen. The laparoscopic accessory splenectomy should be considered the first choice approach. Surgical accessory splenectomy allows a transitory remission of the disease.

  12. Use-dependent properties of flecainide acetate in accessory atrioventricular pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, J; Helmy, I; Katzung, B; Scheinman, M

    1994-01-01

    Flecainide acetate has been shown to have use-dependent properties. The use-dependent properties of flecainide were evaluated in 20 patients (13 men and 7 women, mean age 32 +/- 11 years) with accessory atrioventricular connections. Twenty to 30 stimulus drive trains were introduced in either the atrium or ventricle at progressively faster rates. The range of cycle lengths over which anterograde and retrograde conduction block occurred in the accessory pathway was assessed in the drug-free state and after oral loading with flecainide acetate. The block cycle length index was defined as the shortest cycle length during which 1:1 conduction was maintained in the accessory pathway minus the longest cycle length during which block in the accessory pathway occurred on the second paced beat. In the drug-free state, the (mean +/- SD) anterograde and retrograde block cycle length indexes were 20 +/- 12 and 20 +/- 9 ms, respectively. After flecainide therapy, the anterograde and retrograde block cycle length indexes increased to 80 +/- 33 and 65 +/- 29 ms, respectively (p = 0.002 compared with the drug-free state). The block cycle length index did not correlate with serum flecainide levels, but did correlate with other electrophysiologic markers of drug effect on accessory pathway conduction. The change in the block cycle length index demonstrates that flecainide has a progressive effect on accessory pathway conduction at more rapid rates, consistent with its in vitro use-dependent properties. This index is an excellent marker of drug efficacy.

  13. OST4 is a subunit of the mammalian oligosaccharyltransferase required for efficient N-glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumax-Vorzet, Audrey; Roboti, Peristera; High, Stephen

    2013-06-15

    The eukaryotic oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) is a membrane-embedded protein complex that catalyses the N-glycosylation of nascent polypeptides in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a highly conserved biosynthetic process that enriches protein structure and function. All OSTs contain a homologue of the catalytic STT3 subunit, although in many cases this is assembled with several additional components that influence function. In S. cerevisiae, one such component is Ost4p, an extremely small membrane protein that appears to stabilise interactions between subunits of assembled OST complexes. OST4 has been identified as a putative human homologue, but to date neither its relationship to the OST complex, nor its role in protein N-glycosylation, have been directly addressed. Here, we establish that OST4 is assembled into native OST complexes containing either the catalytic STT3A or STT3B isoforms. Co-immunoprecipitation studies suggest that OST4 associates with both STT3 isoforms and with ribophorin I, an accessory subunit of mammalian OSTs. These presumptive interactions are perturbed by a single amino acid change in the transmembrane region of OST4. Using siRNA knockdowns and native gel analysis, we show that OST4 plays an important role in maintaining the stability of native OST complexes. Hence, upon OST4 depletion well-defined OST complexes are partially destabilised and a novel ribophorin I-containing subcomplex can be detected. Strikingly, cells depleted of either OST4 or STT3A show a remarkably similar defect in the N-glycosylation of endogenous prosaposin. We conclude that OST4 most likely promotes co-translational N-glycosylation by stabilising STT3A-containing OST isoforms.

  14. Accessory renal arteries: Prevalence in resistant hypertension and an important role in nonresponse to radiofrequency renal denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VonAchen, Paige [Minneapolis Heart Institute and Foundation at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Hamann, Jason [Boston Scientific Corporation, Maple Grove, MN (United States); Houghland, Thomas; Lesser, John R.; Wang, Yale; Caye, David; Rosenthal, Kristi; Garberich, Ross F. [Minneapolis Heart Institute and Foundation at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Daniels, Mary [Vital Images/Toshiba, Minnetonka, MN (United States); Schwartz, Robert S., E-mail: rss@rsschwartz.com [Minneapolis Heart Institute and Foundation at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to understand the role of accessory renal arteries in resistant hypertension, and to establish their role in nonresponse to radiofrequency renal denervation (RDN) procedures. Background: Prior studies suggest a role for accessory renal arteries in hypertensive syndromes, and recent clinical trials of renal denervation report that these anomalies are highly prevalent in resistant hypertension. This study evaluated the relationships among resistant hypertension, accessory renal arteries, and the response to radiofrequency (RF) renal denervation. Methods: Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 58 patients with resistant hypertension undergoing RF renal denervation (RDN) were evaluated. Results were compared with CT scans in 57 healthy, normotensive subjects undergoing screening as possible renal transplant donors. All scans were carefully studied for accessory renal arteries, and were correlated with long term blood pressure reduction. Results: Accessory renal arteries were markedly more prevalent in the hypertensive patients than normotensive renal donors (59% vs 32% respectively, p = 0.004). RDN had an overall nonresponse rate of 29% (response rate 71%). Patients without accessory vessels had a borderline higher response rate to RDN than those with at least one accessory vessel (83% vs 62% respectively, p = 0.076) and a higher RDN response than patients with untreated accessory arteries (83% vs 55%; p = 0.040). For accessory renal arteries and nonresponse, the sensitivity was 76%, specificity 49%, with positive and negative predictive values 38% and 83% respectively. Conclusions: Accessory renal arteries were markedly over-represented in resistant hypertensives compared with healthy controls. While not all patients with accessory arteries were nonresponders, nonresponse was related to both the presence and non-treatment of accessory arteries. Addressing accessory renal arteries in

  15. VPAC receptors: structure, molecular pharmacology and interaction with accessory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvineau, Alain; Laburthe, Marc

    2012-05-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide with wide distribution in both central and peripheral nervous systems, where it plays important regulatory role in many physiological processes. VIP displays a large biological functions including regulation of exocrine secretions, hormone release, fetal development, immune responses, etc. VIP appears to exert beneficial effect in neuro-degenerative and inflammatory diseases. The mechanism of action of VIP implicates two subtypes of receptors (VPAC1 and VPAC2), which are members of class B receptors belonging to the super-family of GPCR. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the structure and molecular pharmacology of VPAC receptors. The structure-function relationship of VPAC1 receptor has been extensively studied, allowing to understand the molecular basis for receptor affinity, specificity, desensitization and coupling to adenylyl cyclase. Those studies have clearly demonstrated the crucial role of the N-terminal ectodomain (N-ted) of VPAC1 receptor in VIP recognition. By using different approaches including directed mutagenesis, photoaffinity labelling, NMR, molecular modelling and molecular dynamic simulation, it has been shown that the VIP molecule interacts with the N-ted of VPAC1 receptor, which is itself structured as a 'Sushi' domain. VPAC1 receptor also interacts with a few accessory proteins that play a role in cell signalling of receptors. Recent advances in the structural characterization of VPAC receptor and more generally of class B GPCRs will lead to the design of new molecules, which could have considerable interest for the treatment of inflammatory and neuro-degenerative diseases. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Cryoablation of septal accessory pathways in children: midterm results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, Cem; Akdeniz, Celal; Turan, Ozlem; Tuzcu, Volkan

    2014-09-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation in the septal arrhythmia substrates has an increased risk of irreversible atrioventricular block. Despite its safety profile, several studies reported a lower acute success rate and a higher recurrence rate with cryoablation of septal accessory pathways (APs) when compared to RF ablation. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of cryoablation of right septal APs using an electroanatomical mapping system guidance. A total of 43 consecutive patients (13.2 ± 5.5 years) underwent cryoablation for right septal APs. The EnSite system (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA) was used in all procedures. No fluoroscopy was used in 90% of patients (39/43). The mean fluoroscopy time in the remaining four patients was 3.7 ± 0.7 minutes. An electrophysiology catheter with 2-mm distal spacing was used to determine the precise AP location. The majority of the patients (20/43) had anteroseptal, and remaining of the patients had posteroseptal (15/43) and midseptal (8/43) APs. A 6-mm-tip catheter was used in 33 patients and 8-mm-tip catheter was used in nine patients (both catheters were used in one patient). The mean procedure duration and number of complete cryoablation lesions were 181.5 ± 60.6 minutes and 6.1 ± 3.1 minutes, respectively. Acute success was achieved in 40 of 43 patients (93%). No complications were noted. During a mean follow-up of 8.8 ± 4.8 months, five patients (12.5%) experienced recurrence. Our data suggest that cryoablation of septal APs can be performed safely with comparable efficacy to the reported RF ablation results using a limited fluoroscopy approach. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Optimized subunit vaccine protects against experimental leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholet, Sylvie; Goto, Yasuyuki; Carter, Lauren; Bhatia, Ajay; Howard, Randall F; Carter, Darrick; Coler, Rhea N; Vedvick, Thomas S; Reed, Steven G

    2009-11-23

    Development of a protective subunit vaccine against Leishmania spp. depends on antigens and adjuvants that induce appropriate immune responses. We evaluated a second generation polyprotein antigen (Leish-110f) in different adjuvant formulations for immunogenicity and protective efficacy against Leishmania spp. challenges. Vaccine-induced protection was associated with antibody and T cell responses to Leish-110f. CD4 T cells were the source of IFN-gamma, TNF, and IL-2 double- and triple-positive populations. This study establishes the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the improved Leish-110f subunit vaccine antigen adjuvanted with natural (MPL-SE) or synthetic (EM005) Toll-like receptor 4 agonists.

  18. MERS-CoV Accessory ORFs Play Key Role for Infection and Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menachery, Vineet D.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Cockrell, Adam S.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Yount, Boyd L.; Graham, Rachel L.; McAnarney, Eileen T.; Douglas, Madeline G.; Scobey, Trevor; Beall, Anne; Dinnon, Kenneth; Kocher, Jacob F.; Hale, Andrew E.; Stratton, Kelly G.; Waters, Katrina M.; Baric, Ralph S.; Racaniello, Vincent R.

    2017-08-22

    ABSTRACT

    While dispensable for viral replication, coronavirus (CoV) accessory open reading frame (ORF) proteins often play critical roles during infection and pathogenesis. Utilizing a previously generated mutant, we demonstrate that the absence of all four Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) accessory ORFs (deletion of ORF3, -4a, -4b, and -5 [dORF3-5]) has major implications for viral replication and pathogenesis. Importantly, attenuation of the dORF3-5 mutant is primarily driven by dysregulated host responses, including disrupted cell processes, augmented interferon (IFN) pathway activation, and robust inflammation.In vitroreplication attenuation also extends toin vivomodels, allowing use of dORF3-5 as a live attenuated vaccine platform. Finally, examination of ORF5 implicates a partial role in modulation of NF-κB-mediated inflammation. Together, the results demonstrate the importance of MERS-CoV accessory ORFs for pathogenesis and highlight them as potential targets for surveillance and therapeutic treatments moving forward.

    IMPORTANCEThe initial emergence and periodic outbreaks of MERS-CoV highlight a continuing threat posed by zoonotic pathogens to global public health. In these studies, mutant virus generation demonstrates the necessity of accessory ORFs in regard to MERS-CoV infection and pathogenesis. With this in mind, accessory ORF functions can be targeted for both therapeutic and vaccine treatments in response to MERS-CoV and related group 2C coronaviruses. In addition, disruption of accessory ORFs in parallel may offer a rapid response platform to attenuation of future emergent strains based on both SARS- and MERS-CoV accessory ORF mutants.

  19. Autoinactivation of the stargazin-AMPA receptor complex: subunit-dependency and independence from physical dissociation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Semenov

    Full Text Available Agonist responses and channel kinetics of native α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA receptors are modulated by transmembrane accessory proteins. Stargazin, the prototypical accessory protein, decreases desensitization and increases agonist potency at AMPA receptors. Furthermore, in the presence of stargazin, the steady-state responses of AMPA receptors show a gradual decline at higher glutamate concentrations. This "autoinactivation" has been assigned to physical dissociation of the stargazin-AMPA receptor complex and suggested to serve as a protective mechanism against overactivation. Here, we analyzed autoinactivation of GluA1-A4 AMPA receptors (all flip isoform expressed in the presence of stargazin. Homomeric GluA1, GluA3, and GluA4 channels showed pronounced autoinactivation indicated by the bell-shaped steady-state dose response curves for glutamate. In contrast, homomeric GluA2i channels did not show significant autoinactivation. The resistance of GluA2 to autoinactivation showed striking dependence on the splice form as GluA2-flop receptors displayed clear autoinactivation. Interestingly, the resistance of GluA2-flip containing receptors to autoinactivation was transferred onto heteromeric receptors in a dominant fashion. To examine the relationship of autoinactivation to physical separation of stargazin from the AMPA receptor, we analyzed a GluA4-stargazin fusion protein. Notably, the covalently linked complex and separately expressed proteins expressed a similar level of autoinactivation. We conclude that autoinactivation is a subunit and splice form dependent property of AMPA receptor-stargazin complexes, which involves structural rearrangements within the complex rather than any physical dissociation.

  20. Reversible Isolated Accessory Nerve Palsy due to a Large Thrombosed Vertebral Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayasu Saito

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Isolated accessory nerve palsy due to intracranial disorders is uncommon because intracranial accessory nerve injury usually occurs in case of a skull base tumor or trauma, resulting in one of multiple cranial nerve palsies. We report a very rare case of isolated accessory nerve palsy due to a large thrombosed aneurysm of the intracranial vertebral artery. Full recovery was achieved after surgery. Case Report: A patient complaining of transient numbness in the right side was referred to our hospital. An MRI indicated a large thrombosed aneurysm of the right vertebral artery. The aneurysm severely compressed the medulla oblongata. First, the proximal vertebral artery (VA was clipped with an aneurysm clip to reduce the pressure inside the aneurysm. However, cerebral angiography revealed a partial recanalization of the right VA. The patient then underwent coil embolization of the right VA just proximal to the aneurysm clip. Subsequently, the right VA was completely obliterated. The patient was discharged without any neurological deficit. Two weeks later, however, she complained of right shoulder pain. Physical and neurological examinations demonstrated atrophy of the right trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscle, leading to a deepening of the right supraclavicular fossa. The symptoms were considered to result from the right isolated accessory nerve palsy. Follow-up MRI showed that the VA aneurysm gradually decreased in size over a period of several months. At the same time, her symptoms disappeared completely. Conclusion: We should keep in mind that isolated accessory nerve palsy can be caused by a large or giant vertebral aneurysm.

  1. Arthroscopic Bankart Repair: Accessory Posterior Portal With Slotted Cannula for Lowest Capsulolabral Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvieli, Oren; Atoun, Ehud; Amar, Eyal; Levy, Ofer; Rath, Ehud

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel technique for safe establishment of the accessory posterior portal using a slotted cannula. Arthroscopic Bankart repair is a common procedure. A variety of arthroscopic techniques have been described in the literature, commonly using the posterior portal for visualization and the anterior portal with a working cannula. The accessory posterior portal enables elegant access to the lower part of the capsulolabral junction, a firmer grasp and mobilization of the tissue, quick and easy tool exchange using a slotted cannula, and clearer suture placement because of the flat, direct working angle. The skin incision is made small without the need for an arthroscopic cannula, and the portal location is in a relatively safe zone. The use of the accessory posterior portal along with a slotted cannula shortens the duration of the operative procedure and improves safety and performance. PMID:25126512

  2. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand in car accessory market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplying car accessory is one of the most important growing industries in the world. Every year, millions of cars are produced and people need to have the access to necessary car accessory. In this paper, we present an exploration study to detect important factors influencing car accessory market. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 16 questions, distributes it among 200 experts and analyses it using factor analysis. Cronbach alpha and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy are calculated as 0.823 and 0.863, which validate the overall questionnaire. The results indicate that there are three influencing factors including brand capability, brand characteristics and consumers’ believe.

  3. Congenital salivary fistula of an accessory parotid gland in Goldenhar syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z; Sun, L; Zhang, Z; Ma, X

    2012-01-01

    We report two cases of congenital salivary fistula of an accessory parotid gland, and we discuss its occurrence in Goldenhar syndrome. Two teenagers complained of a congenital cheek fistula with constant salivary discharge. Computed tomography fistulography and sialography were performed. The diagnosis of Goldenhar syndrome was established based on clinical and imaging findings. Previously reported cases are reviewed and the clinical and radiological features summarised. In these two patients, a salivary fistula of an accessory parotid gland was demonstrated on computed tomography fistulography, and did not communicate with Stensen's duct. Deformity of Stensen's duct and hypoplasia of the ipsilateral mandibular ramus were present. Tragal appendices have frequently been reported in such cases. A congenital cheek salivary fistula of an accessory parotid gland should be considered indicative of Goldenhar syndrome.

  4. Successful cryoablation of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia and coexisting accessory pathways without fluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Enes Elvin; Ugur, Fatma Seyma; Akdeniz, Celal; Tuzcu, Volkan

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 14-year-old boy patient admitted to our outpatient clinic with palpitations and documented supraventricular tachycardia. Electrophysiological study and ablation were planned. In the electrophysiological study, two tachycardias with different cycle lengths and morphologies were induced. After elimination of the slow pathway, left posterior accessory pathway was detected and successfully ablated. Another pathway was detected following that ablation. Due to the slow retrograde conduction of this pathway, diltiazem infusion was started to uncover the accessory pathway. The second accessory pathway was at the left posteroseptal region and was successfully ablated. After a 30-minute waiting period, no tachycardia was induced. In addition, no fluoroscopy was used during the procedure. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Accessory left atrial diverticulae: contractile properties depicted with 64-slice cine-cardiac CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    To assess the contractility of accessory left atrial appendages (LAAs) using multiphasic cardiac CT. We retrospectively analyzed the presence, location, size and contractile properties of accessory LAAs using multiphasic cardiac 64-slice CT in 102 consecutive patients (63 males, 39 females, mean age 57). Multiplanar reformats were used to create image planes in axial oblique, sagittal oblique and coronal oblique planes. For all appendages with an orifice diameter >or= 10 mm, axial and sagittal diameters and appendage volumes were recorded in atrial diastole and systole. Regression analysis was performed to assess which imaging appearances best predicted accessory appendage contractility. Twenty-three (23%) patients demonstrated an accessory LAA, all identified along the anterior LA wall. Dimensions for axial oblique (AOD) and sagittal oblique (SOD) diameters and sagittal oblique length (SOL) were 6.3-19, 3.4-20 and 5-21 mm, respectively. All appendages (>or=10 mm) demonstrated significant contraction during atrial systole (greatest diameter reduction was AOD [3.8 mm, 27%]). Significant correlations were noted between AOD-contraction and AOD (R = 0.57, P < 0.05) and SOD-contraction and AOD, SOD and SOL (R = 0.6, P < 0.05). Mean diverticulum volume in atrial diastole was 468.4 +\\/- 493 mm(3) and in systole was 171.2 +\\/- 122 mm(3), indicating a mean change in volume of 297.2 +\\/- 390 mm(3), P < 0.0001. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed SOL to be the strongest independent predictor of appendage contractility (R(2) = 0.86, P < 0.0001) followed by SOD (R(2) = 0.91, P < 0.0001). Accessory LAAs show significant contractile properties on cardiac CT. Those accessory LAAs with a large sagittal height or depth should be evaluated for contractile properties, and if present should be examined for ectopic activity during electrophysiological studies.

  6. Relative contribution of expectancy and immediate arousal to the facilitatory effect of an auditory accessory stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Del-Fava

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available An auditory stimulus speeds up a digital response to a subsequent visual stimulus. This facilitatory effect has been related to the expectancy and the immediate arousal that would be caused by the accessory stimulus. The present study examined the relative contribution of these two influences. In a first and a third experiment a simple reaction time task was used. In a second and fourth experiment a go/no-go reaction time task was used. In each of these experiments, the accessory stimulus preceded the target stimulus by 200 ms for one group of male and female volunteers (G Fix. For another group of similar volunteers (G Var the accessory stimulus preceded the target stimulus by 200 ms in 25% of the trials, by 1000 ms in 25% of the trials and was not followed by the target stimulus in 50% of the trials (Experiments 1a and 1b or preceded the target stimulus by 200 ms in 6% of the trials and by 1000 ms in 94% of the trials (Experiments 2a and 2b. There was a facilitatory effect of the accessory stimulus for G Fix in the four experiments. There was also a facilitatory effect of the accessory stimulus at the 200-ms stimulus onset asynchrony for G Var in Experiments 1a and 1b but not in Experiments 2a and 2b. The facilitatory effects observed were larger in the go/no-go task than in the simple task. Taken together, these results suggest that expectancy is much more important than immediate arousal for the improvement of performance caused by an accessory stimulus.

  7. Imaging diagnosis of accessory and cavitated uterine mass, a rare mullerian anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishchint Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessory and Cavitated Uterine Mass (ACUM is a rare form of developmental Mullerian anomaly seen in young females, which presents as chronic recurrent pelvic pain and severe dysmenorrhea. It is an accessory cavity lying within an otherwise normal uterus. It is lined by functional endometrium and surrounded by myometrium-like smooth muscle cells; hence, it bears striking macroscopic and microscopic resemblance to the uterus. Hysterosalpingography (HSG, Ultrasonography (USG, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI form the mainstay of diagnostic imaging. The entity is often under diagnosed; therefore, a high index of suspicion combined with HSG and MRI imaging can help in making an accurate diagnosis.

  8. Ablation of an atriofascicular accessory pathway with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Proietti, MD, PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old patient with recurrent palpitations and documented left bundle branch block superior axis wide complex tachycardia underwent an electrophysiological study and ablation with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure. The electrophysiological study showed a decremental antegrade conducting atriofascicular pathway. Three-dimensional CARTO-guided mapping of the tricuspid annulus in sinus rhythm was performed, and a distinct signal corresponding to the accessory pathway potential of the atriofascicular pathway was found in the posterolateral region. By using an SR0 sheath and a 4-mm-tip catheter, radiofrequency application was delivered at this point on the annulus and successfully eliminated conduction through the accessory pathway.

  9. [Ulnar nerve compression in Guyon's canal by an accessory abductor digiti minimi brevis muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, S; Schoonhoven, J van

    2010-08-01

    Compression syndromes of the ulnar nerve are more often located proximally in the cubital tunnel than distally in Guyon's canal. In many cases anatomic structures can be found that induce compression. These may be ganglia, tumours, vascular abnormalities, crossing fibrous bands or accessory muscles. The ulnar nerve has therefore to be revised all along its passage through Guyon's canal. When other causes are excluded, it might be necessary to excise an accessory muscle to decompress the ulnar nerve sufficiently. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  10. Reactive Hypertrophy of an Accessory Spleen Mimicking Tumour Recurrence of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Tjaden

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available De novo occurrence of an accessory spleen after splenectomy is worth noting for two reasons. First, it is known that splenectomy can cause reactive hypertrophy of initially inactive and macroscopically invisible splenic tissue. Second, it can mimic tumour recurrence in situations in which splenectomy has been performed for oncological reasons. This might cause difficulties in differential diagnosis and the clinical decision for reoperation. We report the case of a patient with suspected recurrence of renal cell carcinoma after total pancreatectomy and splenectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, which finally revealed an accessory spleen as the morphological correlate of the newly diagnosed mass in the left retroperitoneum.

  11. FeetUp: A Playful Accessory to Practice Social Skills through Free-Play Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales, Andrea; Arroyo, Ernesto; Blat, Josep

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Long and Short Papers; International audience; In this paper we describe the design process of an interactive accessory to play anywhere and anytime while encouraging free-play and practice social skills. We explain the design process, the resulting conceptual design of FeetUp and the preliminary user’s evaluation. FeetUp is a playful accessory that takes advantage of children’s interest to jump, or perform body stunts. These activities generally include lifting both feet, and FeetUp ...

  12. Ongoing pain and deformity after an excision of the accessory navicular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Philip; Singh, Dishan

    2014-09-01

    Although a painful accessory navicula and a pes planus often coexist, they are not necessarily causally related, and each condition should be assessed and treated individually. A child or adolescent will notice the rubbing of an accessory navicula against footwear as the foot and boney swelling grows. The cause of persistent local pain such as inadequate bony resection, scar pain, irritation of the tibialis posterior tendon, and so forth should be sought and addressed; management will depend on the specific presentation and previous procedure performed. The cause of the ongoing pain should be investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cleft Lip Repair: The Hybrid Subunit Method

    OpenAIRE

    Tollefson, TT

    2016-01-01

    Copyright © 2016 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. The unilateral cleft lip repair is one of the most rewarding and challenging of plastic surgery procedures. Surgeons have introduced a variety of straight line, geometric, and rotation-advancement designs, while in practice the majority of North American surgeons have been using hybrids of the rotation-advancement techniques. The anatomic subunit approach was introduced in 2005 by Fisher and has gained popularity, with early adopters of the ...

  14. allelic variation of hmw glutenin subunits of ethiopian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    reduced subunits of glutenin proteins bands are separated: the high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) subunits (Payne et al.,1980; Jackson et al., 1983). The HMW glutenin subunits (GS) of wheat protein are quantitatively minor, but functionally an important group of gluten proteins in the process of ...

  15. 76 FR 24522 - In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Trademark Registration Nos. 297,594; 1,643,625; 1,653,663; 1,875,198; 2,773,107; 2,177,828; 2,181,753; and 1...

  16. A peptide from the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). These glands add various substances to the ejaculate. On mating, the ejaculate is transferred to the female, together with the substances from the

  17. 77 FR 46633 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Brakes; Adjustment Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... risk and removed from revenue service until the brake adjustment problems are resolved. With respect to... RIN 2126-AB28 Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Brakes; Adjustment Limits AGENCY... the operators . The rule provides improved guidance concerning CMV brake adjustment limits. The...

  18. Melanocortin Receptor Accessory Proteins (MRAPs): Functions in the melanocortin system and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouault, Alix A J; Srinivasan, Dinesh K; Yin, Terry C; Lee, Abigail A; Sebag, Julien A

    2017-10-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are regulated by numerous proteins including kinases, G-proteins, β-arrestins and accessory proteins. Several families of GPCR accessory proteins like Receptor Activity Modifying Proteins, Receptor Transporting Proteins and Melanocortin Receptor Accessory Proteins (MRAPs) have been identified as regulator of receptor trafficking, signaling and ligand specificity. The MRAP family contains two members, MRAP1 and MRAP2, responsible for the formation of a functional ACTH receptor and for the regulation of energy homeostasis respectively. Like all known GPCR accessory proteins, MRAPs are single transmembrane proteins, however, they form a unique structure since they assemble as an anti-parallel homodimer. Moreover, the accepted idea that MRAPs are specific regulators of melanocortin receptors was recently challenged by the discovery that MRAP2 inhibits the activity of prokineticin receptors. Recent studies are starting to explain the role of the unusual structure of MRAPs and to illustrate the importance of MRAP2 for the maintenance of both energy and glucose homeostasis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Melanocortin Receptors - edited by Ya-Xiong Tao. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE...-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item is..., operating systems and support software for design, implementation, test, operation, diagnosis and repair. A...

  20. An accessory flexor of the fifth toe | Asomugha | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of accessory muscles and other organs on the lower limbs of some individuals has variously been reported in the literature. We report an unusual muscle located on the plantar surface of the left foot of a cadaver, which had not been previously described. This muscle originated from the tendon of tibialis ...

  1. Effect of B-success herbal supplement on the accessory sex organs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work investigated the effect of B-success herbal supplement on the accessory sex organs of male albino rats. Twenty weights matched male albino rats were divided into four groups of five rats and were given 0.00, 315,630,945 mg/kg of the herbal product orally for 90 days. Animals had access to deionized water and ...

  2. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Assessment of Accessory Infraorbital Foramen and Determination of Infraorbital Foramen Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ibrahim K; Sansare, Kaustubh; Karjodkar, Freny R; Salve, Prashant

    2017-11-09

    There is no evidence about evaluating accessory infraorbital foramen by 3-dimensional analysis like multi slice computed tomography or cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in human subjects. To authors' best knowledge this is a first study to assess the accessory infraorbital foramen and position of infraorbital foramen in relation to crown of maxillary teeth using CBCT. This study primarily aimed to assess the location and number of accessory infraorbital foramen (AIOF), to measure the distance between main infraorbital foramen and AIOF and secondarily to determine the position of infraorbital foramen in relation to crowns of maxillary second premolar, first molar, and second molar. Cone beam computed tomography volumes of 200 patients were retrieved from the digital imaging and communications in medicine archive folder. Accessory infraorbital foramen was recognized in 29% of the patients among whom 46.6% were present on the right side, 31% on the left side, and 22.4% located bilaterally. The most frequent position of infraorbital foramen was found to be in line with crown of second premolar. The presence of AIOF and inability to recognize it in preoperative evaluation could be considered among the other reasons of failure or incomplete anesthesia.

  3. Accessory extensor digiti minimi muscle simulating a soft tissue mass during surgery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Papathanasiou, Efthymia; Anastasopoulos, Nikolas

    2010-01-01

    During a wrist ganglion excision originating at the tendon sheath of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, a soft tissue mass was observed just radial and distal to the surgical field. Dissection of the mass revealed an accessory extensor digiti minimi muscle belly which joined the radial extensor digiti minimi tendon. The surgical impact is discussed.

  4. Nodoventricular accessory pathways in PRKAG2-dependent familial preexcitation syndrome reveal a disorder in cardiac development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Hanno L.; van der Wal, Allard C.; Campian, Maria E.; Kruyswijk, Hittjo H.; ten Hove Jansen, Bram; van Doorn, Dirk-Jan; Oskam, Henk J.; Becker, Anton E.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Familial preexcitation syndrome is linked to mutations in PRKAG2. Previous studies on the R302Q mutation have provided evidence for a remarkably high proportion of otherwise rare accessory pathways with atrioventricular (AV) node-like conduction properties (Mahaim fibers). Yet,

  5. 76 FR 9853 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Brakes; Application for Exemption From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Brakes; Application for Exemption From Innovative Electronics; Correction AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... before March 14, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Luke W. Loy, Vehicle and Roadside Operations...

  6. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories. (a) Identification...

  7. 41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.3-Use and Care of GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39.304 Modification or installation of accessory equipment. The modification of a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle or the permanent installation of...

  8. 21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5850 Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories. (a) Identification. A nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus...

  9. Dissociation between Anterograde and Retrograde Conduction during Transvenous Cryoablation of Parahissian Accessory Pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorgente, A.; Paparella, G.; Chierchia, G.B.; Sarkozy, A.; Asmundis, C. de; Muller-Burri, S.A.; Yazaki, Y.; Capulzini, L.; Brugada, P.

    2011-01-01

    Ablation of parahissian accessory pathways (APs) is a challenging procedure because of the high risk to provoke "iatrogenic" atrioventricular (AV) nodal block. The feasibility and safety of cryoablation (CA) have been already demonstrated both in patients with AV nodal reentry tachycardia and in

  10. Activation of the Caenorhabditis elegans Degenerin Channel by Shear Stress Requires the MEC-10 Subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shujie; Luke, Cliff J; Miedel, Mark T; Silverman, Gary A; Kleyman, Thomas R

    2016-07-01

    Mechanotransduction in Caenorhabditis elegans touch receptor neurons is mediated by an ion channel formed by MEC-4, MEC-10, and accessory proteins. To define the role of these subunits in the channel's response to mechanical force, we expressed degenerin channels comprising MEC-4 and MEC-10 in Xenopus oocytes and examined their response to laminar shear stress (LSS). Shear stress evoked a rapid increase in whole cell currents in oocytes expressing degenerin channels as well as channels with a MEC-4 degenerin mutation (MEC-4d), suggesting that C. elegans degenerin channels are sensitive to LSS. MEC-10 is required for a robust LSS response as the response was largely blunted in oocytes expressing homomeric MEC-4 or MEC-4d channels. We examined a series of MEC-10/MEC-4 chimeras to identify specific domains (amino terminus, first transmembrane domain, and extracellular domain) and sites (residues 130-132 and 134-137) within MEC-10 that are required for a robust response to shear stress. In addition, the LSS response was largely abolished by MEC-10 mutations encoded by a touch-insensitive mec-10 allele, providing a correlation between the channel's responses to two different mechanical forces. Our findings suggest that MEC-10 has an important role in the channel's response to mechanical forces. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Mitochondrial Genes of Dinoflagellates Are Transcribed by a Nuclear-Encoded Single-Subunit RNA Polymerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ying Teng

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are a large group of algae that contribute significantly to marine productivity and are essential photosynthetic symbionts of corals. Although these algae have fully-functioning mitochondria and chloroplasts, both their organelle genomes have been highly reduced and the genes fragmented and rearranged, with many aberrant transcripts. However, nothing is known about their RNA polymerases. We cloned and sequenced the gene for the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial polymerase (RpoTm of the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra and showed that the protein presequence targeted a GFP construct into yeast mitochondria. The gene belongs to a small gene family, which includes a variety of 3'-truncated copies that may have originated by retroposition. The catalytic C-terminal domain of the protein shares nine conserved sequence blocks with other single-subunit polymerases and is predicted to have the same fold as the human enzyme. However, the N-terminal (promoter binding/transcription initiation domain is not well-conserved. In conjunction with the degenerate nature of the mitochondrial genome, this suggests a requirement for novel accessory factors to ensure the accurate production of functional mRNAs.

  12. Liposome-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccines: Formulation Strategies for Subunit Antigens and Immunostimulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Foged, Camilla; Korsholm, Karen Smith

    2016-01-01

    The development of subunit vaccines has become very attractive in recent years due to their superior safety profiles as compared to traditional vaccines based on live attenuated or whole inactivated pathogens, and there is an unmet medical need for improved vaccines and vaccines against pathogens...... for which no effective vaccines exist. The subunit vaccine technology exploits pathogen subunits as antigens, e.g., recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides, allowing for highly specific immune responses against the pathogens. However, such antigens are usually not sufficiently immunogenic to induce...... been licensed for use in human vaccines, and they mainly stimulate humoral immunity. Thus, there is an unmet demand for the development of safe and efficient adjuvant systems that can also stimulate cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Adjuvants constitute a heterogeneous group of compounds, which can broadly...

  13. Domain–domain interactions determine the gating, permeation, pharmacology, and subunit modulation of the IKs ion channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaydman, Mark A; Kasimova, Marina A; McFarland, Kelli; Beller, Zachary; Hou, Panpan; Kinser, Holly E; Liang, Hongwu; Zhang, Guohui; Shi, Jingyi; Tarek, Mounir; Cui, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels generate electrical currents that control muscle contraction, encode neuronal information, and trigger hormonal release. Tissue-specific expression of accessory (β) subunits causes these channels to generate currents with distinct properties. In the heart, KCNQ1 voltage-gated potassium channels coassemble with KCNE1 β-subunits to generate the IKs current (Barhanin et al., 1996; Sanguinetti et al., 1996), an important current for maintenance of stable heart rhythms. KCNE1 significantly modulates the gating, permeation, and pharmacology of KCNQ1 (Wrobel et al., 2012; Sun et al., 2012; Abbott, 2014). These changes are essential for the physiological role of IKs (Silva and Rudy, 2005); however, after 18 years of study, no coherent mechanism explaining how KCNE1 affects KCNQ1 has emerged. Here we provide evidence of such a mechanism, whereby, KCNE1 alters the state-dependent interactions that functionally couple the voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) to the pore. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03606.001 PMID:25535795

  14. Stoichiometry of δ subunit containing GABA(A) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B; Mortensen, M; Smart, T G

    2014-02-01

    Although the stoichiometry of the major synaptic αβγ subunit-containing GABAA receptors has consensus support for 2α:2β:1γ, a clear view of the stoichiometry of extrasynaptic receptors containing δ subunits has remained elusive. Here we examine the subunit stoichiometry of recombinant α4β3δ receptors using a reporter mutation and a functional electrophysiological approach. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we inserted a highly characterized 9' serine to leucine mutation into the second transmembrane (M2) region of α4, β3 and δ subunits that increases receptor sensitivity to GABA. Whole-cell, GABA-activated currents were recorded from HEK-293 cells co-expressing different combinations of wild-type (WT) and/or mutant α4(L297S), β3(L284S) and δ(L288S) subunits. Recombinant receptors containing one or more mutant subunits showed increased GABA sensitivity relative to WT receptors by approximately fourfold, independent of the subunit class (α, β or δ) carrying the mutation. GABA dose-response curves of cells co-expressing WT subunits with their respective L9'S mutants exhibited multiple components, with the number of discernible components enabling a subunit stoichiometry of 2α, 2β and 1δ to be deduced for α4β3δ receptors. Varying the cDNA transfection ratio by 10-fold had no significant effect on the number of incorporated δ subunits. Subunit stoichiometry is an important determinant of GABAA receptor function and pharmacology, and δ subunit-containing receptors are important mediators of tonic inhibition in several brain regions. Here we demonstrate a preferred subunit stoichiometry for α4β3δ receptors of 2α, 2β and 1δ. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia in a patient with an atypically located accessory pathway in the left lateral mitral annulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mañero, Moisés; Fernández-López, Xesús A; González-Melchor, Laila; García-Seara, Javier; Martínez-Sande, Jose Luis; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia (PJRT) is an uncommon form of atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia due to an accessory pathway characterized by slow and decremental retrograde conduction. The majority of accessory pathways in PJRT are located in the posteroseptal zone. Few cases of atypical location have been described. We report a case of PJRT in a 72-year-old woman in whom the accessory pathway was located in the left lateral region and treated by radiofrequency catheter ablation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypersecretion of the alpha-subunit in clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas: Diagnostic accuracy is improved by adding alpha-subunit/gonadotropin ratio to levels of alpha-subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne; Ganc-Petersen, Joanna; Jørgensen, Jens O L

    2010-01-01

    In vitro, the majority of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) produce gonadotropins or their alpha-subunit; however, in vivo, measurements of alpha-subunit levels may not accurately detect the hypersecretion of the alpha-subunit.......In vitro, the majority of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) produce gonadotropins or their alpha-subunit; however, in vivo, measurements of alpha-subunit levels may not accurately detect the hypersecretion of the alpha-subunit....

  17. [NiFe]-hydrogenase maturation in vitro: analysis of the roles of the HybG and HypD accessory proteins1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboh, Basem; Lindenstrauss, Ute; Granich, Claudia; Javed, Mahwish; Herzberg, Martin; Thomas, Claudia; Stripp, Sven T

    2014-12-01

    [NiFe]-hydrogenases (Hyd) bind a nickel-iron-based cofactor. The Fe ion of the cofactor is bound by two cyanide ligands and a single carbon monoxide ligand. Minimally six accessory proteins (HypA-HypF) are necessary for NiFe(CN)2CO cofactor biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. It has been shown that the anaerobically purified HypC-HypD-HypE scaffold complex carries the Fe(CN)2CO moiety of this cofactor. In the present study, we have purified the HybG-HypDE complex and used it to successfully reconstitute in vitro active Hyd from E. coli. HybG is a homologue of HypC that is specifically required for the maturation of Hyd-2 and also functions in the maturation of Hyd-1 of E. coli. Maturation of active Hyd-1 and Hyd-2 could be demonstrated in extracts derived from HybG- and HypD-deficient E. coli strains by adding anaerobically purified HybG-HypDE complex. In vitro maturation was dependent on ATP, carbamoylphosphate, nickel and reducing conditions. Hydrogenase maturation was prevented when the purified HybG-HypDE complex used in the maturation assay lacked a bound Fe(CN)2CO moiety. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to isolate incompletely processed intermediates on the maturation pathway and to use these to activate apo-forms of [NiFe]-hydrogenase large subunits.

  18. Managing brain extracellular K+ during neuronal activity: The physiological role of the Na+/K+-ATPase subunit isoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Roland eLarsen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDuring neuronal activity in the brain, extracellular K+ rises and is subsequently removed to prevent a widespread depolarization. One of the key players in regulating extracellular K+ is the Na+/K+-ATPase, although the relative involvement and physiological impact of the different subunit isoform compositions of the Na+/K+-ATPase remain unresolved. The various cell types in the brain serve a certain temporal contribution in the face of network activity; astrocytes respond directly to the immediate release of K+ from neurons, whereas the neurons themselves become the primary K+ absorbers as activity ends. The kinetic characteristics of the catalytic α subunit isoforms of the Na+/K+-ATPase are, partly, determined by the accessory β subunit with which they combine. The isoform combinations expressed by astrocytes and neurons, respectively, appear to be in line with the kinetic characteristics required to fulfill their distinct physiological roles in clearance of K+ from the extracellular space in the face of neuronal activity.Understanding the nature, impact and effects of the various Na+/K+-ATPase isoform combinations in K+ management in the central nervous system might reveal insights into pathological conditions such as epilepsy, migraine, and spreading depolarization following cerebral ischemia. In addition, particular neurological diseases occur as a result of mutations in the α2- (familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 and α3 isoforms (rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism/alternating hemiplegia of childhood. This review addresses aspects of the Na+/K+-ATPase in the regulation of extracellular K+ in the central nervous system as well as the related pathophysiology. Understanding the physiological setting in non-pathological tissue would provide a better understanding of the pathological events occurring during disease.

  19. Variation in the organization and subunit composition of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2/E3BP core assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakrishnan, Swetha; Callow, Philip; Nutley, Margaret A; McGow, Donna P; Gilbert, David; Kropholler, Peter; Cooper, Alan; Byron, Olwyn; Lindsay, J Gordon

    2011-08-01

    Crucial to glucose homoeostasis in humans, the hPDC (human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex) is a massive molecular machine comprising multiple copies of three distinct enzymes (E1-E3) and an accessory subunit, E3BP (E3-binding protein). Its icosahedral E2/E3BP 60-meric 'core' provides the central structural and mechanistic framework ensuring favourable E1 and E3 positioning and enzyme co-operativity. Current core models indicate either a 48E2+12E3BP or a 40E2+20E3BP subunit composition. In the present study, we demonstrate clear differences in subunit content and organization between the recombinant hPDC core (rhPDC; 40E2+20E3BP), generated under defined conditions where E3BP is produced in excess, and its native bovine (48E2+12E3BP) counterpart. The results of the present study provide a rational basis for resolving apparent differences between previous models, both obtained using rhE2/E3BP core assemblies where no account was taken of relative E2 and E3BP expression levels. Mathematical modelling predicts that an 'average' 48E2+12E3BP core arrangement allows maximum flexibility in assembly, while providing the appropriate balance of bound E1 and E3 enzymes for optimal catalytic efficiency and regulatory fine-tuning. We also show that the rhE2/E3BP and bovine E2/E3BP cores bind E3s with a 2:1 stoichiometry, and propose that mammalian PDC comprises a heterogeneous population of assemblies incorporating a network of E3 (and possibly E1) cross-bridges above the core surface. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society

  20. Diversity of heterotrimeric G-protein γ subunits in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trusov Yuri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterotrimeric G-proteins, consisting of three subunits Gα, Gβ and Gγ are present in most eukaryotes and mediate signaling in numerous biological processes. In plants, Gγ subunits were shown to provide functional selectivity to G-proteins. Three unconventional Gγ subunits were recently reported in Arabidopsis, rice and soybean but no structural analysis has been reported so far. Their relationship with conventional Gγ subunits and taxonomical distribution has not been yet demonstrated. Results After an extensive similarity search through plant genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes we assembled over 200 non-redundant proteins related to the known Gγ subunits. Structural analysis of these sequences revealed that most of them lack the obligatory C-terminal prenylation motif (CaaX. According to their C-terminal structures we classified the plant Gγ subunits into three distinct types. Type A consists of Gγ subunits with a putative prenylation motif. Type B subunits lack a prenylation motif and do not have any cysteine residues in the C-terminal region, while type C subunits contain an extended C-terminal domain highly enriched with cysteines. Comparative analysis of C-terminal domains of the proteins, intron-exon arrangement of the corresponding genes and phylogenetic studies suggested a common origin of all plant Gγ subunits. Conclusion Phylogenetic analyses suggest that types C and B most probably originated independently from type A ancestors. We speculate on a potential mechanism used by those Gγ subunits lacking isoprenylation motifs to anchor the Gβγ dimer to the plasma membrane and propose a new flexible nomenclature for plant Gγ subunits. Finally, in the light of our new classification, we give a word of caution about the interpretation of Gγ research in Arabidopsis and its generalization to other plant species.

  1. Assembly of catalytic subunits of aspartate transcarbamoylase from Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.L.; Schachman, H.K.

    1980-10-01

    Although extensive studies have been conducted on the assembly of the allosteric enzyme, aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) from isolate, intact catalytic (C) and regulatory (R) subunits, there has been little research on the formation of these subunits from individual catalytic (c) and regulatory (r) polypeptide chains. Such studies would be useful for evaluating the strengths of the interchain bonding domains within the subunits just as earlier experiments provided valuable data regarding interactions between the subunits in ATCase. The intact enzyme comprising two C trimers and three R dimers is designated as C/sub 2/R/sub 3/ or c/sub 6/r/sub 6/.

  2. Cyclic guanosine 3'-5'-monphosphate. High levels in the male accessory gland of Acheta domesticus and related crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, A M; Wyatt, G R

    1975-12-05

    Guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) was found in the accessory gland of reproductively mature male house crickets (Acheta domesticus (L.)) up to the exceptionally high level of 500 pmol/mg protein (10(-4) mol/kg wet weight). The identity of cricket cyclic GMP was confirmed by enzymatic and spectral analysis. A survey of 10 closely related species of Orthoptera indicated that high levels of cyclic GMP in the accessory gland occur in the subfamily Gryllinae, to which A. domesticus belongs. In these crickets, cyclic GMP in the accessory gland increases together with protein content during two weeks after the final molt. Levels are not augmented by dissection, and are independent of the presence of sperm in the seminal vesicles and of the production of spermatophores by the gland. The function of cyclic GMP in the accessory gland is not yet understood.

