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Sample records for accessory protein mrap

  1. Melanocortin receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2) interplays with the zebrafish melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) but has no effect on its pharmacological profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Raúl; Agulleiro, Maria Josep; Navarro, Sandra; Guillot, Raúl; Sánchez, Elisa; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel

    2014-05-15

    The melanocortin system is probably one of the most complex hormonal systems since it integrates agonist, encoded in the proopiomelanocortin precursor, endogenous antagonist, agouti signaling protein and agouti-related protein, five different G-protein coupled receptors and two accessory proteins. These accessory proteins interact with melanocortin receptors to allow traffic to the plasma membrane or to regulate the pharmacological profile. The MC1R fill the extension locus, which is primarily responsible for the regulation of pigmentation. In zebrafish, both MC1R and MRAP2 system are expressed in the skin. We demonstrate that zebrafish MC1R physically, or closely, interacts with the MRAP2 system, although this interaction did not result in modification of the studied pharmacological profile. However, progressive fasting induced skin darkening but also an upregulation of the MRAP2 expression in the skin, suggesting an unknown role for MRAP2a that could involve receptor desensitization processes. We also demonstrate that crowding stress induces skin darkening and a downregulation of MC1R expression in the skin.

  2. Analysis of the pharmacological properties of chicken melanocortin-2 receptor (cMC2R) and chicken melanocortin-2 accessory protein 1 (cMRAP1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlock, Travis K; Gehr, Deshae T; Dores, Robert M

    2014-09-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) melanocortin-2 receptor (cMC2R) can be functionally expressed in CHO cells when chicken melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein 1 (cMRAP1) is co-expressed. The transiently transfected CHO cells responded in a robust manner to stimulation by hACTH(1-24) (EC50 value=2.7 × 10(-12)M +/- 1.3 × 10(-12)), but the transfected CHO cells could not be stimulated by NDP-MSH at concentrations as high as 10(-7)M. Incubation of cMC2R/cMRAP1 transfected cells with alanine substituted analogs of hACTH(1-24) at amino acid positions F(7) or W(9) completely blocked stimulation of the transfected cells. Similarly, incubation of cMC2R/cMRAP1 transfected cells with an analog of hACTH(1-24) with alanine substitutions at amino acid positions R(17)R(18)P(19) resulted in a 276 fold shift in EC50 value relative to the positive control (pHFRW motif and KKRRP motif of hACTH(1-24), and both motifs are required for full activation of the receptor. While previous studies had shown that Anolis carolinensis MC2R and Xenopus tropicalis MC2R could be functionally expressed in CHO cells that co-expressed mouse MRAP1, co-expression of these non-mammalian tetrapod MC2Rs with cMRAP1 resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity to hACTH(1-24), as measured by EC50 value, for A. carolinensis MC2R (p<0.005) and X. tropicalis MC2R (p<0.007). The implications of these observations are discussed.

  3. Dual Topology of the Melanocortin-2 Receptor Accessory Protein Is Stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maben, Zachary J; Malik, Sundeep; Jiang, Liyi H; Hinkle, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    Melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) facilitates trafficking of melanocortin 2 (MC2) receptors and is essential for ACTH binding and signaling. MRAP is a single transmembrane domain protein that forms antiparallel homodimers. These studies ask when MRAP first acquires this dual topology, whether MRAP architecture is static or stable, and whether the accessory protein undergoes rapid turnover. To answer these questions, we developed an approach that capitalizes on the specificity of bacterial biotin ligase, which adds biotin to lysine in a short acceptor peptide sequence; the distinct mobility of MRAP protomers of opposite orientations based on their N-linked glycosylation; and the ease of identifying biotin-labeled proteins. We inserted biotin ligase acceptor peptides at the N- or C-terminal ends of MRAP and expressed the modified proteins in mammalian cells together with either cytoplasmic or endoplasmic reticulum-targeted biotin ligase. MRAP assumed dual topology early in biosynthesis in both CHO and OS3 adrenal cells. Once established, MRAP orientation was stable. Despite its conformational stability, MRAP displayed a half-life of under 2 h in CHO cells. The amount of MRAP was increased by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and MRAP underwent ubiquitylation on lysine and other amino acids. Nonetheless, when protein synthesis was blocked with cycloheximide, MRAP was rapidly degraded even when MG132 was included and all lysines were replaced by arginines, implicating non-proteasomal degradation pathways. The results show that although MRAP does not change orientations during trafficking, its synthesis and degradation are dynamically regulated.

  4. Transcriptional activation of melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein by PPARγ in adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam Soo; Kim, Yoon-Jin [Department of Biology, Research Institute for Basic Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Si Young [R and D Center, Amore Pacific Corporation, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-729 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Ryong, E-mail: trlee@amorepacific.com [R and D Center, Amore Pacific Corporation, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-729 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Hoon, E-mail: shkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Biology, Research Institute for Basic Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-27

    Highlights: •MRAP enhanced HSL expression. •ACTH-mediated MRAP reduced glycerol release. •PPARγ induced MRAP expression. •PPARγ bound to the MRAP promoter. -- Abstract: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in rodents decreases lipid accumulation and body weight. Melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R) and MC2R accessory protein (MRAP) are specific receptors for ACTH in adipocytes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways such as adipogenesis and β-oxidation of fatty acids. In this study we investigated the transcriptional regulation of MRAP expression during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Stimulation with ACTH affected lipolysis in murine mature adipocytes via MRAP. Putative peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) was identified in the MRAP promoter region. In chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we observed binding of PPARγ to the MRAP promoter. The mutagenesis experiments showed that the −1209/−1198 region of the MRAP promoter could function as a PPRE site. These results suggest that PPARγ is required for transcriptional activation of the MRAP gene during adipogenesis, which contributes to understanding of the molecular mechanism of lipolysis in adipocytes.

  5. Loss of Mrap2 is associated with Sim1 deficiency and increased circulating cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselova, T V; Larder, R; Rimmington, D; Lelliott, C; Wynn, E H; Gorrigan, R J; Tate, P H; Guasti, L; O’Rahilly, S; Logan, D W; Coll, A P; Chan, L F

    2016-01-01

    Melanocortin receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2) is a transmembrane accessory protein predominantly expressed in the brain. Both global and brain-specific deletion of Mrap2 in mice results in severe obesity. Loss-of-function MRAP2 mutations have also been associated with obesity in humans. Although MRAP2 has been shown to interact with MC4R, a G protein-coupled receptor with an established role in energy homeostasis, appetite regulation and lipid metabolism, the mechanisms through which loss of MRAP2 causes obesity remains uncertain. In this study, we used two independently derived lines of Mrap2 deficient mice (Mrap2tm1a/tm1a) to further study the role of Mrap2 in the regulation of energy balance and peripheral lipid metabolism. Mrap2tm1a/tm1a mice have a significant increase in body weight, with increased fat and lean mass, but without detectable changes in food intake or energy expenditure. Transcriptomic analysis showed significantly decreased expression of Sim1, Trh, Oxt and Crh within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of Mrap2tm1a/tm1a mice. Circulating levels of both high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased in Mrap2 deficient mice. Taken together, these data corroborate the role of MRAP2 in metabolic regulation and indicate that, at least in part, this may be due to defective central melanocortin signalling. PMID:27106110

  6. Association of estradiol on expression of melanocortin receptors and their accessory proteins in the liver of chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junxiao; Li, Yanmin; Xu, Naiyi; Li, Hong; Li, Cuicui; Han, Ruili; Wang, Yanbin; Li, Zhuanjian; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun; Tian, Yadong

    2017-01-01

    The melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAP and MRAP2) are small single-pass transmembrane proteins that regulate the biological functions of the melanocortin receptor (MCR) family. MCRs comprise five receptors (MC1R-MC5R) with diverse physiological roles in mammals. Five MCR members and two MRAPs were also predicted in the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome. However, little is known about their expression, regulation and biological functions. In this study, we cloned the MRAP and MRAP2 genes. Sequencing analysis revealed that the functional domains of MRAP and MRAP2 were conserved among species, suggesting that the physiological roles of chicken MRAP and MRAP2 could be similar to their mammalian counterparts. Tissue expression analysis demonstrated that MRAP was expressed in the adrenal gland, liver, spleen, glandular stomach and lungs, while MRAP2 is predominantly expressed in the adrenal gland. All five MCRs were present in the adrenal gland, but showed different expression patterns in other tissues. The MC5R was the only MCR member that was expressed in the chicken liver. The expression levels of MRAP in chicken liver were significantly increased at sexual maturity stage, and were significantly up-regulated (Pchickens and chicken primary hepatocytes were treated with 17β-estradiol in vivo and in vitro, respectively; however, expression levels of PPARγ were down-regulated, and no effect on MC5R was observed. Our results suggested that estrogen could stimulate the expression of MRAP in the liver of chicken through inhibiting the expression of transcription regulation factor PPARγ, and MRAP might play its biological role in a different way rather than forming an MRAP/MC2R complex in chicken liver during the egg-laying period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Accessory Proteins at ERES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkenberg, Rafael David

    proteins. Together these components co‐operate in cargo‐selection as well as forming, loading and releasing budding vesicles from specific regions on the membrane surface of the ER. Coat components furthermore convey vesicle targeting towards the Golgi. However, not much is known about the mechanisms...... that regulate the COPII assembly at the vesicle bud site. This thesis provides the first regulatory mechanism of COPII assembly in relation to ER‐membrane lipid‐signal recognition by the accessory protein p125A (Sec23IP). The aim of the project was to characterize p125A function by dissecting two main domains...... in the protein; a putative lipid‐associating domain termed the DDHD domain that is defined by the four amino acid motif that gives the domain its name; and a ubiquitously found domain termed Sterile α‐motif (SAM), which is mostly associated with oligomerization and polymerization. We first show, that the DDHD...

  8. Determination of alpha-2-MRAP gene polymorphisms in nephrolithiasis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehde, Atheer Awad; Mehdi, Wesen Adel; Yusof, Faridah; Raus, Raha Ahmed; Abidin, Zaima Azira Zainal; Ghazali, Hamid; Rahman, Azlina Abd

    2017-07-29

    The intron 5 insertion/deletion polymorphism of Alpha-2-macroglobulin receptor-associated protein gene (Alpha-2-MRAP) has been implicated in numerous diseases. The current study was designed to analyze the association of intron 5 insertion/deletion polymorphism of Alpha-2-MRAP with nephrolithiasis patients. PCR was conducted on genomic DNA of patients and control to look for Alpha-2-MRAP insertion/deletion polymorphism. Besides that, serum level of Alpha-2-MRAP, oxidative stress marker myeloperoxidase, Malondialdehyde (MDA), Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), and uric acid were determined. The D and I allele frequencies were 57.50% and 42.50% in patients, 77.50% and 22.50% in control, individually. The result showed that II genotype was associated with nephrolithiasis patients group. A significant decrease was observed in serum Alpha-2-MRAP,myeloperoxidase and TAS,while TOS,OSI,MDA,AOPP and uric acid were substantially increased in II and ID when compared to DD genotype in patients with nephrolithiasis. Our results demonstrate for the first time that patients with II genotype had an increased risk of stones. Also, the results demonstrate that I allele of the 5 insertion/deletion polymorphism in the Alpha-2-MRAP gene is related with an increase of oxidative stress in nephrolithiasis patients and may possibly impose a risk for cardiovascular diseases in patients with II genotype of Alpha-2-MRAP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. HIV-1 accessory proteins: Vpu and Vif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Amy; Strebel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 Vif and Vpu are accessory factors involved in late stages of viral replication. Vif regulates viral infectivity by preventing virion incorporation of APOBEC3G and other members of the family of cytidine deaminases, while Vpu causes degradation of CD4 and promotes virus release by functionally inactivating the host factor BST-2. This chapter described techniques used for the characterization of Vif and Vpu and their functional interaction with host factors. Many of the techniques are, however, applicable to the functional analysis of other viral proteins.

  10. Accessory proteins of SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding Xiang; Fung, To Sing; Chong, Kelvin Kian-Long; Shukla, Aditi; Hilgenfeld, Rolf

    2014-09-01

    The huge RNA genome of SARS coronavirus comprises a number of open reading frames that code for a total of eight accessory proteins. Although none of these are essential for virus replication, some appear to have a role in virus pathogenesis. Notably, some SARS-CoV accessory proteins have been shown to modulate the interferon signaling pathways and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The structural information on these proteins is also limited, with only two (p7a and p9b) having their structures determined by X-ray crystallography. This review makes an attempt to summarize the published knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins, with an emphasis on their involvement in virus-host interaction. The accessory proteins of other coronaviruses are also briefly discussed. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses" (see Introduction by Hilgenfeld and Peiris (2013)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphology and protein patterns of honey bee drone accessory glands.

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    Cruz-Landim, Carminda da; Dallacqua, Rodrigo Pires

    2005-09-30

    We used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine the morphology of the accessory glands of immature and mature adult males of Apis mellifera L. We also made an electrophoretic analysis of the protein content of the mature gland. The glands of the immature male actively secrete a mucous substance that can be seen in the lumen of the gland of the mature male. This secretion stains with mercury bromophenol blue and with periodic acid-Schiff reaction, which stain glyconjugates. The protein content was higher in the lumen secretion than in the gland wall extracts. The electrophoresis patterns of the wall extracts were different from those of the secretion found in the gland lumen.

  12. Strategies for inhibiting function of HIV-1 accessory proteins: a necessary route to AIDS therapy?

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    Richter, S N; Frasson, I; Palù, G

    2009-01-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) genome encodes three major structural proteins common to all retroviruses (Gag, Pol and Env), two regulatory proteins (Tat and Rev) that are essential for viral replication, and four accessory proteins (Nef, Vif, Vpu, Vpr). While accessory proteins were initially reported to be unnecessary for viral growth, their importance as virulence factors is now being more and more appreciated: they can dramatically alter the course and severity of viral infection, replication and disease progression. None of the HIV accessory proteins display enzymatic activity: they rather act altering cellular pathways via multiple protein-protein interactions with a number of host cell factors. All currently approved anti-HIV drugs target pol and env encoded proteins. Therefore, widening the molecular targets of HIV therapy by additionally targeting accessory proteins may expand treatment options, resulting in high impact effective new therapy. In this review we present the state of the art of compounds that target HIV accessory proteins. Most of the research has focused on the inhibition of specific accessory proteins/host cell partner interactions. Promising compounds have been found within different classes of molecules: small natural and synthetic molecules, peptides and proteins, oligonucleotides, in particular those used as RNA interference (RNAi) tools. With the assortment of compounds available, especially against Nef and Vif functions, the demonstration of the clinical efficacy of the new anti-HIV-1 drugs targeting accessory proteins is next challenge.

  13. Chloroquine inhibits accessory cell presentation of soluble natural and synthetic protein antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1984-01-01

    was time- and dose-dependent. A brief treatment solely of the accessory cells with the drug compromised their ability to stimulate primed T cells in a subsequent culture provided the accessory cells were treated with chloroquine before their exposure to the antigen. These results suggest that chloroquine......We have studied the in vitro effect of the lysosomotrophic agent, chloroquine, on the presentation of soluble protein antigens by guinea pig accessory cells. Chloroquine inhibited the capacity of antigen-pulsed accessory cells to stimulate proliferation in appropriately primed T cells. The effect...

  14. Dynamic expression pattern of kinesin accessory protein in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ritu Sarpal; Krishanu Ray

    2002-09-01

    We have identified the Drosophila homologue of the non-motor accessory subunit of kinesin-II motor complex. It is homologous to the SpKAP115 of the sea urchin, KAP3A and KAP3B of the mouse, and SMAP protein in humans. In situ hybridization using a DmKAP specific cRNA probe has revealed a dynamic pattern of expression in the developing nervous system. The staining first appears in a subset of cells in the embryonic central nervous system at stage 13 and continues till the first instar larva stage. At the third instar larva stage the staining gets restricted to a few cells in the optic lobe and in the ventral ganglion region. It has also stained a subset of sensory neurons from late stage 13 and till the first instar larva stage. The DmKAP expression pattern in the nervous system corresponds well with that of Klp64D and Klp68D as reported earlier. In addition, we have found that the DmKAP gene is constitutively expressed in the germline cells and in follicle cells during oogenesis. These cells are also stained using an antibody to KLP68D protein, but mRNA in situ hybridization using KLP64D specific probe has not stained these cells. Together these results proved a basis for further analysis of tissue specific function of DmKAP in future.

  15. Biosynthesis of Active Bacillus subtilis Urease in the Absence of Known Urease Accessory Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Kyong; Mulrooney, Scott B.; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2005-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis contains urease structural genes but lacks the accessory genes typically required for GTP-dependent incorporation of nickel. Nevertheless, B. subtilis was shown to possess a functional urease, and the recombinant enzyme conferred low levels of nickel-dependent activity to Escherichia coli. Additional investigations of the system lead to the suggestion that B. subtilis may use unidentified accessory proteins for in vivo urease activation.

  16. The ulcerative colitis marker protein WAFL interacts with accessory proteins in endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Fu Pan, Ing-Marie Viklund, Heng Hang Tsai, Sven Pettersson, Ichiro N. Maruyama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is one of the major forms of inflammatory bowel disease with unknown cause. A molecular marker, WAFL, has recently been found to be up-regulated in the inflamed colonic mucosa of UC patients. Towards understanding biological function of WAFL, we analyzed proteins interacting with WAFL in HEK-293 cells by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. Among four proteins found to specifically interact with WAFL, both KIAA0196 and KIAA1033 bind to α-appendage of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2, which acts as an interaction hub for accessory proteins in endocytosis mediated by clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV. The specific interaction between WAFL and KIAA0196 was also confirmed in human colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells by co-immunoprecipitation with specific antibodies. Meta-analyses of the databases of expressed genes suggest that the three genes are co-expressed in many tissues and cell types, and that their molecular function may be classified in the category of 'membrane traffic protein'. Therefore, these results suggest that WAFL may play an important role in endocytosis and subsequent membrane trafficking by interacting with AP2 through KIAA0196 and KIAA1033.

  17. The Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Function Is Modulated by HIV-1 Accessory Proteins

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    Edward Barker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells’ major role in the control of viruses is to eliminate established infected cells. The capacity of NK cells to kill virus-infected cells is dependent on the interactions between ligands on the infected cell and receptors on the NK cell surface. Because of the importance of ligand-receptor interactions in modulating the NK cell cytotoxic response, HIV has developed strategies to regulate various NK cell ligands making the infected cell surprisingly refractory to NK cell lysis. This is perplexing because the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr induces expression of ligands for the NK cell activating receptor, NKG2D. In addition, the accessory protein Nef removes the inhibitory ligands HLA-A and -B. The reason for the ineffective killing by NK cells despite the strong potential to eliminate infected cells is due to HIV-1 Vpu’s ability to down modulate the co-activation ligand, NTB-A, from the cell surface. Down modulation of NTB-A prevents efficient NK cell degranulation. This review will focus on the mechanisms through which the HIV-1 accessory proteins modulate their respective ligands, and its implication for NK cell killing of HIV-infected cells.

  18. The Role of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-Coronavirus Accessory Proteins in Virus Pathogenesis

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    McBride, Ruth; Fielding, Burtram C.

    2012-01-01

    A respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus, termed the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was first reported in China in late 2002. The subsequent efficient human-to-human transmission of this virus eventually affected more than 30 countries worldwide, resulting in a mortality rate of ~10% of infected individuals. The spread of the virus was ultimately controlled by isolation of infected individuals and there has been no infections reported since April 2004. However, the natural reservoir of the virus was never identified and it is not known if this virus will re-emerge and, therefore, research on this virus continues. The SARS-CoV genome is about 30 kb in length and is predicted to contain 14 functional open reading frames (ORFs). The genome encodes for proteins that are homologous to known coronavirus proteins, such as the replicase proteins (ORFs 1a and 1b) and the four major structural proteins: nucleocapsid (N), spike (S), membrane (M) and envelope (E). SARS-CoV also encodes for eight unique proteins, called accessory proteins, with no known homologues. This review will summarize the current knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins and will include: (i) expression and processing; (ii) the effects on cellular processes; and (iii) functional studies. PMID:23202509

  19. Crystal Structure of a Truncated Urease Accessory Protein UreF From Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Robert; Romanov, Vladimir; Johns, Kathy; Battaile, Kevin P.; Wu-Brown, Jean; Guthrie, Jennifer L.; Hausinger, Robert P.; Pai, Emil F.; Chirgadze, Nickolay Y.

    2010-01-01

    Urease plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori in humans. Maturation of this nickel metalloenzyme in bacteria requires the participation of the accessory proteins UreD (termed UreH in H. pylori), UreF, and UreG which form sequential complexes with the urease apoprotein as well as UreE, a metallochaperone. Here, we describe the crystal structure of C-terminal truncated UreF from H. pylori (residues 1-233), the first UreF structure to be determined, at 1.55 Å resolution ...

  20. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and Drosophila sulfurigaster neonasuta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Ravi Ram; S. R. Ramesh

    2007-12-01

    Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism was analysed in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and D. sulfurigaster neonasuta for the first time, using SDS-PAGE to score polymorphism of these proteins in 2788 individuals of D. n. nasuta and 2232 individuals of D. s. neonasuta from 12 different populations from southern India. A total of 25 and 18 variant protein phenotypes were identified in D. n. nasuta and D. s. neonasuta, respectively. Protein fractions of group III were more polymorphic than those from groups I and II. The results show that accessory gland secretory proteins show high levels of polymorphism, irrespective of species or habitat. Moreover, we have used the variation in the accessory gland proteins to assess the extent of divergence between the species and to infer their population structure. The study suggests that though both D. n. nasuta and D. s. neonasuta belong to the same subgroup, they differ in population structure, as far as accessory gland protein polymorphism is concerned.

  1. Army Greatest Inventions - CY 2009 Program, MRAP Overhead Wire Mitigation (OWM) Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    their MRAP vehicles. This created a dangerous operational and safety issue with the potential to electrocute the crew and destroy sensitive onboard...laundry to our patrol vehicles. UNCLASSIFIED: DIST A. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE 3 THE SOLUTION : In response to these pressing issues...and inspired by the ingenuity of Soldier-created solutions in theater, RDECOM-TARDEC developed the objective MRAP Overhead Wire Mitigation (OWM) kit

  2. Proteomic identification of Drosophila melanogaster male accessory gland proteins, including a pro-cathepsin and a soluble γ-glutamyl transpeptidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Mohammed

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In Drosophila melanogaster, the male seminal fluid contains proteins that are important for reproductive success. Many of these proteins are synthesised by the male accessory glands and are secreted into the accessory gland lumen, where they are stored until required. Previous studies on the identification of Drosophila accessory gland products have largely focused on characterisation of male-specific accessory gland cDNAs from D. melanogaster and, more recently, Drosophila simulans. In the present study, we have used a proteomics approach without any sex bias to identify proteins in D. melanogaster accessory gland secretions. Results Thirteen secreted accessory gland proteins, including seven new accessory gland proteins, were identified by 2D-gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry of tryptic fragments. They included protein-folding and stress-response proteins, a hormone, a lipase, a serpin, a cysteine-rich protein and two peptidases, a pro-enzyme form of a cathepsin K-like cysteine peptidase and a γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. Enzymatic studies established that accessory gland secretions contain a cysteine peptidase zymogen that can be activated at low pH. This peptidase may have a role in the processing of female and other male-derived proteins, but is unlikely to be involved in the processing of the sex peptide. γ-Glutamyl transpeptidases are type II integral membrane proteins; however, the identified AG γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT-1 is unusual in that it is predicted to be a soluble secreted protein, a prediction that is supported by biochemical evidence. GGT-1 is possibly involved in maintaining a protective redox environment for sperm. The strong γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity found in the secretions provides an explanation for the observation that glutamic acid is the most abundant free amino acid in accessory gland secretions of D. melanogaster. Conclusion We have applied biochemical approaches, not used

  3. Immune evasion activities of accessory proteins Vpu, Nef and Vif are conserved in acute and chronic HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlcochova, Petra; Apolonia, Luis; Kluge, Silvia F; Sridharan, Aishwarya; Kirchhoff, Frank; Malim, Michael H; Sauter, Daniel; Gupta, Ravindra K

    2015-08-01

    Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission has been identified as a genetic bottleneck and a single transmitted/founder (T/F) variant with reduced sensitivity to type I interferon initiates productive infection in most cases. We hypothesized that particularly active accessory protein(s) may confer T/F viruses with a selective advantage in establishing HIV infection. Thus, we tested vpu, vif and nef alleles from six T/F and six chronic (CC) viruses in assays for 9 immune evasion activities involving the counteraction of interferon-stimulated genes and modulation of ligands known to activate innate immune cells. All functions were highly conserved with no significant differences between T/F and CC viruses, suggesting that these accessory protein functions are important throughout the course of infection.

  4. Critical role of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 accessory proteins in viral replication and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Björn; Lairmore, Michael D

    2002-09-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is associated with a diverse range of lymphoproliferative and neurodegenerative diseases, yet pathogenic mechanisms induced by the virus remain obscure. This complex retrovirus contains typical structural and enzymatic genes but also unique regulatory and accessory genes in four open reading frames (ORFs) of the pX region of the viral genome (pX ORFs I to IV). The regulatory proteins encoded by pX ORFs III and IV, Tax and Rex, respectively, have been extensively characterized. In contrast the contribution of the four accessory proteins p12(I), p27(I), p13(II), and p30(II), encoded by pX ORFs I and II, to viral replication and pathogenesis remained unclear. Proviral clones that are mutated in either pX ORF I or II, while fully competent in cell culture, are severely limited in their replicative capacity in a rabbit model. Emerging evidence indicates that the HTLV-1 accessory proteins are critical for establishment of viral infectivity, enhance T-lymphocyte activation, and potentially alter gene transcription and mitochondrial function. HTLV-1 pX ORF I expression is critical to the viral infectivity in resting primary lymphocytes, suggesting a role for p12(I) in lymphocyte activation. The endoplasmic reticulum and cis-Golgi localizing p12(I), encoded from pX ORF I, activates NFAT, a key T-cell transcription factor, through calcium-mediated signaling pathways and may lower the threshold of lymphocyte activation via the JAK/STAT pathway. In contrast p30(II) localizes to the nucleus and represses viral promoter activity, but may regulate cellular gene expression through p300/CBP or related coactivators of transcription. p13(II) targets mitochondrial proteins, where it alters the organelle morphology and may influence energy metabolism. Collectively, studies of the molecular functions of the HTLV-1 accessory proteins provide insight into strategies used by retroviruses that are associated with lymphoproliferative

  5. A Critical Role for the GluA1 Accessory Protein, SAP97, in Cocaine Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Samantha L; Ortinski, Pavel I; Friedman, Shayna H; Zhang, Lei; Neve, Rachael L; Kalb, Robert G; Schmidt, Heath D; Pierce, R Christopher

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the transport of GluA1 subunit-containing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) to synapses in subregions of the nucleus accumbens promotes cocaine seeking. Consistent with these findings, the present results show that administration of the CP-AMPAR antagonist, Naspm, into the caudal lateral core or caudal medial shell of the nucleus accumbens attenuated cocaine priming-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Moreover, viral-mediated overexpression of 'pore dead' GluA1 subunits (via herpes simplex virus (HSV) GluA1-Q582E) in the lateral core or medial shell attenuated the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. The overexpression of wild-type GluA1 subunits (via HSV GluA1-WT) in the medial shell, but not the lateral core, enhanced the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. These results indicate that activation of GluA1-containing AMPARs in subregions of the nucleus accumbens reinstates cocaine seeking. SAP97 and 4.1N are proteins involved in GluA1 trafficking to and stabilization in synapses; SAP97-GluA1 interactions also influence dendritic growth. We next examined potential roles of SAP97 and 4.1N in cocaine seeking. Viral-mediated expression of a microRNA that reduces SAP97 protein expression (HSV miSAP97) in the medial accumbens shell attenuated cocaine seeking. In contrast, a virus that overexpressed a dominant-negative form of a 4.1N C-terminal domain (HSV 4.1N-CTD), which prevents endogenous 4.1N binding to GluA1 subunits, had no effect on cocaine seeking. These results indicate that the GluA1 subunit accessory protein SAP97 may represent a novel target for pharmacotherapeutic intervention in the treatment of cocaine craving.

  6. DNMT3B isoforms without catalytic activity stimulate gene body methylation as accessory proteins in somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duymich, Christopher E; Charlet, Jessica; Yang, Xiaojing; Jones, Peter A; Liang, Gangning

    2016-04-28

    Promoter DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism for stable gene silencing, but is correlated with expression when located in gene bodies. Maintenance and de novo DNA methylation by catalytically active DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3A/B) require accessory proteins such as UHRF1 and DNMT3L. DNMT3B isoforms are widely expressed, although some do not have active catalytic domains and their expression can be altered during cell development and tumourigenesis, questioning their biological roles. Here, we show that DNMT3B isoforms stimulate gene body methylation and re-methylation after methylation-inhibitor treatment. This occurs independently of the isoforms' catalytic activity, demonstrating a similar functional role to the accessory protein DNMT3L, which is only expressed in undifferentiated cells and recruits DNMT3A to initiate DNA methylation. This unexpected role for DNMT3B suggests that it might substitute for the absent accessory protein DNMT3L to recruit DNMT3A in somatic cells.

  7. Interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein interacts with the type II interleukin-1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowsky, D; Lundkvist, J; Layé, S; Bartfai, T

    1998-06-16

    Stably transfected HEK-293 cells express on their surface the murine type II IL-1 receptor (mIL-1RII) as demonstrated by FACS analysis using the mAb 4E2, however binding of [125I]-hrIL-1beta to these cells is nearly absent. Saturable high affinity binding of [125I]-hrIL-1beta is observed when the murine IL-1 receptor accessory protein (mIL-1RAcP) is coexpressed with mIL-1RII. Binding of [125I]-hrIL-1beta to mIL-1RII-mIL-1RAcP complex can be inhibited either with antibodies to mIL-1RII (mAb 4E2), or by antibodies to mIL-1RAcP (mAb 4C5). The number of high affinity binding sites in cells stably transfected with the cDNA for mIL-1RII is dependent on the dose of cDNA for mIL-1RAcP used to transfect the cells. The high affinity complex between mIL-1RII and mIL-1RAcP is not preformed by interaction between the intracellular domains of these two transmembrane proteins, rather it appears to require the extracellular portions of mIL-1RII and mIL-1RAcP and the presence of a ligand. We suggest that in addition to its earlier described decoy receptor role, IL-1RII may modulate the responsiveness of cells to IL-1 by binding the IL-1RAcP in unproductive/non-signalling complexes and thus reducing the number of signalling IL-1RI-IL-1RAcP-agonist complexes when IL-1 is bound.

  8. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males.

  9. Characterisation of different forms of the accessory gp3 canine coronavirus type I protein identified in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Orengiani, Anne-Laure Pham-Hung d'Alexandry; Duarte, Lidia; Pavio, Nicole; Le Poder, Sophie

    2015-04-16

    ORF3 is a supplemental open reading frame coding for an accessory glycoprotein gp3 of unknown function, only present in genotype I canine strain (CCoV-I) and some atypical feline FCoV strains. In these latter hosts, the ORF3 gene systematically displays one or two identical deletions leading to the synthesis of truncated proteins gp3-Δ1 and gp3-Δ2. As deletions in CoV accessory proteins have already been involved in tissue or host switch, studies of these different gp3 proteins were conducted in canine and feline cell. All proteins oligomerise through covalent bonds, are N-glycosylated and are maintained in the ER in non-infected but also in CCoV-II infected cells, without any specific retention signal. However, deletions influence their level of expression. In canine cells, all proteins are expressed with similar level whereas in feline cells, the expression of gp3-Δ1 is higher than the two other forms of gp3. None of the gp3 proteins modulate the viral replication cycle of heterologous genotype II CCoV in canine cell line, leading to the conclusion that the gp3 proteins are probably advantageous only for CCoV-I and atypical FCoV strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. ACCESSORY SPLEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accessory spleen is a small nodule of splenic tissue found apart from main body of spleen. Other name for accessory spleen is supernumerary spleen, splenule or splenunculus. It is usually congenital failure of fusion of splenunculus found close to hilum of spleen, greater omentum, tail of pancreas. Accessory spleen is found approximately in 10% population. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study 100 cadaveric spleens obtained from routine dissection, specimens present in Department of Anatomy, Andhra Medical College, Vishakhapatnam in 3 years span, out of which 25 are foetal spleens, 75 are adult spleens. RESULTS We got 4 accessory spleens in adult and 1 in foetal spleen. CONCLUSION The knowledge of accessory spleen is medically significant. That they may result in interpretation errors in diagnostic imaging and symptoms may be continued after splenectomy.

  11. Homology modeling, docking studies and functional analysis of various azoreductase accessory interacting proteins of Nostoc sp.PCC7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philem, Priyadarshini Devi; Adhikari, Samrat

    2012-01-01

    Azo dyes have become a threat to public health because of its toxicity and carcinogenicity. Azoreductase enzyme plays a pivotal role in the degradation of azodyes released by industrial effluents and other resources. The degradation pathway has to be studied in detail for increasing the activity of azoreductase and for better degradation of azo dyes. But the data available on cyanobacterial azoreductase enzyme and its degradation pathway are still very less. Therefore the present work explored the azoreductase pathway of the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC7120 for better understanding of the degradation pathway and the other accessory interacting proteins involved. The accessory interacting proteins of azoreductase from cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC7120 were obtained from STRING database. The proteins do not have a comprehensive three dimensional structure and are hypothetical. The secondary structure and functional analysis indicated that the proteins are all soluble proteins, without disulphide bonds and have alpha helices only. The structural prediction and docking study showed that alr2106, alr1063 and alr2326 have best docking result which tally with the STRING database confidence score and thus these proteins could possibly enhance the azoreductase activity and better dye degradation. These results will pave way for further increase in azoreductase activity and for better understanding of the dye degradation pathway.

  12. Production and characterisation of Epstein-Barr virus helicase-primase complex and its accessory protein BBLF2/3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Eric; Brennich, Martha; Round, Adam; Buisson, Marlyse; Burmeister, Wim P; Hutin, Stephanie

    2015-10-01

    The helicase-primase complex is part of the lytic DNA replication machinery of herpesviruses, but up to now, almost nothing is known about its structure. For Epstein-Barr virus it consists in the helicase BBLF4, the primase BSLF1 and the accessory protein BBLF2/3. The accessory protein shows only weak sequence homology within the herpesvirus family but may be related to an inactive B-family polymerase. BSLF1 belongs to the archaeo-eukaryotic primase family, whereas the helicase BBLF4 has been related either to Dda helicases of caudovirales or to Pif1 helicases. We produced the helicase-primase complex in insect cells using a baculovirus coding for all three proteins simultaneously. The soluble monomeric helicase-primase complex containing the three proteins with 1:1:1 stoichiometry showed ATPase activity, which is strongly stimulated in the presence of ssDNA oligomers. Furthermore, we expressed BBLF2/3 as soluble monomeric protein and performed small-angle X-ray scattering experiments which yielded an envelope whose shape is compatible with B-family polymerases.

  13. The role of accessory proteins in the replication of feline infectious peritonitis virus in peripheral blood monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Vermeulen, Ben L; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-03-23

    The ability to productively infect monocytes/macrophages is the most important difference between the low virulent feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and the lethal feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). In vitro, the replication of FECV in peripheral blood monocytes always drops after 12h post inoculation, while FIPV sustains its replication in the monocytes from 45% of the cats. The accessory proteins of feline coronaviruses have been speculated to play a prominent role in virulence as deletions were found to be associated with attenuated viruses. Still, no functions have been ascribed to them. In order to investigate if the accessory proteins of FIPV are important for sustaining its replication in monocytes, replication kinetics were determined for FIPV 79-1146 and its deletion mutants, lacking either accessory protein open reading frame 3abc (FIPV-Δ3), 7ab (FIPV-Δ7) or both (FIPV-Δ3Δ7). Results showed that the deletion mutants FIPV-Δ7 and FIPV-Δ3Δ7 could not maintain their replication, which was in sharp contrast to wt-FIPV. FIPV-Δ3 could still sustain its replication, but the percentage of infected monocytes was always lower compared to wt-FIPV. In conclusion, this study showed that ORF7 is crucial for FIPV replication in monocytes/macrophages, giving an explanation for its importance in vivo, its role in the development of FIP and its conservation in field strains. The effect of an ORF3 deletion was less pronounced, indicating only a supportive role of ORF3 encoded proteins during the infection of the in vivo target cell by FIPVs.

  14. Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    height (including antennae) have resulted in it striking power lines, which could result in electrocutions . CRS-6 27 U.S. Government Accountability...design modifications and modifying driver training. Another possible solution might be to impose operational restrictions on MRAPs, which could further

  15. Impacts of Humanized Mouse Models on the Investigation of HIV-1 Infection: Illuminating the Roles of Viral Accessory Proteins in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Yamada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 encodes four accessory genes: vif, vpu, vpr, and nef. Recent investigations using in vitro cell culture systems have shed light on the roles of these HIV-1 accessory proteins, Vif, Vpr, Vpu, and Nef, in counteracting, modulating, and evading various cellular factors that are responsible for anti-HIV-1 intrinsic immunity. However, since humans are the exclusive target for HIV-1 infection, conventional animal models are incapable of mimicking the dynamics of HIV-1 infection in vivo. Moreover, the effects of HIV-1 accessory proteins on viral infection in vivo remain unclear. To elucidate the roles of HIV-1 accessory proteins in the dynamics of viral infection in vivo, humanized mouse models, in which the mice are xenotransplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells, has been utilized. This review describes the current knowledge of the roles of HIV-1 accessory proteins in viral infection, replication, and pathogenicity in vivo, which are revealed by the studies using humanized mouse models.

  16. A multi-scale mathematical modeling framework to investigate anti-viral therapeutic opportunities in targeting HIV-1 accessory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Gajendra W; Hoffmann, Alexander

    2015-12-07

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) employs accessory proteins to evade innate immune responses by neutralizing the anti-viral activity of host restriction factors. Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme 3G (APOBEC3G, A3G) and bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2) are host resistance factors that potentially inhibit HIV-1 infection. BST2 reduces viral production by tethering budding HIV-1 particles to virus producing cells, while A3G inhibits the reverse transcription (RT) process and induces viral genome hypermutation through cytidine deamination, generating fewer replication competent progeny virus. Two HIV-1 proteins counter these cellular restriction factors: Vpu, which reduces surface BST2, and Vif, which degrades cellular A3G. The contest between these host and viral proteins influences whether HIV-1 infection is established and progresses towards AIDS. In this work, we present an age-structured multi-scale viral dynamics model of in vivo HIV-1 infection. We integrated the intracellular dynamics of anti-viral activity of the host factors and their neutralization by HIV-1 accessory proteins into the virus/cell population dynamics model. We calculate the basic reproductive ratio (Ro) as a function of host-viral protein interaction coefficients, and numerically simulated the multi-scale model to understand HIV-1 dynamics following host factor-induced perturbations. We found that reducing the influence of Vpu triggers a drop in Ro, revealing the impact of BST2 on viral infection control. Reducing Vif׳s effect reveals the restrictive efficacy of A3G in blocking RT and in inducing lethal hypermutations, however, neither of these factors alone is sufficient to fully restrict HIV-1 infection. Interestingly, our model further predicts that BST2 and A3G function synergistically, and delineates their relative contribution in limiting HIV-1 infection and disease progression. We provide a robust modeling framework for devising novel combination therapies that target

  17. The Study of the Rapid Acquisition Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) Vehicle Program and Its Impact on the Warfighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    sent to Afghanistan in which the Marine Corps set up an infrastructure to support the vehicles. MRAPs withdrawn from Iraq passed through Kuwait for...possible maintenance level and vehicles can be returned to operational status within 48 hours. As the Afghanistan infrastructure matured, additional...happened with any vehicle, but may be emblematic of the trade-offs in fielding MRAPs rapidly. The Naval Facilities Engineering Command’s (2008) User’s

  18. The 7a accessory protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus acts as an RNA silencing suppressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjee, Sumona; Minhas, Ankita; Sood, Vikas; Ponia, Sanket S; Banerjea, Akhil C; Chow, Vincent T K; Mukherjee, Sunil K; Lal, Sunil K

    2010-10-01

    RNA silencing suppressors (RSSs) are well studied for plant viruses but are not well defined to date for animal viruses. Here, we have identified an RSS from a medically important positive-sense mammalian virus, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The viral 7a accessory protein suppressed both transgene and virus-induced gene silencing by reducing the levels of small interfering RNA (siRNA). The suppression of silencing was analyzed by two independent assays, and the middle region (amino acids [aa] 32 to 89) of 7a was responsible for suppression. Finally, the RNA suppression property and the enhancement of heterologous replicon activity by the 7a protein were confirmed for animal cell lines.

  19. Isolation and killing of candidate chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells by antibody targeting of IL-1 receptor accessory protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järås, Marcus; Johnels, Petra; Hansen, Nils Gunder

    2010-01-01

    whether IL1RAP expression distinguishes normal (Ph(-)) and leukemic (Ph(+)) cells within the CML CD34(+)CD38(-) cell compartment, we established a unique protocol for conducting FISH on small numbers of sorted cells. By using this method, we sorted cells directly into drops on slides to investigate......Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is genetically characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, formed through a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 and giving rise to the constitutively active tyrosine kinase P210 BCR/ABL1. Therapeutic strategies aiming for a cure of CML...... will require full eradication of Ph chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) CML stem cells. Here we used gene-expression profiling to identify IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP) as up-regulated in CML CD34(+) cells and also in cord blood CD34(+) cells as a consequence of retroviral BCR/ABL1 expression. To test...

  20. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gorshkov

    Full Text Available In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate, as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug. Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland.

  1. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Blenau, Wolfgang; Koeniger, Gudrun; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate), as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug). Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O) was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland.

  2. A DNA polymerase alpha accessory protein, Mcl1, is required for propagation of centromere structures in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyoaki Natsume

    Full Text Available Specialized chromatin exists at centromeres and must be precisely transmitted during DNA replication. The mechanisms involved in the propagation of these structures remain elusive. Fission yeast centromeres are composed of two chromatin domains: the central CENP-A(Cnp1 kinetochore domain and flanking heterochromatin domains. Here we show that fission yeast Mcl1, a DNA polymerase alpha (Pol alpha accessory protein, is critical for maintenance of centromeric chromatin. In a screen for mutants that alleviate both central domain and outer repeat silencing, we isolated several cos mutants, of which cos1 is allelic to mcl1. The mcl1-101 mutation causes reduced CENP-A(Cnp1 in the central domain and an aberrant increase in histone acetylation in both domains. These phenotypes are also observed in a mutant of swi7(+, which encodes a catalytic subunit of Pol alpha. Mcl1 forms S-phase-specific nuclear foci, which colocalize with those of PCNA and Pol alpha. These results suggest that Mcl1 and Pol alpha are required for propagation of centromere chromatin structures during DNA replication.

  3. Mating behavior induces changes of expression of Fos protein, plasma testosterone and androgen receptors in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of the male mandarin vole Microtus mandarinus

    OpenAIRE

    Fengqin HE, Fadao TAI

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the neuroendocrine mechanism of the mating behavior in the adult male mandarin voles Microtus mandarinus, the radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunohistochemistry methods were used to investigate the differences in plasma testosterone (T) concentrations and distribution of T immunoreactive neurons (T-IRs), androgen receptor immunoreactive neurons (AR-IRs) and Fos protein immunoreactive neurons (Fos-IRs) in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) and the main olfactory bulb (MOB)...

  4. Drug Repurposing: Tolfenamic Acid Inactivates PrbP, a Transcriptional Accessory Protein in Liberibacter asiaticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Gardner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available CLIBASIA_01510, PrbP, is a predicted RNA polymerase binding protein in Liberibacter asiaticus. PrbP was found to regulate expression of a small subset of ribosomal genes through interactions with the β-subunit of the RNA polymerase and a short, specific sequence on the promoter region. Molecular screening assays were performed to identify small molecules that interact with PrbP in vitro. Chemical hits were analyzed for therapeutic efficacy against L. asiaticus via an infected leaf assay, where the transcriptional activity of L. asiaticus was found to decrease significantly after exposure to tolfenamic acid. Similarly, tolfenamic acid was found to inhibit L. asiaticus infection in highly symptomatic citrus seedlings. Our results indicate that PrbP is an important transcriptional regulator for survival of L. asiaticus in planta, and the chemicals identified by molecular screening assays could be used as a therapeutic treatment for huanglongbing disease.

  5. The need to accessorize: Molecular roles of HTLV-1 p30 and HTLV-2 p28 accessory proteins in the viral life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaneesh eAnupam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 over the last three decades have provided detailed knowledge on viral transformation, host-viral interactions and pathogenesis. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATL and multiple neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases while HTLV-2 disease association remains elusive, with few infected individuals displaying neurodegenerative diseases similar to HTLV-1. The HTLV group of oncoretroviruses has a genome that encodes structural and enzymatic proteins Gag, Pro and Env, regulatory proteins Tax and Rex, and several accessory proteins from the pX region. Of these proteins, HTLV-1 p30 and HTLV-2 p28 are encoded by the open reading frame (ORF II of the pX region. Like most other accessory proteins, p30 and p28 are dispensable for in vitro viral replication and transformation but are required for efficient viral replication and persistence in vivo. Both p30 and p28 regulate viral gene expression at the post-transcriptional level whereas p30 can also function at the transcriptional level. Recently, several reports have implicated p30 and p28 in multiple cellular processes, which provide novel insight into HTLV spread and survival and ultimately pathogenesis. In this review we summarize and compare what is known about p30 and p28, highlighting their roles in viral replication and viral pathogenesis.

  6. Accessory Proteins at ERES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkenberg, Rafael David

    domain of p125A utilizes a stretch of positively charged residues (KGRKR) to bind lipid membranes that are enriched in Phosphatidylinositol‐4‐phosphates (PI(4)P). The specificity of the DDHD domain lipid recognition is demonstrated to be enhanced through p125A oligomerization mediated by the upstream SAM...... recognition strongly disperse ERES. This dispersal of the ERES can be rescued by replacing the DDHD with the PI(4)P recognizing Fapp1‐PH domain even if SAM(L690E) is still present in p125A. We additionally show that a stretch of cationic residues (KGRKR) in the DDHD abrogated p125A lipid recognition...

  7. The V-ATPase accessory protein Atp6ap1b mediates dorsal forerunner cell proliferation and left-right asymmetry in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokey, Jason J; Dasgupta, Agnik; Amack, Jeffrey D

    2015-11-01

    Asymmetric fluid flows generated by motile cilia in a transient 'organ of asymmetry' are involved in establishing the left-right (LR) body axis during embryonic development. The vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) proton pump has been identified as an early factor in the LR pathway that functions prior to cilia, but the role(s) for V-ATPase activity are not fully understood. In the zebrafish embryo, the V-ATPase accessory protein Atp6ap1b is maternally supplied and expressed in dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs) that give rise to the ciliated organ of asymmetry called Kupffer's vesicle (KV). V-ATPase accessory proteins modulate V-ATPase activity, but little is known about their functions in development. We investigated Atp6ap1b and V-ATPase in KV development using morpholinos, mutants and pharmacological inhibitors. Depletion of both maternal and zygotic atp6ap1b expression reduced KV organ size, altered cilia length and disrupted LR patterning of the embryo. Defects in other ciliated structures-neuromasts and olfactory placodes-suggested a broad role for Atp6ap1b during development of ciliated organs. V-ATPase inhibitor treatments reduced KV size and identified a window of development in which V-ATPase activity is required for proper LR asymmetry. Interfering with Atp6ap1b or V-ATPase function reduced the rate of DFC proliferation, which resulted in fewer ciliated cells incorporating into the KV organ. Analyses of pH and subcellular V-ATPase localizations suggested Atp6ap1b functions to localize the V-ATPase to the plasma membrane where it regulates proton flux and cytoplasmic pH. These results uncover a new role for the V-ATPase accessory protein Atp6ap1b in early development to maintain the proliferation rate of precursor cells needed to construct a ciliated KV organ capable of generating LR asymmetry.

  8. A Model to Estimate the Operating and Maintenance (O&M) Costs of the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    September 28, 2010 from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ground/mrap-var.htm Heizer , J., & Render, B. (2008). Operations Management ...Visibility & Management of Operation & Support Cost xv EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The role of High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs) in the United... Operating and Support Management Information System (OSMIS) and the Marine Corps’ Visibility and Management of Operating and Support Costs (VAMOSC

  9. Synthesis, depletion and cell-type expression of a protein from the male accessory glands of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Parra, Catalina; Avila, Frank W; Deewatthanawong, Prasit; Sirot, Laura K; Wolfner, Mariana F; Harrington, Laura C

    2014-11-01

    Aedes aegypti males transfer sperm and seminal fluid proteins (Sfps), primarily produced by male accessory glands (AGs), to females during mating. When collectively injected or transplanted into females, AG tissues and/or seminal fluid homogenates have profound effects on Aedes female physiology and behavior. To identify targets and design new strategies for vector control, it is important to understand the biology of the AGs. Thus, we examined characteristics of AG secretion and development in A. aegypti, using the AG-specific seminal fluid protein, AAEL010824, as a marker. We showed that AAEL010824 is first detectable by 12h post-eclosion, and increases in amount over the first 3 days of adult life. We then showed that the amount of AAEL0010824 in the AG decreases after mating, with each successive mating depleting it further; by 5 successive matings with no time for recovery, its levels are very low. AAEL010824 levels in a depleted male are replenished by 48 h post-mating. In addition to examining the level of AAEL010824 protein, we also characterized the expression of its gene. We did this by making a transgenic mosquito line that carries an Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) fused to the AAEL0010824 promoter that we defined here. We showed that AAEL010824 is expressed in the anterior cells of the accessory glands, and that its RNA levels also respond to mating. In addition to further characterizing AAEL010824 expression, our results with the EGFP fusion provide a promoter for driving AG expression. By providing this information on the biology of an important male reproductive tissue and the production of one of its seminal proteins, our results lay the foundation for future work aimed at identifying novel targets for mosquito population control.

  10. ORF7-encoded accessory protein 7a of feline infectious peritonitis virus as a counteragent against IFN-α-induced antiviral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Roukaerts, Inge D M; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-02-01

    The type I IFN-mediated immune response is the first line of antiviral defence. Coronaviruses, like many other viruses, have evolved mechanisms to evade this innate response, ensuring their survival. Several coronavirus accessory genes play a central role in these pathways, but for feline coronaviruses this has never to our knowledge been studied. As it has been demonstrated previously that ORF7 is essential for efficient replication in vitro and virulence in vivo of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), the role of this ORF in the evasion of the IFN-α antiviral response was investigated. Deletion of ORF7 from FIPV strain 79-1146 (FIPV-Δ7) rendered the virus more susceptible to IFN-α treatment. Given that ORF7 encodes two proteins, 7a and 7b, it was further explored which of these proteins is active in this mechanism. Providing 7a protein in trans rescued the mutant FIPV-Δ7 from IFN sensitivity, which was not achieved by addition of 7b protein. Nevertheless, addition of protein 7a to FIPV-Δ3Δ7, a FIPV mutant deleted in both ORF3 and ORF7, could no longer increase the replication capacity of this mutant in the presence of IFN. These results indicate that FIPV 7a protein is a type I IFN antagonist and protects the virus from the antiviral state induced by IFN, but it needs the presence of ORF3-encoded proteins to exert its antagonistic function.

  11. Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2014-10-01

    Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands.

  12. Structure of UreG/UreF/UreH complex reveals how urease accessory proteins facilitate maturation of Helicobacter pylori urease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hang Fong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Urease is a metalloenzyme essential for the survival of Helicobacter pylori in acidic gastric environment. Maturation of urease involves carbamylation of Lys219 and insertion of two nickel ions at its active site. This process requires GTP hydrolysis and the formation of a preactivation complex consisting of apo-urease and urease accessory proteins UreF, UreH, and UreG. UreF and UreH form a complex to recruit UreG, which is a SIMIBI class GTPase, to the preactivation complex. We report here the crystal structure of the UreG/UreF/UreH complex, which illustrates how UreF and UreH facilitate dimerization of UreG, and assembles its metal binding site by juxtaposing two invariant Cys66-Pro67-His68 metal binding motif at the interface to form the (UreG/UreF/UreH2 complex. Interaction studies revealed that addition of nickel and GTP to the UreG/UreF/UreH complex releases a UreG dimer that binds a nickel ion at the dimeric interface. Substitution of Cys66 and His68 with alanine abolishes the formation of the nickel-charged UreG dimer. This nickel-charged UreG dimer can activate urease in vitro in the presence of the UreF/UreH complex. Static light scattering and atomic absorption spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the nickel-charged UreG dimer, upon GTP hydrolysis, reverts to its monomeric form and releases nickel to urease. Based on our results, we propose a mechanism on how urease accessory proteins facilitate maturation of urease.

  13. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  14. Kicking against the PRCs - A Domesticated Transposase Antagonises Silencing Mediated by Polycomb Group Proteins and Is an Accessory Component of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Chieh Liang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Polycomb group (PcG and trithorax group (trxG genes play crucial roles in development by regulating expression of homeotic and other genes controlling cell fate. Both groups catalyse modifications of chromatin, particularly histone methylation, leading to epigenetic changes that affect gene activity. The trxG antagonizes the function of PcG genes by activating PcG target genes, and consequently trxG mutants suppress PcG mutant phenotypes. We previously identified the ANTAGONIST OF LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (ALP1 gene as a genetic suppressor of mutants in the Arabidopsis PcG gene LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (LHP1. Here, we show that ALP1 interacts genetically with several other PcG and trxG components and that it antagonizes PcG silencing. Transcriptional profiling reveals that when PcG activity is compromised numerous target genes are hyper-activated in seedlings and that in most cases this requires ALP1. Furthermore, when PcG activity is present ALP1 is needed for full activation of several floral homeotic genes that are repressed by the PcG. Strikingly, ALP1 does not encode a known chromatin protein but rather a protein related to PIF/Harbinger class transposases. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that ALP1 is broadly conserved in land plants and likely lost transposase activity and acquired a novel function during angiosperm evolution. Consistent with this, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry (IP-MS show that ALP1 associates, in vivo, with core components of POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 (PRC2, a widely conserved PcG protein complex which functions as a H3K27me3 histone methyltransferase. Furthermore, in reciprocal pulldowns using the histone methyltransferase CURLY LEAF (CLF, we identify not only ALP1 and the core PRC2 components but also plant-specific accessory components including EMBRYONIC FLOWER 1 (EMF1, a transcriptional repressor previously associated with PRC1-like complexes. Taken together our data suggest that ALP1

  15. Infectious bronchitis coronavirus limits interferon production by inducing a host shutoff that requires accessory protein 5b

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kint, Joeri; Langereis, Martijn A.; Maier, Helena J.; Britton, Paul; Kuppeveld, van Frank J.; Koumans, Joseph; Wiegertjes, Geert F.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    During infection of their host cells, viruses often inhibit the production of host proteins, a process that is referred to as host shutoff. By doing this, viruses limit the production of antiviral proteins and increase production capacity for viral proteins. Coronaviruses from the genera Alphacor

  16. Accessory Interaction Motifs in the Atg19 Cargo Receptor Enable Strong Binding to the Clustered Ubiquitin-related Atg8 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abert, Christine; Kontaxis, Georg; Martens, Sascha

    2016-09-02

    Selective autophagy contributes to cellular homeostasis by delivering harmful material into the lysosomal system for degradation via vesicular intermediates referred to as autophagosomes. The cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway is a variant of selective autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during which hydrolases such as prApe1 are transported into the vacuole. In general, selectivity is achieved by autophagic cargo receptors that link the cargo to autophagosomal membranes because of their ability to simultaneously interact with the cargo and Atg8 proteins that coat the membrane. The Atg19 receptor contains multiple Atg8 interaction sites in its C terminus in addition to a canonical Atg8-interacting LC3-interacting region (LIR, with LC3 being a homolog of Atg8) motif, but their mode of interaction with Atg8 is unclear. Here we show, using a combination of NMR, microscopy-based interaction assays, and prApe1 processing experiments, that two additional sites interact with Atg8 in a LIR-like and thus mutually exclusive manner. We term these motifs accessory LIR motifs because their affinities are lower than that of the canonical LIR motif. Thus, one Atg19 molecule has the ability to interact with multiple Atg8 proteins simultaneously, resulting in a high-avidity interaction that may confer specific binding to the Atg8-coated autophagosomal membrane on which Atg8 is concentrated.

  17. Interleukin (IL)-1 in rat parturition: IL-1 receptors 1 and 2 and accessory proteins abundance in pregnant rat uterus at term - regulation by progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Tomohito; Takeda, Jun; Fang, Xin; Bronson, Heather; Olson, David M

    2016-07-01

    The role of interleukin-1 (IL-1), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in parturition is typically noted by changes in its concentrations. Studying the expression of its receptor family, IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) 1, IL-1R2, IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), and its predominantly brain isoform, IL-1RAcPb, during late gestation in the uterus in the Long-Evans rat is another. We assessed changes in their mRNA and protein relative abundance in the uterus and compared IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance in uterus, cervix, ovaries, placenta, and whole blood of Long-Evans rats during late gestation or in RU486 and progesterone-treated dams using quantitative real-time PCR and western immunoblotting. IL-1R1, IL-1RAcP, and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance significantly increased in the uterus at delivery whereas IL-1R2 mRNA abundance significantly decreased. IL-1R1 protein increased at term and IL-1R2 protein decreased at term compared to nonpregnant uteri. IL1-RAcPb mRNA abundance was less than IL-1RAcP, but in the lower uterine segment it was the highest of all tissues examined. RU486 stimulated preterm delivery and an increase in IL-1R1 mRNA abundance whereas progesterone administration extended pregnancy and suppressed the increase in IL-1R1. These data suggest that changes in uterine sensitivity to IL-1 occur during late gestation and suggest another level of regulation for the control of delivery. The roles for IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb need to be determined, but may relate to different intracellular signaling pathways.

  18. Biophysical and physiological characterization of ZraP from Escherichia coli, the periplasmic accessory protein of the atypical ZraSR two-component system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Härtlein, Isabelle; Rome, Kevin; de Rosny, Eve; Molton, Florian; Duboc, Carole; Gueguen, Erwan; Rodrigue, Agnès; Covès, Jacques

    2015-12-01

    The ZraSR system belongs to the family of TCSs (two-component signal transduction systems). In Escherichia coli, it was proposed to participate in zinc balance and to protect cytoplasmic zinc overload by sequestering this metal ion into the periplasm. This system controls the expression of the accessory protein ZraP that would be a periplasmic zinc scavenger. ZraPSR is functionally homologous with CpxPAR that integrates signals of envelope perturbation, including misfolded periplasmic proteins. The auxiliary periplasmic regulator CpxP inhibits the Cpx pathway by interacting with CpxA. Upon envelope stress sensing, the inhibitory function of CpxP is relieved, resulting in CpxR activation. Similarly to CpxPAR, ZraPSR probably plays a role in envelope stress response as a zinc-dependent chaperone activity was demonstrated for ZraP in Salmonella. We have purified ZraP from E. coli and shown that it is an octamer containing four interfacial metal-binding sites contributing to dimer stability. These sites are located close to the N-terminus, whereas the C-terminus is involved in polymerization of the protein to form a tetramer of dimers. In vitro, ZraP binds copper with a higher affinity than zinc and displays chaperone properties partially dependent on zinc binding. In vivo, zinc-bound ZraP is a repressor of the expression of the zraPSR operon. However, we have demonstrated that none of the Zra proteins are involved in zinc or copper resistance. We propose an integrated mechanism in which zinc is a marker of envelope stress perturbation and ZraPSR TCS is a sentinel sensing and responding to zinc entry into the periplasm.

