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Sample records for accessory palmaris longus

  1. Epifascial accessory palmaris longus muscle.

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    Tiengo, Cesare; Macchi, Veronica; Stecco, Carla; Bassetto, Franco; De Caro, Raffaele

    2006-09-01

    In hand reconstructive surgery the palmaris longus muscle is one of the most utilized donor site for tendon reconstruction procedures. However, its anatomic position is variable and anatomic variations may be responsible for median nerve compression. We report the case of a 40-year-old, right-handed woman, who presented with numbness and paresthesias in the palm and in the flexor aspect of the first, second, and third fingers of her right hand for the preceding 5 months, coinciding with increase of office work (typing). The clinical examination and radiological investigations (ultrasound and magnetic resonance) revealed a subcutaneous mass (15 mm x 2.3 mm x 6 cm), with a lenticular shape and definite edges at the level of the volar aspect of the distal third of the forearm. The fine-needle aspiration biopsy revealed the presence of striated muscle fibers. During surgery, a muscle belly was found in the epifascial plane. This muscle originated from subcutaneous septa in the middle forearm and inserted on to the superficial palmar aponeurosis with fine short tendon fibers. Exposure of the antebrachial fascia did not reveal any area of weakness or muscle herniation. The palmaris longus tendon, flexor digitorum superficialis tendons, and flexor carpi radialis tendon showed usual topography under the antebrachial fascia. The accessory muscle was excised and histology revealed unremarkable striated muscle fibers, limited by a thin connective sheath. The presence of an accessory palmaris longus (APL) located in the epifascial plane could be ascribed to an unusual migration of myoblasts during the morphogenesis. Although extremely rare, APL is worth bearing in mind as a possible cause of median nerve compression and etiology of a volar mass in the distal forearm.

  2. Guyons canal syndrome due to accessory palmaris longus muscle: aetiological classification: a case report

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    Lal, Ramavath Ashok; Raj, Sakamuri

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Accessory muscles and anatomic variations are well described at the Guyon's canal. Though this case report is similar to variants published in previous reports, it differs from the rest due to rapidity of worsening of symptoms in few months following use of cane. Case presentation We report a case of 69 year old man with ulnar nerve compression at Guyon's canal by accessory palmaris longus arose from distal third palmaris longus and from deep fascia of forearm. The hypertrophied ...

  3. ANATOMICAL VARIATION OF PALMARIS LONGUS: TENDINOUS ORIGIN AND FLESHY INSERTION

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    Buddhadeb Ghosh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A tendinous origin and fleshy insertion of palmaris longus muscle was observed in the left forearm during routine dissection which was performed on adult male cadaver in the department of Anatomy, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College. It was having long tendinous origin from the medial epicondyle of the humerus and the surrounding deep fascia. It was fusiform at the lower middle of the forearm. The fleshy muscular insertion was noted to the flexor retinaculum and few muscular fibers interdigitate with flexor carpi ulnaris muscle and palmar aponeurosis. The length of tendon was 19 inches and fleshy muscular length was 11inches. The median nerve and ulnar nerve was covered by this fleshy insertion. This palmaris longus variation is helpful for the surgeon and the radiologist, orthopaedic, plastic surgeon during any diagnosis of the forearm because this fleshy part of muscle can compress the median nerve and ulnar nerve or it can be mistaken as a tumor or ganglion during radiological or clinical examination.

  4. Bilateral reversed palmaris longus muscle with trifid insertion, a rare variation

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    Anita R. Gune

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normally the palmaris longus muscle originates from the medial epicondyle of the humerus from common flexor origin. In the middle of the forearm, the muscle belly forms a tendon which is inserted into the flexor retinaculum and the palmar aponeurosis. In our study after dissection of both forearms of a 45-year-old male cadaver we found a reversed palmaris longus muscle. This means that the palmaris longus muscle was tendinous in its proximal part and muscular in its distal part. The fleshy belly of muscle was passing over flexor retinaculum, was ensheathed by separate fascia. The muscle belly was spreading on both the sides of each palm for insertion which was trifid, that is centrally into palmar aponeurosis, laterally continuous with the fascia covering the thenar muscles and medially with Abductor digit minimi. It was having tendinous interconnection with the muscle mass of both the sides. Bilateral reversed palmaris longus muscle mentioned in the literature, was a surgical finding in a patient who suffered from edema and pain in the wrist. The overuse of the reversed palmaris longus muscle can lead to the muscle's local hypertrophy. As per the literature a reversed palmaris longus muscle may cause a compartment syndrome with pain and edema in the wrist area, the carpal tunnel syndrome and Guyon's syndrome. The variation is also useful to the hand surgeon, as the palmaris longus muscle is an anatomical landmark for operations in this area. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 741-743

  5. Bilateral reversed palmaris longus muscle with trifid insertion, a rare variation

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    Gune, Anita R.; Anand J. Pote; Patil, Ashalata D.; Priya S Patil; Vasudha R. Nikam

    2014-01-01

    Normally the palmaris longus muscle originates from the medial epicondyle of the humerus from common flexor origin. In the middle of the forearm, the muscle belly forms a tendon which is inserted into the flexor retinaculum and the palmar aponeurosis. In our study after dissection of both forearms of a 45-year-old male cadaver we found a reversed palmaris longus muscle. This means that the palmaris longus muscle was tendinous in its proximal part and muscular in its distal part. The fleshy be...

  6. An unusual palmaris longus tendon: variation in the insertion and orientation at the level of wrist joint

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    Kumar V

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Palmaris longus is a muscle often used in reconstructive plastic surgery mainly in tendon transfer procedures for replacement of long flexors of the fingers. It has also been used for many other procedures including ptosis correction, lip augmentation and management of facial paralysis. Absence of palmaris longus in humans appears to be hereditary, but its genetic transmission is not clear. We report here a variant pattern of insertion of palmaris longus, and its probable significants. Any variation in the insertion of tendon of the palmaris longus is gaining importance as it is becoming very popular amongst graft material for reconstructive surgeries.

  7. Morphometric and Statistical Analysis of the Palmaris Longus Muscle in Human and Non-Human Primates

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    Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The palmaris longus is considered a phylogenetic degenerate metacarpophalangeal joint flexor muscle in humans, a small vestigial forearm muscle; it is the most variable muscle in humans, showing variation in position, duplication, slips and could be reverted. It is frequently studied in papers about human anatomical variations in cadavers and in vivo, its variation has importance in medical clinic, surgery, radiological analysis, in studies about high-performance athletes, in genetics and anthropologic studies. Most studies about palmaris longus in humans are associated to frequency or case studies, but comparative anatomy in primates and comparative morphometry were not found in scientific literature. Comparative anatomy associated to morphometry of palmaris longus could explain the degeneration observed in this muscle in two of three of the great apes. Hypothetically, the comparison of the relative length of tendons and belly could indicate the pathway of the degeneration of this muscle, that is, the degeneration could be associated to increased tendon length and decreased belly from more primitive primates to those most derivate, that is, great apes to modern humans. In conclusion, in primates, the tendon of the palmaris longus increase from Lemuriformes to modern humans, that is, from arboreal to terrestrial primates and the muscle became weaker and tending to be missing.

  8. Using a double-layered palmaris longus tendon for suspension of facial paralysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Bakholdt, Vivi; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Facial palsy is a debilitating condition entailing both cosmetic and functional limitations. Static suspension procedures can be performed when more advanced dynamic techniques are not indicated. Since 2006, we have used a double-layered palmaris longus tendon graft through an ovular...

  9. Clinical prevalence of palmaris longus agenesis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Yammine, Kaissar

    2013-09-01

    We report a systematic review and a proportion meta-analysis of prevalence studies evaluating the prevalence of palmaris longus agenesis (PLA) in the literature. The overall PLA rate was defined to be the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were rates of PLA in relation to ethnicity, laterality, side, gender, age, and hand dominance. We identified 26 articles which met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses showed an overall PLA pooled rate of 20.25%, higher than the commonly reported overall rate of 15%. Our results also showed significantly lower pooled rates in Africans (11.3%) and East Asians (4.5%) when compared to Arab Middle Eastern population (41.7%). A subgroup analysis of the African group showed a pooled rate of 2.71%, the lowest, in the East and South East African population. The pooled rate was 26.3% among Caucasians, 26.16% among South and Southeast Asians and 34.13% among Turkish. In discordance with the literature, PLA was statistically more predominant on the right side. No significant differences in PLA rates were found for laterality, gender, the combination of gender and side or the combination of gender and laterality. The lowest rate of PLA found in East and South East African populations might be indicative of the subsequent phylogenetic degeneration of the palmaris longus muscle in modern humans after the "Out of Africa" migration.

  10. Using a double-layered palmaris longus tendon for suspension of facial paralysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Bakholdt, Vivi; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Facial palsy is a debilitating condition entailing both cosmetic and functional limitations. Static suspension procedures can be performed when more advanced dynamic techniques are not indicated. Since 2006, we have used a double-layered palmaris longus tendon graft through an ovular...... follow-up of 49 months (range: 3-89 months). 93% noted an improvement of their facial appearance at follow-up. Seven out of 11 patients with preoperative problems with speech noted an improvement at follow-up. Eight out of 12 patients with preoperative problems with oral competence noted an improvement......, and it improves the quality of life of patients with facial palsy. It is an acceptable alternative when more advanced procedures are not indicated. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  11. The palmaris longus muscle and its relations with the antebrachial fascia and the palmar aponeurosis.

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    Stecco, Carla; Lancerotto, Luca; Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Tiengo, Cesare; Parenti, Anna; Sanudo, Jose Ramon; De Caro, Raffaele

    2009-03-01

    The palmaris longus (PL) is a muscle of the forearm with a long distal tendon that is continuous with the palmar aponeurosis (PA). It is generally assumed that the muscle lies deep to the antebrachial fascia from origin to termination, but a detailed description is lacking. The relationship of the PL tendon with the antebrachial fascia was studied in 30 dissections. The PL was completely absent in six specimens (20%), whereas the PA was identified in all. Average length of the forearm was 25.5 cm (SD: 2.1 cm, range 22-29 cm), overall length of the PL muscle 26.9 cm (SD: 2.6 cm, range 22.5-31.5 cm), muscular belly 13.8 cm (SD: 3.4 cm, range 9.5-23 cm), tendon 13.1 cm (SD: 3.3 cm, range 8-15.5 cm). Proximally, the PL was situated deep to the antebrachial fascia, then in the lower third of the forearm its tendon perforated the antebrachial fascia (at 4.7 +/- 1.7 cm from the bistyloid line) moving to a suprafascial plane, inserting in the PA. The PA could be divided into two layers: the superficial one formed by longitudinal fibers and adherent to the skin, the deep one formed by transverse fibers continuous laterally with the deep fascia of the hand. The PL tendon was found to be in continuity only with the longitudinal fibers of the PA. Based on the anatomical findings, it may be suggested that the superficial part of the PA is situated in the subcutaneous planes of the palm, and that the muscle should be considered as a tensor of the superficial fascial system of the subcutaneous tissue.

  12. Incidence of agenesis of palmaris longus in the Andhra population of India

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    K Devi Sankar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The knowledge of Palmaris longus (PL is a growing interest for its wide role in reconstructive plastic surgeries as a donor tendon for transfer or transplant. The prevalence of the PL agenesis has been well-documented by many authors in different ethnic groups or populations. Many conventional tests for determining the presence of the PL has been described, but lamentably there are many discrepancies in confirming its presence or absence. Slight modifications of the prevailing methods can still give authenticate results. Aim : This prospective study was conducted to determine the incidence of unilateral and bilateral agenesis of PL and its association with sex and side of the limb in the Andhra population of India. Materials and Methods : A total of 942 subjects of both sexes belonging to 18-23 years were used to access the PL using various tendon examination techniques including our modified Schaeffer′s test. The data collected were analyzed by Pearsons χ2 test using SPSS software. Results : Overall agenesis of muscle in both sexes was 264 (28.0%, out of which 40.2% was seen in females and 14.7% in males with the ratio of 3:1. The unilateral agenesis was seen in 70.5% and bilateral agenesis in 29.5% subjects. The left side agenesis was seen in 51.6% and right side in 48.4% subjects. Conclusions : The prevalence of bilateral and unilateral agenesis was more common on left side with a greater likelihood in the female subjects. The proposed technique could bring better results in all subjects and can be implemented in manual examination of PL.

  13. The contribution of the palmaris longus muscle to the strength of thumb abduction.

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    Gangata, Hope; Ndou, Robert; Louw, Graham

    2010-05-01

    The palmaris longus muscle (PLM) is described as a weak flexor of the wrist and a tensor of the palmar aponeurosis, but not a thumb abductor. The PLM is believed to aid thumb abduction through its insertion onto the thenar eminence. Two groups, both right hand dominant, were selected from 1,200 sampled participants. The first group comprised of 38 subjects with unilateral presence of the PLM and was used to determine the strength of thumb abduction. The second group comprised of 30 subjects, with bilateral presence of the PLM, and it was used to calculate the effects of hand dominance. A significant number of subjects with bilateral absence of the PLM were observed and undocumented. Using a dynamometer in subjects with unilateral presence of the PLM, the force of thumb abduction was significantly greater on the hand with a PLM than the one without it (P = 0.014), irrespective of hand dominance. In the second sample with bilateral PLM, thumb abduction on the dominant hand was 10% stronger than on the nondominant hand and was similar to the universally accepted average of 10% increase in grip strength of the dominant hand. Thus, 10% was deducted from all the dominant hands, and the force of thumb abduction remained greater on the hand with PLM than the hand without it (P = 0.049). The results of this study demonstrated the PLM to be involved in thumb abduction, and the authors therefore recommend that this action of the muscle be universally accepted by anatomists and hand surgeons.

  14. Reconstruction of Buccal Mucosa, Upper and Lower Lip Defect Using Free Radial Forearm Flap with Palmaris Longus Tendon: A Case Presentation

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    Kamran Khazaeni

    2011-06-01

    The radial forearm free flap with palmaris longus tendon provides a good functional lip with a reasonable aesthetics in our patient. The patient was satisfied with the result and there were no functional complaints such as drooling reported by him. We think that this flap could be a flap of choice for reconstruction of the large, full thickness lip defects.

  15. Reconstruction of Buccal Mucosa, Upper and Lower Lip Defect Using Free Radial Forearm Flap with Palmaris Longus Tendon: A Case Presentation

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    Kamran Khazaeni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Advanced lip carcinomas can invade adjacent structures. Performing surgery for these cancers will lead to defects in this anatomically and functionally important area and will cause post-op difficulties such as drooling, speech alterations and aesthetic considerations, if not properly managed. Case Report: In this study, we will introduce a radial forearm free flap with palmaris longus tendon to reconstruct a defect of a large lower lip carcinoma. Our patients was a male in the 7th decade of life with an advanced lower lip carcinoma invading the full thickness of the buccal mucosa, left commissure and the left third of the upper lip. Resection was performed with adequate margins; checked by frozen sections and radical modified neck dissection was also performed on the left side. Free radial forearm flap with palmaris longus tendon was harvested and anastomosed in the neck. Four months after surgery commissurroplasty was done and the flap volume reduced Conclusion: The radial forearm free flap with palmaris longus tendon provides a good functional lip with a reasonable aesthetics in our patient. The patient was satisfied with the result and there were no functional complaints such as drooling reported by him. We think that this flap could be a flap of choice for reconstruction of the large, full thickness lip defects.

  16. Bilateral Tensor Fasciae Suralis Muscles in a Cadaver with Unilateral Accessory Flexor Digitorum Longus Muscle

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    Logan S. W. Bale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle variants are routinely encountered in the dissection laboratory and in clinical practice and therefore anatomists and clinicians need to be aware of their existence. Here we describe two different accessory muscles identified while performing educational dissection of a 51-year-old male cadaver. Tensor fasciae suralis, a rare muscle variant, was identified bilaterally and accessory flexor digitorum longus, a more common muscle variant, was present unilaterally. Tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus are clinically relevant muscle variants. To our knowledge, the coexistence of tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus in the same individual has not been reported in either cadaveric or imaging studies.

  17. A Case of Reverse Palmaris Longus Muscle- An Additional Muscle in the Anterior Compartment of the Forearm

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    Bhat, Ashwini Lagadamane Sathynarayana; Gadahad, Mohandas Rao Kappettu

    2016-01-01

    It is uncommon to have additional muscles in the upper limb. Some of them may restrict the movements or compress the nerves and vessels, while others may go unnoticed. During the routine dissection for undergraduate medical students, we observed an additional muscle in the anterior compartment of the forearm in about 60-year-old male cadaver. The muscle had a prominent belly and a long tendon. Distally, it was attached to the flexor retinaculum by a short and thick tendon. Proximally, long tendon of the muscle passed between the flexor carpi ulnaris and palmaris longus and was attached to the common aponeurosis shared by the extensor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum profundus muscles. The additional muscle belly was supplied by a branch from the anterior interosseous nerve. The ulnar nerve and artery was passing deep to the fleshy belly of the muscle. The muscle reported here might compress the ulnar nerve and artery and may produce neurovascular symptoms. On the other hand, the tendon and fleshy belly of the muscle could be useful in muscle/tendon grafts. The observations made by us in the present case will supplement our knowledge of variations of the muscles in this region which could be useful for surgeons during the forearm and hand surgeries. PMID:27134851

  18. Incidence and morphology of accessory heads of flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus (Gantzer's muscles)

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    JONES, M.; ABRAHAMS, P. H.; SAÑUDO, J. R.; CAMPILLO, M.

    1997-01-01

    In 1813 Gantzer described 2 accessory muscles in the human forearm which bear his name (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Testut, 1884; Le Double, 1897). The more frequent of the 2 accessory muscles or ‘accessorius ad pollicem’ was found to arise from the coronoid process of the ulna, coursing distally to attach into the flexor pollicis longus muscle (flexor pollicis longus accessory head, FPLah). The less frequently observed or ‘accessorius ad flexorem profundum digitorum’ was again found to arise from the coronoid process and course to join into the flexor digitorum profundus (flexor digitorum profundus accessory head, FDPah). Since their initial description, they have been examined in further detail by a number of authors (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Le Double, 1897; Dykes & Anson, 1944; Mangini, 1960; Malhotra et al. 1982; Dellon & McKinnon, 1987; Kida, 1988). These studies, most of them focusing on the FPLah, all show different results of prevalence, origin, insertion, relations and nerve supply. We undertook this study with the aim of providing a more accurate account of the detailed morphology of both accessory muscles because of the above-mentioned inconsistent anatomical descriptions and the lack of information as to important aspects such as vascular supply, morphology (shape and length) and the coexistence of both accessory heads. PMID:9419002

  19. Prevalence of the absence of palmaris longus muscle assessed by a new examination test (Hiz-Ediz Test in the population residing in the area of Van, Turkey

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    Metin Erden

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The primary goal of this trial was to show the compatibility between a new test technique (Hiz-Ediz test for detection of palmaris longus muscle (PLM agenesis, which we recently developed, and the former tests, the Schaeffer and Mishra’s second tests.Materials and methods: One thousand cases were enrolled in this trial. Schaeffer’s test, Mishra’s second test and Hiz-Ediz tests were applied to all cases. Examinations were performed to determine differences between genders and both hands. Consistency between all three tests was investigated.Results: In the Hiz-Ediz test, PLM agenesis was determined in 15.1%. No significant difference was found between the rates of unilateral and bilateral tendon agenesis determined by three tests (p>0.05. When the consistency of the three tests was evaluated using the kappa test, full consistency was determined between Mishra’s second and the Hiz-Ediz test; however, full consistency was not determined between the Schaffer’s and the other two tests. But, no statistical difference was found between the three tests.Conclusion: Our results indicate that the prevalence of PLM agenesis is consistent with the available data. The Hiz-Ediz test can be applied easily and safely to determine and to visualize the PLM agenesis, when compared to the Mishra’s second test and the Schaeffer’s test. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 254-259.

  20. The clinical surface anatomy anomalies of the palmaris longus muscle in the Black African population of Zimbabwe and a proposed new testing technique.

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    Gangata, Hope

    2009-03-01

    The presence of the palmaris longus muscle (PLM) is highly variable. Rates of absence vary from 0.6% in the Korean population to as high as 63.9% in the Turkish population. The tendon of PLM may be absent on one or both forearms, may have duplicated tendons on one forearm or may be laterally shifted to the extent that the tendon of the PLM lies superficial to that of flexor carpi radialis muscle. Among Black American populations, in which there is usually mixed ancestry, rates of absence are 3.5%. Only two studies have been performed on Black African populations: in Republic of Congo and Uganda, and each showed widely differing rates of absence of 3.0% and 14.6%, respectively. In this study, a total of 890 Black Zimbabwean subjects in Harare aged between 8 and 13 years, were examined for clinical surface anatomy anomalies of the tendon of PLM. The results showed that the tendon of the PLM was absent unilaterally in 0.9% of the population, and bilaterally absent in 0.6% with an overall rate of absence of 1.5%. Other variations noted were a laterally shifted PLM in 1.1% of subjects and duplicated tendons on one forearm, which was the least prevalent anomaly, in 0.2% of subjects. The author proposes a new technique to test the tendon of PLM, which combines resisted thumb abduction and resisted wrist flexion. The proposed technique capitalizes on the role of the PLM as an important abductor of the thumb.

  1. Stenosing Tenosynovitis of the Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Associated with the Plantar Capsular Accessory Ossicle at the Interphalangeal Joint of the Great Toe

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    Song Ho Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus tendon associated with the plantar capsular accessory ossicle at the interphalangeal joint of the great toe, which was confirmed by intraoperative observation and was successfully treated with surgical resection of the ossicle. As the plantar capsular accessory ossicle was not visible radiographically due to the lack of ossification, ultrasonography was helpful for diagnosing this disorder.

  2. Stenosing Tenosynovitis of the Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Associated with the Plantar Capsular Accessory Ossicle at the Interphalangeal Joint of the Great Toe

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    Chang, Song Ho; Naito, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    This report presents a case of stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus tendon associated with the plantar capsular accessory ossicle at the interphalangeal joint of the great toe, which was confirmed by intraoperative observation and was successfully treated with surgical resection of the ossicle. As the plantar capsular accessory ossicle was not visible radiographically due to the lack of ossification, ultrasonography was helpful for diagnosing this disorder. PMID:28255483

  3. The prevalence and anatomical characteristics of the accessory head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle: a meta-analysis

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    Joyeeta Roy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. The accessory head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle (AHFPL, also known as the Gantzer’s muscle, was first described in 1813. The prevalence rates of an AHFPL significantly vary between studies, and no consensus has been reached on the numerous variations reported in its origin, innervation, and relationships to the Anterior Interosseous Nerve (AIN and the Median Nerve (MN. The aim of our study was to determine the true prevalence of AHFPL and to study its associated anatomical characteristics.Methods. A search of the major electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science was performed to identify all articles reporting data on the prevalence of AHPFL in the population. No date or language restriction was set. Additionally, an extensive search of the references of all relevant articles was performed. Data on the prevalence of the AHFPL in upper limbs and its anatomical characteristics and relationships including origin, insertion, innervation, and position was extracted and pooled into a meta-analysis using MetaXL version 2.0.Results. A total of 24 cadaveric studies (n = 2,358 upper limb were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of an AHFPL was 44.2% (95% CI [0.347–0.540]. An AHFPL was found more commonly in men than in women (41.1% vs. 24.1%, and was slightly more prevalent on the right side than on the left side (52.8% vs. 45.2%. The most common origin of the AHFPL was from the medial epicondyle of the humerus with a pooled prevalence of 43.6% (95% CI [0.166–0.521]. In most cases, the AHFPL inserted into the flexor pollicis longus muscle (94.6%, 95% CI [0.731–1.0] and was innervated by the AIN (97.3%, 95% CI [0.924–0.993].Conclusion. The AHFPL should be considered as more a part of normal anatomy than an anatomical variant. The variability in its anatomical characteristics, and its potential to cause compression of the AIN and MN, must be taken into account

  4. Palmaris brevis spasm syndrome.

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    SERRATRICE, G.; Azulay, J.P.; Serratrice, J; Pouget, J

    1995-01-01

    Palmaris brevis spasm syndrome is a rare and benign condition of localised muscular hyperactivity. In five men, the hypothenar eminence underwent spontaneous, irregular, tonic contractions of the palmaris brevis muscle. An EMG showed spontaneous high frequency discharges of normal motor units, without evidence of neuropathy or of nerve compression. This syndrome resembles other restricted muscle hyperactivity syndromes although there are some differences. Curiously, the palmaris brevis muscle...

  5. A variation of the palmaris profundus muscle

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    Stark ME

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available During routine anatomical dissection of the anterior compartment of the forearm region, a tendinous-musculo-tendinous muscle was found on the right forearm originating from the medial aspect of the radial shaft and inserting into the palmar aponeurosis. The muscle coursed deep to pronator teres muscle, parallel and lateral to the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle and deep to the tendon of the flexor carpi radialis. Distally, the muscle tendon coursed under the flexor retinaculum and it was invested with the median nerve by a common fascial sheath. The muscle was found in the presence of an intact palmaris longus muscle. Because of its attachments and course, the muscle was classified as a palmaris profundus muscle. Several subtypes of palmaris profundus muscles have been reported. To our knowledge this is the first case of a palmaris profundus with a tendon originating from the medial aspect of the radial diaphysis, a muscular portion and a distal tendon inserting in the palmar aponeurosis. Anatomical variations of muscles in the flexor compartment of the forearm may have functional, diagnostic, and surgical implications.

  6. Transplantation of autogenous palmaris longus tendon combined with suture anchor fixation in the treatment of aromioclavicular dislocations%自体掌长肌移植重建喙锁韧带结合带线锚钉固定治疗肩锁关节脱位的疗效

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    罗吉伟; 余斌; 魏宽海; 覃承诃; 胡岩君

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinically,acromioclavicular dislocation is a common disease.Whether surgical treatment should be taken or not depends on the type and degree of the inj ury,as well as the symptoms,ages,occupation,exercise requirements,and other factors of patients.Acromioclavicular dislocation can be classified as six types (degrees)according to Rockwood.The injury with obvious symptoms above Ⅲ degree is generally considered as an important operation indication.The key point in the surgical treatment of acromioclavicular dislocation is to select appropriate methods for the acromioclavicular joint fixation after reduction.There are many choices of the internal fixation to fix the acromioclavicular joint,such as the Kirschner wire and tension band,the clavicular hook plate or anatomical plate for the coracoclavicular joint fixation,and the cannulated screws,steel wires or suture anchors for the coracoclavicular fixation.The selection of these fixations can be combined with debridement of the acromioclavicular joint,the distal clavicle resection,or stitching and reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligament.Most of these surgical procedures have obtained better results. However,the internal fixation failure,displacement or dislocation after the fixation removal sometimes happened.Considering that the coracoclavicular ligament plays an important role for the acromioclavicular joint stability,researchers has gradually paid more attentions to the reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligament recently.The repair methods include the direct suture,the partial ligament displacement,the autologous tendon graft,and the tendon graft transplantation.We chose a simple,less traumatic method for the acromioclavicular dislocations,which is autogenous palmaris longus muscle transplant combined with the suture anchor fixation,and achieved satisfactory results. Methods (1)General information:A total of 30 cases aged from 17 to 55 years (mean 31 years)with acromioclavicular

  7. Free Autogenous Double Palmaris Longus Muscle Transplantation: A New Approach to the Treatment of tie Fecal Incontinence%自体双掌长肌游离移植肛门括约肌复合体重建术治疗小儿肛门失禁(附18例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贵林; 马承宣; 高艳华; 李力军

    1987-01-01

    本文报告使用双掌长肌游离移植治疗小儿肛门失禁18例,术后随诊有16例疗效满意.手术要点是利用一条肌肉替代外括约肌复合体的顶环,另一条肌肉替代中间环,两肌重获神经支配和血液循环后反向收缩,通过"绞锁机制"有效关闭肛门,节约肌能,弥补横纹肌容易疲劳的缺点.较移植一条肌肉仅替代耻骨直肠肌的手术有明显优越性.本文还探讨了脊膜膨出术后肛门失禁的治疗问题.%This paper presents a new approach to the treatment of sick children with the anal incontinence . The procedure in autogenous transplantation consists of two steps: the bilateral palma-ris longus denervation, and the free muscle transplantation. Ordinarily, two weeks after the first step is taken, the denervated muscles are transplanted as slings around the rectum, in such positions that they can perform the functions of the top loop and the intermediate loop of external sphincter complex. The contraction of the transplanted top muscle draws the posterior anal wall anteriorly while the contraction of the transplanted intermediate loop sling draws the anterior wall posteriorly. As the transplanted muscles are voluntary muscles, they are fatigued easily.The double muscles effect an anal occlusion not only through direct compression but also through the "kinking mechanism" which causes a rapid and tight closure with the least muscular energy. The cross-loop arrangement could provide the muscle with the maximal efficiency necessary for its funtional performance.From 1984 to 1986 this procedure was followed up in 18 cases of fecal incontinence. It is believed that new approach is better than single muscle transplantation.

  8. Porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Vineet

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old woman had porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata with unusual features. These included the sex of the patient, absence of family history of similar disease, onset of lesions on the shins and a significant furrow. There was also associated diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata falls in the middle of the spectrum of porokeratoses.

  9. Multiple tendons of abductor pollicis longus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur DI

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Anatomic variations of the tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL and its knowledge is important to assess the diseased and traumatized hand and when considering tendons for repair or graft. During routine dissection of a 63-year-old male cadaver, in the Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India we came across an unusual APL in the right upper limb. The muscle had altogether 9 tendons and they were inserted to the lateral and anterolateral sides of the base of the 1st metacarpal bone, opponens pollicis (two tendons each, the abductor pollicis brevis, trapezium and thenar fascia (one tendon each. The number of accessory tendons of APL has functional significance in the development of de Quervain’s syndrome.

  10. Flexor Digitorum Accessorius Longus: Importance of Posterior Ankle Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Jorge Pablo; del Vecchio, Jorge Javier; Golanó, Pau; Vega, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopy for the posterior region of the ankle through two portals is becoming more widespread for the treatment of a large number of conditions which used to be treated with open surgery years ago. The tendon of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) travels along an osteofibrous tunnel between the posterolateral and posteromedial tubercles of the talus. Chronic inflammation of this tendon may lead to painful stenosing tenosynovitis. The aim of this report is to describe two cases depicting an accessory tendon which is an anatomical variation of the flexor hallucis longus in patients with posterior friction syndrome due to posterior ankle impingement and associated with a posteromedial osteochondral lesion of the talus. The anatomical variation (FDAL) described was a finding during an endoscopy of the posterior region of the ankle, and we have spared it by sectioning the superior flexor retinaculum only. The accessory flexor digitorum longus is an anatomical variation and should be taken into account when performing an arthroscopy of the posterior region of the ankle. We recommend this treatment on this type of injury although we admit this does not make a definite conclusion. PMID:26060592

  11. Flexor Digitorum Accessorius Longus: Importance of Posterior Ankle Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pablo Batista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopy for the posterior region of the ankle through two portals is becoming more widespread for the treatment of a large number of conditions which used to be treated with open surgery years ago. The tendon of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL travels along an osteofibrous tunnel between the posterolateral and posteromedial tubercles of the talus. Chronic inflammation of this tendon may lead to painful stenosing tenosynovitis. The aim of this report is to describe two cases depicting an accessory tendon which is an anatomical variation of the flexor hallucis longus in patients with posterior friction syndrome due to posterior ankle impingement and associated with a posteromedial osteochondral lesion of the talus. The anatomical variation (FDAL described was a finding during an endoscopy of the posterior region of the ankle, and we have spared it by sectioning the superior flexor retinaculum only. The accessory flexor digitorum longus is an anatomical variation and should be taken into account when performing an arthroscopy of the posterior region of the ankle. We recommend this treatment on this type of injury although we admit this does not make a definite conclusion.

  12. ACCESSORY SPLEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accessory spleen is a small nodule of splenic tissue found apart from main body of spleen. Other name for accessory spleen is supernumerary spleen, splenule or splenunculus. It is usually congenital failure of fusion of splenunculus found close to hilum of spleen, greater omentum, tail of pancreas. Accessory spleen is found approximately in 10% population. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study 100 cadaveric spleens obtained from routine dissection, specimens present in Department of Anatomy, Andhra Medical College, Vishakhapatnam in 3 years span, out of which 25 are foetal spleens, 75 are adult spleens. RESULTS We got 4 accessory spleens in adult and 1 in foetal spleen. CONCLUSION The knowledge of accessory spleen is medically significant. That they may result in interpretation errors in diagnostic imaging and symptoms may be continued after splenectomy.

  13. Calcifications simulating peroneus longus tendinitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, A. de; Illum, F.; Joergensen, J.

    1984-06-01

    In two patients with sprains of the ankle joint calcification adjacent to the posterior tibial margin was evident in the lateral projection of a standard radiographic examination. Calcifying peroneus longus tendinitis was suggested. Further tangential views and computed tomography (CT) scan disclosed, however, that the calcifications in both patients were located in the tibial insertion of the posterior and inferior tibio-fibular ligament. In such cases, a correct diagnosis will avoid unnecessary treatment for a non-existent tendinitis.