  3. Terminal phalangeal accessory ossification center of the thumb: an additional radiographic finding in Larsen syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanay, Yasemin [Hacettepe University, Clinical Genetics Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Medical Genetics Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Utine, Gulen E.; Tuncbilek, Ergul [Hacettepe University, Clinical Genetics Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Lachman, Ralph S. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Medical Genetics Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiological Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Krakow, Deborah [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Medical Genetics Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Larsen syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by multiple joint dislocations, vertebral anomalies and dysmorphic facies. Both autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive forms of the disorder have been proposed. Individuals with autosomal-dominant Larsen syndrome have characteristic ''cylindrical-shape'' thumbs caused by broad, shortened phalanges. Autosomal-dominant Larsen syndrome results from heterozygosity for mutations in filamin B, a cytoskeletal protein involved in multicellular processes. We report here a patient with a duplicated or accessory distal thumb phalanx and multiple large joint dislocations who was shown to be heterozygous for a filamin B mutation predicting the amino acid substitution G1691S. This adds a new radiographic finding, duplicated or accessory distal phalanx, to the radiographic abnormalities seen in this rare dominant disorder. (orig.)

  4. [Functional significance of the accessory optic system in the development of the "wakefulness-sleep" cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmanova, I G; Khomutetskaia, O E

    1975-05-01

    The new data on the role of accessory optic system in producing of some behavioral forms are presented. It was obtained in hens with bilateral destruction of nucleus ectomammilaris that the duration of active awake stage is considerably decreased, the passive defence reaction and the alert reaction are much weaker. The sleep stage is much longer and the percent of paradoxal sleeping accompanied with active eyes movements is increased. In the hens operated 5,2 percent from 6 percent of paradoxal sleep stage is accompanied with the active eyes movements, but in the intact animals it is only 0,5 percent from 5 percent. It has been shown experimentally that the accessory optic system influenced the flexor mussle tonus.

  5. Morphology of accessory genital glands of spotted paca (Agouti paca Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Edson Moreira; Branco, Érika; de Lima, Ana Rita; Leal, Leonardo Martins; Martins, Leandro Luiz; Reis, Ana Carolina Gonçalves; Cruz, Claudinei; Machado, Márcia Rita Fernandes; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-02-01

    The spotted paca is the second largest rodent in Brazil, where it is of great economic interest in impoverished regions in view of its prominence as a low-cost source of protein. Little is known about the morphology of the accessory genital glands of this species. Thus, we studied the position and morphology of the genitals in ten adult male spotted pacas. The animals were divided into two groups, five animals were used for fixing of samples in 10% aqueous formaldehyde for macroscopic studies and the other five animals were designated for microscopic analysis. These were arranged in pairs and had the vesicular, prostate, coagulating and bulbourethral glands identified, being structured as mucous glands, which lead into the pelvic urethra. It was concluded that the accessory genital glands found in the paca are the same as those found in most rodents, showing similar histological aspects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Accessory nerve function after level 2b-preserving selective neck dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Bilge; Coskun, Hakan; Kumas, Ferda F; Irdesel, Jale; Zarifoglu, Mehmet; Erisen, Levent; Onart, Selcuk

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the relationship between accessory nerve functions and level 2b-preserving selective neck dissection. Forty-one necks of 30 patients with laryngeal cancer who underwent unilateral or bilateral level 2b-preserving neck dissections, between February 2003 and July 2005, were evaluated. Neck and shoulder movements and muscle strengths were examined and electroneuromyography (ENMG) was performed preoperatively at the postoperative 21st day and 6th month. Pathological anatomical findings at the postoperative 6th month were also evaluated. All shoulder movements and muscle strengths were preserved. Neck extension, rotation movements, and flexion strengths were restricted. ENMG values were affected moderately in the early postoperative period and improved slightly in the late postoperative period. None of the patients developed shoulder syndrome or adhesive capsulitis. Preserving level 2b during selective neck dissection decreases trauma to the accessory nerve and improves functional results. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2009.

  7. Endovascular glue embolization of dissecting aneurysm of type-3 accessory middle cerebral artery: A contralateral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Goel, Gaurav; Gupta, Vipul; Narang, Karanjit Singh; Anand, Saurabh; Jha, Ajaya Nand

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are rare with a reported prevalence of 0.5-4.6%. Likewise, anomalous arterial patterns are uncommon in the cerebral circulation. Recognition of these variations and knowledge of vascular territory forms the key to managing pathological conditions associated with these anomalous vessels. Ruptured dissecting aneurysm of type-3 accessory middle cerebral artery (aMCA) has not been reported in the pediatric age group. In addition to type-3 aMCA, the child in this case report had an ipsilateral type-1 aMCA with cortical supply. We describe the patterns of accessory MCA and their vascular territory, state the perplexity involved in deciding the best management strategy, and describe the technical approach we undertook to catheterize this small caliber recurrent artery (type-3 aMCA) originating at an acute angle from the anterior cerebral artery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Online monitoring of Accessories for Underground Electrical Installations through Acoustics Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casals-Torrens P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic waves caused by Partial Discharges inside the dielectric materials, can be detected by acoustic emission (AE sensors and analyzed in the time domain. The experimental results presented, show the online detection capability of these sensors in the environment near a cable accessory, such as a splice or terminal. The AE sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference and constitute a detection method non-intrusive and non-destructive, which ensures a galvanic decoupling with respect to electric networks, this technique of partial discharge detection can be applied as a test method for preventive or predictive maintenance (condition-based maintenance to equipments or facilities of medium and high voltage in service and represents an alternative method to electrical detection systems, conventional or not, that continue to rely on the detection of current pulses. This paper presents characterization tests of the sensors AE through comparative tests of partial discharge on accessories for underground power cables.

  9. Resection of accessory parotid gland tumors through a peroral approach with facial nerve monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, Joachim; Schwentner, Ilona M; Andrle, Jan; Gunkel, Andreas R; Sprinzl, Georg M

    2007-11-01

    Accessory parotid glands are an anatomic variation. Pathologic alterations, which occur in these tissues, are related to those found in the parotid gland. At this time, first-line therapy consists of total resection. In consideration of the delicate anatomy in this region, a careful approach through a lateral parotidectomy or a facelift incision is recommended. In this report, we give an account of a minimally invasive surgical alternative through a peroral approach with facial nerve monitoring. The histologically secured pleomorphic adenoma was completely removed. During surgery, a branch of the facial nerve was detected and secured with active nerve monitoring. We are confident that the peroral resection, supported by active and passive facial nerve monitoring, is a discussable alternative for well-selected tumors of accessory parotid glands.

  10. A fast 3D reconstruction system with a low-cost camera accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiwei; Gibson, Graham M; Hay, Rebecca; Bowman, Richard W; Padgett, Miles J; Edgar, Matthew P

    2015-06-09

    Photometric stereo is a three dimensional (3D) imaging technique that uses multiple 2D images, obtained from a fixed camera perspective, with different illumination directions. Compared to other 3D imaging methods such as geometry modeling and 3D-scanning, it comes with a number of advantages, such as having a simple and efficient reconstruction routine. In this work, we describe a low-cost accessory to a commercial digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera system allowing fast reconstruction of 3D objects using photometric stereo. The accessory consists of four white LED lights fixed to the lens of a commercial DSLR camera and a USB programmable controller board to sequentially control the illumination. 3D images are derived for different objects with varying geometric complexity and results are presented, showing a typical height error of <3 mm for a 50 mm sized object.

  11. Accessory mental foramen: A rare anatomical variation detected by cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; De Faro Valverde, Ludmila; Vidal, Manuela Torres Andion; Crusoe-Rebello, Ieda Margarida [Dept. of Oral Radiology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    The mental foramen is a bilateral opening in the vestibular portion of the mandible through which nerve endings, such as the mental nerve, emerge. In general, the mental foramen is located between the lower premolars. This region is a common area for the placement of dental implants. It is very important to identify anatomical variations in presurgical imaging exams since damage to neurovascular bundles may have a direct influence on treatment success. In the hemimandible, the mental foramen normally appears as a single structure, but there are some rare reports on the presence and number of anatomical variations; these variations may include accessory foramina. The present report describes the presence of accessory mental foramina in the right mandible, as detected by cone-beam computed tomography before dental implant placement.

  12. Reconstruction of the nasal soft triangle subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Fadi C; Lee, Michael R; Sinno, Sammy; Thornton, James F

    2013-05-01

    Of all nine subunits, the soft triangle is perhaps the most challenging to recreate. The complexity of soft triangle reconstruction resides in its proximity to such important structures as the nasal tip, nasal ala, and distal columella. If the soft triangle is not properly reconstructed, problems with nasal function and aesthetics often arise. Anatomical asymmetries in the lower third and abnormal shadowing can occur following insufficient restoration. A retrospective review was completed of all patients undergoing reconstruction of the nasal soft triangle subunit at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, Texas, from 1995 to 2010. Defects with only external skin intact were classified as type I. Defects involving both skin and underlying soft tissue with intact mucosa were classified as type II. Finally, transmural defects with violated mucosa were classified as type III. Surgical outcomes were graded on a scale of I to IV. Grades given were based on the complexity of the existing defect and restoration of the soft triangle, with higher grades given when adjacent structures were not distorted. Of the 14 cases reviewed, two (14 percent) were type I defects, nine (64 percent) were type II defects, and three (21 percent) were type III defects. Three patients (21 percent) required revision with subsequent resurfacing and two (14 percent) required resurfacing alone. All but one patient (93 percent) had a grade of 2.0 or better, with the one patient opting not to undergo revision. The authors believe their method of soft triangle reconstruction using the proposed algorithm is an easy approach to soft triangle reconstruction that will yield consistent surgical and clinical success from aesthetic and functional perspectives. Furthermore, the authors were able to achieve excellent aesthetic outcomes without compromise or facing any structural complications. Therapeutic, IV.

  13. Interactions between subunits in heterodimeric Ncd molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocik, Elzbieta; Skowronek, Krzysztof J; Kasprzak, Andrzej A

    2009-12-18

    The nonprocessive minus-end-directed kinesin-14 Ncd is involved in the organization of the microtubule (MT) network during mitosis. Only one of the two motor domains is involved in the interaction with the MT. The other head is tethered to the bound one. Here we prepared, purified, and characterized mutated Ncd molecules carrying point mutations in one of the heads, thus producing heterodimeric motors. The mutations tested included substitutions in Switch I and II: R552A, E585A, and E585D; the decoupling mutant N600K; and a deletion in the motor domain in one of the subunits resulting in a single-headed molecule (NcN). These proteins were isolated by two sequential affinity chromatography steps, followed by measurements of their affinities to MT, enzymatic properties, and the velocity of the microtubule gliding test in vitro. A striking observation is a low affinity of the single-headed NcN for MT both without nucleotides and in the presence of 5'-adenylyl-beta,gamma-imidodiphosphate, implying that the tethered head has a profound effect on the structure of the Ncd-MT complex. Mutated homodimers had no MT-activated ATPase and no motility, whereas NcN had motility comparable with that of the wild type Ncd. Although the heterodimers had one fully active and one inactive head, the ATPase and motility of Ncd heterodimers varied dramatically, clearly demonstrating that interactions between motor domains exist in Ncd. We also show that the bulk property of dimeric proteins that interact with the filament with only one of its heads depends also on the distribution of the filament-interacting subunits.

  14. Transcription Factors Encoded on Core and Accessory Chromosomes of Fusarium oxysporum Induce Expression of Effector Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Charlotte van der Does

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Proteins secreted by pathogens during host colonization largely determine the outcome of pathogen-host interactions and are commonly called 'effectors'. In fungal plant pathogens, coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of effector genes is a key feature of pathogenesis and effectors are often encoded in genomic regions with distinct repeat content, histone code and rate of evolution. In the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol, effector genes reside on one of four accessory chromosomes, known as the 'pathogenicity' chromosome, which can be exchanged between strains through horizontal transfer. The three other accessory chromosomes in the Fol reference strain may also be important for virulence towards tomato. Expression of effector genes in Fol is highly up-regulated upon infection and requires Sge1, a transcription factor encoded on the core genome. Interestingly, the pathogenicity chromosome itself contains 13 predicted transcription factor genes and for all except one, there is a homolog on the core genome. We determined DNA binding specificity for nine transcription factors using oligonucleotide arrays. The binding sites for homologous transcription factors were highly similar, suggesting that extensive neofunctionalization of DNA binding specificity has not occurred. Several DNA binding sites are enriched on accessory chromosomes, and expression of FTF1, its core homolog FTF2 and SGE1 from a constitutive promoter can induce expression of effector genes. The DNA binding sites of only these three transcription factors are enriched among genes up-regulated during infection. We further show that Ftf1, Ftf2 and Sge1 can activate transcription from their binding sites in yeast. RNAseq analysis revealed that in strains with constitutive expression of FTF1, FTF2 or SGE1, expression of a similar set of plant-responsive genes on the pathogenicity chromosome is induced, including most effector genes. We conclude that the Fol

  15. Combination of Hansen Robotic system with cryocatheter in a challenging parahisian accessory pathway ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Rodríguez-Mañero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A perceived distinctive feature of cryoablation is the stability (cryoadherence of the catheter tip during cold temperatures at the desired location, even during tachycardia. We report the case report of a young patient with a parahisian accessory pathway where stability of the ablation catheter was not achieved despite using the cryocatheter with a steerable sheath. Ultimately, stability at the desired location was achieved robotically by means of Hansen system (Hansen Medical, Mountain View, CA, USA.

  16. Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace), the third toxin of a Vibrio cholerae virulence cassette.

    OpenAIRE

    Trucksis, M; Galen, J E; Michalski, J; Fasano, A; Kaper, J B

    1993-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae causes the potentially lethal disease cholera through the elaboration of the intestinal secretogen cholera toxin. A second toxin of V. cholerae, Zot, decreases intestinal tissue resistance by modifying intercellular tight junctions. In this report, a third toxin of V. cholerae, Ace (accessory cholera enterotoxin), is described. Ace increases short-circuit current in Ussing chambers and causes fluid secretion in ligated rabbit ileal loops. The predicted protein sequence of Ace ...

  17. Anatomy of the spinal accessory nerve plexus: relevance to head and neck cancer and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Henry

    2002-09-01

    The term spinal accessory nerve plexus may be defined as the spinal accessory nerve with all its intra- and extracranial connections to other nerves, principally cranial, cervical, and sympathetic. The term is not new. This review examines its applied anatomy in head and neck cancer and atherosclerosis. Over the centuries, general studies of neural and vascular anatomy and embryology formed a basis for the understanding upon which the plexus is described. During the past century, its anatomy and blood supply have come to be better understood. The importance of almost all of the plexus to head, neck, and upper extremity motor and sensory functions has come to be realized. Because of this understanding, surgical neck dissection has become progressively more conservative. This historical progression is traced. Even the most recent anatomic studies of the spinal accessory nerve plexus reveal configurations, new to many of us. They were probably known to classical anatomists, and not recorded in readily available literature, or not recorded at all. Human and comparative anatomic studies indicate that the composition of this plexus and its blood supply vary widely, even though within the same species their overall function is very nearly the same. Loss of any of these structures, then, may have very different consequences in different individuals. As a corollary to this statement, data are presented that the spinal accessory nerve itself need not be cut during surgical neck dissections for severe impairment to occur. In addition, data are presented supporting the theory that atherosclerosis by obstructing vessels to this plexus and its closely connected brachial plexus will very likely result in their ischemic dysfunction, often painful. Finally evidence, as well as theory, is stated concerning anatomic issues, methodology, outcome, and possible improvements in surgical procedures emphasizing conservatism.

  18. Hybrid vehicle powertrain system with power take-off driven vehicle accessory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Zou, Zhanijang; Hope, Mark E.; Kang, Xiaosong; Carpenter, Jeffrey L.

    2006-09-12

    A hybrid vehicle powertrain system includes a first prime mover, a first prime mover driven power transmission mechanism having a power take-off adapted to drive a vehicle accessory, and a second prime mover. The second prime mover is operable to drive the power transmission mechanism alone or in combination with the first prime mover to provide power to the power take-off through the power transmission mechanism. The invention further includes methods for operating a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  19. Transcription Factors Encoded on Core and Accessory Chromosomes of Fusarium oxysporum Induce Expression of Effector Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, H Charlotte; Fokkens, Like; Yang, Ally; Schmidt, Sarah M; Langereis, Léon; Lukasiewicz, Joanna M; Hughes, Timothy R; Rep, Martijn

    2016-11-01

    Proteins secreted by pathogens during host colonization largely determine the outcome of pathogen-host interactions and are commonly called 'effectors'. In fungal plant pathogens, coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of effector genes is a key feature of pathogenesis and effectors are often encoded in genomic regions with distinct repeat content, histone code and rate of evolution. In the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), effector genes reside on one of four accessory chromosomes, known as the 'pathogenicity' chromosome, which can be exchanged between strains through horizontal transfer. The three other accessory chromosomes in the Fol reference strain may also be important for virulence towards tomato. Expression of effector genes in Fol is highly up-regulated upon infection and requires Sge1, a transcription factor encoded on the core genome. Interestingly, the pathogenicity chromosome itself contains 13 predicted transcription factor genes and for all except one, there is a homolog on the core genome. We determined DNA binding specificity for nine transcription factors using oligonucleotide arrays. The binding sites for homologous transcription factors were highly similar, suggesting that extensive neofunctionalization of DNA binding specificity has not occurred. Several DNA binding sites are enriched on accessory chromosomes, and expression of FTF1, its core homolog FTF2 and SGE1 from a constitutive promoter can induce expression of effector genes. The DNA binding sites of only these three transcription factors are enriched among genes up-regulated during infection. We further show that Ftf1, Ftf2 and Sge1 can activate transcription from their binding sites in yeast. RNAseq analysis revealed that in strains with constitutive expression of FTF1, FTF2 or SGE1, expression of a similar set of plant-responsive genes on the pathogenicity chromosome is induced, including most effector genes. We conclude that the Fol pathogenicity

  20. An investigation of accessory canals in primary molars - an analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Urvashi; Gulati, Anubha; Gill, Namrata

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the number, anatomical morphology and patency of accessory canals in the furcation of carious primary molar teeth and to ascertain whether these anatomic variations contribute to endodontic infection. The accessory canals were observed under radiovisiography or RVG (Phase 1), scanning electron microscopy or SEM (Phase 2) and light microscopy (Phase 3). The prevalence of accessory canals was 34.3% with a mean ± SD of 0.73 ± 0.980 in Phase 1, 73.3% with a mean ± SD of 3.07 ± 3.151 in Phase 2 and 64.3% with a mean ± SD of 1.68 ± 2.405 in Phase 3. The results observed were Phase 1 vs Phase 2primary cause of transmission of infection in the inter-radicular area of primary molars. Other factors enhancing permeability of the pulpal floor may be of more significance and need evaluation on a larger scale. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of Antegrade Accessory Pathway Conduction on QRS Terminal Vector in Patients with Preexcitation Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renguang; Chen, Q I; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yingjie; Xu, Zhaolong; Wang, Gaopin

    2017-03-01

    Ventricle preexcitation through accessory pathway changes QRS initial vector, and manifests as delta wave on electrocardiogram (ECG). However, QRS terminal vector can also be affected. A total of 158 patients who had single accessory pathway (AP) with antegrade conduction capacity were included and divided into two groups according to the ECG with or without delta wave. Note that 150 patients had delta wave (overt AP group) on ECG; classical preexcitation syndrome was diagnosed before radiofrequency ablation. Eight patients had no delta wave on ECG (unapparent AP group); preexcitation was induced by transesophageal atrial pacing. ECGs and intracardiac electrogram (IEGM) before and after ablation and during atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia were analyzed. (1) In the overt AP group: QRS terminal vector amplitude and polarity changes were observed in all the 150 patients, and were related to AP location and delta wave polarity. (2) In the unapparent AP group: QRS terminal vector changes were found in two out of eight patients, and the initial activation of ventricle myocardium via AP on IEGM was almost simultaneous with the onset of QRS complex on ECG. It is not only the QRS initial vector, but also the QRS terminal vector that can be changed by the antegrade accessory pathway conduction in patients with preexcitation syndrome. The change of QRS terminal vector is valuable for the diagnosis of atypical preexcitation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Influence of Telecommunication Modality, Internet Transmission Quality, and Accessories on Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Roger; Guignard, Jérémie; Caversaccio, Marco; Kompis, Martin; Senn, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Background Telecommunication is limited or even impossible for more than one-thirds of all cochlear implant (CI) users. Objective We sought therefore to study the impact of voice quality on speech perception with voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) under real and adverse network conditions. Methods Telephone speech perception was assessed in 19 CI users (15-69 years, average 42 years), using the German HSM (Hochmair-Schulz-Moser) sentence test comparing Skype and conventional telephone (public switched telephone networks, PSTN) transmission using a personal computer (PC) and a digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) telephone dual device. Five different Internet transmission quality modes and four accessories (PC speakers, headphones, 3.5 mm jack audio cable, and induction loop) were compared. As a secondary outcome, the subjective perceived voice quality was assessed using the mean opinion score (MOS). Results Speech telephone perception was significantly better (median 91.6%, P 15%) were not superior to conventional telephony. In addition, there were no significant differences between the tested accessories (P>.05) using a PC. Coupling a Skype DECT phone device with an audio cable to the CI, however, resulted in higher speech perception (median 65%) and subjective MOS scores (3.2) than using PSTN (median 7.5%, P<.001). Conclusions Skype calls significantly improve speech perception for CI users compared with conventional telephony under real network conditions. Listening accessories do not further improve listening experience. Current Skype DECT telephone devices do not fully offer technical advantages in voice quality. PMID:28438727

  3. Quality detection system and method of micro-accessory based on microscopic vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongjie; Wang, Shiwei; Fu, Yu

    2017-10-01

    Considering that the traditional manual detection of micro-accessory has some problems, such as heavy workload, low efficiency and large artificial error, a kind of quality inspection system of micro-accessory has been designed. Micro-vision technology has been used to inspect quality, which optimizes the structure of the detection system. The stepper motor is used to drive the rotating micro-platform to transfer quarantine device and the microscopic vision system is applied to get graphic information of micro-accessory. The methods of image processing and pattern matching, the variable scale Sobel differential edge detection algorithm and the improved Zernike moments sub-pixel edge detection algorithm are combined in the system in order to achieve a more detailed and accurate edge of the defect detection. The grade at the edge of the complex signal can be achieved accurately by extracting through the proposed system, and then it can distinguish the qualified products and unqualified products with high precision recognition.

  4. Analytic and rule-based decision support tool for VDT workstation adjustment and computer accessories arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurkhamet, Busagarin; Nanthavanij, Suebsak

    2004-12-01

    One important factor that leads to the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and cumulative trauma disorders (CTD) among visual display terminal (VDT) users is their work posture. While operating a VDT, a user's body posture is strongly influenced by the task, VDT workstation settings, and layout of computer accessories. This paper presents an analytic and rule-based decision support tool called EQ-DeX (an ergonomics and quantitative design expert system) that is developed to provide valid and practical recommendations regarding the adjustment of a VDT workstation and the arrangement of computer accessories. The paper explains the structure and components of EQ-DeX, input data, rules, and adjustment and arrangement algorithms. From input information such as gender, age, body height, task, etc., EQ-DeX uses analytic and rule-based algorithms to estimate quantitative settings of a computer table and a chair, as well as locations of computer accessories such as monitor, document holder, keyboard, and mouse. With the input and output screens that are designed using the concept of usability, the interactions between the user and EQ-DeX are convenient. Examples are also presented to demonstrate the recommendations generated by EQ-DeX.

  5. Repeated, selection-driven genome reduction of accessory genes in experimental populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chun Lee

    Full Text Available Genome reduction has been observed in many bacterial lineages that have adapted to specialized environments. The extreme genome degradation seen for obligate pathogens and symbionts appears to be dominated by genetic drift. In contrast, for free-living organisms with reduced genomes, the dominant force is proposed to be direct selection for smaller, streamlined genomes. Most variation in gene content for these free-living species is of "accessory" genes, which are commonly gained as large chromosomal islands that are adaptive for specialized traits such as pathogenicity. It is generally unclear, however, whether the process of accessory gene loss is largely driven by drift or selection. Here we demonstrate that selection for gene loss, and not a shortened genome, per se, drove massive, rapid reduction of accessory genes. In just 1,500 generations of experimental evolution, 80% of populations of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 experienced nearly parallel deletions removing up to 10% of the genome from a megaplasmid present in this strain. The absence of these deletion events in a mutation accumulation experiment suggested that selection, rather than drift, has dominated the process. Reconstructing these deletions confirmed that they were beneficial in their selective regimes, but led to decreased performance in alternative environments. These results indicate that selection can be crucial in eliminating unnecessary genes during the early stages of adaptation to a specialized environment.

  6. Metal transfer within the Escherichia coli HypB-HypA complex of hydrogenase accessory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Colin D; Ngu, Thanh T; Kaluarachchi, Harini; Zamble, Deborah B

    2013-09-03

    The maturation of [NiFe]-hydrogenase in Escherichia coli is a complex process involving many steps and multiple accessory proteins. The two accessory proteins HypA and HypB interact with each other and are thought to cooperate to insert nickel into the active site of the hydrogenase-3 precursor protein. Both of these accessory proteins bind metal individually, but little is known about the metal-binding activities of the proteins once they assemble together into a functional complex. In this study, we investigate how complex formation modulates metal binding to the E. coli proteins HypA and HypB. This work lead to a re-evaluation of the HypA nickel affinity, revealing a KD on the order of 10(-8) M. HypA can efficiently remove nickel, but not zinc, from the metal-binding site in the GTPase domain of HypB, a process that is less efficient when complex formation between HypA and HypB is disrupted. Furthermore, nickel release from HypB to HypA is specifically accelerated when HypB is loaded with GDP, but not GTP. These results are consistent with the HypA-HypB complex serving as a transfer step in the relay of nickel from membrane transporter to its final destination in the hydrogenase active site and suggest that this complex contributes to the metal fidelity of this pathway.

  7. Fracture resistance of weakened teeth restored using accessory glass fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Ricardo Abreu; Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; da Rosa, Tiago Abreu; Reis, Katia Rodrigues; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan

    2013-01-01

    This study used differential root weakening to evaluate the fracture resistance of bovine teeth restored using glass fiber posts (with or without accessory glass fiber posts). Fifty bovine mandibular incisors were sectioned 14 mm from the apex, fixed in acrylic resin blocks, and divided into 5 groups: healthy roots with a glass fiber post (Group 1), partially weakened teeth with a glass fiber post (Group 2), partially weakened teeth with a glass fiber post and 2 accessory glass fiber posts (Group 3), extensively weakened teeth with a glass fiber post (Group 4), and extensively weakened teeth with a glass fiber post and 5 accessory glass fiber posts (Group 5). Posts were luted with resin cement, cores were prepared using composite resin, and metallic crowns were cemented. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for more than 72 hours until the fracture resistance test. Specimens were loaded at 135 degrees relative to the long axis of the tooth at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute in a universal testing machine. All groups predominantly exhibited favorable failure patterns and there were no statistically significant differences between groups (two-way ANOVA, α = 0.05).

  8. The Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Function Is Modulated by HIV-1 Accessory Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Barker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells’ major role in the control of viruses is to eliminate established infected cells. The capacity of NK cells to kill virus-infected cells is dependent on the interactions between ligands on the infected cell and receptors on the NK cell surface. Because of the importance of ligand-receptor interactions in modulating the NK cell cytotoxic response, HIV has developed strategies to regulate various NK cell ligands making the infected cell surprisingly refractory to NK cell lysis. This is perplexing because the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr induces expression of ligands for the NK cell activating receptor, NKG2D. In addition, the accessory protein Nef removes the inhibitory ligands HLA-A and -B. The reason for the ineffective killing by NK cells despite the strong potential to eliminate infected cells is due to HIV-1 Vpu’s ability to down modulate the co-activation ligand, NTB-A, from the cell surface. Down modulation of NTB-A prevents efficient NK cell degranulation. This review will focus on the mechanisms through which the HIV-1 accessory proteins modulate their respective ligands, and its implication for NK cell killing of HIV-infected cells.

  9. Three-dimensional imaging identified the accessory bile duct in a patient with cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Oshiro, Yukio; Hashimoto, Shinji; Kohno, Keisuke; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Oda, Tatsuya; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2014-08-28

    The development of diagnostic imaging technology, such as multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), has made it possible to obtain detailed images of the bile duct. Recent reports have indicated that a 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructed imaging system would be useful for understanding the liver anatomy before surgery. We have investigated a novel method that fuses MDCT and MRCP images. This novel system easily made it possible to detect the anatomical relationship between the vessels and bile duct in the portal hepatis. In this report, we describe a very rare case of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma associated with an accessory bile duct from the caudate lobe connecting with the intrapancreatic bile duct. We were unable to preoperatively detect this accessory bile duct using MDCT and MRCP. However, prior to the second operation, we were able to clearly visualise the injured accessory bile duct using our novel 3D imaging modality. In this report, we suggest that this imaging technique can be considered a novel and useful modality for understanding the anatomy of the portal hepatis, including the hilar bile duct.

  10. Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Marchini, Daniela; Taylor, Phillip W

    2009-05-01

    Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly (Q-fly), Bactrocera tryoni, were investigated and compared with those of other tephritid flies. Male accessory glands were found to comprise one pair of mesodermic glands and three pairs of ectodermic glands. The mesodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined, binucleate epithelial cells, which are highly microvillated and extrude electron-dense secretions by means of macroapocrine transport into a central lumen. The ectodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined epithelial cells which have wide subcuticular cavities, lined with microvilli. The electron-transparent secretions from these glands are first extruded into the cavities and then forced out through small pores of the cuticle into the gland lumen. Secretions from the two types of accessory glands then flow into the ejaculatory duct, which is highly muscular, with epithelial cells rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and lined with a thick, deeply invaginated cuticle. While there are some notable differences, reproductive accessory glands of male Q-flies generally resemble those of the olive fruitfly, Bactrocera oleae, and to a lesser extent the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

  11. Liposome-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccines: Formulation Strategies for Subunit Antigens and Immunostimulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Tandrup Schmidt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of subunit vaccines has become very attractive in recent years due to their superior safety profiles as compared to traditional vaccines based on live attenuated or whole inactivated pathogens, and there is an unmet medical need for improved vaccines and vaccines against pathogens for which no effective vaccines exist. The subunit vaccine technology exploits pathogen subunits as antigens, e.g., recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides, allowing for highly specific immune responses against the pathogens. However, such antigens are usually not sufficiently immunogenic to induce protective immunity, and they are often combined with adjuvants to ensure robust immune responses. Adjuvants are capable of enhancing and/or modulating immune responses by exposing antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APCs concomitantly with conferring immune activation signals. Few adjuvant systems have been licensed for use in human vaccines, and they mainly stimulate humoral immunity. Thus, there is an unmet demand for the development of safe and efficient adjuvant systems that can also stimulate cell-mediated immunity (CMI. Adjuvants constitute a heterogeneous group of compounds, which can broadly be classified into delivery systems or immunostimulators. Liposomes are versatile delivery systems for antigens, and they can carefully be customized towards desired immune profiles by combining them with immunostimulators and optimizing their composition, physicochemical properties and antigen-loading mode. Immunostimulators represent highly diverse classes of molecules, e.g., lipids, nucleic acids, proteins and peptides, and they are ligands for pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, which are differentially expressed on APC subsets. Different formulation strategies might thus be required for incorporation of immunostimulators and antigens, respectively, into liposomes, and the choice of immunostimulator should ideally be based on knowledge regarding the

  12. Cloning and characterization of GABAA α subunits and GABAB subunits in Xenopus laevis during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Gwendolyn E; Rabe, Brian A; Saha, Margaret S

    2011-04-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult nervous system, acts via two classes of receptors, the ionotropic GABA(A) and metabotropic GABA(B) receptors. During the development of the nervous system, GABA acts in a depolarizing, excitatory manner and plays an important role in various neural developmental processes including cell proliferation, migration, synapse formation, and activity-dependent differentiation. Here we describe the spatial and temporal expression patterns of the GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors during early development of Xenopus laevis. Using in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR, GABA(A) α2 was detected as a maternal mRNA. All other α-subunits were first detected by tailbud through hatching stages. Expression of the various subunits was seen in the brain, spinal cord, cranial ganglia, olfactory epithelium, pineal, and pituitary gland. Each receptor subunit showed a distinctive, unique expression pattern, suggesting these receptors have specific functions and are regulated in a precise spatial and temporal manner. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Characterization of the β-barrel assembly machine accessory lipoproteins from Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Joshua P; Kenedy, Melisha R; Iqbal, Henna; Akins, Darrin R

    2015-03-24

    Like all diderm bacteria studied to date, Borrelia burgdorferi possesses a β-barrel assembly machine (BAM) complex. The bacterial BAM complexes characterized thus far consist of an essential integral outer membrane protein designated BamA and one or more accessory proteins. The accessory proteins are typically lipid-modified proteins anchored to the inner leaflet of the outer membrane through their lipid moieties. We previously identified and characterized the B. burgdorferi BamA protein in detail and more recently identified two lipoproteins encoded by open reading frames bb0324 and bb0028 that associate with the borrelial BamA protein. The role(s) of the BAM accessory lipoproteins in B. burgdorferi is currently unknown. Structural modeling of B. burgdorferi BB0028 revealed a distinct β-propeller fold similar to the known structure for the E. coli BAM accessory lipoprotein BamB. Additionally, the structural model for BB0324 was highly similar to the known structure of BamD, which is consistent with the prior finding that BB0324 contains tetratricopeptide repeat regions similar to other BamD orthologs. Consistent with BB0028 and BB0324 being BAM accessory lipoproteins, mutants lacking expression of each protein were found to exhibit altered membrane permeability and enhanced sensitivity to various antimicrobials. Additionally, BB0028 mutants also exhibited significantly impaired in vitro growth. Finally, immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that BB0028 and BB0324 each interact specifically and independently with BamA to form the BAM complex in B. burgdorferi. Combined structural studies, functional assays, and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that BB0028 and BB0324 are the respective BamB and BamD orthologs in B. burgdorferi, and are important in membrane integrity and/or outer membrane protein localization. The borrelial BamB and BamD proteins both interact specifically and independently with BamA to form a tripartite BAM complex in B

  14. Expression and purification of the central stalk subunits of Na + ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , NtpD and NtpG subunits. The aim of the present study was cloning and expression of these central stalk subunits of E. hirae V-type Na+-ATPase. Here we cloned the synthesized DNA fragments, corresponding to ntpC, ntpD and ntpG genes, ...

  15. INTRINSIC REGULATION OF HEMOGLOBIN EXPRESSION BY VARIABLE SUBUNIT INTERFACE STRENGTHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, James M.; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Padovan, Julio C.; Chait, Brian T.; Manning, Lois R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The expression of the six types of human hemoglobin subunits over time is currently considered to be regulated mainly by transcription factors that bind to upstream control regions of the gene (the “extrinsic” component of regulation). Here we describe how subunit pairing and further assembly to tetramers in the liganded state is influenced by the affinity of subunits for one another (the “intrinsic” component of regulation). The adult hemoglobin dimers have the strongest subunit interfaces and the embryonic hemoglobins are the weakest with fetal hemoglobins of intermediate strength, corresponding to the temporal order of their expression. These variable subunit binding strengths and the attenuating effects of acetylation contribute to the differences with which these hemoglobin types form functional O2-binding tetramers consistent with gene switching. PMID:22129306

  16. [Penicillin acylase from Escherichia coli: catalytically active subunits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakov, V E; Kliachko, N L; Levashov, A V

    1995-05-01

    Gel filtration under denaturing conditions was used to isolate the alpha- and beta-subunits of penicillin acylase (PA). Refolded subunits were obtained through removing urea by dialysis. Both renatured subunits were catalytically active during hydrolysis of phenylacetic acid p-nitroanilide; this activity decreased after addition of a serine-specific inhibitor--phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. The subunits were also active in reversed micelles of Aerosol OT (AOT) in octane, the optimum hydration degree being 11.9 and 17.5 for the light (alpha) and heavy (beta) subunits, respectively. The positions of the maxima were consistent with both theoretically calculated optimum hydration degrees and the earlier reported profile of enzymatic activity for native PA in reversed micelles.

  17. Structures and functions of calcium channel beta subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaumer, L; Qin, N; Olcese, R; Tareilus, E; Platano, D; Costantin, J; Stefani, E

    1998-08-01

    Calcium channel beta subunits have profound effects on how alpha1 subunits perform. In this article we summarize our present knowledge of the primary structures of beta subunits as deduced from cDNAs and illustrate their different properties. Upon co-expression with alpha1 subunits, the effects of beta subunits vary somewhat between L-type and non-L-type channels mostly because the two types of channels have different responses to voltage which are affected by beta subunits, such as long-lasting prepulse facilitation of alpha1C (absent in alpha1E) and inhibition by G protein betagamma dimer of alpha1E, absent in alpha1C. One beta subunit, a brain beta2a splice variant that is palmitoylated, has several effects not seen with any of the others, and these are due to palmitoylation. We also illustrate the finding that functional expression of alpha1 in oocytes requires a beta subunit even if the final channel shows no evidence for its presence. We propose two structural models for Ca2+ channels to account for "alpha1 alone" channels seen in cells with limited beta subunit expression. In one model, beta dissociates from the mature alpha1 after proper folding and membrane insertion. Regulated channels seen upon co-expression of high levels of beta would then have subunit composition alpha1beta. In the other model, the "chaperoning" beta remains associated with the mature channel and "alpha1 alone" channels would in fact be alpha1beta channels. Upon co-expression of high levels of beta the regulated channels would have composition [alpha1beta]beta.

  18. Rare-element granitic pegmatite of Miocene age emplaced in UHP rocks from Visole, Pohorje Mountains (Eastern Alps, Slovenia): accessory minerals, monazite and uraninite chemical dating

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pavel Uher; Marian Janák; Patrik Konečný; Mirijam Vrabec

    2014-01-01

    ...). The rock consists mainly of K-feldspar, albite and quartz, subordinate muscovite and biotite, while the accessory minerals include spessartine-almandine, zircon, ferrocolumbite, fluorapatite, monazite- (Ce...

  19. A Rare Case of a 15-Year-Old Boy with Two Accessory Nipples: One in the Forearm and One in the Milk Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Tauchen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old male presented for evaluation of a volar forearm mass that he noticed four years before. The mass was not painful and his main concern was cosmesis. The mass was two centimeters in diameter with a pinpoint central sinus and scant drainage. After excision, the pathology report noted pilosebaceous units and smooth muscle bundles, consistent with an accessory nipple. In addition, the patient had another accessory nipple in the “milk line” on his torso. While accessory nipples and breast tissue have been reported in numerous locations throughout the body, this is the first reported case of an accessory nipple on the forearm.

  20. Pan-genome sequence analysis using Panseq: an online tool for the rapid analysis of core and accessory genomic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas Andre

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pan-genome of a bacterial species consists of a core and an accessory gene pool. The accessory genome is thought to be an important source of genetic variability in bacterial populations and is gained through lateral gene transfer, allowing subpopulations of bacteria to better adapt to specific niches. Low-cost and high-throughput sequencing platforms have created an exponential increase in genome sequence data and an opportunity to study the pan-genomes of many bacterial species. In this study, we describe a new online pan-genome sequence analysis program, Panseq. Results Panseq was used to identify Escherichia coli O157:H7 and E. coli K-12 genomic islands. Within a population of 60 E. coli O157:H7 strains, the existence of 65 accessory genomic regions identified by Panseq analysis was confirmed by PCR. The accessory genome and binary presence/absence data, and core genome and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of six L. monocytogenes strains were extracted with Panseq and hierarchically clustered and visualized. The nucleotide core and binary accessory data were also used to construct maximum parsimony (MP trees, which were compared to the MP tree generated by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. The topology of the accessory and core trees was identical but differed from the tree produced using seven MLST loci. The Loci Selector module found the most variable and discriminatory combinations of four loci within a 100 loci set among 10 strains in 1 s, compared to the 449 s required to exhaustively search for all possible combinations; it also found the most discriminatory 20 loci from a 96 loci E. coli O157:H7 SNP dataset. Conclusion Panseq determines the core and accessory regions among a collection of genomic sequences based on user-defined parameters. It readily extracts regions unique to a genome or group of genomes, identifies SNPs within shared core genomic regions, constructs files for use in phylogeny programs

  1. Influence of Telecommunication Modality, Internet Transmission Quality, and Accessories on Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantokoudis, Georgios; Koller, Roger; Guignard, Jérémie; Caversaccio, Marco; Kompis, Martin; Senn, Pascal

    2017-04-24

    Telecommunication is limited or even impossible for more than one-thirds of all cochlear implant (CI) users. We sought therefore to study the impact of voice quality on speech perception with voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) under real and adverse network conditions. Telephone speech perception was assessed in 19 CI users (15-69 years, average 42 years), using the German HSM (Hochmair-Schulz-Moser) sentence test comparing Skype and conventional telephone (public switched telephone networks, PSTN) transmission using a personal computer (PC) and a digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) telephone dual device. Five different Internet transmission quality modes and four accessories (PC speakers, headphones, 3.5 mm jack audio cable, and induction loop) were compared. As a secondary outcome, the subjective perceived voice quality was assessed using the mean opinion score (MOS). Speech telephone perception was significantly better (median 91.6%, PSkype compared with PSTN (median 42.5%) under optimal conditions. Skype calls under adverse network conditions (data packet loss > 15%) were not superior to conventional telephony. In addition, there were no significant differences between the tested accessories (P>.05) using a PC. Coupling a Skype DECT phone device with an audio cable to the CI, however, resulted in higher speech perception (median 65%) and subjective MOS scores (3.2) than using PSTN (median 7.5%, PSkype calls significantly improve speech perception for CI users compared with conventional telephony under real network conditions. Listening accessories do not further improve listening experience. Current Skype DECT telephone devices do not fully offer technical advantages in voice quality.

  2. Epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen: three case reports and review of the literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Kushida, Yoshio; Miyai, Yumi; Katsuki, Naomi; Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Bando, Kenji; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Haba, Reiji

    2010-09-01

    The development of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen is an extremely rare lesion, with only 17 cases being reported in the English literature. All such cases were located in the pancreatic tail, some of which showed carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) immunoreactivity in the lining of the epithelium. A few of them indicated an elevation of the serum CA19-9 level. Here we report three cases of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Cases 1 and 2 were 57-year-old and 70-year-old women, while case 3 was a 37-year-old man. All three cases were asymptomatic. Serum CA19-9 levels showed within normal limits (case 1), slightly elevated (case 2), and clearly elevated (case 3). They underwent a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (cases 1 and 2) and without splenectomy (case 3). Grossly, the surgical specimen was a well-demarcated, multiple (case 1) or solitary (cases 2 and 3) cystic mass in the pancreatic tail. A high level of fluid CA 19-9 was detected in case 1. Microscopically, the cystic walls were lined with squamous and cuboidal epithelium, which were surrounded by normal splenic tissue and hyalinized fibrous tissue. The lining squamous epithelium was revealed as nonkeratinizing (Cases 1 and 2) or keratinizing (Case 3). Immunohistochemically, CA19-9 was positive in the monolayer and surface layer of the cuboidal epithelium, but negative for the keratinizing squamous epithelium. As for the histogenesis, it is suggested that the cystic lining of the epithelium may derive from the pancreatic duct which protrudes into the accessory spleen.

  3. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Hentze

    Full Text Available Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E, the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E, are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot, an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH, a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH.