  19. Transcriptome analysis to identify genes for peptides and proteins involved in immunity and reproduction from male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct of Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dong; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Liu, Shi-Huo; Wang, Tao; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    In the male reproductive system of insects, the male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct (MAG/ED) are important organs and their primary function is to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa. Proteins secreted by the MAG/ED are also known to induce post-mating changes and immunity responses in the female insect. To understand the gene expression profile in the MAG/ED of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), that is an important pest in fruits, we performed an Illumina-based deep sequencing of mRNA. This yielded 54,577,630 clean reads corresponding to 4.91Gb total nucleotides that were assembled and clustered to 30,669 unigenes (average 645bp). Among them, 20,419 unigenes were functionally annotated to known proteins/peptides in Gene Orthology, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway databases. Typically, many genes were involved in immunity and these included microbial recognition proteins and antimicrobial peptides. Subsequently, the inducible expression of these immunity-related genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis when insects were challenged with immunity-inducible factors, suggesting their function in guaranteeing fertilization success. Besides, we identified some important reproductive genes such as juvenile hormone- and ecdysteroid-related genes in this de novo assembly. In conclusion, this transcriptomic sequencing of B. dorsalis MAG/ED provides insights to facilitate further functional research of reproduction, immunity and molecular evolution of reproductive proteins in this important agricultural pest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dual interaction of a geminivirus replication accessory factor with a viral replication protein and a plant cell cycle regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settlage, S B; Miller, A B; Gruissem, W; Hanley-Bowdoin, L

    2001-01-20

    Geminiviruses replicate their small, single-stranded DNA genomes through double-stranded DNA intermediates in plant nuclei using host replication machinery. Like most dicot-infecting geminiviruses, tomato golden mosaic virus encodes a protein, AL3 or C3, that greatly enhances viral DNA accumulation through an unknown mechanism. Earlier studies showed that AL3 forms oligomers and interacts with the viral replication initiator AL1. Experiments reported here established that AL3 also interacts with a plant homolog of the mammalian tumor suppressor protein, retinoblastoma (pRb). Analysis of truncated AL3 proteins indicated that pRb and AL1 bind to similar regions of AL3, whereas AL3 oligomerization is dependent on a different region of the protein. Analysis of truncated AL1 proteins located the AL3-binding domain between AL1 amino acids 101 and 180 to a region that also includes the AL1 oligomerization domain and the catalytic site for initiation of viral DNA replication. Interestingly, the AL3-binding domain was fully contiguous with the domain that mediates AL1/pRb interactions. The potential significance of AL3/pRb binding and the coincidence of the domains responsible for AL3, AL1, and pRb interactions are discussed.

  1. DNA polymerase III accessory proteins. I. holA and holB encoding delta and delta'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Z; Onrust, R; Skangalis, M; O'Donnell, M

    1993-06-05

    The genes encoding the delta and delta' subunits of the 10-subunit Escherichia coli replicase, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, have been identified and sequenced. The holA gene encoding delta is located downstream of rlpB at 15.2 min and predicts a 38.7 kda protein. The holB gene encoding delta' is located at 24.3 min and predicts a 36.9-kDa protein. Hence the delta and delta' subunits are unrelated proteins encoded by separate genes. The genes have been used to express and purify delta and delta' in quantity. The predicted amino acid sequence of delta' is homologous to the sequences of the tau and gamma subunits revealing a large amount of structural redundancy within the holoenzyme.

  2. Core Binding Factor β Protects HIV, Type 1 Accessory Protein Viral Infectivity Factor from MDM2-mediated Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yusuke; Shindo, Keisuke; Nagata, Kayoko; Yoshinaga, Noriyoshi; Shirakawa, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi

    2016-11-25

    HIV, type 1 overcomes host restriction factor apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) proteins by organizing an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex together with viral infectivity factor (Vif) and a host transcription cofactor core binding factor β (CBFβ). CBFβ is essential for Vif to counteract APOBEC3 by enabling the recruitment of cullin 5 to the complex and increasing the steady-state level of Vif protein; however, the mechanisms by which CBFβ up-regulates Vif protein remains unclear. Because we have reported previously that mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) is an E3 ligase for Vif, we hypothesized that CBFβ might protect Vif from MDM2-mediated degradation. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed that Vif mutants that do not bind to CBFβ preferentially interact with MDM2 and that overexpression of CBFβ disrupts the interaction between MDM2 and Vif. Knockdown of CBFβ reduced the steady-state level of Vif in MDM2-proficient cells but not in MDM2-null cells. Cycloheximide chase analyses revealed that Vif E88A/W89A, which does not interact with CBFβ, degraded faster than wild-type Vif in MDM2-proficient cells but not in MDM2-null cells, suggesting that Vif stabilization by CBFβ is mainly caused by impairing MDM2-mediated degradation. We identified Vif R93E as a Vif variant that does not bind to MDM2, and the virus with this substitution mutation was more resistant to APOBEC3G than the parental virus. Combinatory substitution of Vif residues required for CBFβ binding and MDM2 binding showed full recovery of Vif steady-state levels, supporting our hypothesis. Our data provide new insights into the mechanism of Vif augmentation by CBFβ.

  3. Phylogenetic Insights into the Functional Relationship between Primate Lentiviral Reverse Transcriptase and Accessory Proteins Vpx/Vpr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yosuke; Doi, Naoya; Miyazaki, Yasuyuki; Adachi, Akio; Nomaguchi, Masako

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of reverse transcription to synthesize viral DNA in infected cells greatly influences replication kinetics of retroviruses. However, viral replication in non-dividing cells such as resting T cells and terminally differentiated macrophages is potently and kinetically restricted by a host antiviral factor designated SAMHD1 (sterile alpha motif and HD-domain containing protein 1). SAMHD1 reduces cellular deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools and affects viral reverse transcription step. Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and some simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) have Vpx or Vpr to efficiently degrade SAMHD1. Interestingly, the reverse transcriptase (RT) derived from HIV-1 that encodes no anti-SAMHD1 proteins has been previously demonstrated to uniquely exhibit a high enzymatic activity. It is thus not irrational to assume that some viruses may have acquired or lost the specific RT property to better adapt themselves to the low dNTP environments confronted in non-dividing cells. This adaptation process may probably be correlated with the SAMHD1-antagonizing ability by viruses. In this report, we asked whether such adaptive events can be inferable from Vpx/Vpr and RT phylogenetic trees overlaid with SAMHD1-degrading capacity of Vpx/Vpr and with kinetic characteristics of RT. Resultant two trees showed substantially similar clustering patterns, and therefore suggested that the properties of RT and Vpx/Vpr can be linked. In other words, HIV/SIVs may possess their own RT proteins to adequately react to various dNTP circumstances in target cells. PMID:27803699

  4. Bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Tsikaras, Prokopios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2006-09-01

    The subscapular artery arises from the third part of the axillary artery and gives off the circumflex scapular and the thoracodorsal arteries. Although anatomical variations of the axillary artery are very common, the existence of a unilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery has been described in the literature only once. There are no reports of bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, in the literature. In the present study, a bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, originating on either side of the third part of the axillary artery, is described in a 68-year-old female cadaver. All the other branches of the axillary artery had a typical origin, course, distribution and termination. This extremely rare anatomical variation apart from the anatomical importance also has clinical significance for surgeons in this area. Especially, during the dissection or mobilization of the latissimus dorsi that is partly used for coverage problems in many regions of the body and also in dynamic cardiomyoplasty, any iatrogenic injury of this accessory artery may result in ischemia and functional loss of the graft.

  5. An inducible packaging cell system for safe, efficient lentiviral vector production in the absence of HIV-1 accessory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchia, A L; Adelson, M E; Kaul, M; Ron, Y; Dougherty, J P

    2001-03-30

    Lentiviral vectors based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) possess the ability to deliver exogenous genes to both dividing and nondividing cells and to subsequently establish a stable provirus in these target cells, which can allow long-term expression of the transferred gene. Herein we describe a stable packaging cell line that is devoid of HIV-1 tat, vif, vpr, vpu, and nef. In order to avoid any risk of cytotoxicity associated with constitutive expression of HIV-1 protease or the VSV-G envelope protein, transcription of the packaging and envelope constructs was tightly controlled by employing the ecdysone-inducible system. Using this cell line, we have been able to consistently generate concentrated pseudotyped vector virus stocks with titers in the range of 10(8) IU/ml, which can efficiently transduce actively dividing and growth-arrested cells in vitro. This novel packaging cell line for lentiviral vectors facilitates the production of high-titer virus stocks in the absence of replication-competent virus and provides us with an important tool for use in future gene transfer studies.

  6. The assembly of the plant urease activation complex and the essential role of the urease accessory protein G (UreG) in delivery of nickel to urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrach, Till; Zhu, Anting; Witte, Claus-Peter

    2017-09-01

    Urease is a ubiquitous nickel metalloenzyme. In plants, its activation requires three urease accessory proteins (UAPs), UreD, UreF, and UreG. In bacteria, the UAPs interact with urease and facilitate activation, which involves the channeling of two nickel ions into the active site. So far this process has not been investigated in eukaryotes. Using affinity pulldowns of Strep-tagged UAPs from Arabidopsis and rice transiently expressed in planta, we demonstrate that a urease-UreD-UreF-UreG complex exists in plants and show its stepwise assembly. UreG is crucial for nickel delivery because UreG-dependent urease activation in vitro was observed only with UreG obtained from nickel-sufficient plants. This activation competence could not be generated in vitro by incubation of UreG with nickel, bicarbonate, and GTP. Compared with their bacterial orthologs, plant UreGs possess an N-terminal extension containing a His- and Asp/Glu-rich hypervariable region followed by a highly conserved sequence comprising two potential HXH metal-binding sites. Complementing the ureG-1 mutant of Arabidopsis with N-terminal deletion variants of UreG demonstrated that the hypervariable region has a minor impact on activation efficiency, whereas the conserved region up to the first HXH motif is highly beneficial and up to the second HXH motif strictly required for activation. We also show that urease reaches its full activity several days after nickel becomes available in the leaves, indicating that urease activation is limited by nickel accessibility in vivo Our data uncover the crucial role of UreG for nickel delivery during eukaryotic urease activation, inciting further investigations of the details of this process. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Mating behavior induces changes of expression of Fos protein, plasma testosterone and androgen receptors in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB of the male mandarin vole Microtus mandarinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqin HE, Fadao TAI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the neuroendocrine mechanism of the mating behavior in the adult male mandarin voles Microtus mandarinus, the radioimmunoassay (RIA and immunohistochemistry methods were used to investigate the differences in plasma testosterone (T concentrations and distribution of T immunoreactive neurons (T-IRs, androgen receptor immunoreactive neurons (AR-IRs and Fos protein immunoreactive neurons (Fos-IRs in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB and the main olfactory bulb (MOB following exposure to clean hard-wood shavings (control group, soiled bedding (exposure group or contact with an estrous female (mating group. Results showed that plasma T concentration was significantly higher in the mating group than that in the exposure group, and both the mating group and the exposure group displayed significantly higher plasma T concentration than the control group. T-IRs, AR-IRs and Fos-IRs were investigated with the immunohistochemistry method in granule cell (GC and mitral cell (MC of the MOB and the AOB in the three groups. There were significantly more T-IRs, AR-IRs and Fos-IRs in MC and GC of the AOB in the mating group than that in the exposure group or the control group. T-IRs, AR-IRs and Fos-IRs did not show significant differences between the exposure group and the control group. Furthermore, obvious differences in MC and GC of the MOB were not found among the three groups. The results confirm that both changes of T and AR in the AOB might be underlying mating behavior in the adult male mandarin voles [Current Zoology 55 (4: 288–295, 2009].

  8. The Rcs stress response and accessory envelope proteins are required for de novo generation of cell shape in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Dev K; Young, Kevin D

    2013-06-01

    Interactions with immune responses or exposure to certain antibiotics can remove the peptidoglycan wall of many Gram-negative bacteria. Though the spheroplasts thus created usually lyse, some may survive by resynthesizing their walls and shapes. Normally, bacterial morphology is generated by synthetic complexes directed by FtsZ and MreBCD or their homologues, but whether these classic systems can recreate morphology in the absence of a preexisting template is unknown. To address this question, we treated Escherichia coli with lysozyme to remove the peptidoglycan wall while leaving intact the inner and outer membranes and periplasm. The resulting lysozyme-induced (LI) spheroplasts recovered a rod shape after four to six generations. Recovery proceeded via a series of cell divisions that produced misshapen and branched intermediates before later progeny assumed a normal rod shape. Importantly, mutants defective in mounting the Rcs stress response and those lacking penicillin binding protein 1B (PBP1B) or LpoB could not divide or recover their cell shape but instead enlarged until they lysed. LI spheroplasts from mutants lacking the Lpp lipoprotein or PBP6 produced spherical daughter cells that did not recover a normal rod shape or that did so only after a significant delay. Thus, to regenerate normal morphology de novo, E. coli must supplement the classic FtsZ- and MreBCD-directed cell wall systems with activities that are otherwise dispensable for growth under normal laboratory conditions. The existence of these auxiliary mechanisms implies that they may be required for survival in natural environments, where bacterial walls can be damaged extensively or removed altogether.

  9. Interleukin-1-mediated febrile responses in mice and interleukin-1 beta activation of NFkappaB in mouse primary astrocytes, involves the interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterström, M; Lundkvist, J; Malinowsky, D; Eriksson, G; Bartfai, T

    1998-06-01

    The endogenous pyrogen interleukin-1 (IL-1) is considered as one of the key molecules in orchestrating the host response of injury and inflammation. IL-1 exerts its effects upon binding to the type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1RI). The IL-1-IL-1RI complex is further thought to associate with the IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), which is suggested to be important for most IL-1 signal transduction pathways. With the aim of investigating the importance of the IL-1RAcP in IL-1 signalling, IL-1alpha and IL-1beta induced febrile responses and IL-1beta-mediated activation of NFkappaB in primary astrocyte cultures were examined using IL-1RAcP-deficient (IL-1RAcP KO) and wild type mice, respectively. It was shown that neither recombinant rat IL-1alpha (rrIL-1alpha, 25 microg/kg), recombinant rat IL-1beta (rrIL-1beta, 40 microg/kg) nor recombinant human IL-1beta (rhIL-1beta, 50 microg/kg) injected i.p. could elicit febrile responses in the IL-1RAcP-deficient mice, while the same doses of rrIL-1alpha/beta or rhIL-1beta injected into wild type mice caused normal fever responses. A febrile response could be induced in the IL-1RAcP-deficient mice by i.p. administration of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 microg/kg) and this response was similar to that obtained in wild type mice. Furthermore, it was shown that rhIL-1beta activated, in a concentration-dependent manner, nuclear translocation of the transcriptional nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) in primary astrocyte cultures prepared from wild type mice, whereas no IL-1beta-induced translocation of NFkappaB could be detected in cultures prepared from IL-1RAcP-deficient mice, as revealed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The rhIL-1beta-induced NFkappaB complexes were shown to contain p50 but no, or very little, p65 and cRel immunoreactive proteins.

  10. Accessory Genes Confer a High Replication Rate to Virulent Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Troyer, Ryan M.; Thompson, Jesse; Elder, John H.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats, similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in humans. The FIV accessory protein Vif abrogates the inhibition of infection by cat APOBEC3 restriction factors. FIV also encodes a multifunctional OrfA accessory protein that has characteristics similar to HIV Tat, Vpu, Vpr, and Nef. To examine the role of vif and orfA accessory genes in FIV replication and pathogenicity, we generated chimeras between tw...

  11. Mfa4, an Accessory Protein of Mfa1 Fimbriae, Modulates Fimbrial Biogenesis, Cell Auto-Aggregation, and Biofilm Formation in Porphyromonas gingivalis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative obligate anaerobic bacterium, is considered to be a key pathogen in periodontal disease. The bacterium expresses Mfa1 fimbriae, which are composed of polymers of Mfa1. The minor accessory components Mfa3, Mfa4, and Mfa5 are incorporated into these fimbriae. In this study, we characterized Mfa4 using genetically modified strains. Deficiency in the mfa4 gene decreased, but did not eliminate, expression of Mfa1 fimbriae. However, Mfa3 and Mfa5 were not i...

  12. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  13. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual... Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A manual operating table and accessories and a manual operating chair...

  14. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A wheelchair accessory is a device intended for medical purposes that is...

  15. Building iPhone OS Accessories

    CERN Document Server

    Maskrey, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a serious, in-depth look at Apple's External Accessory Framework and the iPhone Accessories API. You'll learn how to create new, integrated solutions that combine iPhone apps with dedicated hardware. The iPhone OS Accessories API expands the opportunities for innovative iPhone developers, allowing you to control and monitor external devices, whether you've built them yourself or obtained them from a third party. What you'll learn * Develop accessories and apps for the iPhone and iPod touch. * Use Apple's External Accessory Framework to create hardware/software interaction. *

  16. The Fe-type nitrile hydratase from Comamonas testosteroni Ni1 does not require an activator accessory protein for expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Misty L; Martinez, Salette; Gumataotao, Natalie; Bornscheuer, Uwe; Liu, Dali; Holz, Richard C

    2012-08-03

    We report herein the functional expression of an Fe-type nitrile hydratase (NHase) without the co-expression of an activator protein or the Escherichia coli chaperone proteins GroES/EL. Soluble protein was obtained when the α- and β-subunit genes of the Fe-type NHase Comamonas testosteroni Ni1 (CtNHase) were synthesized with optimized E. coli codon usage and co-expressed. As a control, the Fe-type NHase from Rhodococcus equi TG328-2 (ReNHase) was expressed with (ReNHase(+Act)) and without (ReNHase(-Act)) its activator protein, establishing that expression of a fully functional, metallated ReNHase enzyme requires the co-expression of its activator protein, similar to all other Fe-type NHase enzymes reported to date, whereas the CtNHase does not. The X-ray crystal structure of CtNHase was determined to 2.4Å resolution revealing an αβ heterodimer, similar to other Fe-type NHase enzymes, except for two important differences. First, two His residues reside in the CtNHase active site that are not observed in other Fe-type NHase enzymes and second, the active site Fe(III) ion resides at the bottom of a wide solvent exposed channel. The solvent exposed active site, along with the two active site histidine residues, are hypothesized to play a role in iron incorporation in the absence of an activator protein.

  17. The Fe-type nitrile hydratase from Comamonas testosteroni Ni1 does not require an activator accessory protein for expression in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Misty L.; Martinez, Salette; Gumataotao, Natalie; Bornscheuer, Uwe; Liu, Dali; Holz, Richard C. (Loyola); (Greifswald)

    2012-10-10

    We report herein the functional expression of an Fe-type nitrile hydratase (NHase) without the co-expression of an activator protein or the Escherichia coli chaperone proteins GroES/EL. Soluble protein was obtained when the {alpha}- and {beta}-subunit genes of the Fe-type NHase Comamonas testosteroni Ni1 (CtNHase) were synthesized with optimized E. coli codon usage and co-expressed. As a control, the Fe-type NHase from Rhodococcus equi TG328-2 (ReNHase) was expressed with (ReNHase{sup +Act}) and without (ReNHase{sup -Act}) its activator protein, establishing that expression of a fully functional, metallated ReNHase enzyme requires the co-expression of its activator protein, similar to all other Fe-type NHase enzymes reported to date, whereas the CtNHase does not. The X-ray crystal structure of CtNHase was determined to 2.4 {angstrom} resolution revealing an {alpha}{beta} heterodimer, similar to other Fe-type NHase enzymes, except for two important differences. First, two His residues reside in the CtNHase active site that are not observed in other Fe-type NHase enzymes and second, the active site Fe(III) ion resides at the bottom of a wide solvent exposed channel. The solvent exposed active site, along with the two active site histidine residues, are hypothesized to play a role in iron incorporation in the absence of an activator protein.

  18. The specificity of association of the IgD molecule with the accessory proteins BAP31/BAP29 lies in the IgD transmembrane sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, T; Schamel, W W; Kim, K M; Watanabe, T; Becker, B; Nielsen, P J; Reth, M

    1996-04-01

    Mature B cells co-express on their cell surface two classes of antigen receptor, the IgM and IgD immunoglobulins. The structural and functional differences between the two receptor classes are poorly understood. Recently two proteins of 29 and 31 kDa (BAP29 and BAP31) have been described that are preferentially associated with membrane IgD but only weakly with membrane IgM. We describe here the cloning of full-length murine and human BAP31 cDNAs encoding proteins of 245 and 246 amino acids respectively. The two BAP31 proteins are 95% identical. The BAP31 gene is ubiquitously expressed in murine tissues and is located on the X chromosome in both mouse and man. The murine BAP31 protein has 43% sequence identity to murine BAP29. Both proteins have a hydrophobic N-terminus and an alpha-helical C-terminus which ends with a KKXX motif implicated in vesicular transport. By a mutational analysis we have identified amino acids in the transmembrane sequence of the delta m chain that are critical for binding to BAP31/BAP29. A structural model of the BAPs and their potential functions are discussed.

  19. Locally vascularized pelvic accessory spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, F; Frantellizzi, V; Drudi, Francesco M; Maghella, F; Liberatore, M

    2016-01-01

    Polysplenism and accessory spleen are congenital, usually asymptomatic anomalies. A rare case of polysplenism with ectopic spleen in pelvis of a 67-year-old, Caucasian female is reported here. A transvaginal ultrasound found a soft well-defined homogeneous and vascularized mass in the left pelvis. Patient underwent MRI evaluation and contrast-CT abdominal scan: images with parenchymal aspect, similar to spleen were obtained. Abdominal scintigraphy with 99mTc-albumin nanocolloid was performed and pelvic region was studied with planar scans and SPECT. The results showed the presence of an uptake area of the radiopharmaceutical in the pelvis, while the spleen was normally visualized. These findings confirmed the presence of an accessory spleen with an artery originated from the aorta and a vein that joined with the superior mesenteric vein. To our knowledge, in the literature, there is just only one case of a true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen in the pelvis.

  20. Ultrastructure of the accessory venom gland of the puff-adder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    venom duct and accessory glands were perfused while being stimulated electrically. Total protein .... venom produced for indefinite periods; an outlet (or con- trol) system is necessary as in mammalian salivary glands where there exists an ...

  1. The specificity of association of the IgD molecule with the accessory proteins BAP31/BAP29 lies in the IgD transmembrane sequence.

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, T.; Schamel, W W; Kim, K. M.; Watanabe, T; Becker, B.; Nielsen, P J; Reth, M

    1996-01-01

    Mature B cells co-express on their cell surface two classes of antigen receptor, the IgM and IgD immunoglobulins. The structural and functional differences between the two receptor classes are poorly understood. Recently two proteins of 29 and 31 kDa (BAP29 and BAP31) have been described that are preferentially associated with membrane IgD but only weakly with membrane IgM. We describe here the cloning of full-length murine and human BAP31 cDNAs encoding proteins of 245 and 246 amino acids re...

  2. Effect of the I(to) activator NS5806 on cloned K(V)4 channels depends on the accessory protein KChIP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Jespersen, Thomas; Schmitt, Nicole;

    2010-01-01

    The compound NS5806 increases the transient outward current (I(to)) in canine ventricular cardiomyocytes and slows current decay. In human and canine ventricle, I(to) is thought to be mediated by K(V)4.3 and various ancillary proteins, yet, the exact subunit composition of I(to) channels is still...

  3. A LysM and SH3-domain containing region of the Listeria monocytogenes p60 protein stimulates accessory cells to promote activation of host NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rebecca L; Filak, Holly C; Lemon, Jack D; Potter, Terry A; Lenz, Laurel L

    2011-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) infection induces rapid and robust activation of host natural killer (NK) cells. Here we define a region of the abundantly secreted Lm endopeptidase, p60, that potently but indirectly stimulates NK cell activation in vitro and in vivo. Lm expression of p60 resulted in increased IFNγ production by naïve NK cells co-cultured with treated dendritic cells (DCs). Moreover, recombinant p60 protein stimulated activation of naive NK cells when co-cultured with TLR or cytokine primed DCs in the absence of Lm. Intact p60 protein weakly digested bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN), but neither muropeptide recognition by RIP2 nor the catalytic activity of p60 was required for NK cell activation. Rather, the immune stimulating activity mapped to an N-terminal region of p60, termed L1S. Treatment of DCs with a recombinant L1S polypeptide stimulated them to activate naïve NK cells in a cell culture model. Further, L1S treatment activated NK cells in vivo and increased host resistance to infection with Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS). These studies demonstrate an immune stimulating function for a bacterial LysM domain-containing polypeptide and suggest that recombinant versions of L1S or other p60 derivatives can be used to promote NK cell activation in therapeutic contexts.

  4. A LysM and SH3-domain containing region of the Listeria monocytogenes p60 protein stimulates accessory cells to promote activation of host NK cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Schmidt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes (Lm infection induces rapid and robust activation of host natural killer (NK cells. Here we define a region of the abundantly secreted Lm endopeptidase, p60, that potently but indirectly stimulates NK cell activation in vitro and in vivo. Lm expression of p60 resulted in increased IFNγ production by naïve NK cells co-cultured with treated dendritic cells (DCs. Moreover, recombinant p60 protein stimulated activation of naive NK cells when co-cultured with TLR or cytokine primed DCs in the absence of Lm. Intact p60 protein weakly digested bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN, but neither muropeptide recognition by RIP2 nor the catalytic activity of p60 was required for NK cell activation. Rather, the immune stimulating activity mapped to an N-terminal region of p60, termed L1S. Treatment of DCs with a recombinant L1S polypeptide stimulated them to activate naïve NK cells in a cell culture model. Further, L1S treatment activated NK cells in vivo and increased host resistance to infection with Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS. These studies demonstrate an immune stimulating function for a bacterial LysM domain-containing polypeptide and suggest that recombinant versions of L1S or other p60 derivatives can be used to promote NK cell activation in therapeutic contexts.

  5. Verification, Characterization and Tissue-specific Expression of UreG, a Urease Accessory Protein Gene, from the Amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Yu XUE; Shi-Cui ZHANG; Nai-Guo LIU; Zhen-Hui LIU

    2006-01-01

    UreG genes have been found in bacteria, fungi and plants but have not yet identified in animals,although a putative UreG-like gene has been documented in sea urchin. In the course of a large-scale sequencing of amphioxus gut cDNA library, we have identified a cDNA with high similarity to UreG genes. Both reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and nested polymerase chain reaction, as well as in situ hybridization histochemistry, verified that the cDNA represented an amphioxus UreG gene (AmphiUreG) rather than a microbial contaminant of the cDNA library. This is further supported by the presence of urease activity in amphioxus gut, gill and ovary. AmphiUreG encodes a deduced protein of 200 amino acid residues including a highly conserved P-loop, beating approximately 46%-49%, 44%-48%, and 29%-37% similarity to fungal,plant and bacterial UreG proteins, respectively. It shows a tissue-specific expression pattern in amphioxus,and is especially abundant in the digestive system. This is the first UreG gene identified in animal species.

  6. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power

  7. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  8. A case report: accessory right renal artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patasi B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations in the origin of the arteries in the abdominal area are very common. The arteries that show frequent variations include the celiac trunk, renal and gonadal arteries. During a routine dissection of a male cadaver, one main and one inferior accessory renal artery were found in the abdominal region. We discovered that the inferior accessory renal artery that originated from the right anterolateral aspect of abdominal aorta was running into the lower pole of the right kidney. The origin of the main right renal artery and the inferior accessory right renal artery were 19.8 mm and 53 mm below the superior mesenteric artery, respectively. The inferior accessory right renal artery ran directly into the inferior pole of the right kidney, in the area where the accessory right renal vein was leaving the right kidney. These anatomical variations and anomalies are important to know before any therapeutic or diagnostic procedures are performed in the abdominal area.

  9. The accessory fallopian tube: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum R Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rare anatomical variation in the form of accessory fallopian tube on right side. The duplication of fallopian tube was observed in a 34-year-old female during routine undergraduate dissection in our department. Fallopian tube is the part of uterus that carries the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. Accessory fallopian tube is the congenital anomaly attached to the ampullary part of main tube. This accessory tube is common site of pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, cystic swelling and torsion. The ovum released by the ovary may also be captured by the blind accessory tube leading to infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Hence, all patients of infertility or pelvic inflammatory disease should be screened to rule out the presence of accessory fallopian tube and if encountered should be removed.

  10. Epifascial accessory palmaris longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiengo, Cesare; Macchi, Veronica; Stecco, Carla; Bassetto, Franco; De Caro, Raffaele

    2006-09-01

    In hand reconstructive surgery the palmaris longus muscle is one of the most utilized donor site for tendon reconstruction procedures. However, its anatomic position is variable and anatomic variations may be responsible for median nerve compression. We report the case of a 40-year-old, right-handed woman, who presented with numbness and paresthesias in the palm and in the flexor aspect of the first, second, and third fingers of her right hand for the preceding 5 months, coinciding with increase of office work (typing). The clinical examination and radiological investigations (ultrasound and magnetic resonance) revealed a subcutaneous mass (15 mm x 2.3 mm x 6 cm), with a lenticular shape and definite edges at the level of the volar aspect of the distal third of the forearm. The fine-needle aspiration biopsy revealed the presence of striated muscle fibers. During surgery, a muscle belly was found in the epifascial plane. This muscle originated from subcutaneous septa in the middle forearm and inserted on to the superficial palmar aponeurosis with fine short tendon fibers. Exposure of the antebrachial fascia did not reveal any area of weakness or muscle herniation. The palmaris longus tendon, flexor digitorum superficialis tendons, and flexor carpi radialis tendon showed usual topography under the antebrachial fascia. The accessory muscle was excised and histology revealed unremarkable striated muscle fibers, limited by a thin connective sheath. The presence of an accessory palmaris longus (APL) located in the epifascial plane could be ascribed to an unusual migration of myoblasts during the morphogenesis. Although extremely rare, APL is worth bearing in mind as a possible cause of median nerve compression and etiology of a volar mass in the distal forearm.

  11. [Spinal accessory nerve and lymphatic neck dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsolle, V; Michelet, V; Majoufre, C; Caix, P; Siberchicot, F; Pinsolle, J

    1997-09-01

    Radical neck dissection was the golden standard of treatment for cervical nodes in head and neck tumors. From the seventies, the preservation of the spinal accessory nerve has become increasingly popular in order to improve the functional result of the neck dissections. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of functional disability associated with each type of neck dissection and the value of anatomical references for dissection of the spinal accessory nerve. One hundred twenty seven patients were evaluated 1 month and 1 year after radical, functional or supraomohyoid neck dissection with a questionnaire and a physical examination. Anatomical measurements of the spinal accessory nerve were performed in 20 patients. We found considerable or severe shoulder dysfunction in 7%, 34% and 51% respectively of patients in whom supraomohyoid, functional and radical neck dissections were performed. Furthermore 49% of patients having undergone a radical neck dissection had little or no symptoms. Sacrifice of the spinal accessory nerve in radical neck dissection may lead to shoulder dysfunction. A functional disability may also be associated, although in a less extent, with any neck dissection in which the spinal accessory nerve is dissected and placed in traction. There is a large variation in the degree of functional disability and pain in patients with similar neck dissections. The course of the spinal accessory nerve in the neck makes it particularly vulnerable to injury during the dissection near the sternocleidomastoid muscle and in the posterior cervical triangle.

  12. Cast functional accessories for heat treatment furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drotlew

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study gives examples of the cast functional accessories operating in furnaces for the heat treatment of metals and alloys. The describeddesign solutions of castings and their respective assemblies are used for charge preparation and handling. They were put in systematicorder depending on furnace design and the technological purpose of heat treatment. Basic grades of austenitic cast steel, used for castings of this type, were enumerated, and examples of general guidelines formulated for their use were stated. The functional accessories described in this study were designed and made by the Foundry Research Laboratory of West Pomeranian University of Technology.

  13. [Accessory symptomatology and therapy of Gilles de la Tourette's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkova, M; Terziev, D

    1987-01-01

    Eight patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome were examined. They had typical multiple tics and accessory disturbances--impulsive and reactive symptoms. The authors described the classification of accessory symptoms and the therapeutic approaches.

  14. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered device...

  16. PIONEER POLAR STRUCTURES. SPECIFICATIONS FOR JAMESWAY SHELTER ACCESSORIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accessories were developed for the Jamesway in order to provide a suitable, light weight, quick-erecting shelter for use as quarters, messing, galley...wall extension kit; special entry kits; an improved electrical distribution system; and special utility accessories. Specifications for the Jamesway shelter accessories are included.

  17. HRCT evaluation of the accessory fissures of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, Altan E-mail: ayildiz@mersin.edu.tr; Goelpinar, Fulya; Calikoglu, Mukadder; Duce, Meltem Nass; Oezer, Caner; Apaydin, F. Demir

    2004-03-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to classify the accessory fissures of the lung and to assess their frequency by using high-resolution CT. Methods and patients: HRCT scans of 115 patients were prospectively reviewed. 1 mm thin sections were obtained at 10 mm intervals with a scan time of 1.9 s. The fissure and its relationship to the segmental bronchovascular structures were then evaluated on transverse sections. Results: Forty-four accessory fissures were detected in 35 of 115 patients. The most common accessory fissure was the inferior accessory fissure (12%). The second most common accessory fissure was the left minor fissure (8%). The right superior accessory fissure (5%), the accessory fissure between the medial and lateral segments of the right middle lobe (5%), and the accessory fissure between the superior and inferior segments of the lingula (5%) were seen in equal frequencies. Also, intersegmental accessory fissures, namely the fissure between the anterobasal and laterobasal of both the right (1%) and the left (2%) lower lobes were detected. We found only one subsegmental accessory fissure. Discussion and conclusion: The inferior accessory fissure and the left minor fissure were the most common accessory fissures in our study.

  18. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices intended...

  19. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental electrosurgical unit and accessories is an AC-powered...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that is...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical camera and accessories is a device intended to be...

  3. Accessory spine of the foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzat, J; Walocha, J; Zawiliński, J

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to provide morphometric analysis of an accessory spine that was found within the lumen of the foramen ovale, as well as to find out whether this structure could mechanically irritate the mandibular nerve. A bifid spine was perceived in the macerated skull of an adult individual. It was located in the anterior part of the left foramen ovale. The overall length of the spine was found to be 1.8 mm. The spine had a homogenous structure, and showed high levels of mineralisation. We conclude that the accessory spine did not compress the mandibular nerve, and that the foramen ovale provided enough space for passage of the nerve. In all likelihood, these structures remained in anatomical accordance without causing any neurological symptoms.

  4. Instruments and accessories for neutron scattering research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio [eds.] [Advanced Science Research Center (Tokai Site), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    This report describes neutron scattering instruments and accessories installed by four neutron scattering research groups at the ASRC (Advanced Science Research Center) of the JAERI and the recent topics of neutron scattering research using these instruments. The specifications of nine instruments (HRPD, BIX-I, TAS-1 and PNO in the reactor hall, RESA, BIX-II, TAS-2, LTAS and SANS-J in the guide hall of the JRR-3M) are summarized in this booklet. (author)

  5. Bilateral accessory cleidohyoid in a human cadaver

    OpenAIRE

    Stark ME; Wu B; Bluth BE; Wisco JJ

    2009-01-01

    During routine anatomical dissection of the infrahyoid region, a muscle was found bilaterally originating from the sternal end of clavicle and inserting into the hyoid bone. The muscle coursed parallel and lateral to the sternohyoid muscle. The muscle was found in the presence of an intact omohyoid, thus being classified as an accessory cleidohyoid (cleidohyoideus accessorius) muscle. While other authors have reported the presence of a unilateral cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle, to our know...

  6. Detection and sequence analysis of accessory gene regulator genes of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ananda Chitra; Jayanthy, C.; Nagarajan, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP) is the major pathogenic species of dogs involved in a wide variety of skin and soft tissue infections. The accessory gene regulator (agr) locus of Staphylococcus aureus has been extensively studied, and it influences the expression of many virulence genes. It encodes a two-component signal transduction system that leads to down-regulation of surface proteins and up-regulation of secreted proteins during in vitro growth of S. aureus. The objecti...

  7. Isolated spinal accessory neuropathy and intracisternal schwannomas of the spinal accessory nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Al-Ajmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 40-year-old female patient presenting with isolated left spinal accessory neuropathy that developed insidiously over 6 years. She complained of ill-defined deep neck and shoulder pain. On examination, prominent sternocleidomastoid and trapezoid muscle weakness and atrophy, shoulder instability, and lateral scapular winging were observed. MRI identified a small mass of the cisternal portion of the spinal accessory nerve. Its appearance was typical of schwannoma. Surgical treatment was not offered because of the small tumor size, lack of mass effect and the questionable functional recovery in the presence of muscular atrophy.

  8. Study on reduction of accessory horsepower requirements. Program summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefferts, C.H.

    1977-06-15

    The objective of this program was to define, evaluate and develop automotive accessory systems to minimize engine power consumption and significantly improve fuel economy. All tasks have been completed and the program objectives have been accomplished. Information is presented on each phase of the program which involved: conceptual design to recommended component improvement and accessory drive systems; performance and sizing analyses; detail design and specifications; fabrication, and performance testing; evaluation of integrated hybrid drive, improved accessories; and an advanced air conditioning concept.

  9. Accessory sperm: a biomonitor of boar sperm fertilization capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardón, Florencia; Evert, Meike; Beyerbach, Martin; Weitze, Karl-Fritz; Waberski, Dagmar

    2005-04-15

    The number of accessory sperm found in the zona pellucida of porcine embryos was correlated to their individual quality and to the embryo quality range found within a single sow. Our goal was to determine whether accessory sperm counts provide semen evaluation with additional, useful information. Accessory sperm count was highest when only normal embryos were found in a given sow and diminished if oocytes or degenerated embryos were present (P<0.01). Within a given sow, normal embryos had higher (P<0.05) accessory sperm counts than degenerated embryos, although not when oocytes were also present. Fertilization capacity of sperm is optimal when only normal embryos are found in a given sow; this capacity is indicated by high accessory sperm counts. A decrease in fertilization capacity is reflected in diminishing accessory sperm counts. The boar had a significant effect (P<0.01) on accessory sperm count, but not on the percentage of normal embryos; this suggests that accessory sperm may be more sensitive indicators of the fertilization capacity of sperm than the percentage of normal embryos. We conclude that accessory sperm count can be used for the detection of compensable defects in sperm and is a valid parameter for assessing sperm fertilization capacity.

  10. ACCESSORY RENAL ARTERYAND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Magotra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Origin of the Testicular Artery variations were found during routine dissection of abdomen of the middle aged cadaver in the Dept of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College Jammu. On the left side there were two renal arteries, One of them was the main Renal artery which was originating from the anterolateral aspect of abdominal aorta and running to the hilum of the kidney in front of the renal vein The other was the Accessory Renal artery which was originating from anterolateral aspect of aorta 5mm above origin of main renal artery and going to the upper pole of the kidney. The origin of accessory renal artery and main renal artery was 4.2 and 9.2mm below the level of origin of superior mesentric artery. The left testicular artery was originating from the accessory renal artery and crossing the renal artery and the renal vein anteriorly before following its usual course in the posterior abdominal wall. Only one renal artery was seen on the right side arising from the anterolateral aspect of aorta. The right testicular artery originated 52mm below the origin of right renal artery and followed its normal course This anomaly is explained by embryological development of both kidneys and gonads from intermediate mesoderm of mesonephric crest. Further the vasculature of kidneys and gonads is derived from lateral mesonephric branches of dorsal aorta .Even though the condition presents as a silent renal anomaly (Undiagnosed throughout life and revealed only on autopsy the surgical implications are noteworthy, which too have been highlighted in this report.

  11. Non‑Azygos Accessory Fissure in Right Upper Lobe Associated with Superior and Inferior Accessory Fissures in Right Lower Lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jose Eluvathingal Muttikkal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessory fissures in the lungs are common congenital variations, usually detected as incidental findings in radiographs or CT scan. Accessory fissures can act as an anatomic barrier to the spread of inflammatory or neoplastic disease, as well as due to the variant anatomy, mimic lesions. It is important to recognize the presence of accessory fissures, as they affect surgical planning of pulmonary lobectomy and segmentectomy. Accessory fissure in the right upper lobe other than due to the anomalous course of azygos vein is very rare. We report a case of non-azygos accessory fissure, between the apical and the anterior segments of right upper lobe, along with superior and inferior accessory fissures in the right lower lobe.

  12. Spinal accessory nerve function following neck dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibordi, F; Baiocco, F; Bascelli, C; Bini, A; Canepa, A

    1988-01-01

    Spinal accessory nerve (SAN) function was evaluated by electromyography (EMG) and muscle testing in 36 patients who underwent neck dissection with SAN preservation. The results emphasized that SAN function was relatively good after conservative neck surgery. Muscle testing findings showed better function than did EMG findings. After surgery the trapezius muscle functioned more efficiently than the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle probably because of the more traumatic surgical handling of both the SCM muscle and its SAN branch. In order to obtain the functional advantages of SAN preservation, the authors suggest that the conservative procedure in radical neck dissection be used whenever warranted by oncologic diagnosis.

  13. Bilateral accessory cleidohyoid in a human cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark ME

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During routine anatomical dissection of the infrahyoid region, a muscle was found bilaterally originating from the sternal end of clavicle and inserting into the hyoid bone. The muscle coursed parallel and lateral to the sternohyoid muscle. The muscle was found in the presence of an intact omohyoid, thus being classified as an accessory cleidohyoid (cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle. While other authors have reported the presence of a unilateral cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle, to our knowledge this is the first case of a bilateral cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle in the medical literature. Anatomical variations of the infrahyoid muscles may have functional, diagnostic, surgical and pathological implications.

  14. Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenham, Julie

    This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice.

  15. Potential role of Arabidopsis PHP as an accessory subunit of the PAF1 transcriptional cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunchung; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Oh, Sookyung; van Nocker, Steven

    2011-08-01

    Paf1C is a transcriptional cofactor that has been implicated in various transcription-associated mechanisms spanning initiation, elongation and RNA processing, and is important for multiple aspects of development in Arabidopsis. Our recent studies suggest Arabidopsis Paf1C is crucial for proper regulation of genes within H3K27me3-enriched chromatin, and that a protein named PHP may act as an accessory subunit of Paf1C that promotes this function.

  16. [An accessory muscle and additional variants of the forearm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, G; Zech, M

    1977-01-01

    A report is given on an accessory muscle of the forearm. The muscle originates from the medial epicondyle and the fascia of the forearm and inserts into the pisiform bone and retinaculum. The accessory muscle has a great similarity with the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle.

  17. 21 CFR 884.1175 - Endometrial suction curette and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endometrial suction curette and accessories. 884... Diagnostic Devices § 884.1175 Endometrial suction curette and accessories. (a) Identification. An endometrial suction curette is a device used to remove material from the uterus and from the mucosal lining of the...

  18. High association between accessory soleus muscle and achilles tendonopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, Michael D.; Gordon, Andrew G.; Blebea, Judy S.; Dalinka, Murray K. [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-12-15

    This study investigated the association between accessory soleus muscle and abnormalities of the Achilles tendon. The authors reviewed 15 consecutive cases with a diagnosis of accessory soleus muscle from a computerized database of ankle magnetic resonance (MR) examinations reported between January 1998 and January 2007. On review, two cases were eliminated because of an incorrect initial diagnosis: One patient had a low lying soleus attachment to the Achilles tendon, while the other had a prominent flexor hallucis longus tendon partially obliterating Kager's fat. The remaining 13 cases with accessory soleus muscles were evaluated for Achilles tendon abnormalities. There were 13 cases of accessory soleus muscles in 11 patients; two patients had bilateral accessory soleus muscles (the only study patients with bilateral MR examinations in our sample). There were five male and six female patients ranging from 15 to 81 years of age (mean 48). There were nine cases (69.2%) in which Achilles tendonopathy was associated with accessory soleus muscle, including tendonopathy of each Achilles tendon in the two patients with bilateral accessory muscles. In our small patient population, there was a high association between accessory soleus muscle and Achilles tendonopathy. (orig.)

  19. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. 876... Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. (1) A peritoneal dialysis system and... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After...

  20. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive...

  1. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves, fittings, and accessories. 98.25-40 Section 98... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  2. Brugada syndrome in a patient with accessory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodegas, A I; Arana, J I; Vitoria, Y; Arriandiaga, J R; Barrenetxea, J I

    2002-01-01

    Brugada syndrome in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. We report a 32-year-old man with orthodromic atrioventricular (AV) reciprocating tachycardia using a right posterior accessory pathway. However, his ECG showed ST segment elevation in leads V1 to V3. After successful radiofrequency ablation of his accessory pathway a cardioverter defibrillator was implanted.

  3. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. 884.2740 Section 884.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Monitoring Devices § 884.2740 Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  4. [Occurrence and structure of accessory adrenal glands in Wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabedal, P E; Partenheimer, U

    1983-01-01

    In complete series of histological sections through the entire abdomen of one normal Wistar-rat, one untreated and two bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive Wistar-rats accessory suprarenal glands were found in each case. The detailed findings in the various groups of animals investigated were as follows: (1) In the normal animal 10 accessory suprarenal glands were present. They consisted of tiny aggregates of cortical cells and were surrounded by a thin layer of collageneous fibers. The diameters of the accessory suprarenal complexes were in the order of 0.3 mm. (2) In the untreated, spontaneously hypertensive rat three accessory suprarenal glands were found. However, in contrast to what was seen in the normal rat, these complexes were larger and had diameters of up to 1 mm. Some of these accessory suprarenal glands consisted almost exclusively of small, chromophobe cells, whereas in others a rim of such cells was seen to surround a central core of larger and more acidophile cortical cells. There were few and collapsed capillaries. (3) In the bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive rats three, respectively four, accessory suprarenal glands were found. They were situated in the retroperitoneum and partly within the adipose capsule of the kidney but never in the place of the exstirpated main suprarenal glands. In one case an accessory gland was found within the fibrous capsule of the kidney and seen to compress the renal parenchyma. In the bilaterally adrenalectomized animals the average diameters of the accessory glands were larger than in the other groups reaching values of up to 5 mm. At least in both animals one of the accessory glands had a diameter comparable to that of the normal suprarenal gland of an untreated animal. The capillaries were dilated and their number was increased in comparison to what was seen in the other groups. In certain regions the cortical tissue of the accessory glands had an appearance resembling

  5. The staphylococcal accessory regulator, SarA, is an RNA-binding protein that modulates the mRNA turnover properties of late-exponential and stationary phase Staphylococcus aureus cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Morrison

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The modulation of mRNA turnover is gaining recognition as a mechanism by which Staphylococcus aureus regulates gene expression, but the factors that orchestrate alterations in transcript degradation are poorly understood. In that regard, we previously found that 138 mRNA species, including the virulence factors protein A (spa and collagen binding protein (cna, are stabilized in a sarA-dependent manner during exponential phase growth, suggesting that SarA protein may directly or indirectly effect the RNA turnover properties of these transcripts. Herein, we expanded our characterization of the effects of sarA on mRNA turnover during late exponential and stationary phases of growth. Results revealed that the locus affects the RNA degradation properties of cells during both growth phases. Further, using gel mobility shift assays and RIP-ChIP, it was found that SarA protein is capable of binding mRNA species that it stabilizes both in vitro and within bacterial cells. Taken together, these results suggest that SarA post-transcriptionally regulates S. aureus gene expression in a manner that involves binding to and consequently altering the mRNA turnover properties of target transcripts.

  6. Morphology of accessory genital glands of spotted paca (Agouti paca Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Edson Moreira; Branco, Érika; de Lima, Ana Rita; Leal, Leonardo Martins; Martins, Leandro Luiz; Reis, Ana Carolina Gonçalves; Cruz, Claudinei; Machado, Márcia Rita Fernandes; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-02-01

    The spotted paca is the second largest rodent in Brazil, where it is of great economic interest in impoverished regions in view of its prominence as a low-cost source of protein. Little is known about the morphology of the accessory genital glands of this species. Thus, we studied the position and morphology of the genitals in ten adult male spotted pacas. The animals were divided into two groups, five animals were used for fixing of samples in 10% aqueous formaldehyde for macroscopic studies and the other five animals were designated for microscopic analysis. These were arranged in pairs and had the vesicular, prostate, coagulating and bulbourethral glands identified, being structured as mucous glands, which lead into the pelvic urethra. It was concluded that the accessory genital glands found in the paca are the same as those found in most rodents, showing similar histological aspects.

  7. The scolopidial accessory organ in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Multiple mechanosensory organs form the subgenual organ complex in orthopteroid insects, located in the proximal tibia. In several Ensifera (Orthoptera), a small chordotonal organ, the so-called accessory organ, is the most posterior part of this sensory complex. In order to document the presence of this accessory organ among the Ensifera, the chordotonal sensilla and their innervation in the posterior tibia of two species of Jerusalem crickets (Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus) is described. The sensory structures were stained by axonal tracing. Scolopidial sensilla occur in the posterior subgenual organ and the accessory organ in all leg pairs. The accessory organ contains 10-17 scolopidial sensilla. Both groups of sensilla are commonly spatially separated. However, in few cases neuronal fibres occurred between both organs. The two sensillum groups are considered as separate organs by the general spatial separation and innervation by different nerve branches. A functional role for mechanoreception is considered: since the accessory organ is located closely under the cuticle, sensilla may be suited to detect vibrations transferred over the leg's surface. This study extends the known taxa with an accessory organ, which occurs in several taxa of Ensifera. Comparative neuroanatomy thus suggests that the accessory organ may be conserved at least in Tettigoniidea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Successful treatment of accessory breast cancer with endocrine therapy().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Xi; Guo, Shu-Li; Han, Li-Na

    Accessory breast cancers in males are extremely rare, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. In this paper, an 87-year-old male patient was diagnosed with an accessory breast cancer by means of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and immunohistochemistry based on needle biopsy, and has undergone successful resection and postoperative adjuvant endocrine therapy. He was the oldest male patient with an accessory breast cancer reported in the Chinese Hospital Knowledge Database and PubMed literature from 1975 to 2015.

  9. Acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein is required for cooperation with the HTLV-1 p30{sup II} accessory protein and the induction of oncogenic cellular transformation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, Megan M.; Ko, Bookyung; Kim, Janice; Brady, Rebecca; Heatley, Hayley C.; He, Jeffrey; Harrod, Carolyn K.; Barnett, Braden [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Biological Sciences, and The Dedman College Center for Drug Discovery, Design, and Delivery, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0376 (United States); Ratner, Lee [Departments of Medicine and Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Lairmore, Michael D. [University of California-Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95618 (United States); Martinez, Ernest [Department of Biochemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Lüscher, Bernhard [Institute of Biochemistry, Klinikum, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Robson, Craig N. [Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, The Medical School, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Henriksson, Marie [Department of Microbiology, Cell and Tumor Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Harrod, Robert, E-mail: rharrod@smu.edu [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Biological Sciences, and The Dedman College Center for Drug Discovery, Design, and Delivery, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0376 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    The human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-1) p30{sup II} protein is a multifunctional latency-maintenance factor that negatively regulates viral gene expression and deregulates host signaling pathways involved in aberrant T-cell growth and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that p30{sup II} interacts with the c-MYC oncoprotein and enhances c-MYC-dependent transcriptional and oncogenic functions. However, the molecular and biochemical events that mediate the cooperation between p30{sup II} and c-MYC remain to be completely understood. Herein we demonstrate that p30{sup II} induces lysine-acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Acetylation-defective c-MYC Lys→Arg substitution mutants are impaired for oncogenic transformation with p30{sup II} in c-myc{sup −/−} HO15.19 fibroblasts. Using dual-chromatin-immunoprecipitations (dual-ChIPs), we further demonstrate that p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC-containing nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed HuT-102 T-lymphocytes. Moreover, p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in proliferating cells expressing c-MYC under conditions of genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that c-MYC-acetylation is required for the cooperation between p30{sup II}/c-MYC which could promote proviral replication and contribute to HTLV-1-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Acetylation of c-MYC is required for oncogenic transformation by HTLV-1 p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • Acetylation-defective c-MYC mutants are impaired for foci-formation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • The HTLV-1 p30{sup II} protein induces lysine-acetylation of c-MYC. • p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed T-cells. • HTLV-1 p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in c-MYC-expressing proliferating cells.

  10. AcCNET (Accessory Genome Constellation Network): comparative genomics software for accessory genome analysis using bipartite networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Val F; Baquero, Fernando; de la Cruz, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2017-01-15

    AcCNET (Accessory genome Constellation Network) is a Perl application that aims to compare accessory genomes of a large number of genomic units, both at qualitative and quantitative levels. Using the proteomes extracted from the analysed genomes, AcCNET creates a bipartite network compatible with standard network analysis platforms. AcCNET allows merging phylogenetic and functional information about the concerned genomes, thus improving the capability of current methods of network analysis. The AcCNET bipartite network opens a new perspective to explore the pangenome of bacterial species, focusing on the accessory genome behind the idiosyncrasy of a particular strain and/or population.

  11. Design of a marine sediment trap and accessories

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Janakiraman, G.; Fernando, V.; Venkatesan, R.; Rajaraman, V.S.

    The marine sediment trap and the mooring accessories were developed indigenously and were used successfully for the collection of settling sediments in the Arabian Sea The experience gained in using sediment trap and further improvements...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... disk, guard for an abrasive disk, abrasive point, polishing agent strip, and polishing wheel....

  13. ISO and EIGA standards for cryogenic vessels and accessories

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The EIGA/WG 6’s scope is cryogenic vessels and accessories, including their design, material compatibility, operational requirements and periodical inspection. The specific responsibilities include monitoring international standardization (ISO, CEN) and regulations (UN, TPED, PED...

  14. Giant Accessory Right-Sided Suprarenal Spleen in Thalassaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An accessory spleen is defined as ectopic splenic tissue that develops due to failure of fusion of cells during embryonic development as they migrate from the midline to the left upper quadrant. While benign, complications may arise which include trauma, torsion, or infarction of the ectopic tissue. Additionally, patients who have had a splenectomy secondary to treatment for previous pathology such as a haematological malignancy or idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura may experience persistent symptoms due to the accessory splenic tissue. The presence of an accessory spleen is therefore of significant diagnostic and therapeutic importance. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case is the second and largest reported case of a giant right suprarenal accessory spleen and highlights the difficulty in differentiation of these masses from malignant adrenal tumours.

  15. Review of accessory tragus with highlights of its associated syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Bahar; Khachemoune, Amor

    2014-12-01

    Accessory tragus is a developmental defect involving malformation of part of the external ear. It is a moderately rare congenital condition reported in 1858 by Birkett for the first time. Histological features of accessory tragus include a thin layer of stratum corneum with a rugated epidermis, presence of eccrine glands, and irregular spatial positioning of vellus hair follicles accompanied by sebaceous glands. Accessory tragus is commonly a limited deformity; however, it can be a sign of associated congenital syndromes. It has been shown to be associated with Goldenhar syndrome, Townes-Brocks syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, VACTERL syndrome, and Wolf-Hirschhron syndrome. Surgical excision, the most common form of management of accessory tragus lesions, typically leads to a positive outcome. An extensive search was performed using pubmed.gov, Embase, MedLine, and Googlescholar.com using key words: accessory tragus, congenital malformations of ear, first branchial arch, and embryology. In this paper, we review the clinical and histological presentation, associated syndromes, management, and outcome of accessory tragus.

  16. Accessory subunits are integral for assembly and function of human mitochondrial complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, David A; Surgenor, Elliot E; Formosa, Luke E; Reljic, Boris; Frazier, Ann E; Dibley, Marris G; Osellame, Laura D; Stait, Tegan; Beilharz, Traude H; Thorburn, David R; Salim, Agus; Ryan, Michael T

    2016-10-06

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the first enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and is composed of 45 subunits in humans, making it one of the largest known multi-subunit membrane protein complexes. Complex I exists in supercomplex forms with respiratory chain complexes III and IV, which are together required for the generation of a transmembrane proton gradient used for the synthesis of ATP. Complex I is also a major source of damaging reactive oxygen species and its dysfunction is associated with mitochondrial disease, Parkinson's disease and ageing. Bacterial and human complex I share 14 core subunits that are essential for enzymatic function; however, the role and necessity of the remaining 31 human accessory subunits is unclear. The incorporation of accessory subunits into the complex increases the cellular energetic cost and has necessitated the involvement of numerous assembly factors for complex I biogenesis. Here we use gene editing to generate human knockout cell lines for each accessory subunit. We show that 25 subunits are strictly required for assembly of a functional complex and 1 subunit is essential for cell viability. Quantitative proteomic analysis of cell lines revealed that loss of each subunit affects the stability of other subunits residing in the same structural module. Analysis of proteomic changes after the loss of specific modules revealed that ATP5SL and DMAC1 are required for assembly of the distal portion of the complex I membrane arm. Our results demonstrate the broad importance of accessory subunits in the structure and function of human complex I. Coupling gene-editing technology with proteomics represents a powerful tool for dissecting large multi-subunit complexes and enables the study of complex dysfunction at a cellular level.

  17. The B. subtilis Accessory Helicase PcrA Facilitates DNA Replication through Transcription Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrikh, Christopher N; Brewer, Bonita J; Merrikh, Houra

    2015-06-01

    In bacteria the concurrence of DNA replication and transcription leads to potentially deleterious encounters between the two machineries, which can occur in either the head-on (lagging strand genes) or co-directional (leading strand genes) orientations. These conflicts lead to replication fork stalling and can destabilize the genome. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells possess resolution factors that reduce the severity of these encounters. Though Escherichia coli accessory helicases have been implicated in the mitigation of head-on conflicts, direct evidence of these proteins mitigating co-directional conflicts is lacking. Furthermore, the endogenous chromosomal regions where these helicases act, and the mechanism of recruitment, have not been identified. We show that the essential Bacillus subtilis accessory helicase PcrA aids replication progression through protein coding genes of both head-on and co-directional orientations, as well as rRNA and tRNA genes. ChIP-Seq experiments show that co-directional conflicts at highly transcribed rRNA, tRNA, and head-on protein coding genes are major targets of PcrA activity on the chromosome. Partial depletion of PcrA renders cells extremely sensitive to head-on conflicts, linking the essential function of PcrA to conflict resolution. Furthermore, ablating PcrA's ATPase/helicase activity simultaneously increases its association with conflict regions, while incapacitating its ability to mitigate conflicts, and leads to cell death. In contrast, disruption of PcrA's C-terminal RNA polymerase interaction domain does not impact its ability to mitigate conflicts between replication and transcription, its association with conflict regions, or cell survival. Altogether, this work establishes PcrA as an essential factor involved in mitigating transcription-replication conflicts and identifies chromosomal regions where it routinely acts. As both conflicts and accessory helicases are found in all domains of life, these results are

  18. The B. subtilis Accessory Helicase PcrA Facilitates DNA Replication through Transcription Units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N Merrikh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In bacteria the concurrence of DNA replication and transcription leads to potentially deleterious encounters between the two machineries, which can occur in either the head-on (lagging strand genes or co-directional (leading strand genes orientations. These conflicts lead to replication fork stalling and can destabilize the genome. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells possess resolution factors that reduce the severity of these encounters. Though Escherichia coli accessory helicases have been implicated in the mitigation of head-on conflicts, direct evidence of these proteins mitigating co-directional conflicts is lacking. Furthermore, the endogenous chromosomal regions where these helicases act, and the mechanism of recruitment, have not been identified. We show that the essential Bacillus subtilis accessory helicase PcrA aids replication progression through protein coding genes of both head-on and co-directional orientations, as well as rRNA and tRNA genes. ChIP-Seq experiments show that co-directional conflicts at highly transcribed rRNA, tRNA, and head-on protein coding genes are major targets of PcrA activity on the chromosome. Partial depletion of PcrA renders cells extremely sensitive to head-on conflicts, linking the essential function of PcrA to conflict resolution. Furthermore, ablating PcrA's ATPase/helicase activity simultaneously increases its association with conflict regions, while incapacitating its ability to mitigate conflicts, and leads to cell death. In contrast, disruption of PcrA's C-terminal RNA polymerase interaction domain does not impact its ability to mitigate conflicts between replication and transcription, its association with conflict regions, or cell survival. Altogether, this work establishes PcrA as an essential factor involved in mitigating transcription-replication conflicts and identifies chromosomal regions where it routinely acts. As both conflicts and accessory helicases are found in all domains of life

  19. ACCESSORY FISSURE OF RIGHT LUNG: A REPORT OF TWO CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Behera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Right lung is divided into upper (superior, middle and lower (Inferior lobes by an oblique and a horizontal fissure.Oblique fissure passes spirally from posterior border to inferior border deep into the lung separating the lower lobe from upper and middle lobes. A short horizontal fissure passes horizontally forwards from the oblique fissure at midaxillary line to meet the anterior border at 4th costochondral junction. This separates the upper lobe from the middle lobe. During routine dissection in 2010-11 undergraduate batch, we came across two cases of right lungs where an accessory fissure was extending horizontally backwards from the oblique fissure at mid axillary line towards the vertebral part of medial surface. In the 1st case, this accessory fissure was not meeting the normal horizontal fissure where as in the 2nd case it was meeting. This accessory fissure separates the lower lobe into a superior and an inferior segment. Knowledge of different types of accessory fissures is important because it may mislead the radiological findings, may act as a barrier to spread of infection creating a sharply marginated pneumonia which can wrongly be interpretated as atelectasis or consolidation. Identification of completeness of fissure is important prior to lobectomy, because individuals with incomplete fissures are more prone to develop postoperative air leak. Considering the clinical importance of such anomalies, anatomical knowledge and prior awareness of accessory fissures in the lungs may be important for clinicians and radiologists.