  14. Flexor accessorius longus: A rare variation of the deep extrinsic digital flexors of the leg and its phylogenetic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaijesh P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies of the calf muscles are rare. One such anomalous muscle, known as the Muscle Flexor accessorius longus (also named accessorius ad accessorium, accessorius secondus, accessory flexor digitorum longus or pronator pedis is of morphological significance. When present, this originates in the deep fascia of the tibia or fibula and inserts in the foot either into the flexor digitorum accessorius or into the tendons of the flexor digitorum longus. In this report we present a discussion of the morphological significance and phylogenetic history of one such muscle observed. In this case report we describe an anomalous calf muscle which extends from the popliteal region, runs along the posterior compartment of the leg, reaches the sole and is inserted to the flexor digitorum longus muscle. This kind of muscle variations are considered to be the higher origin of the flexor digitorum accessorius muscle of the sole. Here we discuss the phylogenetic history of this muscle as this muscle variant is present in some primitive mammals, absent in apes and in this particular case appeared as one of the muscles of the flexor compartment of the leg.

  15. A Rare Case of Adductor Longus Muscle Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kimmenade, R. J. L. L.; van Bergen, C. J. A.; van Deurzen, P. J. E.; Verhagen, R. A. W.

    2015-01-01

    An adductor longus muscle rupture is a rare injury. This case report describes a 32-year-old patient with an adductor longus rupture. The trauma mechanism was a hyperabduction movement during a soccer game. Nonoperative treatment was initiated. After a follow-up of 4 years, the patient was without pain but a small swelling was still visible. This report describes the anatomy, pathophysiology, and evidence-based treatment of adductor longus rupture. PMID:25918663

  16. A Rare Case of Adductor Longus Muscle Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. L. L. van de Kimmenade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An adductor longus muscle rupture is a rare injury. This case report describes a 32-year-old patient with an adductor longus rupture. The trauma mechanism was a hyperabduction movement during a soccer game. Nonoperative treatment was initiated. After a follow-up of 4 years, the patient was without pain but a small swelling was still visible. This report describes the anatomy, pathophysiology, and evidence-based treatment of adductor longus rupture.

  17. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  18. Adductor longus tendon rupture mistaken for incarcerated inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Bas R J; Plaisier, Peter W; Jakma, Tijs S C

    2014-03-01

    An incarcerated inguinal hernia is a common diagnosis, since the risk of an inguinal hernia incarcerating or strangulating is around 0.3-3%. An acute rupture of the adductor longus tendon is rarely seen and mostly affects (semi-) professional sportsmen. We present a case of a patient with an assumed incarcerated inguinal hernia which turned out to be a proximal adductor longus tendon rupture. If patients without a history of inguinal hernia present themselves with acute groin pain after suddenly exorotating the upper leg, a rupture of the adductor longus tendon should be considered. Both surgical and non-surgical treatment can be performed.

  19. Orthopedic symptoms in pustular bacterid (pustulosis palmaris et plantaris): Tietze's syndrome and arthritis of manubriosternal joint due to focal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, A; Nishiyama, Y; Endo, M; Kawaji, W; Kato, T

    1977-04-01

    Painful orthopedic symptoms in the sternal area, such as arthritis of the manubriosternal and sternoclavicular joint or Tietze's syndrome, were found in 14 of 132 cases of pustulosis palmaris et plantaris. The majority of the pustulosis palmaris et plantaris patients with orthopedic symptoms had skin eruptions not only on the palms and soles, but also on the backs of the hands and feet, the arms, the legs and the trunk. Such cases were usually accompanied by elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leucocytosis, changes in serum globulin, and also pyrexia at the time of exacerbation. The skin and orthopedic symptoms often worsened after acute exacerbation of the focal infection, and occasionally responded to tonsillectomy or chemotherapy with antibiotics, which is suggestive of the probable cause of the bacterid.

  20. [Neck pain due to tendonitis of the longus colli muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coebergh, Jan Adriaan; Koppen, Hille; van Gils, Ad P; de Bruijn, Bas F

    2010-01-01

    Two patients presented to Accidents and Emergency with severe neck pain: a 70-year-old woman with acute, severe neck pain, which had developed a few days after outpatient resection of her left lingual tonsil. The patient was suspected to have spondylodiscitis. The other patient, a 54-year-old woman, was referred with severe neck pain and suspected meningitis. In both women, the pain was diagnosed as acute calcifying tendonitis of the longus colli muscle. This benign condition can present to many different specialities. Both patients responded well to treatment with NSAIDs. Acute calcifying tendonitis of the longus colli muscle can be diagnosed using various imaging techniques, such as X-ray, CT or MRI imaging. Calcification on cervical CT or a high signal on T2-weighted MRI images of the longus colli muscle are pathognomonic of tendonitis. A correct diagnosis can prevent further invasive diagnostics and/or unnecessary treatment.

  1. Rupture of adductor longus tendon due to ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzopoulos, George; Stamatakos, Mihalis; Vasiliadis, George; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2005-12-01

    We present a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the adductor longus tendon induced by ciprofloxacin. A 35-year-old man was diagnosed with pneumonia and was recommended ciprofloxacin 500 mg iv twice a day for 7 days. Three days after receiving the initial dose, he developed discomfort in his left medial thigh, and pain and swelling in the same area followed ten days later. He consulted us when he noted a palpable mass on the medial side of his left thigh, and MRI study revealed adductor longus tendon rupture. There was no obvious underlying disease or other factor causing fragility of his adductor longus tendon. We review the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to fluoroquinolone-related tendon rupture as well as the risk factors and discuss proper management.

  2. Surgical technique for treatment of recalcitrant adductor longus tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Thomas J; Carroll, Kaitlin M; Makani, Amun; Wall, Andrew J; Dumont, Guillaume D; Cohn, Randy M

    2014-04-01

    Chronic groin pain in the athlete can be a difficult problem to manage. Adductor dysfunction is the most common cause of groin pain in athletes, with the adductor longus being the tendon most commonly involved. The most reproducible finding for adductor longus tendinopathy is tenderness along the tendon with passive abduction and resisted hip adduction in extension. Magnetic resonance imaging and injection of a corticosteroid and anesthetic into the proximal muscle-tendon junction are both helpful in confirming the diagnosis. Nonoperative treatment may consist of protected weight bearing, ice application, ultrasonography, electrical stimulation, and gentle stretching with progressive strengthening. However, nonoperative management is not always successful. In these instances, surgical treatment can be quite effective. We present the indications, surgical technique, and rehabilitation protocol of adductor tenotomy for chronic tendinopathy. This can prove a useful tool for the treatment of recalcitrant groin pain attributable to the adductor longus.

  3. Bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Tsikaras, Prokopios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2006-09-01

    The subscapular artery arises from the third part of the axillary artery and gives off the circumflex scapular and the thoracodorsal arteries. Although anatomical variations of the axillary artery are very common, the existence of a unilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery has been described in the literature only once. There are no reports of bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, in the literature. In the present study, a bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, originating on either side of the third part of the axillary artery, is described in a 68-year-old female cadaver. All the other branches of the axillary artery had a typical origin, course, distribution and termination. This extremely rare anatomical variation apart from the anatomical importance also has clinical significance for surgeons in this area. Especially, during the dissection or mobilization of the latissimus dorsi that is partly used for coverage problems in many regions of the body and also in dynamic cardiomyoplasty, any iatrogenic injury of this accessory artery may result in ischemia and functional loss of the graft.

  4. Radiologic findings of the flexor pollicis longus hypoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alicioglu, Banu [Trakya University Medical School, Department of Radiologyy, Edirne (Turkey)

    2007-06-15

    A case of a 10-year-old boy with hypoplasia of the flexor pollicis longus and without other associated anomalies and trauma history is reported. Flexor pollicis longus tendon anomalies are rare; several types of this congenital anomaly have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis should be considered to the conditions of a patient who was unable to flex the interphalangeal joint of the thumb. Hypoplastic thumb or absent interphalangeal joint crease may be a diagnostic feature in such cases. We preoperatively present the radiological findings of this rare congenital anomaly. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features have never been reported in the literature. (orig.)

  5. Clinical recovery of two hip adductor longus ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Petersen, Jesper; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2013-01-01

    was evaluated using hip-strength assessments, self-report and ultrasonography until complete muscle-strength recovery of the hip adductors had occurred. The player was able to participate in a full soccer training session without experiencing pain 15 weeks after the first rupture, and 12 weeks after the second...... rupture. Full hip adductor muscle-strength recovery was obtained 52 weeks after the first rupture and 10 weeks after the second rupture. The adductor longus injuries, as verified by initial ultrasonography (10 days post-injury), showed evidence of a complete tendon rupture in both cases, with an almost......BACKGROUND: Non-operative treatment of acute hip adductor longus ruptures in athletes has been described in the literature. However, very limited information concerning the recovery of this type of injury exists. This case represented a unique possibility to study the recovery of two acute adductor...

  6. Anomalous course of the extensor pollicis longus: clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Guy; Wolovelsky, Alejandro; Rinott, Micha; Rozen, Nimrod

    2011-11-01

    The extensor pollicis longus (EPL) is a consistent structure with rare anomalies, the most common being a group of different tendon duplications passing through the fourth compartment without symptoms. The second form comprises anomalies in the course of the EPL having significant clinical importance due to the predisposition for creating tenosynovitis of the EPL mimicking other types of tendon tenosynovitis. Clinical symptoms of radial dorsal wrist pain mimicking intersection syndrome or de-Quervain disease with the "absent snuff box" sign should raise suspicions for an anomaly in the course of the EPL.

  7. Periostin in the Cancer Stroma of Mycosis Fungoides Palmaris et Plantaris: A Case Report and Immunohistochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Tanita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycosis fungoides palmaris et plantaris (MFPP is a rare variant of mycosis fungoides limited to the palms and soles. Although little is known about the pathogenesis of MFPP, this variant of mycosis fungoides presents a relatively good prognosis. In this report, we describe an 85-year-old Japanese man with MFPP. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the dense deposition of periostin in the cancer stroma, as well as infiltration of CD163+CD206- tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs, which suggested the phenotypes of TAMs were not polarized to the M2 phenotype in the lesional skin of MFPP. Our present case might suggest one of the possible reasons for the good prognosis of MFPP.

  8. Periostin in the Cancer Stroma of Mycosis Fungoides Palmaris et Plantaris: A Case Report and Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanita, Kayo; Fujimura, Taku; Kakizaki, Aya; Furudate, Sadanori; Mizuashi, Masato; Watabe, Akiko; Aiba, Setsuya

    2016-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides palmaris et plantaris (MFPP) is a rare variant of mycosis fungoides limited to the palms and soles. Although little is known about the pathogenesis of MFPP, this variant of mycosis fungoides presents a relatively good prognosis. In this report, we describe an 85-year-old Japanese man with MFPP. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the dense deposition of periostin in the cancer stroma, as well as infiltration of CD163(+)CD206(-) tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which suggested the phenotypes of TAMs were not polarized to the M2 phenotype in the lesional skin of MFPP. Our present case might suggest one of the possible reasons for the good prognosis of MFPP.

  9. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  10. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual... Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A manual operating table and accessories and a manual operating chair...

  11. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A wheelchair accessory is a device intended for medical purposes that is...

  12. Building iPhone OS Accessories

    CERN Document Server

    Maskrey, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a serious, in-depth look at Apple's External Accessory Framework and the iPhone Accessories API. You'll learn how to create new, integrated solutions that combine iPhone apps with dedicated hardware. The iPhone OS Accessories API expands the opportunities for innovative iPhone developers, allowing you to control and monitor external devices, whether you've built them yourself or obtained them from a third party. What you'll learn * Develop accessories and apps for the iPhone and iPod touch. * Use Apple's External Accessory Framework to create hardware/software interaction. *

  13. Surgical Management of a Completely Avulsed Adductor Longus Muscle in a Professional Equestrian Rider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conal Quah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Avulsion injuries of the adductor longus muscle tendon are rare and a challenge to manage especially in athletes. There has been little published literature on the outcome of conservative and operative treatment for these injuries. We report the first case of an acute adductor longus avulsion injury which was surgically repaired in a professional equestrian rider. Return to full preinjury function was achieved at 3 months with surgical repair using 3 suture anchors.

  14. Cortical excitability differences between flexor pollicis longus and APB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jong Seok; Menon, Parvathi; Mioshi, Eneida; Kiernan, Matthew C; Vucic, Steve

    2013-04-29

    Although abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and flexor pollicis longus (FPL) share a common peripheral nerve supply, these muscles subserve different functions and may be differently affected in neurodegenerative disease such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As a consequence, differences in cortical excitability may potentially develop in relation to these functional differences. Cortical excitability was assessed using the threshold tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technique in 15 healthy controls with motor responses recorded over the APB and FPL using surface electrode recordings. Short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) was significantly reduced from the FPL compared to APB (SICIFPL 6.9±1.8%; SICIAPB 10.7±1.4%, P<0.01). In addition, the FPL motor evoked potential amplitude (MEPFPL 14.7±2.3%; MEPAPB 21.7±3.9%; P<0.01) and cortical silent period duration (CSPFPL 174.7±6.7ms; CSPAPB 205.4±3.9ms, P<0.01) were significantly smaller. The findings in the present study indicate that cortical inhibition and corticomotoneuronal output is reduced when recording over the FPL. The differences in cortical excitability may develop as a consequence of varied function and could potentially explain the dissociated muscle atrophy evident in ALS.

  15. MRI of the tibioastragalus anticus of Gruber muscle: a rare accessory muscle and normal anatomical variant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, Yaron; Amiras, Dimitri [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); St Mary' s Hospital, Imaging Department, QEQM, London (United Kingdom); Mushtaq, Nadeem [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    We present the case of a 31-year-old man who sustained a hyperplantar flexion injury of his right ankle, and was evaluated using computed tomography and MRI to assess for osseous and ligamentous injury. The MRI and CT studies demonstrated a tibioastragalus anticus of Gruber (TAAG) muscle in the lower limb's anterior compartment. To our knowledge, the imaging of this muscle has not been previously described. The TAAG muscle arises from the lower third of the anterolateral tibia and the interosseous membrane. Its tendon passes laterally, deep to the tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus tendons, and inserts onto the anterior superolateral neck of the talus in a fan-like manner. Knowledge and recognition of this tendon are important for both diagnostic accuracy and surgical planning, and could potentially be used as a tendon transfer or graft in the appropriate clinical setting. The presence of this accessory muscle should not be confused with a pathological condition. (orig.)

  16. Locally vascularized pelvic accessory spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, F; Frantellizzi, V; Drudi, Francesco M; Maghella, F; Liberatore, M

    2016-01-01

    Polysplenism and accessory spleen are congenital, usually asymptomatic anomalies. A rare case of polysplenism with ectopic spleen in pelvis of a 67-year-old, Caucasian female is reported here. A transvaginal ultrasound found a soft well-defined homogeneous and vascularized mass in the left pelvis. Patient underwent MRI evaluation and contrast-CT abdominal scan: images with parenchymal aspect, similar to spleen were obtained. Abdominal scintigraphy with 99mTc-albumin nanocolloid was performed and pelvic region was studied with planar scans and SPECT. The results showed the presence of an uptake area of the radiopharmaceutical in the pelvis, while the spleen was normally visualized. These findings confirmed the presence of an accessory spleen with an artery originated from the aorta and a vein that joined with the superior mesenteric vein. To our knowledge, in the literature, there is just only one case of a true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen in the pelvis.

  17. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power

  18. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  19. The accessory fallopian tube: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum R Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rare anatomical variation in the form of accessory fallopian tube on right side. The duplication of fallopian tube was observed in a 34-year-old female during routine undergraduate dissection in our department. Fallopian tube is the part of uterus that carries the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. Accessory fallopian tube is the congenital anomaly attached to the ampullary part of main tube. This accessory tube is common site of pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, cystic swelling and torsion. The ovum released by the ovary may also be captured by the blind accessory tube leading to infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Hence, all patients of infertility or pelvic inflammatory disease should be screened to rule out the presence of accessory fallopian tube and if encountered should be removed.

  20. A case report: accessory right renal artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patasi B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations in the origin of the arteries in the abdominal area are very common. The arteries that show frequent variations include the celiac trunk, renal and gonadal arteries. During a routine dissection of a male cadaver, one main and one inferior accessory renal artery were found in the abdominal region. We discovered that the inferior accessory renal artery that originated from the right anterolateral aspect of abdominal aorta was running into the lower pole of the right kidney. The origin of the main right renal artery and the inferior accessory right renal artery were 19.8 mm and 53 mm below the superior mesenteric artery, respectively. The inferior accessory right renal artery ran directly into the inferior pole of the right kidney, in the area where the accessory right renal vein was leaving the right kidney. These anatomical variations and anomalies are important to know before any therapeutic or diagnostic procedures are performed in the abdominal area.

  1. A rare case of neck pain: acute longus colli calcific tendinitis in a possibly immunocompromised individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimable, Kerlie; Rizk, Cynthia; Pujalte, George G A

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of severe neck pain in a 45-year-old man with severe hidradenitis suppurativa who was participating in a study involving adalimumab. The neck pain was associated with acute longus colli calcific tendinitis, which is a noninfectious inflammatory response in the longus colli tendons secondary to deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystal. The diagnosis was made by computed tomography, which showed calcifications and deposits, and magnetic resonance imaging, which showed a retropharyngeal effusion. Ears, Nose, and Throat Services performed a fiberoptic scope examination, which revealed a patent airway and no drainable abscess. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs resulted in a dramatic improvement in the patient's clinical symptoms. In acute longus colli tendinitis, differentiating retropharyngeal aseptic effusion from infection is important. Of note, the confounding factor in this case was that the patient was blinded to whether he was receiving the placebo or adalimumab, so whether the patient was immunosuppressed and at risk for infection was unknown. Clinician familiarity and education concerning acute calcific longus colli tendinitis may lead to decreased costs stemming from incorrect diagnosis and unnecessary treatment.

  2. Interval training by normobaric hypoxia accelerates the reinnervation of musculus extensor digitorum longus in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardya, Irina; (Vard'ya); Mospanova, Svetlana V.

    2000-01-01

    Dokl Biol Sci. 2000 Mar-Apr;371:112-4. Interval training by normobaric hypoxia accelerates the reinnervation of musculus extensor digitorum longus in mice. Vard'ya IV , Mospanova SV , Portnov VV , Balezina OP , Koshelev VB . Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Moscow St...... State University, Russia. PMID: 10833635 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Udgivelsesdato: 2000...

  3. De Quervain disease caused by abductor pollicis longus tenosynovitis: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Masahiro; Takahara, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Noriaki; Ito, Kazuo; Watanabe, Tadayoshi; Ogino, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    De Quervain disease is caused by a stenosing tenosynovitis in the first dorsal compartment, and the main aetiology is extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) tenosynovitis. We encountered three cases in which EPB tenosynovitis was absent and abductor pollicis longus (APL) tenosynovitis was confirmed during operation. In the treatment of de Quervain disease, APL tenosynovitis should be paid as much attention as EPB tenosynovitis.

  4. Chondroma within the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahms, M A; Fumich, R M

    1978-01-01

    Chondromas in tendon sheaths are a rare entity proviously reported in the flexor sheaths on the hand and possibly the foot. This is the first reported case of condroma of the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath at the ankle region. A literature review with regard to pathogenesis, classification, and recurrence has been presented.

  5. Age-related changes of elements in the tendons of the peroneus longus muscles in Thai, Japanese, and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohno, Yoshiyuki; Suwanahoy, Patipath; Tohno, Setsuko; Sinthubua, Apicha; Azuma, Cho; Nishiwaki, Fumio; Moriwake, Yumi; Kumai, Tsukasa; Minami, Takeshi; Laowatthanaphong, Sikrai; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Oishi, Takao; Hayashi, Motoharu

    2010-03-01

    To elucidate compositional changes of the tendon of the peroneus longus muscle with aging, the authors investigated age-related changes of elements in the insertion of tendons of the peroneus longus muscle (peroneus longus tendons) in Thai, Japanese, and monkeys and the relationships among element contents by direct chemical analysis. After ordinary dissections at Chiang Mai University and Nara Medical University were finished, the peroneus longus tendons were resected from the subjects. The peroneus longus tendons were also resected from rhesus and Japanese monkeys bred in Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University. The wraparound regions of the insertion tendons of the peroneus longus muscle in contact with the cuboid bone were used as the peroneus longus tendon. After ashing with nitric acid and perchloric acid, element contents were determined with an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. It was found that there were no significant correlations between age and the seven elements, such as Ca, P, S, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Na, in the peroneus longus tendons of Thai and Japanese. The Ca content higher than 10 mg/g was contained in seven cases out of 34 peroneus longus tendons of Thai (incidence = 20.6%) and in one case out of 22 peroneus longus tendons of Japanese (incidence = 4.5%), respectively. All of the peroneus longus tendons with the Ca content higher than 10 mg/g were found in Thai and Japanese men. In the peroneus longus tendons of monkeys, the Ca and P content increased suddenly at 2 years of age and reached to about 40 mg/g at 5 years of age. Thereafter, the Ca and P content did not increase in the peroneus longus tendons of monkeys at old age. Regarding the relationships among element contents, significant direct correlations were found among the contents of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, and Na in Thai and monkeys, whereas significant inverse correlations were found between S and element contents, such as Ca, P, Mg, Zn, and Na, in Thai and monkeys.

  6. [Spinal accessory nerve and lymphatic neck dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsolle, V; Michelet, V; Majoufre, C; Caix, P; Siberchicot, F; Pinsolle, J

    1997-09-01

    Radical neck dissection was the golden standard of treatment for cervical nodes in head and neck tumors. From the seventies, the preservation of the spinal accessory nerve has become increasingly popular in order to improve the functional result of the neck dissections. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of functional disability associated with each type of neck dissection and the value of anatomical references for dissection of the spinal accessory nerve. One hundred twenty seven patients were evaluated 1 month and 1 year after radical, functional or supraomohyoid neck dissection with a questionnaire and a physical examination. Anatomical measurements of the spinal accessory nerve were performed in 20 patients. We found considerable or severe shoulder dysfunction in 7%, 34% and 51% respectively of patients in whom supraomohyoid, functional and radical neck dissections were performed. Furthermore 49% of patients having undergone a radical neck dissection had little or no symptoms. Sacrifice of the spinal accessory nerve in radical neck dissection may lead to shoulder dysfunction. A functional disability may also be associated, although in a less extent, with any neck dissection in which the spinal accessory nerve is dissected and placed in traction. There is a large variation in the degree of functional disability and pain in patients with similar neck dissections. The course of the spinal accessory nerve in the neck makes it particularly vulnerable to injury during the dissection near the sternocleidomastoid muscle and in the posterior cervical triangle.

  7. Myostatin dysfunction impairs force generation in extensor digitorum longus muscle and increases exercise-induced protein efflux from extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltusnikas, Juozas; Kilikevicius, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Fokin, Andrej; Bünger, Lutz; Lionikas, Arimantas; Ratkevicius, Aivaras

    2015-08-01

    Myostatin dysfunction promotes muscle hypertrophy, which can complicate assessment of muscle properties. We examined force generating capacity and creatine kinase (CK) efflux from skeletal muscles of young mice before they reach adult body and muscle size. Isolated soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of Berlin high (BEH) mice with dysfunctional myostatin, i.e., homozygous for inactivating myostatin mutation, and with a wild-type myostatin (BEH+/+) were studied. The muscles of BEH mice showed faster (P contraction times compared with BEH+/+ mice, but only EDL displayed lower (P muscle force generating capacity in EDL and increases susceptibility of SOL and EDL to protein loss after exercise.

  8. Distribution of different fibre types of M. extensor carpi radialis longus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, A de C; Silva M dal, D; Pai, V D

    1994-12-01

    As revealed by the NADH-diaphorase and myosine ATPase, the M. extensor carpi radialis longus of the rat possesses at least 3 main kinds of fibres, with different distribution on the superficial and deep portions of the muscle. The superficial portion revealed that 67.68% are FG (fast-twitch-glycolytic) fibres, 14.72% are FOG (fast-twitch-oxidative) fibres and 17.60% are SO (slow-twitch-glycolytic) fibres. Already the deep portion revealed that 71.29% are SO (slow-twitch-glycolytic) fibres, 17.46% are FOG (fast-twitch-oxidative-glycolytic) fibres and 11.25% are FG (fast-twitch-glycolytic) fibres. The miosine ATPase reaction was used to demonstrate contracting characteristics. These findings suggest that the movements of fast contraction of the M. extensor carpi radialis longus are predominant.

  9. Inflammation of vertebral bone associated with acute calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihmanli, I.; Kanberoglu, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Univ. (Turkey); Karaarslan, E. [Intermed Medical Center, Nisantasi, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2001-12-01

    We present a case of acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis with characteristic findings on radiographic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To our knowledge, this is the first acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis report having inflammation of both the vertebra itself and the longus colli muscle diagnosed on MRI. In patients with neck pain, acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis, even if these patients had vertebral pathological signals on MRI. (orig.)

  10. Bilateral variations of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis: Surgical significance

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Abductor pollicis longus (APL) and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) muscles are known to exhibit numerous variations. Aims: We would like to put across an accidental unusual finding of APL and EPB muscles. Materials and Methods: During routine cadaveric dissection of a 52 year old female cadaver, we found an unusual APL and EPB muscles variations bilaterally. Results: Duplication of APL tendon was noted, one showing normal attachment and the additional one on trapezium. EPB muscle had an ...

  11. Cast functional accessories for heat treatment furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drotlew

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study gives examples of the cast functional accessories operating in furnaces for the heat treatment of metals and alloys. The describeddesign solutions of castings and their respective assemblies are used for charge preparation and handling. They were put in systematicorder depending on furnace design and the technological purpose of heat treatment. Basic grades of austenitic cast steel, used for castings of this type, were enumerated, and examples of general guidelines formulated for their use were stated. The functional accessories described in this study were designed and made by the Foundry Research Laboratory of West Pomeranian University of Technology.

  12. [Accessory symptomatology and therapy of Gilles de la Tourette's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkova, M; Terziev, D

    1987-01-01

    Eight patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome were examined. They had typical multiple tics and accessory disturbances--impulsive and reactive symptoms. The authors described the classification of accessory symptoms and the therapeutic approaches.

  13. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  15. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemodialysis system and accessories. 876.5820... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. A hemodialysis system and accessories is a device that...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  17. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  18. HRCT evaluation of the accessory fissures of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, Altan E-mail: ayildiz@mersin.edu.tr; Goelpinar, Fulya; Calikoglu, Mukadder; Duce, Meltem Nass; Oezer, Caner; Apaydin, F. Demir

    2004-03-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to classify the accessory fissures of the lung and to assess their frequency by using high-resolution CT. Methods and patients: HRCT scans of 115 patients were prospectively reviewed. 1 mm thin sections were obtained at 10 mm intervals with a scan time of 1.9 s. The fissure and its relationship to the segmental bronchovascular structures were then evaluated on transverse sections. Results: Forty-four accessory fissures were detected in 35 of 115 patients. The most common accessory fissure was the inferior accessory fissure (12%). The second most common accessory fissure was the left minor fissure (8%). The right superior accessory fissure (5%), the accessory fissure between the medial and lateral segments of the right middle lobe (5%), and the accessory fissure between the superior and inferior segments of the lingula (5%) were seen in equal frequencies. Also, intersegmental accessory fissures, namely the fissure between the anterobasal and laterobasal of both the right (1%) and the left (2%) lower lobes were detected. We found only one subsegmental accessory fissure. Discussion and conclusion: The inferior accessory fissure and the left minor fissure were the most common accessory fissures in our study.

  19. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical camera and accessories is a device intended to be...

  20. A Rare Cause of Dysphagia to Remember: Calcific Tendinitis of the Longus Colli Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Dominic M.; Calderón Sandoval, Fiorela; Powers, David W.; Patel, Nimal; Sobrado, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Longus colli tendinitis (LCT) is an acute inflammatory condition with symptoms typically consisting of acute neck pain and stiffness with or without dysphagia. Once more severe etiologies for these symptoms are ruled out, this self-limiting condition usually resolves spontaneously with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids. We present a case of LCT that presented as acute neck pain, dysphagia, and odynophagia that rapidly resolved once diagnosed and treated with anti-inflammatory agents. Though exceedingly rare, LCT must be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute neck pain, dysphagia, and odynophagia when more common etiologies do not correlate with the clinical presentation. PMID:28100997

  1. A Rare Cause of Dysphagia to Remember: Calcific Tendinitis of the Longus Colli Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic M. Colella

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Longus colli tendinitis (LCT is an acute inflammatory condition with symptoms typically consisting of acute neck pain and stiffness with or without dysphagia. Once more severe etiologies for these symptoms are ruled out, this self-limiting condition usually resolves spontaneously with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids. We present a case of LCT that presented as acute neck pain, dysphagia, and odynophagia that rapidly resolved once diagnosed and treated with anti-inflammatory agents. Though exceedingly rare, LCT must be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute neck pain, dysphagia, and odynophagia when more common etiologies do not correlate with the clinical presentation.

  2. Acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor pollicis longus in an 8-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheterpal, Arvin; Zoga, Adam; McClure, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    Calcific tendinitis is a common source of musculoskeletal pain in adults; however, it is rarely encountered in children. Calcific tendinitis is the most commonly encountered manifestation of hydroxyapatite deposition disease, in which calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition occurs in tendons. It may cause acute or chronic pain, or may be entirely asymptomatic. We describe a case of acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor pollicis longus tendon in an 8-year-old boy, who initially presented to our department for workup of a mass felt along the volar aspect of the right wrist.

  3. Late extensor pollicis longus rupture following plate fixation in Galeazzi fracture dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjaya Sabat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus (EPL tendon after Galeazzi fracture dislocation fixation is an unknown entity though it is a well-established complication following distal radius fractures. We report the case of a 55-year old male who presented with late EPL tendon rupture 4 months following internal fixation of Galeazzi fracture dislocation with a Locking Compression Plate (LCP. He was managed with extensor indicis proprius (EIP transfer to restore thumb extension. At 4 years followup, functional result of the transfer was good. We identify possible pitfalls with this particular patient and discuss how to avoid them in future.

  4. Late extensor pollicis longus rupture following plate fixation in Galeazzi fracture dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Dhananjaya; Dabas, Vineet; Dhal, Anil

    2014-07-01

    Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon after Galeazzi fracture dislocation fixation is an unknown entity though it is a well-established complication following distal radius fractures. We report the case of a 55-year old male who presented with late EPL tendon rupture 4 months following internal fixation of Galeazzi fracture dislocation with a Locking Compression Plate (LCP). He was managed with extensor indicis proprius (EIP) transfer to restore thumb extension. At 4 years followup, functional result of the transfer was good. We identify possible pitfalls with this particular patient and discuss how to avoid them in future.

  5. Bilateral accessory cleidohyoid in a human cadaver

    OpenAIRE

    Stark ME; Wu B; Bluth BE; Wisco JJ

    2009-01-01

    During routine anatomical dissection of the infrahyoid region, a muscle was found bilaterally originating from the sternal end of clavicle and inserting into the hyoid bone. The muscle coursed parallel and lateral to the sternohyoid muscle. The muscle was found in the presence of an intact omohyoid, thus being classified as an accessory cleidohyoid (cleidohyoideus accessorius) muscle. While other authors have reported the presence of a unilateral cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle, to our know...

  6. Instruments and accessories for neutron scattering research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio [eds.] [Advanced Science Research Center (Tokai Site), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    This report describes neutron scattering instruments and accessories installed by four neutron scattering research groups at the ASRC (Advanced Science Research Center) of the JAERI and the recent topics of neutron scattering research using these instruments. The specifications of nine instruments (HRPD, BIX-I, TAS-1 and PNO in the reactor hall, RESA, BIX-II, TAS-2, LTAS and SANS-J in the guide hall of the JRR-3M) are summarized in this booklet. (author)

  7. Isolated spinal accessory neuropathy and intracisternal schwannomas of the spinal accessory nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Al-Ajmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 40-year-old female patient presenting with isolated left spinal accessory neuropathy that developed insidiously over 6 years. She complained of ill-defined deep neck and shoulder pain. On examination, prominent sternocleidomastoid and trapezoid muscle weakness and atrophy, shoulder instability, and lateral scapular winging were observed. MRI identified a small mass of the cisternal portion of the spinal accessory nerve. Its appearance was typical of schwannoma. Surgical treatment was not offered because of the small tumor size, lack of mass effect and the questionable functional recovery in the presence of muscular atrophy.

  8. Study on reduction of accessory horsepower requirements. Program summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefferts, C.H.

    1977-06-15

    The objective of this program was to define, evaluate and develop automotive accessory systems to minimize engine power consumption and significantly improve fuel economy. All tasks have been completed and the program objectives have been accomplished. Information is presented on each phase of the program which involved: conceptual design to recommended component improvement and accessory drive systems; performance and sizing analyses; detail design and specifications; fabrication, and performance testing; evaluation of integrated hybrid drive, improved accessories; and an advanced air conditioning concept.