  4. Exploring glycoside hydrolases and accessory proteins from wood decay fungi to enhance sugarcane bagasse saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadares, Fernanda; Gonçalves, Thiago A; Gonçalves, Dayelle S P O; Segato, Fernando; Romanel, Elisson; Milagres, Adriane M F; Squina, Fabio M; Ferraz, André

    2016-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and accessory proteins are key components for efficient and cost-effective enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides in modern, biochemically based biorefineries. Currently, commercialized GHs and accessory proteins are produced by ascomycetes. However, the role of wood decay basidiomycetes proteins in biomass saccharification has not been extensively pursued. Wood decay fungi degrade polysaccharides in highly lignified tissues in natural environments, and are a promising enzyme source for improving enzymatic cocktails that are designed for in vitro lignocellulose conversion. GHs and accessory proteins were produced by representative brown- and white-rot fungi, Laetiporus sulphureus and Pleurotus ostreatus, respectively. Concentrated protein extracts were then used to amend commercial enzymatic cocktails for saccharification of alkaline-sulfite pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The main enzymatic activities found in the wood decay fungal protein extracts were attributed to endoglucanases, xylanases and β-glucosidases. Cellobiohydrolase (CBH) activities in the L. sulphureus and P. ostreatus extracts were low and nonexistent, respectively. The initial glucan conversion rates were boosted when the wood decay fungal proteins were used to replace half of the enzymes from the commercial cocktails. L. sulphureus proteins increased the glucan conversion levels, with values above those observed for the full load of commercial enzymes. Wood decay fungal proteins also enhanced the xylan conversion efficiency due to their high xylanase activities. Proteomic studies revealed 104 and 45 different proteins in the P. ostreatus and L. sulphureus extracts, respectively. The enhancement of the saccharification of alkaline-pretreated substrates by the modified enzymatic cocktails was attributed to the following protein families: GH5- and GH45-endoglucanases, GH3-β-glucosidases, and GH10-xylanases. The extracellular proteins produced by wood decay fungi provide

  5. The B. subtilis Accessory Helicase PcrA Facilitates DNA Replication through Transcription Units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N Merrikh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In bacteria the concurrence of DNA replication and transcription leads to potentially deleterious encounters between the two machineries, which can occur in either the head-on (lagging strand genes or co-directional (leading strand genes orientations. These conflicts lead to replication fork stalling and can destabilize the genome. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells possess resolution factors that reduce the severity of these encounters. Though Escherichia coli accessory helicases have been implicated in the mitigation of head-on conflicts, direct evidence of these proteins mitigating co-directional conflicts is lacking. Furthermore, the endogenous chromosomal regions where these helicases act, and the mechanism of recruitment, have not been identified. We show that the essential Bacillus subtilis accessory helicase PcrA aids replication progression through protein coding genes of both head-on and co-directional orientations, as well as rRNA and tRNA genes. ChIP-Seq experiments show that co-directional conflicts at highly transcribed rRNA, tRNA, and head-on protein coding genes are major targets of PcrA activity on the chromosome. Partial depletion of PcrA renders cells extremely sensitive to head-on conflicts, linking the essential function of PcrA to conflict resolution. Furthermore, ablating PcrA's ATPase/helicase activity simultaneously increases its association with conflict regions, while incapacitating its ability to mitigate conflicts, and leads to cell death. In contrast, disruption of PcrA's C-terminal RNA polymerase interaction domain does not impact its ability to mitigate conflicts between replication and transcription, its association with conflict regions, or cell survival. Altogether, this work establishes PcrA as an essential factor involved in mitigating transcription-replication conflicts and identifies chromosomal regions where it routinely acts. As both conflicts and accessory helicases are found in all domains of life

  6. Echinococcus granulosus Antigen B Structure: Subunit Composition and Oligomeric States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Karina M.; Cardoso, Mateus B.; Follmer, Cristian; da Silveira, Nádya P.; Vargas, Daiani M.; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Antigen B (AgB) is the major protein secreted by the Echinococcus granulosus metacestode and is involved in key host-parasite interactions during infection. The full comprehension of AgB functions depends on the elucidation of several structural aspects that remain unknown, such as its subunit composition and oligomeric states. Methodology/Principal Findings The subunit composition of E. granulosus AgB oligomers from individual bovine and human cysts was assessed by mass spectrometry associated with electrophoretic analysis. AgB8/1, AgB8/2, AgB8/3 and AgB8/4 subunits were identified in all samples analyzed, and an AgB8/2 variant (AgB8/2v8) was found in one bovine sample. The exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI) was used to estimate the relative abundance of the AgB subunits, revealing that AgB8/1 subunit was relatively overrepresented in all samples. The abundance of AgB8/3 subunit varied between bovine and human cysts. The oligomeric states formed by E. granulosus AgB and recombinant subunits available, rAgB8/1, rAgB8/2 and rAgB8/3, were characterized by native PAGE, light scattering and microscopy. Recombinant subunits showed markedly distinct oligomerization behaviors, forming oligomers with a maximum size relation of rAgB8/3>rAgB8/2>rAgB8/1. Moreover, the oligomeric states formed by rAgB8/3 subunit were more similar to those observed for AgB purified from hydatid fluid. Pressure-induced dissociation experiments demonstrated that the molecular assemblies formed by the more aggregative subunits, rAgB8/2 and rAgB8/3, also display higher structural stability. Conclusions/Significance For the first time, AgB subunit composition was analyzed in samples from single hydatid cysts, revealing qualitative and quantitative differences between samples. We showed that AgB oligomers are formed by different subunits, which have distinct abundances and oligomerization properties. Overall, our findings have significantly contributed to increase the

  7. Ability of male Queensland fruit flies to inhibit receptivity in multiple mates, and the associated recovery of accessory glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Taylor, Phillip W

    2008-02-01

    Mating success of male insects is commonly determined by their ability to find and copulate with multiple females, but is also determined by their ability to transfer an effective ejaculate. In order to succeed in these tasks, males must first succeed in replenishing the necessary reproductive reserves between mating opportunities. We here investigate the ability of male Queensland fruit flies ('Q-fly') to recover from their first matings in time to both mate again the following day and to induce sexual inhibition in successive mates. We have previously found that accessory gland fluids (AGFs) transferred in the ejaculate of male Q-flies are directly responsible for induction of sexual inhibition in their mates. We here investigate changes in male accessory gland, testis and ejaculatory apodeme dimensions that are likely to reflect depletion and recovery of contents. We found no differences between virgin and previously mated males in their ability to obtain matings or to induce sexual inhibition in their mates, indicating a full recovery of the necessary reproductive reserves between mating opportunities. Whereas no changes were detected in testis or ejaculatory apodeme size following mating, the recovery of male ability to inhibit female remating was closely reflected in the mesodermal accessory gland dimensions; these accessory glands greatly diminished in size (length and area) immediately after mating, with recovery commencing between 5.5 and 11 h after mating. The accessory glands then expanded to reach their original size in time to mate the following day and induce sexual inhibition in the next mate.

  8. How many mechanosensory organs in the bushcricket leg? Neuroanatomy of the scolopidial accessory organ in Tettigoniidae (Insecta: Orthoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes; Riesterer, Anja S; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    The subgenual organ and associated scolopidial organs are well studied in Orthoptera and related taxa. In some insects, a small accessory organ or Nebenorgan is described posterior to the subgenual organ. In Tettigoniidae (Ensifera), the accessory organ has only been noted in one species though tibial sensory organs are well studied for neuroanatomy and physiology. Here, we use axonal tracing to analyse the posterior subgenual organ innervated by the main motor nerve. Investigating seven species from different groups of Tettigoniidae, we describe a small group of scolopidial sensilla (5-9 sensory neurons) which has features characteristic of the accessory organ: posterior tibial position, innervation by the main leg nerve rather than by the tympanal nerve, orientation of dendrites in proximal or ventro-proximal direction in the leg, and commonly association with a single campaniform sensillum. The neuroanatomy is highly similar between leg pairs. We show differences in the innervation in two species of the genus Poecilimon as compared to the other species. In Poecilimon, the sensilla of the accessory organ are innervated by one nerve branch together with the subgenual organ. The results suggest that the accessory organ is part of the sensory bauplan in the leg of Tettigoniidae and probably Ensifera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Morphology of reproductive accessory glands in eight species of blood-feeding Hemiptera (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) insect vectors of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, R G; Chiang, J A; Sarquis, O; Lima, M M

    2012-05-01

    This paper documents the morphology of previously undescribed adult reproductive accessory glands in eight species of blood-feeding Hemiptera, vectors of Chagas disease. These species are three Triatoma (T. dimidiata, T. klugi, T. sordida), three Rhodnius (R. brethesi, R. nasutus, R. pictipes), and one species each from Nesotriatoma (N. bruneri) and Panstrongylus (P. megistus). This survey shows that the male reproductive systems between species of four genera of Reduviidae adhere to the same general plan seen in previously described vectors of Chagas disease. This morphological similarity suggests that reproductive success of the male is contingent on the delivery of a vital set of male accessory gland secretions to the female in conjunction with material from the testes and seminal vesicle. However, variations were observed in the accessory glands of females, especially at the level of the genus. The spermathecae are morphologically distinct, and the posterior accessory glands are absent in some. The differences in spermathecae morphology likely reflect physiological adaptations associated with speciation driven by cryptic female choice in which the female determines which sperm are used for fertilization. Differences in the posterior reproductive accessory gland can be correlated with variations in ovipositioning behaviour. Since reproductive physiology is important for species success, this information also augments epidemiological studies by providing a comparison to R. prolixus, a Chagas disease vector for which the physiology is well known. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermistor guided radiofrequency ablation of atrial insertion sites in patients with accessory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, C M; Moore, H J; Solomon, A J; Rodak, D J; Fletcher, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radiofrequency ablation has gained acceptance in the treatment of patients with symptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relation between temperature and other electroconductive parameters in patients undergoing atrial insertion accessory pathway ablation utilizing a thermistor equipped catheter. The mean temperature and power at sites of atrial insertion ablation are lower than has been previously associated with creation of radiofrequency lesions in the ventricle. While high cavitary blood flow in the atrium may result in cooling, the thinner atrial tissue may require less energy to achieve adequate heating than ventricular myocardium.

  11. Characterization of the Proteasome Accessory Factor (paf) Operon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Festa, Richard A.; Pearce, Michael J.; Darwin, K. Heran

    2007-01-01

    In a previous screen for Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants that are hypersusceptible to reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI), two genes associated with the M. tuberculosis proteasome were identified. One of these genes, pafA (proteasome accessory factor A), encodes a protein of unknown function. In this work, we determined that pafA is in an operon with two additional genes, pafB and pafC. In order to assess the contribution of these genes to RNI resistance, we isolated mutants with transpo...

  12. Gastroenterology-Urology Devices; Manual Gastroenterology-Urology Surgical Instruments and Accessories. Final rule; technical amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the identification of manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instruments and accessories to reflect that the device does not include specialized surgical instrumentation for use with urogyencologic surgical mesh specifically intended for use as an aid in the insertion, placement, fixation, or anchoring of surgical mesh during urogynecologic procedures ("specialized surgical instrumentation for use with urogynecologic surgical mesh"). These amendments are being made to reflect changes made in the recently issued final reclassification order for specialized surgical instrumentation for use with urogynecologic surgical mesh.

  13. A rare case of fibrocystic disease at vulval accessory breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudip; Roy, Alok Kumar; Kar, Chinmoy; Giri, Parag Prasun

    2007-11-01

    A 40-year-old female presented with a non-itchy ulcerative nodular lesion at left labium majus since last 1 1/2 years. The lesion progressed to increase in size from 0.5 cm to 1.5 cm in diameter. It was incised and drained. After that a non-healing ulcerative nodule formed. The nodule was firm in consistency and movable on all sides. The ulcer healed with a 5 days course of ceftriaxone. If was excised and biopsy of the lesion showed fibrocystic changes of accessory breast tissue. It is a rare disease entity for which the case report is presented.

  14. Accessory soleus muscle: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palaniappan, M. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology); Rajesh, A.; Rickett, A. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology); Kershaw, C.J. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Orthopaedics)

    1999-08-01

    Accessory soleus muscle is a rare condition which presents as a soft-tissue mass medial to the calcaneum and distal Achilles tendon. Though congenital in origin, it manifests in the second and third decades of life as a soft-tissue mass due to muscle hypertrophy. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with a painful ankle mass. It is important to be aware of this condition when interpreting CT or MRI of the ankle, which show characteristic findings of a normal muscle in an abnormal location. (orig.) With 4 figs., 12 refs.

  15. Expression of the alpha(2)delta subunit interferes with prepulse facilitation in cardiac L-type calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platano, D; Qin, N; Noceti, F; Birnbaumer, L; Stefani, E; Olcese, R

    2000-06-01

    We investigated the role of the accessory alpha(2)delta subunit on the voltage-dependent facilitation of cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channels (alpha(1C)). alpha(1C) Channels were coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes with beta(3) and alpha(2)delta calcium channel subunits. In alpha(1C) + beta(3), the amplitude of the ionic current (measured during pulses to 10 mV) was in average approximately 1.9-fold larger after the application of a 200-ms prepulse to +80 mV. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as voltage-dependent facilitation, was not observed when alpha(2)delta was coexpressed with alpha(1C) + beta(3). In alpha(1C) + beta(3), the prepulse produced a left shift ( approximately 40 mV) of the activation curve. Instead, the activation curve for alpha(1C) + beta(3) + alpha(2)delta was minimally affected by the prepulse and had a voltage dependence very similar to the G-V curve of the alpha(1C) + beta(3) channel facilitated by the prepulse. Coexpression of alpha(2)delta with alpha(1C) + beta(3) seems to mimic the prepulse effect by shifting the activation curve toward more negative potentials, leaving little room for facilitation. The facilitation of alpha(1C) + beta(3) was associated with an increase of the charge movement. In the presence of alpha(2)delta, the charge remained unaffected after the prepulse. Coexpression of alpha(2)delta seems to set all the channels in a conformational state from where the open state can be easily reached, even without prepulse.

  16. A process yields large quantities of pure ribosome subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M.; Lu, P.; Rich, A.

    1972-01-01

    Development of process for in-vitro protein synthesis from living cells followed by dissociation of ribosomes into subunits is discussed. Process depends on dialysis or use of chelating agents. Operation of process and advantages over previous methods are outlined.

  17. Roles of POLD4, smallest subunit of DNA polymerase {delta}, in nuclear structures and genomic stability of human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qin Miao [Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Akashi, Tomohiro [Division of Molecular Mycology and Medicine, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Masuda, Yuji; Kamiya, Kenji [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Takahashi, Takashi [Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Suzuki, Motoshi, E-mail: msuzuki@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian DNA polymerase {delta} (pol {delta}) is essential for DNA replication, though the functions of this smallest subunit of POLD4 have been elusive. We investigated pol {delta} activities in vitro and found that it was less active in the absence of POLD4, irrespective of the presence of the accessory protein PCNA. shRNA-mediated reduction of POLD4 resulted in a marked decrease in colony formation activity by Calu6, ACC-LC-319, and PC-10 cells. We also found that POLD4 reduction was associated with an increased population of karyomere-like cells, which may be an indication of DNA replication stress and/or DNA damage. The karyomere-like cells retained an ability to progress through the cell cycle, suggesting that POLD4 reduction induces modest genomic instability, while allowing cells to grow until DNA damage reaches an intolerant level. Our results indicate that POLD4 is required for the in vitro pol {delta} activity, and that it functions in cell proliferation and maintenance of genomic stability of human cells.

  18. Detection of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus nucleic acids using a smartphone accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Matthew; Cesarman, Ethel; Erickson, David

    2014-10-07

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an infectious cancer occurring in immune-compromised patients, caused by Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Our vision is to simplify the process of KS diagnosis through the creation of a smartphone based point-of-care system capable of yielding an actionable diagnostic readout starting from a raw biopsy sample. In this work we develop the sensing mechanism for the overall system, a smartphone accessory capable of detecting KSHV nucleic acids. The accessory reads out microfluidic chips filled with a colorimetric nanoparticle assay targeted at KSHV. We calculate that our final device can read out gold nanoparticle solutions with an accuracy of 0.05 OD, and we demonstrate that it can detect DNA sequences from KSHV down to 1 nM. We believe that through integration with our previously developed components, a smartphone based system like the one studied here can provide accurate detection information, as well as a simple platform for field based clinical diagnosis and research.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus accessory regulators: expression within biofilms and effect on adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratten, J; Foster, S J; Chan, P F; Wilson, M; Nair, S P

    2001-07-01

    Many of the genes encoding the virulence factors for Staphylococcus aureus are controlled by the accessory gene regulator (agr) and staphylococcal accessory regulator (sar). This regulation may be affected by the environment in which the organisms are grown. In the majority of ecosystems, bacteria grow attached to surfaces and form biofilms. We used S. aureus strains containing mutations inactivating agr and sar to determine whether the presence of these genes influences the attachment of the bacterium to a surface. We also used strains harbouring reporter constructs of the agr and sar operons to determine their expression in biofilms. The attachment study results showed that the sarA mutant strain adhered better to glass than did the agrA mutant or the wild type. There was an increased adherence to fibronectin-coated glass for all three strains compared to glass. Thus, these adhesion studies demonstrate that agr and sar have pleiotrophic effects on the surface expression of molecules responsible for binding to different substrata. In the biofilms higher numbers of bacteria and the greatest expression were observed at the base, but there were no observable differences between the reporter constructs. Expression of the agr and sar reporter fusions was significantly higher in the deepest layers of the biofilms where the greatest numbers of bacteria were also observed, perhaps as one might expect for genes that are regulated in a cell density dependent fashion.

  20. An augmented gravity model of South Africa’s exports of motor vehicles, parts and accessories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Sichei

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study applies an “augmented” gravity model to South Africa’s exports of motor vehicles, parts and accessories to 71 countries over the period 1994 to 2004.  A static panel data model is specified and estimated.  Several conclusions are drawn from the study.  First, a number of variables, namely, importer income, distance, level of import tariffs, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, use of right-hand drive vehicles are important determinants of bilateral trade flows for motor vehicles, parts and accessories.  Second, solving the gravity model deterministically, we show that export potential exists in a number of countries like Malawi, Zambia, Kenya and Malaysia.  A number of barriers hinder the members of the National Association of Automobile Manufacturers of South Africa (NAAMSA from exploiting these export markets. These include very high import tariffs, lack of South Africa’s diplomatic mission in the trading partner and the uncertainty regarding what happens at the expiry of the Motor Industry Development Programme (MIDP in 2012. Finally, the export potential identified by the gravity model should be regarded only as an indication since it is sensitive to the model specification and sample of countries.

  1. The Role of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-Coronavirus Accessory Proteins in Virus Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Ruth; Fielding, Burtram C.

    2012-01-01

    A respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus, termed the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was first reported in China in late 2002. The subsequent efficient human-to-human transmission of this virus eventually affected more than 30 countries worldwide, resulting in a mortality rate of ~10% of infected individuals. The spread of the virus was ultimately controlled by isolation of infected individuals and there has been no infections reported since April 2004. However, the natural reservoir of the virus was never identified and it is not known if this virus will re-emerge and, therefore, research on this virus continues. The SARS-CoV genome is about 30 kb in length and is predicted to contain 14 functional open reading frames (ORFs). The genome encodes for proteins that are homologous to known coronavirus proteins, such as the replicase proteins (ORFs 1a and 1b) and the four major structural proteins: nucleocapsid (N), spike (S), membrane (M) and envelope (E). SARS-CoV also encodes for eight unique proteins, called accessory proteins, with no known homologues. This review will summarize the current knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins and will include: (i) expression and processing; (ii) the effects on cellular processes; and (iii) functional studies. PMID:23202509

  2. Suspension tolerance in a full-body safety harness, and a prototype harness accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nina L; Wassell, James T; Whisler, Richard; Zwiener, Joyce

    2008-04-01

    Workers wearing full-body safety harnesses are at risk for suspension trauma if they are not rescued in 5 to 30 min after a successfully arrested fall. Suspension trauma, which may be fatal, occurs when a person's legs are immobile in a vertical posture, leading to the pooling of blood in the legs, pelvis, and abdomen, and the reduction of return blood flow to the heart and brain. To measure suspension tolerance time, 22 men and 18 women with construction experience were suspended from the chest D-ring (CHEST) and back D-ring (BACK) of full-body, fall-arrest harnesses. Fifteen men and 13 women from the original group of subjects were then suspended using a newly developed National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health harness accessory (ACCESS), which supports the upper legs. Midthigh circumference changes were 1.4 and 1.9 cm, changes in minute ventilation were 1.2 and 1.5 L/min, changes in heart rate (HR) were 15.1 and 21.6 bpm, and changes in mean arterial pressure were 5.1 and -2.6 mmHg (p harness accessory to delay or prevent suspension trauma.

  3. Care of astronomical telescopes and accessories a manual for the astronomical observer and amateur telescope maker

    CERN Document Server

    Pepin, M Barlow

    2005-01-01

    Commercially-made astronomical telescopes are better and less expensive than ever before, and their optical and mechanical performance can be superb. When a good-quality telescope fails to perform as well as it might, the reason is quite probably that it needs a little care and attention! Here is a complete guide for anyone who wants to understand more than just the basics of astronomical telescopes and accessories, and how to maintain them in the peak of condition. The latest on safely adjusting, cleaning, and maintaining your equipment is combined with thoroughly updated methods from the old masters. Here, too, are details of choosing new and used optics and accessories, along with enhancements you can make to extend their versatility and useful lifetime. This book is for you. Really. Looking after an astronomical telescope isn't only for the experts - although there are some things that only an expert should attempt - and every serious amateur astronomer will find invaluable information here, gleaned from ...

  4. Next steps in using accessory minerals to date the evolution of silicic magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade, 238U-230Th-206Pb isotopic dating of accessory minerals using the high spatial resolution and sensitivity of ion microprobe analysis has provided new insights into the longevity and thermochemical evolution of silicic magmas, but has also created new questions about the generation, differentiation, and construction of silicic magma chambers. An important conclusion from in situ dating is that accessory minerals such as zircon and allanite in silicic magmas may be 10's to 100's of thousands of years older than their age of eruption. Whether these relatively "old" crystals are derived from long-lived crystal-rich magma reservoirs or inherited due to remelting of frozen intrusions remains a difficult question to answer because long-lived centers of magmatism are characteristically dynamic and are open systems. Nevertheless, not all rhyolites from loci of repeated silicic magmatism carry a dominant "cargo" of antecrystic zircon (or other accessory minerals). Crystal-poor high-silica rhyolites from Coso volcanic field, eastern California, contain a bimodal population of young zircon that yield 238U-230Th ages concordant with their respective late Pleistocene 40Ar/39Ar eruption ages, and a population of Mesozoic zircon that are obvious xenocrysts derived from wallrocks. Rhyolites erupted from La Primavera caldera, Mexico, contain zircon and chevkinite that yield 238U-230Th ages that are within 10's of k.y. of their corresponding eruption ages between ca. 125-85 ka. Antecrysts from intrusions related to older episodes of rhyolitic magmatism appear absent or exceedingly rare. The relatively short timescales between crystallization and eruption suggest that these rhyolites, unlike otherwise similar rhyolites from other systems, were tapped shortly after highly effective differentiation and/or reheating. It is apparent that zircon ages alone are insufficient for resolving the thermochemical and differentiation histories of silicic magmas, and need to be

  5. C25, an essential RNA polymerase III subunit related to the RNA polymerase II subunit RPB7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhale, P P; Woychik, N A

    1994-09-01

    We identified a partially sequenced Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene which encodes a protein related to the S. cerevisiae RNA polymerase II subunit, RPB7. Several lines of evidence suggest that this related gene, YKL1, encodes the RNA polymerase III subunit C25. C25, like RPB7, is present in submolar ratios, easily dissociates from the enzyme, is essential for cell growth and viability, but is not required in certain transcription assays in vitro. YKL1 has ABF-1 and PAC upstream sequences often present in RNA polymerase subunit genes. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis mobility of the YKL1 gene product is equivalent to that of the RNA polymerase III subunit C25. Finally, a C25 conditional mutant grown at the nonpermissive temperature synthesizes tRNA at reduced rates relative to 5.8S rRNA, a hallmark of all characterized RNA polymerase III mutants.

  6. Fracture resistance of structurally compromised premolar roots restored with single and accessory glass or quartz fiber posts

    OpenAIRE

    Farahnaz Sharafeddin; Ali Asghar Alavi; Samira Zare

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glass and quartz fiber posts are used in restoration of structurally compromised roots. Accessory fiber posts are recently introduced to enhance the fiber post adaptation. This study evaluated the effectiveness of glass versus quartz accessory fiber posts. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 mandibular premolar roots with similar dimension (radius of 3.5 ± 0.2 mm and length of 13 ± 0.5 mm) were selected and their root canals were flared until 1.5 mm of dentin...

  7. Accessory molecules for Toll-like receptors in Teleost fish. Identification of TLR4 interactor with leucine-rich repeats (TRIL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietretti, D.; Spaink, H.P.; Falco Gracia, J.A.; Forlenza, M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2013-01-01

    The biosynthesis and activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) requires accessory proteins. In mammals, a number of accessory proteins have been characterized, that can be classified based on their function as ligand-recognition and delivery cofactors, chaperones and trafficking proteins. We

  8. Proteomic identification of Drosophila melanogaster male accessory gland proteins, including a pro-cathepsin and a soluble γ-glutamyl transpeptidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Mohammed

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In Drosophila melanogaster, the male seminal fluid contains proteins that are important for reproductive success. Many of these proteins are synthesised by the male accessory glands and are secreted into the accessory gland lumen, where they are stored until required. Previous studies on the identification of Drosophila accessory gland products have largely focused on characterisation of male-specific accessory gland cDNAs from D. melanogaster and, more recently, Drosophila simulans. In the present study, we have used a proteomics approach without any sex bias to identify proteins in D. melanogaster accessory gland secretions. Results Thirteen secreted accessory gland proteins, including seven new accessory gland proteins, were identified by 2D-gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry of tryptic fragments. They included protein-folding and stress-response proteins, a hormone, a lipase, a serpin, a cysteine-rich protein and two peptidases, a pro-enzyme form of a cathepsin K-like cysteine peptidase and a γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. Enzymatic studies established that accessory gland secretions contain a cysteine peptidase zymogen that can be activated at low pH. This peptidase may have a role in the processing of female and other male-derived proteins, but is unlikely to be involved in the processing of the sex peptide. γ-Glutamyl transpeptidases are type II integral membrane proteins; however, the identified AG γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT-1 is unusual in that it is predicted to be a soluble secreted protein, a prediction that is supported by biochemical evidence. GGT-1 is possibly involved in maintaining a protective redox environment for sperm. The strong γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity found in the secretions provides an explanation for the observation that glutamic acid is the most abundant free amino acid in accessory gland secretions of D. melanogaster. Conclusion We have applied biochemical approaches, not used

  9. A bioinformatic and computational study of myosin phosphatase subunit diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippold, Rachael P; Fisher, Steven A

    2014-08-01

    Variability in myosin phosphatase (MP) subunits may provide specificity in signaling pathways that regulate muscle tone. We utilized public databases and computational algorithms to investigate the phylogenetic diversity of MP regulatory (PPP1R12A-C) and inhibitory (PPP1R14A-D) subunits. The comparison of exonic coding sequences and expression data confirmed or refuted the existence of isoforms and their tissue-specific expression in different model organisms. The comparison of intronic and exonic sequences identified potential expressional regulatory elements. As examples, smooth muscle MP regulatory subunit (PPP1R12A) is highly conserved through evolution. Its alternative exon E24 is present in fish through mammals with two invariant features: 1) a reading frame shift generating a premature termination codon and 2) a hexanucleotide sequence adjacent to the 3' splice site hypothesized to be a novel suppressor of exon splicing. A characteristic of the striated muscle MP regulatory subunit (PPP1R12B) locus is numerous and phylogenetically variable transcriptional start sites. In fish this locus only codes for the small (M21) subunit, suggesting the primordial function of this gene. Inhibitory subunits show little intragenic variability; their diversity is thought to have arisen by expansion and tissue-specific expression of different gene family members. We demonstrate differences in the regulatory landscape between smooth muscle enriched (PPP1R14A) and more ubiquitously expressed (PPP1R14B) family members and identify deeply conserved intronic sequence and predicted transcriptional cis-regulatory elements. This bioinformatic and computational study has uncovered a number of attributes of MP subunits that supports selection of ideal model organisms and testing of hypotheses regarding their physiological significance and regulated expression. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Pituitary glycoprotein hormone a-subunit secretion by cirrhotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretion of the a-subunit of pituitary glycoprotein hormones usually follows the secretion of intact gonadotropins and is increased in gonadal failure and decreased in isolated gonadotropin deficiency. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of the a-subunit in the serum of patients with cirrhosis of the liver and to compare the results obtained for eugonadal cirrhotic patients with those obtained for cirrhotic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Forty-seven of 63 patients with cirrhosis (74.6% presented hypogonadism (which was central in 45 cases and primary in 2, 7 were eugonadal, and 9 women were in normal menopause. The serum a-subunit was measured by the fluorimetric method using monoclonal antibodies. Cross-reactivity with LH, TSH, FSH and hCG was 6.5, 1.2, 4.3 and 1.1%, respectively, with an intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV of less than 5% and an interassay CV of 5%, and sensitivity limit of 4 ng/l. The serum a-subunit concentration ranged from 36 to 6253 ng/l, with a median of 273 ng/l. The median was 251 ng/l for patients with central hypogonadism and 198 ng/l for eugonadal patients. The correlation between the a-subunit and basal LH levels was significant both in the total sample (r = 0.48, P<0.01 and in the cirrhotic patients with central hypogonadism (r = 0.33, P = 0.02. Among men with central hypogonadism there was a negative correlation between a-subunit levels and total testosterone levels (r = 0.54, P<0.01 as well as free testosterone levels (r = -0.53, P<0.01. In conclusion, although the a-subunit levels are correlated with LH levels, at present they cannot be used as markers for hypogonadism in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.

  11. Hypersecretion of the alpha-subunit in clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas: Diagnostic accuracy is improved by adding alpha-subunit/gonadotropin ratio to levels of alpha-subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne; Ganc-Petersen, Joanna; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In vitro, the majority of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) produce gonadotropins or their alpha-subunit; however, in vivo, measurements of alpha-subunit levels may not accurately detect the hypersecretion of the alpha-subunit. AIM: We wanted to estimate...

  12. Modulation of cell adhesion and migration by the histone methyltransferase subunit mDpy-30 and its interacting proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that a subset of mDpy-30, an accessory subunit of the nuclear histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferase (H3K4MT complex, also localizes at the trans-Golgi network (TGN, where its recruitment is mediated by the TGN-localized ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ArfGEF BIG1. Depletion of mDpy-30 inhibits the endosome-to-TGN transport of internalized CIMPR receptors and concurrently promotes their accumulation at the cell protrusion. These observations suggest mDpy-30 may play a novel role at the crossroads of endosomal trafficking, nuclear transcription and adhesion/migration. Here we provide novel mechanistic and functional insight into this association. First, we demonstrate a direct interaction between mDpy-30 and BIG1 and locate the binding region in the N-terminus of BIG1. Second, we provide evidence that the depletion or overexpression of mDpy-30 enhances or inhibits cellular adhesion/migration of glioma cells in vitro, respectively. A similar increase in cell adhesion/migration is observed in cells with reduced levels of BIG1 or other H3K4MT subunits. Third, knockdown of mDpy-30, BIG1, or the RbBP5 H3K4MT subunit increases the targeting of beta1 integrin to cell protrusions, and suppression of H3K4MT activity by depleting mDpy-30 or RbBP5 leads to increased protein and mRNA levels of beta1 integrin. Moreover, stimulation of cell adhesion/migration via mDpy-30 knockdown is abolished after treating cells with a function-blocking antibody to beta1 integrin. Taken together, these data indicate that mDpy-30 and its interacting proteins function as a novel class of cellular adhesion/migration modulators partially by affecting the subcellular distribution of endosomal compartments as well as the expression of key adhesion/migration proteins such as beta1 integrin.

  13. Malpractice litigation after surgical injury of the spinal accessory nerve: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Luc G T; Ziff, David J S; DeLacure, Mark D

    2008-01-01

    To review the background, case characteristics, and outcomes of malpractice litigation resulting from surgical injury of the spinal accessory nerve. Retrospective review of indemnity insurance cases (part 1) and court trials (part 2) between January 1, 1985, and January 1, 2007. In part 1, records of the Medical Liability Mutual Insurance Company identified 41 lawsuits in New York State; part 2 was a review of a national legal database (WestLaw) that identified 81 court trials. Case details were analyzed, and awards were adjusted for inflation. For part 1, of 41 indemnity insurance cases, 39 (95%) involved a posterior triangle lymph node biopsy. Defendants were mainly general surgeons and otolaryngologists. Most lawsuits against surgeons (22 of 34 [65%]) were settled before trial, and only 4 of 34 (12%) were discontinued. Of these 34 cases, 28 (82%) ultimately compensated the plaintiff. The mean inflation-adjusted pretrial settlement was $264 395, and the mean settlement at trial was $443 538. Cases reaching trial received significantly higher settlements (P = .01). For part 2, 81 cases of alleged surgical injury to the spinal accessory nerve were identified. Defendant physicians were mainly general surgeons and otolaryngologists. Most operations were cervical lymph node biopsies (55 [68%]), followed by sebaceous cyst excisions (6 [7%]), neck dissections (4 [5%]), and other procedures (12 [15%]). Morbidity included weakness (81 patients [100%]), pain (30 patients [37%]), inability to work (20 patients [25%]), need for a nerve repair procedure (16 patients [20%]), deformity (9 patients [11%]), and numbness (4 patients [5%]). Types of malpractice alleged included negligent surgical technique (79 cases [98%]), lack of informed consent (17 cases [21%]), and failure to diagnose the injury (16 cases [20%]). Thirty-seven cases (46%) were decided for the defendant, 32 (40%) were decided for the plaintiff, and 12 (15%) were settled (percentages do not total 100 because of

  14. Alpha2 subunit specificity of cyclothiazide inhibition on glycine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Sun, Guang-Chun; Liu, Lu-Ying; Yu, Fang; Xu, Tian-Le

    2008-04-01

    In the mammalian cortex, alpha2 subunit-containing glycine receptors (GlyRs) mediate tonic inhibition, but the precise functional role of this type of GlyRs is difficult to establish because of the lack of subtype-selective antagonist. In this study, we found that cyclothiazide (CTZ), an epileptogenic agent, potently inhibited GlyR-mediated current (I(Gly)) in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. The inhibition was glycine concentration-dependent, suggesting a competitive mechanism. Note that GlyRs containing the alpha2 but not alpha1 or alpha3 subunits, when being heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells, were inhibited by CTZ, indicating subunit specificity of CTZ action. In addition, the degree of CTZ inhibition on I(Gly) in rat spinal neurons declined with time in culture, in parallel with a decline of alpha2 subunit expression, which is known to occur during spinal cord development. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis indicates that a single-amino acid threonine at position 59 near the N terminus of the alpha2 subunit confers the specificity of CTZ action. Thus, CTZ is a potent and selective inhibitor of alpha2-GlyRs, and threonine at position 59 plays a critical role in the susceptibility of GlyR to CTZ inhibition.

  15. 30 CFR 75.1106-5 - Maintenance and tests of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... cylinders, cylinder accessories, torches, and other welding, cutting, and burning equipment shall be labeled “defective” and taken out of service. (c) Each qualified person assigned to perform welding, cutting, or...

  16. [The coexistence of a para hisian accessory pathway and a complete atrioventricular block in a 32 years old patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petipe Kappe, C; Halimi, F; Leclercq, J-F

    2015-02-01

    The present case report describes a 32-year-old patient with complete atrioventricular block coexisting with a permanent ventricular preexcitation. The patient ended up with pacemaker implantation without requiring ablation of accessory pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of the Noise-Resistant and Sound Focusing Accessory of Ultrasonic Leak Detector for Spacecraft on Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Yan, R. X.; Sun, L. C.; Shao, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Ultrasonic signal produced by the gas leak is so week that it is difficult to detect, and easily interfered. So developing the noise-resistant and sound focusing accessory for the ultrasonic leak detector is very important for improving ultrasonic leak detector sensitivity and noise-resistant capability. Based on the theory analysis of the leak ultrasonic signal reverberation and anacampsis, the 5A06 aluminium alloy and nylon were selected as the material of noise-resistant and sound focusing accessory by calculation and compare. Then the circular cone trumpet structure was design as the accessory main structure, and the nylon expansion port, nylon shrinking port and aluminium alloy expansion port structures were manufactured. The different structure characters were shown by the contrasting experiment. The results indicate that the nylon expansion circular cone trumpet structure has better sound focusing performance and it can improve the testing sound pressure amplitude 10 bigger than the detector without the accessory. And the aluminium alloy expansion circular cone trumpet structure has better noise-resistant ability than others. These conclusions are very important for the spacecraft leak detection and it can provide some references for the design of the noise-resistant and sound focusing structure.

  18. Use of GnRH to induce an accessory corpus luteum in buffaloes fixed time artificially inseminated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Baruselli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to induce an accessory corpus luteum (CL in buffaloes fixed time artificially inseminated. Two hundred and forty buffaloes received the treatment sequence GnRH/PGF2α/GnRH after which were inseminated artificially. Six days after the insemination, the animals were divided in two groups (G1 = Control and G2 = GnRH and received 0 μg or 25 μg of GnRH to induce an accessory CL. After twenty four days (D40, pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasonography and 79 buffalo (G1, n = 39; G2, n = 40 were randomly selected to verify the ovary status by ultrasound. Fifty three pregnant buffaloes (G1, n = 32; G2, n = 21 were followed to verify the birth rate. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. The conception rate, the accessory CL rate and the birth rate were higher in G2 than in G1 (P<0.05. The use of GnRH to induce an accessory CL in buffaloes increased the conception and birth rates. Thus, the increase of the cost of Ovsynch protocol with the thirty dose of GnRH is rewarded by the increment on conception and birth rates and reduction of days open.

  19. Promotion of Waterpipe Tobacco Use, Its Variants and Accessories in Young Adult Newspapers: A Content Analysis of Message Portrayal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kymberle L.; Fryer, Craig S.; Majeed, Ban; Duong, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to identify waterpipe tobacco smoking advertisements and those that promoted a range of products and accessories used to smoke waterpipe tobacco. The content of these advertisements was analyzed to understand the messages portrayed about waterpipe tobacco smoking in young adult (aged 18-30) newspapers. The study…

  20. Accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve transfer to restore shoulder exorotation in otherwise spontaneously recovered obstetric brachial plexus lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ouwerkerk, Willem J. R.; Uitdehaag, Bernard M. J.; Strijers, Rob L. M.; Nollet, Frans; Holl, Kurt; Fellner, Franz A.; Vandertop, W. Peter

    2006-01-01

    A systematic follow-up of infants with an obstetric brachial plexus lesion of C5 and C6 or the superior trunk showing satisfactory spontaneous recovery of shoulder and arm function except for voluntary shoulder exorotation, who underwent an accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer to improve active

  1. Effects of external helmet accessories on biomechanical measures of head injury risk: An ATD study using the HYBRIDIII headform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, Robert C; Knowles, Brooklynn M; Newman, James A; Dennison, Christopher R

    2015-11-05

    Competitive cycling is a popular activity in North America for which injuries to the head account for the majority of hospitalizations and fatalities. In cycling, use of helmet accessories (e.g. cameras) has become widespread. As a consequence, standards organizations and the popular media are discussing the role these accessories could play in altering helmet efficacy and head injury risk. We conducted impacts to a helmeted anthropomorphic headform, with and without camera accessories, at speeds of 4m/s and 6m/s, and measured head accelerations, forces on the head-form skull, and used the Simulated Injury Monitor to estimate brain tissue strain. The presence of the camera reduced peak linear head acceleration (51% - 4m/s impacts, 61% - 6m/s, p0.05) as were velocities (77%, p0.05) in 6m/s impacts with the camera accessory. Based on CSDM-25 for 4m/s tests, the risk of severe concussion was reduced (p0.05) from 18% (no camera) to 58% (camera). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 15 CFR 742.11 - Specially designed implements of torture, thumbscrews, and thumbcuffs; and parts and accessories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specially designed implements of torture, thumbscrews, and thumbcuffs; and parts and accessories, n.e.s. 742.11 Section 742.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND...

  3. Radiofrequency Ablation of Accessory Pathways in Chil- dren with Complex Congenital Cardiac Lesions: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dalili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Catheter ablation is an accepted, highly effective modality of treatment for cardiac arrhythmias in children. The success rate depends on the operator’s experience, especially in cases involving complex anatomies. We hereby report our recent experience of successful ablation of accessory pathways in three children with complex congenital heart diseases.The first case was a 7-year-old girl with tricuspid atresia and a previous Glenn shunt, in whom a sub-epicardial overt accessory pathway was successfully ablated via the coronary sinus. The second case, a 9-year-old girl, received accessory pathway ablation via the fenestration of an extracardiac Fontan pathway. The third case was a 14-year-old boy with dextrocardia, common atrium, common ventricle, and a previous extracardiac Fontan operation, in whom ablation of a concealed accessory pathway was carried out retrogradely from the aorta. All the ablations were done in Rajaie Cardiovascular, Medical and Research Center, Tehran, and all the patients were discharged from the hospital without any complication.

  4. Robotic resection of dual accessory mitral valve tissue in an adult patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shojiro; Ishikawa, Norihiko; Tomita, Shigeyuki; Ohtake, Hiroshi; Kiuchi, Ryuta; Nishida, Yuji; Muramatsu, Kenichi; Watanabe, Go

    2014-09-01

    The presence of isolated accessory mitral valve tissue (AMVT) is extremely rare in adults. We successfully performed robot-assisted resection of dual AMVT that was attached to the papillary muscle and anterior mitral leaflet. Echocardiography was invaluable for identifying the most suitable approach. The short-axis view on echocardiography revealed the precise location where the AMVT was attached. The robotic operation enabled fine visualization; we clearly observed the AMVT and removed its entire extra structure. The patient recovered well and was discharged 3 days after the operation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of successful robotic AMVT resection. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The accessory papillary muscle with inferior J-waves - peculiarity or hidden danger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    du Toit Lorraine

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Originally described in 1953, today the so-called J-wave is the source of much controversy. As a marker of so-called "early repolarization", this variant has been regarded as a totally benign variant since the 1960's. However, since then a wealth of data have indicated that the J-wave may be a marker of a highly arrhythmogenic substrate with a resultant high risk of sudden cardiac death. In this case report a case of an accessory papillary muscle with a prominent J-wave is described. This may be the first of many possible cases where papillary muscle variants may be the cause of the J-wave.

  6. [Infectious mitral endocarditis after radiofrequency catheter ablation of a left lateral accessory pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito Bartolomé, F; Sánchez Fernández-Bernal, C

    2001-08-01

    A 2-years-old child with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome associated with life-threatening symptoms underwent radiofrequency ablation of a left lateral accessory pathway. A deflectable 5F bipolar electrode catheter positioned above the atrioventricular groove by transeptal approach was used for ablation. The catheters were repeatedly used after ethylene oxide sterilisation. Although immediate post-ablation echocardiography demonstrated no complications, the patient was readmitted two days later with fever and a new mitral murmur. Penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was isolated and intravenous antibiotics were administered. In the following weeks, the patient developed constrictive pericarditis requiring surgical treatment and acute hemiplegia caused by brain embolism arising from valvular vegetation. At 5 years of follow-up the patient presents residual hemiparesia and grade II/IV mitral insufficiency.

  7. Convergence of FPR-rs3-expressing neurons in the mouse accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietschi, Quentin; Assens, Alexis; Challet, Ludivine; Carleton, Alan; Rodriguez, Ivan

    2013-09-01

    In the mouse, most members of the FPR receptor family are expressed by vomeronasal sensory neurons. The neural circuitry corresponding to this class of chemical sensors is unknown. Taking advantage of the presence of FPR-rs3 on both vomeronasal dendrites and axonal fibers, we visualized the distribution of sensory cells expressing this member of the FPR family, and their corresponding axonal projections in the olfactory bulb. We found a rostrocaudal gradient of receptor choice frequency in the vomeronasal sensory neuroepithelium, and observed a convergence of FPR-rs3 axons into multiple, linked and deeply located glomeruli. These were homogenously innervated, and spatially restricted to the basal portion of the rostral accessory olfactory bulb. This organization, reminiscent of the one that characterizes axonal projections of V1R-expressing neurons, supports a role played by these receptors in the perception of semiochemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. MRI of the tibioastragalus anticus of Gruber muscle: a rare accessory muscle and normal anatomical variant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, Yaron; Amiras, Dimitri [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); St Mary' s Hospital, Imaging Department, QEQM, London (United Kingdom); Mushtaq, Nadeem [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    We present the case of a 31-year-old man who sustained a hyperplantar flexion injury of his right ankle, and was evaluated using computed tomography and MRI to assess for osseous and ligamentous injury. The MRI and CT studies demonstrated a tibioastragalus anticus of Gruber (TAAG) muscle in the lower limb's anterior compartment. To our knowledge, the imaging of this muscle has not been previously described. The TAAG muscle arises from the lower third of the anterolateral tibia and the interosseous membrane. Its tendon passes laterally, deep to the tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus tendons, and inserts onto the anterior superolateral neck of the talus in a fan-like manner. Knowledge and recognition of this tendon are important for both diagnostic accuracy and surgical planning, and could potentially be used as a tendon transfer or graft in the appropriate clinical setting. The presence of this accessory muscle should not be confused with a pathological condition. (orig.)

  9. Contralateral Spinal Accessory Nerve Transfer: A New Technique in Panavulsive Brachial Plexus Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zermeño-Rivera, Jaime; Gutiérrez-Amavizca, Bianca Ethel

    2015-06-01

    Brachial plexus avulsion results from excessive stretching and can occur secondary to motor vehicle accidents, mainly in motorcyclists. In a 28-year-old man with panavulsive brachial plexus palsy, we describe an alternative technique to repair brachial plexus avulsion and to stabilize and preserve shoulder function by transferring the contralateral spinal accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve. We observed positive clinical and electromyographic results in sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, pectoralis, triceps, and biceps, with good outcome and prognosis for shoulder function at 12 months after surgery. This technique provides a unique opportunity for patients suffering from severe brachial plexus injuries and lacking enough donor nerves to obtain shoulder stability and mobility while avoiding bone fusion and preserving functionality of the contralateral shoulder with favorable postoperative outcomes.