  20. Accessory costs of seed production and the evolution of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Janice M; Westoby, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Accessory costs of reproduction frequently equal or exceed direct investment in offspring, and can limit the evolution of small offspring sizes. Early angiosperms had minimum seed sizes, an order of magnitude smaller than their contemporaries. It has been proposed that changes to reproductive features at the base of the angiosperm clade reduced accessory costs thus removing the fitness disadvantage of small seeds. We measured accessory costs of reproduction in 25 extant gymnosperms and angiosperms, to test whether angiosperms can produce small seeds more economically than gymnosperms. Total accessory costs scaled isometrically to seed mass for angiosperms but less than isometrically for gymnosperms, so that smaller seeds were proportionally more expensive for gymnosperms to produce. In particular, costs of abortions and packaging structures were significantly higher in gymnosperms. Also, the relationship between seed:ovule ratio and seed size was negative in angiosperms but positive in gymnosperms. We argue that the carpel was a key evolutionary innovation reducing accessory costs in angiosperms by allowing sporophytic control of pre- and postzygotic mate selection and timing of resource allocation. The resulting reduction in costs of aborting unfertilized ovules or genetically inferior embryos would have lowered total reproductive costs enabling early angiosperms to evolve small seed sizes and short generation times. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution © 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Accessory bones of the feet: Radiological analysis of frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Vladica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Accessory bones are most commonly found on the feet and they represent an anatomic variant. They occur when there is a failure in the formation of a unique bone from separated centre of ossification. The aim of this study was to establish their frequency and medical significance. Methods. Anteroposterior and lateral foot radiography was performed in 270 patients aged of 20-80 years with a history of trauma (180 and rheumatology disease (90. The presence and distribution of accessory bones was analysed in relation to the total number of patients and their gender. The results are expressed in numeric values and in terms of percentage. Results. Accessory bones were identified in 62 (22.96% patients: 29 (10.74% of them were found in female patients and 33 (12.22% in males. The most common accessory bones were as follows: os tibiale externum 50%, os peroneum 29.03%, ostrigonum 11.29%, os vaselianum 9.68%. Conclusion. Accessory bones found in 23% of patients with trauma and some of rheumatological diseases. Their significance is demonstrated in the differential diagnosis among degenerative diseases, avulsion fractures, muscle and tendon trauma and other types of injuries which can cause painful affection of the foot, as well as in forensic practice.

  2. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  3. [Surgical treatment strategy for flatfoot related with accessory navicular].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yin-shuan; Gao, Qiu-ming; Zhen, Ping; Tang, Kang-lai

    2015-02-01

    Accessory navicular source flatfoot is one of the foot deformity of clinical common disease,its treatment method is more controversial, differences in clinical efficacy of different surgical methods, according to accessory navicular source flatfoot symptoms of surgical treatment,there is no uniform standard, around a pair of accessory navicular excision how to reconstruct the arch produced a series of operation methods, the clinical curative effect of different operative methods produce also different, how to develop the operation strategy, choose operation method, and after acessory navicular excision whether to rebuild posterior tibial tendon, how to rebuild, the problems such as how to rebuild is the research hotspot and difficulty, looking forward to further research.

  4. ACCESSORY LOBE OF RIGHT LUNG: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Manicka Vasuki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations of lungs in the form of Accessory lobe and abnormality in the fissures are important for the surgeons to avoid possible injuries to the neighbouring structures. We report a case of Accessory lobe of right lung between middle and lower lobe in a male cadaver which was found during routine dissection in the Anatomy department, PSG IMS & R. Fissure and lobes of left lung was normal. Anatomical knowledge of such variations are helpful for Cardiothoracic surgeons in lobectomies, surgical resections involving individual segments and for Radiologists for interpreting X – rays,CT & MRI scans.

  5. Aplasia of the parotid glands with accessory parotid tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higley, Meghan J.; Walkiewicz, Thomas W.; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Curran, John G.; Towbin, Richard B. [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Congenital absence of the parotid gland is a rare entity. Absence is most commonly unilateral, and is not associated with accessory glandular tissue. In the majority of reported cases, parotid gland aplasia is seen with craniofacial abnormalities or hypoplasia of other ectodermal structures, particularly the lacrimal glands. We present a 14-year-old male with bilateral parotid gland aplasia detected incidentally on MRI of the brain and then confirmed on neck CT. The studies also revealed accessory parotid tissue superficial to the left masseter muscle. There were no associated craniofacial abnormalities. The lacrimal glands and submandibular glands were normal. (orig.)

  6. Accessory wandering spleen: Report of a case of laparoscopic approach in an asymptomatic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Perin

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: We suggest performing surgery with a laparoscopic approach in patients with accessory wandering spleen, though asymptomatic, because of the risk of serious complications in case of accessory spleen torsion.

  7. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and allow observation or manipulation of body cavities, hollow organs, and canals. The device consists of various rigid or flexible instruments that are inserted into body spaces and may include an optical system for conveying an image to the user's eye and their accessories may assist in gaining...

  8. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section 884.6120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices §...

  9. Accessory breast on the posterior thigh of a man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camisa, C

    1980-11-01

    An elderly man with a mass that clinically resembles the normal female breast on the posterior portion of his left thigh is presented. We believe this is an unusual case of accessory breast tissue occurring in a location remote from the embryonic mammary line.

  10. ABC transporter architecture and regulatory roles of accessory domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans-Oldehinkel, E; Doeven, MK; Poolman, B

    2006-01-01

    We present an overview of the architecture of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and dissect the systems in core and accessory domains. The ABC transporter core is formed by the transmembrane domains (TMDs) and the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) that constitute the actual translocator. The a

  11. The benefits of using bluetooth accessories with hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pauline; Davis, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the benefits in reported outcomes after providing bluetooth accessories for established hearing aid users. Prospective observational study using validated quantitative outcome measures and detailed patient narrative before and two months after patients were provided with bluetooth accessories. Twelve patients with bilateral NHS hearing aids participated. They had a wide range of ages and hearing loss. After two months, 10 patients reported substantial additional benefit and kept the accessories; two returned them for various reasons. Statistically significant changes were seen in two validated outcome measures: the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile and the International Outcome Inventory - Hearing Aids, but not in the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale. Two notable benefits were reported: some described hearing the emotion and mood in a voice for the first time; others were amazed to report an improved ability to hear film or to hold conversations over the telephone. The provision of bluetooth accessories can give additional reported benefit for some patients - we need better knowledge about who benefits, and whether further support/training to individuals would make a difference.

  12. Validated Competency Task Lists for Apparel and Accessories Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selke-Kern, Barbara E.

    Developed by a project that validated task lists by a variety of teachers and apparel marketing business persons, this guide contains task lists for occupations in the field of apparel and accessories marketing. The guide is organized in three sections. Section 1 includes the following: (1) notes on using the information in the guide; (2) a…

  13. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Biliary catheter and accessories. 876.5010 Section 876.5010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... healing, or for preventing stricture of the bile duct. This generic type of device may include a bile...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sufficiently low permeability to water that an ultrafiltration controller is not required to prevent excessive... the disposable inserts (Kiil type) (§ 876.5830) or dialyzers of high permeability (§ 876.5860). (3... dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630), or the controlled...

  15. Accessory enzymes from Aspergillus involved in xylan and pectin degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzyme systems from Aspergillus have been the subject of study for many years. Although the main chain cleaving enzymes and their encoding genes have been studied in detail, little information is available about most of the accessory enzymes and their corresponding g

  16. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intended for medical purposes to support, protect, or aid in the use of a cast, orthosis (brace), or prosthesis. Examples of prosthetic and orthotic accessories include the following: A pelvic support band and belt, a cast shoe, a cast bandage, a limb cover, a prosthesis alignment device, a postsurgical pylon,...

  17. Evolutionary dynamics of the accessory genome of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk C den Bakker

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85-3.14 Mb, encode 2,822-3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II.

  18. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urological table and accessories. 876.4890 Section 876.4890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urological catheter and accessories. 876.5130 Section 876.5130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130...

  20. Accessory veins in nonmaturing autogenous arteriovenous fistulae: analysis of anatomic features and impact on fistula maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, Bjorn I; Grimm, Lars J; Ronald, James; Smith, Tony P; Kim, Charles Y

    2015-01-01

    The appropriate management of nonmaturing arteriovenous (AV) fistulae continues to be a controversial issue. While coil embolization of accessory side-branch veins can be performed to encourage maturation of nonmaturing AV fistulae, the true efficacy and optimal patient population are not well understood. Fistulagrams performed on nonmaturing AV fistulae were retrospectively reviewed in 145 patients (86 males, median age 63 years) for the presence of accessory veins. Fistula and accessory vein measurements were obtained, as were rates of eventual fistula maturation after accessory vein coil embolization. Of 145 nonmaturing fistulae, 49 (34%) had a stenosis without any accessory veins, 76 (52%) had a stenosis and one or more accessory veins, and 20 (14%) had an accessory vein without concurrent stenosis. Eighteen AV fistulae had one or more accessory veins without coexisting stenosis. Nine fistulae had a caliber decrease immediately downstream from the accessory vein. Coil embolization of dominant accessory veins with a caliber decrease immediately downstream (n = 6) resulted in a 100% eventual fistula maturation rate versus 67% for fistulae without this configuration (n = 6, p = 0.15). Accessory vein size was not correlated with maturation rates (p = 0.51). The majority of nonmaturing fistulae with accessory veins had a coexisting stenosis. Higher maturation rates may result with selected anatomic parameters, although additional studies with more robust sample sizes are needed prior to definitive conclusions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Transcriptional profiles of mating-responsive genes from testes and male accessory glands of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Scolari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male

  2. Transcriptional profiles of mating-responsive genes from testes and male accessory glands of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Ribeiro, José M C; Siciliano, Paolo; Meraldi, Alice; Falchetto, Marco; Bonomi, Angelica; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malovini, Alberto; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Aksoy, Serap; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R

    2012-01-01

    Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms of accessory gland gene expression profiles and correlated remating

  3. IL1RAPL1基因多态性与秦巴山区儿童精神运动功能的相关性%Correlation between interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like, gene 1 polymorphism and children's psychomotor function in Qinba mountain area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓彩; 牛银波; 张淑苗; 李静; 张富昌

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of mental retardation related gene on psychomotor function, thereby offering the evidence for availability of psychomotor function disability to sub-cretin diagnosis. Methods Four genetic marker sites, i.e., DXS1218, DXS9896, rs6526806 and rs12847959 on interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like, gene 1 (IL1RAPL1) were genotyped by PCR, PCR-SSCP and PAGE for 220 Qinba mountain area children aged 7-14. Meanwhile, a psychomotor function test was performed to study their relationship. Results DXS1218, DXS9896 and rs12847959 of IL1RAPL1 gene had high heterozygosis degree(Het) in the children. The Het was 0.8941,0.8674,0.4872, respectively. The rs6526806 showed lower heterozygosis degree (Het=0.1804). The DXS1218, DXS9896, rs6526806 and rs12847959 did not correlate with children's psychomotor function(F=0.909,0.279,0.725,1.982, all P > 0.05). Conclusions IL1RAPL1 gene polymorphism does not affect human psychomotor controlling ability. Maybe psychomotor function is less affected by genetic factor, thereby it is a available assistant index for sub-cretin diagnosis.%目的 探讨精神发育迟滞相关基因(IL1RAPL1)对人类精神运动功能的影响,为精神运动功能障碍对亚克汀病诊断的有效性提供证据.方法 采用传统PCR、单链构象多态PCR(PCR-SSCP)、聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳等分子生物学方法,对秦巴山区220名7~14岁儿童IL1RAPL1基因的DXS1218、DXS9896、rs6526806,rs12847959共4个遗传标记位点进行多态性检测,并进行精神运动功能测验,对多态性检测结果与儿童精神运动功能测验成绩进行关联分析.结果 DXS1218、DXS9896、rs12847959 3个遗传标记在受检儿童中均有较高杂合度(Het),分别为0.8941、0.8674、0.4872,rs6526806有较低的Het,为0.1804;4个遗传标记多态性均未显示出与儿童精神运动功能的相关性(F值分别为0.909、0.279、0.725、1.982,P均>0.05).结论 IL1RAPL1基因多态性对人的精神运动

  4. [Surgical treatment of the accessory navicular syndrome with simple excision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Lei-Ting; Li, Cheng; Zhang, Dong; Li, Zhi; Huang, Bo; Zhang, Ting-Jiu; Yu, Ming; Wang, Ping-Xi

    2009-12-01

    To observe and evaluate the clinical effects of surgical treatment for the accessory navicular syndrome with simple excision. From November 2006 to December 2008, 23 patients (twenty-five feet) with accessory navicular syndrome received simple excision of the accessory navicular bone. The chief complains were intermittent pain of feet after running or walking. Physical examination showed local tenderness on palpation in the region of the navicular bone. X-ray or CT showed there was an accessory navicular bone. The present history ranged from 6 months to 12 years. There were 14 males and 9 females. The mean age was 14.6 years, ranging from 8 to 35 years. About 2 cm long incision was made at the tip of the medial prominence of the navicular bone. After partial dissection of the posterior tibial tendon, the accesssory navicular bone was exposed and excisied. The prominence of the tuberosity of the navicular bone was cut and shaved. The posterior tibial tenden was repaired before closing the wound. The foot was immobilized with cast or brace in inversion position and no weight-bearing for 2 weeks. Strenuous jumping or dancing must be avoided in 3 months after surgery. The patients with residual symptoms and signs received physical therapy and an arch support for shoes without flatfoot deformity. The average clinical follow-up during was 12 month (ranged, 3 to 18 months). The excellent results in 21 feet and good in 4 feet (3 feet with mild flat deformity and 1 foot with old sprain injury). The average hospital stay was 5 days and no wound infection occurred. All patients resumed the normal life and study after operation. Surgical treatment of the accessory navicular syndrome with simple excision has the advantages of less invasive to the posterior tibial tenden and the medial longitudinal arch of the foot, shorter time of immobilization of the foot and stay in hospital, small incision and good clinical results. This procedure is one of the best selective treatments for

  5. Cloning, expression, and functional characterization of the equine herpesvirus 1 DNA polymerase and its accessory subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loregian, Arianna; Case, Alessandro; Cancellotti, Enrico; Valente, Carlo; Marsden, Howard S; Palù, Giorgio

    2006-07-01

    We report the expression and characterization of the putative catalytic subunit (pORF30) and accessory protein (pORF18) of equine herpesvirus 1 DNA polymerase, which are encoded by open reading frames 30 and 18 and are homologous to herpes simplex virus type 1 UL30 and UL42, respectively. In vitro transcription-translation of open reading frames 30 and 18 generated proteins of 136 and 45 kDa, respectively. In vitro-expressed pORF30 possessed basal DNA polymerase activity that was stimulated by pORF18, as measured by DNA polymerase assays in vitro. Purified baculovirus-expressed pORF30 exhibited DNA polymerase activity similar to that of the in vitro-expressed protein, and baculovirus-expressed pORF18 could stimulate both nucleotide incorporation and long-chain DNA synthesis by pORF30 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The salt optima for activity of both pORF30 and the holoenzyme were substantially different from those for other herpesvirus DNA polymerases. As demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid assays, pORF30 and pORF18 could physically interact, most likely with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Finally, by mutational analysis of the 1,220-residue pORF30, we demonstrated that the extreme C terminus of pORF30 is important for physical and functional interaction with the accessory protein, as reported for UL30 and other herpesvirus DNA polymerases. In addition, a C-proximal region of pORF30, corresponding to residues 1114 to 1172, is involved in binding to, and stimulation by, pORF18. Taken together, the results indicate that pORF30 and pORF18 are the equine herpesvirus 1 counterparts of herpes simplex virus type 1 UL30 and UL42 and share many, but not all, of their characteristics.

  6. Accessory cell ability of Langerhans cells for superantigen is resistant to ultraviolet-B light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokura, Yoshiki; Yagi, Hiroaki; Hashizume, Hideo; Furukawa, Fukumi; Takigawa, Masahiro (Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Dermatology); Yagi, Junji (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology)

    1994-08-01

    We examined the effects of ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation on the accessory cell ability of Langerhans cells (LC) to induce a T-cell response to a superantigen, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). The ability of LC-enriched epidermal cells (LC-EC) to evoke a T-cell response to SEB was retained at the doses of UVB (up to 40 mJ/cm[sup 2]) that profoundly affected the antigen-presenting function of LC-EC for a hapten, trinitrophenyl (TNP), and a protein antigen, conalbumin. Higher doses of UVB (more than 60 mJ/cm[sup 2]) reduced the accessory cell ability of LC-EC for SEB up to 50% of control. The addition of monoclonal antibodies against adhesion molecules between LC and T cells to the culture resulted in substantial suppression of the T-cell response to SEB induced by nonirradiated LC-EC, while the UVB-irradiated LC-EC induced T-cell response was not significantly blocked with these monoclonal antibodies. This suggested that the reduction of LC ability for superantigen by high doses of UVB is at least partly due to impairment of adhesion molecules on LC by UVB irradiation. (author).

  7. Defense Acquisitions. Rapid Acquisition of MRAP Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-08

    safety, which required some modifying of designs and postproduction fixes, and adapting how vehicles were used. Also, long term sustainment costs...the form of reliability, mobility, and safety, which have required some modifying of the designs, postproduction fixes, and adapting how vehicles...issues required some modifying of the designs, postproduction fixes, or adapting how vehicles were to be used. Testing of proposed Page 8 GAO-10-155T

  8. KNOW-BLADE Task-2 report: Aerodynamic accessories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik

    2004-01-01

    of a pulsating jet placed at the leading edge in order to enhance mean lift. The general trend is that increased pulsation frequency is beneficial, in that it reduces the oscillation amplitude and raisesthe mean lift level while lowering the mean drag level. An increased jet exit velocity has a tendency...... the airfoil geometry. In general the 7mm stallstrips placed at P00 and P-02 had the greatest effect on the max lift followed by stall strip P02. Unfortunately, there was not sufficient agreement between the experimental results and the simulations to draw any conclusions of optimum position andgeometry......In the EC project KNOW-BLADE a work package has been defined to investigate the possibility to numerically model aerodynamic accessories in existing Navier-Stokes solvers. Four different aerodynamic accessories have been investigated. Firstly, thepotential of applying active flow control by means...

  9. Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8 th cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. The radiological features have been detailed. The diagnostic dilemma was due to its midline posterior location mimicking a fourth ventricular lesion like medulloblastoma and ependymoma. Total excision is the ideal treatment for these tumors. A brief review of literature with tabulations of the variants has been listed.

  10. Perioperative Identification of an Accessory Fissure of the Right Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Taverne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations of lungs are common in clinical practice; however, they are sometimes overlooked in routine imaging. Surgical anatomy of the lung is complex and many variations are known to occur. A defective pulmonary development gives rise to variations in lobes and fissures. Morphological presentation is of clinical importance and profound knowledge of the organogenesis and functional anatomy is imperative for the interpretation and evaluation of lung pathophysiology and subsequent surgical intervention. However, appreciating them on radiographs and CT scans is difficult and they are therefore often either not identified or completely misinterpreted. As presented in this case report, an accessory fissure separating the superior segment of the right lower lobe from its native lobe was seen perioperatively and could only retrospectively be defined on X-rays and CT scan. It is imperative to keep in mind that accessory fissures can be missed on imaging studies and thus can make the surgical procedure more challenging.

  11. Spinal accessory neuropathy, droopy shoulder, and thoracic outlet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shekhlee, Amer; Katirji, Bashar

    2003-09-01

    Droopy shoulder has been proposed as a cause of thoracic outlet syndrome. Two patients developed manifestations of neurovascular compression upon arm abduction, associated with unilateral droopy shoulder and trapezius muscle weakness caused by iatrogenic spinal accessory neuropathies following cervical lymph node biopsies. The first patient developed a cold, numb hand with complete axillary artery occlusion when his arm was abducted to 90 degrees. The second patient complained of paresthesias in digits 4 and 5 of the right hand, worsened by elevation of the arm, with nerve conduction findings of right lower trunk plexopathy (low ulnar and medial antebrachial cutaneous sensory nerve action potentials). Spinal accessory nerve grafting (in the first patient) coupled with shoulder strengthening physical exercises in both patients resulted in gradual improvement of symptoms in 2 years. These two cases demonstrate that unilateral droopy shoulder secondary to trapezius muscle weakness may cause compression of the thoracic outlet structures.

  12. Headgear Accessories Classification Using an Overhead Depth Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Carlos A.; Marron-Romera, Marta; Mazo, Manuel; Luengo-Sanchez, Sara; Macho-Pedroso, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address the generation of semantic labels describing the headgear accessories carried out by people in a scene under surveillance, only using depth information obtained from a Time-of-Flight (ToF) camera placed in an overhead position. We propose a new method for headgear accessories classification based on the design of a robust processing strategy that includes the estimation of a meaningful feature vector that provides the relevant information about the people’s head and shoulder areas. This paper includes a detailed description of the proposed algorithmic approach, and the results obtained in tests with persons with and without headgear accessories, and with different types of hats and caps. In order to evaluate the proposal, a wide experimental validation has been carried out on a fully labeled database (that has been made available to the scientific community), including a broad variety of people and headgear accessories. For the validation, three different levels of detail have been defined, considering a different number of classes: the first level only includes two classes (hat/cap, and no hat/cap), the second one considers three classes (hat, cap and no hat/cap), and the last one includes the full class set with the five classes (no hat/cap, cap, small size hat, medium size hat, and large size hat). The achieved performance is satisfactory in every case: the average classification rates for the first level reaches 95.25%, for the second one is 92.34%, and for the full class set equals 84.60%. In addition, the online stage processing time is 5.75 ms per frame in a standard PC, thus allowing for real-time operation. PMID:28796177

  13. Expression of accessory colonization factor subunit A (ACFA) of Vibrio cholerae and ACFA fused to cholera toxin B subunit in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Jani, Dewal; Thungapathra, M; Gautam, J K; Meena, L S; Singh, Yogendra; Ghosh, Amit; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2008-05-20

    In earlier study from our group, cholera toxin B subunit had been expressed in tomato for developing a plant-based vaccine against cholera. In the present investigation, gene for accessory colonization factor (acf) subunit A, earlier reported to be essential for efficient colonization in the intestine, has been expressed in Escherichia coli as well as tomato plants. Gene encoding for a chimeric protein having a fusion of cholera toxin B subunit and accessory colonization factor A was also expressed in tomato to generate more potent combinatorial antigen. CaMV35S promoter with a duplicated enhancer sequence was used for expression of these genes in tomato. Integration of transgenes into tomato genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern hybridization. Expression of the genes was confirmed at transcript and protein levels. Accessory colonization factor A and cholera toxin B subunit fused to this protein accumulated up to 0.25% and 0.08% of total soluble protein, respectively, in the fruits of transgenic plants. Whereas protein purified from E. coli, in combination with cholera toxin B subunit can be used for development of conventional subunit vaccine, tomato fruits expressing these proteins can be used together with tomato plants expressing cholera toxin B subunit for development of oral vaccine against cholera.

  14. Study on reduction of accessory-horsepower requirements. Third quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-23

    The objective of this study program is to minimize automotive accessory horsepower consumption, and thereby maximize overall vehicle fuel economy, by utilizing continuously variable speed drives or auxiliary power units (APUs) in a standard passenger automobile. As an aid to definitizing accessory performance, load requirements and fuel economy, a baseline vehicle has beeen established. This vehicle is a conventional intermediate size 5- or 6-passenger automobile with a 4.1 to 5.7 liter (250 to 350 cubic inch) displacement, spark ignition engine. Accessories to be considered are the alternator, power steering system, power brakes, air conditioner, cooling fan, water pump and emission control air pump. A program summary of major accomplishments is presented including: accessory drive devices analyses; vehicle computer model fuel economy analyses; improved accessory efficiency analysis; resized engine fuel economy analysis; accessory evaluation matrix completed; drive-systems trade-study completed and the prime concept presented; and variable-speed belt-drive concepts reviewed.

  15. Accessory spleen presenting as acute abdomen: A case report and operative management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Landmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accessory spleens are found in 10–30% of patients and are asymptomatic. Rarely, torsion of an accessory spleen can cause abdominal pain and acute abdomen. We present the case of an 8-year-old girl who arrives to the emergency room with left upper quadrant abdominal pain. CT scan revealed a non-enhancing soft tissue mass and multiple small splenules. Laparoscopy revealed a torsed accessory spleen and malrotation. Accessory spleen is a common congenital anomaly that is frequently asymptomatic. Rarely, an accessory spleen may become torsed around its vascular pedicle resulting in severe abdominal pain. Treatment is surgical resection. Torsion of accessory splenic tissue is a rare cause of acute abdomen in pediatric patients.

  16. A Case Report on Unilateral Accessory Humeral Head of Pronator Teres

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Suman; Sakthivel, Sulochana

    2016-01-01

    The presence of an accessory muscle in the forearm is likely to compress on the neurovascular structures and has clinical implications. We encountered an accessory humeral head of pronator teres during routine dissection of left upper limb in a male cadaver. The accessory head had fleshy origin from medial supracondylar line, medial intermuscular septum and brachialis fascia. It coursed downwards in the cubital region covering brachial artery and median nerve. Further, it narrowed becoming mo...

  17. Total laparoscopic removal of accessory gallbladder: A case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Accessory gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly occurring in 1 in 4000 births, that is not associated with any specific symptoms. Usually this cannot be diagnosed on ultrasonography and hence they are usually not diagnosed preoperatively. Removal of the accessory gallbladder is necessary to avoid recurrence of symptoms. H-type accessory gallbladder is a rare anomaly. Once identified intra-operatively during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the surgery is usually converted to open. By using th...

  18. Extraperitoneal Pelvic laparoscopic disconnection of accessory urethra from normal urethra in a case of urethral duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Nitin; Aggarwal, Satish Kumar

    2014-04-01

    We report an extraperitoneal pelvic laparoscopic approach to disconnect accessory urethra from normal urethra in complete urethral duplication. First stage consisted of chordee correction, partial excision of the accessory urethra and glansplasty. In the second stage the remaining accessory urethra was disconnected from the normal urethra through a pre-peritoneal minimal access approach to the retropubic space. The remaining distal mucosa was ablated using monopolar cautery.

  19. Extraperitoneal Pelvic laparoscopic disconnection of accessory urethra from normal urethra in a case of urethral duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Pant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an extraperitoneal pelvic laparoscopic approach to disconnect accessory urethra from normal urethra in complete urethral duplication. First stage consisted of chordee correction, partial excision of the accessory urethra and glansplasty. In the second stage the remaining accessory urethra was disconnected from the normal urethra through a pre-peritoneal minimal access approach to the retropubic space. The remaining distal mucosa was ablated using monopolar cautery.

  20. Bilateral Tensor Fasciae Suralis Muscles in a Cadaver with Unilateral Accessory Flexor Digitorum Longus Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan S. W. Bale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle variants are routinely encountered in the dissection laboratory and in clinical practice and therefore anatomists and clinicians need to be aware of their existence. Here we describe two different accessory muscles identified while performing educational dissection of a 51-year-old male cadaver. Tensor fasciae suralis, a rare muscle variant, was identified bilaterally and accessory flexor digitorum longus, a more common muscle variant, was present unilaterally. Tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus are clinically relevant muscle variants. To our knowledge, the coexistence of tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus in the same individual has not been reported in either cadaveric or imaging studies.

  1. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student's t test was used to compare the length of Stensen's duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen's duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis.

  2. Incomplete and accessory fissures of the lung evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heřmanová, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.hermanova2@fnol.cz; Čtvrtlík, Filip, E-mail: filip.ctvrtlik@fnol.cz; Heřman, Miroslav, E-mail: herman@fnol.cz

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to assess incomplete and accessory interlobar fissures using volumetric thin-section high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Materials and methods: Retrospective assessment of HRCT examinations of 250 patients was performed. We assessed the localization, extension, and type of the incompleteness of fissures as well as the presence and localization of accessory fissures. We searched for possible correlation among the localization of interlobar fissures, the presence of incompleteness, and accessory fissures. Results: On the left side, an incomplete oblique fissure was found in 24%. The discontinuity was present in the parahilar region and the area of the incompleteness was most frequently between 21% and 40%. The right oblique fissure was incomplete in 35%, mostly parahilarly, with the most frequent discontinuity below 20%. An incomplete horizontal fissure was found in 74%. Accessory fissures were identified in 16% of patients, with the same frequency on both sides. The most frequent finding was accessory horizontal fissure with 8.0% on the left side, superior accessory fissure (7.2%) and inferior accessory fissure (5.2%) on the right side. No correlation was found among the localization of interlobar fissures, the presence of incompleteness, and accessory fissures. Conclusion: Incomplete and accessory fissures are frequent anatomic variations of interlobar fissures.

  3. GSM accessories now available from the CERN Stores

    CERN Multimedia

    Labo Telecom

    2001-01-01

    As of 1st October you can order and receive GSM accessories from the CERN stores like any other article. The CERN stores also manage GSM telephones but, for technical reasons, only the Labo Telecom shop (Building 31, Room S026) is able to make the standard sales, repairs and exchanges for authorised persons with a CERN subscription. Labo Telecom will thus become a specialist shop, open from 11 a.m. to 12 a.m., and will apply the usual rules and authorisation procedures of the stores. The paper form for requests for GSM subscriptions is being computerized and will be available on EDH in the near future.

  4. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  5. [Protein toxins of Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsutdinov, A F; Tiurin, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Main scientific-research studies regarding protein bacterial toxins of the most widespread bacteria that belong to Staphylococcus spp. genus and in particular the most pathogenic species for humans--Staphylococcus aureus, are analyzed. Structural and biological properties of protein toxins that have received the name of staphylococcus pyrogenic toxins (PTSAg) are presented. Data regarding genetic regulation of secretion and synthesis of these toxins and 3 main regulatory genetic systems (agr--accessory gene regulator, xpr--extracellular protein regulator, sar--staphylococcal accessory regulator) that coordinate synthesis of the most important protein toxins and enzymes for virulence of S. aureus, are presented.

  6. The Pseudorabies Virus DNA Polymerase Accessory Subunit UL42 Directs Nuclear Transport of the Holoenzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Ping; Du, Wen-Juan; Huang, Li-Ping; Wei, Yan-Wu; Wu, Hong-Li; Feng, Li; Liu, Chang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) DNA replication occurs in the nuclei of infected cells and requires the viral DNA polymerase. The PRV DNA polymerase comprises a catalytic subunit, UL30, and an accessory subunit, UL42, that confers processivity to the enzyme. Its nuclear localization is a prerequisite for its enzymatic function in the initiation of viral DNA replication. However, the mechanisms by which the PRV DNA polymerase holoenzyme enters the nucleus have not been determined. In this study, we characterized the nuclear import pathways of the PRV DNA polymerase catalytic and accessory subunits. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that UL42 localizes independently in the nucleus, whereas UL30 alone predominantly localizes in the cytoplasm. Intriguingly, the localization of UL30 was completely shifted to the nucleus when it was coexpressed with UL42, demonstrating that nuclear transport of UL30 occurs in an UL42-dependent manner. Deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of the two proteins showed that UL42 contains a functional and transferable bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) at amino acids 354-370 and that K(354), R(355), and K(367) are important for the NLS function, whereas UL30 has no NLS. Coimmunoprecipitation assays verified that UL42 interacts with importins α3 and α4 through its NLS. In vitro nuclear import assays demonstrated that nuclear accumulation of UL42 is a temperature- and energy-dependent process and requires both importins α and β, confirming that UL42 utilizes the importin α/β-mediated pathway for nuclear entry. In an UL42 NLS-null mutant, the UL42/UL30 heterodimer was completely confined to the cytoplasm when UL42 was coexpressed with UL30, indicating that UL30 utilizes the NLS function of UL42 for its translocation into the nucleus. Collectively, these findings suggest that UL42 contains an importin α/β-mediated bipartite NLS that transports the viral DNA polymerase holoenzyme into the nucleus in an in vitro expression

  7. The accessory coracobrachialis muscle: ultrasound and MR features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauones, Salem [Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM), Department of Radiology, Hopital Saint-Luc, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Moraux, Antoine [Imagerie Medicale Jacquemars Gielee, Lille (France)

    2015-09-15

    To present the prevalence, clinical relevance, and ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of the accessory coracobrachialis (ACB) muscle. We present an US prospective study of the ACB muscle over a 2-year period. Five of the eight patients with suspected ACB on US were subsequently examined by MRI. An ACB muscle was demonstrated by US in eight patients (eight shoulders), including seven females, one male, with mean age 39 years, over 770 (664 patients) consecutive shoulder US examinations referred to our institution yielding a prevalence of 1.04 %. In dynamic US assessment, one case of subcoracoid impingement secondary to a bulky ACB was diagnosed. No thoracic outlet syndrome was encountered in the remaining cases. MRI confirmed the presence of the accessory muscle in five cases. ACB muscle is a rarely reported yet not uncommon anatomic variation of the shoulder musculature encountered only in eight of 664 patients referred for shoulder US study. Its US and MRI appearance is described. One of our patients presented with subcoracoid impingement related to the presence of an ACB. (orig.)

  8. Behaviour of bentonite accessory minerals during the thermal stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos, David; Bruno, Jordi [Enviros-QuantiSci, Barcelona (Spain); Benbow, Steven; Takase, Hiro [Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-15

    This report discusses in a quantitative manner the evolution of the accessory minerals in the bentonite as a result of the thermal event exerted by the spent fuel in the near field. Three different modelling approaches have been used and the results compared between them. The three different approaches have been calculated using two Differential Algebraic Equation (DAE) solver: DYLAN (Model-1) and the Nag DAE solver, d02ngf (Model-2) and the third approach (Model-3) using the last version of PHREEQC. The results from these calculations indicate the feasibility of the modelling approach to model the migration of bentonite accessory minerals and relevant aqueous species throughout the thermal gradient. These calculations indicate that the migration of quartz and quartz polymorphs is a lesser problem. The aqueous speciation of Ca in the bentonite pore water is fundamental in order to define the potential migration of anhydrite during the thermal stage. If CaSO{sub 4}(aq) is the predominant aqueous species, then anhydrite dissolves at the initial groundwater migration times through bentonite. However, if Ca{sup 2+} is considered to be the dominant Ca species at the bentonite pore water, then anhydrite migrates towards the clay/granite interface. This is the main difference in the chemical systems considered in the three model approaches used in this work. The main process affecting the trace mineral behaviour in bentonite is cation exchange. This process controls the concentration of calcium, which results in a direct control of the calcite precipitation-dissolution.

  9. Digital dermatitis of the accessory digits of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso A. Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This report characterizes the digital dermatitis (DD lesions in the accessory digits of dairy cows and presents data on the applied therapy. Fifteen Holstein cattle with DD affecting the accessory digits of the hindlimbs from four dairy farms with previous history of DD were evaluated. Lesions were excised, the wounds were sutured, and a topical application of oxytetracycline powder covered by bandaging was associated with a single parenteral administration of long acting oxytetracycline IM (20mg/kg. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathology and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM. Lesions from all the animals were recuperated 15 days after surgical procedure. Overal, most DD lesions were papillomatous epidermal projections or wartlike verrucous lesions. Histopathologically, samples revealed hyperplasia of epidermis with hyperkeratosis, several mitoses in the stratum basale and elongated rete ridges in the superficial and middle dermis. TEM revealed long, thin spirochete-like bacteria. Morphologic features of lesions and its response to therapy were comparable to those described for DD.

  10. Decontamination of minimally invasive surgical endoscopes and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayliffe, G

    2000-08-01

    (1) Infections following invasive endoscopy are rare and are usually of endogenous origin. Nevertheless, infections do occur due to inadequate cleaning and disinfection and the use of contaminated rinse water and processing equipment. (2) Rigid and flexible operative endoscopes and accessories should be thoroughly cleaned and preferably sterilized using properly validated processes. (3) Heat tolerant operative endoscopes and accessories should be sterilized using a vacuum assisted steam sterilizer. Use autoclavable instrument trays or containers to protect equipment during transit and processing. Small bench top sterilizers without vacuum assisted air removal are unsuitable for packaged and lumened devices. (4) Heat sensitive rigid and flexible endoscopes and accessories should preferably be sterilized using ethylene oxide, low temperature steam and formaldehyde (rigid only) or gas plasma (if appropriate). (5) If there are insufficient instruments or time to sterilize invasive endoscopes, or if no suitable method is available locally, they may be disinfected by immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or a suitable alternative. An immersion time of at least 10 min should be adopted for glutaraldehyde. This is sufficient to inactivate most vegetative bacteria and viruses including HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Longer contact times of 20 min or more may be necessary if a mycobacterial infection is known or suspected. At least 3 h immersion in glutaraldehyde is required to kill spores. (6) Glutaraldehyde is irritant and sensitizing to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Measures must be taken to ensure glutaraldehyde is used in a safe manner, i.e., total containment and/or extraction of harmful vapour and the provision of suitable personal protective equipment, i.e., gloves, apron and eye protection if splashing could occur. Health surveillance of staff is recommended and should include a pre-employment enquiry regarding asthma, skin and mucosal sensitivity problems and

  11. Proteasome Accessory Factor C (pafC) Is a novel gene Involved in Mycobacterium Intrinsic Resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics - Fluoroquinolones

    OpenAIRE

    Qiming Li; Longxiang Xie; Quanxin Long; Jinxiao Mao; Hui Li; Mingliang Zhou; Jianping Xie

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics resistance poses catastrophic threat to global public health. Novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of action will inspire better measures to control drug resistance. Fluoroquinolones are potent and widely prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics. Bacterial protein degradation pathways represent novel druggable target for the development of new classes of antibiotics. Mycobacteria proteasome accessory factor C (pafC), a component of bacterial proteasome, is involved in fluoro...

  12. Detection and sequence analysis of accessory gene regulator genes of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ananda Chitra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP is the major pathogenic species of dogs involved in a wide variety of skin and soft tissue infections. The accessory gene regulator (agr locus of Staphylococcus aureus has been extensively studied, and it influences the expression of many virulence genes. It encodes a two-component signal transduction system that leads to down-regulation of surface proteins and up-regulation of secreted proteins during in vitro growth of S. aureus. The objective of this study was to detect and sequence analyzing the AgrA, B, and D of SP isolated from canine skin infections. Materials and Methods: In this study, we have isolated and identified SP from canine pyoderma and otitis cases by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and confirmed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Primers for SP agrA and agrBD genes were designed using online primer designing software and BLAST searched for its specificity. Amplification of the agr genes was carried out for 53 isolates of SP by PCR and sequencing of agrA, B, and D were carried out for five isolates and analyzed using DNAstar and Mega5.2 software. Results: A total of 53 (59% SP isolates were obtained from 90 samples. 15 isolates (28% were confirmed to be methicillinresistant SP (MRSP with the detection of the mecA gene. Accessory gene regulator A, B, and D genes were detected in all the SP isolates. Complete nucleotide sequences of the above three genes for five isolates were submitted to GenBank, and their accession numbers are from KJ133557 to KJ133571. AgrA amino acid sequence analysis showed that it is mainly made of alpha-helices and is hydrophilic in nature. AgrB is a transmembrane protein, and AgrD encodes the precursor of the autoinducing peptide (AIP. Sequencing of the agrD gene revealed that the 5 canine SP strains tested could be divided into three Agr specificity groups (RIPTSTGFF, KIPTSTGFF, and RIPISTGFF based on the putative AIP produced by each strain

  13. Crystallization of accessory phases in magmas by local saturation adjacent to phenocrysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Accessory minerals commonly occur attached to or included in the major crystalline phases of felsic and some intermediate igneous rocks. Apatite is particularly common as inclusions, but Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite, zircon, monazite, chevkinite and xenotime are also known from silicic rocks. Accessories may nucleate near the host crystal/ liquid interface as a result of local saturation owing to formation of a differentiated chemical boundary layer in which accessory mineral solubility would be lower than in the surrounding liquid. Differentiation of this boundary layer would be greatest adjacent to ferromagnesian phenocrysts, especially Fe-Ti oxides; it is with oxides that accessories are most commonly associated in rocks. A boundary layer may develop if the crystal grows more rapidly than diffusion can transport incorporated and rejected elements to and from the phenocryst. Diffusion must dominate over convection as a mode of mass transfer near the advancing crystal/liquid interface in order for a boundary layer to exist. Accumulation of essential structural constituent elements of accessory minerals owing to their slow diffusion in evolved silicate melt also may force local saturation, but this is not a process that applies to all cases. Local saturation is an attractive mechanism for enhancing fractionation during crystallization differentiation. If accessory minerals attached to or included in phenocrysts formed because of local saturation, their host phenocrysts must have grown rapidly when accessories nucleated in comparison to lifetimes of magma reservoirs. Some inconsistencies remain in a local saturation origin for accessory phases that cannot be evaluated without additional information. ?? 1989.

  14. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope... Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are...

  15. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical... Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories is a device designed to...

  16. 77 FR 15390 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on... interest issues raised by the ] recommended relief, specifically issuance of a general exclusion order covering handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof that infringe U.S. Trademark...

  17. 48 CFR 52.247-13 - Accessorial Services-Moving Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Moving Contracts. 52.247-13 Section 52.247-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.247-13 Accessorial Services—Moving Contracts. As prescribed in 47.207-5(c), insert a clause... furniture: Accessorial Services—Moving Contracts (APR 1984) (a) Packing and/or crating and padding....

  18. 21 CFR 878.4200 - Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... catheters (including dialysis), and other general surgical catheters. An introduction/drainage catheter... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories... Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. An introduction/drainage catheter is a...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. 878.4400 Section 878.4400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  20. 46 CFR 38.10-1 - Valves, fittings, and accessories-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... valves to close in case of fire. The quick-closing shutoff valves shall be capable of local manual... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves, fittings, and accessories-TB/ALL. 38.10-1... GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-1 Valves, fittings, and accessories—TB...

  1. Myosin VIIA is a marker for the cone accessory outer segment in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodel, Corinne; Niklaus, Stephanie; Heidemann, Martina; Klooster, Jan; Kamermans, M.; Biehlmaier, Oliver; Gesemann, Matthias; Neuhauss, Stephan C F

    2014-01-01

    The accessory outer segment, a cytoplasmic structure running alongside the photoreceptor outer segment, has been described in teleost fishes, excluding the model organism zebrafish. So far, the function of the accessory outer segment is unknown. Here, we describe the ultrastructure of the zebrafish

  2. A peptide from the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). These glands add various substances to the ejaculate. On mating, the ejaculate is transferred to the female, together with the substances from the male accessory glands. The fun

  3. Fast Image Retrieval of Textile Industrial Accessory Based on Multi-Feature Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈文忠; 杨杰

    2004-01-01

    A hierarchical retrieval scheme of the accessory image database is proposed based on textile industrial accessory contour feature and region feature. At first smallest enclosed rectangle[1] feature (degree of accessory coordination) is used to filter the image database to decouple the image search scope. After the accessory contour information and region information are extracted, the fusion multi-feature of the centroid distance Fourier descriptor and distance distribution histogram is adopted to finish image retrieval accurately. All the features above are invariable under translation, scaling and rotation. Results from the test on the image database including 1,000 accessory images demonstrate that the method is effective and practical with high accuracy and fast speed.

  4. Successful accessory renal artery denervation in a patient with resistant hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Atas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal sympathetic denervation is safe and effective in patients with resistant hypertension. In all of the studies of renal artery denervation, patients with accessory renal arteries are excluded. So there is not any data regarding renal sympathetic denervation applied to the accessory renal arteries. We present a young female patient with resistant hypertension despite use of five different antihypertensive drugs. The patient had a well developed (diameter >4 mm left renal accessory. We believe that if we omitted the well developed accessory renal artery, we would not have maintained adequate blood pressure control. Thus, we applied radiofrequency ablation to both renal arteries and left accessory artery. Immediately after the procedure, the patient′s blood pressure was reduced to 110/60 mmHg and this effect was continued during the first month of follow-up.

  5. A novel role for pigment genes in the stress response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Uniza Wahid; Øverli, Øyvind; Hinkle, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    In many vertebrate species visible melanin-based pigmentation patterns correlate with high stress- and disease-resistance, but proximate mechanisms for this trait association remain enigmatic. Here we show that a missense mutation in a classical pigmentation gene, melanocyte stimulating hormone...... protein (ASIP) mRNA in skin, likely explaining the association between HR-traits and reduced skin melanin patterning. Molecular dynamics simulations predict that melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP), needed for MC2R function, binds differently to the two MC1R variants. Considering that m...

  6. 中国HIV-1 CRF01_AE流行株结构基因和调节/辅助基因DNA疫苗的构建和免疫原性研究%Immunogenicity of DNA vaccines encoding structural proteins and regulatory/accessory proteins derived from an HIV-1 CRF01_AE isolate circulating in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁松华; 徐建青; 万延民; 仇超; 张聪优; 黄杨; 乔勇; 叶芮琪; 邱趁丽; 张晓燕

    2010-01-01

    目的 构建表达gag-env融合基因和tat-rev-integrase(c-holf)-vif-nef融合基因的DNA疫苗,并评价其免疫原性.方法 按人源密码子使用频率对AE2f株的gag、env、tat、rev、integrase、vif和nef基因序列进行优化,构建真核表达质粒.用Western blot法验证体外表达情况;用ELISPOT法检测小鼠的细胞免疫反应.结果 限制性酶切及DNA测序结果表明两个融合基因质粒构建正确,可以表达相应的融合蛋白.ELISPOT结果显示,Gag-Env特异性的T细胞反应强度为(3010±566)SFC/10~6脾细胞;Tat-Rev-Integrase(C-half)-Vif-Nef融合蛋白特异性的T细胞反应为(948±737)SFC/10~6脾细胞,均显著高于空载体组.结论 构建的表达HIV-1 CRF01_AE流行株gag-env融合基因和tat-rev-integrase(c-half)-vif-nef融合基因的DNA疫苗可以正确表达所编码的融合蛋白并有效地激活机体的T细胞免疫反应.%Objective To construct two DNA vaccines encoding Gag-Env fusion protein and Tat-Rev-Integrase(C-half)-Vif-Nef fusion protein derived from the first HIV-1 CRF01_AE isolate(AE2f) in Chi-na and to evaluate the immunogenicity in mice. Methods Two DNA vaccines were constructed by inserting the codon optimized and synthesized gag-env fusion gene and tat-rev-integrase(c-half)-vif-nef fusion gene de-rived from AE2f into mammalian expression vector pDRVISV1. 0, the generated DNA vaccines were desig-nated as pSVAE/GE and pSVAE/TRIVN, respectively, and their in vitro expression were determined by Western blot with transfected 293T cells. Mice were i. m. immunized with either pDRVI1.0 as mock control, pSVAE/GE or pSYAE/TRIVN for 4 times at two-week interval. Two weeks following the final im-munization, cellular responses to pool of HIV-1 Env, Gag, Tat, Rev, Intergrase, Vif and Nef peptides were evaluated by ELISPOT assay. Results The construction of DNA vaccine pSVAE/GE and pSVAE/TRIVN was validated by restriction enzyme digestion and bidirectional sequencing. Western blot showed a

  7. Successful catheter ablation of a left anterior accessory pathway from the non-coronary cusp of the aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Sérgio; Oliveira, Mário; Trigo, Conceição

    2015-08-01

    Left anterior accessory pathways are considered to be rare findings. Catheter ablation of accessory pathways in this location remains a challenging target, and few reports about successful ablation of these accessory pathways are available. We describe our experience regarding a case of a manifest left anterior accessory pathway ablation using radiofrequency energy at the junction of the left coronary cusp with the non-coronary cusp.

  8. Relationship between development of accessory maxillary sinus and chronic sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to investigate whether there is a relationship between development of accessory maxillary osmium (AMO and chronic sinusitis. Material and Methods: A total of 100 patients who had endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS constituted the study group while 100 patients who had septoplasty were taken as the control group. The patients were examined for the presence of AMO using rigid endoscope. Results: The prevalence of AMO was 14% in the rhinosinusitis group and 9% in the control group. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our study revealed that AMO prevalence is significantly higher in patients with CRS when compared with the controls. CRS may enhance perforation of fontanelle and formation of AMO.

  9. Development of Heat-resistant XLPE Cable and Accessories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Murata, Yoshinao; Kishi, Kouji; Katakai, Shoshi

    We have developed heat-resistant XLPE cable and accessories that can be operated at 105°C as the maximum permissible conductor temperature in normal operation. Through this cable system, greater transmission capacity can be achieved using existing cable ducts and without increasing the conductor size of the cable. We have developed heat-resistant XLPE insulation material which has a higher melting point than that of conventional XLPE. The breakdown strength of heat-resistant XLPE cable at 105°C is almost the same as that of conventional XLPE cable at 90°C. The heat deformation of the new cable at 105°C is almost the same as that of conventional XLPE cable at 90°C. Conventional self-pressurized rubber joints can be applied to heat-resistant cable lines with the new waterproof joint compound with low heat resistivity.

  10. Molecular evolution of GPCRs: Melanocortin/melanocortin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, Robert M; Londraville, Richard L; Prokop, Jeremy; Davis, Perry; Dewey, Nathan; Lesinski, Natalie

    2014-06-01

    The melanocortin receptors (MCRs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors that are activated by melanocortin ligands derived from the proprotein, proopiomelanocortin (POMC). During the radiation of the gnathostomes, the five receptors have become functionally segregated (i.e. melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), pigmentation regulation; MC2R, glucocorticoid synthesis; MC3R and MC4R, energy homeostasis; and MC5R, exocrine gland physiology). A focus of this review is the role that ligand selectivity plays in the hypothalamus/pituitary/adrenal-interrenal (HPA-I) axis of teleosts and tetrapods as a result of the exclusive ligand selectivity of MC2R for the ligand ACTH. A second focal point of this review is the roles that the accessory proteins melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein 1 (MRAP1) and MRAP2 are playing in, respectively, the HPA-I axis (MC2R) and the regulation of energy homeostasis by neurons in the hypothalamus (MC4R) of teleosts and tetrapods. In addition, observations are presented on trends in the ligand selectivity parameters of cartilaginous fish, teleost, and tetrapod MC1R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R paralogs, and the modeling of the HFRW motif of ACTH(1-24) when compared with α-MSH. The radiation of the MCRs during the evolution of the gnathostomes provides examples of how the physiology of endocrine and neuronal circuits can be shaped by ligand selectivity, the intersession of reverse agonists (agouti-related peptides (AGRPs)), and interactions with accessory proteins (MRAPs).

  11. A novel role for pigment genes in the stress response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Uniza Wahid

    2016-07-04

    In many vertebrate species visible melanin-based pigmentation patterns correlate with high stress- and disease-resistance, but proximate mechanisms for this trait association remain enigmatic. Here we show that a missense mutation in a classical pigmentation gene, melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor (MC1R), is strongly associated with distinct differences in steroidogenic melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) mRNA expression between high- (HR) and low-responsive (LR) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We also show experimentally that cortisol implants increase the expression of agouti signaling protein (ASIP) mRNA in skin, likely explaining the association between HR-traits and reduced skin melanin patterning. Molecular dynamics simulations predict that melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP), needed for MC2R function, binds differently to the two MC1R variants. Considering that mRNA for MC2R and the MC1R variants are present in head kidney cells, we hypothesized that MC2R activity is modulated in part by different binding affinities of the MC1R variants for MRAP. Experiments in mammalian cells confirmed that trout MRAP interacts with the two trout MC1R variants and MC2R, but failed to detect regulation of MC2R signaling, possibly due to high constitutive MC1R activity.

  12. 60 YEARS OF POMC: Melanocortin receptors: evolution of ligand selectivity for melanocortin peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, Robert M; Liang, Liang; Davis, Perry; Thomas, Alexa L; Petko, Bogdana

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of the melanocortin receptors (MCRs) is linked to the evolution of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), the melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSHs), and their common precursor pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). The origin of the MCRs and POMC appears to be grounded in the early radiation of the ancestral protochordates. During the genome duplications that have occurred during the evolution of the chordates, the organization plan for POMC was established, and features that have been retained include, the high conservation of the amino acid sequences of α-MSH and ACTH, and the presence of the HFRW MCR activation motif in all of the melanocortin peptides (i.e. ACTH, α-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH, and δ-MSH). For the MCRs, the chordate genome duplication events resulted in the proliferation of paralogous receptor genes, and a divergence in ligand selectivity. While most gnathostome MCRs can be activated by either ACTH or the MSHs, teleost and tetrapod MC2R orthologs can only be activated by ACTH. The appearance of the accessory protein, MRAP1, paralleled the emergence of teleost and tetrapods MC2R ligand selectivity, and the dependence of these orthologs on MRAP1 for trafficking to the plasma membrane. The accessory protein, MRAP2, does not affect MC2R ligand selectivity, but does influence the functionality of MC4R orthologs. In this regard, the roles that these accessory proteins may play in the physiology of the five MCRs (i.e. MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R) are discussed.

  13. Genetic evidence of an accessory activity required specifically for cubilin brush-border expression and intrinsic factor-cobalamin absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Kozyraki, R; Newman, T C; Fyfe, J C

    1999-11-15

    Cubilin is a high molecular weight multiligand receptor that mediates intestinal absorption of intrinsic factor-cobalamin and selective protein reabsorption in renal tubules. The genetic basis of selective intestinal cobalamin malabsorption with proteinuria was investigated in a canine model closely resembling human Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome caused by cubilin mutations. Canine CUBN cDNA was cloned and sequenced, showing high identity with human and rat CUBN cDNAs. An intragenic CUBN marker was identified in the canine family and used to test the hypothesis of genetic linkage of the disease and CUBN loci. Linkage was rejected, indicating that the canine disorder resembling Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome is caused by defect of a gene product other than cubilin. These results imply that there may be locus heterogeneity among human kindreds with selective intestinal cobalamin malabsorption and proteinuria and that normal brush-border expression of cubilin requires the activity of an accessory protein.

  14. Peroneal spastic flatfoot in adolescents with accessory talar facet impingement: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Hisateru; Aoki, Haruhito; Hirano, Takaaki; Akiyama, Yui; Fujiya, Hiroto

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzed imaging, arthroscopic findings, and treatment responses for peroneal spastic flatfoot (PSFF) caused by talocalcaneal impingement at the accessory anterolateral talar facet (AALTF) (accessory talar facet impingement) in 13 adolescents without histories of trauma and tarsal coalition. The AALTF was determined with computed tomography and MRI. Focal abutting bone marrow edema (FABME) on MRI around the AALTF was confirmed. In seven patients who underwent AALTF resection, subtalar arthroscopy was performed. All experienced alleviation PSFF after treatment; reduction in FABME was observed. AALTF resection alone is beneficial for PSFF caused by accessory talar facet impingement when peroneal spasms are restored by an injection of local anesthesia.

  15. Accessory subunit NUYM (NDUFS4) is required for stability of the electron input module and activity of mitochondrial complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlhöfer, Flora; Kmita, Katarzyna; Wittig, Ilka; Zwicker, Klaus; Zickermann, Volker

    2017-02-01

    Mitochondrial complex I is an intricate 1MDa membrane protein complex with a central role in aerobic energy metabolism. The minimal form of complex I consists of fourteen central subunits that are conserved from bacteria to man. In addition, eukaryotic complex I comprises some 30 accessory subunits of largely unknown function. The gene for the accessory NDUFS4 subunit of human complex I is a hot spot for fatal pathogenic mutations in humans. We have deleted the gene for the orthologous NUYM subunit in the aerobic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, an established model system to study eukaryotic complex I and complex I linked diseases. We observed assembly of complex I which lacked only subunit NUYM and retained weak interaction with assembly factor N7BML (human NDUFAF2). Absence of NUYM caused distortion of iron sulfur clusters of the electron input domain leading to decreased complex I activity and increased release of reactive oxygen species. We conclude that NUYM has an important stabilizing function for the electron input module of complex I and is essential for proper complex I function.

  16. Contribution of a genomic accessory region encoding a putative cellobiose phosphotransferase system to virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren J McAllister

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus is a formidable human pathogen, responsible for massive global morbidity and mortality. The ability to utilize carbohydrates in a variety of host niches appears to be integral to pneumococcal pathogenesis. In this study we investigated a genomic island, which includes a ROK family protein, a putative cellobiose phosphotransferase system (PTS and a putative sulfatase. This accessory region is widespread in the pneumococcus in strains of various serotypes and levels of virulence. We have performed simple bioinformatic analysis of the region and investigated its role in vivo in 2 strains with markedly different virulence profiles (WCH206 of serotype 3, ST180; Menzies5 of serotype 11A, ST662. Deleting and replacing the entire island with an antibiotic resistance cassette caused the virulent serotype 3 strain to become attenuated in a murine pneumonia/sepsis model. Further mutants were constructed and used to show that various components of the island contribute significantly to the fitness of WCH206 in a variety of niches of this model, including the nasopharynx, ears and blood, but especially in the lungs. In addition, the island conferred a competitive advantage in nasopharyngeal colonization for the serotype 11A strain, which was essentially avirulent in the pneumonia/sepsis model. The contribution of this island to both pathogenesis and colonization may explain why this accessory region is widespread in the pneumococcus.

  17. Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Service Resources Additional Resources About FAQ Contact Protein Protein is found throughout the body—in muscle, ... the heart and respiratory system, and death. All Protein Isn’t Alike Protein is built from building ...