  9. ACCESSORY RENAL ARTERYAND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Magotra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Origin of the Testicular Artery variations were found during routine dissection of abdomen of the middle aged cadaver in the Dept of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College Jammu. On the left side there were two renal arteries, One of them was the main Renal artery which was originating from the anterolateral aspect of abdominal aorta and running to the hilum of the kidney in front of the renal vein The other was the Accessory Renal artery which was originating from anterolateral aspect of aorta 5mm above origin of main renal artery and going to the upper pole of the kidney. The origin of accessory renal artery and main renal artery was 4.2 and 9.2mm below the level of origin of superior mesentric artery. The left testicular artery was originating from the accessory renal artery and crossing the renal artery and the renal vein anteriorly before following its usual course in the posterior abdominal wall. Only one renal artery was seen on the right side arising from the anterolateral aspect of aorta. The right testicular artery originated 52mm below the origin of right renal artery and followed its normal course This anomaly is explained by embryological development of both kidneys and gonads from intermediate mesoderm of mesonephric crest. Further the vasculature of kidneys and gonads is derived from lateral mesonephric branches of dorsal aorta .Even though the condition presents as a silent renal anomaly (Undiagnosed throughout life and revealed only on autopsy the surgical implications are noteworthy, which too have been highlighted in this report.

  10. Accessory sperm: a biomonitor of boar sperm fertilization capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardón, Florencia; Evert, Meike; Beyerbach, Martin; Weitze, Karl-Fritz; Waberski, Dagmar

    2005-04-15

    The number of accessory sperm found in the zona pellucida of porcine embryos was correlated to their individual quality and to the embryo quality range found within a single sow. Our goal was to determine whether accessory sperm counts provide semen evaluation with additional, useful information. Accessory sperm count was highest when only normal embryos were found in a given sow and diminished if oocytes or degenerated embryos were present (P<0.01). Within a given sow, normal embryos had higher (P<0.05) accessory sperm counts than degenerated embryos, although not when oocytes were also present. Fertilization capacity of sperm is optimal when only normal embryos are found in a given sow; this capacity is indicated by high accessory sperm counts. A decrease in fertilization capacity is reflected in diminishing accessory sperm counts. The boar had a significant effect (P<0.01) on accessory sperm count, but not on the percentage of normal embryos; this suggests that accessory sperm may be more sensitive indicators of the fertilization capacity of sperm than the percentage of normal embryos. We conclude that accessory sperm count can be used for the detection of compensable defects in sperm and is a valid parameter for assessing sperm fertilization capacity.

  11. Flexor pollicis longus repair in a patient with Linburg-Comstock anomaly: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Unal

    2016-08-01

    Results: At the end of the rehabilitation program, the thumb recovered full range of motion, and physical examination revealed synchronous flexion movement (synkinesis of the thumb and index finger. Conclusion: Flexor pollicis longus tendon lacerations are common in the clinical practice of hand surgeons. Making a separate proximal wrist incision is a very useful technique to reach a proximal tendon stump. Otherwise, aggressive maneuvers may cause additional damage to the tendons involved and result in unpredicted outcomes. The attempts to retrieve the tendon at the injury site resulted in failure and gave a tethering sensation to the surgeon who recalled the Linburg-Comstock anomaly. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 88-91

  12. Unusual case of acute neck pain: acute calcific longus colli tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gunjan S; Fomin, Daren A; Joshi, Gargi S; Serano, Richard D

    2016-06-02

    Acute calcific longus colli tendinitis (ACLCT), a very rare cause of severe neck pain, dysphagia and odynophagia, is often mistaken for other common causes of neck pain. However, prompt recognition of this uncommon presentation is important to prevent unnecessary medical and surgical intervention. A 46-year-old Caucasian man presented with a 1-day history of severe neck pain, headache and odynophagia. The patient was afebrile with stable vital signs, however, the laboratory data showed mildly elevated C reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The physical examination was remarkable for markedly reduced cervical range of motion. MRI revealed the pathognomonic findings of paravertebral oedema and calcification. The definitive diagnosis of ACLCT was made and the patient was successfully managed with a short course of oral steroid, benzodiazepine and aural acupuncture, with complete resolution of the condition within a week.

  13. Catalase-positive microperoxisomes in rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscle fiber types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Danny A.; Bain, James L. W.; Ellis, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    The size, distribution, and content of catalase-reactive microperoxisomes were investigated cytochemically in three types of muscle fibers from the soleus and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of male rats. Muscle fibers were classified on the basis of the mitochondrial content and distribution, the Z-band widths, and the size and shape of myofibrils as the slow-twitch oxidative (SO), the fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (FOG), and the fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) fibers. It was found that both the EDL and soleus SO fibers possessed the largest microperoxisomes. A comparison of microperoxisome number per muscle fiber area or the microperoxisome area per fiber area revealed following ranking, starting from the largest number and the area-ratio values: soleus SO, EDL SO, EDL FOG, and EDL FG.

  14. HIV-1 accessory proteins: Vpu and Vif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Amy; Strebel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 Vif and Vpu are accessory factors involved in late stages of viral replication. Vif regulates viral infectivity by preventing virion incorporation of APOBEC3G and other members of the family of cytidine deaminases, while Vpu causes degradation of CD4 and promotes virus release by functionally inactivating the host factor BST-2. This chapter described techniques used for the characterization of Vif and Vpu and their functional interaction with host factors. Many of the techniques are, however, applicable to the functional analysis of other viral proteins.

  15. Bilateral accessory cleidohyoid in a human cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark ME

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During routine anatomical dissection of the infrahyoid region, a muscle was found bilaterally originating from the sternal end of clavicle and inserting into the hyoid bone. The muscle coursed parallel and lateral to the sternohyoid muscle. The muscle was found in the presence of an intact omohyoid, thus being classified as an accessory cleidohyoid (cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle. While other authors have reported the presence of a unilateral cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle, to our knowledge this is the first case of a bilateral cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle in the medical literature. Anatomical variations of the infrahyoid muscles may have functional, diagnostic, surgical and pathological implications.

  16. Non‑Azygos Accessory Fissure in Right Upper Lobe Associated with Superior and Inferior Accessory Fissures in Right Lower Lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jose Eluvathingal Muttikkal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessory fissures in the lungs are common congenital variations, usually detected as incidental findings in radiographs or CT scan. Accessory fissures can act as an anatomic barrier to the spread of inflammatory or neoplastic disease, as well as due to the variant anatomy, mimic lesions. It is important to recognize the presence of accessory fissures, as they affect surgical planning of pulmonary lobectomy and segmentectomy. Accessory fissure in the right upper lobe other than due to the anomalous course of azygos vein is very rare. We report a case of non-azygos accessory fissure, between the apical and the anterior segments of right upper lobe, along with superior and inferior accessory fissures in the right lower lobe.

  17. Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenham, Julie

    This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice.

  18. [An accessory muscle and additional variants of the forearm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, G; Zech, M

    1977-01-01

    A report is given on an accessory muscle of the forearm. The muscle originates from the medial epicondyle and the fascia of the forearm and inserts into the pisiform bone and retinaculum. The accessory muscle has a great similarity with the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle.

  19. Brugada syndrome in a patient with accessory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodegas, A I; Arana, J I; Vitoria, Y; Arriandiaga, J R; Barrenetxea, J I

    2002-01-01

    Brugada syndrome in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. We report a 32-year-old man with orthodromic atrioventricular (AV) reciprocating tachycardia using a right posterior accessory pathway. However, his ECG showed ST segment elevation in leads V1 to V3. After successful radiofrequency ablation of his accessory pathway a cardioverter defibrillator was implanted.

  20. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. 876... Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. (1) A peritoneal dialysis system and... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After...

  1. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive...

  2. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves, fittings, and accessories. 98.25-40 Section 98... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  3. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. 884.2740 Section 884.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Monitoring Devices § 884.2740 Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  4. [Occurrence and structure of accessory adrenal glands in Wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabedal, P E; Partenheimer, U

    1983-01-01

    In complete series of histological sections through the entire abdomen of one normal Wistar-rat, one untreated and two bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive Wistar-rats accessory suprarenal glands were found in each case. The detailed findings in the various groups of animals investigated were as follows: (1) In the normal animal 10 accessory suprarenal glands were present. They consisted of tiny aggregates of cortical cells and were surrounded by a thin layer of collageneous fibers. The diameters of the accessory suprarenal complexes were in the order of 0.3 mm. (2) In the untreated, spontaneously hypertensive rat three accessory suprarenal glands were found. However, in contrast to what was seen in the normal rat, these complexes were larger and had diameters of up to 1 mm. Some of these accessory suprarenal glands consisted almost exclusively of small, chromophobe cells, whereas in others a rim of such cells was seen to surround a central core of larger and more acidophile cortical cells. There were few and collapsed capillaries. (3) In the bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive rats three, respectively four, accessory suprarenal glands were found. They were situated in the retroperitoneum and partly within the adipose capsule of the kidney but never in the place of the exstirpated main suprarenal glands. In one case an accessory gland was found within the fibrous capsule of the kidney and seen to compress the renal parenchyma. In the bilaterally adrenalectomized animals the average diameters of the accessory glands were larger than in the other groups reaching values of up to 5 mm. At least in both animals one of the accessory glands had a diameter comparable to that of the normal suprarenal gland of an untreated animal. The capillaries were dilated and their number was increased in comparison to what was seen in the other groups. In certain regions the cortical tissue of the accessory glands had an appearance resembling

  5. PERONEUS LONGUS ACTIVITY IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF TAPING: ATHLETES WITH ANKLE INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rahmani Jaffar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Participation in sport among university athletes in Malaysia has progressed right up to Olympic level. However, some of these athletes are prevented from competing due to injuries. Ankle injuries, in particular, are among the common types of injury. Even so, there is still lack of local data and research describing the incidence of ankle injuries. Objectives: To determine peroneus longus muscle activity in different taped ankles and positions among subjects with functional ankle instability (FAI. Methods: Twenty-three subjects with ankle instability (AJFAT score > 26 volunteered to take part in the study. The subjects were tested under three conditions; 1 no tape (NT, 2 Kinesio(r tape (KT, and 3 rigid tape (RT. The subjects completed two postural stability tests, followed by a sudden inversion perturbation test with EMG, recording throughout the procedures. The EMG data were analyzed, filtered, full-wave rectified and normalized. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance (Independent T-test and ANOVA to evaluate differences in peak muscle activation (mV and peroneal latency (ms. Results: Peak muscle activation of the peroneus was activated more in the RT group during both the Static and Dynamic Stability Tests. Apart from that, there were no statistically significant differences. During sudden inversion perturbation, the RT group was the one that was most activated (p=0.001. Peroneal latency was even delayed in KT and RT during the three tests, and shorter in the NT group. There were significant differences during the Dynamic Stability Test, between the NT and KT groups (p=0.001 and between the NT, RT and KT groups (p=0.001. Conclusion: RT tape may enhance the peroneus longus response by maintaining a higher level of muscle activation, especially during dynamic movements and sudden inversion of the ankle, and may selectively benefit individuals with FAI. The KT ankle did not show superior effect to the NT ankle, and

  6. Subcutaneous Rupture of the Extensor Pollicis Longus Tendon after Corticosteroid Injections for DeQuervain’s Stenosing Tenovaginitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Boussakri; Amara Bouali

    2014-01-01

    DeQuervain’s stenosing tenovaginitis is a common condition. Nonsurgical treatment by corticosteroid injection has significantly improved the management of this disease. The authors describe a case of subcutaneous rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon at the wrist, three months after two corticosteroid injections for DeQuervain’s stenosing tenovaginitis. The etiological history has not found any trauma history of the wrist. The aim of our work is to draw attention to this rare complic...

  7. Attritional rupture of extensor pollicis longus: a rare complication following elastic stable intramedullary nailing of a paediatric radial fracture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sproule, James A

    2011-01-01

    Elastic stable intramedullary nail fixation has become established as an acceptable method of treatment for diaphyseal fractures of both forearm bones in the paediatric population. It is considered safe, minimally invasive and does not compromise physeal growth. We report a case of delayed rupture of extensor pollicis longus due to attrition over the sharp edges of a protruding nail end after elastic stable intramedullary nailing of a paediatric radial diaphyseal fracture.

  8. Avulsion fracture of the extensor carpi radialis longus carpal insertion due to a basketball injury: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, N; Zbili, D; Bellity, J; Doursounian, L; Mauprivez, R

    2014-12-01

    Articular fractures of the base of the 2nd metacarpal involving the extensor carpi radialis longus insertion are unusual and poorly understood. There is no consensus as to how these fractures should be treated. We report the case of a 2nd metacarpal base fracture in a professional basketball player that was treated surgically with open reduction and internal fixation using cannulated screws. The management of this case is compared to similar cases in the literature.

  9. Anomalous bilateral contribution of extensor pollicis longus and muscle fusion of the first compartment of the wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rodrigo César; de Oliveira, Kennedy Martinez; Léo, Jorge Alfredo; Elias, Bruno Adriano Borges; dos Santos, Paulo Ricardo; de Santiago, Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the muscles of the first dorsal compartments of the wrist is clinically relevant to De Quervain's tenosynovitis and to reconstructive surgeries. In the literature, there are many reports of the presence of multiple insertion tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, but few reports describe occurrences of fusion and muscle contributions. This case report describes an anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus. This anomalous contribution was found through a slender auxiliary tendon that crossed laterally under the extensor retinaculum, entered the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and merged with the tendon of the extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In the same cadaver in which this contribution was present, there was atypical muscle fusion of the abductor pollicis longus muscle and extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In conclusion, anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus muscle and atypical muscle fusion, concomitant with a variant insertion pattern, are the highlight of this case report. Furthermore, it is concluded that additional tendons may be effectively used in reconstructive surgeries, but that there is a need for knowledge of the possible numerical and positional variations of these tendons, with a view to making more effective surgical plans. PMID:27069895

  10. Anomalous bilateral contribution of extensor pollicis longus and muscle fusion of the first compartment of the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rodrigo César; de Oliveira, Kennedy Martinez; Léo, Jorge Alfredo; Elias, Bruno Adriano Borges; Dos Santos, Paulo Ricardo; de Santiago, Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the muscles of the first dorsal compartments of the wrist is clinically relevant to De Quervain's tenosynovitis and to reconstructive surgeries. In the literature, there are many reports of the presence of multiple insertion tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, but few reports describe occurrences of fusion and muscle contributions. This case report describes an anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus. This anomalous contribution was found through a slender auxiliary tendon that crossed laterally under the extensor retinaculum, entered the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and merged with the tendon of the extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In the same cadaver in which this contribution was present, there was atypical muscle fusion of the abductor pollicis longus muscle and extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In conclusion, anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus muscle and atypical muscle fusion, concomitant with a variant insertion pattern, are the highlight of this case report. Furthermore, it is concluded that additional tendons may be effectively used in reconstructive surgeries, but that there is a need for knowledge of the possible numerical and positional variations of these tendons, with a view to making more effective surgical plans.

  11. Anatomical variation of abductor pollicis longus in Indian population: A cadaveric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Jerina; Mishra, Pravash Ranjan; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many authors have reported the anatomical variation of abductor pollicis longus (APL) around the wrist and its association with de Quervain tenosynovitis (DQT), first carpo-metacarpal arthritis, and trapezio-metacarpal subluxation. From Indian subcontinent, there is only one original article and a few case reports on the variability of APL tendon insertion. Materials and Methods: Fifty formaldehyde preserved cadaveric wrists were dissected to look for the anatomical variation of APL in the Indian population. Results: The APL was found with single tendon in 2, double in 31, triple in 8, and quadruple in 8 extremities. A maximum of 6 tendon-slips were found in one cadaveric wrist. In all hands, the APL had at least one attachment to first metacarpal bone and in 46 hands (92%), there was second insertion to the trapezium bone. Of all tendon-slips of APL (n = 126), 44% of tendons (68 tendons) were inserted into the base of the first metacarpal bone. This was followed by the insertion into the trapezium in 42% tendons (52 tendons). Conclusion: Bi-tendinous APL is commonly observed on the dorsal compartment of the wrist in Indian population and these tendon-slips are commonly attached to the first metacarpal base and trapezium. This variation must be understood by the Indian Orthopedic surgeons as the response to treatment of DQT and reason for first carpo-metacarpal arthritis can be dependent on this anatomical variation. PMID:26538762

  12. Heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy of extensor digitorum longus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, K; Une, S; Akiyama, J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, 12-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 6 per group): control (Con), heat stress (HS), diabetes mellitus (DM), and diabetes mellitus/heat stress (DM + HS). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Heat stress was induced in the HS and DM + HS groups by immersion of the lower half of the body in hot water at 42 °C for 30 min; it was initiated 7 days after injection of streptozotocin, and was performed once a day, five times a week for 3 weeks. The muscle fiber cross-sectional area of EDL muscles from diabetic and non-diabetic rats was determined; heat stress protein (HSP) 72 and HSP25 expression levels were also analyzed by western blotting. Diabetes-induced muscle fiber atrophy was attenuated upon heat stress treatment in diabetic rats. HSP72 and HSP25 expression was upregulated in the DM + HS group compared with the DM group. Our findings suggest that heat stress attenuates atrophy of the EDL muscle by upregulating HSP72 and HSP25 expression.

  13. Amylin evokes protein p20 phosphorylation and insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle extensor digitorum longus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate effect of amylin on the insulin sensitivity of rat skeletal muscle extensor digitorum longus (EDL) using in vitro intact muscle incubation in combination with metabolic radioactive labeling. The molecular basis of the amylin action was further examined using proteomic analysis. In particular, proteins of interest were characterized using an integrated microcharacterization procedure that involved in-gel trypsin digestion, organic solvent extraction, high performance liquid chromatography separation, microsequencing and microsequence analysis. We found that amylin significantly decreased the insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into glycogen (p < 0.01) and produced a protein spot of approximately 20 ku in size. This amylin responsive protein (hereby designated as amylin responsive protein 1, APR1) was identified to be protein p20. Moreover, ARP1 spots on gels were found to consistently produce a corresponding radioactive spot on X-ray films in 32Pi but not in 35S-methionine labeling experiments. In conclusion, our results showed that in vitro amylin concomitantly evoked the production of ARP1 and caused insulin resistance in EDL muscle. It is suggested that protein p20 may be involved in amylin signal transduction and the appearance of ARP1 may be a step in a molecular pathway leading to the development of insulin resistance. ARP1 might therefore be a useful molecular marker for amylin action, insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes.

  14. Effects of methylmercury on the motor and sensory innervation of the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, R.K.; Riley, D.A.

    1987-06-01

    The histochemical study examined the effects of chronic methylmercury (MeHg) intoxication on the motor and sensory innervation of extensor digitorum longus muscles. Light microscopic examination of silver-stained axons in the intramuscular nerve bundles of MeHg-treated rats showed Wallerian-like degeneration and a reduction in the number of nerve fibers. Disrupted axons were predominantly sensory because 22.2% of spindle afferents (I/sub a/) and 90.0% of Golgi tendon organ (I/sub b/) sensory fibers were completely degenerated whereas less than 1% of motor ending were totally destroyed. Partial disruption occurred in the cholinesterase and motor terminals of 13.7% of endplates. Their results demonstrated greater vulnerability of sensory nerves than of motor nerves to MeHg-induced degeneration. Thus, the abnormal reflexes, ataxia, and muscle weakness following MeHg poisoning appear related to reduction of proprioceptive feedback from muscles and tendons irradiation to the documented lesions in the central nervous system.

  15. Comparison of transfer sites for flexor digitorum longus in a cadaveric adult acquired flatfoot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudreuil, Nicholas J; Ledoux, William R; Roush, Grant C; Whittaker, Eric C; Sangeorzan, Bruce J

    2014-01-01

    Posterior tibialis tendon (PTT) dysfunction (PTTD) is associated with adult acquired flatfoot deformity. PTTD is commonly treated with a flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon transfer (FDLTT) to the navicular (NAV), medial cuneiform (CUN), or distal residuum of the degraded PTT (rPTT). We assessed the kinetic and kinematic outcomes of these three attachment sites using cadaveric gait simulation. Three transfer locations (NAV, CUN, rPTT) were tested on seven prepared flatfoot models using a robotic gait simulator (RGS). The FDLTT procedures were simulated by pulling on the PTT with biomechanically realistic FDL forces (rPTT) or by pulling on the transected FDL tendon after fixation to the navicular or medial cuneiform (NAV and CUN, respectively). Plantar pressure and foot bone motion were quantified. Peak plantar pressure significantly decreased from the flatfoot condition at the first metatarsal (NAV) and hallux (CUN). No difference was found in the medial-lateral center of pressure. Kinematic findings showed minimal differences between flatfoot and FDLTT specimens. The three locations demonstrated only minimal differences from the flatfoot condition, with the NAV and CUN procedures resulting in decreased medial pressures. Functionally, all three surgical procedures performed similarly.

  16. AcCNET (Accessory Genome Constellation Network): comparative genomics software for accessory genome analysis using bipartite networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Val F; Baquero, Fernando; de la Cruz, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2017-01-15

    AcCNET (Accessory genome Constellation Network) is a Perl application that aims to compare accessory genomes of a large number of genomic units, both at qualitative and quantitative levels. Using the proteomes extracted from the analysed genomes, AcCNET creates a bipartite network compatible with standard network analysis platforms. AcCNET allows merging phylogenetic and functional information about the concerned genomes, thus improving the capability of current methods of network analysis. The AcCNET bipartite network opens a new perspective to explore the pangenome of bacterial species, focusing on the accessory genome behind the idiosyncrasy of a particular strain and/or population.

  17. Giant Accessory Right-Sided Suprarenal Spleen in Thalassaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An accessory spleen is defined as ectopic splenic tissue that develops due to failure of fusion of cells during embryonic development as they migrate from the midline to the left upper quadrant. While benign, complications may arise which include trauma, torsion, or infarction of the ectopic tissue. Additionally, patients who have had a splenectomy secondary to treatment for previous pathology such as a haematological malignancy or idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura may experience persistent symptoms due to the accessory splenic tissue. The presence of an accessory spleen is therefore of significant diagnostic and therapeutic importance. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case is the second and largest reported case of a giant right suprarenal accessory spleen and highlights the difficulty in differentiation of these masses from malignant adrenal tumours.

  18. ISO and EIGA standards for cryogenic vessels and accessories

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The EIGA/WG 6’s scope is cryogenic vessels and accessories, including their design, material compatibility, operational requirements and periodical inspection. The specific responsibilities include monitoring international standardization (ISO, CEN) and regulations (UN, TPED, PED...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... disk, guard for an abrasive disk, abrasive point, polishing agent strip, and polishing wheel....

  20. Review of accessory tragus with highlights of its associated syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Bahar; Khachemoune, Amor

    2014-12-01

    Accessory tragus is a developmental defect involving malformation of part of the external ear. It is a moderately rare congenital condition reported in 1858 by Birkett for the first time. Histological features of accessory tragus include a thin layer of stratum corneum with a rugated epidermis, presence of eccrine glands, and irregular spatial positioning of vellus hair follicles accompanied by sebaceous glands. Accessory tragus is commonly a limited deformity; however, it can be a sign of associated congenital syndromes. It has been shown to be associated with Goldenhar syndrome, Townes-Brocks syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, VACTERL syndrome, and Wolf-Hirschhron syndrome. Surgical excision, the most common form of management of accessory tragus lesions, typically leads to a positive outcome. An extensive search was performed using pubmed.gov, Embase, MedLine, and Googlescholar.com using key words: accessory tragus, congenital malformations of ear, first branchial arch, and embryology. In this paper, we review the clinical and histological presentation, associated syndromes, management, and outcome of accessory tragus.

  1. Results of Abductor Pollicis Longus Suspension Ligamentoplasty for Treatment of Advanced First Carpometacarpal Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Poong-Taek; Deslivia, Maria Florencia; Lee, Suk-Joong; Nam, Sang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Suspension ligamentoplasty using abductor pollicis longus (APL) tendon without bone tunneling, was introduced as one of the techniques for treatment of advanced first carpometacarpal (CMC) arthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiologic and clinical results of APL suspension ligamentoplasty. Methods The medical records of 19 patients who underwent APL suspension ligamentoplasty for advanced first CMC arthritis between January 2008 and May 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The study included 13 female and 6 male patients, whose mean age was 62 years (range, 43 to 82 years). For clinical evaluation, we assessed the grip and pinch power, radial and volar abduction angle, thumb adduction (modified Kapandji index), including visual analogue scale (VAS) and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores. Radiologic evaluation was performed using simple radiographs. Results The mean follow-up was 36 months (range, 19 to 73.7 months). Mean power improved from 18.3 to 27 kg for grip power, from 2.8 to 3.5 kg for tip pinch, and from 4.3 to 5.4 kg for power pinch. All patients showed decreased VAS from 7.2 to 1.7. Radial abduction improved from 71° preoperatively to 82° postoperatively. The modified Kapandji index showed improvement from 6 to 7.3, and mean DASH was improved from 41 to 17.8. The height of the space decreased from 10.8 to 7.1 mm. Only one case had a complication involving temporary sensory loss of the first dorsal web space, which resolved spontaneously. Conclusions The APL suspension ligamentoplasty for treatment of advanced first CMC arthritis yielded satisfactory functional results. PMID:26330961

  2. Variations in abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons in the Quervain syndrome: a surgical and anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulthanan, Teerawat; Chareonwat, Boonsong

    2007-01-01

    Eighty-two wrists of Thai cadavers and the wrists of 66 patients with de Quervain syndrome were studied, and the variation in the number of tendons and the fibro-osseous tunnel in the first extensor compartment were recorded. The abductor pollicis longus had more than one tendon in 73 of the cadavers (89%) and in 32 of the patients (49%) (p Quervain syndrome (p = 0.01). The results indicate that the number of fibro-osseous tunnels and multiple compartments in the first extensor compartment may be associated with a predisposition to de Quervain syndrome.

  3. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  4. ACCESSORY FISSURE OF RIGHT LUNG: A REPORT OF TWO CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Behera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Right lung is divided into upper (superior, middle and lower (Inferior lobes by an oblique and a horizontal fissure.Oblique fissure passes spirally from posterior border to inferior border deep into the lung separating the lower lobe from upper and middle lobes. A short horizontal fissure passes horizontally forwards from the oblique fissure at midaxillary line to meet the anterior border at 4th costochondral junction. This separates the upper lobe from the middle lobe. During routine dissection in 2010-11 undergraduate batch, we came across two cases of right lungs where an accessory fissure was extending horizontally backwards from the oblique fissure at mid axillary line towards the vertebral part of medial surface. In the 1st case, this accessory fissure was not meeting the normal horizontal fissure where as in the 2nd case it was meeting. This accessory fissure separates the lower lobe into a superior and an inferior segment. Knowledge of different types of accessory fissures is important because it may mislead the radiological findings, may act as a barrier to spread of infection creating a sharply marginated pneumonia which can wrongly be interpretated as atelectasis or consolidation. Identification of completeness of fissure is important prior to lobectomy, because individuals with incomplete fissures are more prone to develop postoperative air leak. Considering the clinical importance of such anomalies, anatomical knowledge and prior awareness of accessory fissures in the lungs may be important for clinicians and radiologists.

  5. Accessory bones of the feet: Radiological analysis of frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Vladica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Accessory bones are most commonly found on the feet and they represent an anatomic variant. They occur when there is a failure in the formation of a unique bone from separated centre of ossification. The aim of this study was to establish their frequency and medical significance. Methods. Anteroposterior and lateral foot radiography was performed in 270 patients aged of 20-80 years with a history of trauma (180 and rheumatology disease (90. The presence and distribution of accessory bones was analysed in relation to the total number of patients and their gender. The results are expressed in numeric values and in terms of percentage. Results. Accessory bones were identified in 62 (22.96% patients: 29 (10.74% of them were found in female patients and 33 (12.22% in males. The most common accessory bones were as follows: os tibiale externum 50%, os peroneum 29.03%, ostrigonum 11.29%, os vaselianum 9.68%. Conclusion. Accessory bones found in 23% of patients with trauma and some of rheumatological diseases. Their significance is demonstrated in the differential diagnosis among degenerative diseases, avulsion fractures, muscle and tendon trauma and other types of injuries which can cause painful affection of the foot, as well as in forensic practice.

  6. High incidence and treatment of flexor carpi radialis tendinitis after trapeziectomy and abductor pollicis longus suspensionplasty for basal joint arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, T H; Hales, P F

    2014-10-01

    We reviewed the incidence and treatment of flexor carpi radialis tendinitis in 77 patients (81 thumbs) who had trapeziectomy and abductor pollicis longus suspensionplasty for thumb carpometacarpal joint arthritis. Eighteen patients, 20 wrists (25%) had flexor carpi radialis tendinitis. The onset was 2-10 months (mean 4.7) after surgery. Two cases had preceding trauma. Eight cases (40%) responded to splinting and steroid injection. Ten patients, 12 wrists (60%) underwent surgery after failing non-operative treatment. Eleven wrists had frayed or partially torn flexor carpi radialis tendon and one had a complete tendon rupture with pseudotendon formation. Flexor carpi radialis tenotomy and pseudotendon excision were performed. All operated patients obtained good pain relief initially post-operatively. However, the pain recurred in two patients after 8 months. One required a local steroid injection for localized tenderness at the site of the proximal tendon stump. The other patient required a revision operation for scaphotrapezoid impingement. Both obtained complete pain relief. Our study has shown a high incidence of flexor carpi radialis tendinitis following trapeziectomy and abductor pollicis longus suspensionplasty. Patients should be warned about this potential complication.

  7. [Surgical treatment strategy for flatfoot related with accessory navicular].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yin-shuan; Gao, Qiu-ming; Zhen, Ping; Tang, Kang-lai

    2015-02-01

    Accessory navicular source flatfoot is one of the foot deformity of clinical common disease,its treatment method is more controversial, differences in clinical efficacy of different surgical methods, according to accessory navicular source flatfoot symptoms of surgical treatment,there is no uniform standard, around a pair of accessory navicular excision how to reconstruct the arch produced a series of operation methods, the clinical curative effect of different operative methods produce also different, how to develop the operation strategy, choose operation method, and after acessory navicular excision whether to rebuild posterior tibial tendon, how to rebuild, the problems such as how to rebuild is the research hotspot and difficulty, looking forward to further research.

  8. ACCESSORY LOBE OF RIGHT LUNG: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Manicka Vasuki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations of lungs in the form of Accessory lobe and abnormality in the fissures are important for the surgeons to avoid possible injuries to the neighbouring structures. We report a case of Accessory lobe of right lung between middle and lower lobe in a male cadaver which was found during routine dissection in the Anatomy department, PSG IMS & R. Fissure and lobes of left lung was normal. Anatomical knowledge of such variations are helpful for Cardiothoracic surgeons in lobectomies, surgical resections involving individual segments and for Radiologists for interpreting X – rays,CT & MRI scans.

  9. Aplasia of the parotid glands with accessory parotid tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higley, Meghan J.; Walkiewicz, Thomas W.; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Curran, John G.; Towbin, Richard B. [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Congenital absence of the parotid gland is a rare entity. Absence is most commonly unilateral, and is not associated with accessory glandular tissue. In the majority of reported cases, parotid gland aplasia is seen with craniofacial abnormalities or hypoplasia of other ectodermal structures, particularly the lacrimal glands. We present a 14-year-old male with bilateral parotid gland aplasia detected incidentally on MRI of the brain and then confirmed on neck CT. The studies also revealed accessory parotid tissue superficial to the left masseter muscle. There were no associated craniofacial abnormalities. The lacrimal glands and submandibular glands were normal. (orig.)

  10. Accessory wandering spleen: Report of a case of laparoscopic approach in an asymptomatic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Perin

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: We suggest performing surgery with a laparoscopic approach in patients with accessory wandering spleen, though asymptomatic, because of the risk of serious complications in case of accessory spleen torsion.

  11. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  12. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intended for medical purposes to support, protect, or aid in the use of a cast, orthosis (brace), or prosthesis. Examples of prosthetic and orthotic accessories include the following: A pelvic support band and belt, a cast shoe, a cast bandage, a limb cover, a prosthesis alignment device, a postsurgical pylon,...

  13. Accessory enzymes from Aspergillus involved in xylan and pectin degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzyme systems from Aspergillus have been the subject of study for many years. Although the main chain cleaving enzymes and their encoding genes have been studied in detail, little information is available about most of the accessory enzymes and their corresponding g

  14. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and allow observation or manipulation of body cavities, hollow organs, and canals. The device consists of various rigid or flexible instruments that are inserted into body spaces and may include an optical system for conveying an image to the user's eye and their accessories may assist in gaining...

  15. ABC transporter architecture and regulatory roles of accessory domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans-Oldehinkel, E; Doeven, MK; Poolman, B

    2006-01-01

    We present an overview of the architecture of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and dissect the systems in core and accessory domains. The ABC transporter core is formed by the transmembrane domains (TMDs) and the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) that constitute the actual translocator. The a

  16. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section 884.6120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices §...