  10. Effect of partial saturation of bonded neo magnet on the automotive accessory motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Nimitkumar K.; Angara, Raghu C. S. Babu

    2017-05-01

    In this paper the effects of using a partially magnetized bonded neo (NdFeB) magnet in an automotive accessory motor are presented. The potential reason for partial saturation of the bonded neo magnet is explained and a simple method to ensure saturation of the magnet is discussed. A magnetizing fixture design using the 2-D Finite element analysis (FEA) is presented. The motor performance at various magnet saturation levels has been estimated using the 2-D FEA. Details of the thermal demagnetization test adopted by the automotive industry is also discussed and results of the motor performance for four saturation levels are detailed. These results indicate that the effect of demagnetization is more adverse in a motor with partially saturated magnets.

  11. Accessory branch of median nerve supplying the brachialis muscle: a case report and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George; Anastasopoulos, Nikolaos; Nitsa, Zoi; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis; Spyridakis, Ioannis

    2014-12-01

    A very rare case of an accessory branch of the median nerve taking its origin in the region of the right arm was observed to supply the infero-medial portion of the brachialis muscle in a male cadaver. Simultaneously, the ipsilateral musculocutaneous nerve was innervating the muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm. Such an aberrant muscular branch of the median nerve for the brachialis muscle is very rarely reported in the literature. Lesion of the median nerve proximal to the branch's origin site could induce weak flexion of the elbow, whereas injury of the musculocutaneous nerve could lead to misinterpretation of symptoms. We discuss the patterns of brachialis muscle innervation as well as the clinical applications of such a variant.

  12. Note: Design and fabrication of a simple versatile microelectrochemical cell and its accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Viswanathan; Neelakantan, Lakshman

    2015-09-01

    A microelectrochemical cell housed in an optical microscope and custom-made accessories have been designed and fabricated, which allows performing spatially resolved corrosion measurements. The cell assembly was designed to directly integrate the reference electrode close to the capillary tip to avoid air bubbles. A hard disk along with an old optical microscope was re-engineered into a microgrinder, which made the vertical grinding of glass capillary tips very easy. A stepper motor was customized into a microsyringe pump to dispense a controlled volume of electrolyte through the capillary. A force sensitive resistor was used to achieve constant wetting area. The functionality of the developed instrument is demonstrated by studying μ-electrochemical behavior of worn surface on AA2014-T6 alloy.

  13. Discovery of a novel accessory structure of the pitviper infrared receptor organ (serpentes: viperidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Bolívar-G

    Full Text Available The facial pits of rattlesnakes, copperheads, lanceheads, bushmasters and other American and Asian pitvipers (Crotalinae are highly innervated and densely vascularized infrared (IR receptor organs. For over a century, studies have focused on a small sample of model species from North America and Asia. Based on an expanded survey of Central and South American crotalines, we report a conspicuous accessory structure composed of well-defined papillae that project from the anterior orbital adnexa. The papillae are continuous with the inner chamber of the IR receptor organ and our histological and ultrastructural data suggest that they possess a well-developed nervous network and extensive vascularization; however, they lack the characteristic IR-sensitive terminal nerve masses found in the IR-receptive pit membrane. The function of the IR receptor organ papillae is unknown.

  14. Discovery of a novel accessory structure of the pitviper infrared receptor organ (serpentes: viperidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolívar-G, Wilmar; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Grant, Taran; Jared, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The facial pits of rattlesnakes, copperheads, lanceheads, bushmasters and other American and Asian pitvipers (Crotalinae) are highly innervated and densely vascularized infrared (IR) receptor organs. For over a century, studies have focused on a small sample of model species from North America and Asia. Based on an expanded survey of Central and South American crotalines, we report a conspicuous accessory structure composed of well-defined papillae that project from the anterior orbital adnexa. The papillae are continuous with the inner chamber of the IR receptor organ and our histological and ultrastructural data suggest that they possess a well-developed nervous network and extensive vascularization; however, they lack the characteristic IR-sensitive terminal nerve masses found in the IR-receptive pit membrane. The function of the IR receptor organ papillae is unknown.

  15. Maintenance guide for air-operated valves, pneumatic actuators, and accessories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preckwinkle, S.E. (Fossil Technologies, Inc., Kelso, WA (United States))

    1992-07-01

    Air Operated Valves (AOVs) are used extensively in the power generation industry for process control and system isolation functions. Their proper operation is essential to reliable power plant operation. This guide discusses major components such as actuators, valves, and positioners, and explains the inter-relationship of these components. Diagrams indicating the application and operation of various types of actuators are presented as an aid for thorough investigation of malfunctioning equipment. Recent developments on diagnostic equipment for AOVs are covered and valve traces on valves with maintenance related problems are used to demonstrate how the diagnostic equipment can quickly solve complex valve problems. In addition, predictive and preventive maintenance recommendations based on specific failure data are included. The guide also includes a troubleshooting section with tables providing easily accessible information to minimize troubleshooting costs. Appendices augment the guide by providing a glossary of terms and various engineering schedules including useful engineering parameters for the proper maintenance of air operated valves and accessories.

  16. OCAM reveals segregated mitral/tufted cell pathways in developing accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Campenhausen, H; Yoshihara, Y; Mori, K

    1997-07-28

    Two functional subsets of vomeronasal sensory neurons project their axons to two segregated zones in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Using immunohistochemical methods with antibodies against the novel cell adhesion molecule OCAM, we provide evidence that the segregation of functional pathways is maintained at the level of mitral/tufted (M/T) cells of the mouse AOB and that this pattern emerges early in ontogeny. During embryonic and postnatal development OCAM was strongly expressed by M/T cells in the caudal zone of the AOB where OCAM-negative vomeronasal axons terminated. In contrast, rostral zone M/T cells innervated by OCAM-positive vomeronasal axons displayed no or faint OCAM immunoreactivity. Differential expression of OCAM in segregated M/T cell pathways suggests that OCAM may be involved in defining compartments of connectivity and setting up functional subdivisions in the developing AOB.

  17. [Nontraditional "large-cell" neuroendocrine formations (accessory nuclei) in the brain of Anamnia and Amniota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinevich, V V; Polenov, A L; Danilova, O A; Kuzik, V V; Romanova, I V

    1995-01-01

    Using immunochemical PAP-method nonapeptidergic neuroendocrine formations in the hypothalamus and adjacent brain areas of fishes (the sterlet Acipenser ruthenus, the shark Scylliorhinus canicula), amphibians (the frog Rana temporaria), reptiles (the snake Natrix natrix), mammals (rats and dogs) and human have been studied. In Amniota and human accessory nuclei (AN) in addition to main "magnocellular" nuclei (supraoptic, postoptic and paraventricular) were discovered. Two AN, circular and dorsolateral ones, were found in snakes, and circular, dorsolateral, forniceal and extrahypothalamic AN were revealed in rat, dog and human brain. In Anamnia, sharks and frogs, in contrast to sterlets, the dorsolateral sub-nucleus inside preoptic nucleus was identified. AN similarity in the phylogenetic row of vertebrates and mechanisms of AN creation in phylo- and ontogenesis were discussed.

  18. KNOW-Blade Task-2 report - Aerodynamic accessories[Wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, J.; Soerensen, N.N.; Zahle, F.; Kang, S.; Nikolaou, I.; Politis, E.S.; Chaviaropoulos, P.K.; Ekaterinaris, J.

    2004-11-01

    In the EC project KNOW-BLADE a work package has been defined to investigate the possibility to numerically model aerodynamic accessories in existing Navier-Stokes solvers. Four different aerodynamic accessories have been investigated. Firstly, the potential of applying active flow control by means of a pulsating jet placed at the leading edge in order to enhance mean lift. The general trend is that increased pulsation frequency is beneficial, in that it reduces the oscillation amplitude and raises the mean lift level while lowering the mean drag level. An increased jet exit velocity has a tendency to increase the oscillation amplitude, which is not very attractive for load control on wind turbines. Secondly, the effect of vortex generators has been modelled using two phenomenological vortex generator models. The models have been applied to three airfoil configurations. For all cases investigated the models shows qualitatively the correct behaviour, even though there are a considerable spread in the degree of success. Thirdly, the influence of adding a stall strip for changing the airfoil characteristics was investigated. Stall strips at three different positions were directly modelled by changing the airfoil geometry. In general the 7mm stall strips placed at P00 and P-02 had the greatest effect on the max lift followed by stall strip P02. Unfortunately, there was not sufficient agreement between the experimental results and the simulations to draw any conclusions of optimum position and geometry of the stall strip. Finally, the effect of surface roughness was modelled by either modifying the boundary condition of the turbulence model or by modifying the airfoil geometry. Using the roughness model gave relatively good agreement with measurements and it must be concluded that the effect of using roughness tape can be better predicted with a roughness model compared to using a modified airfoil surface. (au)

  19. Morphological and morphometric analysis of accessory mental foramen in dry human mandibles of south indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkohila, J; Daniel, Priyanka; Ambikaipakan, Sakunthala; Rabi, Suganthy

    2018-01-01

    Mental foramen (MF) is an important landmark for administration of local anesthesia in surgical procedures involving the mandible. Additional mental foramina, called accessory mental foramina (AMF) transmitting branches of mental nerve, have been reported. Detection of AMFs in presurgical imaging may reduce postoperative pain in dental surgical procedures. Aim: The aim of the study was to study the incidence and morphometric analysis of accessory MF in the dry human mandibles of South Indian population. Two hundred and sixty dry human mandibles were studied for the presence, location, shape of AMF, and its relation to MF. The horizontal diameter of AMF, and its distance from symphysis menti, the posterior border of mandible and from the base of mandible were measured and statistically analyzed. In our study, AMF were present in 8.85% mandibles (unilateral - 7.6% [4.6% - left, 2.69% - right] and bilateral 1.6%). The most common position was below the second premolar (48.1%). AMF were round in shape (74%) and was often located either superomedial or inferolateral to MF. Their transverse diameter ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm. The AMF were situated at a mean distance of 2.96 mm from MF, 23.47 mm from symphysis menti, 11.24 mm from the lower border of the body of the mandible, and 57.35 mm from the posterior border of ramus of mandible. The knowledge of the presence of AMF and its dimensions would enable the clinicians to do mandibular procedures carefully and avoid injury to the branches of mental nerve that may be passing through it.

  20. Hidden female physiological resistance to male accessory gland substances in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Monica; Koene, Joris M

    2017-03-15

    To increase fertilization chances compared with rivals, males are favoured to transfer accessory gland proteins to females during mating. These substances, by influencing female physiology, cause alteration of her sperm usage and remating rate. Simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails with love-darts are a case in point. During courtship, a love-dart is pierced through the partner's body wall, thereby introducing accessory mucous gland products. This mucus physiologically increases paternity by inhibiting the digestion of donated sperm. The sperm, which are packaged in a spermatophore, are exchanged and received in an organ called the diverticulum. Because of its length, this organ was previously proposed to be a female anatomical adaptation that may limit the dart interference with the recipient's sperm usage. For reproductive success of the donor, an anatomically long spermatophore, relative to the partner's diverticulum, is beneficial as sperm can avoid digestion by exiting through the spermatophore's tail safely. However, the snail Eobania vermiculata possesses a diverticulum that is three times longer than the spermatophore it receives. Here, we report that the love-dart mucus of this species contains a contraction-inducing substance that shortens the diverticulum, an effect that is only properly revealed when the mucus is applied to another helicid species, Cornu aspersum This finding suggests that E. vermiculata may have evolved a physiological resistance to the manipulative substance received via the love-dart by becoming insensitive to it. This provides useful insight into the evolution of female resistance to male manipulations, indicating that it can remain hidden if tested on a single species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Composition variations of accessory lamprophyllite in Lovozero massif: hidden layering of non-cumulus mineral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Victor; Kogarko, Lia

    2014-05-01

    Composition variations of accessory lamprophyllite in Lovozero massif: hidden layering of non-cumulus mineral. Lovozero massif is a beautiful sample of layered agpaitic intrusion. Rhythmic modal layering is visible in mountainsides and drill-cores. Recently cryptic layering was found in composition of cumulus minerals: loparite (Kogarko et al., 2002), clinopyroxen (Kogarko, Williams, 2005, Zaitsev, Senin 2006) and eudialite (Kogarko, Williams, 2008). We studied chemical variation of lamprophyllite - a principal accessory mineral of eudialite lujavrites and porthyritic lujavrites of Lovozero massif. Three varieties of compositions discovered in rocks of Lovozero massif: Sr-lamprophyllite, contain evolution inside one rock (namely from lamprophyllite to barytolamprophyllite) is in agreement with experimentally founded. From other hand, independence of Ba/Sr ration in lamprophyllite from the vertical position of sample shows that lamrophyllite wasn't cumulative mineral during crystallization of magma of Lovozero massif. From these data, features of lamprophyllite composition variations strictly locate they place in crystallization history as a crystallized from interstitial melt. Vertical variations of lamprophyllite composition is conform to variations of pyroxene composition: in clinopyroxen of differentiated and eudialite complex Na,Fe and Ti content increase upward and Ca, Mg - decrease (Kogarko Williams, 2005) in porphyritic lujavrites Na, Ti, Mn content increase and Ca, Mn - decrease (Zaitsev, Senin 2006). These patterns can be explained if we assume that at each level of the lamprophyllite crystallized from melt, equilibrated with pyroxene, formed primarily cumulative matrix of rocks. Thus, the composition of lamprophyllite changes systematically upwards because it inherits patterns composition of primary magmatic clinopyroxene.

  2. Dual Topology of the Melanocortin-2 Receptor Accessory Protein (MRAP Is Stable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J. Maben

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available MRAP (melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein facilitates trafficking of melanocortin 2 (MC2 receptors and is essential for ACTH binding and signaling. MRAP is a single transmembrane domain protein that forms antiparallel homodimers. These studies ask when MRAP first acquires this dual topology, whether MRAP architecture is static or stable, and whether the accessory protein undergoes rapid turnover. To answer these questions we developed a novel approach that capitalizes on the specificity of bacterial biotin ligase, which adds biotin to lysine in a short acceptor peptide sequence; the distinct mobility of MRAP protomers of opposite orientations based on their N-linked glycosylation; and the ease of identifying biotin-labeled proteins. We inserted biotin ligase acceptor peptides at the N- or C-terminal ends of MRAP and expressed the modified proteins in mammalian cells together with either cytoplasmic or endoplasmic reticulum-targeted biotin ligase. MRAP assumed dual topology early in biosynthesis in both CHO and OS3 adrenal cells. Once established, MRAP orientation was stable. Despite its conformational stability, MRAP displayed a half life of under 2 hr in CHO cells. The amount of MRAP was increased by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and MRAP underwent ubiquitylation on lysine and other amino acids. Nonetheless, when protein synthesis was blocked with cycloheximide, MRAP was rapidly degraded even when MG132 was included and all lysines were replaced by arginines, implicating non-proteasomal degradation pathways. The results show that although MRAP does not change orientations during trafficking its synthesis and degradation are dynamically regulated.

  3. Cholera Toxin B: One Subunit with Many Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan J. Baldauf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cholera, a waterborne acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, remains prevalent in underdeveloped countries and is a serious health threat to those living in unsanitary conditions. The major virulence factor is cholera toxin (CT, which consists of two subunits: the A subunit (CTA and the B subunit (CTB. CTB is a 55 kD homopentameric, non-toxic protein binding to the GM1 ganglioside on mammalian cells with high affinity. Currently, recombinantly produced CTB is used as a component of an internationally licensed oral cholera vaccine, as the protein induces potent humoral immunity that can neutralize CT in the gut. Additionally, recent studies have revealed that CTB administration leads to the induction of anti-inflammatory mechanisms in vivo. This review will cover the potential of CTB as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent. We will also summarize various recombinant expression systems available for recombinant CTB bioproduction.

  4. INTER-SUBUNIT INTERACTION AND ARRANGEMENT OF THE CENTRAL STALK SUBUNITS OF ENTEROCOCCUS HIRAE V-ATPASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Mozaffor Hossain1,2

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available V-ATPases function as ATP-dependent ion pumps in various membrane systems of living organisms. ATP hydrolysis causes rotation of the central rotor complex, which is composed of NtpC, NtpD,and NtpG subunits. We successfully cloned, expressed, and purified the central stalk subunits of Na+- translocating V-type ATPase from E. hirae. Full length DNAs for genes of NtpC, NtpD, and NtpG subunits were amplified by conventional PCR method and cloned into the plasmid vector pET23d. Recombinant DNA transformed E. coli (JM109 cells were grown in LB agar plate containing ampicillin. NtpC and NtpG subunit proteins were expressed as separate His-tagged soluble proteins in E. coli BL21(DE3 cells at 30 °C and NtpD subunit protein was stably expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3 cells at 16 °C. Expressed central stalk subunit proteins were purified by affinity chromatography followed by gel-filtration method. The amount of purified NtpC, NtpD, and NtpG subunit proteins were 13.8 mg/1 liter culture, 16.6 mg/1 liter culture, and 15.2 mg/1 liter culture, respectively. Tobacco etch virus (TEV-protease was also expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3 cells and purified by affinity chromatography. The amount of purified TEV-protease was 8.50 mg/1 liter culture. Here, we report the stable interaction and the complex formation mechanisms of the central stalk subunits of E. hirae V-ATPase. The purified NtpD could interact directly with NtpG and NtpC could bind directly to NtpD-G complex and these three subunits could form NtpD-G-C complex. NtpD could bind to NtpG and formed NtpD-G complex. NtpD or NtpD-G complex could bind to NtpA3-B3 and formed NtpA3-B3-D or NtpA3-B3-D-G complex, respectively. NtpC could bind to NtpA3-B3-D-G and formed NtpA3-B3-D-G-C complex but could not bind to NtpA3-B3, NtpA3-B3-D, NtpD, or NtpG.

  5. Fracture resistance of structurally compromised premolar roots restored with single and accessory glass or quartz fiber posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Sharafeddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glass and quartz fiber posts are used in restoration of structurally compromised roots. Accessory fiber posts are recently introduced to enhance the fiber post adaptation. This study evaluated the effectiveness of glass versus quartz accessory fiber posts. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 mandibular premolar roots with similar dimension (radius of 3.5 ± 0.2 mm and length of 13 ± 0.5 mm were selected and their root canals were flared until 1.5 mm of dentin wall remained. They were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 and restored as follows: Exacto glass fiber post (EX, Exacto glass fiber post + 2 Reforpin accessories (EXR, D. T. Light quartz fiber post (DT, and D. T. Light quartz fiber post + 2 Fibercone accessories (DTF. All posts were cemented with Duo-Link resin cement and the cores were built with the particulate filler composite. Following 1-week water storage, specimens were subjected to fracture loads in a universal testing machine. The maximum loads and failure modes were recorded and analyzed with the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Fisher′s exact tests (α = 0.05. Results: The mean fracture resistance values (N were 402.8 (EX, 378.4 (EXR, 400.1 (DT, and 348.5 (DTF. Two-way ANOVA test showed neither reinforcing method (P = 0.094, nor post composition (P = 0.462 had statistically significant differences on fracture resistance of the structurally compromised premolar teeth. Fisher′s exact test also demonstrated no statistically significant difference regarding two variables (P = 0.695. Core fracture was the most common failure mode (62.5%. Conclusion: Glass and quartz fiber posts with or without accessories restored the weakened premolar roots equally.

  6. Fracture resistance of weakened human premolar roots after use of a glass fiber post together with accessory posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Estefani SEGATO

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the fracture strength of human premolar teeth with wide root canals, restored with glass fiber posts and resin cement, together with different numbers of accessory posts.MATERIAL AND METHOD: Thirty-six premolars received standardized preparations that simulated weakened roots, and were divided into three groups (n=12: G0 - glass fiber post (Reforpost/Angelus cementation with dual cure resin cement (Rely X ARC/3M ESPE; G1 - glass fiber post cementation and one accessory post (Reforpin/Angelus, with dual cure resin cement; G2 - glass fiber post cementation and two accessory posts, with dual cure resin cement. Resin composite cores were placed in each tooth. A metal coping was placed in a standardized position on the cores to perform the compressive tests using a test machine. Testing was performed applying a force parallel to the long axis of the teeth at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. Fracture mode was analyzed under a stereoscopic loupe, classified by scores.RESULT: the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was applied, and there was no statistical difference in the mean values of fracture strength among the groups (in kgf: G0 = 91.1 ± 56.9; G1 = 104.7 ± 66.6; G2 = 106.1 ± 51.9. Greater frequency of fracture or cracks was observed in the cervical one-third of the root in the teeth without cemented accessory posts, but no statistical difference was observed among the fracture modes.CONCLUSION: The number of accessory posts cemented into debilitated roots had no influence on either fracture strength or type of fracture of pre-molar roots.

  7. Fracture resistance of structurally compromised premolar roots restored with single and accessory glass or quartz fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Alavi, Ali Asghar; Zare, Samira

    2014-03-01

    Glass and quartz fiber posts are used in restoration of structurally compromised roots. Accessory fiber posts are recently introduced to enhance the fiber post adaptation. This study evaluated the effectiveness of glass versus quartz accessory fiber posts. In this experimental study, 40 mandibular premolar roots with similar dimension (radius of 3.5 ± 0.2 mm and length of 13 ± 0.5 mm) were selected and their root canals were flared until 1.5 mm of dentin wall remained. They were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10) and restored as follows: Exacto glass fiber post (EX), Exacto glass fiber post + 2 Reforpin accessories (EXR), D. T. Light quartz fiber post (DT), and D. T. Light quartz fiber post + 2 Fibercone accessories (DTF). All posts were cemented with Duo-Link resin cement and the cores were built with the particulate filler composite. Following 1-week water storage, specimens were subjected to fracture loads in a universal testing machine. The maximum loads and failure modes were recorded and analyzed with the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's exact tests (α = 0.05). The mean fracture resistance values (N) were 402.8 (EX), 378.4 (EXR), 400.1 (DT), and 348.5 (DTF). Two-way ANOVA test showed neither reinforcing method (P = 0.094), nor post composition (P = 0.462) had statistically significant differences on fracture resistance of the structurally compromised premolar teeth. Fisher's exact test also demonstrated no statistically significant difference regarding two variables (P = 0.695). Core fracture was the most common failure mode (62.5%). Glass and quartz fiber posts with or without accessories restored the weakened premolar roots equally.

  8. Breakage-fusion-bridge cycles and large insertions contribute to the rapid evolution of accessory chromosomes in a fungal pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Daniel; Zala, Marcello; McDonald, Bruce A

    2013-06-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements are a major driver of eukaryotic genome evolution, affecting speciation, pathogenicity and cancer progression. Changes in chromosome structure are often initiated by mis-repair of double-strand breaks in the DNA. Mis-repair is particularly likely when telomeres are lost or when dispersed repeats misalign during crossing-over. Fungi carry highly polymorphic chromosomal complements showing substantial variation in chromosome length and number. The mechanisms driving chromosome polymorphism in fungi are poorly understood. We aimed to identify mechanisms of chromosomal rearrangements in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We combined population genomic resequencing and chromosomal segment PCR assays with electrophoretic karyotyping and resequencing of parents and offspring from experimental crosses to show that this pathogen harbors a highly diverse complement of accessory chromosomes that exhibits strong global geographic differentiation in numbers and lengths of chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes carried highly differentiated gene contents due to numerous insertions and deletions. The largest accessory chromosome recently doubled in length through insertions totaling 380 kb. Based on comparative genomics, we identified the precise breakpoint locations of these insertions. Nondisjunction during meiosis led to chromosome losses in progeny of three different crosses. We showed that a new accessory chromosome emerged in two viable offspring through a fusion between sister chromatids. Such chromosome fusion is likely to initiate a breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycle that can rapidly degenerate chromosomal structure. We suggest that the accessory chromosomes of Z. tritici originated mainly from ancient core chromosomes through a degeneration process that included BFB cycles, nondisjunction and mutational decay of duplicated sequences. The rapidly evolving accessory chromosome complement may serve as a cradle for adaptive evolution in

  9. Role of regulatory subunits and protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) in determining nuclear localization and activity of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J C; Wailes, L A; Idzerda, R L; McKnight, G S

    1999-03-05

    Regulation of protein kinase A by subcellular localization may be critical to target catalytic subunits to specific substrates. We employed epitope-tagged catalytic subunit to correlate subcellular localization and gene-inducing activity in the presence of regulatory subunit or protein kinase inhibitor (PKI). Transiently expressed catalytic subunit distributed throughout the cell and induced gene expression. Co-expression of regulatory subunit or PKI blocked gene induction and prevented nuclear accumulation. A mutant PKI lacking the nuclear export signal blocked gene induction but not nuclear accumulation, demonstrating that nuclear export is not essential to inhibit gene induction. When the catalytic subunit was targeted to the nucleus with a nuclear localization signal, it was not sequestered in the cytoplasm by regulatory subunit, although its activity was completely inhibited. PKI redistributed the nuclear catalytic subunit to the cytoplasm and blocked gene induction, demonstrating that the nuclear export signal of PKI can override a strong nuclear localization signal. With increasing PKI, the export process appeared to saturate, resulting in the return of catalytic subunit to the nucleus. These results demonstrate that both the regulatory subunit and PKI are able to completely inhibit the gene-inducing activity of the catalytic subunit even when the catalytic subunit is forced to concentrate in the nuclear compartment.

  10. Separation and characterization of alpha-chain subunits from tilapia (Tilapia zillii) skin gelatin using ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shulin; Tang, Lanlan; Su, Wenjin; Weng, Wuyin; Osako, Kazufumi; Tanaka, Munehiko

    2015-12-01

    Alpha-chain subunits were separated from tilapia skin gelatin using ultrafiltration, and the physicochemical properties of obtained subunits were investigated. As a result, α1-subunit and α2-subunit could be successfully separated by 100 kDa MWCO regenerated cellulose membranes and 150 kDa MWCO polyethersulfone membranes, respectively. Glycine was the most dominant amino acid in both α1-subunit and α2-subunit. However, the tyrosine content was higher in α2-subunit than in α1-subunit, resulting in strong absorption near 280 nm observed in the UV absorption spectrum. Based on the DSC analysis, it was found that the glass transition temperatures of gelatin, α1-subunit and α2-subunit were 136.48 °C, 126.77 °C and 119.43 °C, respectively. Moreover, the reduced viscosity and denaturation temperature of α1-subunit were higher than those of α2-subunit, and the reduced viscosity reached the highest when α-subunits were mixed with α1/α2 ratio of approximately 2, suggesting that α1-subunit plays a more important role in the thermostability of gelatin than α2-subunit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cyclothiazide: a subunit-specific inhibitor of GABAC receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, An; Song, Xiangqian; Ripps, Harris; Qian, Haohua

    2008-06-01

    We tested the effects of cyclothiazide (CTZ), an agent used to block desensitization of AMPA-type glutamate receptors, on heterologously expressed GABA(C) receptors formed by homomeric rho subunits. CTZ inhibition of GABA(C) receptors was subunit specific; it produced a dose-dependent reduction of the GABA-elicited current on homomeric rho2 receptors with an IC(50) of about 12 microm, but had no significant effect on homomeric rho1 receptors. This differential sensitivity was attributable to a single amino acid located on the second transmembrane domain of the rho subunits. Mutating the residue at this position from serine to proline on the rho2 subunit eliminated CTZ sensitivity, whereas switching proline to serine on the rho1 subunit made the receptor CTZ sensitive. The inhibitory properties of CTZ were consistent with its action as a channel blocker on the receptors formed by rho2 subunits. The effect showed a small degree of voltage dependence, and was due mainly to a non-competitive mechanism that reduced the maximum response elicited by GABA. In addition, the prominent membrane current rebound when co-application of GABA and CTZ was terminated suggests that the binding site for CTZ on the GABA(C) receptor is distinct from that for GABA, and that CTZ acts as a non-competitive antagonist on the GABA(C) receptor. CTZ inhibited the open channel of the GABA(C) receptor with a time constant of about 0.4 s, but the kinetics were approximately 10-fold slower when GABA is absent. The ability of CTZ to interact with various types of neurotransmitter receptors indicates that the drug has multiple actions in the CNS.

  12. Localisation of AMPK γ subunits in cardiac and skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Katalin; Grignani, Robert T; Watkins, Hugh; Redwood, Charles

    2013-12-01

    The trimeric protein AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important sensor of energetic status and cellular stress, and mutations in genes encoding two of the regulatory γ subunits cause inherited disorders of either cardiac or skeletal muscle. AMPKγ2 mutations cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with glycogen deposition and conduction abnormalities; mutations in AMPKγ3 result in increased skeletal muscle glycogen. In order to gain further insight into the roles of the different γ subunits in muscle and into possible disease mechanisms, we localised the γ2 and γ3 subunits, along with the more abundant γ1 subunit, by immunofluorescence in cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle fibres. The predominant cardiac γ2 variant, γ2-3B, gave a striated pattern in cardiomyocytes, aligning with the Z-disk but with punctate staining similar to T-tubule (L-type Ca(2+) channel) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2) markers. In skeletal muscle fibres AMPKγ3 localises to the I band, presenting a uniform staining that flanks the Z-disk, also coinciding with the position of Ca(2+) influx in these muscles. The localisation of γ2-3B- and γ3-containing AMPK suggests that these trimers may have similar functions in the different muscles. AMPK containing γ2-3B was detected in oxidative skeletal muscles which had low expression of γ3, confirming that these two regulatory subunits may be co-ordinately regulated in response to metabolic requirements. Compartmentalisation of AMPK complexes is most likely dependent on the regulatory γ subunit and this differential localisation may direct substrate selection and specify particular functional roles.

  13. Advancements in the development of subunit influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naru; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Yusen; Jiang, Shibo; Du, Lanying

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing threat of influenza epidemics and pandemics has emphasized the importance of developing safe and effective vaccines against infections from divergent influenza viruses. In this review, we first introduce the structure and life cycle of influenza A viruses, describing major influenza A virus-caused pandemics. We then compare different types of influenza vaccines and discuss current advancements in the development of subunit influenza vaccines, particularly those based on nucleoprotein (NP), extracellular domain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) and hemagglutinin (HA) proteins. We also illustrate potential strategies for improving the efficacy of subunit influenza vaccines. PMID:25529753

  14. The unique axon trajectory of the accessory nerve is determined by intrinsic properties of the neural tube in the avian embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhongtian; Pu, Qin; Haque, Ziaul; Wang, Jianlin; Huang, Ruijin

    2016-05-01

    The accessory nerve is a cranial nerve, composed of only motor axons, which control neck muscles. Its axons ascend many segments along the lateral surface of the cervical spinal cord and hindbrain. At the level of the first somite, they pass ventrally through the somitic mesoderm into the periphery. The factors governing the unique root trajectory are unknown. Ablation experiments at the accessory nerve outlet points have shown that somites do not regulate the trajectory of the accessory nerve fibres. Factors from the neural tube that may control the longitudinal pathfinding of the accessory nerve fibres were tested by heterotopic transplantations of an occipital neural tube to the cervical and thoracic level. These transplantations resulted in a typical accessory nerve trajectory in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. In contrast, cervical neural tube grafts were unable to give rise to the typical accessory nerve root pattern when transplanted to occipital level. Our results show that the formation of the unique axon root pattern of the accessory nerve is an intrinsic property of the neural tube. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Retinal projections in the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata, as studied using the axonal transport of cholera toxin B subunit: Comparison with mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalia, Frank; Rasweiler, John J; Danias, John

    2015-08-15

    To provide a modern description of the Chiropteran visual system, the subcortical retinal projections were studied in the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata, using the anterograde transport of eye-injected cholera toxin B subunit, supplemented by the silver-impregnation of anterograde degeneration following eye removal, and compared with the retinal projections of the mouse. The retinal projections were heavily labeled by the transported toxin in both species. Almost all components of the murine retinal projection are present in Carollia in varying degrees of prominence and laterality. The projections: to the superior colliculus, accessory optic nuclei, and nucleus of the optic tract are predominantly or exclusively contralateral; to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and posterior pretectal nucleus are predominantly contralateral; to the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus, intergeniculate leaflet, and olivary pretectal nucleus have a substantial ipsilateral component; and to the suprachiasmatic nucleus are symmetrically bilateral. The retinal projection in Carollia is surprisingly reduced at the anterior end of the dorsal lateral geniculate and superior colliculus, suggestive of a paucity of the relevant ganglion cells in the ventrotemporal retina. In the superior colliculus, in which the superficial gray layer is very thin, the projection is patchy in places where the layer is locally absent. Except for a posteriorly located lateral terminal nucleus, the other accessory optic nuclei are diminutive in Carollia, as is the nucleus of the optic tract. In both species the cholera toxin labeled sparse groups of apparently terminating axons in numerous regions not listed above. A question of their significance is discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Probing the proton channels in subunit N of Complex I from Escherichia coli through intra-subunit cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursun, Ablat; Zhu, Shaotong; Vik, Steven B

    2016-12-01

    Respiratory Complex I appears to have 4 sites for proton translocation, which are coupled to the oxidation of NADH and reduction of coenzyme Q. The proton pathways are thought to be made of offset half-channels that connect to the membrane surfaces, and are connected by a horizontal path through the center of the membrane. In this study of the enzyme from Escherichia coli, subunit N, containing one of the sites, was targeted. Pairs of cysteine residues were introduced into neighboring α-helices along the proposed proton pathways. In an effort to constrain conformational changes that might occur during proton translocation, we attempted to form disulfide bonds or methanethiosulfonate bridges between two engineered cysteine residues. Cysteine modification was inferred by the inability of PEG-maleimide to shift the electrophoretic mobility of subunit N, which will occur upon reaction with free sulfhydryl groups. After the cross-linking treatment, NADH oxidase and NADH-driven proton translocation were measured. Ten different pairs of cysteine residues showed evidence of cross-linking. The most significant loss of enzyme activity was seen for residues near the essential Lys 395. This residue is positioned between the proposed proton half-channel to the periplasm and the horizontal connection through subunit N, and is also near the essential Glu 144 of subunit M. The results suggest important conformational changes in this region for the delivery of protons to the periplasm, or for coupling the actions of subunit N to subunit M. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Subunit compensation and plasticity of synaptic GABAA receptors induced by ethanol in α4 subunit knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha eSuryanarayanan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence that ethanol (EtOH potentiates γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR action, but only GABAARs containing δ subunits appear sensitive to low mM EtOH. The α4 and δ subunits co-assemble into GABAARs which are relatively highly expressed at extrasynaptic locations in the dentate gyrus where they mediate tonic inhibition. We previously demonstrated reversible- and time-dependent changes in GABAAR function and subunit composition in rats after single-dose EtOH intoxication. We concluded that early tolerance to EtOH occurs by over-activation and subsequent internalization of EtOH-sensitive extrasynaptic α4βδ-GABAARs. Based on this hypothesis, any highly EtOH-sensitive GABAARs should be subject to internalization following exposure to suitably high EtOH doses. To test this, we studied the GABAARs in mice with a global deletion of the α4 subunit (KO. The dentate granule cells (DGCs of these mice exhibited greatly reduced tonic currents and greatly reduced potentiation by acutely applied EtOH, whereas synaptic currents showed heightened sensitivity to low EtOH concentrations. The hippocampus of naive KO mice showed reduced δ subunit protein levels, but increased α2, and γ2 levels compared to wild-type (WT controls, suggesting at least partial compensation by these subunits in synaptic, highly EtOH-sensitive GABAARs of KO mice. In WT mice, cross-linking and Western blot analysis at 1 h after an EtOH challenge (3.5 g/kg, i.p. revealed increased intracellular fraction of the α1, α4 and δ, but not α2, α5 or γ2 subunits. By contrast, we observed significant internalization of α1, α2, δ, and γ2 subunits after a similar EtOH challenge in KO mice. Synaptic currents from naïve KO mice were more sensitive to potentiation by zolpidem (0.3 μM, requiring α1/α2, inactive at α4/5 GABAARs than those from naïve WT mice. At 1 h after EtOH, synaptic currents of WT mice were unchanged, whereas those of KO mice

  18. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products, and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits - which differ among various taxa - affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating (i) the expression of the biosynthesis apparatus, (ii) the export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and (iii) the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of resulting biofilms, which is particularly important for the interactions of bacteria with higher organisms - leading to rhizosphere colonization and modulating the virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. We review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operon found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms and in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Allelic variation of HMW glutenin subunits of Ethiopian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High molecular weight glutenins are often effective in identifying wheat (Triticum aestivum) genotypes with good baking quality. The high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition of Ethiopian cultivars and advanced lines was investigated to determine their influence on quality. Three alleles at Glu-A1, five at Glu-B1 ...

  20. Cholera toxin B subunit induces local curvature on lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pezeshkian, Weria; Nåbo, Lina J.; Ipsen, John H.

    2017-01-01

    The B subunit of the bacterial cholera toxin (CTxB) is responsible for the toxin binding to the cell membrane and its intracellular trafficking. CTxB binds to the monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside at the plasma membrane of the target cell and mediates toxin internalization by endocytosis. CTx...

  1. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits – which differ among various taxa – affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating expression of biosynthesis apparatus, export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of the resulting biofilm, which is particularly important for interactions of bacteria with higher organisms that lead to rhizosphere colonization and modulate virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. Here we review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operons found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode likely components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms formed by a variety of free-living and pathogenic bacteria and, for the latter, in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. PMID:26077867

  2. Effect of high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits, and subunits of gliadin on physicochemical parameters of different wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Souza Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Identification of functional properties of wheat flour by specific tests allows genotypes with appropriate characteristics to be selected for specific industrial uses. The objective of wheat breeding programs is to improve the quality of germplasm bank in order to be able to develop wheat with suitable gluten strength and extensibility for bread making. The aim of this study was to evaluate 16 wheat genotypes by correlating both glutenin subunits of high and low molecular weight and gliadin subunits with the physicochemical characteristics of the grain. Protein content, sedimentation volume, sedimentation index, and falling number values were analyzed after the grains were milled. Hectoliter weight and mass of 1000 seeds were also determined. The glutenin and gliadin subunits were separated using polyacrylamide gel in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The data were evaluated using variance analysis, Pearson's correlation, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis. The IPR 85, IPR Catuara TM, T 091015, and T 091069 genotypes stood out from the others, which indicate their possibly superior grain quality with higher sedimentation volume, higher sedimentation index, and higher mass of 1000 seeds; these genotypes possessed the subunits 1 (Glu-A1, 5 + 10 (Glu-D1, c (Glu-A3, and b (Glu-B3, with exception of T 091069 genotype that possessed the g allele instead of b in the Glu-B3.

  3. Detection and sequence analysis of accessory gene regulator genes of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ananda Chitra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP is the major pathogenic species of dogs involved in a wide variety of skin and soft tissue infections. The accessory gene regulator (agr locus of Staphylococcus aureus has been extensively studied, and it influences the expression of many virulence genes. It encodes a two-component signal transduction system that leads to down-regulation of surface proteins and up-regulation of secreted proteins during in vitro growth of S. aureus. The objective of this study was to detect and sequence analyzing the AgrA, B, and D of SP isolated from canine skin infections. Materials and Methods: In this study, we have isolated and identified SP from canine pyoderma and otitis cases by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and confirmed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Primers for SP agrA and agrBD genes were designed using online primer designing software and BLAST searched for its specificity. Amplification of the agr genes was carried out for 53 isolates of SP by PCR and sequencing of agrA, B, and D were carried out for five isolates and analyzed using DNAstar and Mega5.2 software. Results: A total of 53 (59% SP isolates were obtained from 90 samples. 15 isolates (28% were confirmed to be methicillinresistant SP (MRSP with the detection of the mecA gene. Accessory gene regulator A, B, and D genes were detected in all the SP isolates. Complete nucleotide sequences of the above three genes for five isolates were submitted to GenBank, and their accession numbers are from KJ133557 to KJ133571. AgrA amino acid sequence analysis showed that it is mainly made of alpha-helices and is hydrophilic in nature. AgrB is a transmembrane protein, and AgrD encodes the precursor of the autoinducing peptide (AIP. Sequencing of the agrD gene revealed that the 5 canine SP strains tested could be divided into three Agr specificity groups (RIPTSTGFF, KIPTSTGFF, and RIPISTGFF based on the putative AIP produced by each strain

  4. Chlorophyll accessory pigments collected from OSCAR ELTON SETTE in North Pacific Ocean from 2008-03-01 to 2011-04-01 (NODC Accession 0129395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the chlorophyll accessory pigments measured from discrete depth water samples collected in CTD-mounted 10 liter Niskin bottles as part of NOAA...

  5. Chlorophyll accessory pigments collected from NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in North Pacific Ocean from 2008-03-01 to 2011-04-01 (NCEI Accession 0129395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the chlorophyll accessory pigments measured from discrete depth water samples collected in CTD-mounted 10 liter Niskin bottles as part of NOAA...

  6. Late-stage magmatic to deuteric/metasomatic accessory minerals from the Cerro Boggiani agpaitic complex (Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin-Chiaramonti, Piero; Renzulli, Alberto; Ridolfi, Filippo; Enrich, Gaston E. R.; Gomes, Celso B.; De Min, Angelo; Azzone, Rogério G.; Ruberti, Excelso

    2016-11-01

    This work describes rare accessory minerals in volcanic and subvolcanic silica-undersaturated peralkaline and agpaitic rocks from the Permo-Triassic Cerro Boggiani complex (Eastern Paraguay) in the Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province. These accessory phases consist of various minerals including Th-U oxides/silicates, Nb-oxide, REE-Sr-Ba bearing carbonates-fluorcarbonates-phosphates-silicates and Zr-Na rich silicates. They form a late-stage magmatic to deuteric/metasomatic assemblage in agpaitic nepheline syenites and phonolite dykes/lava flows made of sodalite, analcime, albite, fluorite, calcite, ilmenite-pyrophanite, titanite and zircon. It is inferred that carbonatitic fluids rich in F, Na and REE percolated into the subvolcanic system and metasomatically interacted with the Cerro Boggiani peralkaline and agpaitic silicate melts at the thermal boundary layers of the magma chamber, during and shortly after their late-stage magmatic crystallization and hydrothermal deuteric alteration.