  18. Biological Activity of Recombinant Accessory Cholerae Enterotoxin (Ace on Rabbit Ileal Loops and Antibacterial Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Anvari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae causes a potentially lethal disease named cholera. The cholera enterotoxin (CT is a major virulence factor of V. cholerae. In addition to CT, V. cholerae produces other putative toxins, such as the zonula occludens toxin (Zot and accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace. The ace gene is the third gene of the V. cholerae virulence cassette. The Ace toxin alters ion transport, causes fluid accumulation in ligated rabbit ileal loops, and is a cause of mild diarrhea. The aim of this study is the cloning and overexpression of the ace gene into Escherichia coli (E. coli and determination of some characteristics of the recombinant Ace protein.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the ace gene was amplified from V. cholerae strain 62013, then cloned in a pET28a expression vector and transformed into an E. coli (DH5 α host strain. Subsequently, the recombinant vector was retransformed into E. coli BL21 for expression, induced by isopropythio-β-D-galctoside (IPTG at a different concentration, and examined by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. A rabbit ileal loop experiment was conducted. Antibacterial activity of the Ace protein was assessed for E. coli, Stapylococcus aureus (S. aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa.Results: The recombinant Ace protein with a molecular weight of 18 kDa (dimeric form was expressed in E. coli BL21. The Ace protein showed poor staining with Coomassie blue stain, but stained efficiently with silver stain. Western blot analysis showed that the recombinant Ace protein reacted with rabbit anti-V. cholerae polyclonal antibody. The Ace protein had antibacterial activity at a concentration of ≥200 μg/ml and caused significant fluid accumulation in the ligated rabbit ileal loop test.Conclusion: This study described an E. coli cloning and expression system (E. coli BL21- pET-28a-ace for the Ace protein of V. cholerae. We confirmed the antibacterial properties and enterotoxin

  19. The Online Marketing Research on the Factors of Competitiveness of Enterprises in the Computer Accessory Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashkina Oksana I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at identifyng the factors of competitiveness of enterprises in the market for computer accessories (on the example of the «ZONA51» store and suggesting certain actions as to creating and strengthening competitive advantages. The main competitors of the enterprise, which offer computer accessories, as well as the basic preferences of consumers in choosing the game-oriented computer accessories, have been explored. The study has found that price and active Internet communications are the main factors in the competitiveness of enterprises in the market for computer accessories. It is also important to use communicative channels such as «word-of-mouth marketing» for specific types of goods. The target audience of the products analyzed is young people, so it is also important to advertise resources near the places of youth gatherings to provide active communications. Further studies should consider the factors of competitiveness of Internet shops with different orientation.

  20. Expression of accessory molecules and cytokines in acute EAE in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laman, J.D.; Meurs, M. van; Schellekens, M.M.; Boer, M. de; Melchers, B.; Massacesi, L.; Lassmann, H.; Claassen, E.; Hart, B.A. 't

    1998-01-01

    Accessory molecules and cytokines are involved in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rodent models, and are potential targets for immunotherapy. Evaluation of such experimental therapies requires appropriate animal models. Therefo

  1. 49 CFR 398.5 - Parts and accessories necessary for safe operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF MIGRANT WORKERS § 398.5 Parts and accessories necessary for safe operation. (a... worker transported. The seats shall be: Securely attached to the vehicle during the course...

  2. 77 FR 46633 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Brakes; Adjustment Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... RIN 2126-AB28 Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Brakes; Adjustment Limits AGENCY... Safety Administration (FMCSA) amends the requirements regarding brake readjustment limits in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs). This rule amends the readjustment limits, clarifies...

  3. Defective Tbx2-dependent patterning of the atrioventricular canal myocardium causes accessory pathway formation in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanhaanen, W.T.J.; Boukens, B.J.D.; Sizarov, A.; Wakker, V.; de Gier- de Vries, C.; van Ginneken, A.C.; Moorman, A.F.M.; Coronel, R.; Christoffels, V.M.

    2011-01-01

    Ventricular preexcitation, a feature of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, is caused by accessory myocardial pathways that bypass the annulus fibrosus. This condition increases the risk of atrioventricular tachycardia and, in the presence of atrial fibrillation, sudden death. The developmental

  4. Manual therapy of the mandibular accessory ligaments for the management of temporomandibular joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Antonino Marco; Caradonna, Carola; Caradonna, Domenico

    2011-02-01

    Temporomandibular joint disorders are characterized by chronic or acute musculoskeletal or myofascial pain with dysfunction of the masticatory system. Treatment modalities include occlusal splints, patient education, activity modification, muscle and joint exercises, myofascial therapy, acupuncture, and manipulative therapy. In the physiology of the temporomandibular joint, accessory ligaments limit the movement of the mandible. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy of accessory ligaments is necessary for good clinical management of temporomandibular joint disorders. Although general principles regarding the anatomy of the ligaments are relatively clear, very little substantiated information on the dimension, orientation, and function of the ligaments has been published, to the authors' knowledge. The authors review the literature concerning the accessory ligaments of the temporomandibular joint and describe treatment options, including manual techniques for mobilizing the accessory ligaments.

  5. One nose, one brain: contribution of the main and accessory olfactory system to chemosensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eMucignat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The accessory olfactory system is present in most tetrapods. It is involved in the perception of chemical stimuli, being implicated also in the detection of pheromone. However, it is sensitive also to some common odorant molecules, which have no clear implication in intraspecific chemical communication. The accessory olfactory system may complement the main olfactory system, and may contribute different perceptual features to the construction of a unitary representation, which merges the different chemosensory qualities. Crosstalk between the main and accessory olfactory systems occurs at different levels of central processing, in brain areas where the inputs from the two systems converge. Interestingly, centrifugal projections from more caudal brain areas are deeply involved in modulating both main and accessory sensory processing. A high degree of interaction between the two systems may be conceived, and partial overlapping appears to occur in many functions. Therefore, the central chemosensory projections merge inputs from different organs to obtain a complex chemosensory picture.

  6. Clinico-embryological perspective of a rare accessory brachial muscle with possible musculocutaneous nerve compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, V; Yadav, Y; Arora, Jyoti; Kumar, H; Suri, R K; Rath, G

    2009-03-01

    Both brachialis and biceps brachii are primary flexors of the arm and elbow from the biomechanical perspective. Numerous reports exist in anatomical literature regarding accessory heads of biceps brachii, although such accessory bellies in relation to brachialis muscle are less frequently elucidated. We report a unilateral case of a rare accessory muscle interposed between the biceps brachii and brachialis, having the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) entrapped between the two. Furthermore, the muscle divided into two slips, upper slip was attached to biceps brachii and the other gained insertion to the brachial fascia. Innervation to this accessory muscle was derived from MCN. The embryological basis for such supernumerary muscle is discussed. Additionally, the case is considered under surgical and clinical perspective, highlighting the importance of familiarity with such variations. Anatomical variations of the brachial musculature may cause diagnostic perplexities while interpreting MRI or CT scans.

  7. An accessory ossification centre in the calcaneus with talonavicular and second metatarsocuneiform coalitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhan, A.U.; Aydin, H.; Aynaci, O. [KTU Farabi Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Trabzon (Turkey); Dinc, H. [KTU Farabi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Trabzon (Turkey)

    1999-04-01

    We present the case of an 11-year-old girl with an accessory ossification centre of the calcaneus with talonavicular and second metatarsocuneiform coalitions, and bilateral os tibiale externum. (orig.) With 3 figs., 4 refs.

  8. Accessory brachialis muscle associated with high division of brachial artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamurthy A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available During routine dissection for the undergraduate students in the Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, of a male cadaver aged 73 years, we encountered an additional slip of brachialis muscle taking origin in the flexor compartment of left arm and inserting into the forearm. The origin of the additional muscle belly was from the anteromedial surface of shaft and medial supracondylar ridge of lower end of humerus. The additional muscle slip merged with the tendon of pronator teres before inserting on the lateral surface of the shaft of radius. The median nerve pierced the muscle at a distance of 6 cm from the medial epicondyle of humerus, supplied it and had a routine course later. Associated with the muscular abnormality was the high division of brachial artery into radial and ulnar arteries 17.5 cm from the medial epicondyle. The ulnar artery passed beneath the accessory brachialis muscle along with the median nerve. The role of additional muscles in compression syndrome is a well known phenomenon. The altered anatomy of the blood vessels may make them more vulnerable to trauma and to hemorrhage but at the same time more accessible for cannulation. Medical fraternity including orthopedicians and neurologists need to be aware of such variations when dealing with upper limb injuries or operations around the elbow joint.

  9. Accessory cardiac bronchus: Proposed imaging classification on multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Min; Kim, Young Tong; Han, Jong Kyu; Jou, Sung Shick [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To propose the classification of accessory cardiac bronchus (ACB) based on imaging using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), and evaluate follow-up changes of ACB. This study included 58 patients diagnosed as ACB since 9 years, using MDCT. We analyzed the types, division locations and division directions of ACB, and also evaluated changes on follow-up. We identified two main types of ACB: blind-end (51.7%) and lobule (48.3%). The blind-end ACB was further classified into three subtypes: blunt (70%), pointy (23.3%) and saccular (6.7%). The lobule ACB was also further classified into three subtypes: complete (46.4%), incomplete (28.6%) and rudimentary (25%). Division location to the upper half bronchus intermedius (79.3%) and medial direction (60.3%) were the most common in all patients. The difference in division direction was statistically significant between the blind-end and lobule types (p = 0.019). Peribronchial soft tissue was found in five cases. One calcification case was identified in the lobule type. During follow-up, ACB had disappeared in two cases of the blind-end type and in one case of the rudimentary subtype. The proposed classification of ACB based on imaging, and the follow-up CT, helped us to understand the various imaging features of ACB.

  10. Cummins MD & HD Accessory Hybridization CRADA -Annual Report FY15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deter, Dean D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    There are many areas of MD and HD vehicles that can be improved by new technologies and optimized control strategies. Component optimization and idle reduction need to be addressed, this is best done by a two part approach that includes selecting the best component technology, and/or architecture, and optimized controls that are vehicle focused. While this is a common focus in the light duty industry it has been gaining momentum in the MD and HD market as the market gets more competitive and the regulations become more stringent. When looking into systems optimization and idle reduction technologies, affected vehicle systems must first be considered, and if possible included in the new architecture to get the most benefit out of these new capabilities. Typically, when looking into idle reduction or component optimization for MD/HD, the vehicle s accessories become a prime candidate for electrification or hybridization. While this has already been studied on light duty vehicles (especially on hybrids and electric vehicles) it has not made any head way or market penetration in most MD and HD applications. If hybrids and electric MD and HD vehicles begin to break into the market this would be a necessary step into the ability to make those vehicles successful by allowing for independent, optimized operation separate from the engine.

  11. The gametic central cell of Arabidopsis determines the lifespan of adjacent accessory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kägi, Christina; Baumann, Nadine; Nielsen, Nicola; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Gross-Hardt, Rita

    2010-12-21

    Plant germ cells develop in specialized haploid structures, termed gametophytes. The female gametophyte patterns of flowering plants are diverse, with often unknown adaptive value. Here we present the Arabidopsis fiona mutant, which forms a female gametophyte that is structurally and functionally reminiscent of a phylogenetic distant female gametophyte. The respective changes include a modified reproductive behavior of one of the female germ cells (central cell) and an extended lifespan of three adjacent accessory cells (antipodals). FIONA encodes the cysteinyl t-RNA synthetase SYCO ARATH (SYCO), which is expressed and required in the central cell but not in the antipodals, suggesting that antipodal lifespan is controlled by the adjacent gamete. SYCO localizes to the mitochondria, and ultrastructural analysis of mutant central cells revealed that the protein is necessary for mitochondrial cristae integrity. Furthermore, a dominant ATP/ADP translocator caused mitochondrial cristae degeneration and extended antipodal lifespan when expressed in the central cell of wild-type plants. Notably, this construct did not affect antipodal lifespan when expressed in antipodals. Our results thus identify an unexpected noncell autonomous role for mitochondria in the regulation of cellular lifespan and provide a basis for the coordinated development of gametic and nongametic cells.

  12. Rice GTPase OsRacB: Potential Accessory Factor in Plant Salt-stress Signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min LUO; Su-Hai GU; Shu-Hui ZHAO; Fang ZHANG; Nai-Hu WU

    2006-01-01

    As the sole ubiquitous signal small guanosine triphosphate-binding protein in plants, Rop gene plays an important role in plant growth and development. In this study, we focus on the relationship between the novel rice Rop gene OsRacB and plant salt tolerance. Results show that OsRacB transcription is highly accumulated in roots after treatment with salinity, but only slightly accumulated in stems and leaves under the same treatment. Promoter analysis showed that OsRacB promoter is induced by salinity and exogenous salicylic acid, not abscisic acid. To elucidate its physiological function, we generated OsRacB sense and antisense transgenic tobacco and rice. Under proper salinity treatment, sense transgenic plants grew much better than the control. This suggests that overexpression of OsRacB in tobacco and rice can improve plant salt tolerance. But under the same treatment, no difference could be observed between OsRacB antisense plants and the control. The results indicated that OsRacB is only an accessory factor in plant salt tolerance.

  13. Guyons canal syndrome due to accessory palmaris longus muscle: aetiological classification: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Ramavath Ashok; Raj, Sakamuri

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Accessory muscles and anatomic variations are well described at the Guyon's canal. Though this case report is similar to variants published in previous reports, it differs from the rest due to rapidity of worsening of symptoms in few months following use of cane. Case presentation We report a case of 69 year old man with ulnar nerve compression at Guyon's canal by accessory palmaris longus arose from distal third palmaris longus and from deep fascia of forearm. The hypertrophied ...

  14. Centrifugal telencephalic afferent connections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia eMohedanoMoriano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Parallel to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, which in turn project to adjacent areas of the telencephalon, respectively. New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs partially converge in the rostral telencephalon and are non-overlapping at caudal telencephalic levels. Therefore, the basal telencephalon should be reclassified in olfactory, vomeronasal and mixed areas. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virtually all olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures send reciprocal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Further, non-chemosensory recipient structures also projects centrifugally to the olfactory bulbs. These feed-back projections appear to be essential modulating processing of chemosensory information. The present work aims at characterizing centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs arising from olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic areas. This issue has been addressed by using tracer injections in the rat and mouse brain. Tracer injections were delivered into the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as in olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic structures. The results confirm that olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Interestingly, olfactory (e.g., piriform cortex, vomeronasal (e.g., posteromedial cortical amygdala, mixed (e.g., the medial amygdala and non-chemosensory-recipient (e.g., the nucleus of the diagonal band structures project to the main and to the accessory olfactory bulbs thus providing the possibility of simultaneous modulation and interaction of both systems at different stages of chemosensory processing.

  15. Properties of Phase Transition of Traffic Flow on Urban Expressway Systems with Ramps and Accessory Roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅超群; 刘业进

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a cellular automaton model to describe the phase transition of traffic flow on urban expressway systems with on-off-ramps and accessory roads. The lane changing rules are given in detailed, the numerical results show that the main road and the accessory road both produce phase transitions. These phase transitions will omen be influenced by the number of lanes, lane changing, the ramp flow, the input flow rate, and the geometry structure.

  16. Centrifugal telencephalic afferent connections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; de Moya-Pinilla, Miguel; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2012-01-01

    Parallel to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, which in turn project to adjacent areas of the telencephalon, respectively. New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs partially converge in the rostral telencephalon and are non-overlapping at caudal telencephalic levels. Therefore, the basal telencephalon should be reclassified in olfactory, vomeronasal, and mixed areas. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virtually all olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures send reciprocal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Further, non-chemosensory recipient structures also projects centrifugally to the olfactory bulbs. These feed-back projections appear to be essential modulating processing of chemosensory information. The present work aims at characterizing centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs arising from olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic areas. This issue has been addressed by using tracer injections in the rat and mouse brain. Tracer injections were delivered into the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as in olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic structures. The results confirm that olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Interestingly, olfactory (e.g., piriform cortex), vomeronasal (e.g., posteromedial cortical amygdala), mixed (e.g., the anterior medial amygdaloid nucleus), and non-chemosensory-recipient (e.g., the nucleus of the diagonal band) structures project to the main and to the accessory olfactory bulbs thus providing the possibility of simultaneous modulation and interaction of both systems at different stages of chemosensory processing

  17. CT demonstration of accessory nasal turbinates: secondary middle turbinate and bifid inferior turbinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksungur, Erol H. [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Bicakci, Kenan [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Inal, Mehmet [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Akguel, Erol [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Binokay, Figen [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Aydogan, Barlas [Department of ENT, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Oguz, Mahmut [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey)

    1999-09-01

    Normally, there are three pairs of nasal turbinates in the nasal cavity. Coronal computed tomographies of 253 cases of sinusitis were examined for the presence of additional turbinates and bilateral secondary middle turbinates were detected in two cases. Also, we describe another accessory turbinate, 'bifid inferior turbinate', in one of these cases. Existence of these accessory turbinates may occur during embryologic development of lateral nasal wall.

  18. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  19. Accessory cholera enterotoxin, Ace, from Vibrio cholerae: structure, unfolding, and virstatin binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Mukherjee, Debadrita; Dey, Sucharita; Pal, Aritrika; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2011-04-12

    Vibrio cholerae accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) is the third toxin, along with cholera toxin (CT) and zonula occludens toxin (Zot), that causes the endemic disease cholera. Structural characterization of Ace has been restricted because of the limited production of this toxic protein by V. cholerae. We have cloned, overexpressed, and purified Ace from V. cholerae strain O395 in Escherichia coli to homogeneity and determined its biological activity. The unfolding of the purified protein was investigated using circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Because Ace is predominantly a hydrophobic protein, the degree of exposure of hydrophobic regions was identified from the spectral changes of the environment-sensitive fluorescent probe 4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid (bis-ANS) that quenches the fluorescence of tryptophan residues of Ace in a concentration-dependent manner. Results showed that bis-ANS binds one monomeric unit of Ace with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a K' of 0.72 μM. Ace exists as a dimer, with higher oligomeric forms appearing upon glutaraldehyde cross-linking. This study also reports the binding of virstatin, a small molecule that inhibits virulence regulation in V. cholerae, to Ace. The binding constant (K=9×10(4) M(-1)) and the standard free energy change (ΔG°=-12 kcal mol(-1)) of Ace-virstatin interaction have been evaluated by the fluorescence quenching method. The binding does not affect the oligomeric status of Ace. A cell viability assay of the antibacterial activity of Ace has been performed using various microbial strains. A homology model of Ace, consistent with the experimental results, has been constructed.

  20. V-ATPase-Mediated Granular Acidification Is Regulated by the V-ATPase Accessory Subunit Ac45 in POMC-Producing Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Eric J. R.; Hafmans, Theo G. M.

    2010-01-01

    The vacuolar (H+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) is an important proton pump, and multiple critical cell-biological processes depend on the proton gradient provided by the pump. Yet, the mechanism underlying the control of the V-ATPase is still elusive but has been hypothesized to involve an accessory subunit of the pump. Here we studied as a candidate V-ATPase regulator the neuroendocrine V-ATPase accessory subunit Ac45. We transgenically manipulated the expression levels of the Ac45 protein specifically in Xenopus intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells and analyzed in detail the functioning of the transgenic cells. We found in the transgenic melanotrope cells the following: i) significantly increased granular acidification; ii) reduced sensitivity for a V-ATPase-specific inhibitor; iii) enhanced early processing of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) by prohormone convertase PC1; iv) reduced, neutral pH–dependent cleavage of the PC2 chaperone 7B2; v) reduced 7B2-proPC2 dissociation and consequently reduced proPC2 maturation; vi) decreased levels of mature PC2 and consequently reduced late POMC processing. Together, our results show that the V-ATPase accessory subunit Ac45 represents the first regulator of the proton pump and controls V-ATPase-mediated granular acidification that is necessary for efficient prohormone processing. PMID:20702583

  1. Use-dependent properties of flecainide acetate in accessory atrioventricular pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, J; Helmy, I; Katzung, B; Scheinman, M

    1994-01-01

    Flecainide acetate has been shown to have use-dependent properties. The use-dependent properties of flecainide were evaluated in 20 patients (13 men and 7 women, mean age 32 +/- 11 years) with accessory atrioventricular connections. Twenty to 30 stimulus drive trains were introduced in either the atrium or ventricle at progressively faster rates. The range of cycle lengths over which anterograde and retrograde conduction block occurred in the accessory pathway was assessed in the drug-free state and after oral loading with flecainide acetate. The block cycle length index was defined as the shortest cycle length during which 1:1 conduction was maintained in the accessory pathway minus the longest cycle length during which block in the accessory pathway occurred on the second paced beat. In the drug-free state, the (mean +/- SD) anterograde and retrograde block cycle length indexes were 20 +/- 12 and 20 +/- 9 ms, respectively. After flecainide therapy, the anterograde and retrograde block cycle length indexes increased to 80 +/- 33 and 65 +/- 29 ms, respectively (p = 0.002 compared with the drug-free state). The block cycle length index did not correlate with serum flecainide levels, but did correlate with other electrophysiologic markers of drug effect on accessory pathway conduction. The change in the block cycle length index demonstrates that flecainide has a progressive effect on accessory pathway conduction at more rapid rates, consistent with its in vitro use-dependent properties. This index is an excellent marker of drug efficacy.

  2. Incidence and morphology of accessory heads of flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus (Gantzer's muscles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    JONES, M.; ABRAHAMS, P. H.; SAÑUDO, J. R.; CAMPILLO, M.

    1997-01-01

    In 1813 Gantzer described 2 accessory muscles in the human forearm which bear his name (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Testut, 1884; Le Double, 1897). The more frequent of the 2 accessory muscles or ‘accessorius ad pollicem’ was found to arise from the coronoid process of the ulna, coursing distally to attach into the flexor pollicis longus muscle (flexor pollicis longus accessory head, FPLah). The less frequently observed or ‘accessorius ad flexorem profundum digitorum’ was again found to arise from the coronoid process and course to join into the flexor digitorum profundus (flexor digitorum profundus accessory head, FDPah). Since their initial description, they have been examined in further detail by a number of authors (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Le Double, 1897; Dykes & Anson, 1944; Mangini, 1960; Malhotra et al. 1982; Dellon & McKinnon, 1987; Kida, 1988). These studies, most of them focusing on the FPLah, all show different results of prevalence, origin, insertion, relations and nerve supply. We undertook this study with the aim of providing a more accurate account of the detailed morphology of both accessory muscles because of the above-mentioned inconsistent anatomical descriptions and the lack of information as to important aspects such as vascular supply, morphology (shape and length) and the coexistence of both accessory heads. PMID:9419002

  3. Fibroadenoma of the axillary accessory breast: diagnostic value of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Munehisa; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Takeuchi, Taizo; Tamaki, Takeshi; Oura, Shoji

    2010-10-01

    Accessory breast is synonymous with polymastia or supernumerary breast tissue. An accessory breast without a nipple or areola is rare. We report a case of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast with no nipple or areola in a 41-year-old woman who presented with a right axillary mass associated with five small nodules in the normally situated breast. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the accessory breast surrounding the tumor. We ignored the presence of the component surrounding the mass and made a preoperative diagnosis of an axillary mass of possible metastases from multiple breast cancers or breast cancer of unknown origin associated with multiple breast fibroadenomas. From a retrospective view, based on the histological results, MRI and dynamic MRI demonstrated a tiny component of breast-like tissue surrounding the axillary mass and an enhancement pattern typical of fibroadenoma for the axillary mass. For the later diagnosis of the axillary mass, the interpretation of whether the component of breast tissue surrounding the axillary mass was present is crucial. If the component exists, a tumor that originated from the accessory breast should be foremost in the differential diagnosis. Dynamic MRI appears to contribute to the diagnosis of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast before biopsy or surgical resection.

  4. The scolopidial accessory organs and Nebenorgans in orthopteroid insects: Comparative neuroanatomy, mechanosensory function, and evolutionary origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes

    2017-09-18

    Scolopidial sensilla in insects often form large sensory organs involved in proprioception or exteroception. Here the knowledge on Nebenorgans and accessory organs, two organs consisting of scolopidial sensory cells, is summarised. These organs are present in some insects which are model organisms for the physiology of mechanosensory systems (cockroaches and tettigoniids). Recent comparative studies documented the accessory organ in several taxa of Orthoptera (including tettigoniids, cave crickets, Jerusalem crickets) and the Nebenorgan in related insects (Mantophasmatodea). The accessory organ or Nebenorgan is usually a small organ of 8-15 sensilla located in the posterior leg tibia of all leg pairs. The physiological properties of the accessory organs and Nebenorgans are so far largely unknown. Taking together neuroanatomical and electrophysiological data from disparate taxa, there is considerable evidence that the accessory organ and Nebenorgan are vibrosensitive. They thus complement the larger vibrosensitive subgenual organ in the tibia. This review summarises the comparative studies of these sensory organs, in particular the arguments and criteria for the homology of the accessory organ and Nebenorgan among orthopteroid insects. Different scenarios of repeated evolutionary origins or losses of these sensory organs are discussed. Neuroanatomy allows to distinguish individual sensory organs for analysis of sensory physiology, and to infer scenarios of sensory evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone: correlation with surgical and pathologic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Kyung Tai; Kim, Eun Kyung [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone and to correlate these with the surgical and pathologic findings. The MR images of 17 patients with medial foot pain and surgically proven type II accessory navicular abnormalities were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity in the accessory navicular, synchondrosis and adjacent soft tissue, the presence of synchondrosis widening, and posterior tibial tendon (PTT) pathology on the T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were analyzed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the surgical and pathologic findings. The fat-suppressed T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in the accessory navicular bones and synchondroses in all patients, and in the soft tissue in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients, as well as synchondrosis widening in 3 (17.6%) of the 17 patients. The MR images showed tendon pathology in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients with PTT dysfunction at surgery. The pathologic findings of 16 surgical specimens included areas of osteonecrosis with granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and destruction of the cartilage cap. The MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone are a persistent edema pattern in the accessory navicular bone and within the synchondrosis, indicating osteonecrosis, inflammation and destruction of the cartilage cap. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was clinically evident in most patients.

  6. Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen: Investigative Dilemmas and Role of EUS-Guided FNA for Diagnostic Confirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somashekar G Krishna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Context We submit a case of intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Case report A 33-year-old patient with history of dyspepsia underwent imaging studies suggestive of a neuroendocrine tumor. After referral to our institute, endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA confirmed diagnosis as intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Discussion An accessory spleen may develop from estranged mesenchymal cells due to fusion failure of the splenic anlage. The prevalence of an accessory spleen is 10-30% with 80% of them present at the splenic hilum and 17% in the pancreatic tail. Intrapancreatic accessory spleen is commonly misdiagnosed as a pancreatic tumor. Since, the differential diagnosis includes pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, additional investigation with EUS-FNA should be considered when radiological diagnosis is not definitive. Conclusion For diagnosis of intrapancreatic accessory spleen, radiographic imaging is useful, but lacks specificity without tissue diagnosis. Diagnosis can be safely and reliably established with EUS-FNA, leading to a benign prognosis and avoidance of unnecessary surgical intervention.

  7. Photoperiod regulates growth of male accessory glands through juvenile hormone signaling in the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Veronika; Bazalová, Olga; Vaněčková, Hanka; Dolezel, David

    2016-03-01

    Adult reproductive diapause is characterized by lower behavioral activity, ceased reproduction and absence of juvenile hormone (JH). The role of JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in female reproduction is well established; however, its function in male reproductive development and behavior is unclear. In the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, circadian genes are essential for mediating photoperiodically-dependent growth of the male accessory glands (MAGs). The present study explores the role of circadian genes and JH receptor in male diapause in the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus. These data indicate that circadian factors Clock, Cycle and Cry2 are responsible for photoperiod measurement, whereas Met and its partner protein Taiman participate in JH reception. Surprisingly, knockdown of the JH receptor neither lowered locomotor activity nor reduced mating behavior of males. These data suggest existence of a parallel, JH-independent or JH-upstream photoperiodic regulation of reproductive behavior.

  8. Gender differences in accessory connections location: an Israeli study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birati, Edo Y; Eldar, Michael; Belhassen, Bernard

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that the pathogenesis of accessory connections (AC) formation may have a genetic component. The purpose of the study was to examine whether AC location differs by gender in a large cohort of patients with AC undergoing radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in two Israeli electrophysiology (EP) laboratories. All consecutive patients who underwent RFA of single ACs in Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center between 1992 and 2009 (n = 574) as well as the first consecutive 230 patients who underwent RFA in Sheba Medical Center between 1992 and 2001 were included in this study. The 804 patients in the two centers included 511 males (63.6 %) and 293 (36.4 %) females, mean age 34 + 16 years old. The AC was located in the left free wall, posteroseptal, right free wall, right anteroseptal, and in other areas in 57.8, 22.8, 9.3, 7 and 3.1 % of patients, respectively. The anatomical AC distribution was similar in the two EP laboratories. A right free wall location was more frequent in females (13 %) than in males (7.2 %; p = 0.008). A right anteroseptal location was more frequent in males (8.4 %) than in females (4.4 %) (p = 0.043). The left free wall and posteroseptal locations were similarly encountered in males (58.1 and 23.1 %, respectively) and in females (57.3 and 22.2 %, respectively). In our Israeli population, females more commonly have right free wall ACs and males more commonly have right anteroseptal ACs. These findings support the possible role of a genetic component in the pathogenesis of AC formation.

  9. Characterization of melanocortin receptors from stingray Dasyatis akajei, a cartilaginous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Davis, Perry; Reinick, Christina; Mizusawa, Kanta; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Dores, Robert M

    2016-06-01

    Melanocortin (MC) systems are composed of MC peptides such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), several molecular forms of melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSHs) and MC receptors (MCRs). Here we demonstrated that the cartilaginous fish, Dasyatis akajei (stingray) expresses five subtypes of MCR genes-mc1r to mc5r-as in the case of teleost and tetrapod species. This is the first evidence showing the presence of the full repertoire of melanocortin receptors in a single of cartilaginous fish. Expression of respective stingray mcr cDNAs in Chinese hamster ovary cells revealed that Des-acetyl-α-MSH exhibited cAMP-producing activity indistinguishable to ACTH(1-24) on MC1R and MC2R, while the activity of Des-acetyl-α-MSH on MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R were similar to or slightly greater than that of ACTH(1-24). Notably, in contrast to the other vertebrates, MC2R did not require coexpression with a melanocortin receptor-2 accessory protein 1 (mrap1) cDNA for functional expression. One of the roles of MC system resides in regulation of the pituitary-interrenal (PI) axis-a homologue of tetrapod pituitary-adrenal axis. In stingray, interrenal tissues were shown to express mc2r and mc5r as major MCR genes. These results established the presence of functional PI axis in stingray at the level of receptor molecule. While MC2R participates in adrenal functions together with MRAP1 in tetrapod species, the fact that sensitivity of MC5R to Des-acetyl-α-MSH and ACTH(1-24) were two order of magnitude higher than MC2R without coexpression with MRAP1 suggested that MC5R could play a more important role than MC2R to transmit signals conveyed by ACTH and MSHs if MRAP1 is really absent in the stingray.

  10. Combining mobile terrestrial laser scanning geometric and radiometric data to eliminate accessories in circular metro tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kai; Cheng, Xiaojun; Ju, Qiaoqiao

    2016-07-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is a noninvasive technique to monitor surface conditions and morphological characteristics of structures and has been successfully introduced to the regular inspection and maintenance of metro tunnels. To accurately analyze the deformation and structural conditions of a metro tunnel, nonliner points (e.g., outliers and accessories) should be detected and eliminated. Nevertheless, the accessories are attached very closely to the liner and cannot be thoroughly eliminated by three-dimensional (3D) geometric information. This study proposes to separate the liner and accessories by combining TLS geometric and radiometric information. A refitted mobile Faro Focus3D X330 system is used for data collection of a new-built metro tunnel in Hangzhou, China. The results show that the corrected intensity data are an effective physical criterion and a complementary data source to remove accessories that cannot be eliminated by geometric data. After the removal of accessories by geometric and radiometric data, the remaining liner points can accurately reflect the actual structural and deformation conditions of metro tunnels.

  11. Distribution of Neuron Cell Bodies in the Intraspinal Portion of the Spinal Accessory Nerve in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Karl E; Kondrashov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The spinal accessory nerve is often identified as a purely motor nerve innervating the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Although it may contain proprioceptive neurons found in cervical spinal levels C2-C4, limited research has focused on the histology of the spinal accessory nerve. The objective of the present study was to examine the spinal accessory nerve to determine if there are neuronal cell bodies within the spinal accessory nerve in humans. Cervical spinal cords were dissected from eight cadavers that had previously been used for dissection in other body regions. The segmental rootlets were removed to quantify the neuron cell bodies present at each spinal level. Samples were embedded in paraffin; sectioned; stained with hematoxylin and eosin; and examined using a microscope at 4×, 10×, and 40× magnification. Digital photography was used to image the samples. Neuronal cell bodies were found in 100% of the specimens examined, with non-grossly visible ganglia found at spinal levels C1-C4. The C1 spinal level of the spinal accessory nerve had the highest number of neuron cell bodies.

  12. Structure and diversity in mammalian accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisami, E; Bhatnagar, K P

    1998-12-15

    The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) is the first neural integrative center for the olfactory-like vomeronasal sensory system. In this article, we first briefly present an overview of vomeronasal system organization and review the history of the discovery of mammalian AOB. Next, we briefly review the evolution of the vomeronasal system in vertebrates, in particular the reptiles. Following these introductory aspects, the structure of the rodent AOB, as typical of the well-developed mammalian AOB, is presented, detailing laminar organization and cell types as well as aspects of the homology with the main olfactory bulb. Then, the evolutionary origin and diversity of the AOB in mammalian orders and species is discussed, describing structural, phylogenetic, and species-specific variation in the AOB location, shape, and size and morphologic differentiation and development. The AOB is believed to be absent in fishes but present in terrestrial tetrapods including amphibians; among the reptiles AOB is absent in crocodiles, present in turtles, snakes, and some lizards where it may be as large or larger than the main bulb. The AOB is absent in bird and in the aquatic mammals (whales, porpoises, manatees). Among other mammals, AOB is present in the monotremes and marsupials, edentates, and in the majority of the placental mammals like carnivores, herbivores, as well as rodents and lagomorphs. Most bat species do not have an AOB and among those where one is found, it shows marked variation in size and morphologic development. Among insectivores and primates, AOB shows marked variation in occurrence, size, and morphologic development. It is small in shrews and moles, large in hedgehogs and prosimians; AOB continues to persist in New World monkeys but is not found in the adults of the higher primates such as the Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. In many species where AOB is absent in the adult, it often develops in the embryo and fetus but regresses in later stages of

  13. Main and accessory olfactory bulbs and their projections in the brain anticipate feeding in food-entrained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caba, Mario; Pabello, Marcela; Moreno, Maria Luisa; Meza, Enrique

    2014-10-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) has a circadian clock independent of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but very little is known about the functional significance of its oscillations. The OB plays a major role in food intake as it contributes to the evaluation of the hedonic properties of food, it is necessary for a normal pattern of locomotor behavior and their ablation disrupts feeding patterns. Previously we demonstrated that OB of rabbit pups can be entrained by periodic nursing but it was not clear whether food was the entraining signal. Here we hypothesized that OB can be entrained by a food pulse during the day in adult rats under a restricted feeding schedule. Then we expect that OB will have a high activation before food presentation when animals show food anticipatory activity (FAA). To this aim we determined by immunohistochemistry the expression of FOS protein, as an indicator of neural activation, in the mitral and granular cell layers of the main and accessory OB. Additionally we also explored two of the OB brain targets, the piriform cortex (PC) and bed nuclei of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT), in three groups: ad libitum (ALF), restricted feeding (RF), and fasted rats after restricted feeding (RF-F). In ALF group FOS levels in both main and accessory OB were low during the day and high during the night at the normal onset of the increase of activity, in agreement with previous reports. On the contrary in RF and RF-F groups FOS was high at the time of FAA, just before food presentation, when animals are in a state of high arousal and during food consumption but was low during the night. In their brain targets, we observed a similar pattern as OB in all groups with the only difference being that FOS levels remained high during the night in RF-F group. We conclude that the OB is entrained by food restriction by showing high activation at the time of food presentation, which persists during fasting and impose a similar FOS pattern to the two brain targets

  14. Classical torus conformal block, N=2* twisted superpotential and the accessory parameter of Lame equation

    CERN Document Server

    Piatek, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    In this work the correspondence between the semiclassical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory on the torus and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the N=2* (Omega-deformed) U(2) super-Yang-Mills theory is exploited to propose new formulae for the accessory parameter of the Lame equation. It has been found that the Lame accessory parameter is determined by the classical Liouville action on the one-punctured torus or more concretely by the torus classical block evaluated on the saddle point intermediate classical weight. Moreover, as an implication of the aforementioned correspondence it has been obtained that the accessory parameter is related to the sum of all rescaled column lengths of the so-called "critical" Young diagrams extremizing the instanton "free energy". Finally, it has been pointed out that the sum over the "critical" column lengths can be rewritten in terms of a contour integral in which the integrand is built out of certain special functions.

  15. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand in car accessory market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplying car accessory is one of the most important growing industries in the world. Every year, millions of cars are produced and people need to have the access to necessary car accessory. In this paper, we present an exploration study to detect important factors influencing car accessory market. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 16 questions, distributes it among 200 experts and analyses it using factor analysis. Cronbach alpha and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy are calculated as 0.823 and 0.863, which validate the overall questionnaire. The results indicate that there are three influencing factors including brand capability, brand characteristics and consumers’ believe.

  16. Accessory left atrial diverticulae: contractile properties depicted with 64-slice cine-cardiac CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    To assess the contractility of accessory left atrial appendages (LAAs) using multiphasic cardiac CT. We retrospectively analyzed the presence, location, size and contractile properties of accessory LAAs using multiphasic cardiac 64-slice CT in 102 consecutive patients (63 males, 39 females, mean age 57). Multiplanar reformats were used to create image planes in axial oblique, sagittal oblique and coronal oblique planes. For all appendages with an orifice diameter >or= 10 mm, axial and sagittal diameters and appendage volumes were recorded in atrial diastole and systole. Regression analysis was performed to assess which imaging appearances best predicted accessory appendage contractility. Twenty-three (23%) patients demonstrated an accessory LAA, all identified along the anterior LA wall. Dimensions for axial oblique (AOD) and sagittal oblique (SOD) diameters and sagittal oblique length (SOL) were 6.3-19, 3.4-20 and 5-21 mm, respectively. All appendages (>or=10 mm) demonstrated significant contraction during atrial systole (greatest diameter reduction was AOD [3.8 mm, 27%]). Significant correlations were noted between AOD-contraction and AOD (R = 0.57, P < 0.05) and SOD-contraction and AOD, SOD and SOL (R = 0.6, P < 0.05). Mean diverticulum volume in atrial diastole was 468.4 +\\/- 493 mm(3) and in systole was 171.2 +\\/- 122 mm(3), indicating a mean change in volume of 297.2 +\\/- 390 mm(3), P < 0.0001. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed SOL to be the strongest independent predictor of appendage contractility (R(2) = 0.86, P < 0.0001) followed by SOD (R(2) = 0.91, P < 0.0001). Accessory LAAs show significant contractile properties on cardiac CT. Those accessory LAAs with a large sagittal height or depth should be evaluated for contractile properties, and if present should be examined for ectopic activity during electrophysiological studies.

  17. Accessories after the facts: Constraining the timing, duration and conditions of high-temperature metamorphic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard J. M.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Clark, Chris

    2016-11-01

    High-temperature metamorphic rocks are the result of numerous chemical and physical processes that occur during a potentially long-lived thermal evolution. These rocks chart the sequence of events during an orogenic episode including heating, cooling, exhumation and melt interaction, all of which may be interpreted through the elemental and isotopic characteristics of accessory minerals such as zircon, monazite and rutile. Developments in imaging and in situ chemical analysis have resulted in an increasing amount of information being extracted from these accessory phases. The refractory nature of these minerals, combined with both their use as geochronometers and tracers of metamorphic mineral reactions, has made them the focus of many studies of granulite-facies terrains. In such studies the primary aim is often to determine the timing and conditions of the peak of metamorphism, and high-temperature metasedimentary rocks may seem ideal for this purpose. For example pelites typically contain an abundance of accessory minerals in a variety of bulk compositions, are melt-bearing, and may have endured extreme conditions that facilitate diffusion and chemical equilibrium. However complexities arise due to the heterogeneous nature of these rocks on all scales, driven by both the composition of the protolith and metamorphic differentiation. In additional to lithological heterogeneity, the closure temperatures for both radiogenic isotopes and chemical thermometers vary between different accessory minerals. This apparent complexity can be useful as it permits a wide range of temperature and time (T-t) information to be recovered from a single rock sample. In this review we cover: 1) characteristic internal textures of accessory minerals in high temperature rocks; 2) the interpretation of zircon and monazite age data in relation to high temperature processes; 3) rare earth element partitioning; 4) trace element thermometry; 5) the incorporation of accessory mineral growth

  18. Ablation of an atriofascicular accessory pathway with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Proietti, MD, PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old patient with recurrent palpitations and documented left bundle branch block superior axis wide complex tachycardia underwent an electrophysiological study and ablation with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure. The electrophysiological study showed a decremental antegrade conducting atriofascicular pathway. Three-dimensional CARTO-guided mapping of the tricuspid annulus in sinus rhythm was performed, and a distinct signal corresponding to the accessory pathway potential of the atriofascicular pathway was found in the posterolateral region. By using an SR0 sheath and a 4-mm-tip catheter, radiofrequency application was delivered at this point on the annulus and successfully eliminated conduction through the accessory pathway.

  19. Symbiotic bacteria in the accessory submandibular gland of the club-footed bat, Tylonycteris pachypus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandler, B; Toyoshima, K; Phillips, C J

    1995-03-01

    The lumina of the secretory endpieces and, to a lesser extent, of the duct system of the accessory submandibular gland of the club-footed bat, Tylonycteris pachypus, contain numerous rod shaped bacteria. Despite their abundance, these microbes do not evoke an inflammatory response by the glands. The major submandibular gland, as well as the other major salivary glands in these exotic animals contain no bacteria whatsoever. It is concluded that the bacteria in the accessory submandibular gland are symbionts, and that they may play a role in digestion or in the social behavior of their host organisms.

  20. Imaging diagnosis of accessory and cavitated uterine mass, a rare mullerian anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishchint Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessory and Cavitated Uterine Mass (ACUM is a rare form of developmental Mullerian anomaly seen in young females, which presents as chronic recurrent pelvic pain and severe dysmenorrhea. It is an accessory cavity lying within an otherwise normal uterus. It is lined by functional endometrium and surrounded by myometrium-like smooth muscle cells; hence, it bears striking macroscopic and microscopic resemblance to the uterus. Hysterosalpingography (HSG, Ultrasonography (USG, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI form the mainstay of diagnostic imaging. The entity is often under diagnosed; therefore, a high index of suspicion combined with HSG and MRI imaging can help in making an accurate diagnosis.

  1. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy-induced accessory renal artery bleeding in an amyloidosis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy is an important technique for diagnosis of glomerular diseases, and the biopsy-induced life-threatening bleeding rarely happens. Primary systemic amyloidosis is a rare disease which may lead to organ dysfunction including arterial stiffness. The accessory renal artery is a kind of renal vascular variation which goes into the renal parenchyma directly or via the renal hilum. Here we reported a rare case of percutaneous renal biopsy-induced accessory renal artery life-threatening bleeding in a renal amyloidosis patient, and our experience of successful rescue in this patient. Virtual Slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1524207344817819

  2. Accessory lobe of right liver mimicking a pulmonary tumor in an adult male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Junlin, Liao; Zhang, Wei-guo; Chen, Jin-hua; He, Yong; Chen, Jian-ming

    2010-02-01

    We describe a rare case of ectopic liver tissue in the right thoracic cavity. A 39-year-old man with a suspected lung tumor underwent thoracotomy. The intraoperative finding revealed an accessory liver lobe connected to the right lobe of the liver by a small pedicle that pierced the diaphragm. A pathologic evaluation confirmed the specimen to be hepatic tissues. In retrospect, the correct diagnosis of accessory liver could have been achieved using appropriate radiologic investigations if this possibility had been considered. 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lateral facial cleft associated with accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and peripheral facial weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçelik, D; Toplu, G; Türkseven, A; Senses, D A; Yiğit, B

    2014-07-01

    Transverse facial cleft is a very rare malformation. The Tessier no. 7 cleft is a lateral facial cleft which emanates from oral cavity and extends towards the tragus, involving both soft tissue and skeletal components. Here, we present a case having transverse facial cleft, accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and ipsilateral peripheral facial nerve weakness. After surgical repair of the cleft in 2-month of age, improvement of the facial nerve function was detected in 3-year of age. Resection of the accessory mandible was planned in 5-6 years of age.

  4. Ablation of an atriofascicular accessory pathway with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Riccardo; Abadir, Sylvia; Bernier, Martin L.; Essebag, Vidal

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year-old patient with recurrent palpitations and documented left bundle branch block superior axis wide complex tachycardia underwent an electrophysiological study and ablation with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure. The electrophysiological study showed a decremental antegrade conducting atriofascicular pathway. Three-dimensional CARTO-guided mapping of the tricuspid annulus in sinus rhythm was performed, and a distinct signal corresponding to the accessory pathway potential of the atriofascicular pathway was found in the posterolateral region. By using an SR0 sheath and a 4-mm-tip catheter, radiofrequency application was delivered at this point on the annulus and successfully eliminated conduction through the accessory pathway. PMID:26550092

  5. 75 FR 34180 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithsville...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21363). In the request for reconsideration, the petitioner stated that... Employment and Training Administration Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job... determine that workers of Paris Accessories, Inc., New Smithsville, Pennsylvania, including on-site...

  6. 75 FR 41523 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithville...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... on May 27, 2010. The Notice was published in the Federal Register on June 16, 2010 (75 FR 34180). The... Employment and Training Administration Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithville, PA; Paris Accessories, Inc., Allentown, PA; Amended Certification...

  7. Dichotomous Distribution of Putative Cholinergic Interneurons in Mouse Accessory Olfactory Bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marking, Sarah; Krosnowski, Kurt; Ogura, Tatsuya; Lin, Weihong

    2017-01-01

    Sensory information processing in the olfactory bulb (OB) relies on diverse populations of bulbar interneurons. In rodents, the accessory OB (AOB) is divided into two bulbar regions, the anterior (aAOB) and posterior (pAOB), which differ substantially in their circuitry connections and associated behaviors. We previously identified and characterized a large number of morphologically diverse cholinergic interneurons in the main OB (MOB) using transgenic mice to visualize the cell bodies of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-expressing neurons and immunolabeling (Krosnowski et al., 2012)). However, whether there are cholinergic neurons in the AOB is controversial and there is no detailed characterization of such neurons. Using the same line of ChAT(bacterial artificial chromosome, BAC)-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgenic mice, we investigated cholinergic neurons in the AOB. We found significant differences in the number and location of GFP-expressing (GFP+), putative cholinergic interneurons between the aAOB and pAOB. The highest numbers of GFP+ interneurons were found in the aAOB glomerular layer (aGL) and pAOB mitral/tufted cell layer (pMCL). We also noted a high density of GFP+ interneurons encircling the border region of the pMCL. Interestingly, a small subset of glomeruli in the middle of the GL receives strong MCL GFP+ nerve processes. These local putative cholinergic-innervated glomeruli are situated just outside the aGL, setting the boundary between the pGL and aGL. Many but not all GFP+ neurons in the AOB were weakly labeled with antibodies against ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). We further determined if these GFP+ interneurons differ from other previously characterized interneuron populations in the AOB and found that AOB GFP+ interneurons express neither GABAergic nor dopaminergic markers and most also do not express the glutamatergic marker. Similar to the cholinergic interneurons of the MOB, some AOB GFP+ interneurons

  8. 21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5850 Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories. (a) Identification. A nonpowered orthopedic traction...

  9. Reproductive biology in Anophelinae mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae): Fine structure of the female accessory gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghezza Masci, Valentina; Di Luca, Marco; Gambellini, Gabriella; Taddei, Anna Rita; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Guerra, Laura; Mazzini, Massimo; Fausto, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    The morphology and ultrastructure of female accessory reproductive glands of Anopheles maculipennis s.s., Anopheles labranchiae and Anopheles stephensi were investigated by light and electron microscopy. The reproductive system in these species is characterized by two ovaries, two lateral oviducts, a single spermatheca and a single accessory gland. The gland is globular and has a thin duct which empties into the vagina, near the opening of the spermathecal duct. Significant growth of the accessory reproductive gland is observed immediately after blood meal, but not at subsequent digestion steps. At ultrastructural level, the gland consists of functional glandular units belonging to type 3 ectodermal glands. The secretory cells are elongated and goblet shaped, with most of their cytoplasm and large nucleus in the basal part, close to the basement lamella. Finely fibrous electron-transparent material occupies the secretory cavity that is in contact with the end of a short efferent duct (ductule) emerging from the gland duct. The present study is the first detailed description of female accessory gland ultrastructure in Anophelinae and provides insights into the gland's functional role in the reproductive biology of these insects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pre-excitation pattern associated with accessory pathway related tachycardia: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burazor Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pre-excitation is based on an accessory conduction pathway between the atrium and ventricle. The term Wolff- Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome is used for patients with the pre-excitation/WPW pattern associated with AP-related tachycardia. Case Outline. We present a 52-year-old man with severe palpitation, fatigue, lightheadedness and difficulty breathing. The initial ECG showed tachyarrhythmia with heart rate between 240 and 300/min. He was treated with antiarrhythmics (Digitalis, Verapamil, Lidocaine with no response. Then, the patient was treated with electrical cardioversion and was referred to our Clinic for further evaluation with the diagnosis: “Ventricular tachycardia”. During in-hospital stay, the previously undiagnosed WPW pattern had been seen. Additional diagnostic tests confirmed permanent pre-excitacion pattern (ECG Holter recording, exercises test. The patient was referred to an electrophysiologist for further evaluation. Mapping techniques provided an accurate assessment of the position of the accessory pathway which was left lateral. The elimination of the accessory pathway by radiofrequent catheter ablation is highly effective in termination and elimination of tacchyarrhythmias. Conclusion. Symptomatic, life-threatening arrhythmia, first considered as ventricular tachycardia, reflected atrial fibrillation with ventricular pre-excitation over an accessory pathway in a patient with previously undiagnosed WPW syndrome.

  11. 21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories. 876.5880 Section 876.5880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... storage or freezing container with or without bag or preservatives, pulsatile or nonpulsatile...

  12. A peptide from the male accessory gland in Leptinotarsa decemlineata: Purification, characterization and molecular cloning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.; Koopmanschap, A.B.; Kort, de C.A.D.; Schooneveld, H.

    1997-01-01

    Our interest in the male accessory glands (MAGs) of Leptinotarsa decemlineata was raised recently by our finding that certain cells produce a secretory substance that is recognized by one of our monoclonal antibodies (MAC-18), developed for the immunohistochemical demonstration of peptidergic

  13. Shoulder complaints after neck dissection; is the spinal accessory nerve involved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Dijkstra, P.U.; van der Laan, B.F.; Plukker, J.T.; Roodenburg, J.L.

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relation between shoulder morbidity (pain and range of motion), and the function of the spinal accessory nerve after neck dissection. Identifying dysfunction of the nerve gives insight in the mechanisms of post-operative shoulder complaints. In

  14. Total laparoscopic removal of accessory gallbladder: A case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozacov, Yaniv; Subhas, Gokulakkrishna; Jacobs, Michael; Parikh, Janak

    2015-01-01

    Accessory gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly occurring in 1 in 4000 births, that is not associated with any specific symptoms. Usually this cannot be diagnosed on ultrasonography and hence they are usually not diagnosed preoperatively. Removal of the accessory gallbladder is necessary to avoid recurrence of symptoms. H-type accessory gallbladder is a rare anomaly. Once identified intra-operatively during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the surgery is usually converted to open. By using the main gallbladder for liver traction and doing a dome down technique for the accessory gallbladder, we were able to perform the double cholecystectomy with intra-operative cholangiogram laparoscopically. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in 27-year-old male for biliary colic. Prior imaging with computer tomography-scan and ultrasound did not show a duplicated gallbladder. Intraoperatively after ligation of cystic artery and duct an additional structure was seen on its medial aspect. Intraoperative cholangiogram confirmed the patency of intra-hepatic and extra-hepatic biliary ducts. Subsequent dissection around this structure revealed a second gallbladder with cystic duct (H-type). Pathological analysis confirmed the presence of two gallbladders with features of chronic cholecystitis. It is important to use cholangiogram to identify structural anomalies and avoid complications. PMID:26730286

  15. A peptide from the male accessory gland in Leptinotarsa decemlineata: Purification, characterization and molecular cloning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.; Koopmanschap, A.B.; Kort, de C.A.D.; Schooneveld, H.

    1997-01-01

    Our interest in the male accessory glands (MAGs) of Leptinotarsa decemlineata was raised recently by our finding that certain cells produce a secretory substance that is recognized by one of our monoclonal antibodies (MAC-18), developed for the immunohistochemical demonstration of peptidergic neuron

  16. [Blockade of the pheromonal effects in rat by central deafferentation of the accessory olfactory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Criado, J E

    1979-06-01

    Female rats reared without sex odours from male rats have a five day stral cycle. With exposure to male odour the estral cycle is shortened from five to four days. This pheromonal effect is blocked on deafferenting the vomeronasal system by electrolytically damaging both accessory olfactory bulbs.

  17. [Migration of eight harmful elements from metal accessories that infants may swallow by mistake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isama, Kazuo; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    The International Standard ISO 8124-3:2010 "Safety of toys--Part 3: Migration of certain elements" controls the levels of migrated eight harmful elements (antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and selenium) from infants toys. Moreover, the Japanese Food Sanitation Law controls the levels of migrated lead from metal accessory toys. However, the levels of migrated harmful elements from metal accessories that are not infants toys are not controlled, since they are not covered by the ISO Standard or the Food Sanitation Law. Therefore, we investigated the level of eight harmful elements migrated from metal accessories that infants may swallow by mistake. The extraction test of ISO 8124-3:2010 was executed in 117 products (total 184 specimens), and the concentration of these eight elements was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). As a result, 28 and one products released lead and cadmium beyond the maximum acceptable levels of the ISO standard, respectively. Metal accessories that infants may swallow by mistake should ideally not release harmful elements such as lead and cadmium.

  18. A rare case of hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Isamu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2014-12-01

    We presented a very rare case of hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen in the tail of the pancreas. A previously healthy 45-year-old woman felt left back pain and received CT scan. Multiple splenic masses and a pancreatic mass in the tail were detected. Both the lesions presented gradual and weak enhancement and pooling of the contrast medium until very late phase on dynamic MRI. Since the lesions in the spleen and the pancreas presented the same characteristics on dynamic CT/MRI, ultrasonography, and positron emission tomography using fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose, we suspected these lesions as hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen. We performed distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy, and pathological diagnosis was hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen. We should consider the possibility of splenic tumors arising from the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen when we find similar lesions in the spleen and the tail of the pancreas. Gradual and weak enhancement and pooling of the contrast medium until very late phase may be important findings for diagnosing splenic hemangiomatosis.

  19. 21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and... Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter is a device used to perform female sterilization and...

  20. A method for comparison testing of window accessories: The AMSCO thermal test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lexen, T.C.; Muldary, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    A test facility has been developed for the comparison of the thermal performance of window accessories. The facility is presented as a developmental tool, allowing direct comparison testing of prototypes and new products, under controlled interior and real weather conditions. Nighttime U-value testing is emphasized; testing options and limitations are discussed, along with future plans.

  1. Complications after a Bidirectional Cavopulmonary Anastomosis with Accessory Sources of Pulmonary Blood Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2016-12-01

    Creating an accessory source of pulsatile pulmonary blood flow in a patient with a bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis may have advantages and disadvantages. In relation to the latter, we report the complications seen in a cyanotic congenital heart disease patient who developed a superior vena cava syndrome plus severe swelling of his right hand that evolved satisfactorily after percutaneous and medical treatment.

  2. Algal Accessory Pigment Detection Using AVIRIS Image-Derived Spectral Radiance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.

    1996-01-01

    Visual and derivative analyses of AVIRIS spectral data can be used to detect algal accessory pigments in aquatic communities. This capability extends the use of remote sensing for the study of aquatic ecosystems by allowing detection of taxonomically significant pigment signatures which yield information about the type of algae present. Such information allows remote sensing-based assessment of aquatic ecosystem health, as in the detection of nuisance blooms of cyanobacteria or toxic blooms of dinoflagellates. Remote sensing of aquatic systems has traditionally focused on quantification of chlorophyll a, a photoreactive (and light-harvesting) pigment which is common to all algae as well as cyanobacteria (bluegreen algae). Due to the ubiquitousness of this pigment within algae, chl a is routinely measured to estimate algal biomass both during ground-truthing and using various airborne or satellite based sensors, including AVIRIS. Within the remote sensing and aquatic sciences communities, ongoing research has been performed to detect algal accessory pigments for assessment of algal population composition. This research is based on the fact that many algal accessory pigments are taxonomically significant, and all are spectrally unique. Aquatic scientists have been refining pigment analysis techniques, primarily high performance liquid chromatography, or HPLC, to detect specific pigments as a time-saving alternative to individual algal cell identifications and counts. Remote sensing scientists are investigating the use of pigment signatures to construct pigment libraries analogous to mineral spectral libraries used in geological remote sensing applications. The accessory pigment approach has been used successfully in remote sensing using data from the Thematic Mapper, low-altitude, multiple channel scanners, field spectroradiometers and the AVIRIS hyperspectral scanner. Due to spectral and spatial resolution capabilities, AVIRIS is the sensor of choice for such

  3. Accessory papillary muscles and papillary muscle hypertrophy are associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jae-Sun; Youn, Jong-Chan; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Park, Junbeom; Park, Jin-Kyu; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Joung, Boyoung; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2015-10-15

    The present study was performed for elucidating the associations between the morphology of the papillary muscles (PMs) and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). We retrospectively reviewed history, laboratory data, electrocardiography, echocardiography, coronary angiography, and cardiac CT/MRI for 190 patients with SCA. The prevalence of accessory PMs and PM hypertrophy in patients with SCA of unknown cause was compared with that in patients with SCA of known causes and 98 age- and sex-matched patients without SCA. An accessory PM was defined as a PM with origins separated from the anterolateral and posteromedial PMs, or a PM that branched into two or three bellies at the base of the anterolateral or posteromedial PM. PM hypertrophy was defined as at least one of the two PMs having a diameter of ≥1.1cm. In 49 patients (age 49.9±15.9years; 38 men) the cause of SCA was unknown, whereas 141 (age 54.2±16.6years; 121 men) had a known cause. The prevalence of accessory PMs was significantly higher in the unknown-cause group than in the known-cause group (24.5% and 7.8%, respectively; p=0.002) or the no-SCA group (7.1%, p=0.003). The same was true for PM hypertrophy (unknown-cause 12.2%, known-cause 2.1%, p=0.010; no SCA group 1.0%, p=0.006). By logistic regression, accessory PM and PM hypertrophy were independently associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause. An accessory PM and PM hypertrophy are associated with SCA of unknown cause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Function and composition of male accessory gland secretions in Anopheles gambiae: a comparison with other insect vectors of infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; Rogers, David W.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2012-01-01

    Human malaria, a major public health burden in tropical and subtropical countries, is transmitted exclusively by the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria control strategies aimed at inducing sexual sterility in natural vector populations are an attractive alternative to the use of insecticides. However, despite their importance as disease vectors, limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms regulating fertility in Anopheles mosquitoes. In the major malaria vector, An. gambiae, the full complement of sperm and seminal fluid required for a female’s lifelong egg production is obtained from a single mating event. This single mating has important consequences for the physiology and behavior of An. gambiae females: in particular, they become refractory to further insemination, and they start laying eggs. In other insects including Drosophila, similar post-copulatory changes are induced by seminal proteins secreted by the male accessory glands and transferred to the female during mating. In this review, we analyze the current state of knowledge on the function and characterization of male seminal proteins in An. gambiae, and provide a comparative assessment of the role of these male reproductive factors in other mosquito vectors of human disease in which female post-copulatory behavior has been studied. Knowledge of the factors and mechanisms regulating fertility in An. gambiae and other vectors can help the design of novel control strategies to fight the spread of disease. PMID:22943543

  5. Investigating Consumer Insight by Using Completion Techniques: A Case Study of a Motorcycle Accessory Shop in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With almost 10% of the world’s motorcycles in use in Thailand, this indicates that Thailand is a big market for motorcycle accessories in the world. This qualitative research aims to investigate consumer insight by using completion techniques (sentence completion and story completion. Three respondents were deployed by using accidental sampling. Respondents were recruited to complete questionnaires when they entered the motorcycle accessory shop and were reported as male, currently studying, and at least 12 years old. The research was conducted in a motorcycle accessory shop in Sakon Nakhon province, Thailand. From the results of the story completion tests, all participants agreed to take part in a promotion which gave a 10% discount for membership card holders. They came to the motorcycle accessory shop by the recommendation of friends (positive Word-Of-Mouth. Moreover, consumers are satisfied when a seller can give them information or suggestions on motorcycle accessories as well as providing good after-sales service. When motorcycle accessory shoppers are satisfied with a motorcycle accessory shop, they will return to the shop and hence demonstrate consumer loyalty.