  17. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urological table and accessories. 876.4890 Section 876.4890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urological catheter and accessories. 876.5130 Section 876.5130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130...

  19. Evolutionary dynamics of the accessory genome of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk C den Bakker

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85-3.14 Mb, encode 2,822-3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II.

  20. 49 CFR 178.255-7 - Protection of valves and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of valves and accessories. 178.255-7... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Portable Tanks § 178.255-7 Protection of valves and accessories. (a) All valves, fittings, accessories, safety devices, gauging devices, and the like shall be...

  1. FUNCTIONAL-ANATOMY OF THE SOFT-TISSUES OF THE HAND AND WRIST - INVIVO EXCURSION MEASUREMENT OF THE FLEXOR POLLICIS LONGUS-TENDON USING MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAM, SJ; KONINGS, JG; WOLF, RFE; MOOYAART, EL

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the flexor pollicis longus-tendon (FPL-tendon) with the thumb in different positions allows the in vivo assessment of its abduction-adduction/flexion excursion. Measurements can also be performed in different positions of the wrist. In our study, the mean excursio

  2. Myofascial force transmission is increasingly important at lower forces: firing frequency-related length-force characteristics of rat extensor digitorum longus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.J.M; Baan, G.C.; Huijing, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Effects of submaximal stimulation frequencies on myofascial force transmission were investigated for rat anterior crural muscles with all motor units activated. - Methods: Tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus (TAEHL) muscles were kept at constant muscle-tendon complex length, but exte

  3. Perioperative Identification of an Accessory Fissure of the Right Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Taverne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations of lungs are common in clinical practice; however, they are sometimes overlooked in routine imaging. Surgical anatomy of the lung is complex and many variations are known to occur. A defective pulmonary development gives rise to variations in lobes and fissures. Morphological presentation is of clinical importance and profound knowledge of the organogenesis and functional anatomy is imperative for the interpretation and evaluation of lung pathophysiology and subsequent surgical intervention. However, appreciating them on radiographs and CT scans is difficult and they are therefore often either not identified or completely misinterpreted. As presented in this case report, an accessory fissure separating the superior segment of the right lower lobe from its native lobe was seen perioperatively and could only retrospectively be defined on X-rays and CT scan. It is imperative to keep in mind that accessory fissures can be missed on imaging studies and thus can make the surgical procedure more challenging.

  4. Spinal accessory neuropathy, droopy shoulder, and thoracic outlet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shekhlee, Amer; Katirji, Bashar

    2003-09-01

    Droopy shoulder has been proposed as a cause of thoracic outlet syndrome. Two patients developed manifestations of neurovascular compression upon arm abduction, associated with unilateral droopy shoulder and trapezius muscle weakness caused by iatrogenic spinal accessory neuropathies following cervical lymph node biopsies. The first patient developed a cold, numb hand with complete axillary artery occlusion when his arm was abducted to 90 degrees. The second patient complained of paresthesias in digits 4 and 5 of the right hand, worsened by elevation of the arm, with nerve conduction findings of right lower trunk plexopathy (low ulnar and medial antebrachial cutaneous sensory nerve action potentials). Spinal accessory nerve grafting (in the first patient) coupled with shoulder strengthening physical exercises in both patients resulted in gradual improvement of symptoms in 2 years. These two cases demonstrate that unilateral droopy shoulder secondary to trapezius muscle weakness may cause compression of the thoracic outlet structures.

  5. Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8 th cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. The radiological features have been detailed. The diagnostic dilemma was due to its midline posterior location mimicking a fourth ventricular lesion like medulloblastoma and ependymoma. Total excision is the ideal treatment for these tumors. A brief review of literature with tabulations of the variants has been listed.

  6. Arthroscopic Release of Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Sheath in Female Ballet Dancers: Dynamic Pathology, Surgical Technique, and Return to Dancing Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Funasaki, Hiroki; Hayashi, Hiroteru; Sakamoto, Kanako; Tsuruga, Rei; Marumo, Keishi

    2015-01-01

    Stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon is known as a major overuse lesion in female dancers. We describe arthroscopic surgical techniques in relation to the dynamic pathology of the disease. Crepitus and pain on moving the great toe with the ankle in plantar flexion on preoperative examination confirm the diagnosis of FHL stenosing tenosynovitis even if the os trigonum is not evident. The ankle is approached through standard posterolateral and posteromedial portals...

  7. Neglected Achilles Tendon Rupture Treated with Flexor Hallucis Longus transfer with two turndown gastrocnemius fascia flap and reinforced with plantaris tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Haijiao; Shi, Zengyuan; Xu, Dachuan; Liu, Zhenxin

    2015-09-01

    Neglected Achilles Tendon Ruptures are commonly seen by orthopaedic surgeons. In cases resistant to conservative treatment, a variety of surgical procedures have been utilized in the past. The senior -surgeon at our institution has utilized a technique -employing two turndown fascia flaps fashioned from the proximal Achilles tendon augmented by a tenomyodesis of the flexor hallucis longus and plantaris tendon. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical outcome of all patients who underwent this procedure. The medical records of 10 cases that underwent this procedure were retrospectively reviewed. We completed data collection sets using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hind foot scores, isokinetic evaluation, and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1 year of follow-up. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hind foot scores improved from 64.4±3.54. Isokinetic testing at 30º/sec and 120º/sec revealed an mean deficits of 24.5%, respectively, in the plantar flexion peak torque of the involved ankle than non-involved ankle. The flexor hallucis longus tendon, gastrocnemius fascia flap and plantaris were well -integrated into the Achilles tendon forming a homogenous tendon, which was confirmed in MRI. Our subjective and objective data indicate that the reconstructive technique using flexor hallucis longus transfer with two turndown gastrocnemius fascia flaps and plantaris tendon is a good option for repairing large gap defect of Achilles tendon.

  8. Environmental control of growth and BChl a expression in an aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium,Erythrobacter longus (DSMZ6997)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiang; JIAO Nianzhi; PENG Zaiqing

    2006-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB), which form a unique functional group of heterotrophic bacteria, have the ability to utilize light energy. The impact of carbon source and light intensity on the growth and bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) expression of a typical strain of AAPB, Erythrobacter longus strain DSMZ6997 was examined during batch culture and continuous culture. The results showed that the expression of BChl a in DSMZ6997 was regulated by both carbon-source and light conditions, and was stimulated by low availability of carbon but inhibited by light to a certain extent at 300 lx and completely at 1 500 lx. In contrast, cell abundance, and even cell size of this strain, was substantially enhanced under light/dark cycle cultivation conditions over dark conditions, indicating the promotion of growth by light. These results led to the conclusion that utilization of light through BChl a helps AAPB to survive under carbon stress, while light at high intensity is harmful to the synthesis of BChl a in AAPB.

  9. Split-hand plus sign in ALS: differential involvement of the flexor pollicis longus and intrinsic hand muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Parvathi; Bae, Jong Seok; Mioshi, Eneida; Kiernan, Matthew C; Vucic, Steve

    2013-05-01

    The flexor pollicis longus (FPL), a key muscle involved in fractionated thumb movements, may be relatively spared in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) compared to the thenar group of muscles, termed the split-hand plus sign. Consequently, the diagnostic utility of the split-hand plus sign was prospectively assessed in ALS. In total, 103 patients (37 ALS and 66 non-ALS) with neuromuscular symptoms underwent assessment of FPL and APB strength using the Medical Research Council (MRC) score. A median nerve strength index (MSI) was developed to quantify differential involvement by expressing the APB strength score as a fraction of the FPL strength score. The APB muscle strength was significantly reduced compared to FPL strength in ALS patients (p < 0.0001), but was comparable in the non-ALS disorders (p = 0.91). In addition, there was a significant reduction of MSI scores in ALS patients (MSIALS 0.8; MSInon-ALS 1.0, p < 0.01). Analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves disclosed that MSI < 0.9 exhibited an area under the curve of 0.86 (p < 0.001) with a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 86% for limb-onset ALS. In conclusion, split-hand plus sign distinguished ALS from non-ALS neuromuscular disorders, thereby suggesting a diagnostic utility of this novel clinical sign in ALS.

  10. Extensor Pollicis Longus Injury in Addition to De Quervain’s with Text Messaging on Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bhaskaranand; Bhat, Anil K; Venugopal, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To do a clinical and ultrasonic evaluation of subjects with thumb pain with text messaging. Background: Thumbs are commonly used for text messaging, which are not as well designed for fine manipulative or dexterous work. Repetitive use as in text messaging can lead to the injury to the tendons of the thumb. Materials and Methods: Ninety eight students with symptoms of Repetitive Strain Type of injuries of the thumb were selected from a survey and evaluated both clinically and by ultrasound analysis of the musculotendinous unit of the thumb to note changes due to excessive use of the mobile phone. Age and sex matched controls were also subjected to ultrasound evaluation. Results: Clinical examination showed positive Finkelstein test in 40% of the cases, significant reduction in the lateral and tip pinch strengths in the cases. Ultrasound detected changes in the first and the third compartments in 19% of the cases. Conclusion: Isolated cases of pain in the thumb have been reported but this study noted changes both clinically and by ultrasound in the tendons of the thumb. These changes should be taken as warning signs of possible subclinical changes taking place in the soft tissues of the thumb in these subjects due to repetitive use of mobile phones and thus, making them prone for developing painful Musculoskeletal Disorders. Application: Repetitive use of mobile phones for text messaging can lead to the damage of Extensor pollicis longus of the thumb in addition to the tendons of the first compartment of the wrist. PMID:25584249

  11. Muscles within muscles: a tensiomyographic and histochemical analysis of the normal human vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travnik, Ludvik; Djordjevič, Srdjan; Rozman, Sergej; Hribernik, Marija; Dahmane, Raja

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to show the connection between structure (anatomical and histochemical) and function (muscle contraction properties) of vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and vastus medialis longus (VML). The non-invasive tensiomyography (TMG) method was used to determine the contractile properties (contraction time; T(c)) of VML and VMO muscle, as a reflection of the ratio between the slow and fast fibers in two groups of nine young men. VML and VMO significantly (P knee, and to the VMO, which maintains the stable position of the patella in the femoral groove. Our results obtained by TMG provided additional evidence that muscle fibers within the segments of VM muscle were not homogenous with regard to their contractile properties, thereby confirming the histochemical results. T(c) can be attributed to the higher percentage of slow-twitch fibers - type 1. The statistically shorter T(c) (P ≤ 0.001) of VMO (22.8 ± 4.0 ms) compared with VML (26.7 ± 4.0 ms) in our study is consistent with previously found differences in histochemical, morphological and electrophysiological data. In conclusion, the results of this study provide evidence that the VML and VMO muscles are not only anatomically and histochemically different muscles, but also functionally different biological structures.

  12. A Case Report on Unilateral Accessory Humeral Head of Pronator Teres

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Suman; Sakthivel, Sulochana

    2016-01-01

    The presence of an accessory muscle in the forearm is likely to compress on the neurovascular structures and has clinical implications. We encountered an accessory humeral head of pronator teres during routine dissection of left upper limb in a male cadaver. The accessory head had fleshy origin from medial supracondylar line, medial intermuscular septum and brachialis fascia. It coursed downwards in the cubital region covering brachial artery and median nerve. Further, it narrowed becoming mo...

  13. Extraperitoneal Pelvic laparoscopic disconnection of accessory urethra from normal urethra in a case of urethral duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Nitin; Aggarwal, Satish Kumar

    2014-04-01

    We report an extraperitoneal pelvic laparoscopic approach to disconnect accessory urethra from normal urethra in complete urethral duplication. First stage consisted of chordee correction, partial excision of the accessory urethra and glansplasty. In the second stage the remaining accessory urethra was disconnected from the normal urethra through a pre-peritoneal minimal access approach to the retropubic space. The remaining distal mucosa was ablated using monopolar cautery.

  14. Extraperitoneal Pelvic laparoscopic disconnection of accessory urethra from normal urethra in a case of urethral duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Pant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an extraperitoneal pelvic laparoscopic approach to disconnect accessory urethra from normal urethra in complete urethral duplication. First stage consisted of chordee correction, partial excision of the accessory urethra and glansplasty. In the second stage the remaining accessory urethra was disconnected from the normal urethra through a pre-peritoneal minimal access approach to the retropubic space. The remaining distal mucosa was ablated using monopolar cautery.

  15. Total laparoscopic removal of accessory gallbladder: A case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Accessory gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly occurring in 1 in 4000 births, that is not associated with any specific symptoms. Usually this cannot be diagnosed on ultrasonography and hence they are usually not diagnosed preoperatively. Removal of the accessory gallbladder is necessary to avoid recurrence of symptoms. H-type accessory gallbladder is a rare anomaly. Once identified intra-operatively during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the surgery is usually converted to open. By using th...

  16. Accessory Genes Confer a High Replication Rate to Virulent Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Troyer, Ryan M.; Thompson, Jesse; Elder, John H.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats, similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in humans. The FIV accessory protein Vif abrogates the inhibition of infection by cat APOBEC3 restriction factors. FIV also encodes a multifunctional OrfA accessory protein that has characteristics similar to HIV Tat, Vpu, Vpr, and Nef. To examine the role of vif and orfA accessory genes in FIV replication and pathogenicity, we generated chimeras between tw...

  17. Incomplete and accessory fissures of the lung evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heřmanová, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.hermanova2@fnol.cz; Čtvrtlík, Filip, E-mail: filip.ctvrtlik@fnol.cz; Heřman, Miroslav, E-mail: herman@fnol.cz

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to assess incomplete and accessory interlobar fissures using volumetric thin-section high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Materials and methods: Retrospective assessment of HRCT examinations of 250 patients was performed. We assessed the localization, extension, and type of the incompleteness of fissures as well as the presence and localization of accessory fissures. We searched for possible correlation among the localization of interlobar fissures, the presence of incompleteness, and accessory fissures. Results: On the left side, an incomplete oblique fissure was found in 24%. The discontinuity was present in the parahilar region and the area of the incompleteness was most frequently between 21% and 40%. The right oblique fissure was incomplete in 35%, mostly parahilarly, with the most frequent discontinuity below 20%. An incomplete horizontal fissure was found in 74%. Accessory fissures were identified in 16% of patients, with the same frequency on both sides. The most frequent finding was accessory horizontal fissure with 8.0% on the left side, superior accessory fissure (7.2%) and inferior accessory fissure (5.2%) on the right side. No correlation was found among the localization of interlobar fissures, the presence of incompleteness, and accessory fissures. Conclusion: Incomplete and accessory fissures are frequent anatomic variations of interlobar fissures.

  18. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student's t test was used to compare the length of Stensen's duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen's duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis.

  19. Chloroquine inhibits accessory cell presentation of soluble natural and synthetic protein antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1984-01-01

    was time- and dose-dependent. A brief treatment solely of the accessory cells with the drug compromised their ability to stimulate primed T cells in a subsequent culture provided the accessory cells were treated with chloroquine before their exposure to the antigen. These results suggest that chloroquine......We have studied the in vitro effect of the lysosomotrophic agent, chloroquine, on the presentation of soluble protein antigens by guinea pig accessory cells. Chloroquine inhibited the capacity of antigen-pulsed accessory cells to stimulate proliferation in appropriately primed T cells. The effect...

  20. GSM accessories now available from the CERN Stores

    CERN Multimedia

    Labo Telecom

    2001-01-01

    As of 1st October you can order and receive GSM accessories from the CERN stores like any other article. The CERN stores also manage GSM telephones but, for technical reasons, only the Labo Telecom shop (Building 31, Room S026) is able to make the standard sales, repairs and exchanges for authorised persons with a CERN subscription. Labo Telecom will thus become a specialist shop, open from 11 a.m. to 12 a.m., and will apply the usual rules and authorisation procedures of the stores. The paper form for requests for GSM subscriptions is being computerized and will be available on EDH in the near future.

  1. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  2. An anomalous accessory extensor proprius indicis muscle: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kurklu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations related to tendon insertion and musculotendinous junction of the extensor proprius indicis muscle are commonly encountered. An anomalous extensor indicis proprius muscle (EIP tendon was detected in a fifty-year-old female cadaver during routine dissection of the right upper extremity. The body of tendon was initiated from the posterior ulna as a one muscle body, then continued as two separate muscle bodies and tendons and finally they were separated into two slips after passing the fourth dorsal compartment. As a radial part, it was divided into two slips at the level of the first metacarpophalangeal joint, and conjugated with the extensor pollicis longus (EPL muscle. Then, as an ulnar part, it was terminated at the radial side of the lateral band of the second metacarpophalangeal joint. Familiarity with the normal anatomy and variations of the tendons may help to prevent confusion and mistakes during tendon repairs, and tendon transfers. [Hand Microsurg 2013; 2(3.000: 122-124

  3. The accessory coracobrachialis muscle: ultrasound and MR features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauones, Salem [Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM), Department of Radiology, Hopital Saint-Luc, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Moraux, Antoine [Imagerie Medicale Jacquemars Gielee, Lille (France)

    2015-09-15

    To present the prevalence, clinical relevance, and ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of the accessory coracobrachialis (ACB) muscle. We present an US prospective study of the ACB muscle over a 2-year period. Five of the eight patients with suspected ACB on US were subsequently examined by MRI. An ACB muscle was demonstrated by US in eight patients (eight shoulders), including seven females, one male, with mean age 39 years, over 770 (664 patients) consecutive shoulder US examinations referred to our institution yielding a prevalence of 1.04 %. In dynamic US assessment, one case of subcoracoid impingement secondary to a bulky ACB was diagnosed. No thoracic outlet syndrome was encountered in the remaining cases. MRI confirmed the presence of the accessory muscle in five cases. ACB muscle is a rarely reported yet not uncommon anatomic variation of the shoulder musculature encountered only in eight of 664 patients referred for shoulder US study. Its US and MRI appearance is described. One of our patients presented with subcoracoid impingement related to the presence of an ACB. (orig.)

  4. Behaviour of bentonite accessory minerals during the thermal stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos, David; Bruno, Jordi [Enviros-QuantiSci, Barcelona (Spain); Benbow, Steven; Takase, Hiro [Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-15

    This report discusses in a quantitative manner the evolution of the accessory minerals in the bentonite as a result of the thermal event exerted by the spent fuel in the near field. Three different modelling approaches have been used and the results compared between them. The three different approaches have been calculated using two Differential Algebraic Equation (DAE) solver: DYLAN (Model-1) and the Nag DAE solver, d02ngf (Model-2) and the third approach (Model-3) using the last version of PHREEQC. The results from these calculations indicate the feasibility of the modelling approach to model the migration of bentonite accessory minerals and relevant aqueous species throughout the thermal gradient. These calculations indicate that the migration of quartz and quartz polymorphs is a lesser problem. The aqueous speciation of Ca in the bentonite pore water is fundamental in order to define the potential migration of anhydrite during the thermal stage. If CaSO{sub 4}(aq) is the predominant aqueous species, then anhydrite dissolves at the initial groundwater migration times through bentonite. However, if Ca{sup 2+} is considered to be the dominant Ca species at the bentonite pore water, then anhydrite migrates towards the clay/granite interface. This is the main difference in the chemical systems considered in the three model approaches used in this work. The main process affecting the trace mineral behaviour in bentonite is cation exchange. This process controls the concentration of calcium, which results in a direct control of the calcite precipitation-dissolution.

  5. Digital dermatitis of the accessory digits of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso A. Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This report characterizes the digital dermatitis (DD lesions in the accessory digits of dairy cows and presents data on the applied therapy. Fifteen Holstein cattle with DD affecting the accessory digits of the hindlimbs from four dairy farms with previous history of DD were evaluated. Lesions were excised, the wounds were sutured, and a topical application of oxytetracycline powder covered by bandaging was associated with a single parenteral administration of long acting oxytetracycline IM (20mg/kg. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathology and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM. Lesions from all the animals were recuperated 15 days after surgical procedure. Overal, most DD lesions were papillomatous epidermal projections or wartlike verrucous lesions. Histopathologically, samples revealed hyperplasia of epidermis with hyperkeratosis, several mitoses in the stratum basale and elongated rete ridges in the superficial and middle dermis. TEM revealed long, thin spirochete-like bacteria. Morphologic features of lesions and its response to therapy were comparable to those described for DD.

  6. The histochemical profile of the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle differentiates after birth and dedifferentiates in senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lehnert

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Age dependent motor unit dedifferentiation is a key component of impaired muscle function in advanced age. Here, we tested the hypothesis that rat muscle histochemical profile during the lifespan of an individual has an age-specific pattern since comprehensive longitudinal studies of muscle differentiation after birth and dedifferentiation in advanced age are scarce. Our results show that extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL is comprised only of two fiber types after birth, type slow-oxidative (SO and type SDH-intermediate (SDHINT, the latter being indicative for the presence of polyneuronal innervation. In contrast to the constantly growing crosssectional area of the muscle fibers, a dramatic decrease in SDH-INT proportion occurs between day 14 and 21 after birth resulting in a complete loss of fiber type SDH-INT at the age of 90 days (p<0.05. At the age of 270 days, the fiber type composition of rat EDL dedifferentiates as shown by the reappearance of the SDH-INT type with a further increase at the age of 540 days (p<0.05. These changes in histochemical fiber type spectra are brought about by fiber type conversion within the fast twich fibers. The findings of the present study provide further evidence that fiber type conversion is a basic mechanism leading to motor unit differentiation and dedifferentiation during ontogenesis. Fiber type conversion shows a distinct time specific pattern and is also characteristic for motor unit regeneration after peripheral nerve repair. Factors that influence fiber type conversion and thereby motor unit organization may provide a future therapeutic option to enhance the regenerative capacity of motor units.

  7. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and....4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a device intended to remove tissue and...

  8. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical... Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories is a device designed to...

  9. 48 CFR 52.247-13 - Accessorial Services-Moving Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Moving Contracts. 52.247-13 Section 52.247-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.247-13 Accessorial Services—Moving Contracts. As prescribed in 47.207-5(c), insert a clause... furniture: Accessorial Services—Moving Contracts (APR 1984) (a) Packing and/or crating and padding....

  10. 77 FR 15390 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on... interest issues raised by the ] recommended relief, specifically issuance of a general exclusion order covering handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof that infringe U.S. Trademark...

  11. Crystallization of accessory phases in magmas by local saturation adjacent to phenocrysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Accessory minerals commonly occur attached to or included in the major crystalline phases of felsic and some intermediate igneous rocks. Apatite is particularly common as inclusions, but Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite, zircon, monazite, chevkinite and xenotime are also known from silicic rocks. Accessories may nucleate near the host crystal/ liquid interface as a result of local saturation owing to formation of a differentiated chemical boundary layer in which accessory mineral solubility would be lower than in the surrounding liquid. Differentiation of this boundary layer would be greatest adjacent to ferromagnesian phenocrysts, especially Fe-Ti oxides; it is with oxides that accessories are most commonly associated in rocks. A boundary layer may develop if the crystal grows more rapidly than diffusion can transport incorporated and rejected elements to and from the phenocryst. Diffusion must dominate over convection as a mode of mass transfer near the advancing crystal/liquid interface in order for a boundary layer to exist. Accumulation of essential structural constituent elements of accessory minerals owing to their slow diffusion in evolved silicate melt also may force local saturation, but this is not a process that applies to all cases. Local saturation is an attractive mechanism for enhancing fractionation during crystallization differentiation. If accessory minerals attached to or included in phenocrysts formed because of local saturation, their host phenocrysts must have grown rapidly when accessories nucleated in comparison to lifetimes of magma reservoirs. Some inconsistencies remain in a local saturation origin for accessory phases that cannot be evaluated without additional information. ?? 1989.

  12. A peptide from the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). These glands add various substances to the ejaculate. On mating, the ejaculate is transferred to the female, together with the substances from the male accessory glands. The fun

  13. Myosin VIIA is a marker for the cone accessory outer segment in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodel, Corinne; Niklaus, Stephanie; Heidemann, Martina; Klooster, Jan; Kamermans, M.; Biehlmaier, Oliver; Gesemann, Matthias; Neuhauss, Stephan C F

    2014-01-01

    The accessory outer segment, a cytoplasmic structure running alongside the photoreceptor outer segment, has been described in teleost fishes, excluding the model organism zebrafish. So far, the function of the accessory outer segment is unknown. Here, we describe the ultrastructure of the zebrafish

  14. Fast Image Retrieval of Textile Industrial Accessory Based on Multi-Feature Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈文忠; 杨杰

    2004-01-01

    A hierarchical retrieval scheme of the accessory image database is proposed based on textile industrial accessory contour feature and region feature. At first smallest enclosed rectangle[1] feature (degree of accessory coordination) is used to filter the image database to decouple the image search scope. After the accessory contour information and region information are extracted, the fusion multi-feature of the centroid distance Fourier descriptor and distance distribution histogram is adopted to finish image retrieval accurately. All the features above are invariable under translation, scaling and rotation. Results from the test on the image database including 1,000 accessory images demonstrate that the method is effective and practical with high accuracy and fast speed.

  15. Successful accessory renal artery denervation in a patient with resistant hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Atas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal sympathetic denervation is safe and effective in patients with resistant hypertension. In all of the studies of renal artery denervation, patients with accessory renal arteries are excluded. So there is not any data regarding renal sympathetic denervation applied to the accessory renal arteries. We present a young female patient with resistant hypertension despite use of five different antihypertensive drugs. The patient had a well developed (diameter >4 mm left renal accessory. We believe that if we omitted the well developed accessory renal artery, we would not have maintained adequate blood pressure control. Thus, we applied radiofrequency ablation to both renal arteries and left accessory artery. Immediately after the procedure, the patient′s blood pressure was reduced to 110/60 mmHg and this effect was continued during the first month of follow-up.

  16. Development of Heat-resistant XLPE Cable and Accessories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Murata, Yoshinao; Kishi, Kouji; Katakai, Shoshi

    We have developed heat-resistant XLPE cable and accessories that can be operated at 105°C as the maximum permissible conductor temperature in normal operation. Through this cable system, greater transmission capacity can be achieved using existing cable ducts and without increasing the conductor size of the cable. We have developed heat-resistant XLPE insulation material which has a higher melting point than that of conventional XLPE. The breakdown strength of heat-resistant XLPE cable at 105°C is almost the same as that of conventional XLPE cable at 90°C. The heat deformation of the new cable at 105°C is almost the same as that of conventional XLPE cable at 90°C. Conventional self-pressurized rubber joints can be applied to heat-resistant cable lines with the new waterproof joint compound with low heat resistivity.

  17. Morphology and protein patterns of honey bee drone accessory glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Landim, Carminda da; Dallacqua, Rodrigo Pires

    2005-09-30

    We used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine the morphology of the accessory glands of immature and mature adult males of Apis mellifera L. We also made an electrophoretic analysis of the protein content of the mature gland. The glands of the immature male actively secrete a mucous substance that can be seen in the lumen of the gland of the mature male. This secretion stains with mercury bromophenol blue and with periodic acid-Schiff reaction, which stain glyconjugates. The protein content was higher in the lumen secretion than in the gland wall extracts. The electrophoresis patterns of the wall extracts were different from those of the secretion found in the gland lumen.

  18. Relationship between development of accessory maxillary sinus and chronic sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to investigate whether there is a relationship between development of accessory maxillary osmium (AMO and chronic sinusitis. Material and Methods: A total of 100 patients who had endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS constituted the study group while 100 patients who had septoplasty were taken as the control group. The patients were examined for the presence of AMO using rigid endoscope. Results: The prevalence of AMO was 14% in the rhinosinusitis group and 9% in the control group. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our study revealed that AMO prevalence is significantly higher in patients with CRS when compared with the controls. CRS may enhance perforation of fontanelle and formation of AMO.

  19. Comparative proteomic profiling of soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Steven; Brinkmeier, Heinrich; Zhang, Yaxin; Winkler, Claudia K; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2013-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is due to genetic abnormalities in the dystrophin gene and represents one of the most frequent genetic childhood diseases. In the X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouse model of dystrophinopathy, different subtypes of skeletal muscles are affected to a varying degree albeit the same single base substitution within exon 23 of the dystrophin gene. Thus, to determine potential muscle subtype-specific differences in secondary alterations due to a deficiency in dystrophin, in this study, we carried out a comparative histological and proteomic survey of mdx muscles. We intentionally included the skeletal muscles that are often used for studying the pathomechanism of muscular dystrophy. Histological examinations revealed a significantly higher degree of central nucleation in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles compared with the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. Muscular hypertrophy of 20-25% was likewise only observed in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles from mdx mice, but not in the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. For proteomic analysis, muscle protein extracts were separated by fluorescence two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Proteins with a significant change in their expression were identified by mass spectrometry. Proteomic profiling established an altered abundance of 24, 17, 19 and 5 protein species in the dystrophin-deficient soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscle, respectively. The key proteomic findings were verified by immunoblot analysis. The identified proteins are involved in the contraction-relaxation cycle, metabolite transport, muscle metabolism and the cellular stress response. Thus, histological and proteomic profiling of muscle subtypes from mdx mice indicated that distinct skeletal muscles are differentially affected by the loss of the membrane cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. Varying degrees of perturbed protein

  20. Strategies for inhibiting function of HIV-1 accessory proteins: a necessary route to AIDS therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, S N; Frasson, I; Palù, G

    2009-01-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) genome encodes three major structural proteins common to all retroviruses (Gag, Pol and Env), two regulatory proteins (Tat and Rev) that are essential for viral replication, and four accessory proteins (Nef, Vif, Vpu, Vpr). While accessory proteins were initially reported to be unnecessary for viral growth, their importance as virulence factors is now being more and more appreciated: they can dramatically alter the course and severity of viral infection, replication and disease progression. None of the HIV accessory proteins display enzymatic activity: they rather act altering cellular pathways via multiple protein-protein interactions with a number of host cell factors. All currently approved anti-HIV drugs target pol and env encoded proteins. Therefore, widening the molecular targets of HIV therapy by additionally targeting accessory proteins may expand treatment options, resulting in high impact effective new therapy. In this review we present the state of the art of compounds that target HIV accessory proteins. Most of the research has focused on the inhibition of specific accessory proteins/host cell partner interactions. Promising compounds have been found within different classes of molecules: small natural and synthetic molecules, peptides and proteins, oligonucleotides, in particular those used as RNA interference (RNAi) tools. With the assortment of compounds available, especially against Nef and Vif functions, the demonstration of the clinical efficacy of the new anti-HIV-1 drugs targeting accessory proteins is next challenge.

  1. Peroneal spastic flatfoot in adolescents with accessory talar facet impingement: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Hisateru; Aoki, Haruhito; Hirano, Takaaki; Akiyama, Yui; Fujiya, Hiroto

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzed imaging, arthroscopic findings, and treatment responses for peroneal spastic flatfoot (PSFF) caused by talocalcaneal impingement at the accessory anterolateral talar facet (AALTF) (accessory talar facet impingement) in 13 adolescents without histories of trauma and tarsal coalition. The AALTF was determined with computed tomography and MRI. Focal abutting bone marrow edema (FABME) on MRI around the AALTF was confirmed. In seven patients who underwent AALTF resection, subtalar arthroscopy was performed. All experienced alleviation PSFF after treatment; reduction in FABME was observed. AALTF resection alone is beneficial for PSFF caused by accessory talar facet impingement when peroneal spasms are restored by an injection of local anesthesia.

  2. Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Expression of Glycyl-tRNA Synthetase and Ultrastructure Changes in Atrophied Rat Peroneus Longus Muscle Induced by Sciatic Nerve Injection Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS is one of the key enzymes involved in protein synthesis. Its mutations have been reported to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease which demonstrates muscular atrophy in distal extremities, particularly manifested in peroneus muscles. In this situation, the dysfunctions of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR affect energy supply and excitation-contraction coupling of muscle fibers, therefore resulting in muscular atrophy. Although the treatment of muscular atrophy is a global urgent problem, it can be improved by electroacupuncture (EA treatment. To investigate the mechanism underlying EA treatment improving muscular atrophy, we focused on the perspective of protein synthesis by establishing a penicillin injection-induced sciatic nerve injury model. In our model, injured rats without treatment showed decreased sciatic functional index (SFI, decreased peroneus longus muscle weight and muscle fiber cross-sectional area, aggregated mitochondria with vacuoles appearing, swollen SR, and downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of GlyRS and myosin heavy chain IIb (MHC-IIb. The injured rats with EA treatment showed significant recovery. These results indicated that EA stimulation can alleviate peroneus longus muscular atrophy induced by iatrogenic sciatic nerve injury through promoting the recovery of GlyRS and muscle ultrastructure and increasing muscle protein synthesis.

  3. Rehabilitation and Return to Sport Following Surgical Repair of the Rectus Abdominis and Adductor Longus in a Professional Basketball Player: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352.