  7. Presence of accessory penis, colonic duplication and several other congenital anomalies in a child: a very rare association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sayan; Mondal, Prabodh Chandra; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Achar, Arun

    2014-10-01

    An accessory penis is a very rare anomaly. Only five cases have been reported thus far to our knowledge. We present the case of a child aged 2 years and 10 months who had a penis-like structure (containing phallus and glans) attached to the right buttock. Associated anomalies were a non-communicating type of colonic duplication, a paramedian stenosed anal opening, a horse-shoe kidney, posterior urethral valves, scoliosis of the lumbo-sacral spine, polydactyly and equino-varus deformity of the right foot. As far as we can tell, this is the first report of an accessory penis associated with colonic duplication and other congenital anomalies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Homology of the Fifth Epibranchial and Accessory Elements of the Ceratobranchials among Gnathostomes: Insights from the Development of Ostariophysans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Murilo; Bockmann, Flávio Alicino; de Carvalho, Marcelo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Epibranchials are among the main dorsal elements of the gill basket in jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Among extant fishes, chondrichthyans most resemble the putative ancestral condition as all branchial arches possess every serially homologous piece. In osteichthyans, a primitive rod-like epibranchial 5, articulated to ceratobranchial 5, is absent. Instead, epibranchial 5 of many actinopterygians is here identified as an accessory element attached to ceratobranchial 4. Differences in shape and attachment of epibranchial 5 in chondrichthyans and actinopterygians raised suspicions about their homology, prompting us to conduct a detailed study of the morphology and development of the branchial basket of three ostariophysans (Prochilodus argenteus, Characiformes; Lophiosilurus alexandri and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Siluriformes). Results were interpreted within a phylogenetic context of major gnathostome lineages. Developmental series strongly suggest that the so-called epibranchial 5 of actinopterygians does not belong to the epal series because it shares the same chondroblastic layer with ceratobranchial 4 and its ontogenetic emergence is considerably late. This neomorphic structure is called accessory element of ceratobranchial 4. Its distribution among gnathostomes indicates it is a teleost synapomorphy, occurring homoplastically in Polypteriformes, whereas the loss of the true epibranchial 5 is an osteichthyan synapomorphy. The origin of the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 appears to have occurred twice in osteichthyans, but it may have a single origin; in this case, the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 would represent a remnant of a series of elements distally attached to ceratobranchials 1–4, a condition totally or partially retained in basal actinopterygians. Situations wherein a structure is lost while a similar neomorphic element is present may lead to erroneous homology assessments; these can be avoided by detailed morphological and

  9. Radiation Exposure Among Scrub Technologists and Nurse Circulators During Cardiac Catheterization: The Impact of Accessory Lead Shields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madder, Ryan D; LaCombe, Andrew; VanOosterhout, Stacie; Mulder, Abbey; Elmore, Matthew; Parker, Jessica L; Jacoby, Mark E; Wohns, David

    2017-10-25

    This study was performed to determine if the use of an accessory lead shield is associated with a reduction in radiation exposure among staff members during cardiac catheterization. Accessory lead shields that protect physicians from scatter radiation are standard in many catheterization laboratories, yet similar shielding for staff members is not commonplace. Real-time radiation exposure data were prospectively collected among nurses and technologists during 764 consecutive catheterizations. The study had 2 phases: in phase I (n = 401), standard radiation protection measures were used, and in phase II (n = 363), standard radiation protection measures were combined with an accessory lead shield placed between the staff member and patient. Radiation exposure was reported as the effective dose normalized to dose-area product (EDAP). Use of an accessory lead shield in phase II was associated with a 62.5% lower EDAP per case among technologists (phase I: 2.4 [4.3] μSv/[mGy × cm2] × 10-5; phase II: 0.9 [2.8] μSv/[mGy × cm2] × 10-5; p nurses (phase I: 1.1 [3.1] μSv/[mGy × cm2] × 10-5; phase II: 0.4 [1.8] μSv/[mGy × cm2] × 10-5; p nurses (36.4% reduction; 95% confidence interval: 19.7% to 49.6%; p nurses and technologists. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Classical torus conformal block, = 2∗ twisted superpotential and the accessory parameter of Lamé equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatek, Marcin

    2014-03-01

    In this work the correspondence between the semiclassical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory on the torus and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the = 2∗ (Ω-deformed) U(2) super-Yang-Mills theory is used to propose new formulae for the accessory parameter of the Lamé equation. This quantity is in particular crucial for solving the problem of uniformization of the one-punctured torus. The computation of the accessory parameters for torus and sphere is an open longstanding problem which can however be solved if one succeeds to derive an expression for the so-called classical Liouville action. The method of calculation of the latter has been proposed some time ago by Zamolod-chikov brothers. Studying the semiclassical limit of the four-point function of the quantum Liouville theory on the sphere they have derived the classical action for the Riemann sphere with four punctures. In the present work Zamolodchikovs idea is exploited in the case of the Liouville field theory on the torus. It is found that the Lamé accessory parameter is determined by the classical Liouville action on the one-punctured torus or more concretely by the torus classical block evaluated on the saddle point intermediate classical weight. Secondly, as an implication of the aforementioned correspondence it is obtained that the torus accessory parameter is related to the sum of all rescaled column lengths of the so-called "critical" Young diagrams extremizing the instanton "free energy" for the = 2∗ gauge theory. Finally, it is pointed out that thanks to the known relation the sum over the "critical" column lengths can be expressed in terms of a contour integral in which the integrand is built out of certain special functions.

  11. Stenosing Tenosynovitis of the Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Associated with the Plantar Capsular Accessory Ossicle at the Interphalangeal Joint of the Great Toe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Ho Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus tendon associated with the plantar capsular accessory ossicle at the interphalangeal joint of the great toe, which was confirmed by intraoperative observation and was successfully treated with surgical resection of the ossicle. As the plantar capsular accessory ossicle was not visible radiographically due to the lack of ossification, ultrasonography was helpful for diagnosing this disorder.

  12. Accessory minerals and subduction zone metasomatism: a geochemical comparison of two mélanges (Washington and California, U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Sorena S.; Grossman, Jeffrey N.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of a subducted slab or subducted sediment to contribute many incompatible trace elements to arc source regions may depend on the stabilities of accessory minerals within these rocks, which can only be studied indirectly. In contrast, the role of accessory minerals in lower-T and -P metasomatic processes within paleo-subduction zones can be studied directly in subduction-zone metamorphic terranes.

  13. Clinical results of a new strategy (modified CHIVA) for surgical treatment of anterior accessory great saphenous varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Fernández, Nicolás; Linares-Palomino, Jose Patricio; López-Espada, Cristina; Martínez-Gámez, Francisco Javier; Ros-Díe, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Traditionally, anterior accessory great saphenous vein insufficiency was managed by crossectomy and resection of varicose veins. The aim of this paper is to show the safety and efficacy of a new therapeutic strategy for anterior accessory great saphenous varicose veins. This non-randomised prospective study included 65 patients with varicose veins from the anterior accessory great saphenous vein. The novelty of the technique is to avoid the great saphenous vein crossectomy and perform just flebectomy of the visible veins. Venous duplex studies were performed preoperatively, a month and a year postoperatively. The clinical assessment was done by the Fligelstone scale. The baseline CEAP clinical classification was: 58% C2, 26% C3 and 15% C4-6. The new strategy was applied to all cases. 3 haematomas, 7 cases of asymptomatic partial anterior saphenous thrombosis. Reduction of the initial average diameter was from 6.4 mm anterior saphenous to 3.4 mm by one year (p <0.001). At twelve months a forward flow is maintained in 82% of cases. Recurrence of varicose veins was 8%. All patients improved their clinical status based on the Fligelstone scale. Cases with saphenous diameter bigger than 7.5 mm and obesity were identified as predictors of worse clinical and hemodynamic outcome. This modified surgical strategy for anterior saphenous varicose veins results in better clinical outcomes at one year postoperatively. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Posterior tibial tendoscopy: Description of an accessory proximal portal and assessment of tendon vascularization lesion according to portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussignol, X; Lagrave, B; Berthiaux, S; Duparc, F; Dujardin, F

    2013-03-01

    Posterior tibial tendoscopy was codified in 1997 by Van Dijck, who described a portal between 1.5 and 2cm proximally and distally to the tip of the medial malleolus. However, this approach does not allow proximal exploration of the posterior tibial tendon (PTT). We here describe an accessory portal 7cm proximal to the medial malleolus, enabling complete PTT exploration. Posterior tibial tendoscopy was performed on 12 cadaver specimens, mapping PTT exploration and vascularization. The accessory portal enabled the whole PTT to be explored, from the myotendinous junction to the entry into the retromalleolar groove. PTT observation quality was improved compared to using a submalleolar portal. Dissection confirmed systematic presence of a vincula on the posterior side of the tendon, connected to the flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon, containing collateral vessels of the posterior tibial artery. None of these elements were damaged by the tendoscopy as long and the scope and motorized instruments were not rotated on the posterior side of the supramalleolar part of the PTT. This accessory entry portal provides complete PTT exploration without the risk of neurovascular bundle lesion. Copyright © 2012 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fine needle aspiration cytologic diagnosis of axillary accessory breast tissue, including its physiologic changes and pathologic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, D K; Gupta, S K; Mathew, S V; Sheikh, Z A; al-Rabah, N A

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-nine cases of axillary accessory breast tissue, including its physiologic changes and pathologic lesions, were diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. The age of the patients ranged from 13 to 40 years, with a median of 25, and all were female. The cases presented with swellings in the left axilla in 16 cases, right axilla in 30 cases and both axillae in 23 cases. The common clinical diagnoses included accessory breast tissue (23.2%), lipomatous lesion (17.4%), lymphadenopathy (18.8%) and swellings not otherwise specified (30.4%). In 8.8% cases two of the possibilities were considered. The cytodiagnoses included axillary accessory breast tissue (47 cases), axillary breast tissue with pregnancy or lactational changes (15), cystic disease (4) and fibroadenoma (3). One of the cystic disease cases showed granulomatous inflammation. Although no case of carcinoma in axillary breast tissue was diagnosed during the study period, there were two cases of malignancy in axillary swellings (diagnosed as metastatic carcinoma) when no primary was detected in the breasts.

  16. Synergistic action of recombinant accessory hemicellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes to Trichoderma reesei cellulase on rice straw degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Bunterngsook, Benjarat; Suwannarangsee, Surisa; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Champreda, Verawat

    2015-12-01

    Synergism between core cellulases and accessory hydrolytic/non-hydrolytic enzymes is the basis of efficient hydrolysis of lignocelluloses. In this study, the synergistic action of three recombinant accessory enzymes, namely GH62 α-l-arabinofuranosidase (ARA), CE8 pectin esterase (PET), and GH10 endo-1,4-beta-xylanase (XYL) from Aspergillus aculeatus expressed in Pichia pastoris to a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase (Accellerase® 1500; ACR) on hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated rice straw was studied using a mixture design approach. Applying the full cubic model, the optimal ratio of quaternary enzyme mixture was predicted to be ACR:ARA:PET:XYL of 0.171:0.079:0.100:0.150, which showed a glucose releasing efficiency of 0.173 gglc/FPU, higher than the binary ACR:XYL mixture (0.122 gglc/FPU) and ACR alone (0.081 gglc/FPU) leading to a 47.3% increase in glucose yield compared with that from ACR at the same cellulase dosage. The result demonstrates the varying degree of synergism of accessory enzymes to cellulases useful for developing tailor-made enzyme systems for bio-industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Idiopathic ischemic necrosis of an accessory carpal bone in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Karen P; Langley-Hobbs, Sorrel J

    2013-12-15

    A 6-year-old neutered female mixed-breed dog was evaluated because of a 6-week history of left forelimb lameness that varied in severity. Radiography revealed expansile and lytic changes of the left accessory carpal bone (ACB). Results of histologic evaluation of ACB core biopsy specimens indicated areas of bone necrosis. The entire left ACB was excised and submitted for histologic evaluation; results confirmed a diagnosis of idiopathic ischemic necrosis. Left pancarpal arthrodesis was performed to treat carpal hyperextension and persistent lameness. The dog had an excellent functional outcome with no other problems related to the carpus until its death 4 years later, further decreasing suspicion that the problem was attributable to an undetected neoplasm or bacterial or fungal osteomyelitis. The radiographic and histologic findings for the dog of this report were similar to previously reported findings for dogs with ischemic femoral head necrosis and humans with ischemic carpal (pisiform or lunate bone) necrosis. The etiology of the ischemic ACB necrosis in this dog was not determined. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a dog with idiopathic ischemic ACB necrosis. Idiopathic ischemic necrosis should be included as a differential diagnosis for dogs with lameness and destructive and expansile ACB radiographic lesions. An excellent functional outcome may be attained by means of ACB excision and pancarpal arthrodesis.

  18. Citrinin as an accessory establishment factor of P. expansum for the colonization of apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touhami, Najim; Soukup, Sebastian T; Schmidt-Heydt, Markus; Kulling, Sabine E; Geisen, Rolf

    2018-02-02

    Penicillium expansum is the causal agent of blue mold decay of apples. This fungal species can produce the two important mycotoxins patulin and citrinin. It was previously shown that patulin represents a colonization factor for the infection of apples. No definitive information about the importance of citrinin for the colonization of apples is currently available. The pksCT gene of the citrinin cluster codes for the citrinin polyketide synthase. Mutants of P. expansum in which the pksCT was inactivated showed a drastic decrease in the citrinin production. In addition, the pksCT mutants were also reduced in the ability to colonize apples. Externally added citrinin restored the capacity of the mutants to colonize apples roughly to that of the wild type. A kinetic analysis of the expression of the two respective pks genes of patulin (patK) and citrinin (pksCT) revealed that both genes are highly expressed in the first phase during the colonization process. The production of patulin in the apple matrix coincides with the expression of the patK gene. Almost no citrinin could be identified analytically during the first phase but only at a later stage of the colonization. It could be demonstrated that citrinin is degraded in apples and can tightly be bound to pectin. Overall the results suggest that citrinin may have an accessory function for the establishment of the colonization guided by other factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spinal accessory nerve injury: A potentially missed cause of a painful, droopy shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Steven; Ross, Douglas C; Doherty, Timothy J; Doherty, Christopher D; Miller, Thomas A

    2016-11-21

    Spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury can be an overlooked cause of scapular winging and shoulder dysfunction. The most common etiology is iatrogenic injury following surgical procedures at the posterior triangle of the neck. We present three cases of isolated injury to the SAN following trauma. To improve detection of SAN injuries through highlighting the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment via three cases in which the injuries were initially missed. Clinical case series and narrative review. Three (3) patients were evaluated by history, physical exam and electrodiagnostic study (EMG). Clinical symptoms included, a painful, droopy shoulder and difficulties with overhead activities. Clinical signs included the observation of scapular winging, and focal atrophy of the trapezius and in some cases the sternocleidomastoid (SCM). Novel clinical signs such as the active elevation lag sign and triangle sign were also helpful clinically to highlight the SAN as the site of pathology. EMG revealed denervation and reduced motor unit recruitment in the trapezius and SCM. Early detection of SAN injuries can be improved through appropriate clinical suspicion, a detailed history and careful physical exam. EMG testing can help guide prognosis, direct conservative and surgical treatment, and reduce patient morbidity.

  20. The "hidden" concealed left-sided accessory pathway: An uncommon cause of SVT in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Robert H; Liberman, Leonardo; Silver, Eric S; Janson, Christopher M; Blaufox, Andrew D; Nappo, Lynn; Ceresnak, Scott R

    2018-01-12

    Concealed left-sided accessory pathways (CLAP) are a cause of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in the young. Most are mapped with right ventricular (RV) apical/outflow pacing. Rarely, alternative means of mapping are required. We review our experience from three pediatric electrophysiology (EP) centers with a rare form of "hidden" CLAP. All patients SVT and one AFIB (4%). APs were adenosine sensitive in 7/20 patients (35%) and VA conduction was decremental in six (26%). CLAP conduction was demonstrable with orthodromic reentrant tachycardia in all patients, with RV extrastimulus testing in seven (30%) and with rapid RV pacing (

  1. Epithelioid Myoepithelioma of the Accessory Parotid Gland: Pathological and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyoshi Iguchi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumors of the accessory parotid gland (APG are rare, and pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common benign APG tumor subtype. Myoepithelioma of the APG is much rarer than PA, and to date, only 5 cases have been sporadically reported in the English literature. We describe the clinicopathological and MRI findings of an epithelioid myoepithelioma of the APG that was treated in our hospital. The patient's only clinical symptom was a slow-growing and painless mid-cheek mass. The tumor was suspected to be PA before surgery based on the following MRI findings: (1 a well-circumscribed and lobulated contour, (2 isointensity and hyperintensity relative to the muscle on T1- and T2-weighted images (WIs, respectively, (3 good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-WIs, (4 peripheral hypointensity on T2-WIs, and (5 a gradual time-signal intensity curve enhancement pattern on gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI. The tumor was completely resected via a standard parotidectomy approach, and the postoperative pathological examination of the tumor, including immunohistochemistry, confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid myoepithelioma. As it is hardly possible to distinguish myoepithelioma from PA and low-grade malignant tumors preoperatively, a pathological examination using frozen sections is helpful for surgical strategy-related decisions.

  2. Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 accessory proteins that suppress beta interferon production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Kenji; Gotoh, Bin

    2007-07-01

    The paramyxovirus P gene encodes accessory proteins antagonistic to interferon (IFN). Viral proteins responsible for the IFN antagonism, however, are distinct among paramyxoviruses. Here we determine bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bPIV3) IFN antagonists that suppress IFN-beta production, and investigate the underlying molecular mechanism. Of bPIV3 P gene products, C and V proteins were found to suppress double-stranded RNA-stimulated IFN-beta production. The V protein of bPIV3 and Sendai virus in the same genus Respirovirus significantly inhibits double-stranded RNA-stimulated IFN-beta production and the IFN-beta promoter activation enhanced by overexpression of MDA5 but not RIG-I, and yet does not suppress IFN-beta production induced by TRIF, TBK1, and IKKi. The V protein of both viruses specifically binds to MDA5 but not RIG-I. These results suggest that the V protein targets MDA5 for blockage of the IFN-beta gene activation signal. On the other hand, both bPIV3 and Sendai virus C proteins modestly inhibited IFN-beta production irrespective of a species of the signaling molecules used as an inducer. Interestingly, reporter gene expression driven by various promoters was also suppressed by the C proteins irrespective of the promoter species. These results demonstrate that the target of the respirovirus C protein is undoubtedly different from that of the V protein.

  3. Encountering the Accessory Polar Renal Artery during Laparoscopic Para-Aortic Lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Moo; Choi, Joong Sub; Bae, Jaeman; Jung, Un Suk; Eom, Jeong Min

    2017-03-24

    A 60-year-old Korean woman underwent laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and was confirmed to have high-grade serous carcinoma of both ovaries with a huge omental cake, extensive agglutinated intra-abdominal metastatic masses, extensive serosa invasion of the intestines, and mesenterial deposits. She underwent 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by laparoscopic interval debulking surgery, including hysterectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy, appendectomy, partial peritonectomy, and omentectomy. We encountered the right accessory polar renal artery (APRA) during the surgery and carefully preserved the right APRA from the abdominal aorta to the right kidney (Fig. 1). Postoperative computed tomography angiography showed an intact right APRA and normal-appearing kidney (Fig. 2). The patient had adjuvant chemotherapy and is alive without disease recurrence. Because APRA is a functional end artery, it is important to preserve it during surgery to prevent ischemic damage and renal failure [1]. It is very important for the gynecologic-oncologist to have knowledge of the retroperitoneal vascular anatomy, experience in laparoscopic surgery, and an accurate surgical technique to avoid vascular injury during laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Activity Dependent Modulation of Granule Cell Survival in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb at Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboti, Livio; Trova, Sara; Schellino, Roberta; Marraudino, Marilena; Harris, Natalie R; Abiona, Olubukola M; Stampar, Mojca; Lin, Weihong; Peretto, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The vomeronasal system (VNS) is specialized in the detection of salient chemical cues triggering social and neuroendocrine responses. Such responses are not always stereotyped, instead, they vary depending on age, sex, and reproductive state, yet the mechanisms underlying this variability are unclear. Here, by analyzing neuronal survival in the first processing nucleus of the VNS, namely the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), through multiple bromodeoxyuridine birthdating protocols, we show that exposure of female mice to male soiled bedding material affects the integration of newborn granule interneurons mainly after puberty. This effect is induced by urine compounds produced by mature males, as bedding soiled by younger males was ineffective. The granule cell increase induced by mature male odor exposure is not prevented by pre-pubertal ovariectomy, indicating a lesser role of circulating estrogens in this plasticity. Interestingly, the intake of adult male urine-derived cues by the female vomeronasal organ increases during puberty, suggesting a direct correlation between sensory activity and AOB neuronal plasticity. Thus, as odor exposure increases the responses of newly born cells to the experienced stimuli, the addition of new GABAergic inhibitory cells to the AOB might contribute to the shaping of vomeronasal processing of male cues after puberty. Consistently, only after puberty, female mice are capable to discriminate individual male odors through the VNS.

  5. Accessory Gene Regulator-1 Locus Is Essential for Virulence and Pathogenesis of Clostridium difficile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Darkoh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is responsible for most of the definable cases of antibiotic- and hospital-associated diarrhea worldwide and is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in older patients. C. difficile, a multidrug-resistant anaerobic pathogen, causes disease by producing toxins A and B, which are controlled by an accessory gene regulator (Agr quorum signaling system. Some C. difficile strains encode two Agr loci in their genomes, designated agr1 and agr2. The agr1 locus is present in all of the C. difficile strains sequenced to date, whereas the agr2 locus is present in a few strains. The functional roles of agr1 and agr2 in C. difficile toxin regulation and pathogenesis were unknown until now. Using allelic exchange, we deleted components of both agr loci and examined the mutants for toxin production and virulence. The results showed that the agr1 mutant cannot produce toxins A and B; toxin production can be restored by complementation with wild-type agr1. Furthermore, the agr1 mutant is able to colonize but unable to cause disease in a murine CDI model. These findings have profound implications for CDI treatment because we have uncovered a promising therapeutic target for the development of nonantibiotic drugs to treat this life-threatening emerging pathogen by targeting the toxins directly responsible for disease.

  6. Antegrade and Retrograde Decremental Conduction Properties of an Accessory Pathway Associated with the Coronary Sinus Musculature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohki Nakamura, MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man underwent catheter ablation of an orthodromic atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia. The sinus rhythm electrocardiogram exhibited a normal PQ interval and no delta waves, but atrial pacing produced a prolonged PQ interval and wide QRS morphology with right bundle-branch block due to antegrade accessory pathway (AP conduction. During the tachycardia, atrial double potentials consisting of the coronary sinus musculature (CSM and left atrial (LA potentials were observed. Ventricular extrastimulation exhibited retrograde decremental conduction with an identical atrial activation sequence as during the tachycardia. A radiofrequency application within the posterolateral CS during ventricular pacing eliminated the CSM-LA conduction and concomitantly the ventriculoatrial conduction via the AP was abolished. In this case, the CSM was associated with the bidirectional decremental conduction properties of the AP, and the antegrade slow conduction resulted in the absence of a shortening of the PQ interval and delta waves during sinus rhythm despite the continuous presence of antegrade AP conduction.

  7. Selenophosphate synthetase in the male accessory glands of an insect without selenoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuessl, Marion; Reinders, Jörg; Oefner, Peter J; Heinze, Jürgen; Schrempf, Alexandra

    2014-12-01

    Selenoproteins (containing the 21st proteinogenic amino acid selenocysteine) play important roles throughout all domains of life. Surprisingly, a number of taxa have small selenoproteomes, and Hymenopteran insects appear to have fully lost selenoproteins. Nevertheless, their genomes contain genes for several proteins of the selenocysteine insertion machinery, including selenophosphate synthetase 1 (SELD/SPS1). At present, it is unknown whether this enzyme has a selenoprotein-independent function, and whether the gene is actually translated into a protein in Hymenoptera. Here, we report that SELD/SPS1 is present as a protein in the accessory glands of males of the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior. It appears to be more abundant in the glands of winged disperser males than in those of wingless, local fighter males. Mating increases the lifespan and fecundity of queens in C. obscurior, and mating with winged males has a stronger effect on queen fitness than mating with a wingless male. SELD/SPS 1 has been suggested to play an important role in oxidative stress defense, and might therefore be involved in the life-prolonging effect of mating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of accessory ostia on maxillary sinus ventilation: a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian Hua; Lee, Heow Pueh; Lim, Kian Meng; Gordon, Bruce R; Wang, De Yun

    2012-08-15

    We evaluated, by CFD simulation, effects of accessory ostium (AO) on maxillary sinus ventilation. A three-dimensional nasal model was constructed from an adult CT scan with two left maxillary AOs (sinus I) and one right AO (sinus II), then compared to an identical control model with all AOs sealed (sinuses III and IV). Transient simulations of quiet inspiration and expiration at 15 L/min, and nasal blow at 48 L/min, were calculated for both models using low-Reynolds-number turbulent analysis. At low flows, ventilation rates in sinuses with AOs (I ≈ 0.46 L/min, II ≈ 0.54 L/min), were both more than a magnitude higher than sinuses without AOs (II I ≈ 0.019 L/min, IV ≈ 0.020 L/min). Absence of AO almost completely prevented sinus ventilation. Increased ventilation of sinuses with AOs is complex. Under high flow conditions mimicking nose blowing, in sinuses II, III, and IV, the sinus flow rate increased. In contrast, the airflow direction through sinus I reversed between inspiration and expiration, while it remained almost constant throughout the respiration cycle in sinus II. CFD simulation demonstrated that AOs markedly increase maxillary sinus airflow rates and alter sinus air circulation patterns. Whether these airflow changes impact maxillary sinus physiology or pathophysiology is unknown. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nodoventricular accessory pathways in PRKAG2-dependent familial preexcitation syndrome reveal a disorder in cardiac development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hanno L; van der Wal, Allard C; Campian, Maria E; Kruyswijk, Hittjo H; ten Hove Jansen, Bram; van Doorn, Dirk-Jan; Oskam, Henk J; Becker, Anton E; Wilde, Arthur A M

    2008-10-01

    Familial preexcitation syndrome is linked to mutations in PRKAG2. Previous studies on the R302Q mutation have provided evidence for a remarkably high proportion of otherwise rare accessory pathways with atrioventricular (AV) node-like conduction properties (Mahaim fibers). Yet, histopathologic proof is still lacking. We aimed to provide such proof. We retrospectively studied the medical records of 17 members of a 5-generation family. Five subjects died prematurely. The R302Q mutation was found in 8 living subjects and 2 deceased subjects (obligate carriers). Cardiac hypertrophy was found in 7 mutation carriers. ECGs compatible with preexcitation were found in 13 subjects and AV block at varying degrees in 5 subjects. All mutation carriers had electrocardiographic evidence of preexcitation, AV block, or both. Three individuals had high-grade AV block with preexcited conducted beats. Electrophysiological studies in 3 individuals revealed bypasses with AV node-like properties. Histopathologic studies of 1 suddenly deceased mutation carrier revealed concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle with extensive myocardial disarray associated with slight interstitial fibrosis but no lysosomal-bound glycogen. Moreover, there were 3 small nodoventricular tracts (Mahaim fibers) passing through the central fibrous body and connecting the AV node with the working myocardium of the interventricular septum. Preexcitation associated with the R302Q mutation in PRKAG2 is associated with Mahaim fibers. These findings support the novel insight that PRKAG2 may be involved in the development of the cardiac conduction system.

  10. Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita A Condorelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2; specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m. age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34-47 years were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients. The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05; moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05. Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05 in group A compared with group B.

  11. Accessory atlantoaxial ligament avulsion fracture of the axis: Are there any clinical implications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Niknejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to the craniocervical support structures are frequently observed in neurotrauma cases. Stability of this region is of vital importance. Literature has mainly focused on three major ligaments of the craniocervical junction: The tectorial membrane, the transverse ligament, and the alar ligaments. However, the accessory atlantoaxial ligament (ALL also seems to be involved in craniocervical stability as shown in cadaveric specimens. Still, the biomechanical importance of this structure needs to be determined, especially in trauma settings. Here, we describe a case of isolated traumatic injury to this structure and discuss the clinical outcome. A 64 year old polytrauma patient with a remarkable avulsion fracture at the site of the insertion of the ALL was admitted to our center. We evaluated the patient both clinical and radiological at admission, after 3 months and after 1 year. We clinically assessed the upper cervical rotational stability using the cervical flexion rotation test. We observed no rotational instability or any other clinical repercussions at the long term after an isolated ALL injury. This case shows that isolated traumatic damage to the ALL is possible. Unilateral damage to the ALL probably does not cause rotational instability of the craniocervical junction. In case a similar avulsion fracture is observed, we recommend performing a magnetic resonance imaging of the craniovertebral region to assess for any ligamentous lesions.

  12. Does breathing type influence electromyographic activity of obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, M F; Valenzuela, S; Miralles, R; Portus, C; Santander, H; Fuentes, A D; Celhay, I

    2014-11-01

    Craniomandibular electromyographic (EMG) studies frequently include several parameters, e.g. resting, chewing and tooth-clenching. EMG activity during these parameters has been recorded in the elevator muscles, but little is known about the respiratory muscles. The aim of this study was to compare EMG activity in obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles between subjects with different breathing types. Forty male subjects were classified according to their breathing type into two groups of 20 each: costo-diaphragmatic breathing type and upper costal breathing type. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm, external intercostal and latissimus dorsi muscles. EMG activity was recorded during the following tasks: (i) normal quiet breathing, (ii) maximal voluntary clenching in intercuspal position, (iii) natural rate chewing until swallowing threshold, (iv) short-time chewing. Diaphragm EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal breathing type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in all tasks (P type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in tasks 3 and 4 (P types in the tasks studied (P > 0·05). The significantly higher EMG activity observed in subjects with upper costal breathing than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type suggests that there could be differences in motor unit recruitment strategies depending on the breathing type. This may be an expression of the adaptive capability of muscle chains in subjects who clinically have a different thoraco-abdominal expansion during inspiration at rest. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Brain-specific interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein in sleep regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taishi, Ping; Davis, Christopher J; Bayomy, Omar; Zielinski, Mark R; Liao, Fan; Clinton, James M; Smith, Dirk E; Krueger, James M

    2012-03-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1β is involved in several brain functions, including sleep regulation. It promotes non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep via the IL-1 type I receptor. IL-1β/IL-1 receptor complex signaling requires adaptor proteins, e.g., the IL-1 receptor brain-specific accessory protein (AcPb). We have cloned and characterized rat AcPb, which shares substantial homologies with mouse AcPb and, compared with AcP, is preferentially expressed in the brain. Furthermore, rat somatosensory cortex AcPb mRNA varied across the day with sleep propensity, increased after sleep deprivation, and was induced by somnogenic doses of IL-1β. Duration of NREM sleep was slightly shorter and duration of REM sleep was slightly longer in AcPb knockout than wild-type mice. In response to lipopolysaccharide, which is used to induce IL-1β, sleep responses were exaggerated in AcPb knockout mice, suggesting that, in normal mice, inflammation-mediated sleep responses are attenuated by AcPb. We conclude that AcPb has a role in sleep responses to inflammatory stimuli and, possibly, in physiological sleep regulation.

  14. Estimation of Phytoplankton Accessory Pigments From Hyperspectral Reflectance Spectra: Toward a Global Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, A. P.; Boss, E.; Cetinić, I.; Slade, W.

    2017-12-01

    Phytoplankton community composition in the ocean is complex and highly variable over a wide range of space and time scales. Able to cover these scales, remote-sensing reflectance spectra can be measured both by satellite and by in situ radiometers. The spectral shape of reflectance in the open ocean is influenced by the particles in the water, mainly phytoplankton and covarying nonalgal particles. We investigate the utility of in situ hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance measurements to detect phytoplankton pigments by using an inversion algorithm that defines phytoplankton pigment absorption as a sum of Gaussian functions. The inverted amplitudes of the Gaussian functions representing pigment absorption are compared to coincident High Performance Liquid Chromatography measurements of pigment concentration. We determined strong predictive capability for chlorophylls a, b, c1+c2, and the photoprotective carotenoids. We also tested the estimation of pigment concentrations from reflectance-derived chlorophyll a using global relationships of covariation between chlorophyll a and the accessory pigments. We found similar errors in pigment estimation based on the relationships of covariation versus the inversion algorithm. An investigation of spectral residuals in reflectance data after removal of chlorophyll-based average absorption spectra showed no strong relationship between spectral residuals and pigments. Ultimately, we are able to estimate concentrations of three chlorophylls and the photoprotective carotenoid pigments, noting that further work is necessary to address the challenge of extracting information from hyperspectral reflectance beyond the information that can be determined from chlorophyll a and its covariation with other pigments.

  15. Mechanisms and clinical significance of adenosine-induced dormant accessory pathway conduction after catheter ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotnitz, Michelle D; Markowitz, Steven M; Liu, Christopher F; Thomas, George; Ip, James E; Liez, Joshua; Lerman, Bruce B; Cheung, Jim W

    2014-12-01

    Adenosine can unmask dormant pulmonary vein conduction after isolation. The role of adenosine in uncovering dormant accessory pathway (AP) conduction after AP ablation is unknown. We evaluated 109 consecutive patients (age, 41 ± 28 years; 62 [57%] men) who were administered adenosine after successful AP ablation. Dormant AP conduction was defined as adenosine-induced recurrent AP conduction, as demonstrated by recurrent preexcitation or change in retrograde ventriculoatrial activation patterns. Dormant AP conduction was identified in 13 (12%) patients. Adenosine led to transient retrograde AP conduction in 6 patients and transient anterograde AP conduction in 8 patients. In all these cases, adenosine-induced AP conduction occurred during the bradycardia phase of adenosine effect and resulted in dormant AP conduction times shorter than atrioventricular nodal conduction times before adenosine administration. On the basis of analysis of timing of occurrence of dormant AP conduction, the mechanism of adenosine-induced AP conduction was determined to be caused by AP excitability recovery in ≥ 12 (92%) cases. The presence of dormant AP conduction was a significant predictor of chronic recurrent AP conduction requiring repeat ablation (odds ratio, 8.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-66.9; P=0.041). Adenosine can unmask dormant AP conduction after catheter ablation. Direct effects of adenosine on the AP, possibly via AP membrane potential hyperpolarization, are the dominant mechanism of adenosine-induced AP conduction after ablation. Dormant AP conduction is associated with higher rates of recurrent AP conduction requiring repeat ablation. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. The Vif accessory protein alters the cell cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangfang; Shackelford, Jason M; Casella, Carolyn R; Shivers, Debra K; Rapaport, Eric L; Liu, Bindong; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Finkel, Terri H

    2007-03-15

    The viral infectivity factor gene (vif) of HIV-1 increases the infectivity of viral particles by inactivation of cellular anti-viral factors, and supports productive viral replication in primary human CD4 T cells and in certain non-permissive T cell lines. Here, we demonstrate that Vif also contributes to the arrest of HIV-1 infected cells in the G(2) phase of the cell cycle. Viruses deleted in Vif or Vpr induce less cell cycle arrest than wild-type virus, while cells infected with HIV-1 deleted in both Vif and Vpr have a cell cycle profile equivalent to that of uninfected cells. Furthermore, expression of Vif alone induces accumulation of cells in the G(2) phase of the cell cycle. These data demonstrate a novel role for Vif in cell cycle regulation and suggest that Vif and Vpr independently drive G(2) arrest in HIV-1 infected cells. Our results may have implications for the actions and interactions of key HIV-1 accessory proteins in AIDS pathogenesis.

  17. Prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in patients with male accessory gland infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vignera, S; Vicari, E; Condorelli, R A; Franchina, C; Scalia, G; Morgia, G; Perino, A; Schillaci, R; Calogero, A E

    2015-04-01

    The frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the semen of patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI) was evaluated. One hundred infertile patients with MAGI were classified into group A: patients with an inflammatory MAGI (n = 48) and group B: patients with a microbial form (n = 52). Healthy age-matched fertile men (34.0 ± 4.0 years) made up the control group (n = 20). Amplification of HPV DNA was carried out by HPV-HS Bio nested polymerase chain reaction for the detection of HPV DNA sequences within the L1 ORF. Ten patients in group A (20.8%) and 15 patients in group B (28.8%) had a HPV infection; two controls (10.0%) had HPV infection. Patients with MAGI had a significantly higher frequency of HPV infection compared with controls; patients with a microbial MAGI had significantly higher frequency of HPV infection compared with patients with an inflammatory form (both P HPV had a slight, but significantly lower sperm progressive motility and normal morphology compared with patients with MAGI HPV-negative (P HPV infection occurred in patients with MAGI, suggesting that HPV should be investigated in the diagnostic work-up of these patients. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prolonged Intracellular Na+ Dynamics Govern Electrical Activity in Accessory Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaph Zylbertal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent activity has been reported in many brain areas and is hypothesized to mediate working memory and emotional brain states and to rely upon network or biophysical feedback. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which persistent neuronal activity can be generated without feedback, relying instead on the slow removal of Na+ from neurons following bursts of activity. We show that mitral cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, which plays a major role in mammalian social behavior, may respond to a brief sensory stimulation with persistent firing. By combining electrical recordings, Ca2+ and Na+ imaging, and realistic computational modeling, we explored the mechanisms underlying the persistent activity in AOB mitral cells. We found that the exceptionally slow inward current that underlies this activity is governed by prolonged dynamics of intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i, which affects neuronal electrical activity via several pathways. Specifically, elevated dendritic [Na+]i reverses the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger activity, thus modifying the [Ca2+]i set-point. This process, which relies on ubiquitous membrane mechanisms, is likely to play a role in other neuronal types in various brain regions.

  19. Single-dose monomeric HA subunit vaccine generates full protection from influenza challenge

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mallajosyula, JK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant subunit vaccines are an efficient strategy to meet the demands of a possible influenza pandemic, because of rapid and scalable production. However, vaccines made from recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) subunit protein are often of low...

  20. Membrane invagination induced by Shiga toxin B-subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pezeshkian, W.; Hansen, Allan Grønhøj; Johannes, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial Shiga toxin is composed of an enzymatically active A-subunit, and a receptor-binding homopentameric B-subunit (STxB) that mediates intracellular toxin trafficking. Upon STxB-mediated binding to the glycolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) at the plasma membrane of target cells, Shiga...... toxin is internalized by clathrin-dependent and independent endocytosis. The formation of tubular membrane invaginations is an essential step in the clathrin-independent STxB uptake process. However, the mechanism by which STxB induces these invaginations has remained unclear. Using a combination of all...... toxin molecules then creates a tubular membrane invagination that drives toxin entry into the cell. This mechanism requires: (1) a precise molecular architecture of the STxB binding sites; (2) a fluid bilayer in order for the tubular invagination to form. Although, STxB binding to the membrane requires...

  1. Mapping of the Mouse Actin Capping Protein Beta Subunit Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper John A

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Capping protein (CP, a heterodimer of α and β subunits, is found in all eukaryotes. CP binds to the barbed ends of actin filaments in vitro and controls actin assembly and cell motility in vivo. Vertebrates have three isoforms of CPβ produced by alternatively splicing from one gene; lower organisms have one gene and one isoform. Results We isolated genomic clones corresponding to the β subunit of mouse CP and identified its chromosomal location by interspecies backcross mapping. Conclusions The CPβ gene (Cappb1 mapped to Chromosome 4 between Cdc42 and D4Mit312. Three mouse mutations, snubnose, curly tail, and cribriform degeneration, map in the vicinity of the β gene.

  2. Testing experimental subunit furunculosis vaccines for rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, Moonika H.; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (AS) is the etiological agent of typical furunculosis in salmonid fish. The disease causes bacterial septicemia and is a major fish health problem in salmonid aquaculture worldwide, inducing high morbidity and mortality. In this study we vaccinated rainbow...... trout with subunit vaccines containing protein antigens that were selected based on an in silico antigen discovery approach. Thus, the proteome of AS strain A449 was analyzed by an antigen discovery platform and its proteins consequently ranked by their predicted ability to evoke protective immune...... response against AS. Fourteen proteins were prepared in 3 different experimental subunit vaccine combinations and used to vaccinate rainbow trout by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. We tested the proteins for their ability to elicit antibody production and protection. Thus, fish were exposed to virulent...

  3. Screening for AMPA receptor auxiliary subunit specific modulators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleigh M Azumaya

    Full Text Available AMPA receptors (AMPAR are ligand gated ion channels critical for synaptic transmission and plasticity. Their dysfunction is implicated in a variety of psychiatric and neurological diseases ranging from major depressive disorder to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Attempting to potentiate or depress AMPAR activity is an inherently difficult balancing act between effective treatments and debilitating side effects. A newly explored strategy to target subsets of AMPARs in the central nervous system is to identify compounds that affect specific AMPAR-auxiliary subunit complexes. This exploits diverse spatio-temporal expression patterns of known AMPAR auxiliary subunits, providing means for designing brain region-selective compounds. Here we report a high-throughput screening-based pipeline that can identify compounds that are selective for GluA2-CNIH3 and GluA2-stargazin complexes. These compounds will help us build upon the growing library of AMPAR-auxiliary subunit specific inhibitors, which have thus far all been targeted to TARP γ-8. We used a cell-based assay combined with a voltage-sensitive dye (VSD to identify changes in glutamate-gated cation flow across the membranes of HEK cells co-expressing GluA2 and an auxiliary subunit. We then used a calcium flux assay to further validate hits picked from the VSD assay. VU0612951 and VU0627849 are candidate compounds from the initial screen that were identified as negative and positive allosteric modulators (NAM and PAM, respectively. They both have lower IC50/EC50s on complexes containing stargazin and CNIH3 than GSG1L or the AMPAR alone. We have also identified a candidate compound, VU0539491, that has NAM activity in GluA2(R-CNIH3 and GluA2(Q complexes and PAM activity in GluA2(Q-GSG1L complexes.

  4. Chloroflexus aurantiacus has 30S ribosomal subunits of the eubacterial type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, E; Pierson, B K; Lake, J A

    1983-01-01

    Ribosomal subunits from Chloroflexus aurantiacus were isolated and examined by sucrose gradient sedimentation, gel electrophoresis, and electron microscopy. The 30S subunits had all the characteristic structural features of other eubacterial 30S subunits. The data support the proposal that the absence of the archaebacterial bill is a valid phylogenetic marker of the eubacterial lineage. Images PMID:6348030

  5. Chloroflexus aurantiacus has 30S ribosomal subunits of the eubacterial type.

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, E; Pierson, B. K.; Lake, J A

    1983-01-01

    Ribosomal subunits from Chloroflexus aurantiacus were isolated and examined by sucrose gradient sedimentation, gel electrophoresis, and electron microscopy. The 30S subunits had all the characteristic structural features of other eubacterial 30S subunits. The data support the proposal that the absence of the archaebacterial bill is a valid phylogenetic marker of the eubacterial lineage.

  6. Long-term clinical outcomes of spinal accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve in patients with brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Alijani, Babak; Andalib, Sasan

    2016-09-01

    For the reconstruction of brachial plexus lesions, restoration of elbow flexion and shoulder function is fundamental and is achieved by dual nerve transfers. Shoulder stabilization and movement are crucial in freedom of motion of the upper extremity. In patients with C5-C6 brachial plexus injury, spinal accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve and a fascicle of ulnar nerve to musculocutaneous nerve (dual nerve transfer) are carried out for restoration of shoulder abduction and elbow flexion, respectively. In the present study, we evaluated the long-term clinical outcomes of spinal accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve for restoration of shoulder abduction in patients with brachial plexus palsy undergoing a dual nerve transfer. In the present retrospective review, 22 consecutive subjects with upper brachial plexus palsy were assessed. All of the subjects underwent spinal accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve and a dual nerve transfer from the ulnar nerve to the biceps branch and from the median nerve to the brachialis branch of the musculocutaneous nerve simultaneously. All of the subjects were followed up for 18 to 24 months (average, 21.7 months) for assessing the recovery of the shoulder abduction and motor function. Spinal accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve showed a motor function recovery of M3 and M4 in 13.6 and 63.6% of the subjects, respectively. However, 22.7 % of the subjects remained with a motor function of M2. The mean of shoulder abduction reached 55.55 ± 9.95° (range, 40-72°). Altogether, good functional results regained in 17 out of 22 the subjects (77.2 %). Linear regression analysis showed that advanced age was a predictor of low motor functional grade. The evidence from the present study suggests that transferring spinal accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve for restoring shoulder abduction is an effective and reliable treatment with high success rate in patients with brachial

  7. Restoration of the orbital aesthetic subunit in complex midface defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepeha, Douglas B; Wang, Steven J; Marentette, Lawrence J; Bradford, Carol R; Boyd, Charles M; Prince, Mark E; Teknos, Theodoros N

    2004-10-01

    Although various options exist for restoration of the orbital defect in complex craniofacial resections, the aesthetic appearance and functional result of the orbit are optimized when the bony orbital architecture, orbital volume, and facial contour are specifically addressed. The study describes an approach using free tissue transfer for restoration of the native orbital aesthetic subunit. Retrospective case series. Nineteen patients (male-to-female ratio, 14:5; mean age, 52 y [age range, 8-79 y]) in the study period between 1997 and 2001 had orbital defects that could be classified into one of the following categories: 1) orbital exenteration cavities only, 2) orbital exenteration cavities with resection of less than 30% of the bony orbital rim, or 3) radical orbital exenteration cavities with resection of overlying skin and bony malar eminence. Group 1 had reconstructions with fasciocutaneous forearm flaps; group 2, with osseocutaneous forearm flaps; and group 3, with osseocutaneous scapula flaps. Eighteen of 19 patients achieved a closed orbital reconstruction with restoration of the orbital aesthetic subunit. Among 16 patients with more than 4 months of follow-up, 10 patients had minimal or no resulting facial contour deformity and 8 patients engaged in social activities outside the home on a frequent basis. Five of the nine patients who were working before their surgery were able to return to work. Patients with complex midface defects involving the orbit can undergo free tissue transfer and have successful restoration of the native orbital aesthetic subunit without an orbital prosthesis.

  8. Covalent dimerization of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase subunits by UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R M; Franco, E; Teixeira, A R

    1996-08-15

    The effect of UV radiation (UV-A, UV-B and UV-C) on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from a variety of plant species was examined. The exposition of plant leaves or the pure enzyme to UV radiation produced a UV-dependent accumulation of a +5 kDa polypeptide (P65). Different approaches were utilized to elucidate the origin and structure of P65: electrophoretic and fluorographic analyses of 35S-labelled ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase exposed to UV radiation and immunological experiments using antibodies specific for P65, for the large and small subunits of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and for high-molecular-mass aggregates of the enzyme. These studies revealed that P65 is a dimer, formed by the covalent, non-disulphide linkage of one small subunit with one large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. For short periods of time (extracts. However, the UV-dependent and the UV-independent formation of P65 seemed to occur by distinct molecular mechanisms. The UV-dependent accumulation of P65 was immunologically detected in all species examined, including Lemna minor, Arum italicum, Brassica oleracea, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris, suggesting that it may constitute a universal response to UV radiation, common to all photo-synthetic tissues.