  6. Proteasome Accessory Factor C (pafC) Is a novel gene Involved in Mycobacterium Intrinsic Resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics--Fluoroquinolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiming; Xie, Longxiang; Long, Quanxin; Mao, Jinxiao; Li, Hui; Zhou, Mingliang; Xie, Jianping

    2015-07-03

    Antibiotics resistance poses catastrophic threat to global public health. Novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of action will inspire better measures to control drug resistance. Fluoroquinolones are potent and widely prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics. Bacterial protein degradation pathways represent novel druggable target for the development of new classes of antibiotics. Mycobacteria proteasome accessory factor C (pafC), a component of bacterial proteasome, is involved in fluoroquinolones resistance. PafC deletion mutants are hypersensitive to fluoroquinolones, including moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, but not to other antibiotics such as isoniazid, rifampicin, spectinomycin, chloramphenicol, capreomycin. This phenotype can be restored by complementation. The pafC mutant is hypersensitive to H2O2 exposure. The iron chelator (bipyridyl) and a hydroxyl radical scavenger (thiourea) can abolish the difference. The finding that pafC is a novel intrinsic selective resistance gene provided new evidence for the bacterial protein degradation pathway as druggable target for the development of new class of antibiotics.

  7. Competition of chemically related antigens for presentation by accessory cells to T cells requires expenditure of metabolic energy by the accessory cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werdelin, O; Buus, S

    1983-01-01

    The immune responsiveness of guinea pigs both to dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine (DNP-PLL) and to the lysine-rich random copolymer of L-glutamic acid and L-lysine (GL) is controlled by the 'poly-L-lysine gene'. We have previously demonstrated that accessory cells of responder strains can be made...... incapable of presenting DNP-PLL to responsive T cells in assays for proliferation, by in vitro exposure of the cells to GL before and during their exposure to DNP-PLL. We demonstrate here that the presence of anti-Ia antibody in the cultures does not interfere with the apparent competition of the two...

  8. Endovascular glue embolization of dissecting aneurysm of type-3 accessory middle cerebral artery: A contralateral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Goel, Gaurav; Gupta, Vipul; Narang, Karanjit Singh; Anand, Saurabh; Jha, Ajaya Nand

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are rare with a reported prevalence of 0.5-4.6%. Likewise, anomalous arterial patterns are uncommon in the cerebral circulation. Recognition of these variations and knowledge of vascular territory forms the key to managing pathological conditions associated with these anomalous vessels. Ruptured dissecting aneurysm of type-3 accessory middle cerebral artery (aMCA) has not been reported in the pediatric age group. In addition to type-3 aMCA, the child in this case report had an ipsilateral type-1 aMCA with cortical supply. We describe the patterns of accessory MCA and their vascular territory, state the perplexity involved in deciding the best management strategy, and describe the technical approach we undertook to catheterize this small caliber recurrent artery (type-3 aMCA) originating at an acute angle from the anterior cerebral artery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Posttraumatic torsion of accessory lobe of the liver and the gallbladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplewitz, B.Z.; Manson, D.E. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto, Ont. (Canada); Ein, S.H. [Div. of General Surgery, Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Torsion of an accessory lobe of the liver and of the gallbladder is a rare etiology for acute abdominal pain in children and infants. We report a case of an 8-year-old girl who was admitted with acute epigastric pain and vomiting, after her brother had jumped on her back. Physical examination revealed an afebrile child with a nontender right upper quadrant (RUQ) mass. Color Doppler ultrasound and contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated a heterogeneous, avascular mass with displacement of a thickened-wall gallbladder. A torted, congested accessory lobe of the liver and the gallbladder were resected at laparotomy. Imaging and operative findings are presented and a differential diagnosis is discussed in order to increase awareness of this rare condition. (orig.)

  10. Online monitoring of Accessories for Underground Electrical Installations through Acoustics Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casals-Torrens P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic waves caused by Partial Discharges inside the dielectric materials, can be detected by acoustic emission (AE sensors and analyzed in the time domain. The experimental results presented, show the online detection capability of these sensors in the environment near a cable accessory, such as a splice or terminal. The AE sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference and constitute a detection method non-intrusive and non-destructive, which ensures a galvanic decoupling with respect to electric networks, this technique of partial discharge detection can be applied as a test method for preventive or predictive maintenance (condition-based maintenance to equipments or facilities of medium and high voltage in service and represents an alternative method to electrical detection systems, conventional or not, that continue to rely on the detection of current pulses. This paper presents characterization tests of the sensors AE through comparative tests of partial discharge on accessories for underground power cables.

  11. Outcome review on the percutaneous release of the proximal interphalangeal joint accessory collateral ligaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Cerovac

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The percutaneous release of accessory collateral ligaments was introduced in 1986 as a safe and quick procedure to be attempted before open, more extensive joint release in the treatment of proximal interphalangeal joint flexion contracture. Our study analyzed the long-term results and patient satisfaction following a percutaneous release in 30 joints after a mean follow-up period of 34 months. In one half of cases the preoperative joint flexion deformity was reduced from 78° to 34°. The best results were observed in patients with osteoarthritis and stiff, immobilized joints. In patients with inflammatory arthritides, marked intraoperative correction was maintained rarely, joint contractures recurred early, and patients were unsatisfied. There were no intraoperative complications. Percutaneous release of the accessory collateral ligaments can produce a long lasting correction of the joint contracture, but careful patient selection and strict postoperative rehabilitation are essential for favorable outcome.

  12. Accessory belly of piriformis, as a cause of superior gluteal neurovascular entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimple Bansal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During routine dissection on 50 years old male cadaver, an accessory belly of piriformis was observed. This accessory belly was superior and parallel to the main piriformis muscle. This was associated with emergence of superior gluteal nerve and superior gluteal artery between the two bellies. Piriformis muscle and its relation to sciatic nerve has been suggested as a cause of piriformis syndrome. But interestingly in the present case, superior gluteal nerve was interposed between two bellies that may help the clinicians to establish a rare yet important cause of piriformis syndrome and a rare cause of undiagnosed chronic pain in gluteal region. As superior gluteal artery was also interposed, so this rare variation holds interest to surgeons especially in isolated buttock claudication despite otherwise normal vascular investigations. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 296-298

  13. Sclerotic fibroma (storiform collagenoma)-like stroma in a fibroadenoma of axillary accessory breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Bernal, José Fernando; González-Vela, María Carmen; De Grado, Mauricio; Garijo, María Francisca

    2012-08-01

    Accessory breast tissue is a subcutaneous remnant persisting after normal embryological development of the breast. It occurs most frequently in the axilla. Fibroadenomas in axillary breast tissue are rare. We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who presented a fibroadenoma arising in the accessory breast tissue of the right axillary fossa. The neoplasm showed foci of sclerotic fibroma-like stroma. The patient had no signs of Cowden's syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, a lesion of this kind has not been previously reported. This stromal change suggests an uncommon involutional phase of the fibroadenoma with production of sclerotic and hypocellular collagen. The lesion should be differentiated from extraneural perineuroma, from the changes in fibroadenomas in Cowden's syndrome, from sclerosing lobular hyperplasia (fibroadenomatoid mastopathy) and from pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia.

  14. Castration-induced expression of caspase-1 in epithelia of accessory sex organs in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masao Izawa; Mitunori Kimura; Tomiko Yamada; Makoto Saji

    2001-01-01

    Aim: As an attempt to clarify the molecular basis of castration-induced apoptosis, this study was undertaken to demonstrate the expression of caspase-1 in male accessory sex organs of rats. Methods and results: cDNA of rat caspase-1 was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the ventral prostates. The open reading frame predicts 402 amino acids, which shows more than 91% and 63 % identity to those of mouse and human, respec tively. Northern analyses demonstrated the presence of castration-induced up-regulation of the 1.6 kb transcript in the ventral prostate and the seminal vesicles. Finally, the authors demonstrated the caspase-1 transcripts in the epithelia of these tissues by in situ hybridization analyses. Conclusion: Castration induces the expression of caspase-1 tran scripts in the epithelia of ventral prostate and seminal vesicle. These observations suggest a possible role of caspase-1 in apoptosis in male accessory sex organs.

  15. Expression of an accessory cell phenotype by hairy cells during lymphocyte colony formation in agar culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcet, J P; Gourdin, M F; Testa, U; Andre, C; Jouault, H; Reyes, F

    1983-01-01

    Human T lymphocytes require the cooperation of accessory cells to generate lymphocyte colonies in agar culture under PHA stimulation. Various hairy cell enriched fractions, as well as normal monocytes, have been found to be able to initiate colony formation by normal lymphocytes. Leukemic monocytes from CMML patients were also effective, but not the leukemic lymphocytes from CLL patients. The phenotype expressed by HC in agar colonies was further studied using cell surface and enzymatic markers. We have concluded that HC in agar culture in the presence of both normal T lymphocytes and PHA lose the B phenotype that they express in vivo and function like an accessory cell in contrast to normal or leukemic B lymphocytes.

  16. A New Integrated Onboard Charger and Accessory Power Converter for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is presented for integrating the function of onboard battery charging into the traction drive system and accessory dc-dc converter of a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV). The idea is to utilize the segmented traction drive system of a PEV as the frond converter of the charging circuit and the transformer and high voltage converter of the 14 V accessory dc-dc converter to form a galvanically isolated onboard charger. Moreover, a control method is presented for suppressing the battery current ripple component of twice the grid frequency with the reduced dc bus capacitor in the segmented inverter. The resultant integrated charger has lower cost, weight, and volume than a standalone charger due to a substantially reduced component count. The proposed integrated charger topology was verified by modeling and experimental results on a 5.8 kW charger prototype.

  17. A fast 3D reconstruction system with a low-cost camera accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiwei; Gibson, Graham M; Hay, Rebecca; Bowman, Richard W; Padgett, Miles J; Edgar, Matthew P

    2015-06-09

    Photometric stereo is a three dimensional (3D) imaging technique that uses multiple 2D images, obtained from a fixed camera perspective, with different illumination directions. Compared to other 3D imaging methods such as geometry modeling and 3D-scanning, it comes with a number of advantages, such as having a simple and efficient reconstruction routine. In this work, we describe a low-cost accessory to a commercial digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera system allowing fast reconstruction of 3D objects using photometric stereo. The accessory consists of four white LED lights fixed to the lens of a commercial DSLR camera and a USB programmable controller board to sequentially control the illumination. 3D images are derived for different objects with varying geometric complexity and results are presented, showing a typical height error of <3 mm for a 50 mm sized object.

  18. The Use of Accessory Portals in Bankart Repair With Posterior Extension in the Lateral Decubitus Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Hamamoto, Jason T; Campbell, Kevin J; McCarthy, Mark; Higgins, John D; Verma, Nikhil N

    2016-10-01

    The Bankart lesion, in which the anteroinferior labrum is detached from the glenoid, is the critical anatomic lesion in the majority of patients with anterior glenohumeral instability. Some patients with anterior glenohumeral instability will have Bankart lesions with posterior extension beyond the 6-o'clock position, and achieving anatomic labral repair in these cases can present a technical challenge. In our experience, the lateral decubitus position and use of accessory portals allow superior visualization of the inferior half of the glenohumeral joint for glenoid and labral preparation, anchor placement, and suture management. The use of double-loaded suture anchors at the inferior glenoid provides multiple points of fixation at this challenging location while limiting the number of anchors required. The purpose of this article is to present a simple and reproducible technique for arthroscopic repair of Bankart lesions with posterior extension, emphasizing the use of accessory 5-o'clock trans-subscapularis and 7-o'clock portals.

  19. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentze, Julie Lilith; Møller, Morten Erik; Jørgensen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site...... of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis...... melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises...

  20. Physician accessories: Doctor, what you carry is every patient′s worry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections are on the rise worldwide and many a times they are carried by the health care personnel. Accessories used by physicians and healthcare personnel can be a potential source of nosocomial infection. Materials and Methods: We designed a survey with the aim to investigate the prevalence of microbial flora of accessories such as pens, stethoscopes, cell phones and white coat used by the physicians working in a tertiary care hospital. Observations: It was observed that 66% of the pens, 55% of the stethoscopes, 47.61% of the cell phones and 28.46% of the white coats used by the doctors were colonized with various microorganisms. Staphylococcus spp. was the predominant isolate followed by Escherichia coli. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was also found, which was a matter of concern. Conclusions: Awareness of appropriate hand hygiene is important in order to prevent potential transmission to patients.

  1. Accessory mental foramen: A rare anatomical variation detected by cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; De Faro Valverde, Ludmila; Vidal, Manuela Torres Andion; Crusoe-Rebello, Ieda Margarida [Dept. of Oral Radiology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    The mental foramen is a bilateral opening in the vestibular portion of the mandible through which nerve endings, such as the mental nerve, emerge. In general, the mental foramen is located between the lower premolars. This region is a common area for the placement of dental implants. It is very important to identify anatomical variations in presurgical imaging exams since damage to neurovascular bundles may have a direct influence on treatment success. In the hemimandible, the mental foramen normally appears as a single structure, but there are some rare reports on the presence and number of anatomical variations; these variations may include accessory foramina. The present report describes the presence of accessory mental foramina in the right mandible, as detected by cone-beam computed tomography before dental implant placement.

  2. Preoperative computed tomography and scintigraphy to facilitate the detection of accessory spleen in patients with hematologic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Nobuhiro; Kanematsu, Takashi; Sugimachi, Keizo

    1988-01-01

    Accessory spleens of 1.5 cm in size were preoperatively identified by the combined use of computerized tomography and splenic scintigraphy in two patients with hematologic diseases. After the accessory spleen had been removed from the first patient, who had persistent hereditary spherocytosis and had undergone a splenectomy 15 months before, a postoperative decrease in hyperbilirubinemia was noted. In the other patient who had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, a successful accessory splenectomy was done at the same time as her splenectomy, and was followed by 6 months' complete remission. These events indicate that preoperative investigations using computerized tomography and scintigraphy are indispensable for ruling out an accessory spleen in those patients for whom splenectomy needs to be done in order to alleviate hematologic disorders.

  3. Ablation of a therapy-resistant posteroseptal accessory atrioventricular pathway: going for gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Conor J; Gal, Benjamin; Geelen, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Posteroseptal accessory pathways are sometimes resistant to ablation because of the complex anatomy of this region. Ex-vivo experiments have demonstrated that gold-tip radiofrequency ablation catheters create deeper lesions than conventional platinum-iridium tip catheters. This case of a 62-year-old man with Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome illustrates that the ability to create such lesions can be a very useful option when previous attempts with platinum-iridium tip catheters have failed.

  4. Intermittently “Pre-Excited” ECG after Accessory Pathway Ablation: Unsuccessful Procedure or a Complication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Mikhaylov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old woman with previously unsuccessful posteroseptal pathway ablation using radiofrequency energy presented with intermittently occurring short PR followed by a wide QRS complex, and complaining of palpitations with characteristics different from previous history. During a second electrophysiological procedure no signs of preexcitation were found. Ventricular discharges with fusion with sinus beats were revealed, and catheter ablation of premature contractions originating from the proximity to previous accessory pathway was carried out.

  5. Combination of Hansen Robotic system with cryocatheter in a challenging parahisian accessory pathway ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Rodríguez-Mañero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A perceived distinctive feature of cryoablation is the stability (cryoadherence of the catheter tip during cold temperatures at the desired location, even during tachycardia. We report the case report of a young patient with a parahisian accessory pathway where stability of the ablation catheter was not achieved despite using the cryocatheter with a steerable sheath. Ultimately, stability at the desired location was achieved robotically by means of Hansen system (Hansen Medical, Mountain View, CA, USA.

  6. Accessory phases in Karelian Province sanukitoids (Finland): Towards understanding temporal changes in subduction style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruand, Emilie; Fowler, Mike; Storey, Craig; Heilimo, Esa

    2013-04-01

    The Archean-Proterozoic transition is marked by the appearance of sanukitoids, which have been found on every continent, whose occurrence is believed to be a consequence of the initiation of the so called "Modern Plate Tectonics". Whole rock geochemistry and experimental petrology have suggested that they result from the interaction between a mantle wedge and a metasomatism agent (either oceanic crust melt or sediments). Sanukitoids from the Karelian Province (Finland) have been dated at ~ 2.7 Ga (U-Pb on zircon; Heilimo et al., 2011), and whole rock geochemical data, oxygen and hafnium isotopes in zircons have been interpreted as the result of the interaction between a depleted mantle wedge and a recycled crustal component during a slab-breakoff event at the end stage of the subduction (Heilimo et al., 2010, Heilimo et al., 2012). Geochemistry of accessory phases can give additional information about the petrogenesis and the sources of their host rocks (e.g. Hoskin et al., 2000; Chu et al., 2002). In this contribution, we present new geochemical data on the accessory phases (titanite, apatite, zircon) of the Karelian Province sanukitoids. We demonstrate that trace elements analysis and a detailed petrographic work on these phases give us a direct access to their petrogenesis. These data are compared to new data obtained on "modern" sanukitoids (High Ba-Sr suite, Scotland) and on a BADR suite (Guernsey, Channel Islands) in order to highlight potential geochemical signatures of each. This study will be followed by a systematic analysis of accessory phases in TTG, in order to have a whole record of accessory phases chemistry in plutonic rocks through the crustal evolution.

  7. Undressing "health fashion": an examination of health-cause clothing and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kandi L; Hart, Joy L; Gregg, Jennifer L; LaJoie, A Scott

    2010-09-01

    Today, fashion items such as rubber wristbands in various colors, pink ribbons, and red dresses represent different health-related causes and can be seen frequently across demographic groups. Complete with pithy slogans (e.g., "Go Red for Women"), these items are part of a larger "health fashion" trend--one that involves wearing, using, and displaying health-cause clothing and accessories. In this article, the authors explore recent interest in "health fashion," examining in particular its origins, effectiveness, and implications.

  8. Accessory hepatic lobe simulating a left hemidiaphragmatic tumor. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroiwa, Toshiro; Hirata, Hitoshi; Iwashita, Akinori; Yasumori, Kotaro; Mogami, Hiroshi; Teraoka, Hiroaki (Matsuyama Red Cross Hospital (Japan))

    1984-08-01

    A 72-year-old woman with a 20-year history of neuralgia was confirmed at surgery to have a tumor in the left hemidiaphragmatic region which was connected with the left lobe of the liver. Reassessment of radiological diagnosis after surgery revealed that hepatobiliary scintigraphy and computed tomography using left anterior oblique scanning are useful in differentiating the accessory hepatic lobe of the liver from a tumor and in confirming the diagnosis, respectively.

  9. Prevalence and Pattern of Accessory Teeth (Hyperdontia in Permanent Dentition of Iranian Orthodontic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Amini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of hyperdontia pattern/prevalence can be useful in early diagnosis and prevention by general practitioners, pediatric dentists, and orthodontists. Since the previous results regarding the pattern of hyperdontia (supernumerary teeth are controversial, this study aimed to assess this subject among Iranian orthodontic patients.All approved panoramic radiographs of 3374 orthodontic patients (aged 10 to 20 years old who had visited orthodontic departments of all Tehran dentistry universities and 10 private clinics during the years 1999-2009 were investigated to establish the prevalence/pattern of hyperdontia in permanent dentition (excluding third molars. The data were analyzed using a chi-square, a chi-square goodness-of-fit, and a Fisher exact test (α=0.05.Of the patients, 2012 were female and 1362 were male. The prevalence of hyperdontia was 0.72% (14 females [0.69% of females], 10 males [0.73% of males], female-to-male ratio=1:1.055. The difference between the genders was not significant (P = 0.896. No double or multiple supernumeraries were found. The most common accessory teeth were mesiodens (58.3%, maxillary laterals (25%, and maxillary premolars (16.7%. Hyperdontia was significantly more common (P=0.000 in maxilla (there was only one mandibular accessory tooth. It was more frequent in the anterior segment (P=0.000. However the occurrence was not significantly different between bimaxillary right and left quadrants (P=0.6.Hyperdontia was more common in premaxilla, and the most common accessory tooth was mesiodens. Unlike earlier studies, no bilateral accessory teeth were found. Also no gender dimorphism was discerned.

  10. Comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone removed via an arthroscopic-assisted arthrotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla, Alvaro G.; Santschi, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year-old American paint horse gelding was presented for evaluation of a left forelimb lameness grade III/V. Radiographs and computed tomography revealed a comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone involving the entire articulation with the distal radius and the proximal aspect of the articulation with the ulnar carpal bone. Multiple fragments were present in the palmar pouch of the antebrachiocarpal joint. An arthroscopic-assisted open approach was necessary to remove all fracture...

  11. Intermittent rate-dependent retrograde conduction over a concealed atrioventricular accessory pathway: what is the mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rordorf, Roberto; Vicentini, Alessandro; Petracci, Barbara; Landolina, Maurizio

    2009-02-01

    Intermittent retrograde conduction over an accessory pathway (AP) is quite an uncommon phenomenon. We describe the case of a 60-year-old woman with recurrent episodes of palpitations. Atrioventricular re-entry tachycardia was diagnosed at electrophysiological study. Interestingly, retrograde conduction over the AP was detectable only when ventricular pacing was performed at fast rate. Supernormal retrograde conduction over the AP was considered the most likely explanation of this unusual finding.

  12. RFID-enabled real-time manufacturing for automotive part and accessory suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Automotive part and accessory manufacturers (APAMs) at the lower tiers of the automotive vertical have been following leading vehicle assemblers in adopting RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and ubiquitous computing technologies, aiming to alleviate their advanced manufacturing systems. RFID-enabled real-time traceability and visibility facilitate the implementation of advanced strategies such as Just-In-Time (JIT) lean / responsive manufacturing and mass customization (MC). Being typical...

  13. Ablation of an atriofascicular accessory pathway with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure

    OpenAIRE

    PROIETTI, RICCARDO; Abadir, Sylvia; Bernier, Martin L.; Essebag, Vidal

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year-old patient with recurrent palpitations and documented left bundle branch block superior axis wide complex tachycardia underwent an electrophysiological study and ablation with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure. The electrophysiological study showed a decremental antegrade conducting atriofascicular pathway. Three-dimensional CARTO-guided mapping of the tricuspid annulus in sinus rhythm was performed, and a distinct signal corresponding to the accessory pathway potential of the atriofasc...

  14. Prevalence and Pattern of Accessory Teeth (Hyperdontia) in Permanent Dentition of Iranian Orthodontic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Fariborz; Rakhshan, Vahid; Jamalzadeh, Sanaz

    2013-11-01

    Awareness of hyperdontia pattern/prevalence can be useful in early diagnosis and prevention by general practitioners, pediatric dentists, and orthodontists. Since the previous results regarding the pattern of hyperdontia (supernumerary teeth) are controversial, this study aimed to assess this subject among Iranian orthodontic patients. All approved panoramic radiographs of 3374 orthodontic patients (aged 10 to 20 years old) who had visited orthodontic departments of all Tehran dentistry universities and 10 private clinics during the years 1999-2009 were investigated to establish the prevalence/pattern of hyperdontia in permanent dentition (excluding third molars). The data were analyzed using a chi-square, a chi-square goodness-of-fit, and a Fisher exact test (α=0.05). Of the patients, 2012 were female and 1362 were male. The prevalence of hyperdontia was 0.72% (14 females [0.69% of females], 10 males [0.73% of males], female-to-male ratio=1:1.055). The difference between the genders was not significant (P = 0.896). No double or multiple supernumeraries were found. The most common accessory teeth were mesiodens (58.3%), maxillary laterals (25%), and maxillary premolars (16.7%). Hyperdontia was significantly more common (P=0.000) in maxilla (there was only one mandibular accessory tooth). It was more frequent in the anterior segment (P=0.000). However the occurrence was not significantly different between bimaxillary right and left quadrants (P=0.6). Hyperdontia was more common in premaxilla, and the most common accessory tooth was mesiodens. Unlike earlier studies, no bilateral accessory teeth were found. Also no gender dimorphism was discerned.

  15. Pfh1 Is an Accessory Replicative Helicase that Interacts with the Replisome to Facilitate Fork Progression and Preserve Genome Integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin R McDonald

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Replicative DNA helicases expose the two strands of the double helix to the replication apparatus, but accessory helicases are often needed to help forks move past naturally occurring hard-to-replicate sites, such as tightly bound proteins, RNA/DNA hybrids, and DNA secondary structures. Although the Schizosaccharomyces pombe 5'-to-3' DNA helicase Pfh1 is known to promote fork progression, its genomic targets, dynamics, and mechanisms of action are largely unknown. Here we address these questions by integrating genome-wide identification of Pfh1 binding sites, comprehensive analysis of the effects of Pfh1 depletion on replication and DNA damage, and proteomic analysis of Pfh1 interaction partners by immunoaffinity purification mass spectrometry. Of the 621 high confidence Pfh1-binding sites in wild type cells, about 40% were sites of fork slowing (as marked by high DNA polymerase occupancy and/or DNA damage (as marked by high levels of phosphorylated H2A. The replication and integrity of tRNA and 5S rRNA genes, highly transcribed RNA polymerase II genes, and nucleosome depleted regions were particularly Pfh1-dependent. The association of Pfh1 with genomic integrity at highly transcribed genes was S phase dependent, and thus unlikely to be an artifact of high transcription rates. Although Pfh1 affected replication and suppressed DNA damage at discrete sites throughout the genome, Pfh1 and the replicative DNA polymerase bound to similar extents to both Pfh1-dependent and independent sites, suggesting that Pfh1 is proximal to the replication machinery during S phase. Consistent with this interpretation, Pfh1 co-purified with many key replisome components, including the hexameric MCM helicase, replicative DNA polymerases, RPA, and the processivity clamp PCNA in an S phase dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that Pfh1 is an accessory DNA helicase that interacts with the replisome and promotes replication and suppresses DNA damage at hard

  16. Typology of the arteries in the human scalenus region, with special reference to the accessory ascending cervical artery.

    OpenAIRE

    Su WD; Ohtsuka A; Taguchi T; Murakami T.

    2000-01-01

    The accessory ascending cervical artery (Murakami et al., 1996), which arises from the subclavian artery and ascends between the scalenus anterior and medius muscles, was studied in 87 Japanese adult cadavers (174 sides), with special attention being given to its origin, distribution, and relationship to other arteries at the cervical or scalenus region. In 154 sides (88.5%), the accessory ascending cervical artery was found to originate from the subclavian artery behind the scalenus anterior...

  17. Accessory Breast Cancer Occurring Concurrently with Bilateral Primary Invasive Breast Carcinomas: A Report of Two Cases and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Jin-yan; Yang, Cui-cui; Liu, Fang-Fang; Yang, Yi-Ling; Li, Shuai; Li, Wei-Dong; LI, YA-QING; Lang, Rong-gang; Fan, Yu; Paulos, Estifanos; Zhang, Xin-Min; Fu, Li

    2012-01-01

    The development of accessory breast tissue, which is found anywhere along the milk line, is attributed to the failure of milk line remnants to regress during embryogenesis. Primary tumors may arise from any ectopic breast tissue. Accessory breast cancer occurring concurrently with primary invasive breast cancer is extremely rare. Two such cases were reported in this article. One was a 43-year-old Chinese female who exhibited bilateral breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise sp...

  18. Influence of Telecommunication Modality, Internet Transmission Quality, and Accessories on Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantokoudis, Georgios; Koller, Roger; Guignard, Jérémie; Caversaccio, Marco; Kompis, Martin; Senn, Pascal

    2017-04-24

    Telecommunication is limited or even impossible for more than one-thirds of all cochlear implant (CI) users. We sought therefore to study the impact of voice quality on speech perception with voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) under real and adverse network conditions. Telephone speech perception was assessed in 19 CI users (15-69 years, average 42 years), using the German HSM (Hochmair-Schulz-Moser) sentence test comparing Skype and conventional telephone (public switched telephone networks, PSTN) transmission using a personal computer (PC) and a digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) telephone dual device. Five different Internet transmission quality modes and four accessories (PC speakers, headphones, 3.5 mm jack audio cable, and induction loop) were compared. As a secondary outcome, the subjective perceived voice quality was assessed using the mean opinion score (MOS). Speech telephone perception was significantly better (median 91.6%, P 15%) were not superior to conventional telephony. In addition, there were no significant differences between the tested accessories (P>.05) using a PC. Coupling a Skype DECT phone device with an audio cable to the CI, however, resulted in higher speech perception (median 65%) and subjective MOS scores (3.2) than using PSTN (median 7.5%, P<.001). Skype calls significantly improve speech perception for CI users compared with conventional telephony under real network conditions. Listening accessories do not further improve listening experience. Current Skype DECT telephone devices do not fully offer technical advantages in voice quality.

  19. Variations of the accessory nerve: anatomical study including previously undocumented findings-expanding our misunderstanding of this nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Ajayi, Olaide O; Fries, Fabian N; Spinner, Robert J; Oskouian, Rod J

    2017-02-01

    The anatomy of the accessory nerve has been well described but continued new clinical and anatomical findings exemplify our lack of a full understanding of the course of this nerve. Therefore, this study aimed to expand on our knowledge of the course of the 11th cranial nerve via anatomical dissections. Fifty-six cadavers (112 sides) underwent dissection of the accessory nerve from its cranial and spinal origins to its emergence into the posterior cervical triangle. Immunohistochemistry was performed when appropriate. Our findings included two cases (1.8%) where the nerve was duplicated, one intracranially and one extracranially. One accessory nerve (0.9%) was found to enter its own dural compartment within the jugular foramen. The majority of sides (80%) were found to have a cranial root of the accessory nerve. Thirty-one sides (28%) had connections to cervical dorsal roots medially and three sides (2.7%) laterally. Medial connections were most common with the C1 nerve. Medial components of these dorsal root connections were all sensory in nature. However, lateral components were motor on two sides (1.8%). Nerves traveled anterior to the internal jugular vein on 88% of sides. One (0.9%) left side nerve joined an interneural anastomosis between the dorsal rootlets. Macroganglia were found on the spinal part of the intracranial nerve on 13% of sides. The lesser occipital nerve arose directly from the accessory nerve on two sides (1.8%) and communicated with the accessory nerve on 5.4% of sides. One side (0.9%) was found to communicate with the facial nerve with both nerves innervating the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Additional anatomical knowledge of the variants of the accessory nerve may benefit patient care when this nerve is pathologically involved.

  20. A Rare Case of a 15-Year-Old Boy with Two Accessory Nipples: One in the Forearm and One in the Milk Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Tauchen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old male presented for evaluation of a volar forearm mass that he noticed four years before. The mass was not painful and his main concern was cosmesis. The mass was two centimeters in diameter with a pinpoint central sinus and scant drainage. After excision, the pathology report noted pilosebaceous units and smooth muscle bundles, consistent with an accessory nipple. In addition, the patient had another accessory nipple in the “milk line” on his torso. While accessory nipples and breast tissue have been reported in numerous locations throughout the body, this is the first reported case of an accessory nipple on the forearm.

  1. A Rare Case of a 15-Year-Old Boy with Two Accessory Nipples: One in the Forearm and One in the Milk Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauchen, Alexander J.; Kueberuwa, Essie; Schiffman, Kenneth; Mudaliar, Kumaran M.; Noland, Shelley S.

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old male presented for evaluation of a volar forearm mass that he noticed four years before. The mass was not painful and his main concern was cosmesis. The mass was two centimeters in diameter with a pinpoint central sinus and scant drainage. After excision, the pathology report noted pilosebaceous units and smooth muscle bundles, consistent with an accessory nipple. In addition, the patient had another accessory nipple in the “milk line” on his torso. While accessory nipples and breast tissue have been reported in numerous locations throughout the body, this is the first reported case of an accessory nipple on the forearm. PMID:26783489

  2. Sonographic evaluation of spleen size and prevalence of accessory spleen in a healthy male Turkish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Serter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is known that the measurement of splenic length in routine clinical practice is a very good indicator of actual splenic size. Knowledge of the normal range of spleen size in the population being examined is a prerequisite. Racial differences in splenic length could result in incorrect interpretation of splenic measurements. The purpose of this study was to establish the range of spleen length in a young male Turkish population.Material and Methods: A total of 2179 volunteers, healthy men aged 17-42 years, from the annual Army Reserve Officer Training Corps training camp at Manisa were included in the study. Sonographic measurements of spleen length were performed on 2179 military personnel. Presence of accessory spleen was also determined. In addition, the height, weight, and age of each volunteer were recorded. Using linear regression analysis, the relation of spleen length and body height, weight and body mass index (BMI was evaluated. Additionally, the prevalence of accessory spleen detected on ultrasound was calculated.Results: The mean±SD height was 173,1±6,5 cm, mean weight 69,1±9,7 kg, and mean BMI 22,62±2,87. Mean spleen length was 10,76±1,8 cm. The length of the spleen was below 12,80 cm in 95% of the subjects. No statistically significant correlation (p<0.01 between spleen length and body height, weight and BMI was found. The prevalence of accessory spleen was determined as 2.5% on ultrasound screening.Conclusion: It was found that in healthy Turkish men, mean spleen length was 10,76±1,8 cm. This data should be taken into consideration when the diagnosis of splenomegaly is established in Turkish males.

  3. Prolonged colonization of mice by Vibrio cholerae El Tor O1 depends on accessory toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Verena; Salzman, Nita H; Satchell, Karla J Fullner

    2007-10-01

    Cholera epidemics caused by Vibrio cholerae El Tor O1 strains are typified by a large number of asymptomatic carriers who excrete vibrios but do not develop diarrhea. This carriage state was important for the spread of the seventh cholera pandemic as the bacterium was mobilized geographically, allowing the global dispersion of this less virulent strain. Virulence factors associated with the development of the carriage state have not been previously identified. We have developed an animal model of cholera in adult C57BL/6 mice wherein V. cholerae colonizes the mucus layer and forms microcolonies in the crypts of the distal small bowel. Colonization occurred 1 to 3 h after oral inoculation and peaked at 10 to 12 h, when bacterial loads exceeded the inoculum by 10- to 200-fold, indicating bacterial growth within the small intestine. After a clearance phase, the number of bacteria within the small intestine, but not those in the cecum or colon, stabilized and persisted for at least 72 h. The ability of V. cholerae to prevent clearance and establish this prolonged colonization was associated with the accessory toxins hemolysin, the multifunctional autoprocessing RTX toxin, and hemagglutinin/protease and did not require cholera toxin or toxin-coregulated pili. The defect in colonization attributed to the loss of the accessory toxins may be extracellularly complemented by inoculation of the defective strain with an isogenic colonization-proficient V. cholerae strain. This work thus demonstrates that secreted accessory toxins modify the host environment to enable prolonged colonization of the small intestine in the absence of overt disease symptoms and thereby contribute to disease dissemination via asymptomatic carriers.

  4. Epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen: three case reports and review of the literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Kushida, Yoshio; Miyai, Yumi; Katsuki, Naomi; Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Bando, Kenji; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Haba, Reiji

    2010-09-01

    The development of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen is an extremely rare lesion, with only 17 cases being reported in the English literature. All such cases were located in the pancreatic tail, some of which showed carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) immunoreactivity in the lining of the epithelium. A few of them indicated an elevation of the serum CA19-9 level. Here we report three cases of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Cases 1 and 2 were 57-year-old and 70-year-old women, while case 3 was a 37-year-old man. All three cases were asymptomatic. Serum CA19-9 levels showed within normal limits (case 1), slightly elevated (case 2), and clearly elevated (case 3). They underwent a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (cases 1 and 2) and without splenectomy (case 3). Grossly, the surgical specimen was a well-demarcated, multiple (case 1) or solitary (cases 2 and 3) cystic mass in the pancreatic tail. A high level of fluid CA 19-9 was detected in case 1. Microscopically, the cystic walls were lined with squamous and cuboidal epithelium, which were surrounded by normal splenic tissue and hyalinized fibrous tissue. The lining squamous epithelium was revealed as nonkeratinizing (Cases 1 and 2) or keratinizing (Case 3). Immunohistochemically, CA19-9 was positive in the monolayer and surface layer of the cuboidal epithelium, but negative for the keratinizing squamous epithelium. As for the histogenesis, it is suggested that the cystic lining of the epithelium may derive from the pancreatic duct which protrudes into the accessory spleen.

  5. Pan-genome sequence analysis using Panseq: an online tool for the rapid analysis of core and accessory genomic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas Andre

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pan-genome of a bacterial species consists of a core and an accessory gene pool. The accessory genome is thought to be an important source of genetic variability in bacterial populations and is gained through lateral gene transfer, allowing subpopulations of bacteria to better adapt to specific niches. Low-cost and high-throughput sequencing platforms have created an exponential increase in genome sequence data and an opportunity to study the pan-genomes of many bacterial species. In this study, we describe a new online pan-genome sequence analysis program, Panseq. Results Panseq was used to identify Escherichia coli O157:H7 and E. coli K-12 genomic islands. Within a population of 60 E. coli O157:H7 strains, the existence of 65 accessory genomic regions identified by Panseq analysis was confirmed by PCR. The accessory genome and binary presence/absence data, and core genome and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of six L. monocytogenes strains were extracted with Panseq and hierarchically clustered and visualized. The nucleotide core and binary accessory data were also used to construct maximum parsimony (MP trees, which were compared to the MP tree generated by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. The topology of the accessory and core trees was identical but differed from the tree produced using seven MLST loci. The Loci Selector module found the most variable and discriminatory combinations of four loci within a 100 loci set among 10 strains in 1 s, compared to the 449 s required to exhaustively search for all possible combinations; it also found the most discriminatory 20 loci from a 96 loci E. coli O157:H7 SNP dataset. Conclusion Panseq determines the core and accessory regions among a collection of genomic sequences based on user-defined parameters. It readily extracts regions unique to a genome or group of genomes, identifies SNPs within shared core genomic regions, constructs files for use in phylogeny programs

  6. Thermistor guided radiofrequency ablation of atrial insertion sites in patients with accessory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, C M; Moore, H J; Solomon, A J; Rodak, D J; Fletcher, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radiofrequency ablation has gained acceptance in the treatment of patients with symptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relation between temperature and other electroconductive parameters in patients undergoing atrial insertion accessory pathway ablation utilizing a thermistor equipped catheter. The mean temperature and power at sites of atrial insertion ablation are lower than has been previously associated with creation of radiofrequency lesions in the ventricle. While high cavitary blood flow in the atrium may result in cooling, the thinner atrial tissue may require less energy to achieve adequate heating than ventricular myocardium.

  7. Business model for an International Trade Agent : Importing apparel, footwear and accessories from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Archila, Jorge Andres

    2014-01-01

    This thesis proposes a business model for a start-up business that will act as an International Trade agent, the aim of which will be to enhance trade relations between Colombia and Finland due to a free trade agreement between the European Union and Colombia. The scope of this thesis was limited to the products of apparel, footwear and accessories. The primary research was conducted in the form of an unstructured interview with an entrepreneur who has more than two decades of experience ...

  8. [Saccular aneurysm of the azygos vein in a patient with azygos accessory fissure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Rovira, S M; Guedea Martin, A; Salvador Adell, I; Elias Artiga, J

    2015-01-01

    The saccular aneurysm of the azygos vein is an extremely rare condition, which when located in the path of an accesory pulmonary fissure, becomes a diagnostic challenge because it can be mistaken for tumors arising from the accesory pleura, like solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura or mesothelioma. The diagnosis should ideally be done by non-invasive methods such as CT or MR angiographic technique in multiple phases, thus avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention. This case is exceptional because, to our knowledge, it is the first to report both concomitant clinical situations, an aneurysm of the azygos vein in the pathway of its accessory fissure.

  9. Comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone removed via an arthroscopic-assisted arthrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Alvaro G; Santschi, Elizabeth M

    2015-02-01

    A 16-year-old American paint horse gelding was presented for evaluation of a left forelimb lameness grade III/V. Radiographs and computed tomography revealed a comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone involving the entire articulation with the distal radius and the proximal aspect of the articulation with the ulnar carpal bone. Multiple fragments were present in the palmar pouch of the antebrachiocarpal joint. An arthroscopic-assisted open approach was necessary to remove all fractured fragments. Subsequently the horse was re-admitted for lameness and was treated successfully with antibiotics and long-term supportive bandaging.

  10. Accessory soleus muscle: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palaniappan, M. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology); Rajesh, A.; Rickett, A. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology); Kershaw, C.J. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Orthopaedics)

    1999-08-01

    Accessory soleus muscle is a rare condition which presents as a soft-tissue mass medial to the calcaneum and distal Achilles tendon. Though congenital in origin, it manifests in the second and third decades of life as a soft-tissue mass due to muscle hypertrophy. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with a painful ankle mass. It is important to be aware of this condition when interpreting CT or MRI of the ankle, which show characteristic findings of a normal muscle in an abnormal location. (orig.) With 4 figs., 12 refs.

  11. Accessory spleens: preoperative diagnostics limitations and operational strategy in laparoscopic approach to splenectomy in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Aleksander; Stefaniak, Tomasz; Makarewicz, Wojciech; Kaska, Lukasz; Podgórczyk, Hanna; Hellman, Andrzej; Lachinski, Andrzej

    2005-02-01

    The preoperative detection of accessory spleen (AS) is still a very important and serious problem. The aim of the study was to assess the reasons for failure and the long-term results of laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Fifty-eight ITP patients underwent LS between June 1998 and December 2002. There were 42 women and 16 men. Preoperatively, we performed computed tomography (CT) and sonography to evaluate the size of the spleen and possibly to recognize the presence of the accessory spleens, which were found preoperatively in three cases. Intraoperatively, ASs were found in the course of laparoscopy in six cases overall, three preoperatively false negative. During follow-up (median time 31 months), in three patients the low platelet count was recognized, respectively after 5 months and 1.5 and 1.8 years. In all those cases scintigraphy was performed and in one case the residual accessory spleen, missed both in preoperative examination and during laparoscopy, was revealed. In two other patients, in spite of thrombocytopenia, no residual spleens were found. We conclude that the problem of accessory spleens can be managed by careful videoscopic examination of the abdominal cavity during splenectomy, while the use of preoperative imaging techniques in detection of accessory spleens is still limited by the insufficient sensitivity of the examination.

  12. [Protective effect of retrograde venous perfusion of cryogenic liquid via accessory hemiazygos vein and treated with resveratrol on spinal cord injury in swine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng-fang; Guo, Hui-ming; Fu, Qi; Li, Xiao-hui; Fan, Rui-xin; Fan, Xiao-ping; Chen, Ji-mei; Zhuang, Jian; Zhu, Ping

    2013-12-01

    To observe the protective effect of retrograde venous perfusion of cryogenic liquid via accessory hemiazygos vein and treated with resveratrol on spinal cord injury and evaluate the expression changes of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) after spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury (SCII) in swine. Eighteen swine were divided into 3 groups: group I/R (n = 6, operation group), group CL (n = 6, retrograde venous perfusion of cryogenic liquid), group CL+Res (n = 6, retrograde venous perfusion of cryogenic liquid and treated with resveratrol after ischemia). In the group I/R, the aorta was clamped for 60 minutes and then removed. In the group CL and CL+Res, 9 g/L cold (4 °C) saline solution (perfusion rate, 16.65 ml/min) was infused into the accessory hemiazygos vein during ischemia.In the group CL+Res, the swine were treated with resveratrol (10 mg/kg) after spinal cord ischemia. Arterial pressure, blood gas analysis and the spinal canal and nasopharyngeal temperature changes were monitored during the surgery. Nervous function were assessed at 6 hours, 1, 2 days, 1, 2, 4 weeks and MAP-2 expression were detected at 4 weeks after reperfusion by using Western blot analysis in spinal cord tissue. After operation 18 swine were all survival. Behavioral scores of all groups decreased until 1 week after reperfusion and increased as time went by. The scores of group CL and CL+Res were higher than group I/R (F = 8.612, 17.276 and 11.985, P = 0.035,0.011 and 0.023) at 6 hours, 1, 2 days, group CL+Res were higher than group CL(P = 0.021) at 1 days after surgery. After descending aortic cross clamping, the spinal canal and nasopharyngeal temperature were obviously decreased in all groups and dropped to the lowest at 60 minutes after ischemia and 20 minutes after reperfusion in group I/R and the other groups respectively(F = 23.187-55.029, P cryogenic liquid via accessory hemiazygos vein and treated with resveratrol can relieve the ischemia-induced spinal cord injury in

  13. A novel function for the Hox gene Abd-B in the male accessory gland regulates the long-term female post-mating response in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Gligorov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In insects, products of the male reproductive tract are essential for initiating and maintaining the female post-mating response (PMR. The PMR includes changes in egg laying, receptivity to courting males, and sperm storage. In Drosophila, previous studies have determined that the main cells of the male accessory gland produce some of the products required for these processes. However, nothing was known about the contribution of the gland's other secretory cell type, the secondary cells. In the course of investigating the late functions of the homeotic gene, Abdominal-B (Abd-B, we discovered that Abd-B is specifically expressed in the secondary cells of the Drosophila male accessory gland. Using an Abd-B BAC reporter coupled with a collection of genetic deletions, we discovered an enhancer from the iab-6 regulatory domain that is responsible for Abd-B expression in these cells and that apparently works independently from the segmentally regulated chromatin domains of the bithorax complex. Removal of this enhancer results in visible morphological defects in the secondary cells. We determined that mates of iab-6 mutant males show defects in long-term egg laying and suppression of receptivity, and that products of the secondary cells are influential during sperm competition. Many of these phenotypes seem to be caused by a defect in the storage and gradual release of sex peptide in female mates of iab-6 mutant males. We also found that Abd-B expression in the secondary cells contributes to glycosylation of at least three accessory gland proteins: ovulin (Acp26Aa, CG1656, and CG1652. Our results demonstrate that long-term post-mating changes observed in mated females are not solely induced by main cell secretions, as previously believed, but that secondary cells also play an important role in male fertility by extending the female PMR. Overall, these discoveries provide new insights into how these two cell types cooperate to produce and maintain a

  14. Shared and differential traits in the accessory olfactory bulb of caviomorph rodents with particular reference to the semiaquatic capybara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Rodrigo; Santibáñez, Rodrigo; Parra, Daniela; Coppi, Antonio A; Abrahão, Luciana M B; Sasahara, Tais H C; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2011-05-01

    The vomeronasal system is crucial for social and sexual communication in mammals. Two populations of vomeronasal sensory neurons, each expressing Gαi2 or Gαo proteins, send projections to glomeruli of the rostral or caudal accessory olfactory bulb, rAOB and cAOB, respectively. In rodents, the Gαi2- and Gαo-expressing vomeronasal pathways have shown differential responses to small/volatile vs. large/non-volatile semiochemicals, respectively. Moreover, early gene expression suggests predominant activation of rAOB and cAOB neurons in sexual vs. aggressive contexts, respectively. We recently described the AOB of Octodon degus, a semiarid-inhabiting diurnal caviomorph. Their AOB has a cell indentation between subdomains and the rAOB is twice the size of the cAOB. Moreover, their AOB receives innervation from the lateral aspect, contrasting with the medial innervation of all other mammals examined to date. Aiming to relate AOB anatomy with lifestyle, we performed a morphometric study on the AOB of the capybara, a semiaquatic caviomorph whose lifestyle differs remarkably from that of O. degus. Capybaras mate in water and scent-mark their surroundings with oily deposits, mostly for male-male communication. We found that, similar to O. degus, the AOB of capybaras shows a lateral innervation of the vomeronasal nerve, a cell indentation between subdomains and heterogeneous subdomains, but in contrast to O. degus the caudal portion is larger than the rostral one. We also observed that four other caviomorph species present a lateral AOB innervation and a cell indentation between AOB subdomains, suggesting that those traits could represent apomorphies of the group. We propose that although some AOB traits may be phylogenetically conserved in caviomorphs, ecological specializations may play an important role in shaping the AOB.

  15. Safety evaluation of long-term vas occlusion with styrene maleic anhydride and its non-invasive reversal on accessory reproductive organs in langurs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Manivannan; S. S. Bhande; S. Panneerdoss; S. Sriram; N. K. Lohiya

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the safety of the long term vas occlusion with styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) and its non-invasive reversal at the level of accessory reproductive glands (ARGs) in langurs. Methods: The morphology of seminal vesicle and ventral prostate was evaluated by light as well as transmission electron microscopy. Serum clinical chemistry and urine albumin were evaluated in an autoanalyzer using reagent kits. Fructose, acid phosphatase and zinc in the seminal plasma were evaluated spectrophotomet-ically according to the WHO manual. Serum testosterone,prostate specific antigen and sperm antibodies were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)using reagent kits and hematology was estimated according to standard procedures. Results: The morphological features and secretory activity of the seminal vesicle and prostate were normal as evidenced by the presence of welldeveloped mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, secretory granules and normal nuclear characteristics throughout the course of investigation. Serum testosterone and prostate specific antigen remained unaltered and serum antisperm antibodies level presented negative titres. Urine albumin was nil. Total red blood corpuscles (RBC), white blood corpuscles (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and red cell indices, serum protein, glucose, cholesterol,creatinine, creatine kinase (CK), serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bilirubin, urea, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) did not show appreciable changes following vas occlusion and after its non-invasive reversal. Although fructose, acid phosphatase (ACP) and zinc in the seminal plasma showed a significant reduction following vas occlusion, it could not be related to the morphology of seminal vesicle and prostate. Conclusion: SMA vas occlusion and its non-invasive reversal do not damage the accessory reproductive organs.

  16. Female receptivity in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) is not modulated by male accessory gland products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Solana; Nuñez-Beverido, Nicolás; Contreras-Navarro, Yair; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2014-11-01

    In numerous insects, accessory gland products (AGPs) transferred from males to females during mating are responsible for female sexual inhibition, but these products can be affected by male condition. Here, we investigated the effect of AGPs on female receptivity of the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew), and the effect of male and female strain, male irradiation, AGP dose and sexual activity period on the effectiveness of these AGPs in inhibiting female remating. Injections of aqueous extracts of male accessory glands into the abdomen of females did not reduce their receptivity either at 0.2 or 0.8 male equivalent. Females injected with AGPs behaved like virgin females and not as mated females. Neither male origin, female origin (wild versus mass-reared), nor male irradiation (sterile versus fertile males) had an effect in inhibiting female remating. Also, injections of glands obtained during the sexual calling period of males, or obtained during the morning when males are not sexually active had no effect on female remating behavior. Mated mass-reared females were more likely to remate than wild females. We conclude that inhibition of female sexual receptivity of A. ludens is mediated by factors other than AGPs, such as the number of sperm stored by females, the stimulus of copulation per se or more probably, mediated by a combination of factors. More research is needed to elucidate the role of AGPs in this species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An augmented gravity model of South Africa’s exports of motor vehicles, parts and accessories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Sichei

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study applies an “augmented” gravity model to South Africa’s exports of motor vehicles, parts and accessories to 71 countries over the period 1994 to 2004.  A static panel data model is specified and estimated.  Several conclusions are drawn from the study.  First, a number of variables, namely, importer income, distance, level of import tariffs, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, use of right-hand drive vehicles are important determinants of bilateral trade flows for motor vehicles, parts and accessories.  Second, solving the gravity model deterministically, we show that export potential exists in a number of countries like Malawi, Zambia, Kenya and Malaysia.  A number of barriers hinder the members of the National Association of Automobile Manufacturers of South Africa (NAAMSA from exploiting these export markets. These include very high import tariffs, lack of South Africa’s diplomatic mission in the trading partner and the uncertainty regarding what happens at the expiry of the Motor Industry Development Programme (MIDP in 2012. Finally, the export potential identified by the gravity model should be regarded only as an indication since it is sensitive to the model specification and sample of countries.

  18. Care of astronomical telescopes and accessories a manual for the astronomical observer and amateur telescope maker

    CERN Document Server

    Pepin, M Barlow

    2005-01-01

    Commercially-made astronomical telescopes are better and less expensive than ever before, and their optical and mechanical performance can be superb. When a good-quality telescope fails to perform as well as it might, the reason is quite probably that it needs a little care and attention! Here is a complete guide for anyone who wants to understand more than just the basics of astronomical telescopes and accessories, and how to maintain them in the peak of condition. The latest on safely adjusting, cleaning, and maintaining your equipment is combined with thoroughly updated methods from the old masters. Here, too, are details of choosing new and used optics and accessories, along with enhancements you can make to extend their versatility and useful lifetime. This book is for you. Really. Looking after an astronomical telescope isn't only for the experts - although there are some things that only an expert should attempt - and every serious amateur astronomer will find invaluable information here, gleaned from ...

  19. Ascaris lumbricoides and its invasion of the accessory cystic duct: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Zain; Masood, Irfan; Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi

    2015-04-01

    Around the world, Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common helminthic infection. We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman, known to have had Ascaris infestation, presenting with abdominal pain, constipation and jaundice together with fever and tachycardia. There was tenderness in the right hypochondrium and liver function tests confirmed cholestatic jaundice. An abdominal ultrasound showed multiple linear echogenic foci in the distal small intestine along with cholelithiasis and a thick-walled gall bladder with a single stone compressing the common bile duct (Mirizzi syndrome). The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy; more than 100 worms were found inside the small intestine and they were removed by enterotomy and manual decompression. No worm could be palpated within the common bile duct (CBD). Cholecystectomy was performed, during which an accessory cystic duct was noted opening into the common bile duct superiorly to the main cystic duct. A 10 cm live worm was found coming out of it and was removed via forceps. Later on an endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatogram (ERCP) showed a widened ampulla, a mildly dilated common bile duct, but without any filling defects. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery being discharged on the ninth day. Worms in an accessory cystic duct have not been report in the medical literature so far.

  20. Impact of infection on the secretory capacity of the male accessory glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marconi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies that compare the impact of different infectious entities of the male reproductive tract (MRT on the male accessory gland function are controversial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semen analyses of 71 patients with proven infections of the MRT were compared with the results of 40 healthy non-infected volunteers. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their diagnosis: chronic prostatitis NIH type II (n = 38, chronic epididymitis (n = 12, and chronic urethritis (n = 21. RESULTS: The bacteriological analysis revealed 9 different types of microorganisms, considered to be the etiological agents, isolated in different secretions, including: urine, expressed prostatic secretions, semen and urethral smears: E. Coli (n = 20, Klebsiella (n = 2, Proteus spp. (n = 1, Enterococcus (n = 20, Staphylococcus spp. (n = 1, M. tuberculosis (n = 2, N. gonorrhea (n = 8, Chlamydia tr. (n = 16 and, Ureaplasma urealyticum (n = 1. The infection group had significantly (p < 0.05 lower: semen volume, alpha-glucosidase, fructose, and zinc in seminal plasma and, higher pH than the control group. None of these parameters was sufficiently accurate in the ROC analysis to discriminate between infected and non-infected men. CONCLUSION: Proven bacterial infections of the MRT impact negatively on all the accessory gland function parameters evaluated in semen, suggesting impairment of the secretory capacity of the epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate. These findings were associated with an infectious related significant increase of semen pH. None of the semen parameters evaluated can be suggested as a diagnostic tool for infection.

  1. Radiolucent hair accessories causing depressed skull fracture following blunt cranial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Omar N; Hankinson, Todd C; Mack, William J; Feldstein, Neil A; Anderson, Richard C E

    2008-12-01

    Pediatric neurosurgeons frequently care for children with traumatic scalp and skull injury. Foreign objects are often observed on imaging and may influence the clinician's decision-making process. The authors report on 2 cases of poorly visualized hair beads that had become embedded into the skull during blunt trauma. In both cases, skull radiography and CT scanning demonstrated depressed, comminuted fractures with poorly demonstrated spherical radiolucencies in the overlying scalp. The nature of these objects was initially unclear, and they could have represented air that entered the scalp during trauma. In one case, scalp inspection demonstrated no evidence of the bead. In the other case, a second bead was observed at the site of scalp laceration. In both cases, the beads were surgically removed, the fractures were elevated, and the patients recovered uneventfully. Radiolucent fashion accessories, such as hair beads, may be difficult to appreciate on clinical examination and may masquerade as clinically insignificant air following cranial trauma. If they are not removed, these foreign bodies may pose the risk of an infection. Pediatric neurosurgeons should consider hair accessories in the differential diagnosis of foreign bodies that may produce skull fracture following blunt trauma.

  2. Restoration of shoulder abduction by transfer of the spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve through dorsal approach: a clinical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Shi-bing; HOU Chun-lin; CHEN De-song; GU Yu-dong

    2006-01-01

    Background In recent years, transfer of the spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve has become a routine procedure for restoration of shoulder abduction. However, the operation via the traditional supraclavicular anterior approach often leads to partial denervation of the trapezius muscle. The purpose of the study was to introduce transfer of the spinal accessory nerve through dorsal approach, using distal branch of the spinal accessory nerve, to repair the suprascapular nerve for restoration of shoulder abduction, and to observe its therapeutic effect.Methods From January to October 2003, a total of 11 patients with a brachial plexus injury and an intact or nearly intact spinal accessory nerve were treated by transferring the spinal accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve through dorsal approach. The patients were followed up for 18 to 26 months [mean (23.5 ±5.2) months] to evaluate their shoulder abduction and function of the trapezius muscle. The outcomes were compared with those of 26 patients treated with traditional anterior approach. And the data were analyzed by Student's t test using SPSS 10.5.Results In the 11 patients, the spinal accessory nerves were transferred to the suprascapular nerve through the dorsal approach successfully. Intact function of the upper trapezius was achieved in all of them. In the patients,the location of the two nerves was relatively stable at the level of superior margin of the scapula, the mean distance between them was (4.2±1.4) cm, both the nerves could be easily dissected and end-to-end anastomosed without any tension. During the follow-up, the first electrophysiological sign of recovery of the infraspinatus appeared at (6.8±2.7) months and the first sign of restoration of the shoulder abduction at (7.6±2.9) months after the operation, which were earlier than that after the traditional operation [(8.7±2.4) months and (9.9±2.8)months, respectively; P<0.05]. The postoperative shoulder abduction was 62.8°± 12

  3. Bilateral axillary masses mimicking as accessory breast with multiple fibroadenoma and bilateral gigantomastia in HIV-positive patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saumya; Mishra, Anand K; Tewari, S; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2013-06-24

    Accessory breast is a rare entity that can present as asymptomatic masses or can cause symptoms like heaviness, pain, restriction of arm movement and limitation in daily pursuits with allied apprehension and anxiety for the patient. We present a case of bilateral axillary masses mimicking as accessory breast with multiple fibroadenoma in a 28 years, nulliparous, Indian woman who is HIV positive, which proves to be a diagnostic dilemma. Excisional biopsy was diagnostic. The rarity of such cases imposes challenges on the management in terms of diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic options.