  4. Technical tip: Side-to-side tendon suture as escape plan during extensor indicis tendon plasty in distal extensor pollicis longus rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schleh, Andrea Christina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In case of a short distal recipient stump after extensor pollicis longus (EPL tendon rupture, transfer of the extensor indicis proprius (EIP tendon using a conventional Pulvertaft tendon-weaving technique may be difficult or impossible. The purpose of this paper is to provide a technical tip to manage this rare, but clinically important scenario of a very short distal EPL recipient tendon.Methods: A side-to-side tendon suture (SSTS was used for EIP transfer to restore thumb extension in 3 patients who had sustained a distal rupture of their extensor pollicis longus near the interphalangeal joint. The SSTS was performed with an overlap of 2 cm in 2 patients and in one patient.Results: A stable SSTS was achieved which allowed early active mobilization and resulted in good functional recovery of thumb extension after a mean follow-up of 8 months.Conclusion: Extensor indicis transfer using SSTS is a reliable and technically simple escape plan in a distal rupture of the EPL near the phalangeal joint. It provides very stable tendon-to-tendon attachment with high loading capacity and good gliding qualities.

  5. Chiasma crurale: intersection of the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons above the ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging-anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Florian M. [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Zurich (Switzerland); Gheno, Ramon; Nico, Marcelo A.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Pathology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To determine the precise anatomy and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the chiasma crurale in cadavers, paying special attention to degenerative changes Twelve fresh human ankles were harvested from 11 nonembalmed cadavers (mean age at death 77 years) and used according to institutional guidelines. MR imaging and MR tenography were used to investigate the anatomy of the chiasma crurale using proton density-weighted sequences. The gross anatomy of the chiasma crurale was evaluated and compared to the MR imaging findings. Histology was used to elucidate further the structure of the chiasma crurale. Above the chiasma, five specimens had a small amount of fat tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendon. In all specimens both tendons had a sheath below the chiasma but not above it. At the central portion of the chiasma there was no soft tissue between the tendons, except in two specimens that showed an anatomic variant consisting of a thick septum connecting the tibial periosteum and the deep transverse fascia of the leg. In MR images, eight specimens showed what were believed to be degenerative changes in the tendons at the level of the chiasma. However, during gross inspection and histologic analysis of the specimens, there was no tendon degeneration visible. At the central portion of the chiasma, there is no tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons unless there is an anatomic variant. At the chiasma crurale, areas with irregular tendon surfaces are normal findings and are not associated with tendon degeneration (fraying). (orig.)

  6. Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Expression of Glycyl-tRNA Synthetase and Ultrastructure Changes in Atrophied Rat Peroneus Longus Muscle Induced by Sciatic Nerve Injection Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Xiao Ming; Yang, Sheng Bo

    2016-01-01

    Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) is one of the key enzymes involved in protein synthesis. Its mutations have been reported to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease which demonstrates muscular atrophy in distal extremities, particularly manifested in peroneus muscles. In this situation, the dysfunctions of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) affect energy supply and excitation-contraction coupling of muscle fibers, therefore resulting in muscular atrophy. Although the treatment of muscular atrophy is a global urgent problem, it can be improved by electroacupuncture (EA) treatment. To investigate the mechanism underlying EA treatment improving muscular atrophy, we focused on the perspective of protein synthesis by establishing a penicillin injection-induced sciatic nerve injury model. In our model, injured rats without treatment showed decreased sciatic functional index (SFI), decreased peroneus longus muscle weight and muscle fiber cross-sectional area, aggregated mitochondria with vacuoles appearing, swollen SR, and downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of GlyRS and myosin heavy chain IIb (MHC-IIb). The injured rats with EA treatment showed significant recovery. These results indicated that EA stimulation can alleviate peroneus longus muscular atrophy induced by iatrogenic sciatic nerve injury through promoting the recovery of GlyRS and muscle ultrastructure and increasing muscle protein synthesis.

  7. Estudo anatômico das inserções distais do tendão extensor longo do polegar Anatomical studies of the distal insertion of the extensor pollicis longus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Benedito Ferreira Caetano

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Registramos pelo presente estudo que o músculo (ELP e seu tendão apresentaram poucas variações anatômicas. Não registramos a presença de tendões acessórios e nem a ausência desse músculo ou de seu tendão. Verificamos em todas as preparações a passagem do tendão pelo terceiro compartimento osteofibroso, cruzando sobre os extensor radial curto (ERCC e longo (ERLC do carpo e dirigindo-se ao polegar. A alteração no trajeto tendinoso, desviando-se no sentido radial foi verificada em uma das preparações (1,6%. A duplicação parcial do tendão proximal a articulação metacarpofalângica (AMFP foi verificada em 3 observações (4,8%, sendo 1 bilateral, e distal à articulação em 5 (8,3%, 2 bilateralmente. A inserção óssea na base da falange distal (BFD foi encontrada em todas as observações. Durante sua passagem pela articulação metacarpofalângica, registramos sua inserção na cápsula articular em 14 observações (23,3%, porém não registramos a inserção óssea nesse local. O padrão mais comum em relação ao músculo ELP foi a presença constante de 1 tendão, passando pelo terceiro compartimento osteofibroso dorsal do punho com inserção óssea na base da falange distal do polegar.We recorded with this study that the EPL muscle and its tendon show a few anatomical variations. Any accessories tendons either the absence of this muscle or its tendon was found. In all preparation the passage of the tendon through the third osteofibroses compartment, crossing on the ERBC and ERLC going to the thumb was seen. The change of the tendinuous trajectory, deviating itself to the radial direction in one of the preparations was checked (1,6%. The partial duplication of the proximal tendon to the metacarpophalangeal joint (AMP was seen in three observations (4,8%, one bilateral and distal to the articulation in five (8,3%, 2 bilaterally. The bone insertion at the base of distal (BFD phalanx in all observations were found

  8. An accessory ossification centre in the calcaneus with talonavicular and second metatarsocuneiform coalitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhan, A.U.; Aydin, H.; Aynaci, O. [KTU Farabi Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Trabzon (Turkey); Dinc, H. [KTU Farabi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Trabzon (Turkey)

    1999-04-01

    We present the case of an 11-year-old girl with an accessory ossification centre of the calcaneus with talonavicular and second metatarsocuneiform coalitions, and bilateral os tibiale externum. (orig.) With 3 figs., 4 refs.

  9. Clinico-embryological perspective of a rare accessory brachial muscle with possible musculocutaneous nerve compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, V; Yadav, Y; Arora, Jyoti; Kumar, H; Suri, R K; Rath, G

    2009-03-01

    Both brachialis and biceps brachii are primary flexors of the arm and elbow from the biomechanical perspective. Numerous reports exist in anatomical literature regarding accessory heads of biceps brachii, although such accessory bellies in relation to brachialis muscle are less frequently elucidated. We report a unilateral case of a rare accessory muscle interposed between the biceps brachii and brachialis, having the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) entrapped between the two. Furthermore, the muscle divided into two slips, upper slip was attached to biceps brachii and the other gained insertion to the brachial fascia. Innervation to this accessory muscle was derived from MCN. The embryological basis for such supernumerary muscle is discussed. Additionally, the case is considered under surgical and clinical perspective, highlighting the importance of familiarity with such variations. Anatomical variations of the brachial musculature may cause diagnostic perplexities while interpreting MRI or CT scans.

  10. One nose, one brain: contribution of the main and accessory olfactory system to chemosensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eMucignat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The accessory olfactory system is present in most tetrapods. It is involved in the perception of chemical stimuli, being implicated also in the detection of pheromone. However, it is sensitive also to some common odorant molecules, which have no clear implication in intraspecific chemical communication. The accessory olfactory system may complement the main olfactory system, and may contribute different perceptual features to the construction of a unitary representation, which merges the different chemosensory qualities. Crosstalk between the main and accessory olfactory systems occurs at different levels of central processing, in brain areas where the inputs from the two systems converge. Interestingly, centrifugal projections from more caudal brain areas are deeply involved in modulating both main and accessory sensory processing. A high degree of interaction between the two systems may be conceived, and partial overlapping appears to occur in many functions. Therefore, the central chemosensory projections merge inputs from different organs to obtain a complex chemosensory picture.

  11. 77 FR 46633 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Brakes; Adjustment Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... RIN 2126-AB28 Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Brakes; Adjustment Limits AGENCY... Safety Administration (FMCSA) amends the requirements regarding brake readjustment limits in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs). This rule amends the readjustment limits, clarifies...

  12. 49 CFR 398.5 - Parts and accessories necessary for safe operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF MIGRANT WORKERS § 398.5 Parts and accessories necessary for safe operation. (a... worker transported. The seats shall be: Securely attached to the vehicle during the course...

  13. Manual therapy of the mandibular accessory ligaments for the management of temporomandibular joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Antonino Marco; Caradonna, Carola; Caradonna, Domenico

    2011-02-01

    Temporomandibular joint disorders are characterized by chronic or acute musculoskeletal or myofascial pain with dysfunction of the masticatory system. Treatment modalities include occlusal splints, patient education, activity modification, muscle and joint exercises, myofascial therapy, acupuncture, and manipulative therapy. In the physiology of the temporomandibular joint, accessory ligaments limit the movement of the mandible. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy of accessory ligaments is necessary for good clinical management of temporomandibular joint disorders. Although general principles regarding the anatomy of the ligaments are relatively clear, very little substantiated information on the dimension, orientation, and function of the ligaments has been published, to the authors' knowledge. The authors review the literature concerning the accessory ligaments of the temporomandibular joint and describe treatment options, including manual techniques for mobilizing the accessory ligaments.

  14. Expression of accessory molecules and cytokines in acute EAE in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laman, J.D.; Meurs, M. van; Schellekens, M.M.; Boer, M. de; Melchers, B.; Massacesi, L.; Lassmann, H.; Claassen, E.; Hart, B.A. 't

    1998-01-01

    Accessory molecules and cytokines are involved in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rodent models, and are potential targets for immunotherapy. Evaluation of such experimental therapies requires appropriate animal models. Therefo

  15. Dynamic expression pattern of kinesin accessory protein in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ritu Sarpal; Krishanu Ray

    2002-09-01

    We have identified the Drosophila homologue of the non-motor accessory subunit of kinesin-II motor complex. It is homologous to the SpKAP115 of the sea urchin, KAP3A and KAP3B of the mouse, and SMAP protein in humans. In situ hybridization using a DmKAP specific cRNA probe has revealed a dynamic pattern of expression in the developing nervous system. The staining first appears in a subset of cells in the embryonic central nervous system at stage 13 and continues till the first instar larva stage. At the third instar larva stage the staining gets restricted to a few cells in the optic lobe and in the ventral ganglion region. It has also stained a subset of sensory neurons from late stage 13 and till the first instar larva stage. The DmKAP expression pattern in the nervous system corresponds well with that of Klp64D and Klp68D as reported earlier. In addition, we have found that the DmKAP gene is constitutively expressed in the germline cells and in follicle cells during oogenesis. These cells are also stained using an antibody to KLP68D protein, but mRNA in situ hybridization using KLP64D specific probe has not stained these cells. Together these results proved a basis for further analysis of tissue specific function of DmKAP in future.

  16. Cummins MD & HD Accessory Hybridization CRADA -Annual Report FY15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deter, Dean D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    There are many areas of MD and HD vehicles that can be improved by new technologies and optimized control strategies. Component optimization and idle reduction need to be addressed, this is best done by a two part approach that includes selecting the best component technology, and/or architecture, and optimized controls that are vehicle focused. While this is a common focus in the light duty industry it has been gaining momentum in the MD and HD market as the market gets more competitive and the regulations become more stringent. When looking into systems optimization and idle reduction technologies, affected vehicle systems must first be considered, and if possible included in the new architecture to get the most benefit out of these new capabilities. Typically, when looking into idle reduction or component optimization for MD/HD, the vehicle s accessories become a prime candidate for electrification or hybridization. While this has already been studied on light duty vehicles (especially on hybrids and electric vehicles) it has not made any head way or market penetration in most MD and HD applications. If hybrids and electric MD and HD vehicles begin to break into the market this would be a necessary step into the ability to make those vehicles successful by allowing for independent, optimized operation separate from the engine.

  17. Accessory cardiac bronchus: Proposed imaging classification on multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Min; Kim, Young Tong; Han, Jong Kyu; Jou, Sung Shick [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To propose the classification of accessory cardiac bronchus (ACB) based on imaging using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), and evaluate follow-up changes of ACB. This study included 58 patients diagnosed as ACB since 9 years, using MDCT. We analyzed the types, division locations and division directions of ACB, and also evaluated changes on follow-up. We identified two main types of ACB: blind-end (51.7%) and lobule (48.3%). The blind-end ACB was further classified into three subtypes: blunt (70%), pointy (23.3%) and saccular (6.7%). The lobule ACB was also further classified into three subtypes: complete (46.4%), incomplete (28.6%) and rudimentary (25%). Division location to the upper half bronchus intermedius (79.3%) and medial direction (60.3%) were the most common in all patients. The difference in division direction was statistically significant between the blind-end and lobule types (p = 0.019). Peribronchial soft tissue was found in five cases. One calcification case was identified in the lobule type. During follow-up, ACB had disappeared in two cases of the blind-end type and in one case of the rudimentary subtype. The proposed classification of ACB based on imaging, and the follow-up CT, helped us to understand the various imaging features of ACB.

  18. Accessory brachialis muscle associated with high division of brachial artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamurthy A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available During routine dissection for the undergraduate students in the Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, of a male cadaver aged 73 years, we encountered an additional slip of brachialis muscle taking origin in the flexor compartment of left arm and inserting into the forearm. The origin of the additional muscle belly was from the anteromedial surface of shaft and medial supracondylar ridge of lower end of humerus. The additional muscle slip merged with the tendon of pronator teres before inserting on the lateral surface of the shaft of radius. The median nerve pierced the muscle at a distance of 6 cm from the medial epicondyle of humerus, supplied it and had a routine course later. Associated with the muscular abnormality was the high division of brachial artery into radial and ulnar arteries 17.5 cm from the medial epicondyle. The ulnar artery passed beneath the accessory brachialis muscle along with the median nerve. The role of additional muscles in compression syndrome is a well known phenomenon. The altered anatomy of the blood vessels may make them more vulnerable to trauma and to hemorrhage but at the same time more accessible for cannulation. Medical fraternity including orthopedicians and neurologists need to be aware of such variations when dealing with upper limb injuries or operations around the elbow joint.

  19. Centrifugal telencephalic afferent connections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia eMohedanoMoriano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Parallel to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, which in turn project to adjacent areas of the telencephalon, respectively. New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs partially converge in the rostral telencephalon and are non-overlapping at caudal telencephalic levels. Therefore, the basal telencephalon should be reclassified in olfactory, vomeronasal and mixed areas. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virtually all olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures send reciprocal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Further, non-chemosensory recipient structures also projects centrifugally to the olfactory bulbs. These feed-back projections appear to be essential modulating processing of chemosensory information. The present work aims at characterizing centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs arising from olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic areas. This issue has been addressed by using tracer injections in the rat and mouse brain. Tracer injections were delivered into the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as in olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic structures. The results confirm that olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Interestingly, olfactory (e.g., piriform cortex, vomeronasal (e.g., posteromedial cortical amygdala, mixed (e.g., the medial amygdala and non-chemosensory-recipient (e.g., the nucleus of the diagonal band structures project to the main and to the accessory olfactory bulbs thus providing the possibility of simultaneous modulation and interaction of both systems at different stages of chemosensory processing.

  20. Properties of Phase Transition of Traffic Flow on Urban Expressway Systems with Ramps and Accessory Roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅超群; 刘业进

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a cellular automaton model to describe the phase transition of traffic flow on urban expressway systems with on-off-ramps and accessory roads. The lane changing rules are given in detailed, the numerical results show that the main road and the accessory road both produce phase transitions. These phase transitions will omen be influenced by the number of lanes, lane changing, the ramp flow, the input flow rate, and the geometry structure.

  1. Biosynthesis of Active Bacillus subtilis Urease in the Absence of Known Urease Accessory Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Kyong; Mulrooney, Scott B.; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2005-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis contains urease structural genes but lacks the accessory genes typically required for GTP-dependent incorporation of nickel. Nevertheless, B. subtilis was shown to possess a functional urease, and the recombinant enzyme conferred low levels of nickel-dependent activity to Escherichia coli. Additional investigations of the system lead to the suggestion that B. subtilis may use unidentified accessory proteins for in vivo urease activation.

  2. Centrifugal telencephalic afferent connections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; de Moya-Pinilla, Miguel; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2012-01-01

    Parallel to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, which in turn project to adjacent areas of the telencephalon, respectively. New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs partially converge in the rostral telencephalon and are non-overlapping at caudal telencephalic levels. Therefore, the basal telencephalon should be reclassified in olfactory, vomeronasal, and mixed areas. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virtually all olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures send reciprocal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Further, non-chemosensory recipient structures also projects centrifugally to the olfactory bulbs. These feed-back projections appear to be essential modulating processing of chemosensory information. The present work aims at characterizing centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs arising from olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic areas. This issue has been addressed by using tracer injections in the rat and mouse brain. Tracer injections were delivered into the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as in olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic structures. The results confirm that olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Interestingly, olfactory (e.g., piriform cortex), vomeronasal (e.g., posteromedial cortical amygdala), mixed (e.g., the anterior medial amygdaloid nucleus), and non-chemosensory-recipient (e.g., the nucleus of the diagonal band) structures project to the main and to the accessory olfactory bulbs thus providing the possibility of simultaneous modulation and interaction of both systems at different stages of chemosensory processing

  3. MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone: correlation with surgical and pathologic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Kyung Tai; Kim, Eun Kyung [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone and to correlate these with the surgical and pathologic findings. The MR images of 17 patients with medial foot pain and surgically proven type II accessory navicular abnormalities were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity in the accessory navicular, synchondrosis and adjacent soft tissue, the presence of synchondrosis widening, and posterior tibial tendon (PTT) pathology on the T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were analyzed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the surgical and pathologic findings. The fat-suppressed T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in the accessory navicular bones and synchondroses in all patients, and in the soft tissue in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients, as well as synchondrosis widening in 3 (17.6%) of the 17 patients. The MR images showed tendon pathology in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients with PTT dysfunction at surgery. The pathologic findings of 16 surgical specimens included areas of osteonecrosis with granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and destruction of the cartilage cap. The MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone are a persistent edema pattern in the accessory navicular bone and within the synchondrosis, indicating osteonecrosis, inflammation and destruction of the cartilage cap. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was clinically evident in most patients.

  4. Use-dependent properties of flecainide acetate in accessory atrioventricular pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, J; Helmy, I; Katzung, B; Scheinman, M

    1994-01-01

    Flecainide acetate has been shown to have use-dependent properties. The use-dependent properties of flecainide were evaluated in 20 patients (13 men and 7 women, mean age 32 +/- 11 years) with accessory atrioventricular connections. Twenty to 30 stimulus drive trains were introduced in either the atrium or ventricle at progressively faster rates. The range of cycle lengths over which anterograde and retrograde conduction block occurred in the accessory pathway was assessed in the drug-free state and after oral loading with flecainide acetate. The block cycle length index was defined as the shortest cycle length during which 1:1 conduction was maintained in the accessory pathway minus the longest cycle length during which block in the accessory pathway occurred on the second paced beat. In the drug-free state, the (mean +/- SD) anterograde and retrograde block cycle length indexes were 20 +/- 12 and 20 +/- 9 ms, respectively. After flecainide therapy, the anterograde and retrograde block cycle length indexes increased to 80 +/- 33 and 65 +/- 29 ms, respectively (p = 0.002 compared with the drug-free state). The block cycle length index did not correlate with serum flecainide levels, but did correlate with other electrophysiologic markers of drug effect on accessory pathway conduction. The change in the block cycle length index demonstrates that flecainide has a progressive effect on accessory pathway conduction at more rapid rates, consistent with its in vitro use-dependent properties. This index is an excellent marker of drug efficacy.

  5. Fibroadenoma of the axillary accessory breast: diagnostic value of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Munehisa; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Takeuchi, Taizo; Tamaki, Takeshi; Oura, Shoji

    2010-10-01

    Accessory breast is synonymous with polymastia or supernumerary breast tissue. An accessory breast without a nipple or areola is rare. We report a case of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast with no nipple or areola in a 41-year-old woman who presented with a right axillary mass associated with five small nodules in the normally situated breast. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the accessory breast surrounding the tumor. We ignored the presence of the component surrounding the mass and made a preoperative diagnosis of an axillary mass of possible metastases from multiple breast cancers or breast cancer of unknown origin associated with multiple breast fibroadenomas. From a retrospective view, based on the histological results, MRI and dynamic MRI demonstrated a tiny component of breast-like tissue surrounding the axillary mass and an enhancement pattern typical of fibroadenoma for the axillary mass. For the later diagnosis of the axillary mass, the interpretation of whether the component of breast tissue surrounding the axillary mass was present is crucial. If the component exists, a tumor that originated from the accessory breast should be foremost in the differential diagnosis. Dynamic MRI appears to contribute to the diagnosis of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast before biopsy or surgical resection.

  6. Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen: Investigative Dilemmas and Role of EUS-Guided FNA for Diagnostic Confirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somashekar G Krishna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Context We submit a case of intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Case report A 33-year-old patient with history of dyspepsia underwent imaging studies suggestive of a neuroendocrine tumor. After referral to our institute, endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA confirmed diagnosis as intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Discussion An accessory spleen may develop from estranged mesenchymal cells due to fusion failure of the splenic anlage. The prevalence of an accessory spleen is 10-30% with 80% of them present at the splenic hilum and 17% in the pancreatic tail. Intrapancreatic accessory spleen is commonly misdiagnosed as a pancreatic tumor. Since, the differential diagnosis includes pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, additional investigation with EUS-FNA should be considered when radiological diagnosis is not definitive. Conclusion For diagnosis of intrapancreatic accessory spleen, radiographic imaging is useful, but lacks specificity without tissue diagnosis. Diagnosis can be safely and reliably established with EUS-FNA, leading to a benign prognosis and avoidance of unnecessary surgical intervention.

  7. Structure and diversity in mammalian accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisami, E; Bhatnagar, K P

    1998-12-15

    The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) is the first neural integrative center for the olfactory-like vomeronasal sensory system. In this article, we first briefly present an overview of vomeronasal system organization and review the history of the discovery of mammalian AOB. Next, we briefly review the evolution of the vomeronasal system in vertebrates, in particular the reptiles. Following these introductory aspects, the structure of the rodent AOB, as typical of the well-developed mammalian AOB, is presented, detailing laminar organization and cell types as well as aspects of the homology with the main olfactory bulb. Then, the evolutionary origin and diversity of the AOB in mammalian orders and species is discussed, describing structural, phylogenetic, and species-specific variation in the AOB location, shape, and size and morphologic differentiation and development. The AOB is believed to be absent in fishes but present in terrestrial tetrapods including amphibians; among the reptiles AOB is absent in crocodiles, present in turtles, snakes, and some lizards where it may be as large or larger than the main bulb. The AOB is absent in bird and in the aquatic mammals (whales, porpoises, manatees). Among other mammals, AOB is present in the monotremes and marsupials, edentates, and in the majority of the placental mammals like carnivores, herbivores, as well as rodents and lagomorphs. Most bat species do not have an AOB and among those where one is found, it shows marked variation in size and morphologic development. Among insectivores and primates, AOB shows marked variation in occurrence, size, and morphologic development. It is small in shrews and moles, large in hedgehogs and prosimians; AOB continues to persist in New World monkeys but is not found in the adults of the higher primates such as the Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. In many species where AOB is absent in the adult, it often develops in the embryo and fetus but regresses in later stages of

  8. Distribution of Neuron Cell Bodies in the Intraspinal Portion of the Spinal Accessory Nerve in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Karl E; Kondrashov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The spinal accessory nerve is often identified as a purely motor nerve innervating the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Although it may contain proprioceptive neurons found in cervical spinal levels C2-C4, limited research has focused on the histology of the spinal accessory nerve. The objective of the present study was to examine the spinal accessory nerve to determine if there are neuronal cell bodies within the spinal accessory nerve in humans. Cervical spinal cords were dissected from eight cadavers that had previously been used for dissection in other body regions. The segmental rootlets were removed to quantify the neuron cell bodies present at each spinal level. Samples were embedded in paraffin; sectioned; stained with hematoxylin and eosin; and examined using a microscope at 4×, 10×, and 40× magnification. Digital photography was used to image the samples. Neuronal cell bodies were found in 100% of the specimens examined, with non-grossly visible ganglia found at spinal levels C1-C4. The C1 spinal level of the spinal accessory nerve had the highest number of neuron cell bodies.

  9. Combining mobile terrestrial laser scanning geometric and radiometric data to eliminate accessories in circular metro tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kai; Cheng, Xiaojun; Ju, Qiaoqiao

    2016-07-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is a noninvasive technique to monitor surface conditions and morphological characteristics of structures and has been successfully introduced to the regular inspection and maintenance of metro tunnels. To accurately analyze the deformation and structural conditions of a metro tunnel, nonliner points (e.g., outliers and accessories) should be detected and eliminated. Nevertheless, the accessories are attached very closely to the liner and cannot be thoroughly eliminated by three-dimensional (3D) geometric information. This study proposes to separate the liner and accessories by combining TLS geometric and radiometric information. A refitted mobile Faro Focus3D X330 system is used for data collection of a new-built metro tunnel in Hangzhou, China. The results show that the corrected intensity data are an effective physical criterion and a complementary data source to remove accessories that cannot be eliminated by geometric data. After the removal of accessories by geometric and radiometric data, the remaining liner points can accurately reflect the actual structural and deformation conditions of metro tunnels.

  10. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand in car accessory market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplying car accessory is one of the most important growing industries in the world. Every year, millions of cars are produced and people need to have the access to necessary car accessory. In this paper, we present an exploration study to detect important factors influencing car accessory market. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 16 questions, distributes it among 200 experts and analyses it using factor analysis. Cronbach alpha and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy are calculated as 0.823 and 0.863, which validate the overall questionnaire. The results indicate that there are three influencing factors including brand capability, brand characteristics and consumers’ believe.

  11. Accessories after the facts: Constraining the timing, duration and conditions of high-temperature metamorphic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard J. M.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Clark, Chris

    2016-11-01

    High-temperature metamorphic rocks are the result of numerous chemical and physical processes that occur during a potentially long-lived thermal evolution. These rocks chart the sequence of events during an orogenic episode including heating, cooling, exhumation and melt interaction, all of which may be interpreted through the elemental and isotopic characteristics of accessory minerals such as zircon, monazite and rutile. Developments in imaging and in situ chemical analysis have resulted in an increasing amount of information being extracted from these accessory phases. The refractory nature of these minerals, combined with both their use as geochronometers and tracers of metamorphic mineral reactions, has made them the focus of many studies of granulite-facies terrains. In such studies the primary aim is often to determine the timing and conditions of the peak of metamorphism, and high-temperature metasedimentary rocks may seem ideal for this purpose. For example pelites typically contain an abundance of accessory minerals in a variety of bulk compositions, are melt-bearing, and may have endured extreme conditions that facilitate diffusion and chemical equilibrium. However complexities arise due to the heterogeneous nature of these rocks on all scales, driven by both the composition of the protolith and metamorphic differentiation. In additional to lithological heterogeneity, the closure temperatures for both radiogenic isotopes and chemical thermometers vary between different accessory minerals. This apparent complexity can be useful as it permits a wide range of temperature and time (T-t) information to be recovered from a single rock sample. In this review we cover: 1) characteristic internal textures of accessory minerals in high temperature rocks; 2) the interpretation of zircon and monazite age data in relation to high temperature processes; 3) rare earth element partitioning; 4) trace element thermometry; 5) the incorporation of accessory mineral growth

  12. Accessory left atrial diverticulae: contractile properties depicted with 64-slice cine-cardiac CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    To assess the contractility of accessory left atrial appendages (LAAs) using multiphasic cardiac CT. We retrospectively analyzed the presence, location, size and contractile properties of accessory LAAs using multiphasic cardiac 64-slice CT in 102 consecutive patients (63 males, 39 females, mean age 57). Multiplanar reformats were used to create image planes in axial oblique, sagittal oblique and coronal oblique planes. For all appendages with an orifice diameter >or= 10 mm, axial and sagittal diameters and appendage volumes were recorded in atrial diastole and systole. Regression analysis was performed to assess which imaging appearances best predicted accessory appendage contractility. Twenty-three (23%) patients demonstrated an accessory LAA, all identified along the anterior LA wall. Dimensions for axial oblique (AOD) and sagittal oblique (SOD) diameters and sagittal oblique length (SOL) were 6.3-19, 3.4-20 and 5-21 mm, respectively. All appendages (>or=10 mm) demonstrated significant contraction during atrial systole (greatest diameter reduction was AOD [3.8 mm, 27%]). Significant correlations were noted between AOD-contraction and AOD (R = 0.57, P < 0.05) and SOD-contraction and AOD, SOD and SOL (R = 0.6, P < 0.05). Mean diverticulum volume in atrial diastole was 468.4 +\\/- 493 mm(3) and in systole was 171.2 +\\/- 122 mm(3), indicating a mean change in volume of 297.2 +\\/- 390 mm(3), P < 0.0001. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed SOL to be the strongest independent predictor of appendage contractility (R(2) = 0.86, P < 0.0001) followed by SOD (R(2) = 0.91, P < 0.0001). Accessory LAAs show significant contractile properties on cardiac CT. Those accessory LAAs with a large sagittal height or depth should be evaluated for contractile properties, and if present should be examined for ectopic activity during electrophysiological studies.

  13. Lateral facial cleft associated with accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and peripheral facial weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçelik, D; Toplu, G; Türkseven, A; Senses, D A; Yiğit, B

    2014-07-01

    Transverse facial cleft is a very rare malformation. The Tessier no. 7 cleft is a lateral facial cleft which emanates from oral cavity and extends towards the tragus, involving both soft tissue and skeletal components. Here, we present a case having transverse facial cleft, accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and ipsilateral peripheral facial nerve weakness. After surgical repair of the cleft in 2-month of age, improvement of the facial nerve function was detected in 3-year of age. Resection of the accessory mandible was planned in 5-6 years of age.

  14. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy-induced accessory renal artery bleeding in an amyloidosis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy is an important technique for diagnosis of glomerular diseases, and the biopsy-induced life-threatening bleeding rarely happens. Primary systemic amyloidosis is a rare disease which may lead to organ dysfunction including arterial stiffness. The accessory renal artery is a kind of renal vascular variation which goes into the renal parenchyma directly or via the renal hilum. Here we reported a rare case of percutaneous renal biopsy-induced accessory renal artery life-threatening bleeding in a renal amyloidosis patient, and our experience of successful rescue in this patient. Virtual Slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1524207344817819

  15. Imaging diagnosis of accessory and cavitated uterine mass, a rare mullerian anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishchint Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessory and Cavitated Uterine Mass (ACUM is a rare form of developmental Mullerian anomaly seen in young females, which presents as chronic recurrent pelvic pain and severe dysmenorrhea. It is an accessory cavity lying within an otherwise normal uterus. It is lined by functional endometrium and surrounded by myometrium-like smooth muscle cells; hence, it bears striking macroscopic and microscopic resemblance to the uterus. Hysterosalpingography (HSG, Ultrasonography (USG, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI form the mainstay of diagnostic imaging. The entity is often under diagnosed; therefore, a high index of suspicion combined with HSG and MRI imaging can help in making an accurate diagnosis.

  16. Ablation of an atriofascicular accessory pathway with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Riccardo; Abadir, Sylvia; Bernier, Martin L.; Essebag, Vidal

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year-old patient with recurrent palpitations and documented left bundle branch block superior axis wide complex tachycardia underwent an electrophysiological study and ablation with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure. The electrophysiological study showed a decremental antegrade conducting atriofascicular pathway. Three-dimensional CARTO-guided mapping of the tricuspid annulus in sinus rhythm was performed, and a distinct signal corresponding to the accessory pathway potential of the atriofascicular pathway was found in the posterolateral region. By using an SR0 sheath and a 4-mm-tip catheter, radiofrequency application was delivered at this point on the annulus and successfully eliminated conduction through the accessory pathway. PMID:26550092

  17. Symbiotic bacteria in the accessory submandibular gland of the club-footed bat, Tylonycteris pachypus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandler, B; Toyoshima, K; Phillips, C J

    1995-03-01

    The lumina of the secretory endpieces and, to a lesser extent, of the duct system of the accessory submandibular gland of the club-footed bat, Tylonycteris pachypus, contain numerous rod shaped bacteria. Despite their abundance, these microbes do not evoke an inflammatory response by the glands. The major submandibular gland, as well as the other major salivary glands in these exotic animals contain no bacteria whatsoever. It is concluded that the bacteria in the accessory submandibular gland are symbionts, and that they may play a role in digestion or in the social behavior of their host organisms.

  18. 75 FR 34180 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithsville...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21363). In the request for reconsideration, the petitioner stated that... Employment and Training Administration Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job... determine that workers of Paris Accessories, Inc., New Smithsville, Pennsylvania, including on-site...

  19. 75 FR 41523 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithville...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... on May 27, 2010. The Notice was published in the Federal Register on June 16, 2010 (75 FR 34180). The... Employment and Training Administration Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithville, PA; Paris Accessories, Inc., Allentown, PA; Amended Certification...