  9. Catheter-induced mechanical conduction block of right-sided accessory fibers with Mahaim-type preexcitation to guide radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappato, R; Schlüter, M; Weiss, C; Siebels, J; Hebe, J; Duckeck, W; Mletzko, R U; Kuck, K H

    1994-07-01

    Accessory pathways originating at the tricuspid annulus that exhibit decremental antegrade conduction properties (Mahaim-type preexcitation) are amenable to radiofrequency (RF) current catheter ablation. However, a reliable and reproducible strategy for mapping and ablation of these fibers is lacking. Eleven patients with preexcited atrioventricular tachycardia involving a decrementally conducting antegrade accessory pathway underwent complete electrophysiological evaluation and subsequent attempts at RF catheter ablation. Mechanical conduction block at the subannular level of the atrial input to the accessory fiber was induced by catheter manipulation in 8 patients, in 2 of them during atrial fibrillation. RF current was delivered, after resumption of preexcitation, to the site of mechanical block during atrial pacing (n = 6) or atrial fibrillation (n = 2) and eliminated the accessory pathway in all 8 patients. In another patient, mechanical block was not observed, but ablation of the atrial accessory fiber insertion was achieved at the subannular level during atrioventricular tachycardia. The anatomic site of ablation along the tricuspid annulus was anterolateral (n = 1), lateral (n = 3), or posterolateral (n = 5). Failures were encountered in the first patient of the series in whom ablation attempts were directed at the ventricular insertion of the accessory fiber and in a patient in whom ablation of the atrial insertion was attempted at the supraannular level. Recurrence of preexcitation within 12 hours was observed in 5 of 6 patients in whom ablation had been achieved during atrial pacing. Eventually successful repeat sessions were performed the following day using a simplified ablation approach. Thus, a median of 5 RF pulses (range, 1 to 26) per accessory fiber eliminated conduction in 9 (82%) of the 11 patients in 1.9 +/- 0.9 sessions. During a follow-up of 9.5 +/- 2.3 months, preexcitation recurred in 1 patient. The atrial origin of accessory connections

  10. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy ePortillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB and main (MOB olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 days after females control (paced the sexual interaction an increase in the number of cells is observed in the AOB. No changes are observed in the number of cells when females are not allowed to control the sexual interaction. In the present study we investigated if in male rats sexual behavior increases the number of new cells in the OB. Male rats were divided in five groups: 1 males that did not receive any sexual stimulation, 2 males that were exposed to female odors, 3 males that mated for 1 h and could not pace their sexual interaction, 4 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 1 time and 5 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 3 times. All males received three injections of the DNA synthesis marker bromodeoxyuridine at 1h intervals, starting 1h before the beginning of the behavioral test. Fifteen days later, males were sacrificed and the brains were processed to identify new cells and to evaluate if they differentiated into neurons. The number of newborn cells increased in the granular cell layer (also known as the internal cell layer of the AOB in males that ejaculated one or three times controlling (paced the rate of the sexual interaction. Some of these new cells were identified as neurons. In contrast, no significant differences were found in the mitral cell layer (also known as the external cell layer and glomerular cell layer of the AOB. In addition, no significant differences were found between groups in the MOB in

  11. The accessory role of the diaphragmaticus muscle in lung ventilation in the estuarine crocodile Crocodylus porosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Suzanne L; Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Andrewartha, Sarah J; Frappell, Peter B

    2012-03-01

    Crocodilians use a combination of three muscular mechanisms to effect lung ventilation: the intercostal muscles producing thoracic movement, the abdominal muscles producing pelvic rotation and gastralial translation, and the diaphragmaticus muscle producing visceral displacement. Earlier studies suggested that the diaphragmaticus is a primary muscle of inspiration in crocodilians, but direct measurements of the diaphragmatic contribution to lung ventilation and gas exchange have not been made to date. In this study, ventilation, metabolic rate and arterial blood gases were measured from juvenile estuarine crocodiles under three conditions: (i) while resting at 30°C and 20°C; (ii) while breathing hypercapnic gases; and (iii) during immediate recovery from treadmill exercise. The relative contribution of the diaphragmaticus was then determined by obtaining measurements before and after transection of the muscle. The diaphragmaticus was found to make only a limited contribution to lung ventilation while crocodiles were resting at 30°C and 20°C, and during increased respiratory drive induced by hypercapnic gas. However, the diaphragmaticus muscle was found to play a significant role in facilitating a higher rate of inspiratory airflow in response to exercise. Transection of the diaphragmaticus decreased the exercise-induced increase in the rate of inspiration (with no compensatory increases in the duration of inspiration), thus compromising the exercise-induced increases in tidal volume and minute ventilation. These results suggest that, in C. porosus, costal ventilation alone is able to support metabolic demands at rest, and the diaphragmaticus is largely an accessory muscle used at times of elevated metabolic demand.

  12. Acquired premature ejaculation and male accessory gland infection: relevance of ultrasound examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro La Vignera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated a high frequency of premature ejaculation (PE among patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound (US features of patients with MAGI and acquired premature ejaculation (APE associated (MAGI-APEpos. US evaluation of 50 MAGI-APEpos patients compared to 50 patients with MAGI without PE (MAGI-PEneg which represent the control group. The diagnosis of APE was made through the evaluation of Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT and confirmed with the questionnaire PEDT (Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. The main outcome measure was represented by the frequency of US criteria suggestive of P (prostatitis, V (vesiculitis, and E (epididymitis in MAGI-APEpos and MAGI-PEneg patients. MAGI-APEpos patients showed a total number of US criteria significantly higher compared to MAGI-PEneg patients. MAGI-APEpos showed a higher frequency of US criteria of V and E (complicated forms of MAGI. Finally, in MAGI-APEpos group, it was found a positive relationship between the anteroposterior diameter (APD of the caudal tract of the epididymis and the APD of the seminal vesicles, as well as between both diameters and the PEDT score. MAGI-APEpos patients have a peculiar US characterization compared to MAGI-PEneg patients. According to these results, US evaluation of the epididymal and of the prostato vesicular tract should be considered in the practical clinical approach of patients with MAGI and APE. In particular, it could be a support for a possible pathophysiological interpretation of this clinical problem in these patients.

  13. Comparative genomics of Roseobacter clade bacteria isolated from the accessory nidamental gland of Euprymna scolopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Collins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The accessory nidamental gland (ANG of the female Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, houses a consortium of bacteria including members of the Flavobacteriales, Rhizobiales and Verrucomicrobia but is dominated by members of the Roseobacter clade (Rhodobacterales within the Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are deposited into the jelly coat of the squid's eggs, however the function of the ANG and its bacterial symbionts has yet to be elucidated. In order to gain insight into this consortium and its potential role in host reproduction, we cultured 12 Rhodobacterales isolates from ANGs of sexually mature female squid and sequenced their genomes with Illumina sequencing technology For taxonomic analyses, the ribosomal proteins of 78 genomes representing both roseobacters and non-roseobacters along with a separate MLSA analysis of 33 housekeeping genes from roseobacter organisms placed all 12 isolates from the ANG within two groups of a single Roseobacter clade. Average nucelotide identity analysis suggests the ANG isolates represent 3 genera (Leisingera, Ruegeria and Tateyamaria comprised of 7 putative species groups. All but one of the isolates contains a predicted Type VI secretion system, which has been shown to be important in secreting signaling and/or effector molecules in host-microbe associations and in bacteria-bacteria interactions. All sequenced genomes also show potential for secondary metabolite production, having predicted to be involved with the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs and/or siderophores. An AHL bioassay confirmed AHL production in three tested isolates and from whole ANG homogenates. The dominant symbiont, Leisingera sp. ANG1, showed greater viability in iron-limiting conditions compared to other roseobacters, possibly due to higher levels of siderophore production. Future comparisons will try to elucidate novel metabolic pathways of the ANG symbionts to understand their putative role in host

  14. Accessory neurovascular foramina on the lingual surface of mandible: Incidence, topography, and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B V Murlimanju

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: It was suggested that the accessory neurovascular foramina of the mandible might be of significance in relation to the effectiveness of local anesthesia following the routine inferior alveolar nerve block. Aims: To investigate the incidence of neurovascular foramina over the lingual surface of the mandible in South Indian population. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at the department of anatomy. Materials and Methods: The study included 67 human adult dry mandibles, the exact ages and sexes of which were not known. The location and number of neurovascular foramina were topographically analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics. Results: The foramina were observed in 64 mandibles (95.5% and were often multiple in most of the cases. They were located between the two medial incisors in 8 mandibles (1.9%, between the medial and lateral incisor in 34 mandibles (50.7%; 25-bilateral; 7-right; 2-left, between the lateral incisor and canine in 7 mandibles (10.4%; 2-bilateral; 3-right; 2-left, between the canine and first premolar in 6 cases (8.9%; 3 on each side. Foramina were also present around the genial tubercle in 56 mandibles (83.6%. Among them, 52 mandibles showed a single foramen just above the genial tubercle, 34 mandibles had foramina below the tubercles, 13 mandibles had foramina on the right side of genial tubercle and 17 were having on the left side. Conclusion: Since the anatomical details of these foramina are important to various fields of dentistry and oncology, the present investigation was undertaken. The clinical significance and implications are emphasized.

  15. Clinical meaning of hot uptake on bone scan in symptomatic accessory navicular bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Ari; Ha, Jung Min; Lee, Jun Young [Chosun University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We analyzed clinical factors related to uptake on a Tc-99 m HDP bone scan of the accessory navicular (AN). We retrospectively reviewed patients who had been examined by an orthopedic surgeon and underwent bone scan due to suspected symptomatic AN. A three-point grading system was used to evaluate uptake on bone scan. Relationships between grade, symptoms, age, gender, symptom duration, and bone size were analyzed. In total, 73 ANs (30 asymptomatic, 43 symptomatic) were enrolled. The majority of asymptomatic ANs had no uptake but some had grade 1 (n = 8) or 2 (n = 2) uptake. All asymptomatic ANs with uptake remained asymptomatic during follow-up. For the asymptomatic ANs, larger bones showed a higher grade. With a cut-off value of size ≤6.8 mm, there is no chance of uptake. All symptomatic ANs showed uptake on bone scan. For symptomatic ANs, larger size and shorter pain duration were related to a higher grade. Age, gender, and left-/right-sideness were not related to grade. Multiple regressions revealed that only uptake grade, not size or symptom duration, was the significant risk factor for a symptomatic AN. With a cut-off value of grade <1, a symptomatic AN could be ruled out with a negative predictive value of 100 %. Bone scanning is useful for symptomatic ANs with a high negative predictive value. Higher grade is related to larger size and shorter pain duration. For asymptomatic ANs, grade was related to size but did not predict symptom development.

  16. Detection and characterization of the accessory mental foramen using cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihan; Yang, Xiangwen; Zhang, Bichu; Wei, Bin; Gong, Yao

    2017-09-28

    This study aimed to investigate the frequency and characteristics of accessory mental foramina (AMFs) and their bony canals in a selected Chinese population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Reconstructed CBCT images of the mandible in 784 Chinese patients (305 males and 479 females) were retrospectively analysed to identify the AMF. The presence, dimension and location of the AMF as well as the origin and course of the associated bony canal were evaluated and classified. Variations in these characteristics were analysed according to gender, side and age. A total of 66 AMFs were found in 57 (7.3%) of the 784 patients. The frequency of AMFs was significantly influenced by gender and side of the mandible (p position AMFs (above the mental foramen) accounted for 54.5% of the total. The mean horizontal and vertical diameters of the AMF were 1.38 ± 0.47 and 1.23 ± 0.37 mm, respectively. Two typical types of the bony canal leading to the AMF were identified according to their bifurcation site from the mandibular canal. Most bony canals originated from the anterior loop of the mental canal (56.1%) and coursed posterosuperiorly (36.3%). The mean length of the bony canals was 5.78 ± 2.31 mm. This study presents a considerable frequency of AMFs in a Chinese population. The high-position AMF and the associated bony canal coursing in the oblique upward direction appear frequently. Thus, clinicians should be alert to the presence of the AMF to avoid neurovascular complications especially when dental procedures require periosteum detachment and implant insertion in the mental region.

  17. Microbial Contamination of Contact Lenses, Lens Care Solutions, and Their Accessories: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta B.; Pearlman, Eric; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Purpose A contact lens (CL) can act as a vector for microorganisms to adhere to and transfer to the ocular surface. Commensal microorganisms that uneventfully cohabitate on lid margins and conjunctivae and potential pathogens that are found transiently on the ocular surface can inoculate CLs in vivo. In the presence of reduced tissue resistance, these resident microorganisms or transient pathogens can invade and colonize the cornea or conjunctiva to produce inflammation or infection. Methods The literature was reviewed and used to summarize the findings over the last 30 years on the identification, enumeration, and classification of microorganisms adherent to CLs and their accessories during the course of normal wear and to hypothesize the role that these microorganisms play in CL infection and inflammation. Results Lens handling greatly increases the incidence of lens contamination, and the ocular surface has a tremendous ability to destroy organisms. However, even when removed aseptically from the eye, more than half of lenses are found to harbor microorganisms, almost exclusively bacteria. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci are most commonly cultured from worn lenses; however, approximately 10% of lenses harbor Gram-negative and highly pathogenic species, even in asymptomatic subjects. In storage cases, the incidence of positive microbial bioburden is also typically greater than 50%. All types of care solutions can become contaminated, including up to 30% of preserved products. Conclusions The process of CL-related microbial keratitis and inflammation is thought to be preceded by the presence or transfer or both of microorganisms from the lens to the ocular surface. Thus, this detailed understanding of lens-related bioburden is important in the understanding of factors associated with infectious and inflammatory complications. Promising mechanisms to prevent bacterial colonization on lenses and lens cases are forthcoming, which may decrease the incidence of

  18. Morphological analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands of the bat Artibeus lituratus (Phyllostomidae: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Renata T S; Pires, Laís R M; Albernaz, Edna S S; Andrade, Cleber S; Santiago, Cornélio S; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R; Beguelini, Mateus R

    2017-10-21

    Bats are distributed worldwide from tropical to temperate regions. Despite their wide geographical radiation and advances in studies using evolutionary approaches, aspects related to the reproduction of these animals remain poorly explored, especially those related to the male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the morphophysiology of the male RAGs in the bat Artibeus lituratus. The RAGs in A. lituratus are composed of a compact intra-abdominal glandular complex, consisting of the prostate with two prostatic regions (ventral and dorsal), plus Littre glands and a pair of extra-abdominal bulbourethral glands. The ventral region of the prostate has an epithelium with variable morphology, due to its holocrine type of secretion. In contrast, the dorsal region has a typical cubic-to-columnar pseudostratified epithelium. Both regions contain two cell types, basal and secretory cells. Similar to the epithelial morphology, the secretion also varies, with the ventral region containing numerous PAS-positive globular vesicles, whereas the dorsal region has a more fluid, hyaline and PAS-negative secretion. Littre glands are dispersed in the connective tissue of the urethra, while the bulbourethral glands are located in the penile root, both glands with cubic-to-columnar pseudostratified epithelium and globular PAS-positive secretion. The results demonstrate that the RAGs of A. lituratus are composed of two prostatic regions, ventral and dorsal, and urethral and bulbourethral glands, with no seminal vesicles. Each prostatic region has unique and distinctive characteristics, with the ventral region presenting an exclusive holocrine nature and the dorsal region having similarities to the ventral prostate of rodents. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Impaired mastication reduced newly generated neurons at the accessory olfactory bulb and pheromonal responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsugi, Chizuru; Miyazono, Sadaharu; Osada, Kazumi; Matsuda, Mitsuyoshi; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    A large number of neurons are generated at the subventricular zone (SVZ) even during adulthood. In a previous study, we have shown that a reduced mastication impairs both neurogenesis in the SVZ and olfactory functions. Pheromonal signals, which are received by the vomeronasal organ, provide information about reproductive and social states. Vomeronasal sensory neurons project to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) located on the dorso-caudal surface of the main olfactory bulb. Newly generated neurons at the SVZ migrate to the AOB and differentiate into granule cells and periglomerular cells. This study aimed to explore the effects of changes in mastication on newly generated neurons and pheromonal responses. Bromodeoxyuridine-immunoreactive (BrdU-ir; a marker of DNA synthesis) and Fos-ir (a marker of neurons excited) structures in sagittal sections of the AOB after exposure to urinary odours were compared between the mice fed soft and hard diets. The density of BrdU-ir cells in the AOB in the soft-diet-fed mice after 1 month was essentially similar to that of the hard-diet-fed mice, while that was lower in the soft-diet-fed mice for 3 or 6 months than in the hard-diet-fed mice. The density of Fos-ir cells in the soft-diet-fed mice after 2 months was essentially similar to that in the hard-diet-fed mice, while that was lower in the soft-diet-fed mice for 4 months than in the hard-diet-fed mice. The present results suggest that impaired mastication reduces newly generated neurons at the AOB, which in turn impairs olfactory function at the AOB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  1. Cryoablation of anteroseptal accessory pathways in children with limited fluoroscopy exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergul, Yakup; Tola, Hasan Tahsin; Kiplapinar, Neslihan; Akdeniz, Celal; Saygi, Murat; Tuzcu, Volkan

    2013-04-01

    Due to its safety profile, cryoablation is used increasingly in pediatric patients, especially for septal arrhythmia substrates. Recent advances in electroanatomical-mapping technologies have resulted in a decrease or complete elimination of fluoroscopy exposure during catheter ablation procedures. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of cryoablation of anteroseptal accessory pathways (APs) using electroanatomical-mapping system guidance with limited fluoroscopy exposure. A total of 24 patients underwent cryoablation of anteroseptal APs between July 2010 and April 2012. Cryomapping was performed with a 6 mm-tip catheter at -30 °C before the lesions were delivered. An 8 mm-tip catheter was used in one patient. The EnSite system (St. Jude Medical, St Paul, MN) was used in all procedures. The mean age was 11.9 ± 4.3 years. Acute success rate was 95.8 % (23 of 24). The mean procedure and cryoablation durations were 168 ± 58 min and 1,463 ± 525 s, respectively. Limited fluoroscopy was used only in 7 patients, and the mean fluoroscopy time was 1.7 ± 1.8 min (range 0.1-4 min) in these patients. Recurrence was noted in 2 patients (8.7 %) who underwent a second successful cryoablation procedure. The patient who underwent a failed attempt during the first procedure was successfully treated with a repeat procedure. The resultant long-term success rate was 100 % at a mean follow-up period of 14.2 ± 7.7 months. There were no complications except for transient atrioventricular block in one patient. Cryoablation of anteroseptal APs can be performed effectively and safely in children using a limited fluoroscopic approach with the help of electroanatomical-mapping systems.

  2. Cryoablation with an 8-mm-Tip Catheter for Right-Sided Accessory Pathways in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanidir, Ibrahim Cansaran; Ergul, Yakup; Ozturk, Erkut; Dalgic, Fuheda; Kiplapinar, Neslihan; Tola, Hasan Tahsin; Akdeniz, Celal; Tuzcu, Volkan

    2016-08-01

    Cryoablation is increasingly utilized in children because of its safety profile. Recently, larger catheter tips have been more widely used to improve long-term success rates. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of 8-mm-tip catheters for cryoablation of right-sided accessory pathways (APs) in children. Electrophysiological procedures were performed using the EnSite™ system (St. Jude Medical Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA). Between July 2010 and July 2014, 54 patients (mean age: 13.1 ± 3.7 years) underwent cryoablation using an 8-mm-tip catheter. In 18 of 54 (33%) patients where an 8-mm-tip catheter was the first-choice catheter, the success rate was 18 of 18 (100%). There was a history of previous failed attempts or recurrence with radiofrequency ablation and/or 6-mm-tip cryoablation in 36 of 54 (67%) patients. The success rate in these patients was 24 of 36 (67%). No fluoroscopy was used in 34 of 54 procedures. The recurrence rate was six of 42 (14%) during a mean follow-up period of 32 ± 15 months. In one patient, transient atrioventricular block occurred. Cryoablation with an 8-mm-tip catheter for right-sided APs in children who weigh over 40 kg appears to be safe and acutely effective in cases where conventional ablation methods fail and also as a first choice for ablation procedure. However, the recurrence rate still seems to be high. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Allotopic Expression of a Gene Encoding FLAG Tagged-subunit 8 of Yeast Mitochondrial ATP Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE ARTIKA

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Subunit 8 of yeast mitochondrial ATP synthase is a polypeptide of 48 amino acids encoded by the mitochondrial ATP8 gene. A nuclear version of subunit 8 gene has been designed to encode FLAG tagged-subunit 8 fused with a mitochondrial signal peptide. The gene has been cloned into a yeast expression vector and then expressed in a yeast strain lacking endogenous subunit 8. Results showed that the gene was successfully expressed and the synthesized FLAG tagged-subunit 8 protein was imported into mitochondria. Following import, the FLAG tagged-subunit 8 protein assembled into functional mitochondrial ATP synthase complex. Furthermore, the subunit 8 protein could be detected using anti-FLAG tag monoclonal antibody.

  4. Modulation of BK Channel Function by Auxiliary Beta and Gamma Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Yan, J.

    2016-01-01

    The large-conductance, Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channel is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues and displays diverse biophysical or pharmacological characteristics. This diversity is in part conferred by channel modulation with different regulatory auxiliary subunits. To date, two distinct classes of BK channel auxiliary subunits have been identified: β subunits and γ subunits. Modulation of BK channels by the four auxiliary β (β1–β4) subunits has been well established and intensively investigated over the past two decades. The auxiliary γ subunits, however, were identified only very recently, which adds a new dimension to BK channel regulation and improves our understanding of the physiological functions of BK channels in various tissues and cell types. This chapter will review the current understanding of BK channel modulation by auxiliary β and γ subunits, especially the latest findings. PMID:27238261

  5. Human mediator subunit MED15 promotes transcriptional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsubo, Takuya; Nishitani, Saori; Kikuchi, Yuko; Iida, Satoshi; Yamada, Kana; Tanaka, Aki; Ohkuma, Yoshiaki

    2014-10-01

    In eukaryotes, the Mediator complex is an essential transcriptional cofactor of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). In humans, it contains up to 30 subunits and consists of four modules: head, middle, tail, and CDK/Cyclin. One of the subunits, MED15, is located in the tail module, and was initially identified as Gal11 in budding yeast, where it plays an essential role in the transcriptional regulation of galactose metabolism with the potent transcriptional activator Gal4. For this reason, we investigated the function of the human MED15 subunit (hMED15) in transcriptional activation. First, we measured the effect of hMED15 knockdown on cell growth in HeLa cells. The growth rate was greatly reduced. By immunostaining, we observed the colocalization of hMED15 with the general transcription factors TFIIE and TFIIH in the nucleus. We measured the effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown of hMED15 on transcriptional activation using two different transcriptional activators, VP16 and SREBP1a. Treatment with siRNAs reduced transcriptional activation, and this reduction could be rescued by overexpression of HA/Flag-tagged, wild-type hMED15. To investigate hMED15 localization, we treated human MCF-7 cells with the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3, thus inducing p21 transcription. We found that hMED15 localized to both the p53 binding site and the p21 promoter region, along with TFIIE and TFIIH. These results indicate that hMED15 promotes transcriptional activation.

  6. Characterisation of the tryptophan synthase alpha subunit in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gierl Alfons

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bacteria, such as Salmonella typhimurium, tryptophan is synthesized from indole-3-glycerole phosphate (IGP by a tryptophan synthase αββα heterotetramer. Plants have evolved multiple α (TSA and β (TSB homologs, which have probably diverged in biological function and their ability of subunit interaction. There is some evidence for a tryptophan synthase (TS complex in Arabidopsis. On the other hand maize (Zea mays expresses the TSA-homologs BX1 and IGL that efficiently cleave IGP, independent of interaction with TSB. Results In order to clarify, how tryptophan is synthesized in maize, two TSA homologs, hitherto uncharacterized ZmTSA and ZmTSAlike, were functionally analyzed. ZmTSA is localized in plastids, the major site of tryptophan biosynthesis in plants. It catalyzes the tryptophan synthase α-reaction (cleavage of IGP, and forms a tryptophan synthase complex with ZmTSB1 in vitro. The catalytic efficiency of the α-reaction is strongly enhanced upon complex formation. A 160 kD tryptophan synthase complex was partially purified from maize leaves and ZmTSA was identified as native α-subunit of this complex by mass spectrometry. ZmTSAlike, for which no in vitro activity was detected, is localized in the cytosol. ZmTSAlike, BX1, and IGL were not detectable in the native tryptophan synthase complex in leaves. Conclusion It was demonstrated in vivo and in vitro that maize forms a tryptophan synthase complex and ZmTSA functions as α-subunit in this complex.

  7. Covalent dimerization of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase subunits by UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, R.M.B. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior de Agronomia]|[Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal). Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica; Franco, E.; Teixeira, A.R.N. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior de Agronomia

    1996-08-15

    The effect of UV radiation (UV-A, UV-B and UV-C) on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from a variety of plant species was examined. The exposition of plant leaves or the pure enzyme to UV radiation produced a UV-dependent accumulation of a 65 kDa polypeptide (P65). Different approaches were utilized to elucidate the origin and structure of P65: electrophoretic and fluorographic analyses of {sup 35}S-labelled ribulose biphosphate carboxylase exposed to UV radiation and immunological experiments using antibodies specific for P65, for the large and small subunits of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase and for high-molecular-mass aggregates of the enzyme. These studies revealed that P65 is a dimer, formed by the covalent, non-disulphide linkage of one small subunit with one large subunit of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase. For short periods of time (<1 h), the amount of P65 formed increased with the duration of the exposure to the UV radiation and with the energy of the radiation applied. Prolonged exposure to UV radiation (1-6 h) resulted in the formation of high-molecular-mass aggregates of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase. Formation of P65 was shown to depend on the native state of the protein, was stimulated by inhibitors of enzyme activity, and was inhibited by activators of enzyme activity. A UV-independent accumulation of P65 was also achieved by the in vitro incubation of plant crude extracts. However, the UV-dependent and the UV-independent formation of P65 seemed to occur by distinct molecular mechanisms. The UV-dependent accumulation of P65 was immunologically detected in all species examined, including Lemna minor, Arum italicum, Brassica oleracea, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris, suggesting that it may constitute a universal response to UV radiation, common to all photosynthetic tissues. (Author).

  8. Flexible Connectors between Capsomer Subunits that Regulate Capsid Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasek, Mary L; Maurer, Joshua B; Hendrix, Roger W; Duda, Robert L

    2017-08-04

    Viruses build icosahedral capsids of specific size and shape by regulating the spatial arrangement of the hexameric and pentameric protein capsomers in the growing shell during assembly. In the T=7 capsids of Escherichia coli bacteriophage HK97 and other phages, 60 capsomers are hexons, while the rest are pentons that are correctly positioned during assembly. Assembly of the HK97 capsid to the correct size and shape has been shown to depend on specific ionic contacts between capsomers. We now describe additional ionic interactions within capsomers that also regulate assembly. Each is between the long hairpin, the "E-loop," that extends from one subunit to the adjacent subunit within the same capsomer. Glutamate E153 on the E-loop and arginine R210 on the adjacent subunit's backbone alpha-helix form salt bridges in hexamers and pentamers. Mutations that disrupt these salt bridges were lethal for virus production, because the mutant proteins assembled into tubes or sheets instead of capsids. X-ray structures show that the E153-R210 links are flexible and maintained during maturation despite radical changes in capsomer shape. The E153-R210 links appear to form early in assembly to enable capsomers to make programmed changes in their shape during assembly. The links also prevent flattening of capsomers and premature maturation. Mutant phenotypes and modeling support an assembly model in which flexible E153-R210 links mediate capsomer shape changes that control where pentons are placed to create normal-sized capsids. The E-loop may be conserved in other systems in order to play similar roles in regulating assembly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Defining the lateral and accessory views of the patella: an anatomic and radiographic study with implications for fracture treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkes, Marschall B; Little, Milton T M; Pardee, Nadine C; Lazaro, Lionel E; Helfet, David L; Lorich, Dean G

    2013-12-01

    The majority of orthopaedic surgeons rely on a lateral fluoroscopic image to assess reduction during patella fracture osteosynthesis. However, a comprehensive radiographic description of the lateral view of the patella has not been performed previously, and no accessory views to better visualize specific anatomic features have been developed. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed anatomic description of all radiographic features of the true lateral of the patella, describe reproducible accessory views for assessing specific features of the patella, and demonstrate their utility in a fracture model. Twelve cadaver knee specimens free of patellofemoral pathology were used, and imaging was performed using standard C-arm fluoroscopy. For each specimen, a true lateral radiographic projection of the patella was obtained and distinct features were noted. Next, an arthrotomy was made and steel wire was contoured and fixed to various anatomic regions of the patella so as to obliterate the radiographic densities on the true lateral projection, thus confirming their anatomic correlation. Ideal views of the lateral and medial facets themselves were determined using radiographic markers and varying amounts of internal or external rotation of the specimen. Last, a transverse osteotomy was created in each patella and the ability of the true lateral and accessory views to detect malreduction was assessed. The true lateral projection of the patella was obtained with the limb in neutral alignment. Constant radiographic features of the lateral view of the patella include the articular tangent, a secondary articular density of variable length, and a dorsal cortical density. The articular tangent was produced by the central ridge between the medial and lateral facets in all specimens. The secondary articular density was created by a confluence of the edge of the lateral and edge of the medial facets in 5 patellas, a confluence of the edge of the lateral facet and the

  10. Proteome profiling reveals tissue-specific protein expression in male and female accessory glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhaoming; Wang, Xiaohuan; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Liping; Chen, Quanmei; Zhang, Xiaolu; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-05-01

    Male accessory gland (MAG) and female accessory gland (FAG) of the reproductive system are, respectively, responsible for producing seminal proteins and adhesive proteins during copulation and ovulation. Seminal proteins are ejaculated to female along with sperms, whereas adhesive proteins are excreted along with eggs. Proteins from the male and female reproductive organs are usually indicative of rapid adaptive evolution. Understanding the reproductive isolation and species divergence requires identifying reproduction-related proteins from many different species. Here, we present our proteomic analyses of male and female accessory glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Using LC/MS-MS, we identified 2133 MAG proteins and 1872 FAG proteins. In total, 652 proteins were significant more abundant in the MAG than in the FAG, including growth factors, odorant-binding proteins, enzymes, and proteins of unknown function. Growth factors and odorant-binding proteins are potential signaling molecules, whereas most of proteins of unknown function were found to be Lepidoptera-specific proteins with high evolutionary rates. Microarray experiments and semi-quantitative RT-PCR validated that MAG-specific proteins were expressed exclusively in male moths. Totally, 192 proteins were considered as FAG-specific proteins, including protease inhibitors, enzymes, and other proteins. Protease inhibitors were found to be the most abundant FAG-specific proteins, which may protect eggs from infection by inhibiting pathogen-derived proteases. These results provide comprehensive insights into copulation and oviposition. Moreover, the newly identified Lepidoptera-specific MAG proteins provide useful data for future research on the evolution of reproductive proteins in insects.

  11. Patient outcome after surgical management of the spinal accessory nerve injury: A long-term follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Göransson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A lesion in the spinal accessory nerve is typically iatrogenic: related to lymph node biopsy or excision. This injury may cause paralysis of the trapezius muscle and thus result in a characteristic group of symptoms and signs, including depression and winging of the scapula, drooped shoulder, reduced shoulder abduction, and pain. The elements evaluated in this long-term follow-up study include range of shoulder motion, pain, patients’ satisfaction, delay of surgery, surgical procedure, occupational status, functional outcome, and other clinical findings. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of a consecutive 37 patients (11 men and 26 women having surgery to correct spinal accessory nerve injury. Neurolysis was the procedure in 24 cases, direct nerve repair for 9 patients, and nerve grafting for 4. Time elapsed between the injury and the surgical operation ranged from 2 to 120 months. The patients were interviewed and clinically examined after an average of 10.2 years postoperatively. Results: The mean active range of movement of the shoulder improved at abduction 44° (43% in neurolysis, 59° (71% in direct nerve repair, and 30° (22% in nerve-grafting patients. No or only slight atrophy of the trapezius muscle was observable in 75%, 44%, and 50%, and no or controllable pain was observable in 63%, 56%, and 50%. Restriction of shoulder abduction preceded deterioration of shoulder flexion. Patients’ overall dissatisfaction with the state of their upper extremity was associated with pain, lower strength in shoulder movements, and occupational problems. Conclusion: We recommend avoiding unnecessary delay in the exploration of the spinal accessory nerve, if a neural lesion is suspected.

  12. Xylanases of Bacillus spp. isolated from ruminant dung as potential accessory enzymes for agro-waste saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thite, V S; Nerurkar, A S

    2015-05-01

    Polysaccharide hydrolase producing bacteria were isolated for biomass saccharification step in two-step bioethanol production. Xylanolytic bacteria were found to be common in ruminant dung. Seven Bacillus dung isolates exhibited high xylanolytic activity; three of which were identified as Bacillus safensis and four as Bacillus altitudinis, based on 16S rDNA and gyrB gene sequencing. Interestingly, comparison of activity profiles for B. safensis M35 and B. altitudinis R31 and J208 crude xylanases showed activity in similar temperature and pH ranges of 40-60 °C and 6·0-9·0, respectively, even though they were isolated from three different dung sources. Furthermore, 22-28% viscosity reduction of beechwood xylan substrate by all the three xylanases points towards their endo-acting nature. Endo-acting xylanases are envisaged as accessory enzymes which help expose the cellulose fibres for the subsequent action of the core enzyme cellulases. In this study, when supplemented to the commercial cellulase as a cocktail, the accessory role of the crude xylanases from the selected Bacillus strains was established as 1·3, 2·33 and 1·9 fold increase in saccharification of barley husk, sugarcane bagasse and wheat husk was achieved, respectively. The uncontrolled use of fossil fuels and concerns about its future availability, have invoked interest over unconventional alternative energy sources like solar, hydropower, geothermal, nuclear and biomass. Plants, being largest renewable biomass on earth, have received consideration as a source of biofuels. Ruminant dung isolates M35, R31 and J208 belonging to Bacillus sp. produces majorly endo-xylanase when induced with wheat bran. Such plant cell wall degrading endo-xylanases with broad pH optima and mesophilic nature can act as accessory enzymes with cellulases to enhance the saccharification of plant biomass in biofuel industries. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Transcriptional profiles of mating-responsive genes from testes and male accessory glands of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Scolari

    Full Text Available Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active.We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female.We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms of accessory gland gene expression profiles and

  14. Accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve transfer to restore shoulder exorotation in otherwise spontaneously recovered obstetric brachial plexus lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ouwerkerk, Willem J R; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Strijers, Rob L M; Frans, Nollet; Holl, Kurt; Fellner, Franz A; Vandertop, W Peter

    2006-10-01

    A systematic follow-up of infants with an obstetric brachial plexus lesion of C5 and C6 or the superior trunk showing satisfactory spontaneous recovery of shoulder and arm function except for voluntary shoulder exorotation, who underwent an accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer to improve active shoulder exorotation, to evaluate for functional recovery, and to understand why other superior trunk functions spontaneously recover in contrast with exorotation. In 54 children, an accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer was performed as a separate procedure at a mean age of 21.7 months. Follow-up examinations were conducted before and at 4, 8, 12, 24, and 36 months after operation and included scoring of shoulder exorotation and abduction. Intraoperative reactivity of spinatus muscles and additional needle electromyographic responses were registered after electrostimulation of suprascapular nerves. Histological examination of suprascapular nerves was performed. Trophy of spinatus muscles was followed by magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The influence of perinatal variables and results of ancillary investigations on outcome were evaluated. Exorotation improved from 70 degrees to functional levels exceeding 0 degrees, except in two patients. Abduction improved in 27 patients, with results of 90 degrees or more in 49 patients. Electromyography at 4 months did not show signs of denervation in 39 out of 40 patients. Intraoperative electrostimulation of suprascapular nerves elicited spinatus muscle reaction in 44 out of 48 patients. Histology of suprascapular nerves was normal. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scans showed only minor wasting of spinatus muscles in contrast with major wasting after successful operations. An accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer is effective to restore active exorotation when performed as the primary or a separate secondary procedure in children older than 10 months of age. Contradictory spontaneous recovery of other superior

  15. Impacts of Humanized Mouse Models on the Investigation of HIV-1 Infection: Illuminating the Roles of Viral Accessory Proteins in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Yamada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 encodes four accessory genes: vif, vpu, vpr, and nef. Recent investigations using in vitro cell culture systems have shed light on the roles of these HIV-1 accessory proteins, Vif, Vpr, Vpu, and Nef, in counteracting, modulating, and evading various cellular factors that are responsible for anti-HIV-1 intrinsic immunity. However, since humans are the exclusive target for HIV-1 infection, conventional animal models are incapable of mimicking the dynamics of HIV-1 infection in vivo. Moreover, the effects of HIV-1 accessory proteins on viral infection in vivo remain unclear. To elucidate the roles of HIV-1 accessory proteins in the dynamics of viral infection in vivo, humanized mouse models, in which the mice are xenotransplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells, has been utilized. This review describes the current knowledge of the roles of HIV-1 accessory proteins in viral infection, replication, and pathogenicity in vivo, which are revealed by the studies using humanized mouse models.

  16. The relationship of lateral anatomic structures to exiting guide pins during femoral tunnel preparation utilizing an accessory medial portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Lutul D; Parker, Richard D

    2010-06-01

    Anatomic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament through an accessory medial portal has become increasingly popular. The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship of guide pin exit points to the lateral anatomic structures when preparing the anterior cruciate ligament femoral tunnel through an accessory medial portal. We utilized seven fresh frozen cadaveric knees. Utilizing an anteromedial approach, a guide wire was placed into the center of each bundle's footprint. Each guide wire was advanced through the lateral femoral cortex. The guide pins were passed at 90, 110, and 130 degrees of knee flexion. The distances from each guide pin to the closest relevant structures on the lateral side of the knee were measured. At 90 degrees the posterolateral bundle guide pin was closest to the lateral condyle articular cartilage (mean 5.4 +/- 2.2 mm) and gastrocnemius tendon (mean 5.7 +/- 2.1 mm). At 110 degrees the posterolateral bundle pin was closest to the gastrocnemius tendon (mean 4.5 +/- 3.4 mm). At 130 degrees the posterolateral bundle pin was closest to the gastrocnemius tendon (mean 7.2 +/- 5.5 mm) and lateral collateral ligament (mean 6.8 +/- 2.1 mm). At 90 degrees the anteromedial bundle guide pin was closest to the articular cartilage (mean 2.0 +/- 2.0 mm). At 110 degrees the anteromedial bundle pin was closest to the articular cartilage (mean 7.4 +/- 3.5 mm) and gastrocnemius tendon (mean 12.3 +/- 3.1 mm). At 130 degrees the AM bundle pin was closest to the gastrocnemius tendon (mean 8.2 +/- 3.2 mm) and LCL (mean 15.1 +/- 2.9 mm). Neither guide pin (anteromedial or posterolateral bundle) put the peroneal nerve at risk at any knee flexion angle. At low knee flexion angles the anteromedial and posterolateral bundle guide pins closely approximated multiple lateral structures when using an accessory medial arthroscopic portal. Utilizing higher flexion angles increases the margin of error when preparing both femoral tunnels. During preparation of

  17. Isoform-specific functions of Mud/NuMA mediate binucleation of Drosophila male accessory gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Kokuryo, Akihiko; Imano, Takao; Minami, Ryunosuke; Nakagoshi, Hideki; Adachi-Yamada, Takashi

    2014-12-20

    In standard cell division, the cells undergo karyokinesis and then cytokinesis. Some cells, however, such as cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, can produce binucleate cells by going through mitosis without cytokinesis. This cytokinesis skipping is thought to be due to the inhibition of cytokinesis machinery such as the central spindle or the contractile ring, but the mechanisms regulating it are unclear. We investigated them by characterizing the binucleation event during development of the Drosophila male accessory gland, in which all cells are binucleate. The accessory gland cells arrested the cell cycle at 50 hours after puparium formation (APF) and in the middle of the pupal stage stopped proliferating for 5 hours. They then restarted the cell cycle and at 55 hours APF entered the M-phase synchronously. At this stage, accessory gland cells binucleated by mitosis without cytokinesis. Binucleating cells displayed the standard karyokinesis progression but also showed unusual features such as a non-round shape, spindle orientation along the apico-basal axis, and poor assembly of the central spindle. Mud, a Drosophila homolog of NuMA, regulated the processes responsible for these three features, the classical isoform Mud(PBD) and the two newly characterized isoforms Mud(L) and Mud(S) regulated them differently: Mud(L) repressed cell rounding, Mud(PBD) and Mud(S) oriented the spindle along the apico-basal axis, and Mud(S) and Mud(L) repressed central spindle assembly. Importantly, overexpression of Mud(S) induced binucleation even in standard proliferating cells such as those in imaginal discs. We characterized the binucleation in the Drosophila male accessory gland and examined mechanisms that regulated unusual morphologies of binucleating cells. We demonstrated that Mud, a microtubule binding protein regulating spindle orientation, was involved in this binucleation. We suggest that atypical functions exerted by three structurally different isoforms of Mud regulate

  18. The evolution of the Peach Spring Tuff magmatic system as revealed by accessory mineral textures and compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamukcu, A. S.; Gualda, G. A.; Miller, C. F.; Wooden, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Peach Spring Tuff (PST), a large Miocene ignimbrite located in the southwestern USA, is distinctive in its abundance of U, Th, and REE concentrating accessory minerals (zircon, sphene, allanite, chevkinite). We have examined textures and compositions of these accessory minerals and magnetite, as well as glasses, in pumice clasts and fiamme from the PST outflow and intracaldera by a variety of methods. Textures of crystal populations were assessed qualitatively in thin sections and crystal separates, and quantitatively by differential absorption x-ray tomography (DAT) to obtain quantitative textural information (i.e. crystal size distributions, CSDs). We have also analyzed REE compositions of glasses by LA-ICPMS and zircon and sphene by SHRIMP-RG. Pumice clasts and fiamme from the outflow sheet and intracaldera deposits range in composition and crystal content, from relatively crystal-poor rhyolites to crystal-rich trachytes, with intracaldera fiamme on the less silicic end of this spectrum. REE trends in zircon and sphene grains reveal a simple fractionation history in rhyolites, but MREE enrichment in sphene edges in trachytes suggest final growth from a less evolved melt. Ti-in-zircon and Zr-in-sphene thermometry reveals lower temperature growth at edges of grains from rhyolites (down to ~730 °C), while edges from trachytes record warmer temperatures (up to ~980 °C). Trace element variations and estimated temperatures also suggest that zircon has a more protracted history of growth than other accessory phases. Textures are consistent with the geochemical results. Phenocrysts in rhyolites tend to be euhedral, while those from intracaldera trachytes display resorption features. Zircon and allanite+chevkinite size distributions in outflow pumice clasts and intracaldera fiamme generally display exponential CSDs, consistent with a simple growth and nucleation history. Sphene and magnetite size distributions in outflow samples are generally kinked, with large

  19. Growth, Transport, And/or Breakdown of Accessory Minerals in Migmatites from the Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J. A.; Kelly, N. M.

    2010-12-01

    The extraction of melts from the lower crust and their subsequent emplacement at higher structural levels is an important differentiation mechanism that leads to the transfer of major and trace elements, volatiles and heat through the crust. Residual migmatites and granulites exposed at the Earth’s surface represent former melt-bearing crust and preserve evidence for melt transport on the micro- and meso-scale. The study of accessory phases, in particular their stabilities in melt-bearing systems and interactions with major minerals, is key to understanding the fluxes of trace and heat-producing elements during crustal anatexis. The Larsemann Hills of Prydz Bay, east Antarctica provide excellent 2-D exposure of granulite facies (c. 7 kbar and 800 °C) metasedimentary rocks and leucognesisses that preserve evidence for in situ partial melting, melt mobilization and connectivity. Leucosome found here contains K-feldspar, quartz, plagioclase, and minor garnet and biotite. Domains of residuum include: a) garnet (with aligned acicular sillimanite inclusions)-cordierite-spinel-ilmenite melanosome, the inferred assemblage remaining after melting and the extraction of some or all of the melt fraction; and b) coarse-grained garnet-sillimanite-cordierite ± biotite selvage zones that formed during melt-wall rock interaction. Petrographic analysis of melanosome, selvage, and leucosome domains has characterized mineral assemblages, structural fabrics and/or reaction textures that reflect the process of melt generation and in some cases reaction between residuum and crystallizing melts. In particular, focus on the textural context of accessory phases (zircon, monazite, apatite) has found that these phases occur as inclusions in and along grain boundaries of major minerals (e.g. garnet). This suggests that these accessory phases grew along with major minerals during partial melting. Detailed trace element characterization of major and accessory phases is being integrated with

  20. Liquid Phase Multiplex High-Throughput Screening of Metagenomic Libraries Using p-Nitrophenyl-Linked Substrates for Accessory Lignocellulosic Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Mariette; Huddy, Robert J; Cowan, Don A; Trindade, Marla

    2017-01-01

    To access the genetic potential contained in large metagenomic libraries, suitable high-throughput functional screening methods are required. Here we describe a high-throughput screening approach which enables the rapid identification of metagenomic library clones expressing functional accessory lignocellulosic enzymes. The high-throughput nature of this method hinges on the multiplexing of both the E. coli metagenomic library clones and the colorimetric p-nitrophenyl linked substrates which allows for the simultaneous screening for β-glucosidases, β-xylosidases, and α-L-arabinofuranosidases. This method is readily automated and compatible with high-throughput robotic screening systems.