  4. Presence of accessory penis, colonic duplication and several other congenital anomalies in a child: a very rare association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sayan; Mondal, Prabodh Chandra; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Achar, Arun

    2014-10-01

    An accessory penis is a very rare anomaly. Only five cases have been reported thus far to our knowledge. We present the case of a child aged 2 years and 10 months who had a penis-like structure (containing phallus and glans) attached to the right buttock. Associated anomalies were a non-communicating type of colonic duplication, a paramedian stenosed anal opening, a horse-shoe kidney, posterior urethral valves, scoliosis of the lumbo-sacral spine, polydactyly and equino-varus deformity of the right foot. As far as we can tell, this is the first report of an accessory penis associated with colonic duplication and other congenital anomalies.

  5. Accessory mitral valve tissue causing severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in a post-Senning patient with transposition of the great arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Farqani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Accessory mitral valve tissue is a rare congenital anomaly associated with congenital cardiac defects and is usually detected in the first decade of life. We describe the case of an 18-year old post-Senning asymptomatic patient who was found to have accessory mitral valve tissue on transthoracic echocardiography producing severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.

  6. Analyzing the activation of the melanocortin-2 receptor of tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, Robert M; Liang, Liang

    2014-07-01

    Following the biochemical characterization of the pituitary hormone, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), in the 1950's, a number of structure/function studies were done which identifies two amino acid motifs in ACTH, the HFRW motif and KKRR motif, as critical for the activation of the "ACTH" receptor on adrenal cortex cells. In the 1990's the "ACTH" receptor was identified as a member of the melanocortin receptor gene family, and given the name melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R). Since that time a number of studies on both tetrapod and teleost MC2R orthologs have established that these orthologs can only be activated by ACTH, but not by any of the MSH-sized melanocortin ligands, and these orthologs require interaction with the melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) for functional expression. This review summarizes recent structure/function studies on human ACTH, and points out the importance of the GKPVG motif in ACTH for the activation of the receptor. In this regard, a multiple-step model for the activation of tetrapod and teleost MC2R orthologs is presented, and the evolution of gnathostome MC2R ligand selectivity and the requirement for MRAP interaction is discussed in light of a recent study on a cartilaginous fish MC2R ortholog. This review contains excerpts from the Gorbman/Bern Lecture presented at the Second Meeting of the North American Society for Comparative Endocrinology (NASCE).

  7. Comparison of hemihypoglossal- and accessory-facial neurorrhaphy for treating facial paralysis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dezhi; Wan, Hong; Feng, Jie; Wang, Shiwei; Su, Diya; Hao, Shuyu; Schumacher, Michael; Liu, Song

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-end (HemiHN-FN) and accessory-facial nerve end-to-end (AN-FN) neurorrhaphy using a predegenerated nerve graft (PNG) for reanimating facial paralysis in a rat FN injury model. A total of 25 rats with complete unilateral facial paralysis resulting from section of the right FN were divided into 5 groups (n=5 each) that were submitted to immediate, delayed (3 months after FN injury) or no (control) FN reconstruction procedures involving HemiHN-FN or AN-FN neurorrhaphy. Approximately 3 months after FN reconstruction, cholera toxin subunit B conjugate Alexa 555 (CTB-Alexa 555) was injected into the ipsilateral whisker pad muscle and CTB-Alexa 555-labeled neurons were observed in the hypoglossal or accessory nuclei of all the FN reconstruction rats, but none of these neurons were found in the controls. There were numerous myelinated and nonmyelinated axons in both PNG and repaired FN of the FN reconstruction rats. No differences were found for these numbers between the two neurorrhaphy methods for each of the treatment time points, indicating the equal effectiveness of axon regeneration. However, a significantly higher number of CTB-Alexa 555-labeled neurons was observed in the hypoglossal nucleus of the immediate HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy-treated rats when compared to that in the accessory nucleus of the immediate AN-FN neurorrhaphy-treated rats, consistent with the surface values of the recorded MAPs at the whisker pad muscle while electro-stimulating the FN. These results suggest that HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy produces more efficient innervation of the paralyzed facial muscles than AN-FN neurorrhaphy without sacrificing ipsilateral hypoglossal function. Taking into consideration the clinical relevance of these findings for postoperative complications and functional reanimation in relation to the central plasticity, we suggest that HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy may be the preferable facial

  8. Experience-Dependent Plasticity in Accessory Olfactory Bulb Interneurons following Male-Male Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansler, Hillary L; Maksimova, Marina A; Meeks, Julian P

    2017-07-26

    Chemosensory information processing in the mouse accessory olfactory system guides the expression of social behavior. After salient chemosensory encounters, the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) experiences changes in the balance of excitation and inhibition at reciprocal synapses between mitral cells (MCs) and local interneurons. The mechanisms underlying these changes remain controversial. Moreover, it remains unclear whether MC-interneuron plasticity is unique to specific behaviors, such as mating, or whether it is a more general feature of the AOB circuit. Here, we describe targeted electrophysiological studies of AOB inhibitory internal granule cells (IGCs), many of which upregulate the immediate-early gene Arc after male-male social experience. Following the resident-intruder paradigm, Arc-expressing IGCs in acute AOB slices from resident males displayed stronger excitation than nonexpressing neighbors when sensory inputs were stimulated. The increased excitability of Arc-expressing IGCs was not correlated with changes in the strength or number of excitatory synapses with MCs but was instead associated with increased intrinsic excitability and decreased HCN channel-mediated IH currents. Consistent with increased inhibition by IGCs, MCs responded to sensory input stimulation with decreased depolarization and spiking following resident-intruder encounters. These results reveal that nonmating behaviors drive AOB inhibitory plasticity and indicate that increased MC inhibition involves intrinsic excitability changes in Arc-expressing interneurons.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) is a site of experience-dependent plasticity between excitatory mitral cells (MCs) and inhibitory internal granule cells (IGCs), but the physiological mechanisms and behavioral conditions driving this plasticity remain unclear. Here, we report studies of AOB neuronal plasticity following male-male social chemosensory encounters. We show that the plasticity

  9. 半胱亚磺酸脱羧酶在成年小鼠副性腺器官中的表达%Expression of Cysteine Sulfinate Decarboxylase in Male Accessory Organs of Adult Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晶晶; 庞立义

    2012-01-01

    We conducted semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR),western blott and immunohistochemical analysis in order to examine CSD mRNA and protein expression in the accessory organs of male mice.The results show that CSD is expressed both at the mRNA and protein levels in the organs.Immunohistochemical analysis reveals that CSD is expressed in the tall columnar cells of the seminal vesicle,the glandular epithelium of the bulbourethral gland,and the epithelial cells of the prostate gland.These results suggest that male accessory organs have the function to produce taurine through the CSD pathway.%采用RT-PCR、Western blot、免疫组织化学方法检测了CSD在小鼠副性腺器官中mRNA和蛋白水平的表达。结果显示,CSD在小鼠副性腺器官中都有mRNA和蛋白水平的表达。CSD主要定位于精囊腺的高柱状上皮细胞、前列腺的腺上皮细胞和尿道球腺的腺上皮细胞中。结果表明雄性副性腺器官可以通过CSD合成通路参与牛磺酸的合成。

  10. Sequencing of mitochondrial genomes of nine Aspergillus and Penicillium species identifies mobile introns and accessory genes as main sources of genome size variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joardar Vinita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genera Aspergillus and Penicillium include some of the most beneficial as well as the most harmful fungal species such as the penicillin-producer Penicillium chrysogenum and the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively. Their mitochondrial genomic sequences may hold vital clues into the mechanisms of their evolution, population genetics, and biology, yet only a handful of these genomes have been fully sequenced and annotated. Results Here we report the complete sequence and annotation of the mitochondrial genomes of six Aspergillus and three Penicillium species: A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. oryzae, A. flavus, Neosartorya fischeri (A. fischerianus, A. terreus, P. chrysogenum, P. marneffei, and Talaromyces stipitatus (P. stipitatum. The accompanying comparative analysis of these and related publicly available mitochondrial genomes reveals wide variation in size (25–36 Kb among these closely related fungi. The sources of genome expansion include group I introns and accessory genes encoding putative homing endonucleases, DNA and RNA polymerases (presumed to be of plasmid origin and hypothetical proteins. The two smallest sequenced genomes (A. terreus and P. chrysogenum do not contain introns in protein-coding genes, whereas the largest genome (T. stipitatus, contains a total of eleven introns. All of the sequenced genomes have a group I intron in the large ribosomal subunit RNA gene, suggesting that this intron is fixed in these species. Subsequent analysis of several A. fumigatus strains showed low intraspecies variation. This study also includes a phylogenetic analysis based on 14 concatenated core mitochondrial proteins. The phylogenetic tree has a different topology from published multilocus trees, highlighting the challenges still facing the Aspergillus systematics. Conclusions The study expands the genomic resources available to fungal biologists by providing mitochondrial genomes with consistent

  11. Expression of a male accessory gland peptide of Leptinotarsa decemlineata in insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.; Schooneveld, H.; Deserno, M.L.L.G.; Put, B.; Vlak, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The male accessory glands (MAGs) of Leptinotarsa decemlineata produce an 8kDa peptide, designated Led-MAGP, that is recognized by monoclonal antibody MAC-18. The site of synthesis, amino acid sequence and the gene encoding this peptide have been documented (). The primary structure is homologous to

  12. Expression of a male accessory gland peptide of Leptinotarsa decemlineata in insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.; Schooneveld, H.; Deserno, M.L.L.G.; Put, B.; Vlak, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The male accessory glands (MAGs) of Leptinotarsa decemlineata produce an 8kDa peptide, designated Led-MAGP, that is recognized by monoclonal antibody MAC-18. The site of synthesis, amino acid sequence and the gene encoding this peptide have been documented (). The primary structure is homologous to

  13. Radiofrequency Ablation of Accessory Pathways in Chil- dren with Complex Congenital Cardiac Lesions: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dalili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Catheter ablation is an accepted, highly effective modality of treatment for cardiac arrhythmias in children. The success rate depends on the operator’s experience, especially in cases involving complex anatomies. We hereby report our recent experience of successful ablation of accessory pathways in three children with complex congenital heart diseases.The first case was a 7-year-old girl with tricuspid atresia and a previous Glenn shunt, in whom a sub-epicardial overt accessory pathway was successfully ablated via the coronary sinus. The second case, a 9-year-old girl, received accessory pathway ablation via the fenestration of an extracardiac Fontan pathway. The third case was a 14-year-old boy with dextrocardia, common atrium, common ventricle, and a previous extracardiac Fontan operation, in whom ablation of a concealed accessory pathway was carried out retrogradely from the aorta. All the ablations were done in Rajaie Cardiovascular, Medical and Research Center, Tehran, and all the patients were discharged from the hospital without any complication.

  14. Promotion of Waterpipe Tobacco Use, Its Variants and Accessories in Young Adult Newspapers: A Content Analysis of Message Portrayal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kymberle L.; Fryer, Craig S.; Majeed, Ban; Duong, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to identify waterpipe tobacco smoking advertisements and those that promoted a range of products and accessories used to smoke waterpipe tobacco. The content of these advertisements was analyzed to understand the messages portrayed about waterpipe tobacco smoking in young adult (aged 18-30) newspapers. The study…

  15. Fibroadenomatosis involving bilateral breasts and axillary accessory breast tissues in a renal transplant recipient given cyclosporin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakci, Mesut; Gocmez, Ahmet; Demir, Ali Aslan; Salmaslioglu, Artur; Tukenmez, Mustafa; Yavuz, Ekrem; Acunas, Gulden

    2014-10-01

    We present the mammographic and sonographic findings in a case of fibroadenomatosis involving both breasts and axillae in a renal transplant patient after 16 years of treatment with cyclosporin A. Awareness of the fact that cyclosporin A may induce the formation of fibroadenomas, including in accessory breast tissue, is important for correct diagnosis and preventing unnecessary intervention. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The beta-barrel outer membrane protein assembly complex of Neisseria meningitidis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volokhina, E.B.; Beckers, F.; Tommassen, J.; Bos, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved protein Omp85 is required for outer membrane protein (OMP) assembly in gram-negative bacteria and in mitochondria. Its Escherichia coli homolog, designated BamA, functions with four accessory lipoproteins, BamB, BamC, BamD, and BamE, together forming the beta-barrel asse

  17. MRI of the tibioastragalus anticus of Gruber muscle: a rare accessory muscle and normal anatomical variant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, Yaron; Amiras, Dimitri [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); St Mary' s Hospital, Imaging Department, QEQM, London (United Kingdom); Mushtaq, Nadeem [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    We present the case of a 31-year-old man who sustained a hyperplantar flexion injury of his right ankle, and was evaluated using computed tomography and MRI to assess for osseous and ligamentous injury. The MRI and CT studies demonstrated a tibioastragalus anticus of Gruber (TAAG) muscle in the lower limb's anterior compartment. To our knowledge, the imaging of this muscle has not been previously described. The TAAG muscle arises from the lower third of the anterolateral tibia and the interosseous membrane. Its tendon passes laterally, deep to the tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus tendons, and inserts onto the anterior superolateral neck of the talus in a fan-like manner. Knowledge and recognition of this tendon are important for both diagnostic accuracy and surgical planning, and could potentially be used as a tendon transfer or graft in the appropriate clinical setting. The presence of this accessory muscle should not be confused with a pathological condition. (orig.)

  18. The accessory papillary muscle with inferior J-waves - peculiarity or hidden danger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    du Toit Lorraine

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Originally described in 1953, today the so-called J-wave is the source of much controversy. As a marker of so-called "early repolarization", this variant has been regarded as a totally benign variant since the 1960's. However, since then a wealth of data have indicated that the J-wave may be a marker of a highly arrhythmogenic substrate with a resultant high risk of sudden cardiac death. In this case report a case of an accessory papillary muscle with a prominent J-wave is described. This may be the first of many possible cases where papillary muscle variants may be the cause of the J-wave.

  19. A software tool to evaluate crystal types and morphological developments of accessory zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Computer programs for an appropriate visualization of crystal types and morphological developments of accessory zircon are not available hitherto. Usually, typological computations are conducted by using simple calculation tools or spread-sheet programs. In practice, however, high numbers of data sets including information of numerous zircon populations have to be processed and stored. The paper describes the software ZIRCTYP, which is a macro-driven program within the Microsoft Access database management system. It allows the computation of zircon morphologies occurring in specific rock samples and their presentation in typology diagrams. In addition, morphological developments within a given zircon population are presented (1) statistically and (2) graphically as crystal sequences showing initial, intermediate, and final growth stages.

  20. Thermomechanical and electrical characterisation of EVA polymer compounds for cable accessories*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santulli, Carlo; Balestrieri, Francesco; Mazzetti, Carlo; De Mestres, Pau

    2015-11-01

    In this work, materials used in the field of accessories for electrical cables have been characterised from a thermomechanical and electrical point of view, so to offer a realistic picture of material behaviour under a service involving the combined application of electrical charges and thermo-mechanical stresses. In particular, both materials are based on ethylene-vinylacetate (EVA) blend with the introduction in one case of aluminium trihydrate, whereas in the other case, carbon black was added, the two materials being referred as insulating and semi-conductive, respectively. The two materials had different rheological and thermal characteristics, which had an effect on electrical behaviour: however, the application of levels of radiation up to 60 kGy did not prove to widely change the profile of either polymer blends.

  1. Zoning, accessory dwelling units, and family caregiving: issues, trends, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Phoebe S; Koenig, Teresa; Pynoos, Jon

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between zoning regulations and co-residential family caregiving in the United States. It first provides an overview of U.S. housing policies, especially zoning. We then describe major changes in family structure and composition in the United States with their implications for caregiving and discuss how multigenerational housing options, particularly accessory dwelling units (ADUs) in single-family homes, can help support family caregiving. After an overview of zoning policies and actions that inhibit ADU production, we document current trends, incorporating information from a small non-random study of ADU activity we conducted in 2004. Finally, we present recommendations for promoting more multigenerational housing as a supplement to other family support programs (e.g., dependent care assistance, family caregiver payments) and as a source of affordable, supportive housing for those families choosing co-residence as their eldercare solution.

  2. Brachymetatarsia with accessory navicular in right foot: A rare coincidental finding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Praveen Kumar Pandey; Inder Pawar; Sandeep Kumar Beniwal; Raaghav R.Verma

    2016-01-01

    A 33 years old female patient presented with posttraumatic pain in the right foot for which radiographs of the right foot was advised.No fracture was detected on radiographs and patient was managed conservatively on medications and posterior splint immobilization.We found coincidentally a short fourth metatarsal and an accessory navicular bone in the right foot radiographs.After 3 weeks of immobilization,she underwent mobilization of the right foot,weight bearing and intensive physiotherapy for 6 weeks.After two months of injury she was still complaining of pain on the plantar aspect of right foot which was diagnosed as metatarsalgia and operated on by excision of the neuroma present in the 3rd web space of the right foot.After surgery she was completely relieved of pain and could do activities well related to the right foot.

  3. RADIOFREQUENCY CURRENT CATHETER ABLATION OF THE LEFT ATRIOVENTRICULAR ACCESSORY PATHWAYS WITH PAROXYSMAL SUPRAVENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静毅; 郭继鸿; 吴益明; 朱继红; 王伟民; 赵红; 刘喜荣; MichaelA.Lee

    1994-01-01

    Seventy patients with left atrioventricular accessory pathways and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA).The success rate was 94.3%.Among these pa-tients,26 had manifest preexcitation syndrome,and 44 had concealed preexcitation.Eighteen patients with con-cealed preexcitation underwent coronary sinus(CS) pacinga,and delta wave appeared in 15.The keys to successful RFCA were correct positioning of the radiofrequency (RF) catheter tip,A/V amplitude ratio,AV interval(in si-nus rhythm)and VA interval(during SVT or ventricular pacing).After 1-14 months of follow-up,two pa- tients had supraventricular tachycardia(SVT)recurrence.

  4. Note: Design and fabrication of a simple versatile microelectrochemical cell and its accessories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Viswanathan; Neelakantan, Lakshman

    2015-09-01

    A microelectrochemical cell housed in an optical microscope and custom-made accessories have been designed and fabricated, which allows performing spatially resolved corrosion measurements. The cell assembly was designed to directly integrate the reference electrode close to the capillary tip to avoid air bubbles. A hard disk along with an old optical microscope was re-engineered into a microgrinder, which made the vertical grinding of glass capillary tips very easy. A stepper motor was customized into a microsyringe pump to dispense a controlled volume of electrolyte through the capillary. A force sensitive resistor was used to achieve constant wetting area. The functionality of the developed instrument is demonstrated by studying μ-electrochemical behavior of worn surface on AA2014-T6 alloy.

  5. [Infectious mitral endocarditis after radiofrequency catheter ablation of a left lateral accessory pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito Bartolomé, F; Sánchez Fernández-Bernal, C

    2001-08-01

    A 2-years-old child with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome associated with life-threatening symptoms underwent radiofrequency ablation of a left lateral accessory pathway. A deflectable 5F bipolar electrode catheter positioned above the atrioventricular groove by transeptal approach was used for ablation. The catheters were repeatedly used after ethylene oxide sterilisation. Although immediate post-ablation echocardiography demonstrated no complications, the patient was readmitted two days later with fever and a new mitral murmur. Penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was isolated and intravenous antibiotics were administered. In the following weeks, the patient developed constrictive pericarditis requiring surgical treatment and acute hemiplegia caused by brain embolism arising from valvular vegetation. At 5 years of follow-up the patient presents residual hemiparesia and grade II/IV mitral insufficiency.

  6. Effect of partial saturation of bonded neo magnet on the automotive accessory motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Nimitkumar K.; Angara, Raghu C. S. Babu

    2017-05-01

    In this paper the effects of using a partially magnetized bonded neo (NdFeB) magnet in an automotive accessory motor are presented. The potential reason for partial saturation of the bonded neo magnet is explained and a simple method to ensure saturation of the magnet is discussed. A magnetizing fixture design using the 2-D Finite element analysis (FEA) is presented. The motor performance at various magnet saturation levels has been estimated using the 2-D FEA. Details of the thermal demagnetization test adopted by the automotive industry is also discussed and results of the motor performance for four saturation levels are detailed. These results indicate that the effect of demagnetization is more adverse in a motor with partially saturated magnets.

  7. Simvastatin requires activation in accessory cells to modulate T-cell responses in asthma and COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Jürgen; Yakin, Yakup; Körber, Sandra; Grensemann, Barbara; Bendella, Zeynep; Boyaci, Niyazi; Gallert, Willem-Jakob; Yanik, Sarah Derya; Jungck, David; Koch, Andrea

    2016-10-05

    T-cell-dependent airway and systemic inflammation triggers the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Retrospective studies suggest that simvastatin has anti-inflammatory effects in both diseases but it is unclear, which cell types are targeted. We hypothesized that simvastatin modulates T-cell activity. Circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, either pure, co-cultured with monocytes or alveolar macrophages (AM) or in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), were ex vivo activated towards Th1/Tc1 or Th2/Tc2 and incubated with simvastatin. Markers for Th1/Tc1 (IFNγ) and Th2/Tc2 (IL-5, IL-13) were measured by ELISA; with PBMCs this was done comparative between 11 healthy never-smokers, 11 current smokers without airflow limitation, 14 smokers with COPD and 11 never-smokers with atopic asthma. T-cell activation induced IFNγ, IL-5 and IL-13 in the presence and absence of accessory cells. Simvastatin did not modulate cytokine expression in pure T-cell fractions. β-hydroxy-simvastatin acid (activated simvastatin) suppressed IL-5 and IL-13 in pure Th2- and Tc2-cells. Simvastatin suppressed IL-5 and IL-13 in Th2-cells co-cultivated with monocytes or AM, which was partially reversed by the carboxylesterase inhibitor benzil. Simvastatin suppressed IL-5 production of Th2/Tc2-cells in PBMCs without differences between cohorts and IL-13 stronger in never-smokers and asthma compared to COPD. Simvastatin induced IFNγ in Th1/Tc1-cells in PBMCs of all cohorts except asthmatics. Simvastatin requires activation in accessory cells likely by carboxylesterase to suppress IL-5 and IL-13 in Th2/Tc2-cells. The effects on Il-13 are partially reduced in COPD. Asthma pathogenesis prevents simvastatin-induced IFNγ up-regulation. Simvastatin has anti-inflammatory effects that could be of interest for asthma therapy.

  8. Carcinoid tumor of the duodenum and accessory papilla associated with polycythemia vera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Horng-Yuan Wang; Ming-Jen Chen; Tsen-Long Yang; Ming-Chih Chang; Yu-Jan Chan

    2005-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors have been reported in a wide range of organs but most frequently involve the gastrointestinal tract; however, duodenal carcinoid tumors are rare. We report a 50-year-old male patient complaining of multiple melenas for 3 wk. The panendoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography revealed swelling accessory papilla with an ulcer. The biopsy taken showed a carcinoid tumor. The lesion was removed by wide resection. Patient was found to have an abnormal blood cell count during the follow-up period with elevated levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit of 21.2 g/dL and 63.5%,respectively, thrombocytosis of 501 000/μL, and leukocytosis of 20 410/μL. He was diagnosed as a polycythemia vera by a hematologist after further evaluation. He received periodic phlebotomy and hydroxyurea treatment. The response was good and his hematocrit was stabilized by periodic phlebotomy in the range of 44-49% during the last 2 years. The possible origin of UGI bleeding by a duodenal carcinoid tumor, although rare, should be considered. There has been one case report of a duodenal carcinoid tumor that involved accessory papilla of the pancreas divisum and one case report of metastatic carcinoid tumor associated with polycythemia vera. It is different in our patient as compared with the latter report, which mentioned a polycythemia vera patient who was found to have a metastatic carcinoid in the 17 years follow-up period. Chemotherapy had been given before the carcinoid tumor was revealed. Our patient had no previous chemotherapy for polycythemia vera before he was found to have duodenal carcinoid tumor; this excludes the possibility of chemotherapy induced carcinoid tumor, although it had been suspected in the previous report. In our patient, the existence of both diseases may be by predisposition of each other since both diseases have an increased incidence of other neoplasm, or they may be coexistent incidentally.

  9. Hausdorff Distance evaluation of orthodontic accessories' streaking artifacts in 3D model superimposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rino Neto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether image artifacts caused by orthodontic metal accessories interfere with the accuracy of 3D CBCT model superimposition. A human dry skull was subjected three times to a CBCT scan: at first without orthodontic brackets (T1, then with stainless steel brackets bonded without (T2 and with orthodontic arch wires (T3 inserted into the brackets' slots. The registration of image surfaces and the superimposition of 3D models were performed. Within-subject surface distances between T1-T2, T1-T3 and T2-T3 were computed and calculated for comparison among the three data sets. The minimum and maximum Hausdorff Distance units (HDu computed between the corresponding data points of the T1 and T2 CBCT 3D surface images were 0.000000 and 0.049280 HDu, respectively, and the mean distance was 0.002497 HDu. The minimum and maximum Hausdorff Distances between T1 and T3 were 0.000000 and 0.047440 HDu, respectively, with a mean distance of 0.002585 HDu. In the comparison between T2 and T3, the minimum, maximum and mean Hausdorff Distances were 0.000000, 0.025616 and 0.000347 HDu, respectively. In the current study, the image artifacts caused by metal orthodontic accessories did not compromise the accuracy of the 3D model superimposition. Color-coded maps of overlaid structures complemented the computed Hausdorff Distances and demonstrated a precise fusion between the data sets.

  10. Persistence of ultrasound alterations after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin in patients with male accessory gland infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandro La Vignera; Rosita A Condorelli; Aldo E Calogero; Salvatore Bellanca; Mario Salmeri; Enzo Vicari

    2012-01-01

    No studies have evaluated the ultrasound features of the male sex accessory glands in infertile patients with bacterial male accessory gland infection (MAGI) according to the microbiological outcomes of bacterial cultures (absent,partial or complete) following antibiotic therapy administration.Therefore,the aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound characteristics of the prostate,seminal vesicles,and epididymal tracts after treatment with levofloxacin (a common quinolone antibiotic),in patients with infections caused by Escherichia coli (a Gram-negative bacterium) according to the Naber's classification,which includes the following categories:eradication,eradication with superinfection,persistence and persistence with superinfection.The study was conducted in 100 patients aged 25±8 years (range:20-40 years) with bacterial MAGI and bacterial cultures positive only for E.coli(colony forming units ≥ 106 per ml).Retrospective analysis was conducted only on patients treated with oral levofloxacin (500 mg) administered once daily for 28 days who were recruited over the last 5 years.Following antibiotic treatment,patients with microbiological persistence or persistence with superinfection had a significantly higher percentage of ultrasound abnormalities suggestive of prostato-vesiculitis (PV) (30.2% and 36.0%,respectively) or prostato-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE) (60.2% and 70.0%,respectively) compared with patients with microbiological eradication (PV=10.2% and PVE=8.2%,respectively) or eradication with superinfection (PV=18.8%and PVE=21.2%,respectively).In conclusion,patients with microbiological persistence or persistence plus superinfection showed the highest prevalence of complicated forms of MAGI (PV and PVE),compared with patients with microbiological eradication or eradication with superinfection.

  11. Breakage-fusion-bridge cycles and large insertions contribute to the rapid evolution of accessory chromosomes in a fungal pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Croll

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal rearrangements are a major driver of eukaryotic genome evolution, affecting speciation, pathogenicity and cancer progression. Changes in chromosome structure are often initiated by mis-repair of double-strand breaks in the DNA. Mis-repair is particularly likely when telomeres are lost or when dispersed repeats misalign during crossing-over. Fungi carry highly polymorphic chromosomal complements showing substantial variation in chromosome length and number. The mechanisms driving chromosome polymorphism in fungi are poorly understood. We aimed to identify mechanisms of chromosomal rearrangements in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We combined population genomic resequencing and chromosomal segment PCR assays with electrophoretic karyotyping and resequencing of parents and offspring from experimental crosses to show that this pathogen harbors a highly diverse complement of accessory chromosomes that exhibits strong global geographic differentiation in numbers and lengths of chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes carried highly differentiated gene contents due to numerous insertions and deletions. The largest accessory chromosome recently doubled in length through insertions totaling 380 kb. Based on comparative genomics, we identified the precise breakpoint locations of these insertions. Nondisjunction during meiosis led to chromosome losses in progeny of three different crosses. We showed that a new accessory chromosome emerged in two viable offspring through a fusion between sister chromatids. Such chromosome fusion is likely to initiate a breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB cycle that can rapidly degenerate chromosomal structure. We suggest that the accessory chromosomes of Z. tritici originated mainly from ancient core chromosomes through a degeneration process that included BFB cycles, nondisjunction and mutational decay of duplicated sequences. The rapidly evolving accessory chromosome complement may serve as a cradle for

  12. Breakage-fusion-bridge cycles and large insertions contribute to the rapid evolution of accessory chromosomes in a fungal pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Daniel; Zala, Marcello; McDonald, Bruce A

    2013-06-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements are a major driver of eukaryotic genome evolution, affecting speciation, pathogenicity and cancer progression. Changes in chromosome structure are often initiated by mis-repair of double-strand breaks in the DNA. Mis-repair is particularly likely when telomeres are lost or when dispersed repeats misalign during crossing-over. Fungi carry highly polymorphic chromosomal complements showing substantial variation in chromosome length and number. The mechanisms driving chromosome polymorphism in fungi are poorly understood. We aimed to identify mechanisms of chromosomal rearrangements in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We combined population genomic resequencing and chromosomal segment PCR assays with electrophoretic karyotyping and resequencing of parents and offspring from experimental crosses to show that this pathogen harbors a highly diverse complement of accessory chromosomes that exhibits strong global geographic differentiation in numbers and lengths of chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes carried highly differentiated gene contents due to numerous insertions and deletions. The largest accessory chromosome recently doubled in length through insertions totaling 380 kb. Based on comparative genomics, we identified the precise breakpoint locations of these insertions. Nondisjunction during meiosis led to chromosome losses in progeny of three different crosses. We showed that a new accessory chromosome emerged in two viable offspring through a fusion between sister chromatids. Such chromosome fusion is likely to initiate a breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycle that can rapidly degenerate chromosomal structure. We suggest that the accessory chromosomes of Z. tritici originated mainly from ancient core chromosomes through a degeneration process that included BFB cycles, nondisjunction and mutational decay of duplicated sequences. The rapidly evolving accessory chromosome complement may serve as a cradle for adaptive evolution in

  13. Proteasome Accessory Factor C (pafC) Is a novel gene Involved in Mycobacterium Intrinsic Resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics - Fluoroquinolones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiming; Xie, Longxiang; Long, Quanxin; Mao, Jinxiao; Li, Hui; Zhou, Mingliang; Xie, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics resistance poses catastrophic threat to global public health. Novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of action will inspire better measures to control drug resistance. Fluoroquinolones are potent and widely prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics. Bacterial protein degradation pathways represent novel druggable target for the development of new classes of antibiotics. Mycobacteria proteasome accessory factor C (pafC), a component of bacterial proteasome, is involved in fluoroquinolones resistance. PafC deletion mutants are hypersensitive to fluoroquinolones, including moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, but not to other antibiotics such as isoniazid, rifampicin, spectinomycin, chloramphenicol, capreomycin. This phenotype can be restored by complementation. The pafC mutant is hypersensitive to H2O2 exposure. The iron chelator (bipyridyl) and a hydroxyl radical scavenger (thiourea) can abolish the difference. The finding that pafC is a novel intrinsic selective resistance gene provided new evidence for the bacterial protein degradation pathway as druggable target for the development of new class of antibiotics. PMID:26139381

  14. The unique axon trajectory of the accessory nerve is determined by intrinsic properties of the neural tube in the avian embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhongtian; Pu, Qin; Haque, Ziaul; Wang, Jianlin; Huang, Ruijin

    2016-05-01

    The accessory nerve is a cranial nerve, composed of only motor axons, which control neck muscles. Its axons ascend many segments along the lateral surface of the cervical spinal cord and hindbrain. At the level of the first somite, they pass ventrally through the somitic mesoderm into the periphery. The factors governing the unique root trajectory are unknown. Ablation experiments at the accessory nerve outlet points have shown that somites do not regulate the trajectory of the accessory nerve fibres. Factors from the neural tube that may control the longitudinal pathfinding of the accessory nerve fibres were tested by heterotopic transplantations of an occipital neural tube to the cervical and thoracic level. These transplantations resulted in a typical accessory nerve trajectory in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. In contrast, cervical neural tube grafts were unable to give rise to the typical accessory nerve root pattern when transplanted to occipital level. Our results show that the formation of the unique axon root pattern of the accessory nerve is an intrinsic property of the neural tube.

  15. TLR accessory molecule RP105 (CD180 is involved in post-interventional vascular remodeling and soluble RP105 modulates neointima formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacco C Karper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RP105 (CD180 is TLR4 homologue lacking the intracellular TLR4 signaling domain and acts a TLR accessory molecule and physiological inhibitor of TLR4-signaling. The role of RP105 in vascular remodeling, in particular post-interventional remodeling is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: TLR4 and RP105 are expressed on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC as well as in the media of murine femoral artery segments as detected by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the response to the TLR4 ligand LPS was stronger in VSMC from RP105(-/- mice resulting in a higher proliferation rate. In RP105(-/- mice femoral artery cuff placement resulted in an increase in neointima formation as compared to WT mice (4982 ± 974 µm(2 vs.1947 ± 278 µm(2,p = 0.0014. Local LPS application augmented neointima formation in both groups, but in RP105(-/- mice this effect was more pronounced (10316±1243 µm(2 vs.4208 ± 555 µm(2,p = 0.0002, suggesting a functional role for RP105. For additional functional studies, the extracellular domain of murine RP105 was expressed with or without its adaptor protein MD1 and purified. SEC-MALSanalysis showed a functional 2∶2 homodimer formation of the RP105-MD1 complex. This protein complex was able to block the TLR4 response in whole blood ex-vivo. In vivo gene transfer of plasmid vectors encoding the extracellular part of RP105 and its adaptor protein MD1 were performed to initiate a stable endogenous soluble protein production. Expression of soluble RP105-MD1 resulted in a significant reduction in neointima formation in hypercholesterolemic mice (2500 ± 573 vs.6581 ± 1894 µm(2,p<0.05, whereas expression of the single factors RP105 or MD1 had no effect. CONCLUSION: RP105 is a potent inhibitor of post-interventional neointima formation.

  16. Membrane protein architects: the role of the BAM complex in outer membrane protein assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Timothy J; Scott-Tucker, Anthony; Overduin, Michael; Henderson, Ian R

    2009-03-01

    The folding of transmembrane proteins into the outer membrane presents formidable challenges to Gram-negative bacteria. These proteins must migrate from the cytoplasm, through the inner membrane and into the periplasm, before being recognized by the beta-barrel assembly machinery, which mediates efficient insertion of folded beta-barrels into the outer membrane. Recent discoveries of component structures and accessory interactions of this complex are yielding insights into how cells fold membrane proteins. Here, we discuss how these structures illuminate the mechanisms responsible for the biogenesis of outer membrane proteins.

  17. CGRP-RCP, a novel protein required for signal transduction at calcitonin gene-related peptide and adrenomedullin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, B N; Rosenblatt, M I; Mnayer, L O; Oliver, K R; Dickerson, I M

    2000-10-06

    It is becoming clear that receptors that initiate signal transduction by interacting with G-proteins do not function as monomers, but often require accessory proteins for function. Some of these accessory proteins are chaperones, required for correct transport of the receptor to the cell surface, but the function of many accessory proteins remains unknown. We determined the role of an accessory protein for the receptor for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a potent vasodilator neuropeptide. We have previously shown that this accessory protein, the CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP), is expressed in CGRP responsive tissues and that RCP protein expression correlates with the biological efficacy of CGRP in vivo. However, the function of RCP has remained elusive. In this study stable cell lines were made that express antisense RCP RNA, and CGRP- and adrenomedullin-mediated signal transduction were greatly reduced. However, the loss of RCP did not effect CGRP binding or receptor density, indicating that RCP did not behave as a chaperone but was instead coupling the CGRP receptor to downstream effectors. A candidate CGRP receptor named calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) has been identified, and in this study RCP co-immunoprecipitated with CRLR indicating that these two proteins interact directly. Since CGRP and adrenomedullin can both signal through CRLR, which has been previously shown to require a chaperone protein for function, we now propose that a functional CGRP or adrenomedullin receptor consists of at least three proteins: the receptor (CRLR), the chaperone protein (RAMP), and RCP that couples the receptor to the cellular signal transduction pathway.

  18. Accessory NUMM (NDUFS6) subunit harbors a Zn-binding site and is essential for biogenesis of mitochondrial complex I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmita, Katarzyna; Wirth, Christophe; Warnau, Judith; Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Hunte, Carola; Hummer, Gerhard; Kaila, Ville R. I.; Zwicker, Klaus; Brandt, Ulrich; Zickermann, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (respiratory complex I) comprises more than 40 polypeptides and contains eight canonical FeS clusters. The integration of subunits and insertion of cofactors into the nascent complex is a complicated multistep process that is aided by assembly factors. We show that the accessory NUMM subunit of complex I (human NDUFS6) harbors a Zn-binding site and resolve its position by X-ray crystallography. Chromosomal deletion of the NUMM gene or mutation of Zn-binding residues blocked a late step of complex I assembly. An accumulating assembly intermediate lacked accessory subunit N7BM (NDUFA12), whereas a paralog of this subunit, the assembly factor N7BML (NDUFAF2), was found firmly bound instead. EPR spectroscopic analysis and metal content determination after chromatographic purification of the assembly intermediate showed that NUMM is required for insertion or stabilization of FeS cluster N4. PMID:25902503

  19. [Oxidative metabolism of main and accessory olfactory bulbs, limpic system and hypothalamus during the estral cycle of the rat (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Criado, J E

    1979-06-01

    The in vitro oxidative metabolism of hypothalamus, olfactory and limbic systems from female rats in the estrous cycle have been measured. The accessory olfactory bulb becomes most active during diestrous when the hypothalamus reaches its lowest values.

  20. Accessory parotid gland with ectopic fistulous duct--diagnosis by ultrasonography, digital fistulography, digital sialography and CT fistulography. A case report and review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chaitanya Dattatray; Mittal, Shireesh Kumar; Katiyar, Vikas; Pathak, Ojaswi; Sood, Shashank

    2011-01-01

    Accessory parotid glands are a common clinical occurrence and usually drain into the main Stenson's duct by small ductules and thereby, into the buccal cavity. Presence of an accessory parotid gland with an ectopic fistulous duct is a rare occurrence. We present the imaging findings in a case of right accessory parotid gland with ectopic fistulous duct associated with bilateral pre-aural appendages. Diagnostic workup was done by ultrasonography, sono-fistulography, contrast digital fistulography, contrast digital sialography and computed tomography fistulography. Imaging showed a right accessory parotid gland lying anterior to and separate from the main parotid gland draining via an ectopic fistulous duct opening over the right cheek. The child was managed surgically by internalisation of the duct to open into the buccal mucosa and excision of pre-aural appendages.

  1. Chlorophyll accessory pigments collected from NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in North Pacific Ocean from 2008-03-01 to 2011-04-01 (NCEI Accession 0129395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the chlorophyll accessory pigments measured from discrete depth water samples collected in CTD-mounted 10 liter Niskin bottles as part of NOAA...

  2. Chlorophyll accessory pigments collected from OSCAR ELTON SETTE in North Pacific Ocean from 2008-03-01 to 2011-04-01 (NODC Accession 0129395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the chlorophyll accessory pigments measured from discrete depth water samples collected in CTD-mounted 10 liter Niskin bottles as part of NOAA...

  3. Front-Loaded Linezolid Regimens Result in Increased Killing and Suppression of the Accessory Gene Regulator System of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuji, Brian T.; Brown, Tanya; Parasrampuria, Ridhi; Daniel A Brazeau; Forrest, Alan; Kelchlin, Pamela A.; Holden, Patricia N.; Peloquin, Charles A.; Hanna, Debra; Bulitta, Jurgen B.

    2012-01-01

    Front loading is a strategy used to optimize the pharmacodynamic profile of an antibiotic through the administration of high doses early in therapy for a short duration. Our aims were to evaluate the impact of front loading of linezolid regimens on bacterial killing and suppression of resistance and on RNAIII, the effector molecule of the accessory gene regulator system (encoded by agr) in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Time-killing experiments over 48 h were utilized for...

  4. Homology of the Fifth Epibranchial and Accessory Elements of the Ceratobranchials among Gnathostomes: Insights from the Development of Ostariophysans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Murilo; Bockmann, Flávio Alicino; de Carvalho, Marcelo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Epibranchials are among the main dorsal elements of the gill basket in jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Among extant fishes, chondrichthyans most resemble the putative ancestral condition as all branchial arches possess every serially homologous piece. In osteichthyans, a primitive rod-like epibranchial 5, articulated to ceratobranchial 5, is absent. Instead, epibranchial 5 of many actinopterygians is here identified as an accessory element attached to ceratobranchial 4. Differences in shape and attachment of epibranchial 5 in chondrichthyans and actinopterygians raised suspicions about their homology, prompting us to conduct a detailed study of the morphology and development of the branchial basket of three ostariophysans (Prochilodus argenteus, Characiformes; Lophiosilurus alexandri and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Siluriformes). Results were interpreted within a phylogenetic context of major gnathostome lineages. Developmental series strongly suggest that the so-called epibranchial 5 of actinopterygians does not belong to the epal series because it shares the same chondroblastic layer with ceratobranchial 4 and its ontogenetic emergence is considerably late. This neomorphic structure is called accessory element of ceratobranchial 4. Its distribution among gnathostomes indicates it is a teleost synapomorphy, occurring homoplastically in Polypteriformes, whereas the loss of the true epibranchial 5 is an osteichthyan synapomorphy. The origin of the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 appears to have occurred twice in osteichthyans, but it may have a single origin; in this case, the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 would represent a remnant of a series of elements distally attached to ceratobranchials 1–4, a condition totally or partially retained in basal actinopterygians. Situations wherein a structure is lost while a similar neomorphic element is present may lead to erroneous homology assessments; these can be avoided by detailed morphological and

  5. Anatomical variations of the lateral nasal wall: The secondary and accessory middle turbinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shazly, A E; Poirrier, Anne-Lise; Cabay, J; Lefebvre, P P

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the current anatomical and clinical study was to audit our cases of patients who presented with secondary and/or accessory middle turbinates during a two-year period. We investigated the incidence and the clinical impact of these variations. Twenty-eight patients, 19 males and 9 females with a mean age of 41.5 years, representing different ethnic origins, were diagnosed with double middle turbinates based on endoscopic examination. Of those, 92.8% had a main symptom of refractory frontal headache. A secondary nasal symptom was sensation of blocked nose. Patients who underwent endoscopic surgery (n = 13) for reduction of the extra turbinate, reported significant symptom scores improvement (P < 0.0001) of frontal headache and blocked nose, from means of 9.07 ± 0.26 and 8.57 ± 1.39 to 1 ± 0.31, and 1.42 ± 0.35, respectively. Our results indicate that double middle turbinates may be encountered in rhinology practice (2%). Clinically they may present with refractory headache and blocked nose. Endoscopic surgical approach seems to be an effective way of improving the symptoms.

  6. Use of botulinum toxin type A in symptomatic accessory soleus muscle: first five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isner-Horobeti, M-E; Muff, G; Lonsdorfer-Wolf, E; Deffinis, C; Masat, J; Favret, F; Dufour, S P; Lecocq, J

    2016-11-01

    Symptomatic accessory soleus muscle (ASM) can cause exercise-induced leg pain due to local nerve/vascular compression, muscle spasm, or local compartment syndrome. As intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) can reduce muscle tone and mass, we investigated whether local BTX-A injections relieve the pain associated with symptomatic ASM. We describe five patients presenting peri/retromalleolar exertional pain and a contractile muscle mass in the painful region. Com-pression neuropathy was ruled out by electromyo-graphic analysis of the lower limb muscles. Doppler ultrasonography was normal, excluding a local vascular compression. ASM was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. After a treadmill stress test, abnormal intramuscular pressure values in the ASM, confirmed the diagnosis of compartment syndrome only in one patient. All five patients received BTX-A injections in two points of the ASM. The treatment efficacy was evaluated based on the disappearance of exercise-induced pain and the resumption of normal physical and sports activities. After BTX-A injection, exertional pain disappeared and all five patients resumed their normal level of physical and sports performances. Neither side effects nor motor deficits were observed. BTX-A is well tolerated in patients with ASM and could be used as a new conservative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of symptomatic ASM before surgery.

  7. Ammonium assimilation: An important accessory during aerobic denitrification of Pseudomonas stutzeri T13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yilu; Feng, Liang; Li, Ang; Zhang, Xuening; Yang, Jixian; Ma, Fang

    2017-03-12

    The present study investigated effect of ammonium utilization on aerobic denitrification by Pseudomonas stutzeri T13. Per nitrogen balance calculation, all consumed ammonium was utilized as nitrogen source for cell propagation by assimilation rather than heterotrophic nitrification. Total organic carbon (TOC) and ammonium were necessary substrates to sustain heterotrophic propagation of P. stutzeri T13 at optimum proportion equal to seven. Under aerobic condition, nitrate was utilized as substitute nitrogen source when ammonium was completely exhausted. Biomass production effectively increased with increasing initial ammonium from 0mg/L to 100mg/L. Owing to enlarged biomass, average nitrate reduction rate increased from 7.36mgL(-1)h(-1) to 11.95mgL(-1)h(-1). Such process also successfully reduced nitrite accumulation from 121.8mg/L to 66.16mg/L during aerobic denitrification. As important accessory during aerobic denitrification, ammonium assimilation efficiently doubled total nitrogen (TN) removal from 54.97mg/L (no ammonium provided) to 113.1mg/L (100mg/L ammonium involved).

  8. Accessory Gene Regulator-1 Locus Is Essential for Virulence and Pathogenesis of Clostridium difficile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Darkoh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is responsible for most of the definable cases of antibiotic- and hospital-associated diarrhea worldwide and is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in older patients. C. difficile, a multidrug-resistant anaerobic pathogen, causes disease by producing toxins A and B, which are controlled by an accessory gene regulator (Agr quorum signaling system. Some C. difficile strains encode two Agr loci in their genomes, designated agr1 and agr2. The agr1 locus is present in all of the C. difficile strains sequenced to date, whereas the agr2 locus is present in a few strains. The functional roles of agr1 and agr2 in C. difficile toxin regulation and pathogenesis were unknown until now. Using allelic exchange, we deleted components of both agr loci and examined the mutants for toxin production and virulence. The results showed that the agr1 mutant cannot produce toxins A and B; toxin production can be restored by complementation with wild-type agr1. Furthermore, the agr1 mutant is able to colonize but unable to cause disease in a murine CDI model. These findings have profound implications for CDI treatment because we have uncovered a promising therapeutic target for the development of nonantibiotic drugs to treat this life-threatening emerging pathogen by targeting the toxins directly responsible for disease.

  9. Accessory atlantoaxial ligament avulsion fracture of the axis: Are there any clinical implications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Niknejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to the craniocervical support structures are frequently observed in neurotrauma cases. Stability of this region is of vital importance. Literature has mainly focused on three major ligaments of the craniocervical junction: The tectorial membrane, the transverse ligament, and the alar ligaments. However, the accessory atlantoaxial ligament (ALL also seems to be involved in craniocervical stability as shown in cadaveric specimens. Still, the biomechanical importance of this structure needs to be determined, especially in trauma settings. Here, we describe a case of isolated traumatic injury to this structure and discuss the clinical outcome. A 64 year old polytrauma patient with a remarkable avulsion fracture at the site of the insertion of the ALL was admitted to our center. We evaluated the patient both clinical and radiological at admission, after 3 months and after 1 year. We clinically assessed the upper cervical rotational stability using the cervical flexion rotation test. We observed no rotational instability or any other clinical repercussions at the long term after an isolated ALL injury. This case shows that isolated traumatic damage to the ALL is possible. Unilateral damage to the ALL probably does not cause rotational instability of the craniocervical junction. In case a similar avulsion fracture is observed, we recommend performing a magnetic resonance imaging of the craniovertebral region to assess for any ligamentous lesions.

  10. A Proposed Area for Study of Accessory Section and Point of Terrestrial Permian-Triassic Boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    After the establishment of the global stratotype section and point (GSSP) of the PermianTriassic boundary (PTB), the definition of the accessory section and point (ASP) of the terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary (TPTB) is now on the agenda. However, all good TPTB sections so far known have the following shortcomings: (1) the exact TPTB horizon is difficult to define paleontologically with high-resolution, and (2) accurate correlation between marine and terrestrial PTBs is hard to attain. In order to enhance the understanding of the nature of the global life crisis in both the marine and terrestrial environments across the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition, these shortcomings need to be addressed. In western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan, Southwest China, some fossiliferous PTB sections which include marine, paralic and terrestrial are well-developed, allowing bed-to-bed correlation of the PTB sequences.Fortunately, the marine PTB sequence in this area is almost the same as found at the Meishan Section,where the GSSP of the PTB is located, which may provide a reliable auxiliary marker for high-resolution demarcation of the TPTB. These features found in western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan make this area a good place to study the ASP of the TPTB, so we propose to study the ASP of the TPTB in this area.

  11. Epithelioid Myoepithelioma of the Accessory Parotid Gland: Pathological and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyoshi Iguchi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumors of the accessory parotid gland (APG are rare, and pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common benign APG tumor subtype. Myoepithelioma of the APG is much rarer than PA, and to date, only 5 cases have been sporadically reported in the English literature. We describe the clinicopathological and MRI findings of an epithelioid myoepithelioma of the APG that was treated in our hospital. The patient's only clinical symptom was a slow-growing and painless mid-cheek mass. The tumor was suspected to be PA before surgery based on the following MRI findings: (1 a well-circumscribed and lobulated contour, (2 isointensity and hyperintensity relative to the muscle on T1- and T2-weighted images (WIs, respectively, (3 good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-WIs, (4 peripheral hypointensity on T2-WIs, and (5 a gradual time-signal intensity curve enhancement pattern on gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI. The tumor was completely resected via a standard parotidectomy approach, and the postoperative pathological examination of the tumor, including immunohistochemistry, confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid myoepithelioma. As it is hardly possible to distinguish myoepithelioma from PA and low-grade malignant tumors preoperatively, a pathological examination using frozen sections is helpful for surgical strategy-related decisions.

  12. Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita A Condorelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2; specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m. age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34-47 years were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients. The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05; moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05. Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05 in group A compared with group B.

  13. Male accessory gland substances from Aedes albopictus affect the locomotor activity of Aedes aegypti females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Codeço, Claudia Torres; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lounibos, Leon Philip

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is one of the world’s most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus . These two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. The objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti virgin females injected with male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates to infer the physiological and behavioural responses to interspecific mating. After seven days of exposure, 3.3-16% of Ae. aegypti females mated with Ae. albopictus males. Virgin Ae. aegypti females injected with conspecific and heterospecific MAGs showed a general decrease in locomotor activity compared to controls and were refractory to mating with conspecific males. The reduction in diurnal locomotor activity induced by injections of conspecific or heterospecific MAGs is consistent with regulation of female reproductive activities by male substances, which are capable of sterilising female Ae. aegypti through satyrisation by Ae. albopictus . PMID:24473799

  14. Prolonged Intracellular Na+ Dynamics Govern Electrical Activity in Accessory Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaph Zylbertal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent activity has been reported in many brain areas and is hypothesized to mediate working memory and emotional brain states and to rely upon network or biophysical feedback. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which persistent neuronal activity can be generated without feedback, relying instead on the slow removal of Na+ from neurons following bursts of activity. We show that mitral cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, which plays a major role in mammalian social behavior, may respond to a brief sensory stimulation with persistent firing. By combining electrical recordings, Ca2+ and Na+ imaging, and realistic computational modeling, we explored the mechanisms underlying the persistent activity in AOB mitral cells. We found that the exceptionally slow inward current that underlies this activity is governed by prolonged dynamics of intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i, which affects neuronal electrical activity via several pathways. Specifically, elevated dendritic [Na+]i reverses the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger activity, thus modifying the [Ca2+]i set-point. This process, which relies on ubiquitous membrane mechanisms, is likely to play a role in other neuronal types in various brain regions.

  15. Does breathing type influence electromyographic activity of obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, M F; Valenzuela, S; Miralles, R; Portus, C; Santander, H; Fuentes, A D; Celhay, I

    2014-11-01

    Craniomandibular electromyographic (EMG) studies frequently include several parameters, e.g. resting, chewing and tooth-clenching. EMG activity during these parameters has been recorded in the elevator muscles, but little is known about the respiratory muscles. The aim of this study was to compare EMG activity in obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles between subjects with different breathing types. Forty male subjects were classified according to their breathing type into two groups of 20 each: costo-diaphragmatic breathing type and upper costal breathing type. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm, external intercostal and latissimus dorsi muscles. EMG activity was recorded during the following tasks: (i) normal quiet breathing, (ii) maximal voluntary clenching in intercuspal position, (iii) natural rate chewing until swallowing threshold, (iv) short-time chewing. Diaphragm EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal breathing type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in all tasks (P breathing type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in tasks 3 and 4 (P breathing types in the tasks studied (P > 0·05). The significantly higher EMG activity observed in subjects with upper costal breathing than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type suggests that there could be differences in motor unit recruitment strategies depending on the breathing type. This may be an expression of the adaptive capability of muscle chains in subjects who clinically have a different thoraco-abdominal expansion during inspiration at rest.

  16. Expanding what is known of the anatomy of the spinal accessory nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Carlos E; Tubbs, R Shane; Spinner, Robert J

    2015-05-01

    The spinal accessory nerve (SAN) is classically considered a motor nerve innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. Its anatomical relevance derives from the high prevalence of lesions following head and neck surgeries. As expected, trapezius weakness and atrophy are the most common findings; however, it is also commonly accompanied by pain and other sensory deficits that have no clear explanation, suggesting other functions. We have recently seen two patients presenting with an unrecognized sign, that is, subclavicular/pectoral asymmetry secondary to the SAN lesion. Retrospectively, we reviewed other patients with similar findings in our case series and in the literature. We discuss the anatomical connections of the SAN with the superficial cervical plexus and propose an explanation for this finding. Of the 41 patients in our series, we identified this sign in all who had preoperative photographs. New insights on the anatomy and connections of the SAN may account for the diversity of symptoms and signs presented following an operative intervention as well as the variability of its severity.

  17. Stenosing Tenosynovitis of the Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Associated with the Plantar Capsular Accessory Ossicle at the Interphalangeal Joint of the Great Toe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Ho Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus tendon associated with the plantar capsular accessory ossicle at the interphalangeal joint of the great toe, which was confirmed by intraoperative observation and was successfully treated with surgical resection of the ossicle. As the plantar capsular accessory ossicle was not visible radiographically due to the lack of ossification, ultrasonography was helpful for diagnosing this disorder.

  18. Stenosing Tenosynovitis of the Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Associated with the Plantar Capsular Accessory Ossicle at the Interphalangeal Joint of the Great Toe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Song Ho; Naito, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    This report presents a case of stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus tendon associated with the plantar capsular accessory ossicle at the interphalangeal joint of the great toe, which was confirmed by intraoperative observation and was successfully treated with surgical resection of the ossicle. As the plantar capsular accessory ossicle was not visible radiographically due to the lack of ossification, ultrasonography was helpful for diagnosing this disorder. PMID:28255483

  19. Accessory minerals and subduction zone metasomatism: a geochemical comparison of two mélanges (Washington and California, U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Sorena S.; Grossman, Jeffrey N.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of a subducted slab or subducted sediment to contribute many incompatible trace elements to arc source regions may depend on the stabilities of accessory minerals within these rocks, which can only be studied indirectly. In contrast, the role of accessory minerals in lower-T and -P metasomatic processes within paleo-subduction zones can be studied directly in subduction-zone metamorphic terranes.

  20. Presence of accessory left atrial appendage/diverticula in a population with atrial fibrillation compared with those in sinus rhythm: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupis, John; Crossett, Marcus; Scneider-Kolsky, Michal; Nandurkar, Dee

    2012-02-01

    Accessory left atrial appendages and atrial diverticula have an incidence of 10-27%. Their association with atrial fibrillation needs to be confirmed. This study determined the prevalence, number, size, location and morphology of accessory left atrial appendages/atrial diverticula in patients with atrial fibrillation compared with those in sinus rhythm. A retrospective analysis of 47 consecutive patients with atrial fibrillation who underwent 320 multidetector Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) was performed. A random group of 47 CCTA patients with sinus rhythm formed the control group. The presence, number, size, location and morphology of accessory left atrial appendages and atrial diverticula in each group were analysed. Twenty one patients had a total of 25 accessory left atrial appendages and atrial diverticula in the atrial fibrillation group and 22 patients had a total of 24 accessory left atrial appendages and atrial diverticula in the sinus rhythm group. Twenty-one atrial diverticula were identified in 19 patients in the atrial fibrillation group and 19 atrial diverticula in 17 patients in the sinus rhythm group. The mean length and width of accessory left atrial appendage was 6.9 and 4.7 mm, respectively in the atrial fibrillation group and 12 and 4.6 mm, respectively, in the sinus rhythm group, P = ns (not significant). The mean length and width of atrial diverticulum was 4.7 and 3.6 mm, respectively in the atrial fibrillation group and 6.2 and 5 mm, respectively in the sinus rhythm group (P = ns). Eighty-four % and 96% of the accessory left atrial appendages/atrial diverticula in the atrial fibrillation and sinus rhythm groups were located along the right anterosuperior left atrial wall. Accessory left atrial appendages and atrial diverticula are common structures with similar prevalence in patients with atrial fibrillation and sinus rhythm.

  1. Introduction of several positioning devices for accessory heads coupling%介绍几种附件头联结盘定位装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 韩铁柱

    2012-01-01

    Several kinds of positioning devices for accessory heads coupling are briefly introduced in this paper. By means of the positioning device, accurate positioning of coupling can be carried out, thereupon auto changing of accessory heads is performed.%简要介绍了几种附件头联结盘的定位装置,通过定位装置可将联结盘准确定位,从而实现附件头的自动更换.

  2. Medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy with posterior tibial tendon reconstruction for the flexible flatfoot with symptomatic accessory navicular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hong-Hui; Tang, Kang-Lai; Lu, Wei-Zhong; Xu, Jian-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the clinical outcomes after medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy with reconstruction of the posterior tibial tendon insertion on the navicular, in patients with flexible flatfoot with accessory navicular symptoms. From December 2008 to July 2011, 16 patients (21 feet) with a flexible flatfoot, symptomatic accessory navicular, and obvious heel valgus underwent medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy and reconstruction with posterior tibial tendon insertion on the navicular bone. The patients were evaluated preoperatively, 6 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, and every 6 months thereafter. The clinical examination was undertaken using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle and midfoot scores. The radiologic assessments included the arch height, calcaneus inclination angle, talocalcaneal angle, and talar first metatarsal angle on the lateral weightbearing radiograph. The talocalcaneal angle and talar first metatarsal angle was assessed on the anteroposterior view of the weightbearing foot. Heel valgus alignment was assessed on the axial hindfoot radiographs. The mean follow-up duration was 28.5 months (range 18 to 48). All patients were satisfied with the clinical results and were pain free 6 months postoperatively. No cases of wound infection or nerve injury developed. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score improved from 53.3 ± 6.5 to 90.8 ± 1.4 at the last follow-up visit (p flatfoot with symptomatic accessory navicular, associated with excellent clinical outcomes and correction of the deformity.