  20. A rare case of hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Isamu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2014-12-01

    We presented a very rare case of hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen in the tail of the pancreas. A previously healthy 45-year-old woman felt left back pain and received CT scan. Multiple splenic masses and a pancreatic mass in the tail were detected. Both the lesions presented gradual and weak enhancement and pooling of the contrast medium until very late phase on dynamic MRI. Since the lesions in the spleen and the pancreas presented the same characteristics on dynamic CT/MRI, ultrasonography, and positron emission tomography using fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose, we suspected these lesions as hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen. We performed distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy, and pathological diagnosis was hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen. We should consider the possibility of splenic tumors arising from the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen when we find similar lesions in the spleen and the tail of the pancreas. Gradual and weak enhancement and pooling of the contrast medium until very late phase may be important findings for diagnosing splenic hemangiomatosis.

  1. A method for comparison testing of window accessories: The AMSCO thermal test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lexen, T.C.; Muldary, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    A test facility has been developed for the comparison of the thermal performance of window accessories. The facility is presented as a developmental tool, allowing direct comparison testing of prototypes and new products, under controlled interior and real weather conditions. Nighttime U-value testing is emphasized; testing options and limitations are discussed, along with future plans.

  2. 21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and... Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter is a device used to perform female sterilization and...

  3. Total laparoscopic removal of accessory gallbladder: A case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozacov, Yaniv; Subhas, Gokulakkrishna; Jacobs, Michael; Parikh, Janak

    2015-01-01

    Accessory gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly occurring in 1 in 4000 births, that is not associated with any specific symptoms. Usually this cannot be diagnosed on ultrasonography and hence they are usually not diagnosed preoperatively. Removal of the accessory gallbladder is necessary to avoid recurrence of symptoms. H-type accessory gallbladder is a rare anomaly. Once identified intra-operatively during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the surgery is usually converted to open. By using the main gallbladder for liver traction and doing a dome down technique for the accessory gallbladder, we were able to perform the double cholecystectomy with intra-operative cholangiogram laparoscopically. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in 27-year-old male for biliary colic. Prior imaging with computer tomography-scan and ultrasound did not show a duplicated gallbladder. Intraoperatively after ligation of cystic artery and duct an additional structure was seen on its medial aspect. Intraoperative cholangiogram confirmed the patency of intra-hepatic and extra-hepatic biliary ducts. Subsequent dissection around this structure revealed a second gallbladder with cystic duct (H-type). Pathological analysis confirmed the presence of two gallbladders with features of chronic cholecystitis. It is important to use cholangiogram to identify structural anomalies and avoid complications. PMID:26730286

  4. [Blockade of the pheromonal effects in rat by central deafferentation of the accessory olfactory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Criado, J E

    1979-06-01

    Female rats reared without sex odours from male rats have a five day stral cycle. With exposure to male odour the estral cycle is shortened from five to four days. This pheromonal effect is blocked on deafferenting the vomeronasal system by electrolytically damaging both accessory olfactory bulbs.

  5. [Migration of eight harmful elements from metal accessories that infants may swallow by mistake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isama, Kazuo; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    The International Standard ISO 8124-3:2010 "Safety of toys--Part 3: Migration of certain elements" controls the levels of migrated eight harmful elements (antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and selenium) from infants toys. Moreover, the Japanese Food Sanitation Law controls the levels of migrated lead from metal accessory toys. However, the levels of migrated harmful elements from metal accessories that are not infants toys are not controlled, since they are not covered by the ISO Standard or the Food Sanitation Law. Therefore, we investigated the level of eight harmful elements migrated from metal accessories that infants may swallow by mistake. The extraction test of ISO 8124-3:2010 was executed in 117 products (total 184 specimens), and the concentration of these eight elements was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). As a result, 28 and one products released lead and cadmium beyond the maximum acceptable levels of the ISO standard, respectively. Metal accessories that infants may swallow by mistake should ideally not release harmful elements such as lead and cadmium.

  6. 21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5850 Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories. (a) Identification. A nonpowered orthopedic traction...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories. 876.5880 Section 876.5880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... storage or freezing container with or without bag or preservatives, pulsatile or nonpulsatile...

  8. Pre-excitation pattern associated with accessory pathway related tachycardia: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burazor Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pre-excitation is based on an accessory conduction pathway between the atrium and ventricle. The term Wolff- Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome is used for patients with the pre-excitation/WPW pattern associated with AP-related tachycardia. Case Outline. We present a 52-year-old man with severe palpitation, fatigue, lightheadedness and difficulty breathing. The initial ECG showed tachyarrhythmia with heart rate between 240 and 300/min. He was treated with antiarrhythmics (Digitalis, Verapamil, Lidocaine with no response. Then, the patient was treated with electrical cardioversion and was referred to our Clinic for further evaluation with the diagnosis: “Ventricular tachycardia”. During in-hospital stay, the previously undiagnosed WPW pattern had been seen. Additional diagnostic tests confirmed permanent pre-excitacion pattern (ECG Holter recording, exercises test. The patient was referred to an electrophysiologist for further evaluation. Mapping techniques provided an accurate assessment of the position of the accessory pathway which was left lateral. The elimination of the accessory pathway by radiofrequent catheter ablation is highly effective in termination and elimination of tacchyarrhythmias. Conclusion. Symptomatic, life-threatening arrhythmia, first considered as ventricular tachycardia, reflected atrial fibrillation with ventricular pre-excitation over an accessory pathway in a patient with previously undiagnosed WPW syndrome.

  9. Changes in the Capillarity of the Rat Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle 4 Weeks after Nerve Injury Studied by 2D Measurement Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čebašek, Vita; Ribarič, Samo

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown by 3D study that 2 weeks after nerve injury there was no change in the length of capillaries per muscle fibre length in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL). The primary goal of the present 2D study was to determine the capillarity of rat EDL 4 weeks after various modes of nerve injury. Additionally, we wished to calculate the same capillary/fibre parameters that were used in our 3D stereological study. EDL muscles derived from denervated (4 weeks after nerve injury), re-innervated (4 weeks after two successive nerve crushes) and age-matched controls from the beginning (CON-1) and the end (CON-2) of the experiment were analysed in two ways. Global indices of capillarity, such as capillary density (CD) and capillary/fibre (C/F) ratio, were determined by automatic analysis, local indices as the number (CAF) and the length of capillaries around individual muscle fibres (Lcap) in relation to muscle fibre size were estimated manually by tracing the muscle fibre outlines and the transversally and longitudinally cut segments of capillaries seen in 5-µm-thin muscle cross sections. Four weeks after both types of nerve injury, CD increased in comparison to the CON-2 group (p value to the adapted 2D method used in this study.

  10. Arthroscopic Release of Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Sheath in Female Ballet Dancers: Dynamic Pathology, Surgical Technique, and Return to Dancing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funasaki, Hiroki; Hayashi, Hiroteru; Sakamoto, Kanako; Tsuruga, Rei; Marumo, Keishi

    2015-12-01

    Stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon is known as a major overuse lesion in female dancers. We describe arthroscopic surgical techniques in relation to the dynamic pathology of the disease. Crepitus and pain on moving the great toe with the ankle in plantar flexion on preoperative examination confirm the diagnosis of FHL stenosing tenosynovitis even if the os trigonum is not evident. The ankle is approached through standard posterolateral and posteromedial portals. A 4.0-mm-diameter 30° arthroscope is used. Soft tissues around the talus are cleared with a motorized shaver and a radiofrequency device. The posterior aspects of the talus, os trigonum, and FHL tendon surrounded by the tendon sheath are visualized. The dynamic pathology of the FHL tendon is well observed on passive motion of the great toe. The prominent bone fragment of the talus is removed and the tendon sheath is cut with a retrograde knife and a motorized shaver from the superior border down to the entrance of the fibro-osseous tunnel. Arthroscopic release of the FHL tendon sheath is a useful and easy method to directly approach the dynamic pathology of FHL tenosynovitis in female ballet dancers.

  11. STUDY OF COMPLICATIONS OF COLLES FRACTURE TO FIND OUT THE TRUE INCIDENCE OF EXTENSOR POLLICIS LONGUS TENDON RUPTURE AND CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME IN INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Colles‟ fracture is confined to adult and usually is seen in women over the age of fifty who have fallen on the outstretched hand. EPL tendon is the most common extensor tendon to rupture after colles‟ fracture. To our belief the incidenc e of median nerve injury and EPL tendon rupture given in literature are much higher than what we see now a days, so with this aim we carried this study to find out the true incidence of CTS and EPL tendon rupture in Indian population. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study 100 patients with colles‟ fracture for true incidence of Extensor Pollicis Longus (EPL Tendon rupture and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS in Indian Population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our study 100 patients with colles fracture were followed up at regural intervals and were evaluated clinically and radiogrphically to rule out complications like EPL tendon rupture and CTS. OBSERVATION AND RESULTS: In our study, we found 0% incidence of CTS and EPL tendon rupture. CONCLUS ION: Proper division of patients into displaced and un displaced fracture and treatment of displaced fracture being closed reduction and internal fixation with „K‟ wires and then cast application in neutral position i.e. supination without flexion at wrist joint and properly advised physiotheraphy after cast removal at one and half month should be advocated

  12. Algal Accessory Pigment Detection Using AVIRIS Image-Derived Spectral Radiance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.

    1996-01-01

    Visual and derivative analyses of AVIRIS spectral data can be used to detect algal accessory pigments in aquatic communities. This capability extends the use of remote sensing for the study of aquatic ecosystems by allowing detection of taxonomically significant pigment signatures which yield information about the type of algae present. Such information allows remote sensing-based assessment of aquatic ecosystem health, as in the detection of nuisance blooms of cyanobacteria or toxic blooms of dinoflagellates. Remote sensing of aquatic systems has traditionally focused on quantification of chlorophyll a, a photoreactive (and light-harvesting) pigment which is common to all algae as well as cyanobacteria (bluegreen algae). Due to the ubiquitousness of this pigment within algae, chl a is routinely measured to estimate algal biomass both during ground-truthing and using various airborne or satellite based sensors, including AVIRIS. Within the remote sensing and aquatic sciences communities, ongoing research has been performed to detect algal accessory pigments for assessment of algal population composition. This research is based on the fact that many algal accessory pigments are taxonomically significant, and all are spectrally unique. Aquatic scientists have been refining pigment analysis techniques, primarily high performance liquid chromatography, or HPLC, to detect specific pigments as a time-saving alternative to individual algal cell identifications and counts. Remote sensing scientists are investigating the use of pigment signatures to construct pigment libraries analogous to mineral spectral libraries used in geological remote sensing applications. The accessory pigment approach has been used successfully in remote sensing using data from the Thematic Mapper, low-altitude, multiple channel scanners, field spectroradiometers and the AVIRIS hyperspectral scanner. Due to spectral and spatial resolution capabilities, AVIRIS is the sensor of choice for such

  13. Neuromuscular partitioning in the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis based on intramuscular nerve distribution patterns: A three-dimensional modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Ravichandiran, Nisanthini; Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; McKee, Nancy H; Richardson, Denyse; Oliver, Michele; Agur, Anne M

    2012-04-01

    Differential activation of specific regions within a skeletal muscle has been linked to the presence of neuromuscular compartments. However, few studies have investigated the extra- or intramuscular innervation throughout the muscle volume of extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB). The aim of this study was to determine the presence of neuromuscular partitions in ECRL and ECRB based on the extra- and intramuscular innervation using three-dimensional modeling. The extra- and intramuscular nerve distribution was digitized and reconstructed in 3D in all the muscle volumes using Autodesk Maya in seven formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens (mean age, 75.7 ± 15.2 years). The intramuscular nerve distribution was modeled in all the muscle volumes. ECRL was found to have two neuromuscular compartments, superficial and deep. One branch from the radial nerve proper was found to innervate ECRL. This branch was divided into anterior and posterior branches to the superficial and deep compartments, respectively. Five innervation patterns were identified in ECRB with partitioning of the muscle belly into two, three, or four compartments, in a proximal to distal direction depending on the number of nerve branches entering the muscle belly. The ECRL and ECRB both demonstrated neuromuscular compartmentalization based on intramuscular innervation. According to the partitioning hypothesis, a muscle may be differentially activated depending on the required function of the muscle, thus allowing multifunctional muscles to contribute to a variety of movements. Therefore, the increased number of neuromuscular partitions in ECRB when compared with ECRL could be due to the need for more differential recruitment in the ECRB depending on force requirements.

  14. Morphology of accessory genital glands of spotted paca (Agouti paca Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Edson Moreira; Branco, Érika; de Lima, Ana Rita; Leal, Leonardo Martins; Martins, Leandro Luiz; Reis, Ana Carolina Gonçalves; Cruz, Claudinei; Machado, Márcia Rita Fernandes; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-02-01

    The spotted paca is the second largest rodent in Brazil, where it is of great economic interest in impoverished regions in view of its prominence as a low-cost source of protein. Little is known about the morphology of the accessory genital glands of this species. Thus, we studied the position and morphology of the genitals in ten adult male spotted pacas. The animals were divided into two groups, five animals were used for fixing of samples in 10% aqueous formaldehyde for macroscopic studies and the other five animals were designated for microscopic analysis. These were arranged in pairs and had the vesicular, prostate, coagulating and bulbourethral glands identified, being structured as mucous glands, which lead into the pelvic urethra. It was concluded that the accessory genital glands found in the paca are the same as those found in most rodents, showing similar histological aspects.

  15. Online monitoring of Accessories for Underground Electrical Installations through Acoustics Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casals-Torrens P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic waves caused by Partial Discharges inside the dielectric materials, can be detected by acoustic emission (AE sensors and analyzed in the time domain. The experimental results presented, show the online detection capability of these sensors in the environment near a cable accessory, such as a splice or terminal. The AE sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference and constitute a detection method non-intrusive and non-destructive, which ensures a galvanic decoupling with respect to electric networks, this technique of partial discharge detection can be applied as a test method for preventive or predictive maintenance (condition-based maintenance to equipments or facilities of medium and high voltage in service and represents an alternative method to electrical detection systems, conventional or not, that continue to rely on the detection of current pulses. This paper presents characterization tests of the sensors AE through comparative tests of partial discharge on accessories for underground power cables.

  16. A fast 3D reconstruction system with a low-cost camera accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiwei; Gibson, Graham M; Hay, Rebecca; Bowman, Richard W; Padgett, Miles J; Edgar, Matthew P

    2015-06-09

    Photometric stereo is a three dimensional (3D) imaging technique that uses multiple 2D images, obtained from a fixed camera perspective, with different illumination directions. Compared to other 3D imaging methods such as geometry modeling and 3D-scanning, it comes with a number of advantages, such as having a simple and efficient reconstruction routine. In this work, we describe a low-cost accessory to a commercial digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera system allowing fast reconstruction of 3D objects using photometric stereo. The accessory consists of four white LED lights fixed to the lens of a commercial DSLR camera and a USB programmable controller board to sequentially control the illumination. 3D images are derived for different objects with varying geometric complexity and results are presented, showing a typical height error of <3 mm for a 50 mm sized object.

  17. A New Integrated Onboard Charger and Accessory Power Converter for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is presented for integrating the function of onboard battery charging into the traction drive system and accessory dc-dc converter of a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV). The idea is to utilize the segmented traction drive system of a PEV as the frond converter of the charging circuit and the transformer and high voltage converter of the 14 V accessory dc-dc converter to form a galvanically isolated onboard charger. Moreover, a control method is presented for suppressing the battery current ripple component of twice the grid frequency with the reduced dc bus capacitor in the segmented inverter. The resultant integrated charger has lower cost, weight, and volume than a standalone charger due to a substantially reduced component count. The proposed integrated charger topology was verified by modeling and experimental results on a 5.8 kW charger prototype.

  18. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentze, Julie Lilith; Møller, Morten Erik; Jørgensen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site...... of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis...... melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises...

  19. Outcome review on the percutaneous release of the proximal interphalangeal joint accessory collateral ligaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Cerovac

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The percutaneous release of accessory collateral ligaments was introduced in 1986 as a safe and quick procedure to be attempted before open, more extensive joint release in the treatment of proximal interphalangeal joint flexion contracture. Our study analyzed the long-term results and patient satisfaction following a percutaneous release in 30 joints after a mean follow-up period of 34 months. In one half of cases the preoperative joint flexion deformity was reduced from 78° to 34°. The best results were observed in patients with osteoarthritis and stiff, immobilized joints. In patients with inflammatory arthritides, marked intraoperative correction was maintained rarely, joint contractures recurred early, and patients were unsatisfied. There were no intraoperative complications. Percutaneous release of the accessory collateral ligaments can produce a long lasting correction of the joint contracture, but careful patient selection and strict postoperative rehabilitation are essential for favorable outcome.

  20. Accessory belly of piriformis, as a cause of superior gluteal neurovascular entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimple Bansal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During routine dissection on 50 years old male cadaver, an accessory belly of piriformis was observed. This accessory belly was superior and parallel to the main piriformis muscle. This was associated with emergence of superior gluteal nerve and superior gluteal artery between the two bellies. Piriformis muscle and its relation to sciatic nerve has been suggested as a cause of piriformis syndrome. But interestingly in the present case, superior gluteal nerve was interposed between two bellies that may help the clinicians to establish a rare yet important cause of piriformis syndrome and a rare cause of undiagnosed chronic pain in gluteal region. As superior gluteal artery was also interposed, so this rare variation holds interest to surgeons especially in isolated buttock claudication despite otherwise normal vascular investigations. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 296-298

  1. Expression of an accessory cell phenotype by hairy cells during lymphocyte colony formation in agar culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcet, J P; Gourdin, M F; Testa, U; Andre, C; Jouault, H; Reyes, F

    1983-01-01

    Human T lymphocytes require the cooperation of accessory cells to generate lymphocyte colonies in agar culture under PHA stimulation. Various hairy cell enriched fractions, as well as normal monocytes, have been found to be able to initiate colony formation by normal lymphocytes. Leukemic monocytes from CMML patients were also effective, but not the leukemic lymphocytes from CLL patients. The phenotype expressed by HC in agar colonies was further studied using cell surface and enzymatic markers. We have concluded that HC in agar culture in the presence of both normal T lymphocytes and PHA lose the B phenotype that they express in vivo and function like an accessory cell in contrast to normal or leukemic B lymphocytes.

  2. Castration-induced expression of caspase-1 in epithelia of accessory sex organs in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masao Izawa; Mitunori Kimura; Tomiko Yamada; Makoto Saji

    2001-01-01

    Aim: As an attempt to clarify the molecular basis of castration-induced apoptosis, this study was undertaken to demonstrate the expression of caspase-1 in male accessory sex organs of rats. Methods and results: cDNA of rat caspase-1 was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the ventral prostates. The open reading frame predicts 402 amino acids, which shows more than 91% and 63 % identity to those of mouse and human, respec tively. Northern analyses demonstrated the presence of castration-induced up-regulation of the 1.6 kb transcript in the ventral prostate and the seminal vesicles. Finally, the authors demonstrated the caspase-1 transcripts in the epithelia of these tissues by in situ hybridization analyses. Conclusion: Castration induces the expression of caspase-1 tran scripts in the epithelia of ventral prostate and seminal vesicle. These observations suggest a possible role of caspase-1 in apoptosis in male accessory sex organs.

  3. Sclerotic fibroma (storiform collagenoma)-like stroma in a fibroadenoma of axillary accessory breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Bernal, José Fernando; González-Vela, María Carmen; De Grado, Mauricio; Garijo, María Francisca

    2012-08-01

    Accessory breast tissue is a subcutaneous remnant persisting after normal embryological development of the breast. It occurs most frequently in the axilla. Fibroadenomas in axillary breast tissue are rare. We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who presented a fibroadenoma arising in the accessory breast tissue of the right axillary fossa. The neoplasm showed foci of sclerotic fibroma-like stroma. The patient had no signs of Cowden's syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, a lesion of this kind has not been previously reported. This stromal change suggests an uncommon involutional phase of the fibroadenoma with production of sclerotic and hypocellular collagen. The lesion should be differentiated from extraneural perineuroma, from the changes in fibroadenomas in Cowden's syndrome, from sclerosing lobular hyperplasia (fibroadenomatoid mastopathy) and from pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia.

  4. Accessory mental foramen: A rare anatomical variation detected by cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; De Faro Valverde, Ludmila; Vidal, Manuela Torres Andion; Crusoe-Rebello, Ieda Margarida [Dept. of Oral Radiology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    The mental foramen is a bilateral opening in the vestibular portion of the mandible through which nerve endings, such as the mental nerve, emerge. In general, the mental foramen is located between the lower premolars. This region is a common area for the placement of dental implants. It is very important to identify anatomical variations in presurgical imaging exams since damage to neurovascular bundles may have a direct influence on treatment success. In the hemimandible, the mental foramen normally appears as a single structure, but there are some rare reports on the presence and number of anatomical variations; these variations may include accessory foramina. The present report describes the presence of accessory mental foramina in the right mandible, as detected by cone-beam computed tomography before dental implant placement.

  5. Physician accessories: Doctor, what you carry is every patient′s worry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections are on the rise worldwide and many a times they are carried by the health care personnel. Accessories used by physicians and healthcare personnel can be a potential source of nosocomial infection. Materials and Methods: We designed a survey with the aim to investigate the prevalence of microbial flora of accessories such as pens, stethoscopes, cell phones and white coat used by the physicians working in a tertiary care hospital. Observations: It was observed that 66% of the pens, 55% of the stethoscopes, 47.61% of the cell phones and 28.46% of the white coats used by the doctors were colonized with various microorganisms. Staphylococcus spp. was the predominant isolate followed by Escherichia coli. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was also found, which was a matter of concern. Conclusions: Awareness of appropriate hand hygiene is important in order to prevent potential transmission to patients.

  6. Preoperative computed tomography and scintigraphy to facilitate the detection of accessory spleen in patients with hematologic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Nobuhiro; Kanematsu, Takashi; Sugimachi, Keizo

    1988-01-01

    Accessory spleens of 1.5 cm in size were preoperatively identified by the combined use of computerized tomography and splenic scintigraphy in two patients with hematologic diseases. After the accessory spleen had been removed from the first patient, who had persistent hereditary spherocytosis and had undergone a splenectomy 15 months before, a postoperative decrease in hyperbilirubinemia was noted. In the other patient who had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, a successful accessory splenectomy was done at the same time as her splenectomy, and was followed by 6 months' complete remission. These events indicate that preoperative investigations using computerized tomography and scintigraphy are indispensable for ruling out an accessory spleen in those patients for whom splenectomy needs to be done in order to alleviate hematologic disorders.

  7. Undressing "health fashion": an examination of health-cause clothing and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kandi L; Hart, Joy L; Gregg, Jennifer L; LaJoie, A Scott

    2010-09-01

    Today, fashion items such as rubber wristbands in various colors, pink ribbons, and red dresses represent different health-related causes and can be seen frequently across demographic groups. Complete with pithy slogans (e.g., "Go Red for Women"), these items are part of a larger "health fashion" trend--one that involves wearing, using, and displaying health-cause clothing and accessories. In this article, the authors explore recent interest in "health fashion," examining in particular its origins, effectiveness, and implications.

  8. Accessory hepatic lobe simulating a left hemidiaphragmatic tumor. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroiwa, Toshiro; Hirata, Hitoshi; Iwashita, Akinori; Yasumori, Kotaro; Mogami, Hiroshi; Teraoka, Hiroaki (Matsuyama Red Cross Hospital (Japan))

    1984-08-01

    A 72-year-old woman with a 20-year history of neuralgia was confirmed at surgery to have a tumor in the left hemidiaphragmatic region which was connected with the left lobe of the liver. Reassessment of radiological diagnosis after surgery revealed that hepatobiliary scintigraphy and computed tomography using left anterior oblique scanning are useful in differentiating the accessory hepatic lobe of the liver from a tumor and in confirming the diagnosis, respectively.

  9. Detection and sequence analysis of accessory gene regulator genes of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ananda Chitra; Jayanthy, C.; Nagarajan, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP) is the major pathogenic species of dogs involved in a wide variety of skin and soft tissue infections. The accessory gene regulator (agr) locus of Staphylococcus aureus has been extensively studied, and it influences the expression of many virulence genes. It encodes a two-component signal transduction system that leads to down-regulation of surface proteins and up-regulation of secreted proteins during in vitro growth of S. aureus. The objecti...

  10. Ablation of an atriofascicular accessory pathway with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure

    OpenAIRE

    PROIETTI, RICCARDO; Abadir, Sylvia; Bernier, Martin L.; Essebag, Vidal

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year-old patient with recurrent palpitations and documented left bundle branch block superior axis wide complex tachycardia underwent an electrophysiological study and ablation with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure. The electrophysiological study showed a decremental antegrade conducting atriofascicular pathway. Three-dimensional CARTO-guided mapping of the tricuspid annulus in sinus rhythm was performed, and a distinct signal corresponding to the accessory pathway potential of the atriofasc...

  11. RFID-enabled real-time manufacturing for automotive part and accessory suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Automotive part and accessory manufacturers (APAMs) at the lower tiers of the automotive vertical have been following leading vehicle assemblers in adopting RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and ubiquitous computing technologies, aiming to alleviate their advanced manufacturing systems. RFID-enabled real-time traceability and visibility facilitate the implementation of advanced strategies such as Just-In-Time (JIT) lean / responsive manufacturing and mass customization (MC). Being typical...

  12. Intermittently “Pre-Excited” ECG after Accessory Pathway Ablation: Unsuccessful Procedure or a Complication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Mikhaylov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old woman with previously unsuccessful posteroseptal pathway ablation using radiofrequency energy presented with intermittently occurring short PR followed by a wide QRS complex, and complaining of palpitations with characteristics different from previous history. During a second electrophysiological procedure no signs of preexcitation were found. Ventricular discharges with fusion with sinus beats were revealed, and catheter ablation of premature contractions originating from the proximity to previous accessory pathway was carried out.

  13. Prevalence and Pattern of Accessory Teeth (Hyperdontia in Permanent Dentition of Iranian Orthodontic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Amini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of hyperdontia pattern/prevalence can be useful in early diagnosis and prevention by general practitioners, pediatric dentists, and orthodontists. Since the previous results regarding the pattern of hyperdontia (supernumerary teeth are controversial, this study aimed to assess this subject among Iranian orthodontic patients.All approved panoramic radiographs of 3374 orthodontic patients (aged 10 to 20 years old who had visited orthodontic departments of all Tehran dentistry universities and 10 private clinics during the years 1999-2009 were investigated to establish the prevalence/pattern of hyperdontia in permanent dentition (excluding third molars. The data were analyzed using a chi-square, a chi-square goodness-of-fit, and a Fisher exact test (α=0.05.Of the patients, 2012 were female and 1362 were male. The prevalence of hyperdontia was 0.72% (14 females [0.69% of females], 10 males [0.73% of males], female-to-male ratio=1:1.055. The difference between the genders was not significant (P = 0.896. No double or multiple supernumeraries were found. The most common accessory teeth were mesiodens (58.3%, maxillary laterals (25%, and maxillary premolars (16.7%. Hyperdontia was significantly more common (P=0.000 in maxilla (there was only one mandibular accessory tooth. It was more frequent in the anterior segment (P=0.000. However the occurrence was not significantly different between bimaxillary right and left quadrants (P=0.6.Hyperdontia was more common in premaxilla, and the most common accessory tooth was mesiodens. Unlike earlier studies, no bilateral accessory teeth were found. Also no gender dimorphism was discerned.

  14. Accessory phases in Karelian Province sanukitoids (Finland): Towards understanding temporal changes in subduction style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruand, Emilie; Fowler, Mike; Storey, Craig; Heilimo, Esa

    2013-04-01

    The Archean-Proterozoic transition is marked by the appearance of sanukitoids, which have been found on every continent, whose occurrence is believed to be a consequence of the initiation of the so called "Modern Plate Tectonics". Whole rock geochemistry and experimental petrology have suggested that they result from the interaction between a mantle wedge and a metasomatism agent (either oceanic crust melt or sediments). Sanukitoids from the Karelian Province (Finland) have been dated at ~ 2.7 Ga (U-Pb on zircon; Heilimo et al., 2011), and whole rock geochemical data, oxygen and hafnium isotopes in zircons have been interpreted as the result of the interaction between a depleted mantle wedge and a recycled crustal component during a slab-breakoff event at the end stage of the subduction (Heilimo et al., 2010, Heilimo et al., 2012). Geochemistry of accessory phases can give additional information about the petrogenesis and the sources of their host rocks (e.g. Hoskin et al., 2000; Chu et al., 2002). In this contribution, we present new geochemical data on the accessory phases (titanite, apatite, zircon) of the Karelian Province sanukitoids. We demonstrate that trace elements analysis and a detailed petrographic work on these phases give us a direct access to their petrogenesis. These data are compared to new data obtained on "modern" sanukitoids (High Ba-Sr suite, Scotland) and on a BADR suite (Guernsey, Channel Islands) in order to highlight potential geochemical signatures of each. This study will be followed by a systematic analysis of accessory phases in TTG, in order to have a whole record of accessory phases chemistry in plutonic rocks through the crustal evolution.

  15. Ablation of a therapy-resistant posteroseptal accessory atrioventricular pathway: going for gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Conor J; Gal, Benjamin; Geelen, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Posteroseptal accessory pathways are sometimes resistant to ablation because of the complex anatomy of this region. Ex-vivo experiments have demonstrated that gold-tip radiofrequency ablation catheters create deeper lesions than conventional platinum-iridium tip catheters. This case of a 62-year-old man with Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome illustrates that the ability to create such lesions can be a very useful option when previous attempts with platinum-iridium tip catheters have failed.

  16. Potential role of Arabidopsis PHP as an accessory subunit of the PAF1 transcriptional cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunchung; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Oh, Sookyung; van Nocker, Steven

    2011-08-01

    Paf1C is a transcriptional cofactor that has been implicated in various transcription-associated mechanisms spanning initiation, elongation and RNA processing, and is important for multiple aspects of development in Arabidopsis. Our recent studies suggest Arabidopsis Paf1C is crucial for proper regulation of genes within H3K27me3-enriched chromatin, and that a protein named PHP may act as an accessory subunit of Paf1C that promotes this function.

  17. The Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Function Is Modulated by HIV-1 Accessory Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Barker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells’ major role in the control of viruses is to eliminate established infected cells. The capacity of NK cells to kill virus-infected cells is dependent on the interactions between ligands on the infected cell and receptors on the NK cell surface. Because of the importance of ligand-receptor interactions in modulating the NK cell cytotoxic response, HIV has developed strategies to regulate various NK cell ligands making the infected cell surprisingly refractory to NK cell lysis. This is perplexing because the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr induces expression of ligands for the NK cell activating receptor, NKG2D. In addition, the accessory protein Nef removes the inhibitory ligands HLA-A and -B. The reason for the ineffective killing by NK cells despite the strong potential to eliminate infected cells is due to HIV-1 Vpu’s ability to down modulate the co-activation ligand, NTB-A, from the cell surface. Down modulation of NTB-A prevents efficient NK cell degranulation. This review will focus on the mechanisms through which the HIV-1 accessory proteins modulate their respective ligands, and its implication for NK cell killing of HIV-infected cells.

  18. Accessory Breast Cancer Occurring Concurrently with Bilateral Primary Invasive Breast Carcinomas: A Report of Two Cases and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Jin-yan; Yang, Cui-cui; Liu, Fang-Fang; Yang, Yi-Ling; Li, Shuai; Li, Wei-Dong; LI, YA-QING; Lang, Rong-gang; Fan, Yu; Paulos, Estifanos; Zhang, Xin-Min; Fu, Li

    2012-01-01

    The development of accessory breast tissue, which is found anywhere along the milk line, is attributed to the failure of milk line remnants to regress during embryogenesis. Primary tumors may arise from any ectopic breast tissue. Accessory breast cancer occurring concurrently with primary invasive breast cancer is extremely rare. Two such cases were reported in this article. One was a 43-year-old Chinese female who exhibited bilateral breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise sp...