  1. Isolation and killing of candidate chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells by antibody targeting of IL-1 receptor accessory protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järås, Marcus; Johnels, Petra; Hansen, Nils Gunder

    2010-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is genetically characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, formed through a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 and giving rise to the constitutively active tyrosine kinase P210 BCR/ABL1. Therapeutic strategies aiming for a cure of CML...... will require full eradication of Ph chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) CML stem cells. Here we used gene-expression profiling to identify IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP) as up-regulated in CML CD34(+) cells and also in cord blood CD34(+) cells as a consequence of retroviral BCR/ABL1 expression. To test...

  2. The accessory proteins REEP5 and REEP6 refine CXCR1-mediated cellular responses and lung cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Cho Rong Park; Dong-Joo You; Sumi Park; Sunam Mander; Da-Eun Jang; Su-Cheong Yeom; Seong-Hyun Oh; Curie Ahn; Sang Heon Lee; Jae Young Seong; Jong-Ik Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Some G-protein-coupled receptors have been reported to require accessory proteins with specificity for proper functional expression. In this study, we found that CXCR1 interacted with REEP5 and REEP6, but CXCR2 did not. Overexpression of REEP5 and REEP6 enhanced IL-8-stimulated cellular responses through CXCR1, whereas depletion of the proteins led to the downregulation of the responses. Although REEPs enhanced the expression of a subset of GPCRs, in the absence of REEP5 and REEP6, CXCR1 was ...

  3. Successful ablation of coexistent Mahaim tachycardia and right posterior accessory pathway in a patient with Ebstein's anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Enes Elvin; Akdeniz, Celal; Tuzcu, Volkan

    2016-07-01

    The atriofascicular accessory pathway (AP), known as the Mahaim pathway, is a rare form of pre-excitation, comprising less than 3% of all APs. Mahaim AP is characterized by decremental, anterograde-only conduction, and antidromic tachycardia with left bundle branch morphology. Prevalence of Mahaim AP in Ebstein's anomaly is significantly high. In addition, combination of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome and Mahaim AP in patients with Ebstein's anomaly has been reported. Presently described is the coexistence of Mahaim AP and manifest WPW syndrome in a patient with Ebstein's anomaly, who was successfully ablated without fluoroscopy.

  4. Outcome following spinal accessory to suprascapular (spinoscapular) nerve transfer in infants with brachial plexus birth injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchelsman, David E; Ramos, Lorna E; Alfonso, Israel; Price, Andrew E; Grossman, Agatha; Grossman, John A I

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the value of distal spinal accessory nerve (SAN) transfer to the suprascapular nerve (SSN) in children with brachial plexus birth injuries in order to better define the application and outcome of this transfer in these infants. Over a 3-year period, 34 infants with brachial plexus injuries underwent transfer of the SAN to the SSN as part of the primary surgical reconstruction. Twenty-five patients (direct repair, n = 20; interposition graft, n = 5) achieved a minimum follow-up of 24 months. Fourteen children underwent plexus reconstruction with SAN-to-SSN transfer at less than 9 months of age, and 11 underwent surgical reconstruction at the age of 9 months or older. Mean age at the time of nerve transfer was 11.6 months (range, 5-30 months). At latest follow-up, active shoulder external rotation was measured in the arm abducted position and confirmed by review of videos. The Gilbert and Miami shoulder classification scores were utilized to report shoulder-specific functional outcomes. The effects of patient age at the time of nerve transfer and the use of interpositional nerve graft were analyzed. Overall mean active external rotation measured 69.6°; mean Gilbert score was 4.1 and the mean Miami score was 7.1, corresponding to overall good shoulder functional outcomes. Similar clinical and shoulder-specific functional outcomes were obtained in patients undergoing early (9 months of age, n = 11) SAN-to-SSN transfer and primary plexus reconstruction. Nine patients (27%) were lost to follow-up and are not included in the analysis. Optimum results were achieved following direct transfer (n = 20). Results following the use of an interpositional graft (n = 5) were rated satisfactory. No patient required a secondary shoulder procedure during the study period. There were no postoperative complications. Distal SAN-to-SSN (spinoscapular) nerve transfer is a reliable option for shoulder reinnervation in

  5. In-situ Nd isotope measurements on accessory minerals: Insights into isotope equilibration during metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerli, Johannes; Spandler, Carl; Kemp, Tony; Pirard, Cassian

    2015-04-01

    Understanding isotope equilibration processes during metamorphism has huge implications for a range of geoscience applications, ranging from provenance studies of sedimentary units to the origin of magmas and ore bodies. Furthermore, recent claims of isotope disequilibrium situations during the melting of continental crust have questioned the reliability of using certain isotope systems to track magma sources. Our recent work investigated a prograde sequence of high-temperature, low-pressure (350-650 ˚C, ~3-5 kbar) metasedimentary rocks from the Mt. Lofty Ranges, South Australia that underwent widespread pervasive fluid flow at peak metamorphism. In situ Nd-isotope analyses by LA-MC-ICP-MS found that the detrital signature of apatite survives temperatures of 500 °C. However, the observed isotope equilibration of REE-bearing accessory minerals at ~600 °C, before the onset of partial melting, suggests that isotope disequilibrium is unlikely during high-grade metamorphism of upper crustal rocks where fluid induced melting takes place. Here, we extend our research to metasedimentary rocks from (ultra)-high pressure metamorphic terrains from northern New Caledonia, and Dabieshan, China that represent pressure and temperature conditions found in subduction zones. Our study helps to understand isotope equilibration processes from heterogeneous protoliths as well as the impact of retrogression and the resetting of isotope systems over a pressure-temperature range from ~350 °C to 700 °C and ~15 kbar to 40 kbar. Nd isotope analyses of apatite, allanite, titanite, xenotime, monazite, lawsonite and epidote in pelitic and psammitic samples allow the investigation of isotope equilibration on a mineral and sub-mineral scale, as well as comparison with traditional bulk rock isotope analyses. Our preliminary results show that under high-pressure conditions (~20 to 30 kbar) and temperatures to ~650 °C, REE-bearing phases show variable ɛNd values in some cases. These

  6. β3GnT2 null mice exhibit defective accessory olfactory bulb innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henion, Timothy R; Madany, Pasil A; Faden, Ashley A; Schwarting, Gerald A

    2013-01-01

    Vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) extend axons to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) where they form synaptic connections that relay pheromone signals to the brain. The projections of apical and basal VSNs segregate in the AOB into anterior (aAOB) and posterior (pAOB) compartments. Although some aspects of this organization exhibit fundamental similarities with the main olfactory system, the mechanisms that regulate mammalian vomeronasal targeting are not as well understood. In the olfactory epithelium (OE), the glycosyltransferase β3GnT2 maintains expression of axon guidance cues required for proper glomerular positioning and neuronal survival. We show here that β3GnT2 also regulates guidance and adhesion molecule expression in the vomeronasal system in ways that are partially distinct from the OE. In wildtype mice, ephrinA5(+) axons project to stereotypic subdomains in both the aAOB and pAOB compartments. This pattern is dramatically altered in β3GnT2(-/-) mice, where ephrinA5 is upregulated exclusively on aAOB axons. Despite this, apical and basal VSN projections remain strictly segregated in the null AOB, although some V2r1b axons that normally project to the pAOB inappropriately innervate the anterior compartment. These fibers appear to arise from ectopic expression of V2r1b receptors in a subset of apical VSNs. The homotypic adhesion molecules Kirrel2 and OCAM that facilitate axon segregation and glomerular compartmentalization in the main olfactory bulb are ablated in the β3GnT2(-/-) aAOB. This loss is accompanied by a two-fold increase in the total number of V2r1b glomeruli and a failure to form morphologically distinct glomeruli in the anterior compartment. These results identify a novel function for β3GnT2 glycosylation in maintaining expression of layer-specific vomeronasal receptors, as well as adhesion molecules required for proper AOB glomerular formation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. N-linked Glycans are Required on Epithelial Na+ Channel Subunits for Maturation and Surface Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashlan, Ossama B; Kinlough, Carol L; Myerburg, Michael M; Shi, Shujie; Chen, Jingxin; Blobner, Brandon M; Buck, Teresa M; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Hughey, Rebecca P; Kleyman, Thomas R

    2017-11-29

    Epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) subunits undergo N-linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum where they assemble into an αβγ complex. Six, thirteen and five consensus sites (Asn-x-Ser/Thr) for N-glycosylation reside in the extracellular domains of the mouse α, β and γ subunits, respectively. Because the importance of ENaC N-linked glycans has not been fully addressed, we examined the effect of preventing N-glycosylation of specific subunits on channel function, expression, maturation, and folding. Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes or Fisher rat thyroid cells with αβγENaC lacking N-linked glycans on a single subunit reduced ENaC activity as well as the inhibitory response to extracellular Na+ The lack of N-linked glycans on the β subunit also precluded channel activation by trypsin. However, channel activation by shear stress was N-link glycan independent, regardless of which subunit was modified. We also discovered that the lack of N-linked glycans on any one subunit reduced the total and surface levels of cognate subunits. The lack of N-linked glycans on the β subunit had the largest effect on total levels, with the lack of N-linked glycans on the α and γ subunits having intermediate and modest effects, respectively. Finally, channels with wild type β subunits were more sensitive to limited trypsin proteolysis than channels lacking N-linked glycans on the β subunit. Our results indicate that N-linked glycans on each subunit are required for proper folding, maturation, surface expression and function of the channel. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology.

  8. YC-1 BINDING TO THE BETA SUBUNIT OF SOLUBLE GUANYLYL CYCLASE OVERCOMES ALLOSTERIC INHIBITION BY THE ALPHA SUBUNIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Rahul; Fritz, Bradley G.; The, Juliana; Issaian, Aaron; Weichsel, Andrzej; David, Cynthia L.; Campbell, Eric; Hausrath, Andrew C.; Rassouli-Taylor, Leida; Garcin, Elsa D.; Gage, Matthew J.; Montfort, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric heme protein and the primary nitric oxide receptor. NO binding stimulates cyclase activity, leading to regulation of cardiovascular physiology and making sGC an attractive target for drug discovery. YC-1 and related compounds stimulate sGC both independently and synergistically with NO and CO binding; however, where the compounds bind and how they work remains unknown. Using linked-equilibria binding measurements, surface plasmon resonance, and domain truncations in Manduca sexta and bovine sGC, we demonstrate that YC-1 binds near or directly to the heme-containing domain of the beta subunit. In the absence of CO, YC-1 binds with Kd = 9–21 μM, depending on construct. In the presence of CO, these values decrease to 0.6–1.1 μM. Pfizer compound 25 bound ~10-fold weaker than YC-1 in the absence of CO whereas compound BAY 41–2272 bound particularly tightly in the presence of CO (Kd = 30–90 nM). Additionally, we found that CO binding is much weaker to heterodimeric sGC proteins (Kd = 50–100 μM) than to the isolated heme domain (Kd = 0.2 μM for Manduca beta H-NOX/PAS). YC-1 greatly enhanced CO binding to heterodimeric sGC, as expected (Kd = ~1 μM). These data indicate the alpha subunit induces a heme pocket conformation with lower affinity for CO and NO. YC-1 family compounds bind near the heme domain, overcoming the alpha subunit effect and inducing a heme pocket conformation with high affinity. We propose this high-affinity conformation is required for the full-length protein to achieve high catalytic activity. PMID:24328155

  9. Thermostable cross-protective subunit vaccine against Brucella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherwonogrodzky, John W; Barabé, Nicole D; Grigat, Michelle L; Lee, William E; Poirier, Robert T; Jager, Scott J; Berger, Bradley J

    2014-12-01

    A subunit vaccine candidate was produced from Brucella suis 145 (biovar 4; expressing both the A antigen of Brucella abortus and the M antigen of Brucella melitensis). The preparation consisted mostly of polysaccharide (PS; >90% [wt/wt]; both cell-associated PS and exo-PS were combined) and a small amount of protein (1 to 3%) with no apparent nucleic acids. Vaccinated mice were protected (these had a statistically significant reduction in bacterial colonization compared to that of unvaccinated controls) when challenged with representative strains of three Brucella species most pathogenic for humans, i.e., B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. As little as 1 ng of the vaccine, without added adjuvant, protected mice against B. suis 145 infection (5 × 10(5) CFU), and a single injection of 1 μg of this subunit vaccine protected mice from B. suis 145 challenge for at least 14 months. A single immunization induced a serum IgG response to Brucella antigens that remained elevated for up to 9 weeks. The use of heat (i.e., boiling-water bath, autoclaving) in the vaccine preparation showed that it was thermostable. This method also ensured safety and security. The vaccine produced was immunogenic and highly protective against multiple strains of Brucella and represents a promising candidate for further evaluation. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Characterization of tryptophan synthase alpha subunit mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwanski, E R; Barczak, A J; Last, R L

    1996-12-13

    Three mutations in the Arabidopsis thaliana gene encoding the alpha subunit of tryptophan synthase were isolated by selection for resistance to 5-methylanthranilate or 5-fluoroindole, toxic analogs of tryptophan pathway intermediates. Plants homozygous for trp3-1 and trp3-2 are light-conditional tryptophan auxotrophs, while trp3-100 is a more leaky mutant. Genetic complementation crosses demonstrated that the three mutations are allelic to each other, and define a new complementation group. All three mutants have decreased steady-state levels of tryptophan synthase alpha protein, and the trp3-100 polypeptide exhibits altered electrophoretic mobility. All three mutations were shown to be in the TSA1 (tryptophan synthase alpha subunit) structural gene by several criteria. Firstly, the trp3-1 mutation is linked to TSA1 on the bottom of chromosome 3. Secondly, the trp3-1 mutation was complemented when transformed with the wild-type TSA1 gene. Finally, DNA sequence analysis of the TSA1 gene revealed a single transition mutation in each trp3 mutant.

  11. Kinetic mechanism of luciferase subunit folding and assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A C; Raso, S W; Sinclair, J F; Ziegler, M M; Chaffotte, A F; Baldwin, T O

    1997-02-18

    The kinetic mechanism in vitro of the folding and assembly of the heterodimeric flavin monooxygenase bacterial luciferase has been defined by a unique set of rate constants which describe both the productive refolding pathway and competing off-pathway reactions in 50 mM phosphate, pH 7.0 at 18 degrees C. The individual alpha and beta subunits fold independently to form heterodimerization-competent species, alpha i and beta i. The alpha i beta i species can interact to form an inactive heterodimeric intermediate, [alpha beta ]i, which isomerizes to form the active alpha beta structure; the structure of the enzyme has been determined to 1.5 A resolution [Fisher, A. J., Thompson, T. B., Thoden, J. B., Baldwin, T. O., & Rayment, I. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 21956-21968]. In the absence of alpha i, beta i can form a kinetically trapped homodimer, beta 2, with a second-order rate constant of about 180 M-1 s-1 [Sinclair, J. F., Ziegler, M. M., & Baldwin, T. O. (1994) Nat. Struct. Biol. 1, 320-326]; the structure of beta 2 has recently been reported [Thoden. J. B., Holden, H. M., Fisher, A. J., Sinclair. J. F., Wesenberg, G., Baldwin, T.O., & Rayment, I. (1997) Protein Sci. 6, 13-23]. The beta i species, or some other form that precedes beta i on the refolding pathway, can also undergo a first-order conversion into a form (designated beta x) that cannot associate with alpha i to form the native enzyme. The rate constant for this process, assigned here, accounts well for the previously observed dependence of final yield on concentration of refolding species [Ziegler, M.M., Goldberg, M.E., Chaffotte, A. F., & Baldwin, T. O. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 10760-10765]. In simulations of the refolding reaction, all processes associated with the refolding of the individual subunits were combined into single first-order rate constants for each subunit which were consistent with the rate constants determined from stopped-flow circular dichroism studies. The first-order rate constant

  12. Role of the beta subunit of casein kinase-2 on the stability and specificity of the recombinant reconstituted holoenzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meggio, F; Boldyreff, B; Marin, O

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant human alpha subunit from casein kinase-2 (CK-2) was subjected, either alone or in combination with recombinant human beta subunit, to high temperature, tryptic digestion and urea treatment. In all three cases, it was shown that the presence of the beta subunit could drastically reduce...... the loss of kinase activity, strongly suggesting a protective function for the beta subunit. Assaying different peptides for specificity toward the recombinant alpha subunit and the recombinant reconstituted enzyme, showed that the presence of the beta subunit could modify the specificity of the catalytic...... alpha subunit. Therefore, a dual function for the beta subunit is proposed which confers both specificity and stability to the catalytic alpha subunit within the CK-2 holoenzyme complex. The peptide DLEPDEELEDNPNQSDL, reproducing the highly acidic amino acid 55-71 segment of the human beta subunit...

  13. Combined Analysis of Variation in Core, Accessory and Regulatory Genome Regions Provides a Super-Resolution View into the Evolution of Bacterial Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan McNally

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of whole-genome phylogenetic analysis has revolutionized our understanding of the evolution and spread of many important bacterial pathogens due to the high resolution view it provides. However, the majority of such analyses do not consider the potential role of accessory genes when inferring evolutionary trajectories. Moreover, the recently discovered importance of the switching of gene regulatory elements suggests that an exhaustive analysis, combining information from core and accessory genes with regulatory elements could provide unparalleled detail of the evolution of a bacterial population. Here we demonstrate this principle by applying it to a worldwide multi-host sample of the important pathogenic E. coli lineage ST131. Our approach reveals the existence of multiple circulating subtypes of the major drug-resistant clade of ST131 and provides the first ever population level evidence of core genome substitutions in gene regulatory regions associated with the acquisition and maintenance of different accessory genome elements.

  14. [Chromatographic and spectroscopic characterization of phycocyanin and its subunits purified from Anabaena variabilis CCC421].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakdar, N; Sakha, S; Pabbi, S

    2014-01-01

    Phycocyanin, a high value pigment was purified from diazotrophic cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis CCC421 using a strategy involving ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and anion exchange chromatography using DEAE-cellulose column. 36% phycocyanin with a purity of 2.75 was recovered finally after anion exchange chromatography. Purified phycocyanin was found to contain 2 subunits of 17 and 18 kDa which were identified as a-and (3 subunits by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOE HPLC method using a C5 column coupled with fluorescence or photodiode-based detection was also developed to separate and detect the A. variabilis CCC421 phycocyanin subunits. The fluorescence method was more sensitive than photodiode one. The purified phycocyanin from A. variabilis CCC421 as well as its subunits was characterized with respect to absorption and IR spectra. Spectral characterization of the subunits revealed that alpha and beta subunits contained one and two phycocyanobilin groups as chromophores, respectively.

  15. The main but not the accessory olfactory system is involved in the processing of socially relevant chemosignals in ungulates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu eKELLER

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ungulates like sheep and goats have, like many other mammalian species, two complementary olfactory systems. The relative role played by these two systems has long been of interest regarding the sensory control of social behavior. The study of ungulate social behavior could represent a complimentary alternative to rodent studies because they live in a more natural environment and their social behaviors depend heavily on olfaction. In addition, the relative size of the main olfactory bulb (in comparison to the accessory olfactory bulb is more developped than in many other lissencephalic species like rodents. In this review, we present data showing a clear involvement of the main olfactory system in two well-characterized social situations under olfactory control in ungulates, namely maternal behavior and offspring recognition at birth and the reactivation of the gonadotropic axis of females exposed to males during the anestrous season. In conclusion, we discuss the apparent discrepancy between the absence of evidence for a role of the vomeronasal system in ungulate social behavior and the existence of a developed accessory olfactory system in these species.

  16. Necrotic pulp tissue dissolution by passive ultrasonic irrigation in simulated accessory canals: impact of canal location and angulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jadaa, A; Paqué, F; Attin, T; Zehnder, M

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) of 2.5% NaOCl would dissolve necrotic pulp tissue from simulated accessory root canals (SACs) better than passive placement of the irrigant, when temperature was equilibrated between the two treatments. Transparent root canal models (n = 6) were made from epoxy resin. SACs of 0.2 mm diameter were placed at defined angles and positions in the mid-canal and apical area. SACs were filled with necrotic bovine pulp tissue. PUI was performed five times for 1 min each with irrigant replenishment after every minute. Main canal temperature was measured after each minute, and a digital photograph was taken. In control experiments, mock treatments were performed with the same set-up without activation of the file using heated NaOCl to mimic the temperature created by PUI. Experiments were repeated five times. Digital photographs were analysed for the distance of dissolved tissue into the SACs in mm. Overall comparison (sum of dissolved tissue from all five accessory canals) between treatments was performed using paired t-test. Differences between SAC angulation and position after PUI were investigated using anova/Bonferroni (alpha temperature in the main canal to 53.5 +/- 2.7 degrees C after the fifth minute. PUI dissolved a total of 6.4 +/- 2.1 mm, mock treatment controlled for heat: 1.4 +/- 0.6 mm (P temperature.

  17. Effects of training on the electrophysiologic properties of atrium and accessory pathway in athletes with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzani, A; Giovannini, T; Michelucci, A; Padeletti, L; Resina, A; Cupelli, V; Musante, R

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-two subjects with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) electrocardiographic pattern performing agonistic physical activity were referred to our laboratory to assess arrhythmogenic risk (group 1). This allowed us to evaluate a less known aspect, namely that of effects of training on the electrophysiologic properties of the atrium and accessory pathway. This was done utilizing a control group of 10 WPW patients who did not perform agonistic physical activity (group 2). All subjects were symptom free, and without signs of associated cardiopathy if we exclude 1 patient of group 1, who presented moderate mitral valve prolapse. Group 1 patients showed significantly higher mean values for basic cycle length (p less than 0.001), atrial effective (p less than 0.04) and functional (p less than 0.02) refractory period, and anterograde effective refractory period of the accessory pathway (p less than 0.02). The different behavior observed in group 1 patients could be explained considering the known influence of training on the equilibrium of the autonomic nervous system. Moreover, it is noteworthy that the two groups did not differ for inducibility of atrial fibrillation (AF). This should be taken into account considering the importance of AF in WPW. In conclusion, our study does not demonstrate any negative electrophysiologic effects of training in patients with WPW.

  18. Homology modeling, docking studies and functional analysis of various azoreductase accessory interacting proteins of Nostoc sp.PCC7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philem, Priyadarshini Devi; Adhikari, Samrat

    2012-01-01

    Azo dyes have become a threat to public health because of its toxicity and carcinogenicity. Azoreductase enzyme plays a pivotal role in the degradation of azodyes released by industrial effluents and other resources. The degradation pathway has to be studied in detail for increasing the activity of azoreductase and for better degradation of azo dyes. But the data available on cyanobacterial azoreductase enzyme and its degradation pathway are still very less. Therefore the present work explored the azoreductase pathway of the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC7120 for better understanding of the degradation pathway and the other accessory interacting proteins involved. The accessory interacting proteins of azoreductase from cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC7120 were obtained from STRING database. The proteins do not have a comprehensive three dimensional structure and are hypothetical. The secondary structure and functional analysis indicated that the proteins are all soluble proteins, without disulphide bonds and have alpha helices only. The structural prediction and docking study showed that alr2106, alr1063 and alr2326 have best docking result which tally with the STRING database confidence score and thus these proteins could possibly enhance the azoreductase activity and better dye degradation. These results will pave way for further increase in azoreductase activity and for better understanding of the dye degradation pathway.

  19. The accessory proteins REEP5 and REEP6 refine CXCR1-mediated cellular responses and lung cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cho Rong; You, Dong-Joo; Park, Sumi; Mander, Sunam; Jang, Da-Eun; Yeom, Su-Cheong; Oh, Seong-Hyun; Ahn, Curie; Lee, Sang Heon; Seong, Jae Young; Hwang, Jong-Ik

    2016-12-14

    Some G-protein-coupled receptors have been reported to require accessory proteins with specificity for proper functional expression. In this study, we found that CXCR1 interacted with REEP5 and REEP6, but CXCR2 did not. Overexpression of REEP5 and REEP6 enhanced IL-8-stimulated cellular responses through CXCR1, whereas depletion of the proteins led to the downregulation of the responses. Although REEPs enhanced the expression of a subset of GPCRs, in the absence of REEP5 and REEP6, CXCR1 was expressed in the plasma membrane, but receptor internalization and intracellular clustering of β-arrestin2 following IL-8 treatment were impaired, suggesting that REEP5 and REEP6 might be involved in the ligand-stimulated endocytosis of CXCR1 rather than membrane expression, which resulted in strong cellular responses. In A549 lung cancer cells, which endogenously express CXCR1, the depletion of REEP5 and REEP6 significantly reduced growth and invasion by downregulating IL-8-stimulated ERK phosphorylation, actin polymerization and the expression of genes related to metastasis. Furthermore, an in vivo xenograft model showed that proliferation and metastasis of A549 cells lacking REEP5 and REEP6 were markedly decreased compared to the control group. Thus, REEP5 and REEP6 could be novel regulators of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling whose functional mechanisms differ from other accessory proteins.

  20. Morphology and ultrastructure of the accessory glands in the female genital tract of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The accessory glands in the genital tract of female Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were investigated in detail. The glands are situated within the 7(th) and 8(th) abdominal segment and lead to the genital chamber lateral to the terminal papilla of the ductus receptaculi. The shape of the gland is characterized by a complex system of tubules, including numerous ramifications. The gland's size ranges from 2 to 4 mm. The epithelium is constructed according to a simple scheme and consists of a cuticular intima at the luminal side, one layer of gland cells, and a basallamina at the outermost side. The observed morphology of the accessory glands widely corresponds with that in other cricket species (e.g., Teleogryllus commodus). This is also true for the structure of a single gland cell, which can be subdivided into a basal part with nucleus and intracellular cisternae, as well as an apical part with all those compartments responsible for the production of the secretion. The secretion itself may be classified as lipophilic and is produced for the first time 4 to 6 days after the imaginai moult. Several endogenic functions of the secretion are discussed (lubricant for oviposition, support for introducing the tube of the spermatophore into the ductus receptaculi, etc.).

  1. NQO1 activity in the main and the accessory olfactory systems correlates with the zonal topography of projection maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussing, Fredrik; Bohm, Staffan

    2004-05-01

    The mouse olfactory epithelium (OE) is divided into spatial zones, each containing neurons expressing zone-specific subsets of odorant receptor genes. Likewise, the vomeronasal (VN) organ is organized into apical and basal subpopulations of neurons expressing different VN receptor gene families. Axons projecting from the different OE zones and VN subpopulations form synapses within circumscribed regions in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb (OB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), respectively. We here show that mature neurons in one defined zone selectively express NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), an enzyme that catalyses reduction of quinones. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization analyses show non-overlapping expression of NQO1 and the Rb8 neural cell adhesion molecule (RNCAM/OCAM) in OE and axon terminals within glomeruli of the OB. In addition, NQO1 immunoreactivity reveals selective, zone-specific axon fasciculation in the olfactory nerve. VN subpopulations do not show complementary patterns of RNCAM and NQO1 immunoreactivity, instead both genes are co-expressed in apical VN neurons that project to the rostral AOB. These results indicate that one division of both the accessory and the main olfactory projection maps are composed of sensory neurons that are specialized to reduce environmental and/or endogenously produced quinones via an NQO1-dependent mechanism. The role of NQO1 in bioactivation of quinoidal drugs also points to a connection between zone-specific NQO1 expression and zone-specific toxicity of certain olfactory toxins.

  2. Making Sense of Multifunctional Proteins: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Accessory and Regulatory Proteins and Connections to Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Tyler B; Binning, Jennifer M; Gross, John D; Frankel, Alan D

    2017-09-29

    Viruses are completely dependent upon cellular machinery to support replication and have therefore developed strategies to co-opt cellular processes to optimize infection and counter host immune defenses. Many viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), encode a relatively small number of genes. Viruses with limited genetic content often encode multifunctional proteins that function at multiple stages of the viral replication cycle. In this review, we discuss the functions of HIV-1 regulatory (Tat and Rev) and accessory (Vif, Vpr, Vpu, and Nef) proteins. Each of these proteins has a highly conserved primary activity; however, numerous additional activities have been attributed to these viral proteins. We explore the possibility that HIV-1 proteins leverage their multifunctional nature to alter host transcriptional networks to elicit a diverse set of cellular responses. Although these transcriptional effects appear to benefit the virus, it is not yet clear whether they are strongly selected for during viral evolution or are a ripple effect from the primary function. As our detailed knowledge of these viral proteins improves, we will undoubtedly uncover how the multifunctional nature of these HIV-1 regulatory and accessory proteins, and in particular their transcriptional functions, work to drive viral pathogenesis.

  3. WNK1 and p38-MAPK distribution in ionocytes and accessory cells of euryhaline teleost fish implies ionoregulatory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, W S; Cozzi, R R F; Spieker, M

    2017-07-15

    Ionocytes of euryhaline teleost fish secrete NaCl, under regulation by serine and threonine kinases, including with-no-lysine kinase (WNK1) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus L.) were acclimated to freshwater (FW), full strength seawater (SW) and hypersaline conditions (2SW). Immunocytochemistry of ionocytes in opercular epithelia of fish acclimated to SW and 2SW revealed that WNK1-anti-pT58 phosphoantibody localized strongly to accessory cells and was present in the cytosol of ionocytes, close to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in the apical membrane and the sodium potassium 2 chloride cotransporter (NKCC) in the basolateral membrane. In FW acclimated fish, WNK1 localized to a sub-apical zone, did not colocalize with apical membrane-located sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC), and typically was present in one cell of paired ionocytes and in some single ionocytes. Forskolin treatment (10 μM, 30 min) increased WNK1 immunofluorescence in SW ionocytes only, while hypertonicity had little effect, compared to controls. Anti-p38-MAPK antibody localized to the cytosolic compartment. The distribution of WNK1 and p38MAPK is consistent with a proximal position in regulatory cascades, rather than directly affecting transporters. The strong staining of accessory cells by WNK1 phosphoantibody infers an osmoregulatory function for WNK. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FURNITURE AND ACCESSORIES MANUFACTURERS IN NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES IN TURKISH FURNITURE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Tatlısu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will investigate the relationship between furniture manufacturers and furniture accessory producers for new product development (NPD in Turkish home furniture industry. A rich body of knowledge exists on supplier integration in NPD process in various industries such as automotive, textiles and consumer electronics whereas little is known on the subject in furniture industry. The importance of supplier integration in NPD processes especially in products consisting of multiple components is widely accepted. With the increase in the complexity of products and high requirement of efficiency and specialization, management of a network of suppliers to introduce meaningful products into the market has become crucial. This paper will represent partial findings of a study into the relationship between furniture manufacturers and furniture accessory producers in Turkish home furniture industry. The paper will depend on the data received through semi structured interviews with the representatives of both parties. The study aims to find out the channels of communication and collaboration between the companies designing whole sets of furniture and suppliers of components for these sets. The paper will discuss the findings of the semi structured interviews so far.

  5. The testis-specific Cα2 subunit of PKA is kinetically indistinguishable from the common Cα1 subunit of PKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herberg Friedrich W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The two variants of the α-form of the catalytic (C subunit of protein kinase A (PKA, designated Cα1 and Cα2, are encoded by the PRKACA gene. Whereas Cα1 is ubiquitous, Cα2 expression is restricted to the sperm cell. Cα1 and Cα2 are encoded with different N-terminal domains. In Cα1 but not Cα2 the N-terminal end introduces three sites for posttranslational modifications which include myristylation at Gly1, Asp-specific deamidation at Asn2 and autophosphorylation at Ser10. Previous reports have implicated specific biological features correlating with these modifications on Cα1. Since Cα2 is not modified in the same way as Cα1 we tested if they have distinct biochemical activities that may be reflected in different biological properties. Results We show that Cα2 interacts with the two major forms of the regulatory subunit (R of PKA, RI and RII, to form cAMP-sensitive PKAI and PKAII holoenzymes both in vitro and in vivo as is also the case with Cα1. Moreover, using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR, we show that the interaction patterns of the physiological inhibitors RI, RII and PKI were comparable for Cα2 and Cα1. This is also the case for their potency to inhibit catalytic activities of Cα2 and Cα1. Conclusion We conclude that the regulatory complexes formed with either Cα1 or Cα2, respectively, are indistinguishable.

  6. Phylogenetic position of Placozoa based on large subunit (LSU and small subunit (SSU rRNA genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Britto da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Placozoa, represented by its single species Trichoplax adhaerens, has always been considered one of the most basal animal clades due to its low morphological complexity. However, despite its importance, the phylogenetic position of the Placozoa remains uncertain, as does the relationships between the basal metazoans. We sequenced the nearly complete large subunit (LSU of the T. adhaerens rRNA gene together with the small subunit (SSU rRNA and used several methods to infer the phylogenetic position of Placozoa and the relationships between the basal animal phyla. The phylogenetic trees obtained from the LSU, SSU and SSU + LSU datasets support monophyly of all basal metazoan phyla, except the Porifera. However, the relationships between all these phyla were not consistently resolved due to a strong conflict between the LSU and SSU phylogenetic signals. The hypotheses that Placozoa is a derived Cnidaria or the most basal metazoan were not supported by our data. Moreover, our analyses suggests that Placozoa is most likely the sister group of Cnidaria and/or Bilateria.

  7. The NH2-terminal php domain of the alpha subunit of the Escherichia coli replicase binds the epsilon proofreading subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Anna; McHenry, Charles S

    2006-05-05

    The alpha subunit of the replicase of all bacteria contains a php domain, initially identified by its similarity to histidinol phosphatase but of otherwise unknown function (Aravind, L., and Koonin, E. V. (1998) Nucleic Acids Res. 26, 3746-3752). Deletion of 60 residues from the NH2 terminus of the alpha php domain destroys epsilon binding. The minimal 255-residue php domain, estimated by sequence alignment with homolog YcdX, is insufficient for epsilon binding. However, a 320-residue segment including sequences that immediately precede the polymerase domain binds epsilon with the same affinity as the 1160-residue full-length alpha subunit. A subset of mutations of a conserved acidic residue (Asp43 in Escherichia coli alpha) present in the php domain of all bacterial replicases resulted in defects in epsilon binding. Using sequence alignments, we show that the prototypical gram+ Pol C, which contains the polymerase and proofreading activities within the same polypeptide chain, has an epsilon-like sequence inserted in a surface loop near the center of the homologous YcdX protein. These findings suggest that the php domain serves as a platform to enable coordination of proofreading and polymerase activities during chromosomal replication.

  8. Efficient expression of functional (α6β22β3 AChRs in Xenopus oocytes from free subunits using slightly modified α6 subunits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carson Kai-Kwong Ley

    Full Text Available Human (α6β2(α4β2β3 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs are essential for addiction to nicotine and a target for drug development for smoking cessation. Expressing this complex AChR is difficult, but has been achieved using subunit concatamers. In order to determine what limits expression of α6* AChRs and to efficiently express α6* AChRs using free subunits, we investigated expression of the simpler (α6β22β3 AChR. The concatameric form of this AChR assembles well, but is transported to the cell surface inefficiently. Various chimeras of α6 with the closely related α3 subunit increased expression efficiency with free subunits and produced pharmacologically equivalent functional AChRs. A chimera in which the large cytoplasmic domain of α6 was replaced with that of α3 increased assembly with β2 subunits and transport of AChRs to the oocyte surface. Another chimera replacing the unique methionine 211 of α6 with leucine found at this position in transmembrane domain 1 of α3 and other α subunits increased assembly of mature subunits containing β3 subunits within oocytes. Combining both α3 sequences in an α6 chimera increased expression of functional (α6β22β3 AChRs to 12-fold more than with concatamers. This is pragmatically useful, and provides insights on features of α6 subunit structure that limit its expression in transfected cells.

  9. Results of spinal accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer in 110 patients with complete palsy of the brachial plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Transfer of the spinal accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve is a common procedure, performed to reestablish shoulder motion in patients with total brachial plexus palsy. However, the results of this procedure remain largely unknown. METHODS Over an 11-year period (2002-2012), 257 patients with total brachial plexus palsy were operated upon in the authors' department by a single surgeon and had the spinal accessory nerve transferred to the suprascapular nerve. Among these, 110 had adequate follow-up and were included in this study. Their average age was 26 years (SD 8.4 years), and the mean interval between their injury and surgery was 5.2 months (SD 2.4 months). Prior to 2005, the suprascapular and spinal accessory nerves were dissected through a classic supraclavicular L-shape incision (n = 29). Afterward (n = 81), the spinal accessory and suprascapular nerves were dissected via an oblique incision, extending from the point at which the plexus crossed the clavicle to the anterior border of the trapezius muscle. In 17 of these patients, because of clavicle fractures or dislocation, scapular fractures or retroclavicular scarring, the incision was extended by detaching the trapezius from the clavicle to expose the suprascapular nerve at the suprascapular fossa. In all patients, the brachial plexus was explored and elbow flexion reconstructed by root grafting (n = 95), root grafting and phrenic nerve transfer (n = 6), phrenic nerve transfer (n = 1), or third, fourth, and fifth intercostal nerve transfer. Postoperatively, patients were followed for an average of 40 months (SD 13.7 months). RESULTS Failed recovery, meaning less than 30° abduction, was observed in 10 (9%) of the 110 patients. The failure rate was 25% between 2002 and 2004, but dropped to 5% after the staged/extended approach was introduced. The mean overall range of abduction recovery was 58.5° (SD 26°). Comparing before and after distal suprascapular nerve exploration (2005-2012), the

  10. A structural comparison of the A and B subunits of Griffonia simplicifolia I isolectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, J E; Goldstein, I J

    1984-02-15

    A structural comparison between the A and B subunits of the five tetrameric Griffonia simplicifolia I isolectins (A4, A3B, A2B2, AB3, B4) was undertaken to determine the extent of homology between the subunits. The first 25 N-terminal amino acids of both A and B subunits were determined following the enzymatic removal of N-terminal pyroglutamate blocking groups with pyroglutamate aminopeptidase. Although 21 amino acids were common to both subunits, there were four unique amino acids in the N-terminal sequence of A and B. Residues 8, 9, 17, and 19 were asparagine, leucine, lysine, and asparagine in subunit A and threonine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid, and serine in subunit B. The last six C-terminal amino acids, released by digestion with carboxypeptidase Y, were the same for both subunits: Arg-(Phe, Val)-Leu-Thr-Ser-COOH. Subunit B, which contains one methionyl residue, was cleaved by cyanogen bromide into two fragments, a large (Mr = 31,000) and a small (Mr = 2700) polypeptide. Failure of the small fragment to undergo manual Edman degradation indicated an N-terminal blocking group, presumably pyroglutamate. Both subunits were digested with trypsin and the tryptic peptides were analyzed using reverse-phase HPLC. Tryptic glycopeptides were identified by labeling the carbohydrate moiety of the A and B subunit using sodium [3H] borohydride. Cysteine-containing tryptic peptides were similarly identified by using [1-14C]iodoacetamide. Approximately 30% of the tryptic peptides were common to both subunits. Thus, although the N- and C-terminal regions of A and B are similar, the subunits each possess unique sequences.

  11. A Cooperative Escherichia coli Aspartate Transcarbamoylase without Regulatory Subunits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, K.; Kantrowitz, E

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the isolation, kinetic characterization, and X-ray structure determination of a cooperative Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) without regulatory subunits. The native ATCase holoenzyme consists of six catalytic chains organized as two trimers bridged noncovalently by six regulatory chains organized as three dimers, c{sub 6}r{sub 6}. Dissociation of the native holoenzyme produces catalytically active trimers, c{sub 3}, and nucleotide-binding regulatory dimers, r{sub 2}. By introducing specific disulfide bonds linking the catalytic chains from the upper trimer site specifically to their corresponding chains in the lower trimer prior to dissociation, a new catalytic unit, c{sub 6}, was isolated consisting of two catalytic trimers linked by disulfide bonds. Not only does the c{sub 6} species display enhanced enzymatic activity compared to the wild-type enzyme, but the disulfide bonds also impart homotropic cooperativity, never observed in the wild-type c3. The c{sub 6} ATCase was crystallized in the presence of phosphate and its X-ray structure determined to 2.10 {angstrom} resolution. The structure of c{sub 6} ATCase liganded with phosphate exists in a nearly identical conformation as other R-state structures with similar values calculated for the vertical separation and planar angles. The disulfide bonds linking upper and lower catalytic trimers predispose the active site into a more active conformation by locking the 240s loop into the position characteristic of the high-affinity R state. Furthermore, the elimination of the structural constraints imposed by the regulatory subunits within the holoenzyme provides increased flexibility to the c{sub 6} enzyme, enhancing its activity over the wild-type holoenzyme (c{sub 6}r{sub 6}) and c{sub 3}. The covalent linkage between upper and lower catalytic trimers restores homotropic cooperativity so that a binding event at one or so active sites stimulates binding at the other sites. Reduction

  12. Effect of HMM Glutenin Subunits on Wheat Quality Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Horvat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutenin is a group of polymeric gluten proteins. Glutenin molecules consist of glutenin subunits linked together with disulphide bonds and having higher (HMM-GS and lower (LMM-GS molecular mass. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of the influence of HMM-GS on flour processing properties. Seven bread wheat genotypes with contrasting quality attributes and different HMM-GS composition were analyzed during three years. The composition and quantity of HMM-GS were determined by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, respectively. The quality diversity among genotypes was estimated by the analysis of wheat grain, and flour and bread quality parameters. The presence of HMM glutenin subunits 1 and 2* at Glu-A1 and the subunits 5+10 at Glu-D1 loci, as well as a higher proportion of total HMM-GS, had a positive effect on wheat quality. Cluster analysis of the three groups of data (genotype and HMM-GS, flour and bread quality, and dough rheology yielded the same hierarchical structure for the first top three levels, and similarity of the corresponding dendrograms was proved by the principal eigenvalues of the corresponding Euclidian distance matrices. The obtained similarity in classification based on essentially different types of measurements reflects strong natural association between genetic data, product quality and physical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to effectively reduce large data set into lower dimensions of latent variables amenable for the analysis. PCA analysis of the total set of data (15 variables revealed a very strong interrelationship between the variables. The first three PCA components accounted for 96 % of the total variance, which was significant to the level of 0.05 and was considered as the level of experimental error. These data imply that the quality of wheat cultivars can be contributed to HMM-GS data and should be taken into account in breeding programs assisted by computer models with the aim to

  13. Variations in the Arterial Blood Supply to the Penis and the Accessory Pudendal Artery: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Implications in Radical Prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Brandon Michael; Pękala, Przemysław A; Vikse, Jens; Sanna, Beatrice; Skinningsrud, Bendik; Saganiak, Karolina; Walocha, Jerzy A; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A

    2017-02-12

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the available literature and provide comprehensive data on the prevalence and variations of the accessory pudendal artery and the 3 types of penile blood supply, including type 1-internal pudendal artery only, type 2-internal pudendal artery and accessory pudendal artery, and type 3-accessory pudendal artery only. We performed an extensive search of the major databases and identified 23 studies in a total of 4,945 patients suitable for inclusion in this meta-analysis. Studies eligible for inclusion included cadaveric, imaging or intraoperative studies. Extracted data were pooled into a meta-analysis with a random effects model using MetaXL, version 5.0 (EpiGear International, Sunrise Beach, Queensland, Australia). The chi-square test and Higgins I(2) statistics were used to assess heterogeneity among included studies. Our findings revealed that the most common type was type 1 with a pooled prevalence estimate of 61.9%, followed by types 2 and 3 with a pooled prevalence estimate of 32.8% and 5.4%, respectively. In our analysis of the accessory pudendal artery the vessel was present in 28.5% of patients. When present, unilateral accessory pudendal arteries were most common (pooled prevalence estimate 72.5%) or they were present on the right or the left side (pooled prevalence estimate 48.0% or 52.0%, respectively). They most commonly originated from the obturator artery and the inferior vesical artery (pooled prevalence estimate 48.9% and 29.6%, respectively). The most common type was apical accessory pudendal arteries (pooled prevalence estimate 60.9%). A penile blood supply originating at least in part from an accessory pudendal artery represents more than a third of cases. Based on the anatomical findings when an accessory pudendal artery is present, we advocate attempted preservation of the vessel during radical prostatectomy to best maintain the penile arterial blood supply, especially in patients with type 3 or in

  14. Presence of a long accessory flexor tendon of the toes in surgical treatment for tendinopathy of the insertion of the calcaneal tendon: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pelozo Gomes Júnior

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The presence of accessory tendons in the foot and ankle needs to be recognized, given that depending on their location, they may cause disorders relating either to pain processes or to handling of the surgical findings. We describe the presence of an accessory flexor tendon of the toes, seen in surgical exposure for transferring the long flexor tendon of the hallux to the calcaneus, due to the presence of a disorder of tendinopathy of the insertion of the calcaneal tendon in association with Haglund's syndrome.