  3. Subject-Specific Effect of Metallic Body Accessories on Path Loss of Dynamic on-Body Propagation Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, H A; Abdulmalek, M; Soh, P J; Rani, K A; Hisham, N; Vandenbosch, G A E

    2016-07-20

    This paper presents the investigation of path loss variation for subject-specific on-body radio propagation channels, considering the effect of metallic spectacles and loop like metallic accessories. Adding metallic items may affect the operability of Body Centric Wireless Communications (BCWC). Measurements were carried out in an RF-shielded room lined with microwave absorbing sheets for strategically placed bodyworn antennas covering the upper front torso and the lower limbs. The path loss of the on-body radio channel was characterized explicitly taking into account the body size of the subjects. For metallic loop-like accessories, the results indicate that for underweight subjects, there was a slightly higher influence, up to 2%, compared to normal and overweight subjects. Our findings indicate that a noticeable effect exists on on-body channels for dynamic movements where the metallic watch acts as a local scatterer that affects the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signal path between transmitter and receiver for underweight subjects in comparison to normal and overweight subjects. The path loss decreases when the receiving terminal was positioned very close to the metallic item. If a loop-like metallic accessory is not appropriately considered when designing the radio channel on a subject, the reliability of the body-centric wireless system may degrade.

  4. Clinical results of a new strategy (modified CHIVA) for surgical treatment of anterior accessory great saphenous varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Fernández, Nicolás; Linares-Palomino, Jose Patricio; López-Espada, Cristina; Martínez-Gámez, Francisco Javier; Ros-Díe, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Traditionally, anterior accessory great saphenous vein insufficiency was managed by crossectomy and resection of varicose veins. The aim of this paper is to show the safety and efficacy of a new therapeutic strategy for anterior accessory great saphenous varicose veins. This non-randomised prospective study included 65 patients with varicose veins from the anterior accessory great saphenous vein. The novelty of the technique is to avoid the great saphenous vein crossectomy and perform just flebectomy of the visible veins. Venous duplex studies were performed preoperatively, a month and a year postoperatively. The clinical assessment was done by the Fligelstone scale. The baseline CEAP clinical classification was: 58% C2, 26% C3 and 15% C4-6. The new strategy was applied to all cases. 3 haematomas, 7 cases of asymptomatic partial anterior saphenous thrombosis. Reduction of the initial average diameter was from 6.4 mm anterior saphenous to 3.4 mm by one year (p <0.001). At twelve months a forward flow is maintained in 82% of cases. Recurrence of varicose veins was 8%. All patients improved their clinical status based on the Fligelstone scale. Cases with saphenous diameter bigger than 7.5 mm and obesity were identified as predictors of worse clinical and hemodynamic outcome. This modified surgical strategy for anterior saphenous varicose veins results in better clinical outcomes at one year postoperatively. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Spinal cord bypass surgery with intercostal and spinal accessory nerves: an anatomical feasibility study in human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Raqeeb M; Malone, Hani R; Bauknight, Martin W; Kellner, Michael A; Ogden, Alfred T; Martin, John H; Tanji, Kurenai; Winfree, Christopher J

    2012-02-01

    Despite extensive study, no meaningful progress has been made in encouraging healing and recovery across the site of spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans. Spinal cord bypass surgery is an unconventional strategy in which intact peripheral nerves rostral to the level of injury are transferred into the spinal cord below the injury. This report details the feasibility of using spinal accessory nerves to bypass cervical SCI and intercostal nerves to bypass thoracolumbar SCI in human cadavers. Twenty-three human cadavers underwent cervical and/or lumbar laminectomy and dural opening to expose the cervical cord and/or conus medullaris. Spinal accessory nerves were harvested from the Erb point to the origin of the nerve's first major branch into the trapezius. Intercostal nerves from the T6-12 levels were dissected from the lateral border of paraspinal muscles to the posterior axillary line. The distal ends of dissected nerves were then transferred medially and sequentially inserted 4 mm deep into the ipsilateral cervical cord (spinal accessory nerve) or conus medullaris (intercostals). The length of each transferred nerve was measured, and representative distal and proximal cross-sections were preserved for axonal counting. Spinal accessory nerves were consistently of sufficient length to be transferred to caudal cervical spinal cord levels (C4-8). Similarly, intercostal nerves (from T-7 to T-12) were of sufficient length to be transferred in a tension-free manner to the conus medullaris. Spinal accessory data revealed an average harvested nerve length of 15.85 cm with the average length needed to reach C4-8 of 4.7, 5.9, 6.5, 7.1, and 7.8 cm. The average length of available intercostal nerve from each thoracic level compared with the average length required to reach the conus medullaris in a tension-free manner was determined to be as follows (available, required in cm): T-7 (18.0, 14.5), T-8 (18.7, 11.7), T-9 (18.8, 9.0), T-10 (19.6, 7.0), T-11 (18.8, 4.6), and T-12 (15

  6. From Spain to the Balkans: Textile Torah Scroll Accessories in the Sephardi Communities of the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv, Bracha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of three accessories of the Sephardic Torah scroll: the Torah binder–a narrow and long strip which fastened both parts of the scroll; the Torah wrapper–which protects the parchment; and the Torah mantle–the exterior covering of the Torah scroll. These textile accessories originate in the Talmudic mapppah/ miṭpaḥat, a square piece of fabric which, in the ancient period, was used to wrap the Torah scroll. This object turned out to be the origin of the European means of protecting and adorning the Torah scroll.
    While in Ashkenazi communities only the Binder and the Mantle are customary, the uniqueness of the Sephardi tradition is an additional accessory–the Wrapper. The Wrapper, a fabric equal in height to that of the parchment, is wound around the staves, and is customary to this very day in the Sephardic Diaspora.
    Although the Binder and the Mantle are common to all European and Sephardi communities, in the latter these ceremonial objects have unique visual features. One of them is the use of precious fabrics, mainly brocades and gold embroidered fabrics. Such a magnificent background did not encourage the development of dedicatory inscriptions, on the one hand, but on the other it did encourage the recycling of precious textiles that had previously served in other capacities in daily life. The article is based on the documentation of ceremonial objects from various collections as well as on Rabbinic literature and field research in Sephardi synagogues in Israel and abroad.

    Estudio del desarrollo de tres ornamentos del séfer Torá o rollo de la Ley detradición sefardí: la faja, banda estrecha y alargada que sujeta el rollo de la Ley dispuestoen torno a sus ‘amudim; el cendal, lienzo protector que cubre la cara posterior del perggamino;y la capa, manto exterior del séfer Torá. Estos accesorios textiles tienen su origenen la mappá/miṭpáḥat talm

  7. Keratinocytes function as accessory cells for presentation of endogenous antigen expressed in the epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brian S; Miyagawa, Fumi; Cho, Young-Hun; Bennett, Clare L; Clausen, Björn E; Katz, Stephen I

    2009-12-01

    The precise contribution(s) of skin dendritic cells (DCs) to immune responses in the skin has not been well delineated. We developed an intradermal (i.d.) injection model in which CD8+ T (OT-I) cells that express ovalbumin (OVA) peptide-specific TCRs (Valpha2/Vbeta5) are delivered directly to the dermis of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing OVA in the epidermis. After i.d. injection, these mice reliably develop skin graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by day 7. To determine the relative contribution of Langerhans cells (LCs) to the ensuing GVHD-like reaction, we generated K14-OVA x Langerin-diphtheria-toxin-receptor (Langerin-DTR) Tg mice to allow conditional ablation of LCs in the epidermis. To delineate the role of dermal DCs (dDCs) in the reaction, we also generated K14-OVA Tg chimeras using beta(2)-microglobulin-deficient (beta(2)m) congenic donor bone marrow cells. Dermal DCs in these mice cannot present OVA to autoreactive T cells (OT-I cells), whereas the LCs are antigen presentation-competent. Unexpectedly, OT-I cell injection into diphtheria toxin (DT)-treated beta(2)m --> K14-OVA x Langerin-DTR Tg mice resulted in skin GVHD. Thus, in vivo, both LC and dDC appear to be dispensable for the induction of keratinocyte-directed, CD8-mediated effector immune responses. Furthermore and surprisingly, OVA-expressing epidermal cells depleted of LCs that could not initiate allogeneic epidermal lymphocyte reactions activated naive OT-I cells in vitro. These results indicate that keratinocytes may function as accessory cells competent to prime naive skin-reactive T cells.JID JOURNAL CLUB ARTICLE: For questions, answers, and open discussion about this article, please go to http://network.nature.com/group/jidclub.

  8. A Practical ECG Criterion to Unmask Left Accessory AV Connections in Patients With Subtle Preexcitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J Jenkins; Shah, Jignesh; Charnigo, Richard; Tackett, Andrea; Darrat, Yousef H; Bailey, Alison; Delisle, Brian; Kakavand, Bahram; DI Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Morales, Gustavo; Elayi, Claude S

    2015-05-20

    Accessory AV-connections capable of antegrade conduction need to be recognized because of the potential for life-threatening arrhythmias. However, the preexcited ECG pattern may be subtle, especially among left-sided AV-connections. We explored whether additional ECG criteria might help identify left-sided AV-connections. We analyzed 156 patients who underwent an electrophysiology study (EPS) and ablation for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias (PSVT). Patients were divided into 2 groups: those with left-sided AV-connections (Group 1) and all other PSVT (Group 2). Various ECG parameters were compared before and after ablation in both groups. The EPS identified left-sided AV-connections among 43 patients (Group 1) and excluded it among 113 (Group 2). Baseline ECG in Group 1 demonstrated obvious preexcitation among 24/43 patients (55.8%), the remaining 19/43 missing obvious preexcitation. R/S ratio > 0.5 in V1 was noted in 38/43 (88.4%) patients in Group 1 before ablation (median 1.00; IQR 0.58-2.20), including 16/19 (84.2%) patients lacking obvious left-sided AVconnections. Conversely, only 10/113 (8.8%) patients in Group 2 had R/S ratios in V1 ≥ 0.5 (0.20; 0.10-0.31), P AV-connections (sensitivity 93.0%). The negative predictive value of this combined criterion was 103/106 (97.2%). In symptomatic patients, combining the R/S ratio (≥ 0.5) in lead V1 with the classic preexcitation pattern on ECG markedly improved the sensitivity to diagnose left-sided AV-connections. This ratio may be particularly useful among patients lacking obvious preexcitation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Neuroanatomy of the optic, trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J

    1981-01-01

    1. The intracranial and intraorbital course of the optic nerve is described concisely, the intracanicular one in full details. Apart from the wide and small sections of the optic canal, its axis opposite to the cranial planes, the coating of the canal and the adjacency to the paranasal sinuses and arteries are exactly described. 2. At the trigeminal nerve the trigeminal ganglion, its roots and also the mandibular nerve have great importance in the practical medicine considering thermo-coagulation or surgery of the trigeminal nerve. This segments and also the adjacency of the fifth nerve to the internal carotid artery and subarachinoid brain vessels are exactly, the nuclei areas and central tracts are briefly explained. 3. The nuclei of the facial nerve the intracerebral and intracisternal course and its development, the facial canal and its narrow passes are described. Also the position of the internal acoustic pore in the skull, the dimensions of the internal acoustic meatus and the relations between nerves and vessels are explained. In addition to the geniculate ganglion and the chorda tympani the communications of the facial nerve inside the temporal bone, the tympanic intumescentia (ganglion) and the nervus intermedius, also the petrosal nerves are included in the description. The sheaths of the segments of the seventh cranial nerve and also the fasciculation are exactly, the somatotopic organization is briefly described. 4. The extracranial course of the glossopharyngeal nerve is briefly, its intracranial sections are included exactly in the investigation. 5. The nuclei of the vagus nerve and the intra- und extracranial course are described. 6. The accessory nerve, its nucleus and the intra- and extracranial course are concisely explained. 7. The hypoglossal nerve, its nucleus, the emergence of the fibres and also the relations of nerves and vessels in the posterior cranial fossa are described. The hypoglossal canal and also the extracranial course are

  10. Versatile roles of V-ATPases accessory subunit Ac45 in osteoclast formation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Qin

    Full Text Available Vacuolar-type H(+-ATPases (V-ATPases are macromolecular proton pumps that acidify intracellular cargos and deliver protons across the plasma membrane of a variety of specialized cells, including bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Extracellular acidification is crucial for osteoclastic bone resorption, a process that initiates the dissolution of mineralized bone matrix. While the importance of V-ATPases in osteoclastic resorptive function is well-defined, whether V-ATPases facilitate additional aspects of osteoclast function and/or formation remains largely obscure. Here we report that the V-ATPase accessory subunit Ac45 participates in both osteoclast formation and function. Using a siRNA-based approach, we show that targeted suppression of Ac45 impairs intracellular acidification and endocytosis, both are prerequisite for osteoclastic bone resorptive function in vitro. Interestingly, we find that knockdown of Ac45 also attenuates osteoclastogenesis owing to a reduced fusion capacity of osteoclastic precursor cells. Finally, in an effort to gain more detailed insights into the functional role of Ac45 in osteoclasts, we attempted to generate osteoclast-specific Ac45 conditional knockout mice using a Cathepsin K-Cre-LoxP system. Surprisingly, however, insertion of the neomycin cassette in the Ac45-Flox(Neo mice resulted in marked disturbances in CNS development and ensuing embryonic lethality thus precluding functional assessment of Ac45 in osteoclasts and peripheral bone tissues. Based on these unexpected findings we propose that, in addition to its canonical function in V-ATPase-mediated acidification, Ac45 plays versatile roles during osteoclast formation and function.

  11. Extracting Behaviorally Relevant Traits from Natural Stimuli: Benefits of Combinatorial Representations at the Accessory Olfactory Bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Kahan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For many animals, chemosensation is essential for guiding social behavior. However, because multiple factors can modulate levels of individual chemical cues, deriving information about other individuals via natural chemical stimuli involves considerable challenges. How social information is extracted despite these sources of variability is poorly understood. The vomeronasal system provides an excellent opportunity to study this topic due to its role in detecting socially relevant traits. Here, we focus on two such traits: a female mouse's strain and reproductive state. In particular, we measure stimulus-induced neuronal activity in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB in response to various dilutions of urine, vaginal secretions, and saliva, from estrus and non-estrus female mice from two different strains. We first show that all tested secretions provide information about a female's receptivity and genotype. Next, we investigate how these traits can be decoded from neuronal activity despite multiple sources of variability. We show that individual neurons are limited in their capacity to allow trait classification across multiple sources of variability. However, simple linear classifiers sampling neuronal activity from small neuronal ensembles can provide a substantial improvement over that attained with individual units. Furthermore, we show that some traits are more efficiently detected than others, and that particular secretions may be optimized for conveying information about specific traits. Across all tested stimulus sources, discrimination between strains is more accurate than discrimination of receptivity, and detection of receptivity is more accurate with vaginal secretions than with urine. Our findings highlight the challenges of chemosensory processing of natural stimuli, and suggest that downstream readout stages decode multiple behaviorally relevant traits by sampling information from distinct but overlapping populations of AOB neurons.

  12. Acquired premature ejaculation and male accessory gland infection: relevance of ultrasound examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Favilla, Vincenzo; Morgia, Giuseppe; Calogero, Aldo E

    2016-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a high frequency of premature ejaculation (PE) among patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound (US) features of patients with MAGI and acquired premature ejaculation (APE) associated (MAGI-APEpos). US evaluation of 50 MAGI-APEpos patients compared to 50 patients with MAGI without PE (MAGI-PEneg) which represent the control group. The diagnosis of APE was made through the evaluation of Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and confirmed with the questionnaire PEDT (Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool). The main outcome measure was represented by the frequency of US criteria suggestive of P (prostatitis), V (vesiculitis), and E (epididymitis) in MAGI-APEpos and MAGI-PEneg patients. MAGI-APEpos patients showed a total number of US criteria significantly higher compared to MAGI-PEneg patients. MAGI-APEpos showed a higher frequency of US criteria of V and E (complicated forms of MAGI). Finally, in MAGI-APEpos group, it was found a positive relationship between the anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the caudal tract of the epididymis and the APD of the seminal vesicles, as well as between both diameters and the PEDT score. MAGI-APEpos patients have a peculiar US characterization compared to MAGI-PEneg patients. According to these results, US evaluation of the epididymal and of the prostato vesicular tract should be considered in the practical clinical approach of patients with MAGI and APE. In particular, it could be a support for a possible pathophysiological interpretation of this clinical problem in these patients.

  13. Acquired premature ejaculation and male accessory gland infection: relevance of ultrasound examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro La Vignera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated a high frequency of premature ejaculation (PE among patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound (US features of patients with MAGI and acquired premature ejaculation (APE associated (MAGI-APEpos. US evaluation of 50 MAGI-APEpos patients compared to 50 patients with MAGI without PE (MAGI-PEneg which represent the control group. The diagnosis of APE was made through the evaluation of Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT and confirmed with the questionnaire PEDT (Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. The main outcome measure was represented by the frequency of US criteria suggestive of P (prostatitis, V (vesiculitis, and E (epididymitis in MAGI-APEpos and MAGI-PEneg patients. MAGI-APEpos patients showed a total number of US criteria significantly higher compared to MAGI-PEneg patients. MAGI-APEpos showed a higher frequency of US criteria of V and E (complicated forms of MAGI. Finally, in MAGI-APEpos group, it was found a positive relationship between the anteroposterior diameter (APD of the caudal tract of the epididymis and the APD of the seminal vesicles, as well as between both diameters and the PEDT score. MAGI-APEpos patients have a peculiar US characterization compared to MAGI-PEneg patients. According to these results, US evaluation of the epididymal and of the prostato vesicular tract should be considered in the practical clinical approach of patients with MAGI and APE. In particular, it could be a support for a possible pathophysiological interpretation of this clinical problem in these patients.

  14. Impaired mastication reduced newly generated neurons at the accessory olfactory bulb and pheromonal responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsugi, Chizuru; Miyazono, Sadaharu; Osada, Kazumi; Matsuda, Mitsuyoshi; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    A large number of neurons are generated at the subventricular zone (SVZ) even during adulthood. In a previous study, we have shown that a reduced mastication impairs both neurogenesis in the SVZ and olfactory functions. Pheromonal signals, which are received by the vomeronasal organ, provide information about reproductive and social states. Vomeronasal sensory neurons project to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) located on the dorso-caudal surface of the main olfactory bulb. Newly generated neurons at the SVZ migrate to the AOB and differentiate into granule cells and periglomerular cells. This study aimed to explore the effects of changes in mastication on newly generated neurons and pheromonal responses. Bromodeoxyuridine-immunoreactive (BrdU-ir; a marker of DNA synthesis) and Fos-ir (a marker of neurons excited) structures in sagittal sections of the AOB after exposure to urinary odours were compared between the mice fed soft and hard diets. The density of BrdU-ir cells in the AOB in the soft-diet-fed mice after 1 month was essentially similar to that of the hard-diet-fed mice, while that was lower in the soft-diet-fed mice for 3 or 6 months than in the hard-diet-fed mice. The density of Fos-ir cells in the soft-diet-fed mice after 2 months was essentially similar to that in the hard-diet-fed mice, while that was lower in the soft-diet-fed mice for 4 months than in the hard-diet-fed mice. The present results suggest that impaired mastication reduces newly generated neurons at the AOB, which in turn impairs olfactory function at the AOB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Accessory neurovascular foramina on the lingual surface of mandible: Incidence, topography, and clinical implications

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    B V Murlimanju

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: It was suggested that the accessory neurovascular foramina of the mandible might be of significance in relation to the effectiveness of local anesthesia following the routine inferior alveolar nerve block. Aims: To investigate the incidence of neurovascular foramina over the lingual surface of the mandible in South Indian population. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at the department of anatomy. Materials and Methods: The study included 67 human adult dry mandibles, the exact ages and sexes of which were not known. The location and number of neurovascular foramina were topographically analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics. Results: The foramina were observed in 64 mandibles (95.5% and were often multiple in most of the cases. They were located between the two medial incisors in 8 mandibles (1.9%, between the medial and lateral incisor in 34 mandibles (50.7%; 25-bilateral; 7-right; 2-left, between the lateral incisor and canine in 7 mandibles (10.4%; 2-bilateral; 3-right; 2-left, between the canine and first premolar in 6 cases (8.9%; 3 on each side. Foramina were also present around the genial tubercle in 56 mandibles (83.6%. Among them, 52 mandibles showed a single foramen just above the genial tubercle, 34 mandibles had foramina below the tubercles, 13 mandibles had foramina on the right side of genial tubercle and 17 were having on the left side. Conclusion: Since the anatomical details of these foramina are important to various fields of dentistry and oncology, the present investigation was undertaken. The clinical significance and implications are emphasized.

  16. Preoperative detection and localization of accessory pudendal artery with contrast-enhanced MR angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Shin Young; Sung, Deuk Jae; Lee, Seun Ah; Park, Beom Jin; Kim, Min Ju; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Yun Hwan; Cheon, Jun

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography for preoperative detection and localization of accessory pudendal arteries (APAs) in patients with prostate cancer. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained. Between July 2007 and December 2010, 127 patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography following prostate MR imaging at 3.0 T before robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). APAs were defined as any arteries located in the periprostatic region and anastomosed with the common penile artery or its branches; they were then subclassified into lateral and apical APAs. For detecting and localizing APAs, MR angiograms were evaluated prospectively by one reader and retrospectively by two independent blinded readers. Diagnostic performance was determined on a per-patient basis by using surgical findings as the reference standard. In addition, the origin of APAs identified at both surgery and contrast-enhanced MR angiography was determined by consensus of two retrospective readers. Interreader agreements were assessed by using k statistics. At surgery, 19 APAs (seven right apical, three left apical, four right lateral, and five left lateral) were detected in 16 patients, and 16 of these APAs were localized in 13 patients at preoperative contrast-enhanced MR angiography. Prospectively, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of contrast-enhanced MR angiography for the localization of APAs were 81.3%, 93.7%, and 92.1%, while retrospectively they were 87.5%, 91.9%, and 91.3% for reader 2 and 75.0%, 90.1%, and 88.2% for reader 3, respectively. Overall interreader agreement was substantial (k = 0.795). Nine and seven APAs originated from the obturator artery and the inferior vesical artery, respectively. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography can be used for the preoperative detection of APAs in patients with prostate cancer. © RSNA, 2012.

  17. Male accessory gland inlfammation prevalence in type2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly relfecting autonomic neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosita A Condorelli; Enzo Vicari; Aldo E Calogero; Sandro La Vignera

    2014-01-01

    Male accessory gland inlfammation or infection(MAGI) is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type2 diabetes(DM2);speciifcally, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy(DAN) is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles(SVs) in DM2patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2patients(i.e.patients with and without symptoms that possibly relfect DAN) and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2patients with a mean(± s.e.m.) age of 42.0±6.0years(range: 34–47years) were classiifed according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly relfect DAN(groupA: DM2 with symptoms possibly relfecting DAN,n=28patients and groupB: DM2 without symptoms possibly relfecting DAN,n=32patients). The patients in GroupA exhibited a signiifcantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in groupB patients(P<0.05); moreover, the GroupA patients exhibited a signiifcantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis(P<0.05). Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were signiifcantly higher(P<0.05) in groupA compared with groupB.

  18. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats.

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    Wendy ePortillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB and main (MOB olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 days after females control (paced the sexual interaction an increase in the number of cells is observed in the AOB. No changes are observed in the number of cells when females are not allowed to control the sexual interaction. In the present study we investigated if in male rats sexual behavior increases the number of new cells in the OB. Male rats were divided in five groups: 1 males that did not receive any sexual stimulation, 2 males that were exposed to female odors, 3 males that mated for 1 h and could not pace their sexual interaction, 4 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 1 time and 5 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 3 times. All males received three injections of the DNA synthesis marker bromodeoxyuridine at 1h intervals, starting 1h before the beginning of the behavioral test. Fifteen days later, males were sacrificed and the brains were processed to identify new cells and to evaluate if they differentiated into neurons. The number of newborn cells increased in the granular cell layer (also known as the internal cell layer of the AOB in males that ejaculated one or three times controlling (paced the rate of the sexual interaction. Some of these new cells were identified as neurons. In contrast, no significant differences were found in the mitral cell layer (also known as the external cell layer and glomerular cell layer of the AOB. In addition, no significant differences were found between groups in the MOB in

  19. Association between Accessory Gene Regulator Polymorphism and Mortality among Critically Ill Patients Receiving Vancomycin for Nosocomial MRSA Bacteremia: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Cechinel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polymorphism of the accessory gene regulator group II (agr in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is predictive of vancomycin failure therapy. Nevertheless, the impact of group II agr expression on mortality of patients with severe MRSA infections is not well established. Objective. The goal of our study was to evaluate the association between agr polymorphism and all-cause in-hospital mortality among critically ill patients receiving vancomycin for nosocomial MRSA bacteremia. Methods. All patients with documented bacteremia by MRSA requiring treatment in the ICU between May 2009 and November 2011 were included in the study. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to evaluate whether agr polymorphism was associated with all-cause in-hospital mortality. Covariates included age, APACHE II score, initial C-reactive protein plasma levels, initial serum creatinine levels, vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration, vancomycin serum levels, and time to effective antibiotic administration. Results. The prevalence of group I and group II agr expression was 52.4% and 47.6%, respectively. Bacteremia by MRSA group III or group IV agr was not documented in our patients. The mean APACHE II of the study population was 24.3 (standard deviation 8.5. The overall cohort mortality was 66.6% (14 patients. After multivariate analysis, initial plasma C-reactive protein levels (P=0.01, initial serum creatinine levels (P=0.008, and expression of group II agr (P=0.006 were positively associated with all-cause in-hospital mortality. Patients with bacteremia by MRSA with group II agr expression had their risk of death increased by 12.6 times when compared with those with bacteremia by MRSA with group I agr expression. Conclusion. Group II agr polymorphism is associated with an increase in mortality in critically ill patients with bacteremia by MRSA treated with vancomycin.

  20. A job for quantum dots: use of a smartphone and 3D-printed accessory for all-in-one excitation and imaging of photoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryayeva, Eleonora; Algar, W Russ

    2016-04-01

    Point-of-care (POC) diagnostic technologies are needed to improve global health and smartphones are a prospective platform for these technologies. While many fluorescence or photoluminescence-based smartphone assays have been reported in the literature, common shortcomings are the requirement of an excitation light source external to the smartphone and complicated integration of that excitation source with the smartphone. Here, we show that the photographic flash associated with the smartphone camera can be utilized to enable all-in-one excitation and imaging of photoluminescence (PL), thus eliminating the need for an excitation light source external to the smartphone. A simple and low-cost 3D-printed accessory was designed to create a dark environment and direct excitation light from the smartphone flash onto a sample. Multiple colors and compositions of semiconductor quantum dot (QD) were evaluated as photoluminescent materials for all-in-one smartphone excitation and imaging of PL, and these were compared with fluorescein and R-phycoerythrin (R-PE), which are widely utilized molecular and protein materials for fluorescence-based bioanalysis. The QDs were found to exhibit much better brightness and have the best potential for two-color detection. A model protein binding assay with a sub-microgram per milliliter detection limit and a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay for proteolytic activity were demonstrated, including imaging with serum as a sample matrix. In addition, FRET within tandem conjugates of a QD donor and fluorescent dye acceptor enabled smartphone detection of dye fluorescence that was otherwise unobservable without the QD to enhance its brightness. The ideal properties of photoluminescent materials for all-in-one smartphone excitation and imaging are discussed in the context of several different materials, where QDs appear to be the best overall material for this application.

  1. Identification of Domains within the V-ATPase Accessory Subunit Ac45 Involved in V-ATPase Transport and Ca2+-dependent Exocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Eric J. R.; van Bakel, Nick. H. M.; Loohuis, Nikkie F. M. Olde; Hafmans, Theo G. M.; Arentsen, Tim; Coenen, Anthon J. M.; Scheenen, Wim J. J. M.; Martens, Gerard J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The vacuolar (H+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) is crucial for maintenance of the acidic microenvironment in intracellular organelles, whereas its membrane-bound V0-sector is involved in Ca2+-dependent membrane fusion. In the secretory pathway, the V-ATPase is regulated by its type I transmembrane and V0-associated accessory subunit Ac45. To execute its function, the intact-Ac45 protein is proteolytically processed to cleaved-Ac45 thereby releasing its N-terminal domain. Here, we searched for the functional domains within Ac45 by analyzing a set of deletion mutants close to the in vivo situation, namely in transgenic Xenopus intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells. Intact-Ac45 was poorly processed and accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum of the transgenic melanotrope cells. In contrast, cleaved-Ac45 was efficiently transported through the secretory pathway, caused an accumulation of the V-ATPase at the plasma membrane and reduced dopaminergic inhibition of Ca2+-dependent peptide secretion. Surprisingly, removal of the C-tail from intact-Ac45 caused cellular phenotypes also found for cleaved-Ac45, whereas C-tail removal from cleaved-Ac45 still allowed its transport to the plasma membrane, but abolished V-ATPase recruitment into the secretory pathway and left dopaminergic inhibition of the cells unaffected. We conclude that domains located in the N- and C-terminal portions of the Ac45 protein direct its trafficking, V-ATPase recruitment and Ca2+-dependent-regulated exocytosis. PMID:22736765

  2. Effects of Small Molecule Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Inhibitors on Structure and Function of Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Chakravarty, Devlina; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Chakrabarti, Manoj K; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2015-01-01

    Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX) and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) secreted by Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/bicarbonate transport that augments fluid secretion resulting in diarrhea. These channels have been targeted for drug development. However, lesser attention has been paid to the interaction of chloride channel modulators with bacterial toxins. Here we report the modulation of the structure/function of recombinant Ace by small molecule calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitors, namely CaCCinh-A01, digallic acid (DGA) and tannic acid. Biophysical studies indicate that the unfolding (induced by urea) free energy increases upon binding CaCCinh-A01 and DGA, compared to native Ace, whereas binding of tannic acid destabilizes the protein. Far-UV CD experiments revealed that the α-helical content of Ace-CaCCinh-A01 and Ace-DGA complexes increased relative to Ace. In contrast, binding to tannic acid had the opposite effect, indicating the loss of protein secondary structure. The modulation of Ace structure induced by CaCC inhibitors was also analyzed using docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Functional studies, performed using mouse ileal loops and Ussing chamber experiments, corroborate biophysical data, all pointing to the fact that tannic acid destabilizes Ace, inhibiting its function, whereas DGA stabilizes the toxin with enhanced fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop. The efficacy of tannic acid in mouse model suggests that the targeted modulation of Ace structure may be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders.

  3. Effects of Small Molecule Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Inhibitors on Structure and Function of Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace of Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaya Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace secreted by Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/bicarbonate transport that augments fluid secretion resulting in diarrhea. These channels have been targeted for drug development. However, lesser attention has been paid to the interaction of chloride channel modulators with bacterial toxins. Here we report the modulation of the structure/function of recombinant Ace by small molecule calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC inhibitors, namely CaCCinh-A01, digallic acid (DGA and tannic acid. Biophysical studies indicate that the unfolding (induced by urea free energy increases upon binding CaCCinh-A01 and DGA, compared to native Ace, whereas binding of tannic acid destabilizes the protein. Far-UV CD experiments revealed that the α-helical content of Ace-CaCCinh-A01 and Ace-DGA complexes increased relative to Ace. In contrast, binding to tannic acid had the opposite effect, indicating the loss of protein secondary structure. The modulation of Ace structure induced by CaCC inhibitors was also analyzed using docking and molecular dynamics (MD simulation. Functional studies, performed using mouse ileal loops and Ussing chamber experiments, corroborate biophysical data, all pointing to the fact that tannic acid destabilizes Ace, inhibiting its function, whereas DGA stabilizes the toxin with enhanced fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop. The efficacy of tannic acid in mouse model suggests that the targeted modulation of Ace structure may be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders.

  4. Identification of domains within the V-ATPase accessory subunit Ac45 involved in V-ATPase transport and Ca2+-dependent exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Eric J R; van Bakel, Nick H M; Olde Loohuis, Nikkie F M; Hafmans, Theo G M; Arentsen, Tim; Coenen, Anthon J M; Scheenen, Wim J J M; Martens, Gerard J M

    2012-08-10

    The vacuolar (H(+))-ATPase (V-ATPase) is crucial for maintenance of the acidic microenvironment in intracellular organelles, whereas its membrane-bound V(0)-sector is involved in Ca(2+)-dependent membrane fusion. In the secretory pathway, the V-ATPase is regulated by its type I transmembrane and V(0)-associated accessory subunit Ac45. To execute its function, the intact-Ac45 protein is proteolytically processed to cleaved-Ac45 thereby releasing its N-terminal domain. Here, we searched for the functional domains within Ac45 by analyzing a set of deletion mutants close to the in vivo situation, namely in transgenic Xenopus intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells. Intact-Ac45 was poorly processed and accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum of the transgenic melanotrope cells. In contrast, cleaved-Ac45 was efficiently transported through the secretory pathway, caused an accumulation of the V-ATPase at the plasma membrane and reduced dopaminergic inhibition of Ca(2+)-dependent peptide secretion. Surprisingly, removal of the C-tail from intact-Ac45 caused cellular phenotypes also found for cleaved-Ac45, whereas C-tail removal from cleaved-Ac45 still allowed its transport to the plasma membrane, but abolished V-ATPase recruitment into the secretory pathway and left dopaminergic inhibition of the cells unaffected. We conclude that domains located in the N- and C-terminal portions of the Ac45 protein direct its trafficking, V-ATPase recruitment and Ca(2+)-dependent-regulated exocytosis.

  5. Association between Accessory Gene Regulator Polymorphism and Mortality among Critically Ill Patients Receiving Vancomycin for Nosocomial MRSA Bacteremia: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechinel, Angélica; Machado, Denise P.; Turra, Eduardo; Pereira, Dariane; dos Santos, Rodrigo P.; Rosa, Regis G.; Goldani, Luciano Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Polymorphism of the accessory gene regulator group II (agr) in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is predictive of vancomycin failure therapy. Nevertheless, the impact of group II agr expression on mortality of patients with severe MRSA infections is not well established. Objective. The goal of our study was to evaluate the association between agr polymorphism and all-cause in-hospital mortality among critically ill patients receiving vancomycin for nosocomial MRSA bacteremia. Methods. All patients with documented bacteremia by MRSA requiring treatment in the ICU between May 2009 and November 2011 were included in the study. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to evaluate whether agr polymorphism was associated with all-cause in-hospital mortality. Covariates included age, APACHE II score, initial C-reactive protein plasma levels, initial serum creatinine levels, vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration, vancomycin serum levels, and time to effective antibiotic administration. Results. The prevalence of group I and group II agr expression was 52.4% and 47.6%, respectively. Bacteremia by MRSA group III or group IV agr was not documented in our patients. The mean APACHE II of the study population was 24.3 (standard deviation 8.5). The overall cohort mortality was 66.6% (14 patients). After multivariate analysis, initial plasma C-reactive protein levels (P = 0.01), initial serum creatinine levels (P = 0.008), and expression of group II agr (P = 0.006) were positively associated with all-cause in-hospital mortality. Patients with bacteremia by MRSA with group II agr expression had their risk of death increased by 12.6 times when compared with those with bacteremia by MRSA with group I agr expression. Conclusion. Group II agr polymorphism is associated with an increase in mortality in critically ill patients with bacteremia by MRSA treated with vancomycin. PMID:27366180

  6. Effects of Small Molecule Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Inhibitors on Structure and Function of Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Chakravarty, Devlina; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Chakrabarti, Manoj K.; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2015-01-01

    Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX) and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) secreted by Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/bicarbonate transport that augments fluid secretion resulting in diarrhea. These channels have been targeted for drug development. However, lesser attention has been paid to the interaction of chloride channel modulators with bacterial toxins. Here we report the modulation of the structure/function of recombinant Ace by small molecule calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitors, namely CaCCinh-A01, digallic acid (DGA) and tannic acid. Biophysical studies indicate that the unfolding (induced by urea) free energy increases upon binding CaCCinh-A01 and DGA, compared to native Ace, whereas binding of tannic acid destabilizes the protein. Far-UV CD experiments revealed that the α-helical content of Ace-CaCCinh-A01 and Ace-DGA complexes increased relative to Ace. In contrast, binding to tannic acid had the opposite effect, indicating the loss of protein secondary structure. The modulation of Ace structure induced by CaCC inhibitors was also analyzed using docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Functional studies, performed using mouse ileal loops and Ussing chamber experiments, corroborate biophysical data, all pointing to the fact that tannic acid destabilizes Ace, inhibiting its function, whereas DGA stabilizes the toxin with enhanced fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop. The efficacy of tannic acid in mouse model suggests that the targeted modulation of Ace structure may be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26540279

  7. Anoctamin 6 Contributes to Cl- Secretion in Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace)-stimulated Diarrhea: AN ESSENTIAL ROLE FOR PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 4,5-BISPHOSPHATE (PIP2) SIGNALING IN CHOLERA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Joydeep; Hayashi, Mikio; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Ghosh, Priyanka; Bhowmick, Rajsekhar; Ghosh, Dipanjan; Chatterjee, Tanaya; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Chakrabarti, Manoj K; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2016-12-23

    Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae has been shown to contribute to diarrhea. However, the signaling mechanism and specific type of Cl(-) channel activated by Ace are still unknown. We have shown here that the recombinant Ace protein induced ICl of apical plasma membrane, which was inhibited by classical CaCC blockers. Surprisingly, an Ace-elicited rise of current was neither affected by ANO1 (TMEM16A)-specific inhibitor T16A(inh)-AO1(TAO1) nor by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) blocker, CFTR inh-172. Ace stimulated whole-cell current in Caco-2 cells. However, the apical ICl was attenuated by knockdown of ANO6 (TMEM16F). This impaired phenotype was restored by re-expression of ANO6 in Caco-2 cells. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of ANO currents in HEK293 cells transiently expressing mouse ANO1-mCherry or ANO6-GFP confirmed that Ace induced Cl(-) secretion. Application of Ace produced ANO6 but not the ANO1 currents. Ace was not able to induce a [Ca(2+)]i rise in Caco-2 cells, but cellular abundance of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) increased. Identification of the PIP2-binding motif at the N-terminal sequence among human and mouse ANO6 variants along with binding of PIP2 directly to ANO6 in HEK293 cells indicate likely PIP2 regulation of ANO6. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of Ace stimulated Cl(-) current along with intestinal fluid accumulation, and binding of PIP2 to the proximal KR motif of channel proteins, whose mutagenesis correlates with altered binding of PIP2, is comparable with ANO6 stimulation. We conclude that ANO6 is predominantly expressed in intestinal epithelia, where it contributes secretory diarrhea by Ace stimulation in a calcium-independent mechanism of RhoA-ROCK-PIP2 signaling.

  8. X: On the molecular biology of the hepatitis B virus X protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Klundert, M.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Expression of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) accessory protein HBx is a requirement for viral replication. In this thesis, we investigated how HBx supports HBV replication, and we performed studies to identify its function. In chapter 2 we show that the overlap of reading frames in the HBV genome restr

  9. Expression Pattern of Lysosomal Protective Protein/Cathepsin A: Implications for the analysis of hnman galactosialidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Rottier (Robbert)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe lysosome represents a well characterized, membrane-contained intracellular digestive system. Iu this important organelle a battery of lysosomal hydro lases and accessory proteins work in concert on the step-wise conversion of macromolecular substrates into small biological building b

  10. Silencing of the Hsf gene, the transcriptional regulator of A. gambiae male accessory glands, inhibits the formation of the mating plug in mated females and disrupts their monogamous behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottorini, Tania; Persampieri, Tania; Palladino, Pietro; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Crisanti, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Discovering the molecular factors that shape the mating behaviour and the fertility of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of human malaria, is regarded as critical to better understand its reproductive success as well as for identifying new leads for malaria control measures. In A. gambiae mating induces complex behavioural and physiological changes in the females, including refractoriness to subsequent mating and induction of egg-laying. In other insects including Drosophila a group of proteins named Accessory gland proteins (Acps), produced by males and transferred with sperm to the female reproductive tract, have been implicated in this post-mating response. Although Acps represent a set of promising candidates for unravelling the mating physiology, their role in inducing behavioural changes in mated A. gambiae females remains largely unknown. In this work, we demonstrate that a down-regulation of a large fraction of Acp genes via silencing of the Acp regulating transcription factor Hsf, abolishes the formation of mating plug in mated females and fails to induce refractoriness of mated female to subsequent inseminations. A significant fraction of females mated to Hsf silenced males (66%) failed to receive the mating plug though seminal fluid had been transferred as documented by the presence of spermatozoa in the female sperm storage organ. Furthermore, nearly all females (95%) mated to HSF-silenced males were re-inseminated when exposed to males carrying EGPF marked sperm. Our findings provide evidence showing that Acp genes regulated by the transcription factor HSF play a key role in the function of the male accessory glands.

  11. Activation and evasion of the type I Interferon response by infectious bronchitis virus : roles of the accessory proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kint, J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY

    Viruses are intracellular parasites that exploit the machinery of the host cell to replicate. To defend themselves against invading viruses, animal cells have evolved an anti-viral mechanism, known as the type

  12. Isolation and killing of candidate chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells by antibody targeting of IL-1 receptor accessory protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järås, Marcus; Johnels, Petra; Hansen, Nils Gunder;

    2010-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is genetically characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, formed through a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 and giving rise to the constitutively active tyrosine kinase P210 BCR/ABL1. Therapeutic strategies aiming for a cure of CML will ...

  13. A novel method using intranasal delivery of EdU demonstrates that accessory olfactory ensheathing cells respond to injury by proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehrehasa, Fatemeh; Ekberg, Jenny A K; St John, James A

    2014-03-20

    Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) play an important role in the continuous regeneration of the primary olfactory nervous system throughout life and for regeneration of olfactory neurons after injury. While it is known that several individual OEC subpopulations with distinct properties exist in different anatomical locations, it remains unclear how these different subpopulations respond to a major injury. We have examined the proliferation of OECs from one distinct location, the peripheral accessory olfactory nervous system, following large-scale injury (bulbectomy) in mice. We used crosses of two transgenic reporter mouse lines, S100ß-DsRed and OMP-ZsGreen, to visualise OECs, and main/accessory olfactory neurons, respectively. We surgically removed one olfactory bulb including the accessory olfactory bulb to induce degeneration, and found that accessory OECs in the nerve bundles that terminate in the accessory olfactory bulb responded by increased proliferation with a peak occurring 2 days after the injury. To label proliferating cells we used the thymidine analogue ethynyl deoxyuridine (EdU) using intranasal delivery instead of intraperitoneal injection. We compared and quantified the number of proliferating cells at different regions at one and four days after EdU labelling by the two different methods and found that intranasal delivery method was as effective as intraperitoneal injection. We demonstrated that accessory OECs actively respond to widespread degeneration of accessory olfactory axons by proliferating. These results have important implications for selecting the source of OECs for neural regeneration therapies and show that intranasal delivery of EdU is an efficient and reliable method for assessing proliferation of olfactory glia.

  14. Clustering patterns of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proteins reveal imprints of immune evasion on HIV-1 global variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yusim, K.; Kesmir, Can; Gaschen, B.;

    2002-01-01

    for amino acids that do not serve as C-terminal anchor residues. Finally, CTL epitopes are more highly concentrated in alpha-helical regions of proteins. Based on amino acid sequence characteristics, in a blinded fashion, we predicted regions in HIV regulatory and accessory proteins that would be likely...

  15. Defining the lateral and accessory views of the patella: an anatomic and radiographic study with implications for fracture treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkes, Marschall B; Little, Milton T M; Pardee, Nadine C; Lazaro, Lionel E; Helfet, David L; Lorich, Dean G

    2013-12-01

    The majority of orthopaedic surgeons rely on a lateral fluoroscopic image to assess reduction during patella fracture osteosynthesis. However, a comprehensive radiographic description of the lateral view of the patella has not been performed previously, and no accessory views to better visualize specific anatomic features have been developed. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed anatomic description of all radiographic features of the true lateral of the patella, describe reproducible accessory views for assessing specific features of the patella, and demonstrate their utility in a fracture model. Twelve cadaver knee specimens free of patellofemoral pathology were used, and imaging was performed using standard C-arm fluoroscopy. For each specimen, a true lateral radiographic projection of the patella was obtained and distinct features were noted. Next, an arthrotomy was made and steel wire was contoured and fixed to various anatomic regions of the patella so as to obliterate the radiographic densities on the true lateral projection, thus confirming their anatomic correlation. Ideal views of the lateral and medial facets themselves were determined using radiographic markers and varying amounts of internal or external rotation of the specimen. Last, a transverse osteotomy was created in each patella and the ability of the true lateral and accessory views to detect malreduction was assessed. The true lateral projection of the patella was obtained with the limb in neutral alignment. Constant radiographic features of the lateral view of the patella include the articular tangent, a secondary articular density of variable length, and a dorsal cortical density. The articular tangent was produced by the central ridge between the medial and lateral facets in all specimens. The secondary articular density was created by a confluence of the edge of the lateral and edge of the medial facets in 5 patellas, a confluence of the edge of the lateral facet and the

  16. Bilateral variations of the psoas major and the iliacus muscles and presence of an undescribed variant muscle--accessory iliopsoas muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelev, L; Shivarov, V; Surchev, L

    2005-07-01

    Inspite of the detailed description of the iliopsoas muscle complex, interesting variations of its main parts--the psoas major and the iliacus muscles can still be encountered. These variations may clarify some aspects of the embryological development of the iliopsoas and have certain clinical importance because of the frequent co-existence with an unusual femoral nerve by its formation and course. We present in our report a case of bilateral variations of the psoas major and the iliacus muscles combined with variations of the left and the right femoral nerves, which were found during the anatomical dissection of a female human cadaver. The most remarkable finding was noted on the left side, where an undescribed variant muscle accessory iliopsoas, was observed. It was the only finding of such a muscle among 108 human cadavers examined over a period of 22 years. The accessory iliopsoas was formed by the connection of two accessory muscles--accessory psoas major and accessory iliacus. The clinical significance of the described variant muscles and their importance as an additional factor in the femoral neuropathy are also a matter of discussion in our report.

  17. Combined Analysis of Variation in Core, Accessory and Regulatory Genome Regions Provides a Super-Resolution View into the Evolution of Bacterial Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Alan; Oren, Yaara; Kelly, Darren; Sreecharan, Tristan; Vehkala, Minna; Välimäki, Niko; Prentice, Michael B.; Ashour, Amgad; Avram, Oren; Pupko, Tal; Literak, Ivan; Guenther, Sebastian; Schaufler, Katharina; Wieler, Lothar H.; Zhiyong, Zong; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Corander, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    The use of whole-genome phylogenetic analysis has revolutionized our understanding of the evolution and spread of many important bacterial pathogens due to the high resolution view it provides. However, the majority of such analyses do not consider the potential role of accessory genes when inferring evolutionary trajectories. Moreover, the recently discovered importance of the switching of gene regulatory elements suggests that an exhaustive analysis, combining information from core and accessory genes with regulatory elements could provide unparalleled detail of the evolution of a bacterial population. Here we demonstrate this principle by applying it to a worldwide multi-host sample of the important pathogenic E. coli lineage ST131. Our approach reveals the existence of multiple circulating subtypes of the major drug–resistant clade of ST131 and provides the first ever population level evidence of core genome substitutions in gene regulatory regions associated with the acquisition and maintenance of different accessory genome elements. PMID:27618184

  18. Right Accessory Hepatic Artery Arising From Celiac Trunk-Case Report of a Variation that Must Be Looked for During Multiorgan Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos-Neves, D; da Silva Alves, J A; Guedes Dias, L G; de Rezende, M B; Salvalaggio, P R

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the hepatic artery and its variations is important to hepatobiliary and liver transplant surgeons and interventional radiologists. We report a rare anatomic variation of liver hepatic arterial supply: a right accessory hepatic artery arising directly from the celiac trunk and observed at the time of multiorgan procurement. The anatomic variation described in this case occurs in up to 2% of cases and their knowledge is essential to avoid injuries during multiorgan procurement that could require multiple anastomoses or lead to inadvertent vessel injury. This variation is very rarely reported in the medical literature. We document successful deceased-donor liver transplantation with a graft that had an accessory right accessory hepatic artery from the celiac trunk.

  19. Effect of accessory pigment composition on the absorption characteristics of a dinoflagellate bloom in a coastal embayment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Vijayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The light absorption properties of a dinoflagellate (Noctiluca scintillans Macartney bloom in Manila Bay were analysed during the onset of a whole-bay-scale bloom in March 2004. The chlorophyll a concentrations varied over a very wide range from 1.4 µg l-1 to extremely high values of 521 µg l-1. The chlorophyll specific absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (a*ph(λ varied significantly in shape and magnitude. The spectrally averaged values of a*ph(λ varied by two orders of magnitude within and outside the bloom patch. The total suspended solid concentration was high in the middle of the bay (≥4 mg l-1. The non-photosynthetic pigment (NPP index was ~0.6 at most of the stations, mainly due to the presence of photoprotective pigments like zeaxanthin, lutein and neoxanthin, which led to variations in the blue absorption maxima of the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients. The absorption properties of the accessory pigments were masked owing to the presence of overlapping pigment absorption bands. The fourth derivative of the absorption spectra was able to resolve these overlapping features and enhance the absorption characteristics of prominent accessory pigments.

  20. The main but not the accessory olfactory system is involved in the processing of socially relevant chemosignals in ungulates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu eKELLER

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ungulates like sheep and goats have, like many other mammalian species, two complementary olfactory systems. The relative role played by these two systems has long been of interest regarding the sensory control of social behavior. The study of ungulate social behavior could represent a complimentary alternative to rodent studies because they live in a more natural environment and their social behaviors depend heavily on olfaction. In addition, the relative size of the main olfactory bulb (in comparison to the accessory olfactory bulb is more developped than in many other lissencephalic species like rodents. In this review, we present data showing a clear involvement of the main olfactory system in two well-characterized social situations under olfactory control in ungulates, namely maternal behavior and offspring recognition at birth and the reactivation of the gonadotropic axis of females exposed to males during the anestrous season. In conclusion, we discuss the apparent discrepancy between the absence of evidence for a role of the vomeronasal system in ungulate social behavior and the existence of a developed accessory olfactory system in these species.

  1. Diaphragmatic amplitude and accessory inspiratory muscle activity in nasal and mouth-breathing adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Maria Elaine; Boufleur, Jalusa; Soares, Juliana Corrêa; Haygert, Carlos Jesus Pereira; Ries, Lilian Gerdi Kittel; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the electromyographic activity of the accessory inspiratory muscles and the diaphragmatic amplitude (DA) in nasal and mouth-breathing adults. The study evaluated 38 mouth-breathing (MB group) and 38 nasal-breathing (NB group) adults, from 18 to 30years old and both sexes. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to evaluate the amplitude and symmetry (POC%) of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and upper trapezius (UT) muscles at rest, during nasal slow inspiration at Lung Total Capacity (LTC) and, during rapid and abrupt inspiration: Sniff, Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow (PNIF) and Maximum Inspiratory Pressure (MIP). M-mode ultrasonography assessed the right diaphragm muscle amplitude in three different nasal inspirations: at tidal volume (TV), Sniff and inspiration at LTC. The SCM activity was significantly lower in the MB group during Sniff, PNIF (pMouth breathing reflected on lower recruitment of the accessory inspiratory muscles during fast inspiration and lower diaphragmatic amplitude, compared to nasal breathing.

  2. Structure, histochemistry and seasonal variations of the male reproductive accessory glands in the Pallas's mastiff bat, Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christante, Caroline M; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Negrin, Ana C; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-01-01

    Due to their wide geographical distribution, bats suffer considerable influence from abiotic factors on their reproductive strategies, detected through behavioural or functional assessment of the gonads and accessory glands. The present study aimed to characterise anatomically and morphologically the reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) of Molossus molossus (Molossidae) and evaluate their seasonal variations. The RAGs were removed, fixed, sectioned after histological processing and submitted to the following stains: haematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid--Schiff (PAS) and Gömöri's reticulin. Our data demonstrated that the RAGs of M. molossus are composed of a semi-lobed prostatic complex associated with the urethra and a pair of inguinal bulbourethral glands. Histology and three-dimensional reconstruction of the prostatic complex demonstrated the existence of two regions: ventral and dorsal (named according to the position around the urethra). The two regions had distinctive morphological and histological differences, with the ventral region being the most prominent and the dorsal formed by four lobes. Considering the seasonal evaluation, we can infer that the prostatic complex of M. molossus is active throughout the seasons in São Paulo State (Brazil) and, although each of the prostatic regions has inherent characteristics, they synchronise to establish the main reproductive peak in spring (early rainy season).

  3. Presence of a long accessory flexor tendon of the toes in surgical treatment for tendinopathy of the insertion of the calcaneal tendon: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pelozo Gomes Júnior

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The presence of accessory tendons in the foot and ankle needs to be recognized, given that depending on their location, they may cause disorders relating either to pain processes or to handling of the surgical findings. We describe the presence of an accessory flexor tendon of the toes, seen in surgical exposure for transferring the long flexor tendon of the hallux to the calcaneus, due to the presence of a disorder of tendinopathy of the insertion of the calcaneal tendon in association with Haglund's syndrome.

  4. [Analysis of Spirulina powder by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and calculation of protein content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Jing; Xu, Chang-Hua; Li, Wei-Ming; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Qun; Li, An; Zhao, Yue-Liang; Ha, Yi-Ming; Sun, Su-Qin

    2013-04-01

    Spirulina, Spirulina powder and dextrin standard were analyzed and identified by Infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The main components, protein (1 657 and 1 537 cm(-1)) and carbohydrate (1 069 and 1054 cm(-1)), had distinct fingerprint characteristics of IR spectra. By comparing the IR spectra of Spirulina, Spirulina powder and dextrin standard, the dominant nutrition in Spirulina powder was identified as protein and carbohydrate. The dominant accessory added in Spirulina powder was dextrin. Comparing the IR spectra of Spirulina powder from 28 different factories and figuring out the correlation provides the information about the amount of accessory. A standard curve of the ratio of absorption peak intensities to protein content was constructed to accurately determine the amount of protein in Spirulina powder.

  5. Functional anatomy of the accessory nerve studied through intraoperative electrophysiological mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brînzeu, Andrei; Sindou, Marc

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Classically the 11th cranial nerve (CN XI, or accessory nerve) is described as having a cranial and a spinal root, the latter arising from the upper segments of the spinal cord through a number of very fine rootlets. According to classical knowledge, the cranial root gives motor innervation to the vocal cords, whereas the spinal root provides the motor innervation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) and of the upper portions of the trapezius muscle (TZ). The specific function of each of the rootlets of the spinal component is not well known. Therefore the authors aimed to map, using intraoperative direct electrical stimulation and electromyographic (EMG) recordings, the innervation territory of these rootlets in relation to their exit level from the CNS. METHODS Forty-nine patients undergoing surgery with intradural exposure at the craniocervical junction were enrolled in the study. The EMG recordings included the sternal and clavicular parts of the SCM (SCM-S and SCM-C), the superior and middle parts of the TZ (TZ-S and TZ-M), and whenever possible the vocal cords. The main trunk of CN XI, its roots (both cranial and spinal), and when possible the fine cervical rootlets, were stimulated at predetermined locations, from the jugular foramen down to the lowest cervical level exposed. The EMG responses were collected, and a map of the responses was drawn up. RESULTS Monitoring and stimulation of the spinal root were performed in all cases, whereas for the cranial root this was possible in only 19 cases. A total of 262 stimulation sites were explored: 70 at the common trunk of the nerve, 19 at the cranial root, 136 at various levels on the spinal root, and 37 at the cervical rootlets. A vocal cord response was obtained by stimulation of the cranial root in 84.2% (16/19); absence of response was considered to have a technical origin. In no case did the vocal cords respond to the stimulation of the spinal root or rootlets. Stimulation of the cervical

  6. Geochronology of accessory allanite and monazite in the Barrovian metamorphic sequence of the Central Alps, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Kate R.; Rubatto, Daniela; Hermann, Jörg; Engi, Martin; Amelin, Yuri

    2017-08-01

    The formation of accessory allanite, monazite and rutile in amphibolite-facies rocks across the Barrovian sequence of the Central Alps (Switzerland) was investigated with a combination of petrography and geochemistry and related to the known structural and metamorphic evolution of the Lepontine dome. For each of these minerals a specific approach was adopted for geochronology, taking into account internal zoning and U-Th-Pb systematics. In-situ U-Th-Pb dating of allanite and monazite by ion microprobe revealed systematic trends for the ages of main deformation and temperature in the Lepontine dome. Isotope dilution TIMS dating of rutile returns dates in line with this picture, but is complicated by inheritance of pre-Alpine rutile and possible Pb loss during Alpine metamorphism. Allanite is generally a prograde mineral that is aligned along the main foliation of the samples and found also as inclusions in garnet. Prograde allanite formation is further documented by rutile inclusions with formation temperatures significantly lower than the maximum T recorded by the rock mineral assemblage. Allanite ages vary from 31.3 ± 1.1 Ma in orthogneisses in the East to 31.7 ± 1.1 Ma for a Bündnerschiefer and 28.5 ± 1.3 Ma for a metaquartzite in the central area, to 26.8 ± 1.1 Ma in the western part of the Lepontine dome. These ages are interpreted to date the main deformation events (nappe stacking and isoclinal deformation of the nappe stack), close to peak pressure conditions. The timing of the thermal peak in the Lepontine dome is recorded in monazite that grew at the expense of allanite and after a main episode of garnet growth at temperatures of 620 °C. Monazite in the central area yields an age of 22.0 ± 0.3 Ma, which is indistinguishable from the age of 21.7 ± 0.4 Ma from a metapelite in the western part of the Lepontine dome. In the central area some of the classical kyanite-staurolite-garnet schists directly underlying the metamorphosed Mesozoic sediments

  7. ACTH antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian John Clark

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ACTH acts via a highly selective receptor that is a member of the melanocortin receptor subfamily of type 1 G protein-coupled receptors. The ACTH receptor, also known as the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R is unusual in that it is absolutely dependent on a small accessory protein, melanocortin receptor accessory protein (MRAP for cell surface expression and function. ACTH is the only known naturally occurring agonist for this receptor. This lack of redundancy and high degree of ligand specificity suggests that antagonism of this receptor could provide a useful therapeutic aid and a potential investigational tool. Clinical situations in which this could be useful include (1 Cushing’s disease and ectopic ACTH syndrome – especially whilst preparing for definitive treatment of a causative tumour, or in refractory cases, or (2 congenital adrenal hyperplasia – as an adjunct to glucocorticoid replacement. A case for antagonism in other clinical situations in which there is ACTH excess can also be made. In this article we will explore the scientific and clinical case for an ACTH antagonist, and will review the evidence for existing and recently described peptides and modified peptides in this role.

  8. The T-cell accessory molecule CD4 recognizes a monomorphic determinant on isolated Ia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gay, D; Buus, S; Pasternak, J;

    1988-01-01

    The membrane protein CD4 is commonly found on mature T cells specific for antigen in association with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC; Ia) proteins. This correlation has led to the suggestion that CD4 binds to a monomorphic region of the Ia molecule on the antigen-presenting cell...... proteins into a planar membrane system, we show that different Ia molecules can greatly enhance the ability of a CD4+ but not a CD4- variant of this class I-restricted T hybrid to respond to isolated class I molecules. T-cell responses can be strongly augmented by the concurrent expression of CD4 on the T...... cell and any of four different Ia proteins on planar membranes, thus supporting the idea that CD4 binds to a monomorphic region of the Ia molecule and increases the avidity with which the T cell can interact with its target....