  19. PET/CT imaging in polymyalgia rheumatica: praepubic 18F-FDG uptake correlates with pectineus and adductor longus muscles enthesitis and with tenosynovitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprlakova-Pukova, Andrea; Bortlicek, Zbynek; Fojtik, Zdenek; Kazda, Tomas; Joukal, Marek; Koukalova, Renata; Vasina, Jiri; Eremiasova, Jana; Nemec, Petr

    2017-01-01

    diminished in all patients (15/15, 100%) after treatment with steroids. Conclusions Increased praepubic 18F-FDG uptake in patients with PMR is relatively common and this region should be systematically evaluated during differential diagnosis of rheumatic and malignant disease. Praepubic inflammation is probably related to enthesitis and tenosynovitis at the origin of pectineus and adductor longus muscles ventrally from the pubis. PMID:28265227

  20. The effect of hip abduction on the EMG activity of vastus medialis obliquus, vastus lateralis longus and vastus lateralis obliquus in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arakaki Juliano

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design Controlled laboratory study. Objectives The purposes of this paper were to investigate (d whether vastus medialis obliquus (VMO, vastus lateralis longus (VLL and vastus lateralis obliquus (VLO EMG activity can be influenced by hip abduction performed by healthy subjects. Background Some clinicians contraindicate hip abduction for patellofemoral patients (with based on the premise that hip abduction could facilitate the VLL muscle activation leading to a VLL and VMO imbalance Methods and measures Twenty-one clinically healthy subjects were involved in the study, 10 women and 11 men (aged X = 23.3 ± 2.9. The EMG signals were collected using a computerized EMG VIKING II, with 8 channels and three pairs of surface electrodes. EMG activity was obtained from MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in a seated position and MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° with patients in side-lying position with the knee in full extension. The data were normalized in the MVIC knee extension at 50° of flexion in a seated position, and were submitted to ANOVA test with subsequent application of the Bonferroni multiple comparisons analysis test. The level of significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Results The VLO muscle demonstrated a similar pattern to the VMO muscle showing higher EMG activity in MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion compared with MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction for male (p Conclusion The results showed that no selective EMG activation was observed when comparison was made between the VMO, VLL and VLO muscles while performing MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction and MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in both male and female subjects. Our findings demonstrate that hip abduction do not facilitated VLL and VLO activity in relation to the VMO, however, this study included only healthy subjects performing maximum voluntary isometric contraction contractions, therefore much remains to be discovered by

  1. A New Rerouting Technique for the Extensor Pollicis Longus in Palliative Treatment for Wrist and Finger Extension Paralysis Resulting From Radial Nerve and C5C6C7 Root Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laravine, Jennifer; Cambon-Binder, Adeline; Belkheyar, Zoubir

    2016-03-01

    Wrist and finger extension paralysis is a consequence of an injury to the radial nerve or the C5C6C7 roots. Despite these 2 different levels of lesions, palliative treatment for this type of paralysis depends on the same tendon transfers. A large majority of the patients are able to compensate for a deficiency of the extension of the wrist and fingers. However, a deficiency in the opening of the first web space, which could be responsible for transfers to the abductor pollicis longus, the extensor pollicis brevis, and the extensor pollicis longus (EPL), frequently exists. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a new EPL rerouting technique outside of Lister's tubercle. Another aim was to verify whether this technique allows a better opening of the thumb-index pinch in this type of paralysis. In the first part, we performed an anatomic study comparing the EPL rerouting technique and the frequently used technique for wrist and finger extension paralyses. In the second part, we present 2 clinical cases in which this new technique will be practiced. Preliminary results during this study favor the EPL rerouting technique. This is a simple and reproducible technique that allows for good opening of the first web space in the treatment of wrist and finger extension paralysis.

  2. Sonographic evaluation of spleen size and prevalence of accessory spleen in a healthy male Turkish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Serter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is known that the measurement of splenic length in routine clinical practice is a very good indicator of actual splenic size. Knowledge of the normal range of spleen size in the population being examined is a prerequisite. Racial differences in splenic length could result in incorrect interpretation of splenic measurements. The purpose of this study was to establish the range of spleen length in a young male Turkish population.Material and Methods: A total of 2179 volunteers, healthy men aged 17-42 years, from the annual Army Reserve Officer Training Corps training camp at Manisa were included in the study. Sonographic measurements of spleen length were performed on 2179 military personnel. Presence of accessory spleen was also determined. In addition, the height, weight, and age of each volunteer were recorded. Using linear regression analysis, the relation of spleen length and body height, weight and body mass index (BMI was evaluated. Additionally, the prevalence of accessory spleen detected on ultrasound was calculated.Results: The mean±SD height was 173,1±6,5 cm, mean weight 69,1±9,7 kg, and mean BMI 22,62±2,87. Mean spleen length was 10,76±1,8 cm. The length of the spleen was below 12,80 cm in 95% of the subjects. No statistically significant correlation (p<0.01 between spleen length and body height, weight and BMI was found. The prevalence of accessory spleen was determined as 2.5% on ultrasound screening.Conclusion: It was found that in healthy Turkish men, mean spleen length was 10,76±1,8 cm. This data should be taken into consideration when the diagnosis of splenomegaly is established in Turkish males.

  3. The B. subtilis Accessory Helicase PcrA Facilitates DNA Replication through Transcription Units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N Merrikh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In bacteria the concurrence of DNA replication and transcription leads to potentially deleterious encounters between the two machineries, which can occur in either the head-on (lagging strand genes or co-directional (leading strand genes orientations. These conflicts lead to replication fork stalling and can destabilize the genome. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells possess resolution factors that reduce the severity of these encounters. Though Escherichia coli accessory helicases have been implicated in the mitigation of head-on conflicts, direct evidence of these proteins mitigating co-directional conflicts is lacking. Furthermore, the endogenous chromosomal regions where these helicases act, and the mechanism of recruitment, have not been identified. We show that the essential Bacillus subtilis accessory helicase PcrA aids replication progression through protein coding genes of both head-on and co-directional orientations, as well as rRNA and tRNA genes. ChIP-Seq experiments show that co-directional conflicts at highly transcribed rRNA, tRNA, and head-on protein coding genes are major targets of PcrA activity on the chromosome. Partial depletion of PcrA renders cells extremely sensitive to head-on conflicts, linking the essential function of PcrA to conflict resolution. Furthermore, ablating PcrA's ATPase/helicase activity simultaneously increases its association with conflict regions, while incapacitating its ability to mitigate conflicts, and leads to cell death. In contrast, disruption of PcrA's C-terminal RNA polymerase interaction domain does not impact its ability to mitigate conflicts between replication and transcription, its association with conflict regions, or cell survival. Altogether, this work establishes PcrA as an essential factor involved in mitigating transcription-replication conflicts and identifies chromosomal regions where it routinely acts. As both conflicts and accessory helicases are found in all domains of life

  4. Epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen: three case reports and review of the literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Kushida, Yoshio; Miyai, Yumi; Katsuki, Naomi; Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Bando, Kenji; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Haba, Reiji

    2010-09-01

    The development of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen is an extremely rare lesion, with only 17 cases being reported in the English literature. All such cases were located in the pancreatic tail, some of which showed carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) immunoreactivity in the lining of the epithelium. A few of them indicated an elevation of the serum CA19-9 level. Here we report three cases of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Cases 1 and 2 were 57-year-old and 70-year-old women, while case 3 was a 37-year-old man. All three cases were asymptomatic. Serum CA19-9 levels showed within normal limits (case 1), slightly elevated (case 2), and clearly elevated (case 3). They underwent a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (cases 1 and 2) and without splenectomy (case 3). Grossly, the surgical specimen was a well-demarcated, multiple (case 1) or solitary (cases 2 and 3) cystic mass in the pancreatic tail. A high level of fluid CA 19-9 was detected in case 1. Microscopically, the cystic walls were lined with squamous and cuboidal epithelium, which were surrounded by normal splenic tissue and hyalinized fibrous tissue. The lining squamous epithelium was revealed as nonkeratinizing (Cases 1 and 2) or keratinizing (Case 3). Immunohistochemically, CA19-9 was positive in the monolayer and surface layer of the cuboidal epithelium, but negative for the keratinizing squamous epithelium. As for the histogenesis, it is suggested that the cystic lining of the epithelium may derive from the pancreatic duct which protrudes into the accessory spleen.

  5. A Rare Case of a 15-Year-Old Boy with Two Accessory Nipples: One in the Forearm and One in the Milk Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Tauchen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old male presented for evaluation of a volar forearm mass that he noticed four years before. The mass was not painful and his main concern was cosmesis. The mass was two centimeters in diameter with a pinpoint central sinus and scant drainage. After excision, the pathology report noted pilosebaceous units and smooth muscle bundles, consistent with an accessory nipple. In addition, the patient had another accessory nipple in the “milk line” on his torso. While accessory nipples and breast tissue have been reported in numerous locations throughout the body, this is the first reported case of an accessory nipple on the forearm.

  6. A Rare Case of a 15-Year-Old Boy with Two Accessory Nipples: One in the Forearm and One in the Milk Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauchen, Alexander J.; Kueberuwa, Essie; Schiffman, Kenneth; Mudaliar, Kumaran M.; Noland, Shelley S.

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old male presented for evaluation of a volar forearm mass that he noticed four years before. The mass was not painful and his main concern was cosmesis. The mass was two centimeters in diameter with a pinpoint central sinus and scant drainage. After excision, the pathology report noted pilosebaceous units and smooth muscle bundles, consistent with an accessory nipple. In addition, the patient had another accessory nipple in the “milk line” on his torso. While accessory nipples and breast tissue have been reported in numerous locations throughout the body, this is the first reported case of an accessory nipple on the forearm. PMID:26783489

  7. Pan-genome sequence analysis using Panseq: an online tool for the rapid analysis of core and accessory genomic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas Andre

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pan-genome of a bacterial species consists of a core and an accessory gene pool. The accessory genome is thought to be an important source of genetic variability in bacterial populations and is gained through lateral gene transfer, allowing subpopulations of bacteria to better adapt to specific niches. Low-cost and high-throughput sequencing platforms have created an exponential increase in genome sequence data and an opportunity to study the pan-genomes of many bacterial species. In this study, we describe a new online pan-genome sequence analysis program, Panseq. Results Panseq was used to identify Escherichia coli O157:H7 and E. coli K-12 genomic islands. Within a population of 60 E. coli O157:H7 strains, the existence of 65 accessory genomic regions identified by Panseq analysis was confirmed by PCR. The accessory genome and binary presence/absence data, and core genome and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of six L. monocytogenes strains were extracted with Panseq and hierarchically clustered and visualized. The nucleotide core and binary accessory data were also used to construct maximum parsimony (MP trees, which were compared to the MP tree generated by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. The topology of the accessory and core trees was identical but differed from the tree produced using seven MLST loci. The Loci Selector module found the most variable and discriminatory combinations of four loci within a 100 loci set among 10 strains in 1 s, compared to the 449 s required to exhaustively search for all possible combinations; it also found the most discriminatory 20 loci from a 96 loci E. coli O157:H7 SNP dataset. Conclusion Panseq determines the core and accessory regions among a collection of genomic sequences based on user-defined parameters. It readily extracts regions unique to a genome or group of genomes, identifies SNPs within shared core genomic regions, constructs files for use in phylogeny programs

  8. Crystal Structure of a Truncated Urease Accessory Protein UreF From Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Robert; Romanov, Vladimir; Johns, Kathy; Battaile, Kevin P.; Wu-Brown, Jean; Guthrie, Jennifer L.; Hausinger, Robert P.; Pai, Emil F.; Chirgadze, Nickolay Y.

    2010-01-01

    Urease plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori in humans. Maturation of this nickel metalloenzyme in bacteria requires the participation of the accessory proteins UreD (termed UreH in H. pylori), UreF, and UreG which form sequential complexes with the urease apoprotein as well as UreE, a metallochaperone. Here, we describe the crystal structure of C-terminal truncated UreF from H. pylori (residues 1-233), the first UreF structure to be determined, at 1.55 Å resolution ...

  9. [Saccular aneurysm of the azygos vein in a patient with azygos accessory fissure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Rovira, S M; Guedea Martin, A; Salvador Adell, I; Elias Artiga, J

    2015-01-01

    The saccular aneurysm of the azygos vein is an extremely rare condition, which when located in the path of an accesory pulmonary fissure, becomes a diagnostic challenge because it can be mistaken for tumors arising from the accesory pleura, like solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura or mesothelioma. The diagnosis should ideally be done by non-invasive methods such as CT or MR angiographic technique in multiple phases, thus avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention. This case is exceptional because, to our knowledge, it is the first to report both concomitant clinical situations, an aneurysm of the azygos vein in the pathway of its accessory fissure.

  10. Accessory soleus muscle: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palaniappan, M. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology); Rajesh, A.; Rickett, A. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology); Kershaw, C.J. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Orthopaedics)

    1999-08-01

    Accessory soleus muscle is a rare condition which presents as a soft-tissue mass medial to the calcaneum and distal Achilles tendon. Though congenital in origin, it manifests in the second and third decades of life as a soft-tissue mass due to muscle hypertrophy. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with a painful ankle mass. It is important to be aware of this condition when interpreting CT or MRI of the ankle, which show characteristic findings of a normal muscle in an abnormal location. (orig.) With 4 figs., 12 refs.

  11. Thermistor guided radiofrequency ablation of atrial insertion sites in patients with accessory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, C M; Moore, H J; Solomon, A J; Rodak, D J; Fletcher, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radiofrequency ablation has gained acceptance in the treatment of patients with symptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relation between temperature and other electroconductive parameters in patients undergoing atrial insertion accessory pathway ablation utilizing a thermistor equipped catheter. The mean temperature and power at sites of atrial insertion ablation are lower than has been previously associated with creation of radiofrequency lesions in the ventricle. While high cavitary blood flow in the atrium may result in cooling, the thinner atrial tissue may require less energy to achieve adequate heating than ventricular myocardium.

  12. Impact of infection on the secretory capacity of the male accessory glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marconi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies that compare the impact of different infectious entities of the male reproductive tract (MRT on the male accessory gland function are controversial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semen analyses of 71 patients with proven infections of the MRT were compared with the results of 40 healthy non-infected volunteers. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their diagnosis: chronic prostatitis NIH type II (n = 38, chronic epididymitis (n = 12, and chronic urethritis (n = 21. RESULTS: The bacteriological analysis revealed 9 different types of microorganisms, considered to be the etiological agents, isolated in different secretions, including: urine, expressed prostatic secretions, semen and urethral smears: E. Coli (n = 20, Klebsiella (n = 2, Proteus spp. (n = 1, Enterococcus (n = 20, Staphylococcus spp. (n = 1, M. tuberculosis (n = 2, N. gonorrhea (n = 8, Chlamydia tr. (n = 16 and, Ureaplasma urealyticum (n = 1. The infection group had significantly (p < 0.05 lower: semen volume, alpha-glucosidase, fructose, and zinc in seminal plasma and, higher pH than the control group. None of these parameters was sufficiently accurate in the ROC analysis to discriminate between infected and non-infected men. CONCLUSION: Proven bacterial infections of the MRT impact negatively on all the accessory gland function parameters evaluated in semen, suggesting impairment of the secretory capacity of the epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate. These findings were associated with an infectious related significant increase of semen pH. None of the semen parameters evaluated can be suggested as a diagnostic tool for infection.

  13. Ascaris lumbricoides and its invasion of the accessory cystic duct: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Zain; Masood, Irfan; Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi

    2015-04-01

    Around the world, Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common helminthic infection. We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman, known to have had Ascaris infestation, presenting with abdominal pain, constipation and jaundice together with fever and tachycardia. There was tenderness in the right hypochondrium and liver function tests confirmed cholestatic jaundice. An abdominal ultrasound showed multiple linear echogenic foci in the distal small intestine along with cholelithiasis and a thick-walled gall bladder with a single stone compressing the common bile duct (Mirizzi syndrome). The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy; more than 100 worms were found inside the small intestine and they were removed by enterotomy and manual decompression. No worm could be palpated within the common bile duct (CBD). Cholecystectomy was performed, during which an accessory cystic duct was noted opening into the common bile duct superiorly to the main cystic duct. A 10 cm live worm was found coming out of it and was removed via forceps. Later on an endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatogram (ERCP) showed a widened ampulla, a mildly dilated common bile duct, but without any filling defects. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery being discharged on the ninth day. Worms in an accessory cystic duct have not been report in the medical literature so far.

  14. Accessory cell ability of Langerhans cells for superantigen is resistant to ultraviolet-B light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokura, Yoshiki; Yagi, Hiroaki; Hashizume, Hideo; Furukawa, Fukumi; Takigawa, Masahiro (Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Dermatology); Yagi, Junji (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology)

    1994-08-01

    We examined the effects of ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation on the accessory cell ability of Langerhans cells (LC) to induce a T-cell response to a superantigen, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). The ability of LC-enriched epidermal cells (LC-EC) to evoke a T-cell response to SEB was retained at the doses of UVB (up to 40 mJ/cm[sup 2]) that profoundly affected the antigen-presenting function of LC-EC for a hapten, trinitrophenyl (TNP), and a protein antigen, conalbumin. Higher doses of UVB (more than 60 mJ/cm[sup 2]) reduced the accessory cell ability of LC-EC for SEB up to 50% of control. The addition of monoclonal antibodies against adhesion molecules between LC and T cells to the culture resulted in substantial suppression of the T-cell response to SEB induced by nonirradiated LC-EC, while the UVB-irradiated LC-EC induced T-cell response was not significantly blocked with these monoclonal antibodies. This suggested that the reduction of LC ability for superantigen by high doses of UVB is at least partly due to impairment of adhesion molecules on LC by UVB irradiation. (author).

  15. (足母)长伸肌神经支配的解剖学研究和临床意义%An anatomical study and clinical value of the innervation of hallucis longus muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兴; 方向前; 范顺武; 徐文斌; 陈帅

    2013-01-01

    目的 明确(足母)长伸肌神经支配的解剖学特征及其对临床的指导意义.方法 10具新鲜成人标本,男6具,女4具;年龄41~73岁,平均53.2岁.取左小腿标本9具,右小腿标本10具,共获得19具小腿标本.解剖标本,确认胫骨前肌和趾长伸肌深面的(足母)长伸肌,并沿腓深神经解剖(足母)长伸肌的神经肌支,观察神经肌支的位置、数量.测量神经肌支长度(nerve length,NL)、神经肌支起点与腓骨头尖部的距离(nerve-fibula head length,NFL)以及腓骨长度(fibula length,FL).应用苏木精-伊红染色,观察神经肌支内神经束的数量.结果 19具小腿标本共发现23支(足母)长伸肌的神经肌支,其中15具肢体由单支神经肌支支配,4具肢体由双支神经肌支支配,1具标本的左、右侧肢体均由双支神经肌支支配.所有神经肌支均起源于腓深神经.神经肌支由腓侧进入(足母)长伸肌14支,由前方进入3支,由胫侧进入6支.19具标本小腿长度为34.5~40.6 cm,平均(37.0±1.9) cm;神经肌支起点与腓骨头尖部的距离为75.4~97.2 mm,平均(89.0±5.2) mm;神经肌支长度为33.6~57.4 mm,平均(48.5±5.0) mm;神经肌支起点与腓骨头尖部的距离/腓骨长度为0.211~0.280,平均0.245±0.020.前方进入(足母)长伸肌的神经肌支长度最短.单神经肌支支配的15具标本的神经肌支中,12支有两个神经束、3支仅有一个神经束;而在双神经肌支支配的4具标本的8个神经肌支中,除1支有两个神经束外,其余7支均仅有一个神经束.结论 (足母)长伸肌神经肌支的特殊解剖学特征可能是其出现孤立性损伤和损伤以后预后不佳的原因.%Objective To study the anatomy of the innervation of hallucis longus muscle,and discuss the clinical value of the innervation.Methods Nineteen limbs of 10 cadavers were studied.There were 4 female cadavers and 6 male cadavers.Nine were left legs and 10 were right legs.The specimens were

  16. Presence of accessory penis, colonic duplication and several other congenital anomalies in a child: a very rare association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sayan; Mondal, Prabodh Chandra; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Achar, Arun

    2014-10-01

    An accessory penis is a very rare anomaly. Only five cases have been reported thus far to our knowledge. We present the case of a child aged 2 years and 10 months who had a penis-like structure (containing phallus and glans) attached to the right buttock. Associated anomalies were a non-communicating type of colonic duplication, a paramedian stenosed anal opening, a horse-shoe kidney, posterior urethral valves, scoliosis of the lumbo-sacral spine, polydactyly and equino-varus deformity of the right foot. As far as we can tell, this is the first report of an accessory penis associated with colonic duplication and other congenital anomalies.

  17. Bilateral axillary masses mimicking as accessory breast with multiple fibroadenoma and bilateral gigantomastia in HIV-positive patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saumya; Mishra, Anand K; Tewari, S; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2013-06-24

    Accessory breast is a rare entity that can present as asymptomatic masses or can cause symptoms like heaviness, pain, restriction of arm movement and limitation in daily pursuits with allied apprehension and anxiety for the patient. We present a case of bilateral axillary masses mimicking as accessory breast with multiple fibroadenoma in a 28 years, nulliparous, Indian woman who is HIV positive, which proves to be a diagnostic dilemma. Excisional biopsy was diagnostic. The rarity of such cases imposes challenges on the management in terms of diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic options.

  18. Restoration of shoulder abduction by transfer of the spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve through dorsal approach: a clinical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Shi-bing; HOU Chun-lin; CHEN De-song; GU Yu-dong

    2006-01-01

    Background In recent years, transfer of the spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve has become a routine procedure for restoration of shoulder abduction. However, the operation via the traditional supraclavicular anterior approach often leads to partial denervation of the trapezius muscle. The purpose of the study was to introduce transfer of the spinal accessory nerve through dorsal approach, using distal branch of the spinal accessory nerve, to repair the suprascapular nerve for restoration of shoulder abduction, and to observe its therapeutic effect.Methods From January to October 2003, a total of 11 patients with a brachial plexus injury and an intact or nearly intact spinal accessory nerve were treated by transferring the spinal accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve through dorsal approach. The patients were followed up for 18 to 26 months [mean (23.5 ±5.2) months] to evaluate their shoulder abduction and function of the trapezius muscle. The outcomes were compared with those of 26 patients treated with traditional anterior approach. And the data were analyzed by Student's t test using SPSS 10.5.Results In the 11 patients, the spinal accessory nerves were transferred to the suprascapular nerve through the dorsal approach successfully. Intact function of the upper trapezius was achieved in all of them. In the patients,the location of the two nerves was relatively stable at the level of superior margin of the scapula, the mean distance between them was (4.2±1.4) cm, both the nerves could be easily dissected and end-to-end anastomosed without any tension. During the follow-up, the first electrophysiological sign of recovery of the infraspinatus appeared at (6.8±2.7) months and the first sign of restoration of the shoulder abduction at (7.6±2.9) months after the operation, which were earlier than that after the traditional operation [(8.7±2.4) months and (9.9±2.8)months, respectively; P<0.05]. The postoperative shoulder abduction was 62.8°± 12

  19. 腓骨长肌前侧半重建修复陈旧性髌腱断裂的临床应用%Clinical application of anterior half of the peroneus longus tendon to reconstruct neglected patellar tendon rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙超; 张康鑫; 李荣强

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨利用腓骨长肌前侧半肌腱重建修复陈旧性髌腱断裂的治疗方法和疗效。方法采用腓骨长肌前侧半肌腱横穿胫骨隧道及纵穿髌骨隧道重建髌韧带并加用爱惜邦缝线减张固定方法治疗15例陈旧性髌韧带断裂患者。观察手术效果。结果手术时间60~80 min,术中出血20~50 ml,手术后切口甲级愈合14例,乙级愈合1例。住院时间10~14 d,15例患者均得到随访,随访时间18~24个月,均未出现髌腱再断裂。采用Lysholm评分评估手术效果,患膝功能均为优秀(平均92分)。结论采用自体腓骨长肌前侧半肌腱重建修复陈旧性髌腱断裂具有牢固可靠,可早期康复训练,无需内固定等优点,疗效确切,值得临床推广。%Objective To discuss the effect of anterior half of the peroneus longus tendon in reconstructing neglected patellar tendon rupture.Methods All 15 cases of neglected patellar tendon rupture were reconstructed with anterior half of the peroneus longus tendon, with the tendon crossing the patella and tibia tunnels, overlapping suture with patellar tendon and fixed by reducing tension of Ethibond, operation effect was observed.Results The operation time was 60~80 min, bleeding volume was 20~50 ml. The grade A healing incision was achieved in 14 cases, grade B healing in 1 case. The hospitalization time was 10~14 d. All 15 cases were followed up for 18~24 months and no rupture recurred. According to Lysholm score evaluation, knee function were excellent(average of 92 points).Conclusion Using the anterior half of the peroneus longus tendon to reconstruct neglected patellar tendon rupture is solid and reliable with definite curative effect and no need of internal fixation, so it is worthy of clinical application.

  20. Accessory mitral valve tissue causing severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in a post-Senning patient with transposition of the great arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Farqani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Accessory mitral valve tissue is a rare congenital anomaly associated with congenital cardiac defects and is usually detected in the first decade of life. We describe the case of an 18-year old post-Senning asymptomatic patient who was found to have accessory mitral valve tissue on transthoracic echocardiography producing severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.

  1. Proteomic identification of Drosophila melanogaster male accessory gland proteins, including a pro-cathepsin and a soluble γ-glutamyl transpeptidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Mohammed

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In Drosophila melanogaster, the male seminal fluid contains proteins that are important for reproductive success. Many of these proteins are synthesised by the male accessory glands and are secreted into the accessory gland lumen, where they are stored until required. Previous studies on the identification of Drosophila accessory gland products have largely focused on characterisation of male-specific accessory gland cDNAs from D. melanogaster and, more recently, Drosophila simulans. In the present study, we have used a proteomics approach without any sex bias to identify proteins in D. melanogaster accessory gland secretions. Results Thirteen secreted accessory gland proteins, including seven new accessory gland proteins, were identified by 2D-gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry of tryptic fragments. They included protein-folding and stress-response proteins, a hormone, a lipase, a serpin, a cysteine-rich protein and two peptidases, a pro-enzyme form of a cathepsin K-like cysteine peptidase and a γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. Enzymatic studies established that accessory gland secretions contain a cysteine peptidase zymogen that can be activated at low pH. This peptidase may have a role in the processing of female and other male-derived proteins, but is unlikely to be involved in the processing of the sex peptide. γ-Glutamyl transpeptidases are type II integral membrane proteins; however, the identified AG γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT-1 is unusual in that it is predicted to be a soluble secreted protein, a prediction that is supported by biochemical evidence. GGT-1 is possibly involved in maintaining a protective redox environment for sperm. The strong γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity found in the secretions provides an explanation for the observation that glutamic acid is the most abundant free amino acid in accessory gland secretions of D. melanogaster. Conclusion We have applied biochemical approaches, not used

  2. Comparison of hemihypoglossal- and accessory-facial neurorrhaphy for treating facial paralysis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dezhi; Wan, Hong; Feng, Jie; Wang, Shiwei; Su, Diya; Hao, Shuyu; Schumacher, Michael; Liu, Song

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-end (HemiHN-FN) and accessory-facial nerve end-to-end (AN-FN) neurorrhaphy using a predegenerated nerve graft (PNG) for reanimating facial paralysis in a rat FN injury model. A total of 25 rats with complete unilateral facial paralysis resulting from section of the right FN were divided into 5 groups (n=5 each) that were submitted to immediate, delayed (3 months after FN injury) or no (control) FN reconstruction procedures involving HemiHN-FN or AN-FN neurorrhaphy. Approximately 3 months after FN reconstruction, cholera toxin subunit B conjugate Alexa 555 (CTB-Alexa 555) was injected into the ipsilateral whisker pad muscle and CTB-Alexa 555-labeled neurons were observed in the hypoglossal or accessory nuclei of all the FN reconstruction rats, but none of these neurons were found in the controls. There were numerous myelinated and nonmyelinated axons in both PNG and repaired FN of the FN reconstruction rats. No differences were found for these numbers between the two neurorrhaphy methods for each of the treatment time points, indicating the equal effectiveness of axon regeneration. However, a significantly higher number of CTB-Alexa 555-labeled neurons was observed in the hypoglossal nucleus of the immediate HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy-treated rats when compared to that in the accessory nucleus of the immediate AN-FN neurorrhaphy-treated rats, consistent with the surface values of the recorded MAPs at the whisker pad muscle while electro-stimulating the FN. These results suggest that HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy produces more efficient innervation of the paralyzed facial muscles than AN-FN neurorrhaphy without sacrificing ipsilateral hypoglossal function. Taking into consideration the clinical relevance of these findings for postoperative complications and functional reanimation in relation to the central plasticity, we suggest that HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy may be the preferable facial

  3. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and Drosophila sulfurigaster neonasuta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Ravi Ram; S. R. Ramesh

    2007-12-01

    Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism was analysed in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and D. sulfurigaster neonasuta for the first time, using SDS-PAGE to score polymorphism of these proteins in 2788 individuals of D. n. nasuta and 2232 individuals of D. s. neonasuta from 12 different populations from southern India. A total of 25 and 18 variant protein phenotypes were identified in D. n. nasuta and D. s. neonasuta, respectively. Protein fractions of group III were more polymorphic than those from groups I and II. The results show that accessory gland secretory proteins show high levels of polymorphism, irrespective of species or habitat. Moreover, we have used the variation in the accessory gland proteins to assess the extent of divergence between the species and to infer their population structure. The study suggests that though both D. n. nasuta and D. s. neonasuta belong to the same subgroup, they differ in population structure, as far as accessory gland protein polymorphism is concerned.

  4. Expression of a male accessory gland peptide of Leptinotarsa decemlineata in insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.; Schooneveld, H.; Deserno, M.L.L.G.; Put, B.; Vlak, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The male accessory glands (MAGs) of Leptinotarsa decemlineata produce an 8kDa peptide, designated Led-MAGP, that is recognized by monoclonal antibody MAC-18. The site of synthesis, amino acid sequence and the gene encoding this peptide have been documented (). The primary structure is homologous to

  5. Radiofrequency Ablation of Accessory Pathways in Chil- dren with Complex Congenital Cardiac Lesions: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dalili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Catheter ablation is an accepted, highly effective modality of treatment for cardiac arrhythmias in children. The success rate depends on the operator’s experience, especially in cases involving complex anatomies. We hereby report our recent experience of successful ablation of accessory pathways in three children with complex congenital heart diseases.The first case was a 7-year-old girl with tricuspid atresia and a previous Glenn shunt, in whom a sub-epicardial overt accessory pathway was successfully ablated via the coronary sinus. The second case, a 9-year-old girl, received accessory pathway ablation via the fenestration of an extracardiac Fontan pathway. The third case was a 14-year-old boy with dextrocardia, common atrium, common ventricle, and a previous extracardiac Fontan operation, in whom ablation of a concealed accessory pathway was carried out retrogradely from the aorta. All the ablations were done in Rajaie Cardiovascular, Medical and Research Center, Tehran, and all the patients were discharged from the hospital without any complication.

  6. RADIOFREQUENCY CURRENT CATHETER ABLATION OF THE LEFT ATRIOVENTRICULAR ACCESSORY PATHWAYS WITH PAROXYSMAL SUPRAVENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静毅; 郭继鸿; 吴益明; 朱继红; 王伟民; 赵红; 刘喜荣; MichaelA.Lee

    1994-01-01

    Seventy patients with left atrioventricular accessory pathways and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA).The success rate was 94.3%.Among these pa-tients,26 had manifest preexcitation syndrome,and 44 had concealed preexcitation.Eighteen patients with con-cealed preexcitation underwent coronary sinus(CS) pacinga,and delta wave appeared in 15.The keys to successful RFCA were correct positioning of the radiofrequency (RF) catheter tip,A/V amplitude ratio,AV interval(in si-nus rhythm)and VA interval(during SVT or ventricular pacing).After 1-14 months of follow-up,two pa- tients had supraventricular tachycardia(SVT)recurrence.

  7. Zoning, accessory dwelling units, and family caregiving: issues, trends, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Phoebe S; Koenig, Teresa; Pynoos, Jon

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between zoning regulations and co-residential family caregiving in the United States. It first provides an overview of U.S. housing policies, especially zoning. We then describe major changes in family structure and composition in the United States with their implications for caregiving and discuss how multigenerational housing options, particularly accessory dwelling units (ADUs) in single-family homes, can help support family caregiving. After an overview of zoning policies and actions that inhibit ADU production, we document current trends, incorporating information from a small non-random study of ADU activity we conducted in 2004. Finally, we present recommendations for promoting more multigenerational housing as a supplement to other family support programs (e.g., dependent care assistance, family caregiver payments) and as a source of affordable, supportive housing for those families choosing co-residence as their eldercare solution.

  8. A software tool to evaluate crystal types and morphological developments of accessory zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Computer programs for an appropriate visualization of crystal types and morphological developments of accessory zircon are not available hitherto. Usually, typological computations are conducted by using simple calculation tools or spread-sheet programs. In practice, however, high numbers of data sets including information of numerous zircon populations have to be processed and stored. The paper describes the software ZIRCTYP, which is a macro-driven program within the Microsoft Access database management system. It allows the computation of zircon morphologies occurring in specific rock samples and their presentation in typology diagrams. In addition, morphological developments within a given zircon population are presented (1) statistically and (2) graphically as crystal sequences showing initial, intermediate, and final growth stages.

  9. Thermomechanical and electrical characterisation of EVA polymer compounds for cable accessories*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santulli, Carlo; Balestrieri, Francesco; Mazzetti, Carlo; De Mestres, Pau

    2015-11-01

    In this work, materials used in the field of accessories for electrical cables have been characterised from a thermomechanical and electrical point of view, so to offer a realistic picture of material behaviour under a service involving the combined application of electrical charges and thermo-mechanical stresses. In particular, both materials are based on ethylene-vinylacetate (EVA) blend with the introduction in one case of aluminium trihydrate, whereas in the other case, carbon black was added, the two materials being referred as insulating and semi-conductive, respectively. The two materials had different rheological and thermal characteristics, which had an effect on electrical behaviour: however, the application of levels of radiation up to 60 kGy did not prove to widely change the profile of either polymer blends.