  15. Glycine Receptor α2 Subunit Activation Promotes Cortical Interneuron Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Avila

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycine receptors (GlyRs are detected in the developing CNS before synaptogenesis, but their function remains elusive. This study demonstrates that functional GlyRs are expressed by embryonic cortical interneurons in vivo. Furthermore, genetic disruption of these receptors leads to interneuron migration defects. We discovered that extrasynaptic activation of GlyRs containing the α2 subunit in cortical interneurons by endogenous glycine activates voltage-gated calcium channels and promotes calcium influx, which further modulates actomyosin contractility to fine-tune nuclear translocation during migration. Taken together, our data highlight the molecular events triggered by GlyR α2 activation that control cortical tangential migration during embryogenesis.

  16. Chaperonin Structure - The Large Multi-Subunit Protein Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Roterman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The multi sub-unit protein structure representing the chaperonins group is analyzed with respect to its hydrophobicity distribution. The proteins of this group assist protein folding supported by ATP. The specific axial symmetry GroEL structure (two rings of seven units stacked back to back - 524 aa each and the GroES (single ring of seven units - 97 aa each polypeptide chains are analyzed using the hydrophobicity distribution expressed as excess/deficiency all over the molecule to search for structure-to-function relationships. The empirically observed distribution of hydrophobic residues is confronted with the theoretical one representing the idealized hydrophobic core with hydrophilic residues exposure on the surface. The observed discrepancy between these two distributions seems to be aim-oriented, determining the structure-to-function relation. The hydrophobic force field structure generated by the chaperonin capsule is presented. Its possible influence on substrate folding is suggested.

  17. Characterization of the mouse rod transducin alpha subunit gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raport, C J; Dere, B; Hurley, J B

    1989-05-05

    A genomic clone spanning the mouse rod transducin alpha subunit (Tr alpha) gene has been isolated by screening a mouse genomic library with a bovine Tr alpha cDNA clone. The coding region of the mouse Tr alpha gene reveals an 88.7% nucleotide identify and 99.7% amino acid identity with bovine Tr alpha. The mouse Tr alpha gene is composed of 8 exons and 7 introns within its coding region. These introns are in the same locations as introns in human Gi alpha genes, that encode G proteins closely related to transducin. Primer extension, RNA sequencing, and S1 nuclease protection analyses indicate that the mouse Tr alpha gene transcription start site is 84 bases upstream of the initiation codon. Northern blot analysis shows that the mouse Tr alpha is expressed in the retina, but not in brain, kidney, liver, or heart.

  18. [Research progress in rotavirus VP4 subunit vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lianzhi; Li, Tingdong; Ge, Shengxiang

    2017-07-25

    Rotaviruses are leading causes of worldwide acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years old, with severe consequence of social and economic burden. Vaccination is the most effective way to control rotavirus infection, however, the licensed rotavirus vaccines are ineffective in some low-income countries of Africa and Asia, where the mortality caused by rotavirus is higher than other areas. In addition, there are also safety concerns such as increased risk of intussusception. Therefore, it is urgent to improve the efficiency and safety of rotavirus vaccine to reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by rotavirus. Till now, many efforts are made to improve the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines, and the inactive vaccine becomes the main trend in the research of rotavirus vaccine. The developments in recombinant rotavirus vaccines, especially in VP4 subunit vaccines are summarized in this review, and it could be helpful to develop effective recombinant rotavirus vaccines in further studies.

  19. Thermostable Subunit Vaccines for Pulmonary Delivery: How Close Are We?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    -administrable, can be distributed independently of functioning freezers and refrigerators, and can be designed to induce mucosal and/or cell-mediated immunity, which is attractive for a number of diseases requiring stimulation of local mucosal immunity for protection. However, the design and delivery of thermostable...... dry powder-based vaccines represents a technological challenge: It calls for careful formulation and dosage form design, combined with cheap and efficient delivery devices, which must be engineered via a thorough understanding of the physiological barrier and the requirements for induction of mucosal...... immunity. Here, I review state of the art and perspectives in formulation design and processing methods for powder-based subunit vaccines intended for pulmonary administration, and present dry powder inhaler technologies suitable for translating these vaccines into clinical trials....

  20. Functional anatomy of the accessory nerve studied through intraoperative electrophysiological mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brînzeu, Andrei; Sindou, Marc

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Classically the 11th cranial nerve (CN XI, or accessory nerve) is described as having a cranial and a spinal root, the latter arising from the upper segments of the spinal cord through a number of very fine rootlets. According to classical knowledge, the cranial root gives motor innervation to the vocal cords, whereas the spinal root provides the motor innervation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) and of the upper portions of the trapezius muscle (TZ). The specific function of each of the rootlets of the spinal component is not well known. Therefore the authors aimed to map, using intraoperative direct electrical stimulation and electromyographic (EMG) recordings, the innervation territory of these rootlets in relation to their exit level from the CNS. METHODS Forty-nine patients undergoing surgery with intradural exposure at the craniocervical junction were enrolled in the study. The EMG recordings included the sternal and clavicular parts of the SCM (SCM-S and SCM-C), the superior and middle parts of the TZ (TZ-S and TZ-M), and whenever possible the vocal cords. The main trunk of CN XI, its roots (both cranial and spinal), and when possible the fine cervical rootlets, were stimulated at predetermined locations, from the jugular foramen down to the lowest cervical level exposed. The EMG responses were collected, and a map of the responses was drawn up. RESULTS Monitoring and stimulation of the spinal root were performed in all cases, whereas for the cranial root this was possible in only 19 cases. A total of 262 stimulation sites were explored: 70 at the common trunk of the nerve, 19 at the cranial root, 136 at various levels on the spinal root, and 37 at the cervical rootlets. A vocal cord response was obtained by stimulation of the cranial root in 84.2% (16/19); absence of response was considered to have a technical origin. In no case did the vocal cords respond to the stimulation of the spinal root or rootlets. Stimulation of the cervical

  1. Cauliflower Mosaic Virus: A 420 Subunit (T = 7), Multilayer Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, R. H.; Olson, N. H.

    2014-01-01

    The structures of the Cabb-B and CM 1841 strains of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) have been solved to about 3 nm resolution from unstained, frozen-hydrated samples that were examined with low-irradiation cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction procedures. CaMV is highly susceptible to distortions. Spherical particles, with a maximum diameter of 53.8 nm, are composed of three concentric layers (I–III) of solvent-excluded density that surround a large, solvent-filled cavity (∼27 nm dia.). The outermost layer (I) contains 72 capsomeric morphological units, with 12 pentavalent pentamers and 60 hexavalent hexamers for a total of 420 subunits (37–42 kDa each) arranged with T = 7 icosahedral symmetry. CaMV is the first example of a T = 7 virus that obeys the rules of stoichiometry proposed for isometric viruses by Caspar and Klug (1962, Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 27, 1–24), although the hexameric capsomers exhibit marked departure from the regular sixfold symmetry expected for a structure in which the capsid protein subunits are quasi-equivalently related. The double-stranded DNA genome is distributed in layers II and III along with a portion of the viral protein. The CaMV reconstructions are consistent with the model based on neutron diffraction studies (Kruse et al., 1987, Virology 159, 166–168) and, together, these structural models are discussed in relation to a replication-assembly model (Hull et al., 1987, J. Cell Sci. (Suppl.) 7, 213–229). Remarkable agreement between the reconstructions of CaMV Cabb-B and CM1841 suggests that other strains of CaMV adopt the Same basic Structure. PMID:1733107

  2. Autonomic function in mice lacking alpha5 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningshan; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Chapman, Joab; Rabinowitz, Ruth; Nachman, Rachel; Korczyn, Amos D

    2002-07-15

    Neuronal acetylcholine nicotinic receptors (nAChR) are composed of 12 subunits (alpha2-10, beta2-4), of which alpha3, alpha5, alpha7, beta2 and beta4 subunits are known to exist in the autonomic nervous system (ANS). alpha5 subunits possess unique biophysical and pharmacological properties. The present study was undertaken to examine the functional role and pharmacological properties of the nAChR alpha5 subunits in the ANS using mice lacking alpha5 nAChR subunits (alpha5-/-). These mice grew to normal size showing no obvious physical or neurological deficit. They also showed normality in thermoregulation, pupil size and resting heart rate under physiological conditions. The heart rate and rectal temperature did not differ between alpha5-/- and wild-type mice during exposure to cold stress. An impairment of cardiac parasympathetic ganglionic transmission was observed during high frequency vagal stimulation, which caused cardiac arrest in all wild-type animals while alpha5-/- mice were more resistant. Deficiency of alpha5 subunits strikingly increased the sensitivity to a low concentration of hexamethonium, leading to a nearly complete blockade of bradycardia in response to vagal stimulation. Such a concentration of hexamethonium only slightly depressed the effects of vagal stimulation in control mice. Deficiency of alpha5 subunits significantly increased ileal contractile responses to cytisine and epibatidine. These results suggest that alpha5 subunits may affect the affinity and sensitivity of agonists and antagonists in the native receptors. Previous studies revealed that alpha5 subunits form functional receptors only in combination with other alpha and beta subunits. Thus, the data presented here imply that alpha5 subunits modulate the activity of nAChR in autonomic ganglia in vivo.

  3. Differential regulation of thyrotropin subunit apoprotein and carbohydrate biosynthesis by thyroid hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, T.; Weintraub, B.D.

    1985-04-01

    The regulation of TSH apoprotein and carbohydrate biosynthesis by thyroid hormone was studied by incubating pituitaries from normal and hypothyroid (3 weeks post-thyroidectomy) rats in medium containing (/sup 14/C)alanine and (/sup 3/H) glucosamine. After 6 h, samples were sequentially treated with anti-TSH beta to precipitate TSH and free TSH beta, anti-LH beta to clear the sample of LH and free LH beta, then anti-LH alpha to precipitate free alpha-subunit. Total proteins were acid precipitated. All precipitates were subjected to electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, which were then sliced and assayed by scintillation spectrometry. In hypothyroid pituitaries plus medium, (/sup 14/C)alanine incorporation in combined and free beta-subunits was 26 times normal and considerably greater than the 3.4-fold increase seen in total protein; combined and free alpha-subunits showed no specific increase in apoprotein synthesis. (/sup 3/H)Glucosamine incorporation in combined alpha- and beta-subunits in hypothyroid samples was 13 and 21 times normal, respectively, and was greater than the 1.9-fold increase in total protein; free alpha-subunit showed no specific increase in carbohydrate synthesis. The glucosamine to alanine ratio, reflecting relative glycosylation of newly synthesized molecules, was increased in hypothyroidism for combined alpha-subunits, but not for combined beta-subunits, free alpha-subunits, or total proteins. In summary, short term hypothyroidism selectively stimulated TSH beta apoprotein synthesis and carbohydrate synthesis of combined alpha- and beta-subunits. Hypothyroidism also increased the relative glycosylation of combined alpha-subunit. Thus, thyroid hormone deficiency appears to alter the rate-limiting step in TSH assembly (i.e. beta-subunit synthesis) as well as the carbohydrate structure of TSH, which may play important roles in its biological function.

  4. Copolymer semiconductors comprising thiazolothiazole or benzobisthiazole, or benzobisoxazole electron acceptor subunits, and electron donor subunits, and their uses in transistors and solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenekhe, Samson A; Subramaniyan, Selvam; Ahmed, Eilaf; Xin, Hao; Kim, Felix Sunjoo

    2014-10-28

    The inventions disclosed, described, and/or claimed herein relate to copolymers comprising copolymers comprising electron accepting A subunits that comprise thiazolothiazole, benzobisthiazole, or benzobisoxazoles rings, and electron donating subunits that comprise certain heterocyclic groups. The copolymers are useful for manufacturing organic electronic devices, including transistors and solar cells. The invention also relates to certain synthetic precursors of the copolymers. Methods for making the copolymers and the derivative electronic devices are also described.

  5. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Blenau, Wolfgang; Koeniger, Gudrun; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate), as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug). Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O) was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland.

  6. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gorshkov

    Full Text Available In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate, as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug. Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland.

  7. The Accessory Genome of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Defines a Persistent Colonization Type in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Stefanie A; Menge, Christian; Eichhorn, Inga; Semmler, Torsten; Wieler, Lothar H; Pickard, Derek; Belka, Ariane; Berens, Christian; Geue, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains can colonize cattle for several months and may, thus, serve as gene reservoirs for the genesis of highly virulent zoonotic enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Attempts to reduce the human risk for acquiring EHEC infections should include strategies to control such STEC strains persisting in cattle. We therefore aimed to identify genetic patterns associated with the STEC colonization type in the bovine host. We included 88 persistent colonizing STEC (STEC(per)) (shedding for ≥4 months) and 74 sporadically colonizing STEC (STEC(spo)) (shedding for ≤2 months) isolates from cattle and 16 bovine STEC isolates with unknown colonization types. Genoserotypes and multilocus sequence types (MLSTs) were determined, and the isolates were probed with a DNA microarray for virulence-associated genes (VAGs). All STEC(per) isolates belonged to only four genoserotypes (O26:H11, O156:H25, O165:H25, O182:H25), which formed three genetic clusters (ST21/396/1705, ST300/688, ST119). In contrast, STEC(spo) isolates were scattered among 28 genoserotypes and 30 MLSTs, with O157:H7 (ST11) and O6:H49 (ST1079) being the most prevalent. The microarray analysis identified 139 unique gene patterns that clustered with the genoserotypes and MLSTs of the strains. While the STEC(per) isolates possessed heterogeneous phylogenetic backgrounds, the accessory genome clustered these isolates together, separating them from the STEC(spo) isolates. Given the vast genetic heterogeneity of bovine STEC strains, defining the genetic patterns distinguishing STEC(per) from STEC(spo) isolates will facilitate the targeted design of new intervention strategies to counteract these zoonotic pathogens at the farm level. Ruminants, especially cattle, are sources of food-borne infections by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in humans. Some STEC strains persist in cattle for longer periods of time, while others are detected only sporadically. Persisting

  8. Expression of gill vacuolar-type H+-ATPase B subunit, and Na+, K+-ATPase alpha- and beta- subunit messenger RNAs in smolting Salmo salar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Michel; Madsen, Steffen; Cutler, Christopher P

    2001-01-01

    Changes in gill vacuolar-type H+-ATPase B subunit, and Na+,K+-ATPase alpha and beta subunit mRNA expression were examined during the course of smoltification in Salmo salar. We cloned and sequenced cDNA fragments of S. salar gill i) vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-H+-ATPase) B subunit, ii) Na......+,K+-ATPase alpha (1) subunit, and iii) Na+,K+-ATPase beta (1) subunit, and used these as Northern blotting probes. During smoltification, the salmon showed a typical increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and improved hypo-osmoregulatory ability as judged by their ability to regulate plasma [Cl-] in a 24-hr...... seawater challenge test (35 ppt). Gill Na+,K+-ATPase alpha (1) and beta (1) subunit mRNA levels were regulated at a constant ratio during smoltification. Both transcripts were elevated during the build-up of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, underlining the importance of increased mRNA levels for increased...

  9. Transient and sustained afterdepolarizations in accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells are mediated by distinct mechanisms that are differentially regulated by neuromodulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Shpak (Guy); A. Zylbertal (Asaph); S. Wagner (Shlomo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSocial interactions between mammalian conspecifics rely heavily on molecular communication via the main and accessory olfactory systems. These two chemosensory systems show high similarity in the organization of information flow along their early stages: social chemical cues are detected

  10. Reversing the direction of paced ventricular and atrial wavefronts reveals an oblique course in accessory AV pathways and improves localization for catheter ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otomo, K.; Gonzalez, M. D.; Beckman, K. J.; Nakagawa, H.; Becker, A. E.; Shah, N.; Matsudaira, K.; Wang, Z.; Lazzara, R.; Jackman, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how often accessory atrioventricular (AV) pathways (AP) cross the AV groove obliquely. With an oblique course, the local ventriculoatrial (VA) interval at the site of earliest atrial activation (local-VA) and the local-AV interval at the site of earliest

  11. An Asymptomatic Case of Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome with Right-sided Free-wall Accessory Pathway and Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanao Mine, MD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old girl with a known history of asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome exhibited signs of left ventricular (LV septal akinesia and LV dysfunction during routine follow-up. A 12-lead surface ECG showed pre-excitation, a predominantly negative delta wave in V1 and left axis deviation, which was consistent with the presence of a right free-wall accessory pathway. Radiofrequency ablation of the anterolateral right atrium around the local shortest atrium-to-ventricle interval created the accessory pathway block. An echocardiogram taken one month after the procedure revealed that LV septal wall motion had normalized and that LV ejection fraction had improved from 50% before the ablation to 64% after the ablation. Most previous reports of asymptomatic patients of WPW with LV septal dyskinesia and dysfunction have described right septal or posteroseptal accessory pathways. This patient reported here represents a rare case with right free-wall accessory pathway and LV dysfunction without tachycardia.

  12. Effects of accessory proteins on the bypass of a cis-syn thymine-thymine dimer by Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase eta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Scott D; Wood, Adam; Garg, Parie; Burgers, Peter M J; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2007-07-31

    Among several hypotheses to explain how translesion synthesis (TLS) by DNA polymerase eta (pol eta) suppresses ultraviolet light-induced mutagenesis in vivo despite the fact that pol eta copies DNA with low fidelity, here we test whether replication accessory proteins enhance the fidelity of TLS by pol eta. We first show that the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA, the sliding clamp PCNA, and the clamp loader RFC slightly increase the processivity of yeast pol eta and its ability to recycle to new template primers. However, these increases are small, and they are similar when copying an undamaged template and a template containing a cis-syn TT dimer. Consequently, the accessory proteins do not strongly stimulate the already robust TT dimer bypass efficiency of pol eta. We then perform a comprehensive analysis of yeast pol eta fidelity. We show that it is much less accurate than other yeast DNA polymerases and that the accessory proteins have little effect on fidelity when copying undamaged templates or when bypassing a TT dimer. Thus, although accessory proteins clearly participate in pol eta functions in vivo, they do not appear to help suppress UV mutagenesis by improving pol eta bypass fidelity per se.

  13. Lack of NMDA receptor subunit exchange alters Purkinje cell dendritic morphology in cerebellar slice cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metzger, F; Pieri, [No Value; Eisel, ULM; Pieri, Isabelle

    2005-01-01

    Early postnatal developmental changes in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NR) subunits regulate cerebellar granule cell maturation and potentially Purkinje cell development. We therefore investigated Purkinje cell morphology in slice cultures from mice with genetic subunit exchange from NR2C to

  14. Isolation and characterization of recombinant human casein kinase II subunits alpha and beta from bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grankowski, N; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1991-01-01

    cDNA encoding the casein kinase II (CKII) subunits alpha and beta of human origin were expressed in Escherichia coli using expression vector pT7-7. Significant expression was obtained with E. coli BL21(DE3). The CKII subunits accounted for approximately 30% of the bacterial protein; however, most...

  15. Visualization of subunit interactions and ternary complexes of protein phosphatase 2A in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ting Mo

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A is a ubiquitous phospho-serine/threonine phosphatase that controls many diverse cellular functions. The predominant form of PP2A is a heterotrimeric holoenzyme consisting of a scaffolding A subunit, a variable regulatory B subunit, and a catalytic C subunit. The C subunit also associates with other interacting partners, such as α4, to form non-canonical PP2A complexes. We report visualization of PP2A complexes in mammalian cells. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC analysis of PP2A subunit interactions demonstrates that the B subunit plays a key role in directing the subcellular localization of PP2A, and confirms that the A subunit functions as a scaffold in recruiting the B and C subunits to form a heterotrimeric holoenzyme. BiFC analysis also reveals that α4 promotes formation of the AC core dimer. Furthermore, we demonstrate visualization of specific ABC holoenzymes in cells by combining BiFC and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (BiFC-FRET. Our studies not only provide direct imaging data to support previous biochemical observations on PP2A complexes, but also offer a promising approach for studying the spatiotemporal distribution of individual PP2A complexes in cells.

  16. Expression of the scaffolding subunit A of protein phosphatase 2A during rat testicular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Ham, R.; van Dissel-Emiliani, F. M. F.; van Pelt, A. M. M.

    2003-01-01

    Previously, we found that the poly(A)+ RNA of the scaffolding subunit A (alpha isoform) of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-Aalpha) was clearly expressed by fetal gonocytes but weakly expressed by adult single (As), paired (Apr), and aligned (Aal) A spermatogonia. The scaffolding subunit A of PP2A

  17. Tuning of the Na,K-ATPase by the beta subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbers, Florian; Kopec, Wojciech; Isaksen, Toke Jost

    2016-01-01

    The vital gradients of Na(+) and K(+) across the plasma membrane of animal cells are maintained by the Na,K-ATPase, an αβ enzyme complex, whose α subunit carries out the ion transport and ATP hydrolysis. The specific roles of the β subunit isoforms are less clear, though β2 is essential for motor...

  18. Evidence for an unusual transmembrane configuration of AGG3, a class C Gγ subunit of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenstetter, Susanne; Chakravorty, David; Kula, Ryan; Urano, Daisuke; Trusov, Yuri; Sheahan, Michael B; McCurdy, David W; Assmann, Sarah M; Jones, Alan M; Botella, José R

    2015-02-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are crucial for the perception of external signals and subsequent signal transduction in animal and plant cells. In both model systems, the complex comprises one Gα, one Gβ, and one Gγ subunit. However, in addition to the canonical Gγ subunits (class A), plants also possess two unusual, plant-specific classes of Gγ subunits (classes B and C) that have not yet been found in animals. These include Gγ subunits lacking the C-terminal CaaX motif (class B), which is important for membrane anchoring of the protein; the presence of such subunits gives rise to a flexible sub-population of Gβ/γ heterodimers that are not necessarily restricted to the plasma membrane. Plants also contain class C Gγ subunits, which are twice the size of canonical Gγ subunits, with a predicted transmembrane domain and a large cysteine-rich extracellular C-terminus. However, neither the presence of the transmembrane domain nor the membrane topology have been unequivocally demonstrated. Here, we provide compelling evidence that AGG3, a class C Gγ subunit of Arabidopsis, contains a functional transmembrane domain, which is sufficient but not essential for plasma membrane localization, and that the cysteine-rich C-terminus is extracellular. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Differential expression of BK channel isoforms and beta-subunits in rat neuro-vascular tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Wulf, Helle; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the expression of splice variants and beta-subunits of the BK channel (big conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, Slo1, MaxiK, K(Ca)1.1) in rat cerebral blood vessels, meninges, trigeminal ganglion among other tissues. An alpha-subunit splice variant X1(+24) was found expressed...

  20. Structure of protein kinase CK2: dimerization of the human beta-subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Mietens, U; Issinger, O G

    1996-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 has been shown to be elevated in all so far investigated solid tumors and its catalytic subunit has been shown to serve as an oncogene product. CK2 is a heterotetrameric serine-threonine kinase composed of two catalytic (alpha and/or alpha') and two regulatory beta-subunits. Us...

  1. Regulation of KV channel voltage-dependent activation by transmembrane β subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eSun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-activated K+ (KV channels are important for shaping action potentials and maintaining resting membrane potential in excitable cells. KV channels contain a central pore-gate domain (PGD surrounded by four voltage-sensing domains (VSD. The VSDs will change conformation in response to alterations of the membrane potential thereby inducing the opening of the PGD. Many KV channels are heteromeric protein complexes containing auxiliary β subunits. These β subunits modulate channel expression and activity to increase functional diversity and render tissue specific phenotypes. This review focuses on the KV β subunits that contain transmembrane (TM segments including the KCNE family and the β subunits of large conductance, Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK channels. These TM β subunits affect the voltage-dependent activation of KV α subunits. Experimental and computational studies have described the structural location of these β subunits in the channel complexes and the biophysical effects on VSD activation, PGD opening and VSD-PGD coupling. These results reveal some common characteristics and mechanistic insights into KV channel modulation by TM β subunits.

  2. All three subunits of soybean beta-conglycinin are potential food allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Hari B; Kim, Won-Seok; Jang, Sungchan; Kerley, Monty S

    2009-02-11

    Soybeans are recognized as one of the "big 8" food allergens. IgE antibodies from soybean-sensitive patients recognize more than 15 soybean proteins. Among these proteins only the alpha-subunit of beta-conglycinin, but not the highly homologous alpha'- and beta-subunits, has been shown to be a major allergenic protein. The objective of this study was to examine if the alpha'- and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin can also serve as potential allergens. Immunoblot analysis using sera collected from soybean-allergic patients revealed the presence of IgE antibodies that recognized several soy proteins including 72, 70, 52, 34, and 21 kDa proteins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis of trypsin-digested 72, 70, and 52 kDa proteins indicated that these proteins were the alpha'-, alpha-, and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin, respectively. Additionally, purified alpha'-, alpha-, and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin were recognized by IgE antibodies present in the soybean-allergic patients. The IgE reactivity to the beta-subunit of beta-conglycinin was not abolished when this glycoprotein was either deglycosylated using glycosidases or expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli . The results suggest that in addition to the previously recognized alpha-subunit of beta-conglycinin, the alpha'- and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin also are potential food allergens.

  3. Bilateral cervical ectopic thymic nodules with accessory thyroid tissue and an ectopic parathyroid in the neck region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wea-Lung Lin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Some remnants of thymic tissue may be deposited along the pathway of the descent of the neck during embryologic development of the thymus. Ectopic thymic tissue is usually deposited along the pathway from the mandibular angle to the manubrium of the sternum. Most reported cases of an ectopic thymus occurred in children, and cases are less common in adults. We report a 26-year-old woman, who was incidentally found to have 2 neck nodules on the posterior side of the bilateral upper pole of the thyroid gland while undergoing a subtotal thyroidectomy. The left-side neck nodule showed accessory thyroid follicles intermixed with ectopic thymic tissue, and the right-side neck nodule was ectopic parathyroid tissue together with ectopic thymic tissue.

  4. Mucosal vaccination with heterologous viral vectored vaccine targeting subdominant SIV accessory antigens strongly inhibits early viral replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Huanbin; Andersson, Anne-Marie Carola; Ragonnaud, Emeline

    2017-01-01

    Conventional HIV T cell vaccine strategies have not been successful in containing acute peak viremia, nor in providing long-term control. We immunized rhesus macaques intramuscularly and rectally using a heterologous adenovirus vectored SIV vaccine regimen encoding normally weakly immunogenic tat...... immune hyperactivation as measured by naïve T cell depletion, Ki-67 and PD-1 expression on T cells. These results indicate that vaccination towards SIV accessory antigens vaccine can provide a level of acute control of SIV replication with a suggestion of beneficial immunological consequences in infected...... animals of unknown long-term significance. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate that a vaccine encoding subdominant antigens not normally associated with virus control can exert a significant impact on acute peak viremia....

  5. Prevention of toxic effects of mercuric chloride on Some male accessory organs in mice with a Multiherbal drug "Speman".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, H S

    2000-07-01

    Adult Swiss albino male mice exposed to mercuric chloride via drinking water at 5 μg/ml for 100 days revealed significant reduction in the wet weight and severe histopathological changes in male accessory organs, poor level of serum testosterone and infertility. These effects were reduced remarkable and fertility was restored when drug (12.50 mg/mouse/day orally) was administered during mercury exposure for 100days or after Hg-exposure for next 60 days (Post therapy). Natural recovery after mercury exposure for 60 days remind ineffective. Probable action of herbal drug based on the presence of the active principles of constituents (i.e Orchis mascula, Mucuna pruriens, parmelia perlata, Argyreia speciosa, Tribulus terristris, Leptadenia reticulate, Lactuca scariola and Hygrophila spinosa) is discussed in detail.

  6. The Effects of Metallic Loop-Like Accessory Worn on the Human Body on SAR at 2.45 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal H. H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Specific Absorption Rates (SAR in the human body with a monopole antenna. The distance between the antenna and the body were varied at different distances. The parameters (εr, σ used in the human body set according to the standard tissue equivalent liquids recommended by the IEEE and FCC. The simulations were made by means of CST Microwave Studio software at frequencies of 2.45GHz .The effect of the body on the SAR calculation in the body were measured. The SAR values were recorded in term of SAR for 10g of tissue. The TM is positioned against the metallic loop-like accessory, place on the left wrist of the generic arm at a varied distance from the cylindrical phantom. Numerical analysis conducted using a broadband textile monopole antenna (TM with variations of orientation and distance showed that SAR values increased when the TM is horizontally polarized.

  7. Isolation and killing of candidate chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells by antibody targeting of IL-1 receptor accessory protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järås, Marcus; Johnels, Petra; Hansen, Nils Gunder

    2010-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is genetically characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, formed through a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 and giving rise to the constitutively active tyrosine kinase P210 BCR/ABL1. Therapeutic strategies aiming for a cure of CML...... will require full eradication of Ph chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) CML stem cells. Here we used gene-expression profiling to identify IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP) as up-regulated in CML CD34(+) cells and also in cord blood CD34(+) cells as a consequence of retroviral BCR/ABL1 expression. To test...... whether IL1RAP expression distinguishes normal (Ph(-)) and leukemic (Ph(+)) cells within the CML CD34(+)CD38(-) cell compartment, we established a unique protocol for conducting FISH on small numbers of sorted cells. By using this method, we sorted cells directly into drops on slides to investigate...

  8. Seasonal reproductive activity and innervation of vas deferens and accessory male genital glands in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nerves supplying mammalian male internal genital organs have an important role in the regulation of reproductive function. To find out the relationships between the neurochemical content of these nerves and the reproductive activity, we performed an immunohistochemical study in a species, the water buffalo, exhibiting a seasonal sexual behaviour. The distribution of noradrenergic and peptide-containing nerves was evaluated during the mating (autumn-winter and non-mating (spring-summer periods. During the mating period, a dense noradrenergic innervation was observed to supply the vas deferens as well as the accessory genital glands. Peptide-containing nerves were also observed but with a lower density. During the non-mating period noradrenergic nerves dramatically reduced. These results suggest that there is a neuro-endocrine interaction between androgen hormones and the autonomic nerve supply in the regulation of male water buffalo reproductive functions.

  9. Perineal nodular indurations ("accessory testicles") in cyclists. Fine needle aspiration cytologic and pathologic findings in two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, P N; Camuzard, P; Schoonaert, M F

    1988-01-01

    The cytologic and histologic findings from two cases of perineal nodular indurations observed in two cyclists are reported. These lesions, also referred to as "accessory testicles" or "third testicle" or "ischial hygromas" of cyclists, consist of a localized aseptic area of necrosis with pseudocyst formation involving connective tissue in the superficial fascia of the perineum. These histologic findings, which were seen in the subsequent surgical specimens in these two cases, were reflected in the fine needle aspiration findings. The aspirates contained few cellular elements, mainly a few vacuolated histiocytes, against a background of fibrinous material. These indurations, which develop as a result of repeated, chronic microtrauma to the perineum impressed by the vibration of the saddle of the bicycle, constitute an authentic handicap for the professional cyclist and are a contraindication to cycling for amateur cyclists.

  10. Sulfonylurea Receptor 1 Subunits of ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels and Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefer, David J.; Nichols, Colin G.; Coetzee, William A.

    2009-01-01

    KATP channels are generally cardioprotective under conditions of metabolic impairment, consisting of pore-forming (Kir6.1 and/or Kir6.2) and sulphonylurea-binding, modulatory subunits (SUR1, SUR2A or SUR2B). Cardiovascular KATP channels are generally thought to consist of Kir6.2/SUR2A subunits (in the case of heart muscle) or Kir6.1/SUR2B subunits (smooth muscle), whereas SUR1-containing channels have well-documented roles in pancreatic insulin release. Recent data, however, demonstrated the presence of SUR1 subunits in mouse cardiac tissue (particularly in atria) and a surprising protection from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in SUR1-null mice. Here we review some of the extra-pancreatic roles assigned to SUR1 subunits and consider whether these might be involved in the sequelae of ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:19577714

  11. Association of condensin with chromosomes depends on DNA binding by its HEAT-repeat subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Ilaria; Rutkowska, Anna; Ori, Alessandro; Walczak, Marta; Metz, Jutta; Pelechano, Vicent; Beck, Martin; Haering, Christian H

    2014-06-01

    Condensin complexes have central roles in the three-dimensional organization of chromosomes during cell divisions, but how they interact with chromatin to promote chromosome segregation is largely unknown. Previous work has suggested that condensin, in addition to encircling chromatin fibers topologically within the ring-shaped structure formed by its SMC and kleisin subunits, contacts DNA directly. Here we describe the discovery of a binding domain for double-stranded DNA formed by the two HEAT-repeat subunits of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae condensin complex. From detailed mapping data of the interfaces between the HEAT-repeat and kleisin subunits, we generated condensin complexes that lack one of the HEAT-repeat subunits and consequently fail to associate with chromosomes in yeast and human cells. The finding that DNA binding by condensin's HEAT-repeat subunits stimulates the SMC ATPase activity suggests a multistep mechanism for the loading of condensin onto chromosomes.

  12. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder associated with KChIP1 rs1541665 in Kv channels accessory proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Fen Yuan

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is an early onset childhood neurodevelopmental disorder with high heritability. A number of genetic risk factors and environment factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ADHD. Genes encoding for subtypes of voltage-dependent K channels (Kv and accessory proteins to these channels have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS of ADHD. We conducted a two-stage case-control study to investigate the associations between five key genes (KChIP4, KChIP1, DPP10, FHIT, and KCNC1 and the risk of developing ADHD. In the discovery stage comprising 256 cases and 372 controls, KChIP1 rs1541665 and FHIT rs3772475 were identified; they were further genotyped in the validation stage containing 328cases and 431 controls.KChIP1 rs1541665 showed significant association with a risk of ADHD at both stages, with CC vs TT odds ratio (OR = 1.961, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.366-2.497, in combined analyses (P-FDR = 0.007. Moreover, we also found rs1541665 involvement in ADHD-I subtype (OR (95% CI = 2.341(1.713, 3.282, and Hyperactive index score (P = 0.005 in combined samples.Intriguingly, gene-environmental interactions analysis consistently revealed the potential interactionsof rs1541665 collaboratingwith maternal stress pregnancy (Pmul = 0.021 and blood lead (Padd = 0.017 to modify ADHD risk. In conclusion, the current study provides evidence that genetic variants of Kv accessory proteins may contribute to the susceptibility of ADHD.Further studies with different ethnicitiesare warranted to produce definitive conclusions.

  13. Development and evaluation of accessories to improve the posture of veterinary surgeons in surgical procedures conducted in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A.S. Vulcani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study was conducted based on the information collected on rural properties in the state of Goiás, during practical classes of Surgical Clinic in Large Animals at the Veterinary Hospital of the Escola de Veterinária e Zootecnia of the Universidade Federal de Goiás and during the implementation of outreach projects developed by the institution. An acropostite-phimosis surgical procedure in the bulls in the field was selected, lasting over 30 minutes and requiring movements, posture and strength on the part of the surgeon. Devices were proposed and developed to provide improved comfort and safety to surgeons. The first device was a stool to be used by the professional during the execution of the surgical intervention. The use enabled the surgeon to sit down and rest their feet on the ground, reducing knee bending and distributing the support forces in various muscle groups. For the movement restriction of the surgeon, another accessory was developed to support the foreskin of the animal. Made of wood, this other device serves as a support for keeping the foreskin away from the ground and close to the surgeon. Its length, width and thickness established a good relation with the stool height, providing minimal discomfort to the professional. The third device was designed to assist in the immobilization of the animal and increase safety for the patient and surgical team. A fourth accessory was designed to protect the scapular region and avoid the occurrence of injuries in the radial nerve, myopathies and traumas during the rollover or prolonged stay of the animal in lateral decubitus. The choice of the shape, dimensions and softness of the device was mainly based on the weight of the animal. Such devices have proven to be effective, reducing the time of surgery, making cervical and lumbar movement easier, in addition to providing better support to the surgeon, reducing risks of musculoskeletal diseases.

  14. From micron to mountain-scale, using accessory phase petrochronology to quantify the rates of deformation in the Himalaya and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Mountains form where the Earth's plates collide; during this upheaval rocks are deformed by massive forces. The rates and timescales over which these deformational processes occur are determined from tiny accessory minerals that record geological time through radioactive decay. However, there remain major unresolved challenges in using chemical and microstructural markers to link the dates yielded from these accessory phases to specific deformation events and discerning the effects of deformation on the isotopic and elemental tracers in these phases. Here, the chemical signatures and deformation textures from micron-scale accessory phases are used to decode the record of mountain belt-scale deformational processes encrypted in the rocks. The Himalayan orogen is used as an ideal natural laboratory to understand the chemical processes that have modified the Earth's crust during orogenesis. Combined laser ablation split-stream U-Th-Pb and REE analysis of deformed monazite and titanite, along with Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD) imaging and Pressure-Temperature (P-T) phase equilibria modelling are used to: (1) link accessory phase `age' to `metamorphic stage'; (2) to quantify the influence of deformation on monazite (re)crystallisation mechanisms and its subsequent effect on the crystallographic structure, ages and trace-element distribution in individual grains; and (3) understand how deformation is accommodated through different chemical and structural processes that operate at varying scales through time. This study highlights the importance of fully integrating the pressure-temperature-time-deformation history of multiple accessory phases to better interpret the deformational history of the cores of evolving mountain belts.

  15. GABAA receptor subunit deregulation in the hippocampus of human foetuses with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic, Ivan; Stojanovic, Tamara; Aronica, Eleonora; Fülöp, Livia; Bozsó, Zsolt; Máté, Zoltán; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Adle-Biassette, Homa; Lubec, Gert; Szabó, Gábor; Harkany, Tibor; Kovács, Gábor G; Keimpema, Erik

    2017-11-22

    The function, regulation and cellular distribution of GABAA receptor subunits have been extensively documented in the adult rodent brain and are linked to numerous neurological disorders. However, there is a surprising lack of knowledge on the cellular (sub-) distribution of GABAA receptor subunits and of their expressional regulation in developing healthy and diseased foetal human brains. To propose a role for GABAA receptor subunits in neurodevelopmental disorders, we studied the developing hippocampus of normal and Down syndrome foetuses. Among the α1-3 and γ2 subunits probed, we find significantly altered expression profiles of the α1, α3 and γ2 subunits in developing Down syndrome hippocampi, with the α3 subunit being most affected. α3 subunits were selectively down-regulated in all hippocampal subfields and developmental periods tested in Down syndrome foetuses, presenting a developmental mismatch by their adult-like distribution in early foetal development. We hypothesized that increased levels of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), and particularly its neurotoxic β-amyloid (1-42) fragment, could disrupt α3 gene expression, likely by facilitating premature neuronal differentiation. Indeed, we find increased APP content in the hippocampi of the Down foetuses. In a corresponding cellular model, soluble β-amyloid (1-42) administered to cultured SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, augmented by retinoic acid-induced differentiation towards a neuronal phenotype, displayed a reduction in α3 subunit levels. In sum, this study charts a comprehensive regional and subcellular map of key GABAA receptor subunits in identified neuronal populations in the hippocampus of healthy and Down syndrome foetuses and associates increased β-amyloid load with discordant down-regulation of α3 subunits.

  16. Subunit and chlorophyll organization of the plant photosystem II supercomplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bezouwen, Laura S; Caffarri, Stefano; Kale, Ravindra S; Kouřil, Roman; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W H; Oostergetel, Gert T; Boekema, Egbert J

    2017-06-12

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a light-driven protein, involved in the primary reactions of photosynthesis. In plant photosynthetic membranes PSII forms large multisubunit supercomplexes, containing a dimeric core and up to four light-harvesting complexes (LHCs), which act as antenna proteins. Here we solved a three-dimensional (3D) structure of the C2S2M2 supercomplex from Arabidopsis thaliana using cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single-particle analysis at an overall resolution of 5.3 Å. Using a combination of homology modelling and restrained refinement against the cryo-EM map, it was possible to model atomic structures for all antenna complexes and almost all core subunits. We located all 35 chlorophylls of the core region based on the cyanobacterial PSII structure, whose positioning is highly conserved, as well as all the chlorophylls of the LHCII S and M trimers. A total of 13 and 9 chlorophylls were identified in CP26 and CP24, respectively. Energy flow from LHC complexes to the PSII reaction centre is proposed to follow preferential pathways: CP26 and CP29 directly transfer to the core using several routes for efficient transfer; the S trimer is directly connected to CP43 and the M trimer can efficiently transfer energy to the core through CP29 and the S trimer.

  17. NMDA receptor structures reveal subunit arrangement and pore architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Hsueh; Lü, Wei; Michel, Jennifer Carlisle; Goehring, April; Du, Juan; Song, Xianqiang; Gouaux, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Summary N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are Hebbian-like coincidence detectors, requiring binding of glycine and glutamate in combination with the relief of voltage-dependent magnesium block to open an ion conductive pore across the membrane bilayer. Despite the importance of the NMDA receptor in the development and function of the brain, a molecular structure of an intact receptor has remained elusive. Here we present x-ray crystal structures of the GluN1/GluN2B NMDA receptor with the allosteric inhibitor, Ro25-6981, partial agonists and the ion channel blocker, MK-801. Receptor subunits are arranged in a 1-2-1-2 fashion, demonstrating extensive interactions between the amino terminal and ligand binding domains. The transmembrane domains harbor a closed-blocked ion channel, a pyramidal central vestibule lined by residues implicated in binding ion channel blockers and magnesium, and a ~2-fold symmetric arrangement of ion channel pore loops. These structures provide new insights into the architecture, allosteric coupling and ion channel function of NMDA receptors. PMID:25008524

  18. NMDA receptor structures reveal subunit arrangement and pore architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Hsueh; Lü, Wei; Michel, Jennifer Carlisle; Goehring, April; Du, Juan; Song, Xianqiang; Gouaux, Eric

    2014-07-10

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are Hebbian-like coincidence detectors, requiring binding of glycine and glutamate in combination with the relief of voltage-dependent magnesium block to open an ion conductive pore across the membrane bilayer. Despite the importance of the NMDA receptor in the development and function of the brain, a molecular structure of an intact receptor has remained elusive. Here we present X-ray crystal structures of the Xenopus laevis GluN1-GluN2B NMDA receptor with the allosteric inhibitor, Ro25-6981, partial agonists and the ion channel blocker, MK-801. Receptor subunits are arranged in a 1-2-1-2 fashion, demonstrating extensive interactions between the amino-terminal and ligand-binding domains. The transmembrane domains harbour a closed-blocked ion channel, a pyramidal central vestibule lined by residues implicated in binding ion channel blockers and magnesium, and a ∼twofold symmetric arrangement of ion channel pore loops. These structures provide new insights into the architecture, allosteric coupling and ion channel function of NMDA receptors.

  19. Design of a hyperstable 60-subunit protein icosahedron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Yang; Bale, Jacob B.; Gonen, Shane; Shi, Dan; Sheffler, William; Fong, Kimberly K.; Nattermann, Una; Xu, Chunfu; Huang, Po-Ssu; Ravichandran, Rashmi; Yi, Sue; Davis, Trisha N.; Gonen, Tamir; King, Neil P.; Baker, David

    2016-07-01

    The icosahedron is the largest of the Platonic solids, and icosahedral protein structures are widely used in biological systems for packaging and transport. There has been considerable interest in repurposing such structures for applications ranging from targeted delivery to multivalent immunogen presentation. The ability to design proteins that self-assemble into precisely specified, highly ordered icosahedral structures would open the door to a new generation of protein containers with properties custom-tailored to specific applications. Here we describe the computational design of a 25-nanometre icosahedral nanocage that self-assembles from trimeric protein building blocks. The designed protein was produced in Escherichia coli, and found by electron microscopy to assemble into a homogenous population of icosahedral particles nearly identical to the design model. The particles are stable in 6.7 molar guanidine hydrochloride at up to 80 degrees Celsius, and undergo extremely abrupt, but reversible, disassembly between 2 molar and 2.25 molar guanidinium thiocyanate. The icosahedron is robust to genetic fusions: one or two copies of green fluorescent protein (GFP) can be fused to each of the 60 subunits to create highly fluorescent ‘standard candles’ for use in light microscopy, and a designed protein pentamer can be placed in the centre of each of the 20 pentameric faces to modulate the size of the entrance/exit channels of the cage. Such robust and customizable nanocages should have considerable utility in targeted drug delivery, vaccine design and synthetic biology.

  20. Vaccine profile of herpes zoster (HZ/su) subunit vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Heineman, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) causes an often severe and painful rash in older people and may be complicated by prolonged pain (postherpetic neuralgia; PHN) and by dissemination in immune-compromised patients. HZ results from reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, often associated with age-related or other causes of decreased T cell immunity. A live attenuated vaccine boosts this immunity and provides partial protection against HZ, but this decreases with age and declines over 8 years. Areas covered: A new HZ subunit (HZ/su) vaccine combines a key surface VZV glycoprotein (E) with a T cell-boosting adjuvant system (AS01 B ) and is administered by two intramuscular injections two months apart. Expert commentary: HZ/su showed excellent efficacy of ~90% in immunocompetent adults ≥50 and ≥70 years of age, respectively, in the ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 phase III controlled trials. Efficacy was unaffected by advancing age and persisted for >3 years. Approximately 9.5% of subjects had severe, but transient (1-2 days) injection site pain, swelling or redness. Compliance with both vaccine doses was high (95%). The vaccine will have a major impact on HZ management. Phase I-II trials showed safety and immunogenicity in severely immunocompromised patients. Phase III trial results are expected soon.