  9. Fluid components in accessory minerals of Pan-African granitoids in the S(o)r Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zi-long; CHEN Han-lin; YANG Shu-feng; TAINOSHO Yoshiaki; SHIRAISHI Kazuyuki; OWADA Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    Fluids (fluorine, chlorine, and OH) in accessory minerals (apatite, titanite and allanite) of Pan-African granitoids(Group-Ⅰ granitoids, Group-Ⅱ granitoids and Mefjell Plutonic Complex) from the Sor Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica were precisely measured by an electronic microprobe analyzer in this study. Apatites in the granites have commonly high fluorine contents. However, fluorine contents from the Group-Ⅰ, Group-Ⅱ granitoids and Mefjell Plutonic Complex (MPC) are of important variation, which F contents (3.21~7.20 wt%) in apatite from the Group-Ⅱ granitoids are much higher than those from the Group-Ⅰ granitoids (1.22~3.60 wt%) and the MPC (3.21~4.11 wt%). Titanite in the MPC has a low fluorine content (0.23~0.50 wt%), being less than those in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids (2.28 wt%) and Group-Ⅱ granitoids (1.85~2.78 wt%). Fluorine in allanite in the Group-Ⅱ granitoids seems to have much lower contents than those from the Group-Ⅰ granitoids and the MPC. Higher fluorine contents in the titanite from the Group-Ⅱ granitoids may be mainly controlled by late-magmatic fluid-rock interaction processes associated with melt, but may not be indicative of original magma contents based on its petrographic feature. Due to very lower chlorine contents from all of accessory minerals, the authors suggest that titanite and apatite with higher fluorine contents in the Group-Ⅱ granitoids have much lower H2O (OH) contents compared with those in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids according to the partition among (F, Cl, OH).Fluorine contents in whole-rock samples show a variation from the higher in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids to the lower in the Group-Ⅱ granitoids and the MPC, which are consistent with the changes of those from the biotite and hornblende as well as fluorite occurred in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids reported previously. Based on the above study of fluorine in accessory minerals and combined with the previous fluorine contents from biotites and

  10. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein 6 mediates ubiquitin-dependent proteosomal degradation of N-Myc(and STAT) interactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijia; Cheng; Shiyou; Chen; Ruiling; Li; Yu; Chen; Min; Wang; Deyin; Guo

    2015-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus(SARS-Co V) encodes eight accessory proteins, the functions of which are not yet fully understood. SARS-Co V protein 6(P6) is one of the previously studied accessory proteins that have been documented to enhance viral replication and suppress host interferon(IFN) signaling pathways. Through yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified eight potential cellular P6-interacting proteins from a human spleen c DNA library. For further investigation, we targeted the IFN signaling pathway-mediating protein, N-Myc(and STAT) interactor(Nmi). Its interaction with P6 was confirmed within cells. The results showed that P6 can promote the ubiquitin-dependent proteosomal degradation of Nmi. This study revealed a new mechanism of SARS-Co V P6 in limiting the IFN signaling to promote SARS-Co V survival in host cells.

  11. The Homeodomain Protein Ladybird Late Regulates Synthesis of Milk Proteins during Pregnancy in the Tsetse Fly (Glossina morsitans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Benoit, Joshua B.; Michalkova, Veronika; Patrick, Kevin R.; Krause, Tyler B.; Aksoy, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of tissue and development specific gene expression patterns underlies the functional specialization of organs in multi-cellular organisms. In the viviparous tsetse fly (Glossina), the female accessory gland is specialized to generate nutrients in the form of a milk-like secretion to support growth of intrauterine larva. Multiple milk protein genes are expressed specifically in the female accessory gland and are tightly linked with larval development. Disruption of milk protein synthesis deprives developing larvae of nutrients and results in extended larval development and/or in abortion. The ability to cause such a disruption could be utilized as a tsetse control strategy. Here we identify and delineate the regulatory sequence of a major milk protein gene (milk gland protein 1:mgp1) by utilizing a combination of molecular techniques in tsetse, Drosophila transgenics, transcriptomics and in silico sequence analyses. The function of this promoter is conserved between tsetse and Drosophila. In transgenic Drosophila the mgp1 promoter directs reporter gene expression in a tissue and stage specific manner orthologous to that of Glossina. Analysis of the minimal required regulatory region of mgp1, and the regulatory regions of other Glossina milk proteins identified putative homeodomain protein binding sites as the sole common feature. Annotation and expression analysis of Glossina homeodomain proteins identified ladybird late (lbl) as being accessory gland/fat body specific and differentially expressed between lactating/non-lactating flies. Knockdown of lbl in tsetse resulted in a significant reduction in transcript abundance of multiple milk protein genes and in a significant loss of fecundity. The role of Lbl in adult reproductive physiology is previously unknown. These results suggest that Lbl is part of a conserved reproductive regulatory system that could have implications beyond tsetse to other vector insects such as mosquitoes. This system is critical

  12. The homeodomain protein ladybird late regulates synthesis of milk proteins during pregnancy in the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M Attardo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of tissue and development specific gene expression patterns underlies the functional specialization of organs in multi-cellular organisms. In the viviparous tsetse fly (Glossina, the female accessory gland is specialized to generate nutrients in the form of a milk-like secretion to support growth of intrauterine larva. Multiple milk protein genes are expressed specifically in the female accessory gland and are tightly linked with larval development. Disruption of milk protein synthesis deprives developing larvae of nutrients and results in extended larval development and/or in abortion. The ability to cause such a disruption could be utilized as a tsetse control strategy. Here we identify and delineate the regulatory sequence of a major milk protein gene (milk gland protein 1:mgp1 by utilizing a combination of molecular techniques in tsetse, Drosophila transgenics, transcriptomics and in silico sequence analyses. The function of this promoter is conserved between tsetse and Drosophila. In transgenic Drosophila the mgp1 promoter directs reporter gene expression in a tissue and stage specific manner orthologous to that of Glossina. Analysis of the minimal required regulatory region of mgp1, and the regulatory regions of other Glossina milk proteins identified putative homeodomain protein binding sites as the sole common feature. Annotation and expression analysis of Glossina homeodomain proteins identified ladybird late (lbl as being accessory gland/fat body specific and differentially expressed between lactating/non-lactating flies. Knockdown of lbl in tsetse resulted in a significant reduction in transcript abundance of multiple milk protein genes and in a significant loss of fecundity. The role of Lbl in adult reproductive physiology is previously unknown. These results suggest that Lbl is part of a conserved reproductive regulatory system that could have implications beyond tsetse to other vector insects such as mosquitoes. This

  13. The enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates by the addition of accessory enzymes such as xylanase: is it an additive or synergistic effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddler Jack N

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We and other workers have shown that accessory enzymes, such as β-glucosidase, xylanase, and cellulase cofactors, such as GH61, can considerably enhance the hydrolysis effectiveness of cellulase cocktails when added to pretreated lignocellulosic substrates. It is generally acknowledged that, among the several factors that hamper our current ability to attain efficient lignocellulosic biomass conversion yields at low enzyme loadings, a major problem lies in our incomplete understanding of the cooperative action of the different enzymes acting on pretreated lignocellulosic substrates. Results The reported work assessed the interaction between cellulase and xylanase enzymes and their potential to improve the hydrolysis efficiency of various pretreated lignocellulosic substrates when added at low protein loadings. When xylanases were added to the minimum amount of cellulase enzymes required to achieve 70% cellulose hydrolysis of steam pretreated corn stover (SPCS, or used to partially replace the equivalent cellulase dose, both approaches resulted in enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis. However, the xylanase supplementation approach increased the total protein loading required to achieve significant improvements in hydrolysis (an additive effect, whereas the partial replacement of cellulases with xylanase resulted in similar improvements in hydrolysis without increasing enzyme loading (a synergistic effect. The enhancement resulting from xylanase-aided synergism was higher when enzymes were added simultaneously at the beginning of hydrolysis. This co-hydrolysis of the xylan also influenced the gross fiber characteristics (for example, fiber swelling resulting in increased accessibility of the cellulose to the cellulase enzymes. These apparent increases in accessibility enhanced the steam pretreated corn stover digestibility, resulting in three times faster cellulose and xylan hydrolysis, a seven-fold decrease in cellulase loading and

  14. The role of laparoscopy in the identification and management of missing accessory spleens after primary splenectomy: A case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaos, George; Mantadakis, Elpis; Gardikis, Stefanos; Pitiakoudis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We present a 7-year-old boy with recurrent thrombocytopenia after primary laparoscopic splenectomy for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Imaging modalities (ultrasound, computed tomography scan, and scintigraphy) revealed two accessory spleens while the subsequent second laparoscopy revealed 11, which were successfully removed. The relevant medical literature is reviewed, and the value of laparoscopy for chronic ITP is highlighted. PMID:27695216

  15. Reduction Potentials of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Accessory Iron–Sulfur Clusters Provide Insights into the Energetics of Proton Reduction Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artz, Jacob H. [Institute; Mulder, David W. [Biosciences; Ratzloff, Michael W. [Biosciences; Lubner, Carolyn E. [Biosciences; Zadvornyy, Oleg A. [Institute; LeVan, Axl X. [Department; Williams, S. Garrett [School; Adams, Michael W. W. [B216B; Jones, Anne K. [School; King, Paul W. [Biosciences; Peters, John W. [Institute

    2017-07-06

    An [FeFe]-hydrogenase from Clostridium pasteurianum, CpI, is a model system for biological H2 activation. In addition to the catalytic H-cluster, CpI contains four accessory iron-sulfur [FeS] clusters in a branched series that transfer electrons to and from the active site. In this work, potentiometric titrations have been employed in combination with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at defined electrochemical potentials to gain insights into the role of the accessory clusters in catalysis. EPR spectra collected over a range of potentials were deconvoluted into individual components attributable to the accessory [FeS] clusters and the active site H-cluster, and reduction potentials for each cluster were determined. The data suggest a large degree of magnetic coupling between the clusters. The distal [4Fe-4S] cluster is shown to have a lower reduction potential (~<-450 mV) than the other clusters, and molecular docking experiments indicate that the physiological electron donor, ferredoxin (Fd), most favorably interacts with this cluster. The low reduction potential of the distal [4Fe-4S] cluster thermodynamically restricts the Fdox/Fdred ratio at which CpI can operate, consistent with the role of CpI in recycling Fdred that accumulates during fermentation. Subsequent electron transfer through the additional accessory [FeS] clusters to the H-cluster is thermodynamically favorable.

  16. Transient and sustained afterdepolarizations in accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells are mediated by distinct mechanisms that are differentially regulated by neuromodulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Shpak (Guy); A. Zylbertal (Asaph); S. Wagner (Shlomo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSocial interactions between mammalian conspecifics rely heavily on molecular communication via the main and accessory olfactory systems. These two chemosensory systems show high similarity in the organization of information flow along their early stages: social chemical cues are detected

  17. A divergent pattern of sensory axonal projections is rendered convergent by second-order neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Punta, Karina; Puche, Adam; Adams, Niels C; Rodriguez, Ivan; Mombaerts, Peter

    2002-09-12

    The mammalian vomeronasal system is specialized in pheromone detection. The neural circuitry of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) provides an anatomical substrate for the coding of pheromone information. Here, we describe the axonal projection pattern of vomeronasal sensory neurons to the AOB and the dendritic connectivity pattern of second-order neurons. Genetically traced sensory neurons expressing a given gene of the V2R class of vomeronasal receptors project their axons to six to ten glomeruli distributed in globally conserved areas of the AOB, a theme similar to V1R-expressing neurons. Surprisingly, second-order neurons tend to project their dendrites to glomeruli innervated by axons of sensory neurons expressing the same V1R or the same V2R gene. Convergence of receptor type information in the olfactory bulb may represent a common design in olfactory systems.

  18. Accessory Factors of Cytoplasmic Viral RNA Sensors Required for Antiviral Innate Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Kouwaki, Takahisa; Seya, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) induces many antiviral factors in host cells. RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) are cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors that trigger the signal to induce the innate immune response that includes type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 are RLRs that form nucleoprotein filaments along viral double-stranded RNA, resulting in the activation of MAVS adaptor molecule. The MAVS protein forms a prion-like aggregation structure, leading to type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 undergo post-translational modification. TRIM25 and Riplet ubiquitin ligases deliver a K63-linked polyubiquitin moiety to the RIG-I N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) and C-terminal region; the polyubiquitin chain then stabilizes the two-CARD tetramer structure required for MAVS assembly. MDA5 activation is regulated by phosphorylation. RIOK3 is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the MDA5 protein in a steady state, and PP1α/γ dephosphorylate this protein, resulting in its activation. RIG-I and MDA5 require cytoplasmic RNA helicases for their efficient activation. LGP2, another RLR, is an RNA helicase involved in RLR signaling. This protein does not possess N-terminal CARDs and, thus, cannot trigger downstream signaling by itself. Recent studies have revealed that this protein modulates MDA5 filament formation, resulting in enhanced type I IFN production. Several other cytoplasmic RNA helicases are involved in RLR signaling. DDX3, DHX29, DHX36, and DDX60 RNA helicases have been reported to be involved in RLR-mediated type I IFN production after viral infection. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Future studies are required to reveal the role of RNA helicases in the RLR signaling pathway. PMID:27252702

  19. Accessory Factors of Cytoplasmic Viral RNA Sensors Required for Antiviral Innate Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Kouwaki, Takahisa; Seya, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) induces many antiviral factors in host cells. RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) are cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors that trigger the signal to induce the innate immune response that includes type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 are RLRs that form nucleoprotein filaments along viral double-stranded RNA, resulting in the activation of MAVS adaptor molecule. The MAVS protein forms a prion-like aggregation structure, leading to type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 undergo post-translational modification. TRIM25 and Riplet ubiquitin ligases deliver a K63-linked polyubiquitin moiety to the RIG-I N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) and C-terminal region; the polyubiquitin chain then stabilizes the two-CARD tetramer structure required for MAVS assembly. MDA5 activation is regulated by phosphorylation. RIOK3 is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the MDA5 protein in a steady state, and PP1α/γ dephosphorylate this protein, resulting in its activation. RIG-I and MDA5 require cytoplasmic RNA helicases for their efficient activation. LGP2, another RLR, is an RNA helicase involved in RLR signaling. This protein does not possess N-terminal CARDs and, thus, cannot trigger downstream signaling by itself. Recent studies have revealed that this protein modulates MDA5 filament formation, resulting in enhanced type I IFN production. Several other cytoplasmic RNA helicases are involved in RLR signaling. DDX3, DHX29, DHX36, and DDX60 RNA helicases have been reported to be involved in RLR-mediated type I IFN production after viral infection. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Future studies are required to reveal the role of RNA helicases in the RLR signaling pathway.

  20. Accessory factors of cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors required for antiviral innate immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eOshiumi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferon (IFN induces many antiviral factors in host cells. RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs are cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors that trigger the signal to induce the innate immune response that includes type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 are RLRs that form nucleoprotein filaments along viral double-stranded RNA, resulting in the activation of MAVS adaptor molecule. The MAVS protein forms a prion-like aggregation structure, leading to type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 undergo post-translational modification. TRIM25 and Riplet ubiquitin ligases deliver a K63-linked polyubiquitin moiety to the RIG-I N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs and C-terminal region; the polyubiquitin chain then stabilizes the two-CARD tetramer structure required for MAVS assembly. MDA5 activation is regulated by phosphorylation. RIOK3 is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the MDA5 protein in a steady state, and PP1α/γ dephosphorylate this protein, resulting in its activation. RIG-I and MDA5 require cytoplasmic RNA helicases for their efficient activation. LGP2, another RLR, is an RNA helicase involved in RLR signaling. This protein does not possess N-terminal CARDs and thus cannot trigger downstream signaling by itself. Recent studies have revealed that this protein modulates MDA5 filament formation, resulting in enhanced type I IFN production. Several other cytoplasmic RNA helicases are involved in RLR signaling. DDX3, DHX29, DHX36, and DDX60 RNA helicases have been reported to be involved in RLR-mediated type I IFN production after viral infection. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Future studies are required to reveal the role of RNA helicases in the RLR signaling pathway.

  1. Development and evaluation of accessories to improve the posture of veterinary surgeons in surgical procedures conducted in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A.S. Vulcani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study was conducted based on the information collected on rural properties in the state of Goiás, during practical classes of Surgical Clinic in Large Animals at the Veterinary Hospital of the Escola de Veterinária e Zootecnia of the Universidade Federal de Goiás and during the implementation of outreach projects developed by the institution. An acropostite-phimosis surgical procedure in the bulls in the field was selected, lasting over 30 minutes and requiring movements, posture and strength on the part of the surgeon. Devices were proposed and developed to provide improved comfort and safety to surgeons. The first device was a stool to be used by the professional during the execution of the surgical intervention. The use enabled the surgeon to sit down and rest their feet on the ground, reducing knee bending and distributing the support forces in various muscle groups. For the movement restriction of the surgeon, another accessory was developed to support the foreskin of the animal. Made of wood, this other device serves as a support for keeping the foreskin away from the ground and close to the surgeon. Its length, width and thickness established a good relation with the stool height, providing minimal discomfort to the professional. The third device was designed to assist in the immobilization of the animal and increase safety for the patient and surgical team. A fourth accessory was designed to protect the scapular region and avoid the occurrence of injuries in the radial nerve, myopathies and traumas during the rollover or prolonged stay of the animal in lateral decubitus. The choice of the shape, dimensions and softness of the device was mainly based on the weight of the animal. Such devices have proven to be effective, reducing the time of surgery, making cervical and lumbar movement easier, in addition to providing better support to the surgeon, reducing risks of musculoskeletal diseases.

  2. The role of the CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP) in adrenomedullin receptor signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, M A; Evans-Bain, B; Oliver, K R; Dickerson, I M

    2001-11-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are usually thought to act as monomer receptors that bind ligand and then interact with G proteins to initiate signal transduction. In this study we report an intracellular peripheral membrane protein named the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-receptor component protein (RCP) required for signal transduction at the G protein-coupled receptor for adrenomedullin. Cell lines were made that expressed an antisense construct of the RCP cDNA, and in these cells diminished RCP expression correlated with loss of adrenomedullin signal transduction. In contrast, loss of RCP did not diminish receptor density or affinity, therefore RCP does not appear to act as a chaperone protein. Instead, RCP represents a novel class of protein required to couple the adrenomedullin receptor to the cellular signal transduction pathway. A candidate adrenomedullin receptor named the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) has been described, which forms high affinity adrenomedullin receptors when co-expressed with the accessory protein receptor-activity modifying protein 2 (RAMP2). RCP co-immunoprecipitated with CRLR and RAMP2, indicating that a functional adrenomedullin receptor is composed of at least three proteins: the ligand binding protein (CRLR), an accessory protein (RAMP2), and a coupling protein for signal transduction (RCP).

  3. Mechanistic pathways and biological roles for receptor-independent activators of G-protein signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, Joe B; Smrcka, Alan V; Lanier, Stephen M

    2007-03-01

    Signal processing via heterotrimeric G-proteins in response to cell surface receptors is a central and much investigated aspect of how cells integrate cellular stimuli to produce coordinated biological responses. The system is a target of numerous therapeutic agents and plays an important role in adaptive processes of organs; aberrant processing of signals through these transducing systems is a component of various disease states. In addition to G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated activation of G-protein signaling, nature has evolved creative ways to manipulate and utilize the Galphabetagamma heterotrimer or Galpha and Gbetagamma subunits independent of the cell surface receptor stimuli. In such situations, the G-protein subunits (Galpha and Gbetagamma) may actually be complexed with alternative binding partners independent of the typical heterotrimeric Galphabetagamma. Such regulatory accessory proteins include the family of regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins that accelerate the GTPase activity of Galpha and various entities that influence nucleotide binding properties and/or subunit interaction. The latter group of proteins includes receptor-independent activators of G-protein signaling (AGS) proteins that play surprising roles in signal processing. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge regarding AGS proteins. AGS proteins are indicative of a growing number of accessory proteins that influence signal propagation, facilitate cross talk between various types of signaling pathways, and provide a platform for diverse functions of both the heterotrimeric Galphabetagamma and the individual Galpha and Gbetagamma subunits.

  4. Influence Factors Analysis of Interface Pressure in High Voltage Cable Accessories%高压电缆附件界面压力的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳松; 彭嘉康; 王霞; 王陈诚; 崔浩

    2013-01-01

    The interface pressure between cable accessory and cable insulation is the key to ensure the safety of cable accessory. Based on the interface pressure which determined the discharge characteristics of cable accessory, several influence factors of interface pressure were introduced, that is the roughness between cable accessory and cable insulation, temperature and the stress relaxation characteristics of cable accessory material. The long-term operational reliability of cable accessory can increase by increasing the interface smoothness, controlling the operation temperature rise of cable and selecting the accessory materi-al with relaxation resistance.%电缆附件和电缆绝缘间的界面压力是确保电缆附件安全运行的关键。基于决定电缆附件界面放电特性的界面压力,介绍了影响电缆附件界面压力的几个主要因素:电缆附件和电缆绝缘界面的粗糙度、温度和电缆附件材料的应力松驰特性。得出增加界面光滑度、控制电缆运行温升、选择耐松驰性附件材料等措施可提高电缆附件的长期运行可靠性。

  5. E2F1 and p53 Transcription Factors as Accessory Factors for Nucleotide Excision Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Johnson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of the biochemical details of nucleotide excision repair (NER have been established using purified proteins and DNA substrates. In cells however, DNA is tightly packaged around histones and other chromatin-associated proteins, which can be an obstacle to efficient repair. Several cooperating mechanisms enhance the efficiency of NER by altering chromatin structure. Interestingly, many of the players involved in modifying chromatin at sites of DNA damage were originally identified as regulators of transcription. These include ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, histone modifying enzymes and several transcription factors. The p53 and E2F1 transcription factors are well known for their abilities to regulate gene expression in response to DNA damage. This review will highlight the underappreciated, transcription-independent functions of p53 and E2F1 in modifying chromatin structure in response to DNA damage to promote global NER.

  6. Accessory subunit KChIP2 modulates the cardiac L-type calcium current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten B; Wang, Chaojian; Ozgen, Nazira

    2009-01-01

    Complex modulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ currents through the interplay among Ca2+ channels and various Ca(2+)-binding proteins is increasingly being recognized. The K+ channel interacting protein 2 (KChIP2), originally identified as an auxiliary subunit for K(V)4.2 and a component of the transient...... outward K+ channel (I(to)), is a Ca(2+)-binding protein whose regulatory functions do not appear restricted to K(V)4.2. Consequently, we hypothesized that KChIP2 is a direct regulator of the cardiac L-type Ca2+ current (I(Ca,L)). We found that I(Ca,L) density from KChIP2(-/-) myocytes is reduced by 28......% compared to I(Ca,L) recorded from wild-type myocytes (Pchannel current, as shown in a transfected cell line devoid of confounding cardiac ion currents. I(Ca,L) regulation by KChIP2 was independent of Ca2+ binding...

  7. Changes in testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels in male rat accessory sex organs, serum, and seminal fluid after castration: establishment of a new highly sensitive simultaneous androgen measurement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Bunzo; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Ono, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Ryota; Honma, Seijiro; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    It is known that abnormal androgen dynamics in the tissues is a cause of androgen-dependent disorders. Investigation of tissue androgen levels could provide a clue to the elucidation of disorders. However, it is difficult to measure a trace amount of androgen in the tissues. We established a highly sensitive simultaneous quantification method of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which play the most important roles in the body among androgenic steroids in trace amounts, and investigated time course changes in testosterone and DHT levels in male accessory sex organs, serum, and seminal fluid after castration in rat models. In addition, changes in the testosterone/DHT ratio of male accessory sex organs and seminal fluid were observed. The simultaneous testosterone and DHT measurement method established by us was validated. Intra-assay variation and interassay precision and accuracy were all within +/-20%, and the quantification limits of testosterone and DHT were both 15.6 pg/g. With the use of this method, the testosterone and DHT levels in the prostate, seminal vesicles, and serum immediately after castration were similar to those previously reported. The testosterone and DHT levels were 350 pg/g and 605 pg/g, respectively; which showed dominance of DHT in seminal fluid, although it was not as marked as that in the male accessory sex organs. Androgens decreased with time after castration in the accessory sex organs, serum, and seminal fluid. In the prostate and seminal vesicles, testosterone and DHT decreased to about 50% and about 2% of the normal levels, respectively, 72 hours after castration. The serum levels were under the quantification limits 6 hours after castration and thereafter. In seminal fluid, the testosterone and DHT levels decreased to 49% and 35% of normal levels, respectively, 72 hours after castration. The testosterone/DHT ratio in the male accessory sex organs was lower in the prostate (0.06) than in the seminal vesicles (0

  8. Affi-gel blue treatment simplifies the protein composition of sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, S; Dux, L; Martonosi, A

    1986-04-01

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated by conventional techniques usually contain, in addition to the recognized sarcoplasmic reticulum components, several other proteins (phosphorylase, myosin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, etc.) in variable amounts; these proteins complicate the interpretation of chemical modification data. Incubation of sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles with Affi-Gel blue particles for 1-4 h at 2 degrees C, followed by sedimentation of the Affi-Gel in a clinical centrifuge, simplifies the protein composition by selective adsorption of the accessory proteins, and improves the consistency of the preparations. The Affi-Gel blue treatment is recommended as part of the standard procedure for the isolation of sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles.

  9. Leaving home ain't easy: protein export systems in Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudl, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Transport of proteins into or across biological membranes is catalyzed by membrane-bound transport machineries. In Gram-positive bacteria, the vast majority of proteins are exported out of the cytosol by the conserved general secretion (Sec) system or, alternatively, by the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system, that closely resemble their well-studied counterparts in Gram-negative bacteria. Besides these common major export routes, additional unique protein export systems (such as accessory Sec2 systems and/or type VII/WXG100 secretion systems) exist in some Gram-positive bacteria that are specifically involved in the secretion of limited subsets of proteins.

  10. Geochemical and textural characterization of phosphate accessory phases in the vein assemblage and metasomatically altered Llallagua tin porphyry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betkowski, Wladyslaw B.; Rakovan, John; Harlov, Daniel E.

    2017-03-01

    Petrographic and geochemical characterization of phosphate accessory minerals represents a powerful tool in understanding the mineralization and metasomatic history of one of the world's biggest tin deposits, the Siglo XX mine, Salvadora stock, Llallagua, Bolivia. The Llallagua tin deposit lies in a hydrothermally altered porphyry stock that is part of the subduction-related Bolivian tin belt. Despite numerous studies, there is still a debate over the timing and characteristics of mineralization history of the deposit. Primary igneous fluorapatite and monazite (for the first time) were recognized in the altered porphyry. The igneous monazite is enriched in Th, unlike the hydrothermal monazite that is recognized for its low Th concentration. Fluorapatite, monazite, and xenotime also coexist with cassiterite within the hydrothermal vein assemblage. Fluorapatite and xenotime are essentially pristine. Monazite, however, shows various degrees of alteration in the form of regenerative mineral replacement (RMR). This exemplifies differential reactivity and selective mineral replacement/alteration of three accessory phosphate minerals, that are all important geochemical tracers of magmatic and hydrothermal processes, and which can all be used as geochronometers. Mineral textures and composition in the altered porphyry and vein assemblages have been evaluated. Monazite-xenotime geothermometry indicates monazite crystallization beginning around 550 °C. Monazite continues to grow as temperatures gradually decrease to about 300 °C, when most of cassiterite precipitation occurred in the samples studied. The primary mechanism of phosphate alteration has been identified as a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation process, which led to REE exchange in the igneous fluorapatite and hydrothermal monazite. In Type I local alteration, La and Pr-Nd show continuity across the pre- and post- alteration concentric zones indicating that they were not affected by alteration. This is an

  11. The accessory peroneal (fibular) muscles: peroneus quartus and peroneus digiti quinti. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammine, Kaissar

    2015-08-01

    The denomination of "accessory peroneal muscle" (APM) refers usually to two muscles: the peroneus quartus (PQua) and the peroneus digit quinti (PQui) which were believed to be variants of a same muscle. Their morphology and prevalence show high variation in relevant literature mainly owing to the diverse terminology used to describe this muscle group. The aim of this meta-analysis is to generate more accurate description and frequency of those muscles. A total of 46 studies (3,928 legs/ankles) met the inclusion criteria. The aggregate results were: (a) a true APM prevalence of 16 % with 10.2 % for PQua vs. 34.3 % for PQui; (b) a crude prevalence of 16.6 % for PQua vs. 21.5 % for PQui; (c) a bilateral prevalence of 1.73 % for PQua vs. 12.5 % for PQui; (d) the PQua was significantly more prevalent in Indian populations compared to all other ancestries, and the PQui is significantly more prevalent in Europeans and Americans compared to Japanese and Korean populations; (e) though a tendency for higher frequency was found in males and on the right specimens, no significance was found for gender and side; for (f) the "surgical" occurrence of PQua in studies dealing with peroneal tendon surgery was 5.5 % where peroneal tendon pathology seems to be not associated with the presence of an APM; (g) the MRI prevalence of APM was 10.6 %; (h) APMs took origin from peroneus brevis in 60 %, from the distal fibula in 36 % and from other structures in 4 %; (i) APMs took insertion on retrotroclear eminence of the calcaneum in 53.4 %, on peroneal trochlea in 6.6 %, merged with a peroneal tendon in 9.3 %, and inserted on the extensor apparatus of the 5th toe in 18.4 %. Despite the acknowledged limitation owing to the varied terminology used to describe this accessory muscle group, the significant differences found between the aggregate frequency estimates of each muscle do not support the hypothesis that both muscles are variants of a same structure.

  12. Geochemical and textural characterization of phosphate accessory phases in the vein assemblage and metasomatically altered Llallagua tin porphyry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betkowski, Wladyslaw B.; Rakovan, John; Harlov, Daniel E.

    2017-09-01

    Petrographic and geochemical characterization of phosphate accessory minerals represents a powerful tool in understanding the mineralization and metasomatic history of one of the world's biggest tin deposits, the Siglo XX mine, Salvadora stock, Llallagua, Bolivia. The Llallagua tin deposit lies in a hydrothermally altered porphyry stock that is part of the subduction-related Bolivian tin belt. Despite numerous studies, there is still a debate over the timing and characteristics of mineralization history of the deposit. Primary igneous fluorapatite and monazite (for the first time) were recognized in the altered porphyry. The igneous monazite is enriched in Th, unlike the hydrothermal monazite that is recognized for its low Th concentration. Fluorapatite, monazite, and xenotime also coexist with cassiterite within the hydrothermal vein assemblage. Fluorapatite and xenotime are essentially pristine. Monazite, however, shows various degrees of alteration in the form of regenerative mineral replacement (RMR). This exemplifies differential reactivity and selective mineral replacement/alteration of three accessory phosphate minerals, that are all important geochemical tracers of magmatic and hydrothermal processes, and which can all be used as geochronometers. Mineral textures and composition in the altered porphyry and vein assemblages have been evaluated. Monazite-xenotime geothermometry indicates monazite crystallization beginning around 550 °C. Monazite continues to grow as temperatures gradually decrease to about 300 °C, when most of cassiterite precipitation occurred in the samples studied. The primary mechanism of phosphate alteration has been identified as a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation process, which led to REE exchange in the igneous fluorapatite and hydrothermal monazite. In Type I local alteration, La and Pr-Nd show continuity across the pre- and post- alteration concentric zones indicating that they were not affected by alteration. This is an

  13. Regulation of PCNA-protein interactions for genome stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Niels; Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) has a central role in promoting faithful DNA replication, providing a molecular platform that facilitates the myriad protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions that occur at the replication fork. Numerous PCNA-associated proteins compete for binding...... to a common surface on PCNA; hence these interactions need to be tightly regulated and coordinated to ensure proper chromosome replication and integrity. Control of PCNA-protein interactions is multilayered and involves post-translational modifications, in particular ubiquitylation, accessory factors...... and regulated degradation of PCNA-associated proteins. This regulatory framework allows cells to maintain a fine-tuned balance between replication fidelity and processivity in response to DNA damage....

  14. Folheto mitral acessório: uma causa incomum de estenose subaórtica Accessory mitral leaflet: an uncommon form of subaortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alves Pavione

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Criança de três anos, com estenose subvalvar aórtica sem definição precisa ao ecocardiograma, apresentando como diagnóstico cirúrgico um folheto mitral acessório.Three-years-old boy presenting with a subvalvar aortic stenosis without a precise definition by echocardiography, where the surgical approach revealed an accessory mitral leaflet.

  15. Distribution of lymphocytes, immunoglobulin-containing cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells in the accessory sex glands of rams experimentally infected with Actinobacillus seminis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Acosta-Dibarrat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The distribution of cells involved in the immune response in accessory sex glands of rams experimentally infected with Actinobacillus seminis was studied. Twelve one-year old rams were experimentally infected by intraurethral (IU (n=4 and intraepididymal (IE (n=4 route, and four control (CON animals were used. The animals were slaughtered 35 days post-inoculation, samples were taken from accessory sex glands, and bacteriology and histopathology tests were performed. The presence of CD4, CD8 and TCRγδ (WC1 lymphocytes, CD45RO cells, macrophages (CD14, dendritic cells (CD1b, IgA-, IgG- and IgM-containing cells (IgCC was determined. Animals of the IE group developed clinical epididymitis. No lesions were seen in rams of the IU group; two of the intraepididymal inoculated CON developed small lesions in the epididymis. A. seminis isolates were achieved from 6:16 (37.5% accessory sex glands in the IE group, but not in the IU and CON groups. In the CON group, IgA- and IgM- containing cells predominated in the bulbourethral glands and the disseminated prostate, and they were scarce or null in the vesicles and ampullae. A significant increase of IgA-, IgG- and IgM- containing cells was confirmed in the seminal vesicles, the ampullae and the bulbourethral glands in the IE group. In the IE and IU groups, an increase in CD4, CD8, WC1, CD45RO and CD14 was evidenced in the vesicles and ampullae. CD1b dendritic cells were present in the ampullae and vesicles with inflammatory processes. A. seminis triggered a local immune response in the IE and IU groups. These results indicate a different pattern of infiltrating immune cells in the accessory sex glands of infected A. seminis rams.

  16. Routine- and on-site tests on accessories for EHV-XLPE-insulated cables; Stueck- und Inbetriebnahmepruefung an Garnituren fuer VPE-isolierte Hochspannungskabel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.; Weissenberg, W. [Pirelli Kabel und Systeme GmbH und Co. KG, Kabelwerk Berlin (Germany)

    1998-12-14

    The authors describe their experience with a new measurement system for use in unshielded rooms. By this method accessories for EHV-XLPE-cables were reliably proofed as partial discharge free at routine- as well as on-site tests. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Verfasser berichten ueber die Moeglichkeit, durch Messungen in ungeschirmten Pruefaufbauten sowohl bei der Stueck- als auch bei der Inbetriebnahmepruefung die Teilentladungsfreiheit von Garnituren fuer HS-VPE-Kabelanlagen nachzuweisen. (orig.)

  17. Application of AGV Delivery System in Cigarette Factory Accessories Warehouse%AGV输送系统在烟厂辅料仓库中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘捷

    2015-01-01

    本文介绍了AGV(自动引导小车)输送系统在烟厂辅料仓库中的应用,AGV输送系统提高了烟厂自动化水平和信息化水平.%This paper introduces the application of AGV (automated guided vehicle) delivery system in the cigarette factory accessories warehouse, the AGV delivery system has improved the level of factory automation and informatiza-tion.

  18. Accessory mineral chemistry of high Ba-Sr granites from northern Scotland:constraints on petrogenesis and records of whole-rock signature

    OpenAIRE

    Bruand, Emilie; Storey, Craig; Fowler, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The Rogart and Strontian high Ba–Sr plutons (Northern Highlands, Scotland) comprise a range of lithologies from felsic to ultramafic rocks. The latter are mantle-derived and their differentiation to produce the felsic components of the plutons is the result of fractional crystallization and variable assimilation of the surrounding Moine metasediments. New results presented here demonstrate that accessory mineral chemistry can provide further insight into their petrogenesis and highlight the p...

  19. Dendritic Cells are Critical Accessory Cells for Thymus-Dependent Antibody Responses in Mouse and in Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Kayo; Steinman, Ralph M.; van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Muramatsu, Shigeru

    1983-10-01

    We report that dendritic cells (DC) are necessary and potent accessory cells for anti-sheep erythrocyte responses in both mouse and man. In mice, a small number of DC (0.3-1% of the culture) restores the response of B/T-lymphocyte mixtures to that observed in unfractionated spleen. An even lower dose (0.03-0.1% DC) is needed if the T cells have been primed to antigen. Responses are both antigen and T cell dependent. Selective depletion of DC from unfractionated spleen with the monoclonal antibody 33D1 and complement ablates the antibody response. In contrast to DC, purified spleen macrophages are weak or inactive stimulators. However, when mixed with DC, macrophages can increase the yield of antibody-secreting cells about 2-fold. In man, small numbers (0.3-1%) of blood DC stimulate antibody formation in vitro. Purified human monocytes do not stimulate but in low doses (1% of the culture) inhibit the antibody response. Likewise, selective removal of human monocytes with antibody and complement enhances or accelerates the development of antibody-secreting cells. We conclude that DC are required for the development of T-dependent antibody responses by mouse and human lymphocytes in vitro.

  20. Accuracy of the Electrocardiogram in Localizing the Accessory Pathway in Patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Carlos Manuel; Pereira, Telmo António; Lebreiro, Ana Margarida; Carvalho, Sérgio Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background There are currently several electrocardiographic algorithms to locate the accessory pathway (AP) in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Objective To compare the ability of electrocardiographic algorithms in identifying the location of the AP in patients with WPW pattern referred for ablation. Methods Observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study with 111 patients with WPW syndrome referred for AP ablation. The electrocardiogram (ECG) obtained prior to the ablation was analyzed by an experienced observer who consecutively applied seven algorithms to identify non-invasively the AP. We then compared the location estimated with this assessment with that obtained in the electrophysiological study and calculated the agreement rates. Results Among the APs, 59 (53.15%) were distributed around the mitral annulus and the remaining 52 (46.85%) were located around the tricuspid annulus. The overall absolute accuracy of the algorithms evaluated varied between 27% and 47%, increasing to between 40% and 76% when we included adjacent locations. The absolute agreement rate by AP location was 2.00-52.20% for septal APs (n = 51), increasing to 5.90-90.20% when considering adjacent locations; 7.70-69.20% for right APs (n = 13), increasing to 42.90-100% when considering adjacent locations; and 21.70-54.50% for left APs (n = 47), increasing to 50-87% when considering adjacent locations. Conclusion The agreement rates observed for the analyzed scores indicated a low discriminative ability of the ECG in locating the AP in patients with WPW. PMID:27627222

  1. Extensor pollicis et indicis communis with triple slips in a bilateral case of accessory muscles of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova-Martínez, Daniel; Valdivia-Gandur, Ivan; Golanó, Pau

    2014-09-01

    The presence and disposition of supernumerary tendons in the fourth extensor compartment of the wrist have been described by several authors. The aim of this communication was to describe a finding in a study of an anatomical dissection of an adult cadaver that presents a rare disposition of extensor tendons in the fourth extensor compartment of both wrists. In the right wrist, we found an extensor pollicis et indicis communis with three slips: two toward the index finger and one toward the thumb. We found no similar reports in a review of the literature. Additionally, we found an extensor indicis radialis in the left wrist. In both hands, the course of accessory slips was modified by fiber derived from intertendinous fascia. Although this represents a small percentage of the distribution of tendons of the dorsal hand, knowledge of these anatomical variations and their relationships to intertendinous fascia is critical for clinical decisions because this area is used frequently in treatments related to tendon graft, transfer, and transplantation.

  2. PAXX Is an Accessory c-NHEJ Factor that Associates with Ku70 and Has Overlapping Functions with XLF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish K. Tadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In mammalian cells, classical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ is critical for DNA double-strand break repair induced by ionizing radiation and during V(DJ recombination in developing B and T lymphocytes. Recently, PAXX was identified as a c-NHEJ core component. We report here that PAXX-deficient cells exhibit a cellular phenotype uncharacteristic of a deficiency in c-NHEJ core components. PAXX-deficient cells display normal sensitivity to radiomimetic drugs, are proficient in transient V(DJ recombination assays, and do not shift toward higher micro-homology usage in plasmid repair assays. Although PAXX-deficient cells lack c-NHEJ phenotypes, PAXX forms a stable ternary complex with Ku bound to DNA. Formation of this complex involves an interaction with Ku70 and requires a bare DNA extension for stability. Moreover, the relatively weak Ku-dependent stimulation of LIG4/XRCC4 activity by PAXX is unmasked by XLF ablation. Thus, PAXX plays an accessory role during c-NHEJ that is largely overlapped by XLF’s function.

  3. Front-loaded linezolid regimens result in increased killing and suppression of the accessory gene regulator system of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Brian T; Brown, Tanya; Parasrampuria, Ridhi; Brazeau, Daniel A; Forrest, Alan; Kelchlin, Pamela A; Holden, Patricia N; Peloquin, Charles A; Hanna, Debra; Bulitta, Jurgen B

    2012-07-01

    Front loading is a strategy used to optimize the pharmacodynamic profile of an antibiotic through the administration of high doses early in therapy for a short duration. Our aims were to evaluate the impact of front loading of linezolid regimens on bacterial killing and suppression of resistance and on RNAIII, the effector molecule of the accessory gene regulator system (encoded by agr) in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Time-killing experiments over 48 h were utilized for linezolid against four strains of MRSA: USA100, USA300, USA400, and ATCC 29213. A hollow-fiber infection model simulated traditional and front-loaded human therapeutic regimens of linezolid versus USA300 at 10(6) CFU/ml over 240 h. Over 48 h in time-kill experiments, linezolid displayed bacteriostatic activity, with reductions of >1 log(10) CFU/ml for all strains. Front-loaded regimens that were administered over 5 days, 1,200 mg every 12 h (q12h) (total, 10 doses) and 2,400 mg q12h (total, 10 doses) followed by 300 mg q12h thereafter, resulted in sustained bactericidal activity, with reductions of the area under the CFU curve of -6.15 and -6.03, respectively, reaching undetectable limits at the 10-day study endpoint. All regimens displayed a reduction in RNAIII relative expression at 24 h and 240 h compared with that of the growth control. Monte Carlo simulations predicted a infections, where early aggressive therapy is necessary.

  4. Insights on Virulence and Antibiotic Resistance: A Review of the Accessory Genome of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Adebayo O; Udo, Edet E; Lin, Johnson

    2007-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus continues to be a serious health problem worldwide due to its intrinsic nature of virulence, ability to cause a wide array of infection, and its capacity to develop resistance to a number of antibiotics. The S aureus genome has continually evolved through both mutation and acquisition of exogenous genes, leading to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains with the ability for clonal dissemination across nations and continents. Methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) is one of the most commonly identified antibiotic-resistant pathogens in the hospital and community settings with substantial mortality and morbidity. This review examines the accessory genome of 8 sequenced S aureus strains regarding the variety of virulence factors and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. The remarkable nature of this organism to acquire and disseminate an array of mobile genetic elements (MBEs) through horizontal gene transfer illustrates the mechanisms for evolution and its fitness level in the face of constant environmental challenges. The relative ease of transfer of genetic materials, especially antibiotic-resistant genes, across staphylococcal species indicates that there is a potential pandemic problem in the hospital and community environment.

  5. Enhanced light-harvesting capacity by micellar assembly of free accessory chromophores and LH1-like antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michelle A; Sahin, Tuba; Jiang, Jianbing; Vairaprakash, Pothiappan; Parkes-Loach, Pamela S; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Kirmaier, Christine; Loach, Paul A; Bocian, David F; Holten, Dewey; Lindsey, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    Biohybrid light-harvesting antennas are an emerging platform technology with versatile tailorability for solar-energy conversion. These systems combine the proven peptide scaffold unit utilized for light harvesting by purple photosynthetic bacteria with attached synthetic chromophores to extend solar coverage beyond that of the natural systems. Herein, synthetic unattached chromophores are employed that partition into the organized milieu (e.g. detergent micelles) that house the LH1-like biohybrid architectures. The synthetic chromophores include a hydrophobic boron-dipyrrin dye (A1) and an amphiphilic bacteriochlorin (A2), which transfer energy with reasonable efficiency to the bacteriochlorophyll acceptor array (B875) of the LH1-like cyclic oligomers. The energy-transfer efficiencies are markedly increased upon covalent attachment of a bacteriochlorin (B1 or B2) to the peptide scaffold, where the latter likely acts as an energy-transfer relay site for the (potentially diffusing) free chromophores. The efficiencies are consistent with a Förster (through-space) mechanism for energy transfer. The overall energy-transfer efficiency from the free chromophores via the relay to the target site can approach those obtained previously by relay-assisted energy transfer from chromophores attached at distant sites on the peptides. Thus, the use of free accessory chromophores affords a simple design to enhance the overall light-harvesting capacity of biohybrid LH1-like architectures.

  6. Specific projection of displaced retinal ganglion cells upon the accessory optic system in the pigeon (Columbia livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karten, J H; Fite, K V; Brecha, N

    1977-04-01

    In the pigeon, the nucleus of the basal optic root, a component of the accessory optic system, projects directly upon the vestibulo-cerebellum. This nucleus receives a prominent projection composed of large-diameter retinal axons, known as the basal optic root. The cells of origin of this tract were identified using horseradish peroxidase (donor:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.11.1.7) as a retrograde marker. Injections of horseradish peroxidase confined primarily to the basal optic root nucleus labeled displaced ganglion cells of the contralateral retina. Cell sizes were 18-30 micronm and the dendrites of these cells were confined to the first stratum of the inner plexiform layer. Approximately 3700 displaced ganglion cells were labeled after injections of horseradish peroxidase into basal optic root. In contrast, no displaced ganglion cells were labeled after injections of horseradish peroxidase into the optic tectum, which labeled only cells in the ganglion cell layer proper. These findings indicate that displaced ganglion cells constitute a unique population of retinal neurons that give rise to a bisynaptic pathway directed to the cerebellum via the nucleus of the basal optic root. These displaced ganglion cells may play a major role inoculomotor reflexes.

  7. Cone-beam computed tomography analysis of accessory maxillary ostium and Haller cells: Prevalence and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ibrahim K.; Sansare, Kaustubh; Karjodkar, Freny R.; Vanga, Kavita; Salve, Prashant [Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai (India); Pawar, Ajinkya M. [Dept. of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai (India)

    2017-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Haller cells and accessory maxillary ostium (AMO) in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, and to analyze the relationships among Haller cells, AMO, and maxillary sinusitis. Volumetric CBCT scans from 201 patients were retrieved from our institution's Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine archive folder. Two observers evaluated the presence of Haller cells, AMO, and maxillary sinusitis in the CBCT scans. AMO was observed in 114 patients, of whom 27 (23.7%) had AMO exclusively on the right side, 26 (22.8%) only on the left side, and 61 (53.5%) bilaterally. Haller cells were identified in 73 (36.3%) patients. In 24 (32.9%) they were present exclusively on the right side, in 17 (23.3%) they were only present on the left side, and in 32 (43.8%) they were located bilaterally. Of the 73 (36.3%) patients with Haller cells, maxillary sinusitis was also present in 50 (68.5%). On using chi-square test, a significant association was observed between AMO and maxillary sinusitis in the presence of Haller cells. Our results showed AMO and Haller cells to be associated with maxillary sinusitis. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of CBCT in imaging the bony anatomy of the sinonasal complex with significantly higher precision and a smaller radiation dose.

  8. Unusual hemodynamic stroke related to an accessory middle cerebral artery: The usefulness of fusion images from three-dimensional angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Noguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ischemic stroke associated with an anomaly of the middle cerebral artery (MCA is a rare occurrence. The diagnosis is very difficult when there are steno-occlusive lesions associated with an accessory middle cerebral artery (AMCA. Case Description: A 77-year-old female with hypertension and hyperlipidemia experienced repeated transient ischemic attacks (TIAs of motor aphasia and dysarthria. Although angiography showed only left intracranial occlusion, the fusion images of three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography (3-D DSA showed complex steno-occlusive lesions and an AMCA related with the TIA. The cerebral blood flow (CBF to the left frontal lobe was supplied by the AMCA, via the anterior communicating artery from the right internal carotid artery. The left temporal and parietal lobes were supplied by the stenotic MCA, via the left posterior communicating artery from the left posterior cerebral artery. Single-photon emission computed tomography showed a marked decrease in CBF to both the left frontal and temporal lobes. A left superficial temporal artery (STA-to-left MCA double anastomosis was performed, in which each branch of the STA supplied branches of the AMCA and MCA. Conclusion: This is the first reported case of ischemic stroke in a patient with an AMCA. The exact diagnosis could be made only by using fusion images of 3-D DSA, which were useful for understanding the complicated CBF pattern and for the choice of recipient artery in bypass surgery.

  9. CARACTERIZACIÓN CLÍNICA Y PRONÓSTICA DE LA FIBRILACIÓN AURICULAR POR VÍA ACCESORIA / Clinical and prognostic characterization of atrial fibrillation due to an accessory pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Raimundo Carmona Puerta; Elibet Chávez González; Gustavo Padrón Peña; Ramiro Ramos Ramírez; Eudis Reyes Mozo; Arnaldo Rodríguez León

    2009-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in adults, with a prevalence of 0.4 percent in the general population. It is the main cause of embolic events and serious hemodynamic alterations, having important clinical, social and economic repercussions. Besides, it is the second most frequent arrhythmia in patients with an accessory pathway. The objective of the study is to characterise atrial fibrillation with anterograde conduction through an accessory path...

  10. Genetic difference in the proliferative response to T mitogens between Hi/PHA and Lo/PHA lymphocytes is independent of accessory cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffel, C; Liacopoulos-Briot, M; Decreusefond, C; Parlebas, J

    1987-01-01

    The role of the macrophage as accessory cell in the proliferative response of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was studied in two lines of mice genetically selected for high and low responsiveness to T mitogens. Adherent cell depletion of lymph node cells abrogated the low (Lo)/PHA response, but only partially inhibited the high (Hi)/PHA response. Addition of peritoneal cells provided either by Hi/PHA or by Lo/PHA mice equally restored Hi/PHA responsiveness but had only a slight reconstituting effect on the inhibited Lo/PHA response. Equivalent enhancement or suppression of proliferation of untreated lymph node cells was obtained by the addition of increasing percentages of each of the two peritoneal cell populations. However, the maximum level of the Lo/PHA response never reached that of Hi/PHA cells. These data indicate that the bidirectional selective breeding has not modified the potentialities of the macrophages as accessory cells but has resulted in an impaired response of Lo/PHA lymphocytes to the signals delivered either by accessory cells or by T mitogens.

  11. Use of the accessory genome for characterization and typing of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Jane F; Baddal, Buket; Perry, Claire

    2011-04-01

    Outbreak strains of Acinetobacter baumannii are highly clonal, and cross-infection investigations can be difficult. We sought targets based on AbaR resistance islands and on other genes found in some, but not all, sequenced isolates of A. baumannii among a set of clinical isolates (n = 70) that included multiple representatives of a number of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-defined types. These included representatives that varied in their profiles at two variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci, which can provide discrimination within a PFGE cluster. Detection, or not, of each element sought provided some degree of discrimination among the set, with the presence or absence of genes coding for a phage terminase (ACICU_02185), a sialic acid synthase (ACICU_00080), a polysaccharide biosynthesis protein (AB57_0094), aphA1, bla(TEM), and integron-associated orfX (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes [KEGG] no. K03830) proving the most helpful in discriminating between closely related isolates in our panel. The results support VNTR data in describing distinct populations of highly similar isolates. Such analysis, in combination with other typing methods, can inform epidemiological investigations and provide additional characterization of isolates. Most genotypes carrying bla(OXA-23-like) were PCR positive for a yeeA-bla(OXA-23) fragment found in an AbaR4-type island, suggesting that this is widespread.

  12. TRI mu P - A radioactive-atom mrapping facility at KVI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, G. P. A.; Dammalapati, U.; Dean, S.; Dendooven, P.; Dermois, O.; Jungmann, K.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Sohani, A.; Traykov, E.; Willmann, L.; Wischut, H. W.; Harissopulos, S; Demetriou, P; Julin, R

    2006-01-01

    The TRI mu P facility, under construction at KVI, requires the production and separation of short-lived and rare isotopes. For this purpose, we have designed, constructed and commissioned a versatile magnetic separator that allows efficient injection into an ion catcher, i.e., gas-filled stopper/coo

  13. Study of the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) Vehicle as a Model for Rapid Defense Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    57 Figure 13. DT- C3 Test Overview... IOT &E Initial Operational Test & Evaluation IPT Integrated Product Team IP Issue Point ISO International Organization for...made the capability an urgent 19 operational need. Rather than use the approved LRIP run to conduct the Initial Operational Test & Evaluation ( IOT

  14. Army Programmatic Environmental Assessment of the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) Vehicle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Hazardous Material(s)  Use  Braycote 610  Calcium  Sulphonate ,  Phosporodihioc  acid ,  Naphthenic  acids , Zinc salts  Grease, Misc. initial lubricant  15W40... property   to  achieve  the  highest and best use of the land.  In addition, land use planning should occur to ensure  usage compatibility with the... properties   and  the  Native  American  Graves  Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990  lists cultural  items as cultural  resources.   The  Archeological

  15. A Vibrational Circular Dichroism Microsampling Accessory: Mapping Enhanced Vibrational Circular Dichroism in Amyloid Fibril Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuefang; Li, Honggang; Nafie, Jordan W; Pazderka, Tomáš; Pazderková, Markéta; Dukor, Rina K; Nafie, Laurence A

    2017-06-01

    We report the first vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) measurement of spatial heterogeneity in a sample using infrared (IR) microsampling. Vibrational circular dichroism spectra are typically measured using a standard IR cell with an IR beam diameter of 10 mm or greater making it impossible to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of a solid film sample. We have constructed a VCD sampling assembly with either 3 mm or 1 mm spatial resolution. An XY-translation stage was used to measure spectra at different spatial locations producing IR and VCD maps of the sample. In addition, a rotating sample stage was employed using a dual photoelastic modulator (PEM) setup to suppress artifacts due to linear birefringence in solid-phase or film samples. Infrared and VCD mapping of an insulin fibril film has been carried out at both 3 and 1 mm spatial resolution, and lysozyme films were mapped at 1 mm resolution. The IR spectra of different spots vary in intensity due primarily to sample thickness. The changes in the VCD intensity across the map largely correlate to corresponding changes in the IR map. Closer inspection of the insulin map revealed changes in the relative intensities of the VCD spectra not present in the parent IR spectra, which indicated differences in the degree of supramolecular chirality of the fibrils in the various spatial regions. For lysozyme films, in addition to different degrees of supramolecular chirality, reversal of the net fibril chirality was observed. The large signal-to-noise ratio observed at 1 mm resolution implies the feasibility of further increasing the spatial resolution by one or two orders of magnitude for protein fibril film samples.

  16. Protein import into plant mitochondria: signals, machinery, processing, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcha, Monika W; Kmiec, Beata; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Teixeira, Pedro F; Glaser, Elzbieta; Whelan, James

    2014-12-01

    The majority of more than 1000 proteins present in mitochondria are imported from nuclear-encoded, cytosolically synthesized precursor proteins. This impressive feat of transport and sorting is achieved by the combined action of targeting signals on mitochondrial proteins and the mitochondrial protein import apparatus. The mitochondrial protein import apparatus is composed of a number of multi-subunit protein complexes that recognize, translocate, and assemble mitochondrial proteins into functional complexes. While the core subunits involved in mitochondrial protein import are well conserved across wide phylogenetic gaps, the accessory subunits of these complexes differ in identity and/or function when plants are compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), the model system for mitochondrial protein import. These differences include distinct protein import receptors in plants, different mechanistic operation of the intermembrane protein import system, the location and activity of peptidases, the function of inner-membrane translocases in linking the outer and inner membrane, and the association/regulation of mitochondrial protein import complexes with components of the respiratory chain. Additionally, plant mitochondria share proteins with plastids, i.e. dual-targeted proteins. Also, the developmental and cell-specific nature of mitochondrial biogenesis is an aspect not observed in single-celled systems that is readily apparent in studies in plants. This means that plants provide a valuable model system to study the various regulatory processes associated with protein import and mitochondrial biogenesis.

  17. Hepatitis B Virus Protein X Induces Degradation of Talin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Klundert, Maarten A. A.; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Zaaijer, Hans L.

    2016-01-01

    In the infected human hepatocyte, expression of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) accessory protein X (HBx) is essential to maintain viral replication in vivo. HBx critically interacts with the host damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1) and the associated ubiquitin ligase machinery, suggesting that HBx functions by inducing the degradation of host proteins. To identify such host proteins, we systematically analyzed the HBx interactome. One HBx interacting protein, talin-1 (TLN1), was proteasomally degraded upon HBx expression. Further analysis showed that TLN1 levels indeed modulate HBV transcriptional activity in an HBx-dependent manner. This indicates that HBx-mediated TLN1 degradation is essential and sufficient to stimulate HBV replication. Our data show that TLN1 can act as a viral restriction factor that suppresses HBV replication, and suggest that the HBx relieves this restriction by inducing TLN1 degradation. PMID:27775586

  18. Determination of radon concentration in water using RAD7 with RAD H{sub 2}O accessories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, M. F. I. [Science and Engineering Research Centre (SERC), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan Nibong Tebal 14300 Penang (Malaysia); Rabaiee, N. A.; Jaafar, M. S. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    In the last decade, the radon issue has become one of the major problems of radiation protection. Radon exposure occurs when using water for showering, washing dishes, cooking and drinking water. RAD7 and Rad H20 accessories were used in order to measure radon concentration in water sample. In this study, four types of water were concerns which are reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Reverse osmosis (drinking water) and mineral water were bought from the nearest supermarket while tap water and well water were taken from selected areas of Pulau Pinang and Kedah. Total 20 samples were taken with 5 samples for each type of water. The measured radon concentration ranged from 2.9±2.9 to 79.5±17 pCi/L, 2.9±2.9 to 67.8±16 pCi/L, 15.97±7 to 144.25±24 pCi/L and 374.89±37 to 6409.03±130 pCi/L in reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Well water has the highest radon compared to others. It was due to their geological element such as granite. Results for all types of water are presented and compared with maximum contamination limit (MCL) recommended by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) which is 300pCi/L. Reverse osmosis water, mineral water and tap water were fall below MCL. However, well water was exceeded maximum level that was recommended. Thus, these findings were suggested that an action should be taken to reduce radon concentration level in well water as well as reduce a health risk towards the public.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus interaction with phospholipid vesicles--a new method to accurately determine accessory gene regulator (agr activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisem Laabei

    Full Text Available The staphylococcal accessory gene regulatory (agr operon is a well-characterised global regulatory element that is important in the control of virulence gene expression for Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen. Hence, accurate and sensitive measurement of Agr activity is central in understanding the virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus, especially in the context of Agr dysfunction, which has been linked with persistent bacteraemia and reduced susceptibility to glycopeptide antibiotics. Agr function is typically measured using a synergistic haemolysis CAMP assay, which is believe to report on the level of expression of one of the translated products of the agr locus, delta toxin. In this study we develop a vesicle lysis test (VLT that is specific to small amphipathic peptides, most notably delta and Phenol Soluble Modulin (PSM toxins. To determine the accuracy of this VLT method in assaying Agr activity, we compared it to the CAMP assay using 89 clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Of the 89 isolates, 16 were designated as having dysfunctional Agr systems by the CAMP assay, whereas only three were designated as such by VLT. Molecular analysis demonstrated that of these 16 isolates, the 13 designated as having a functional Agr system by VLT transcribed rnaIII and secreted delta toxin, demonstrating they have a functional Agr system despite the results of the CAMP assay. The agr locus of all 16 isolates was sequenced, and only the 3 designated as having a dysfunctional Agr system contained mutations, explaining their Agr dysfunction. Given the potentially important link between Agr dysfunction and clinical outcome, we have developed an assay that determines this more accurately than the conventional CAMP assay.

  20. Pheromones from males of different familiarity exert divergent effects on adult neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.