  10. Brachymetatarsia with accessory navicular in right foot: A rare coincidental finding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Praveen Kumar Pandey; Inder Pawar; Sandeep Kumar Beniwal; Raaghav R.Verma

    2016-01-01

    A 33 years old female patient presented with posttraumatic pain in the right foot for which radiographs of the right foot was advised.No fracture was detected on radiographs and patient was managed conservatively on medications and posterior splint immobilization.We found coincidentally a short fourth metatarsal and an accessory navicular bone in the right foot radiographs.After 3 weeks of immobilization,she underwent mobilization of the right foot,weight bearing and intensive physiotherapy for 6 weeks.After two months of injury she was still complaining of pain on the plantar aspect of right foot which was diagnosed as metatarsalgia and operated on by excision of the neuroma present in the 3rd web space of the right foot.After surgery she was completely relieved of pain and could do activities well related to the right foot.

  11. The accessory papillary muscle with inferior J-waves - peculiarity or hidden danger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    du Toit Lorraine

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Originally described in 1953, today the so-called J-wave is the source of much controversy. As a marker of so-called "early repolarization", this variant has been regarded as a totally benign variant since the 1960's. However, since then a wealth of data have indicated that the J-wave may be a marker of a highly arrhythmogenic substrate with a resultant high risk of sudden cardiac death. In this case report a case of an accessory papillary muscle with a prominent J-wave is described. This may be the first of many possible cases where papillary muscle variants may be the cause of the J-wave.

  12. [Infectious mitral endocarditis after radiofrequency catheter ablation of a left lateral accessory pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito Bartolomé, F; Sánchez Fernández-Bernal, C

    2001-08-01

    A 2-years-old child with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome associated with life-threatening symptoms underwent radiofrequency ablation of a left lateral accessory pathway. A deflectable 5F bipolar electrode catheter positioned above the atrioventricular groove by transeptal approach was used for ablation. The catheters were repeatedly used after ethylene oxide sterilisation. Although immediate post-ablation echocardiography demonstrated no complications, the patient was readmitted two days later with fever and a new mitral murmur. Penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was isolated and intravenous antibiotics were administered. In the following weeks, the patient developed constrictive pericarditis requiring surgical treatment and acute hemiplegia caused by brain embolism arising from valvular vegetation. At 5 years of follow-up the patient presents residual hemiparesia and grade II/IV mitral insufficiency.

  13. Cloning, expression, and functional characterization of the equine herpesvirus 1 DNA polymerase and its accessory subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loregian, Arianna; Case, Alessandro; Cancellotti, Enrico; Valente, Carlo; Marsden, Howard S; Palù, Giorgio

    2006-07-01

    We report the expression and characterization of the putative catalytic subunit (pORF30) and accessory protein (pORF18) of equine herpesvirus 1 DNA polymerase, which are encoded by open reading frames 30 and 18 and are homologous to herpes simplex virus type 1 UL30 and UL42, respectively. In vitro transcription-translation of open reading frames 30 and 18 generated proteins of 136 and 45 kDa, respectively. In vitro-expressed pORF30 possessed basal DNA polymerase activity that was stimulated by pORF18, as measured by DNA polymerase assays in vitro. Purified baculovirus-expressed pORF30 exhibited DNA polymerase activity similar to that of the in vitro-expressed protein, and baculovirus-expressed pORF18 could stimulate both nucleotide incorporation and long-chain DNA synthesis by pORF30 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The salt optima for activity of both pORF30 and the holoenzyme were substantially different from those for other herpesvirus DNA polymerases. As demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid assays, pORF30 and pORF18 could physically interact, most likely with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Finally, by mutational analysis of the 1,220-residue pORF30, we demonstrated that the extreme C terminus of pORF30 is important for physical and functional interaction with the accessory protein, as reported for UL30 and other herpesvirus DNA polymerases. In addition, a C-proximal region of pORF30, corresponding to residues 1114 to 1172, is involved in binding to, and stimulation by, pORF18. Taken together, the results indicate that pORF30 and pORF18 are the equine herpesvirus 1 counterparts of herpes simplex virus type 1 UL30 and UL42 and share many, but not all, of their characteristics.

  14. Hausdorff Distance evaluation of orthodontic accessories' streaking artifacts in 3D model superimposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rino Neto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether image artifacts caused by orthodontic metal accessories interfere with the accuracy of 3D CBCT model superimposition. A human dry skull was subjected three times to a CBCT scan: at first without orthodontic brackets (T1, then with stainless steel brackets bonded without (T2 and with orthodontic arch wires (T3 inserted into the brackets' slots. The registration of image surfaces and the superimposition of 3D models were performed. Within-subject surface distances between T1-T2, T1-T3 and T2-T3 were computed and calculated for comparison among the three data sets. The minimum and maximum Hausdorff Distance units (HDu computed between the corresponding data points of the T1 and T2 CBCT 3D surface images were 0.000000 and 0.049280 HDu, respectively, and the mean distance was 0.002497 HDu. The minimum and maximum Hausdorff Distances between T1 and T3 were 0.000000 and 0.047440 HDu, respectively, with a mean distance of 0.002585 HDu. In the comparison between T2 and T3, the minimum, maximum and mean Hausdorff Distances were 0.000000, 0.025616 and 0.000347 HDu, respectively. In the current study, the image artifacts caused by metal orthodontic accessories did not compromise the accuracy of the 3D model superimposition. Color-coded maps of overlaid structures complemented the computed Hausdorff Distances and demonstrated a precise fusion between the data sets.

  15. The Pseudorabies Virus DNA Polymerase Accessory Subunit UL42 Directs Nuclear Transport of the Holoenzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Ping; Du, Wen-Juan; Huang, Li-Ping; Wei, Yan-Wu; Wu, Hong-Li; Feng, Li; Liu, Chang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) DNA replication occurs in the nuclei of infected cells and requires the viral DNA polymerase. The PRV DNA polymerase comprises a catalytic subunit, UL30, and an accessory subunit, UL42, that confers processivity to the enzyme. Its nuclear localization is a prerequisite for its enzymatic function in the initiation of viral DNA replication. However, the mechanisms by which the PRV DNA polymerase holoenzyme enters the nucleus have not been determined. In this study, we characterized the nuclear import pathways of the PRV DNA polymerase catalytic and accessory subunits. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that UL42 localizes independently in the nucleus, whereas UL30 alone predominantly localizes in the cytoplasm. Intriguingly, the localization of UL30 was completely shifted to the nucleus when it was coexpressed with UL42, demonstrating that nuclear transport of UL30 occurs in an UL42-dependent manner. Deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of the two proteins showed that UL42 contains a functional and transferable bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) at amino acids 354-370 and that K(354), R(355), and K(367) are important for the NLS function, whereas UL30 has no NLS. Coimmunoprecipitation assays verified that UL42 interacts with importins α3 and α4 through its NLS. In vitro nuclear import assays demonstrated that nuclear accumulation of UL42 is a temperature- and energy-dependent process and requires both importins α and β, confirming that UL42 utilizes the importin α/β-mediated pathway for nuclear entry. In an UL42 NLS-null mutant, the UL42/UL30 heterodimer was completely confined to the cytoplasm when UL42 was coexpressed with UL30, indicating that UL30 utilizes the NLS function of UL42 for its translocation into the nucleus. Collectively, these findings suggest that UL42 contains an importin α/β-mediated bipartite NLS that transports the viral DNA polymerase holoenzyme into the nucleus in an in vitro expression

  16. Persistence of ultrasound alterations after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin in patients with male accessory gland infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandro La Vignera; Rosita A Condorelli; Aldo E Calogero; Salvatore Bellanca; Mario Salmeri; Enzo Vicari

    2012-01-01

    No studies have evaluated the ultrasound features of the male sex accessory glands in infertile patients with bacterial male accessory gland infection (MAGI) according to the microbiological outcomes of bacterial cultures (absent,partial or complete) following antibiotic therapy administration.Therefore,the aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound characteristics of the prostate,seminal vesicles,and epididymal tracts after treatment with levofloxacin (a common quinolone antibiotic),in patients with infections caused by Escherichia coli (a Gram-negative bacterium) according to the Naber's classification,which includes the following categories:eradication,eradication with superinfection,persistence and persistence with superinfection.The study was conducted in 100 patients aged 25±8 years (range:20-40 years) with bacterial MAGI and bacterial cultures positive only for E.coli(colony forming units ≥ 106 per ml).Retrospective analysis was conducted only on patients treated with oral levofloxacin (500 mg) administered once daily for 28 days who were recruited over the last 5 years.Following antibiotic treatment,patients with microbiological persistence or persistence with superinfection had a significantly higher percentage of ultrasound abnormalities suggestive of prostato-vesiculitis (PV) (30.2% and 36.0%,respectively) or prostato-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE) (60.2% and 70.0%,respectively) compared with patients with microbiological eradication (PV=10.2% and PVE=8.2%,respectively) or eradication with superinfection (PV=18.8%and PVE=21.2%,respectively).In conclusion,patients with microbiological persistence or persistence plus superinfection showed the highest prevalence of complicated forms of MAGI (PV and PVE),compared with patients with microbiological eradication or eradication with superinfection.

  17. Simvastatin requires activation in accessory cells to modulate T-cell responses in asthma and COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Jürgen; Yakin, Yakup; Körber, Sandra; Grensemann, Barbara; Bendella, Zeynep; Boyaci, Niyazi; Gallert, Willem-Jakob; Yanik, Sarah Derya; Jungck, David; Koch, Andrea

    2016-10-05

    T-cell-dependent airway and systemic inflammation triggers the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Retrospective studies suggest that simvastatin has anti-inflammatory effects in both diseases but it is unclear, which cell types are targeted. We hypothesized that simvastatin modulates T-cell activity. Circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, either pure, co-cultured with monocytes or alveolar macrophages (AM) or in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), were ex vivo activated towards Th1/Tc1 or Th2/Tc2 and incubated with simvastatin. Markers for Th1/Tc1 (IFNγ) and Th2/Tc2 (IL-5, IL-13) were measured by ELISA; with PBMCs this was done comparative between 11 healthy never-smokers, 11 current smokers without airflow limitation, 14 smokers with COPD and 11 never-smokers with atopic asthma. T-cell activation induced IFNγ, IL-5 and IL-13 in the presence and absence of accessory cells. Simvastatin did not modulate cytokine expression in pure T-cell fractions. β-hydroxy-simvastatin acid (activated simvastatin) suppressed IL-5 and IL-13 in pure Th2- and Tc2-cells. Simvastatin suppressed IL-5 and IL-13 in Th2-cells co-cultivated with monocytes or AM, which was partially reversed by the carboxylesterase inhibitor benzil. Simvastatin suppressed IL-5 production of Th2/Tc2-cells in PBMCs without differences between cohorts and IL-13 stronger in never-smokers and asthma compared to COPD. Simvastatin induced IFNγ in Th1/Tc1-cells in PBMCs of all cohorts except asthmatics. Simvastatin requires activation in accessory cells likely by carboxylesterase to suppress IL-5 and IL-13 in Th2/Tc2-cells. The effects on Il-13 are partially reduced in COPD. Asthma pathogenesis prevents simvastatin-induced IFNγ up-regulation. Simvastatin has anti-inflammatory effects that could be of interest for asthma therapy.

  18. Dual Topology of the Melanocortin-2 Receptor Accessory Protein Is Stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maben, Zachary J; Malik, Sundeep; Jiang, Liyi H; Hinkle, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    Melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) facilitates trafficking of melanocortin 2 (MC2) receptors and is essential for ACTH binding and signaling. MRAP is a single transmembrane domain protein that forms antiparallel homodimers. These studies ask when MRAP first acquires this dual topology, whether MRAP architecture is static or stable, and whether the accessory protein undergoes rapid turnover. To answer these questions, we developed an approach that capitalizes on the specificity of bacterial biotin ligase, which adds biotin to lysine in a short acceptor peptide sequence; the distinct mobility of MRAP protomers of opposite orientations based on their N-linked glycosylation; and the ease of identifying biotin-labeled proteins. We inserted biotin ligase acceptor peptides at the N- or C-terminal ends of MRAP and expressed the modified proteins in mammalian cells together with either cytoplasmic or endoplasmic reticulum-targeted biotin ligase. MRAP assumed dual topology early in biosynthesis in both CHO and OS3 adrenal cells. Once established, MRAP orientation was stable. Despite its conformational stability, MRAP displayed a half-life of under 2 h in CHO cells. The amount of MRAP was increased by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and MRAP underwent ubiquitylation on lysine and other amino acids. Nonetheless, when protein synthesis was blocked with cycloheximide, MRAP was rapidly degraded even when MG132 was included and all lysines were replaced by arginines, implicating non-proteasomal degradation pathways. The results show that although MRAP does not change orientations during trafficking, its synthesis and degradation are dynamically regulated.

  19. Carcinoid tumor of the duodenum and accessory papilla associated with polycythemia vera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Horng-Yuan Wang; Ming-Jen Chen; Tsen-Long Yang; Ming-Chih Chang; Yu-Jan Chan

    2005-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors have been reported in a wide range of organs but most frequently involve the gastrointestinal tract; however, duodenal carcinoid tumors are rare. We report a 50-year-old male patient complaining of multiple melenas for 3 wk. The panendoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography revealed swelling accessory papilla with an ulcer. The biopsy taken showed a carcinoid tumor. The lesion was removed by wide resection. Patient was found to have an abnormal blood cell count during the follow-up period with elevated levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit of 21.2 g/dL and 63.5%,respectively, thrombocytosis of 501 000/μL, and leukocytosis of 20 410/μL. He was diagnosed as a polycythemia vera by a hematologist after further evaluation. He received periodic phlebotomy and hydroxyurea treatment. The response was good and his hematocrit was stabilized by periodic phlebotomy in the range of 44-49% during the last 2 years. The possible origin of UGI bleeding by a duodenal carcinoid tumor, although rare, should be considered. There has been one case report of a duodenal carcinoid tumor that involved accessory papilla of the pancreas divisum and one case report of metastatic carcinoid tumor associated with polycythemia vera. It is different in our patient as compared with the latter report, which mentioned a polycythemia vera patient who was found to have a metastatic carcinoid in the 17 years follow-up period. Chemotherapy had been given before the carcinoid tumor was revealed. Our patient had no previous chemotherapy for polycythemia vera before he was found to have duodenal carcinoid tumor; this excludes the possibility of chemotherapy induced carcinoid tumor, although it had been suspected in the previous report. In our patient, the existence of both diseases may be by predisposition of each other since both diseases have an increased incidence of other neoplasm, or they may be coexistent incidentally.

  20. Breakage-fusion-bridge cycles and large insertions contribute to the rapid evolution of accessory chromosomes in a fungal pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Daniel; Zala, Marcello; McDonald, Bruce A

    2013-06-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements are a major driver of eukaryotic genome evolution, affecting speciation, pathogenicity and cancer progression. Changes in chromosome structure are often initiated by mis-repair of double-strand breaks in the DNA. Mis-repair is particularly likely when telomeres are lost or when dispersed repeats misalign during crossing-over. Fungi carry highly polymorphic chromosomal complements showing substantial variation in chromosome length and number. The mechanisms driving chromosome polymorphism in fungi are poorly understood. We aimed to identify mechanisms of chromosomal rearrangements in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We combined population genomic resequencing and chromosomal segment PCR assays with electrophoretic karyotyping and resequencing of parents and offspring from experimental crosses to show that this pathogen harbors a highly diverse complement of accessory chromosomes that exhibits strong global geographic differentiation in numbers and lengths of chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes carried highly differentiated gene contents due to numerous insertions and deletions. The largest accessory chromosome recently doubled in length through insertions totaling 380 kb. Based on comparative genomics, we identified the precise breakpoint locations of these insertions. Nondisjunction during meiosis led to chromosome losses in progeny of three different crosses. We showed that a new accessory chromosome emerged in two viable offspring through a fusion between sister chromatids. Such chromosome fusion is likely to initiate a breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycle that can rapidly degenerate chromosomal structure. We suggest that the accessory chromosomes of Z. tritici originated mainly from ancient core chromosomes through a degeneration process that included BFB cycles, nondisjunction and mutational decay of duplicated sequences. The rapidly evolving accessory chromosome complement may serve as a cradle for adaptive evolution in

  1. Breakage-fusion-bridge cycles and large insertions contribute to the rapid evolution of accessory chromosomes in a fungal pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Croll

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal rearrangements are a major driver of eukaryotic genome evolution, affecting speciation, pathogenicity and cancer progression. Changes in chromosome structure are often initiated by mis-repair of double-strand breaks in the DNA. Mis-repair is particularly likely when telomeres are lost or when dispersed repeats misalign during crossing-over. Fungi carry highly polymorphic chromosomal complements showing substantial variation in chromosome length and number. The mechanisms driving chromosome polymorphism in fungi are poorly understood. We aimed to identify mechanisms of chromosomal rearrangements in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We combined population genomic resequencing and chromosomal segment PCR assays with electrophoretic karyotyping and resequencing of parents and offspring from experimental crosses to show that this pathogen harbors a highly diverse complement of accessory chromosomes that exhibits strong global geographic differentiation in numbers and lengths of chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes carried highly differentiated gene contents due to numerous insertions and deletions. The largest accessory chromosome recently doubled in length through insertions totaling 380 kb. Based on comparative genomics, we identified the precise breakpoint locations of these insertions. Nondisjunction during meiosis led to chromosome losses in progeny of three different crosses. We showed that a new accessory chromosome emerged in two viable offspring through a fusion between sister chromatids. Such chromosome fusion is likely to initiate a breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB cycle that can rapidly degenerate chromosomal structure. We suggest that the accessory chromosomes of Z. tritici originated mainly from ancient core chromosomes through a degeneration process that included BFB cycles, nondisjunction and mutational decay of duplicated sequences. The rapidly evolving accessory chromosome complement may serve as a cradle for

  2. Anatomía arterial de los colgajos musculares de extensor carpi radialis longus y extensor carpi radialis brevis para su uso en transferencia muscular funcional libre Arterial anatomy of the extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle flaps related to its use in free functioning muscle transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodríguez Lorenzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es documentar el aporte arterial y el patrón vascular intramuscular de los músculos Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus (ECRL y Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB para analizar su utilización como colgajos libres en transferencia muscular funcional para reanimación facial. Realizamos un estudio anatómico en 29 brazos humanos en fresco. Las técnicas de inyección utilizadas fueron la modificada de oxido de plomo y gelatina en 11 cadáveres y la de inyección pulsátil de látex color en 18. Disecamos los músculos ECRL y ECRB y sus pedículos, los fotodocumentamos y radiografiamos valorando los resultados en función del patrón vascular intramuscular, relaciones anatómicas, calibres y longitud de pedículos. Encontramos dos patrones vasculares diferentes en las 29 disecciones siguiendo la clasificación de Mathes y Nahai de la anatomía vascular de los músculos (en función del número de pedículos vasculares y su dominancia: Tipo I( 37,9% ECRL y 20,7% ECRB y Tipo II(62,1% del ECRL y 79,3% del ECRB. El pedículo principal del ECRL (de diámetro medio 1,73 mm y longitud de pedículo media de 32,32 mm es en el 100% de los casos rama de la arteria recurrente radial y el pedículo principal del ECRB (de diámetro medio 1,11 mm y longitud de pedículo media de 27,77 mm es rama de la arteria radial en el 68,9% de los casos y de la arteria recurrente radial en el 31,1% de los casos. Concluimos que El ECRL y ECRB presentan dos tipos de patrones vasculares: tipo I y tipo II, siendo más frecuente en nuestro trabajo el tipo II, que hacen que ambos puedan ser transferidos como colgajos libres por su pedículo principal. Ambos músculos presentan un tamaño, contorno, contenido fascial importante para el anclaje de suturas y una longitud de pedículo y calibre vascular adecuados para su transferencia microvascular libre en reanimación facial. De los dos, el más realizable como colgajo libre es el ECRB ya que la relaci

  3. The unique axon trajectory of the accessory nerve is determined by intrinsic properties of the neural tube in the avian embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhongtian; Pu, Qin; Haque, Ziaul; Wang, Jianlin; Huang, Ruijin

    2016-05-01

    The accessory nerve is a cranial nerve, composed of only motor axons, which control neck muscles. Its axons ascend many segments along the lateral surface of the cervical spinal cord and hindbrain. At the level of the first somite, they pass ventrally through the somitic mesoderm into the periphery. The factors governing the unique root trajectory are unknown. Ablation experiments at the accessory nerve outlet points have shown that somites do not regulate the trajectory of the accessory nerve fibres. Factors from the neural tube that may control the longitudinal pathfinding of the accessory nerve fibres were tested by heterotopic transplantations of an occipital neural tube to the cervical and thoracic level. These transplantations resulted in a typical accessory nerve trajectory in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. In contrast, cervical neural tube grafts were unable to give rise to the typical accessory nerve root pattern when transplanted to occipital level. Our results show that the formation of the unique axon root pattern of the accessory nerve is an intrinsic property of the neural tube.

  4. Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using autologous peroneus longus tendon or hamstring tendon%关节镜下自体腓骨长肌腱和腘绳肌腱重建前交叉韧带的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史福东; 冯世庆; 左金增; 刘仕杰; 张勇; 刘田虹

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较自体腓骨长肌腱和腘绳肌腱重建膝关节前交叉韧带的手术方法和临床效果.方法 (1)实验研究:将16例截肢标本的腓骨长肌腱双股、腘绳肌腱四股与前交叉韧带放入拉力试验机,测试极限拉伸强度、最大变形、刚度.(2)临床应用:单骨道单束重建60例前交叉韧带断裂患者,28例应用腓骨长肌腱,32例应用自体腘绳肌腱.应用Tegner评分表、Lysholm评分表和国际膝关节文献委员会膝关节评估表(I KDC)进行膝关节术前术后功能评估.结果 腓骨长肌腱双股、腘绳肌腱四股与前交叉韧带的极限拉伸强度分别为(4 268±285)、(4090±265)、(2020 ±264) N;最大变形分别为(9.87 ±2.56)、(12.27 ±2.78)、(15.90±3.52) mm;刚度分别为986、776、697 N/mm,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组术后1年Tegner评分A组术前为(2.68±1.02)分,术后为(6.32±0.92)分;B组术前为(2.73±0.91)分,术后为(6.13±1.04)分;Lysholm评分A组术前为(62.80±6.71)分,术后为(94.90 ±4.20)分;B组术前为(62.53±6.13)分,术后为(93.97±8.62)分;IKDC评分A组正常19例,接近正常8例,异常1例;B组正常20例,接近正常9例,异常2例,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 自体腓骨长肌腱单束和腘绳肌腱单束重建前交叉韧带均能取得优良的初期临床效果.%Objective To compare the surgical procedures and clinical outcomes of reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using autograft peroneus longus tendon or hamstring tendon.Methods We compared the ultimate tensile strength,the maximum distortion,inflexibility of peroneus longus tendon,hamstring tendon and ACL.Autograft peroneus longus tendon was used in 28 cases,and autogenous hamstring tendon was used in 32 cases.Tegner score,Lysholm knee score and the the international knee documentation committee knee evaluation form (IKDC) were used to assess the knee function.Results The ultimate tensile strength are (4 268 ± 285

  5. Detection and sequence analysis of accessory gene regulator genes of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ananda Chitra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP is the major pathogenic species of dogs involved in a wide variety of skin and soft tissue infections. The accessory gene regulator (agr locus of Staphylococcus aureus has been extensively studied, and it influences the expression of many virulence genes. It encodes a two-component signal transduction system that leads to down-regulation of surface proteins and up-regulation of secreted proteins during in vitro growth of S. aureus. The objective of this study was to detect and sequence analyzing the AgrA, B, and D of SP isolated from canine skin infections. Materials and Methods: In this study, we have isolated and identified SP from canine pyoderma and otitis cases by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and confirmed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Primers for SP agrA and agrBD genes were designed using online primer designing software and BLAST searched for its specificity. Amplification of the agr genes was carried out for 53 isolates of SP by PCR and sequencing of agrA, B, and D were carried out for five isolates and analyzed using DNAstar and Mega5.2 software. Results: A total of 53 (59% SP isolates were obtained from 90 samples. 15 isolates (28% were confirmed to be methicillinresistant SP (MRSP with the detection of the mecA gene. Accessory gene regulator A, B, and D genes were detected in all the SP isolates. Complete nucleotide sequences of the above three genes for five isolates were submitted to GenBank, and their accession numbers are from KJ133557 to KJ133571. AgrA amino acid sequence analysis showed that it is mainly made of alpha-helices and is hydrophilic in nature. AgrB is a transmembrane protein, and AgrD encodes the precursor of the autoinducing peptide (AIP. Sequencing of the agrD gene revealed that the 5 canine SP strains tested could be divided into three Agr specificity groups (RIPTSTGFF, KIPTSTGFF, and RIPISTGFF based on the putative AIP produced by each strain

  6. Clinical and dermatoscopic features of porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udare, Satish; Hemmady, Karishma

    2016-01-01

    A dermatoscope is an important tool in a dermatologist's armamentarium as it can eliminate the need for a biopsy in a wide array of conditions. Porokeratosis was described by Mibelli and Respighi in 1893, as a disorder of keratinization which on the basis of distribution patterns was described as five clinical variants that portrayed a coronoid lamella on histopathology. We describe a case of asymptomatic, long-standing palmar and plantar pits, which on dermatoscopy showed features suggestive of porokeratosis, which was later reconfirmed by histopathologic sections. This report depicts diagnostic features of porokeratosis and obviates the need for invasive procedures for its diagnosis. PMID:27559506

  7. Immune evasion activities of accessory proteins Vpu, Nef and Vif are conserved in acute and chronic HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlcochova, Petra; Apolonia, Luis; Kluge, Silvia F; Sridharan, Aishwarya; Kirchhoff, Frank; Malim, Michael H; Sauter, Daniel; Gupta, Ravindra K

    2015-08-01

    Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission has been identified as a genetic bottleneck and a single transmitted/founder (T/F) variant with reduced sensitivity to type I interferon initiates productive infection in most cases. We hypothesized that particularly active accessory protein(s) may confer T/F viruses with a selective advantage in establishing HIV infection. Thus, we tested vpu, vif and nef alleles from six T/F and six chronic (CC) viruses in assays for 9 immune evasion activities involving the counteraction of interferon-stimulated genes and modulation of ligands known to activate innate immune cells. All functions were highly conserved with no significant differences between T/F and CC viruses, suggesting that these accessory protein functions are important throughout the course of infection.

  8. Chlorophyll accessory pigments collected from OSCAR ELTON SETTE in North Pacific Ocean from 2008-03-01 to 2011-04-01 (NODC Accession 0129395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the chlorophyll accessory pigments measured from discrete depth water samples collected in CTD-mounted 10 liter Niskin bottles as part of NOAA...

  9. Chlorophyll accessory pigments collected from NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in North Pacific Ocean from 2008-03-01 to 2011-04-01 (NCEI Accession 0129395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the chlorophyll accessory pigments measured from discrete depth water samples collected in CTD-mounted 10 liter Niskin bottles as part of NOAA...

  10. [Oxidative metabolism of main and accessory olfactory bulbs, limpic system and hypothalamus during the estral cycle of the rat (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Criado, J E

    1979-06-01

    The in vitro oxidative metabolism of hypothalamus, olfactory and limbic systems from female rats in the estrous cycle have been measured. The accessory olfactory bulb becomes most active during diestrous when the hypothalamus reaches its lowest values.

  11. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males.

  12. Front-Loaded Linezolid Regimens Result in Increased Killing and Suppression of the Accessory Gene Regulator System of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuji, Brian T.; Brown, Tanya; Parasrampuria, Ridhi; Daniel A Brazeau; Forrest, Alan; Kelchlin, Pamela A.; Holden, Patricia N.; Peloquin, Charles A.; Hanna, Debra; Bulitta, Jurgen B.

    2012-01-01

    Front loading is a strategy used to optimize the pharmacodynamic profile of an antibiotic through the administration of high doses early in therapy for a short duration. Our aims were to evaluate the impact of front loading of linezolid regimens on bacterial killing and suppression of resistance and on RNAIII, the effector molecule of the accessory gene regulator system (encoded by agr) in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Time-killing experiments over 48 h were utilized for...

  13. Variation in the hypothenar muscles and its impact on ulnar tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Horst; Schmitt, Oliver; Schulze, Marko; Wree, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Compression of the ulnar nerve at Guyon's canal can be caused not only by tumor-like structures, a fibrotic arch, a ganglion, lipoma, aneurysm or thrombosis but also by anomalous hypothenar muscles which are reviewed here. For the search of relevant papers, PubMed and crucial anatomical textbooks were consulted. The abductor digiti minimi is the most variable hypothenar muscle. It can possess one to three muscle bellies. Additional heads can arise from the flexor retinaculum, the palmaris longus tendon, the pronator quadratus tendon or the deep fascia of the palmar side of the forearm. Our own case of an aberrant abductor digiti minimi appearing like connective tissue and originating in the antebrachial fascia is included here. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that macroscopically non-muscle-like tissue contained skeletal muscle tissue. The muscle itself resembled other described cases. In addition, at the flexor digiti minimi accessory heads with origin from the flexor retinaculum, the antebrachial fascia or the long flexor muscles of the forearm can be detected. By contrast, the opponens digiti minimi mostly lacks variations and is sometimes missing. In our opinion, this is due to its hidden location. However, in few cases an additional head can arise from the lower arm aponeurosis. Furthermore, additional (fourth) hypothenar muscles might be expressed. These muscles are characterized by origins in the forearm and insertions on the head of the 5th metacarpal bone or on the 5th proximal phalanx. It must be noted that accessory hypothenar muscles might look like connective tissue at first glance. Often their origin extends to the antebrachial fascia. This can be explained by the phylogenetic fact that all intrinsic muscles of the hand are derived from muscle masses that originated in the forearm. In the opinion of several authors, ulnar nerve compression mostly is evoked by hyper trophied variant hypothenar muscles due to overuse as for example in carpenters

  14. Anatomical variations of the lateral nasal wall: The secondary and accessory middle turbinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shazly, A E; Poirrier, Anne-Lise; Cabay, J; Lefebvre, P P

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the current anatomical and clinical study was to audit our cases of patients who presented with secondary and/or accessory middle turbinates during a two-year period. We investigated the incidence and the clinical impact of these variations. Twenty-eight patients, 19 males and 9 females with a mean age of 41.5 years, representing different ethnic origins, were diagnosed with double middle turbinates based on endoscopic examination. Of those, 92.8% had a main symptom of refractory frontal headache. A secondary nasal symptom was sensation of blocked nose. Patients who underwent endoscopic surgery (n = 13) for reduction of the extra turbinate, reported significant symptom scores improvement (P < 0.0001) of frontal headache and blocked nose, from means of 9.07 ± 0.26 and 8.57 ± 1.39 to 1 ± 0.31, and 1.42 ± 0.35, respectively. Our results indicate that double middle turbinates may be encountered in rhinology practice (2%). Clinically they may present with refractory headache and blocked nose. Endoscopic surgical approach seems to be an effective way of improving the symptoms.

  15. Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita A Condorelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2; specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m. age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34-47 years were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients. The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05; moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05. Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05 in group A compared with group B.

  16. Accessory Gene Regulator-1 Locus Is Essential for Virulence and Pathogenesis of Clostridium difficile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Darkoh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is responsible for most of the definable cases of antibiotic- and hospital-associated diarrhea worldwide and is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in older patients. C. difficile, a multidrug-resistant anaerobic pathogen, causes disease by producing toxins A and B, which are controlled by an accessory gene regulator (Agr quorum signaling system. Some C. difficile strains encode two Agr loci in their genomes, designated agr1 and agr2. The agr1 locus is present in all of the C. difficile strains sequenced to date, whereas the agr2 locus is present in a few strains. The functional roles of agr1 and agr2 in C. difficile toxin regulation and pathogenesis were unknown until now. Using allelic exchange, we deleted components of both agr loci and examined the mutants for toxin production and virulence. The results showed that the agr1 mutant cannot produce toxins A and B; toxin production can be restored by complementation with wild-type agr1. Furthermore, the agr1 mutant is able to colonize but unable to cause disease in a murine CDI model. These findings have profound implications for CDI treatment because we have uncovered a promising therapeutic target for the development of nonantibiotic drugs to treat this life-threatening emerging pathogen by targeting the toxins directly responsible for disease.

  17. Transcriptional activation of melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein by PPARγ in adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam Soo; Kim, Yoon-Jin [Department of Biology, Research Institute for Basic Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Si Young [R and D Center, Amore Pacific Corporation, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-729 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Ryong, E-mail: trlee@amorepacific.com [R and D Center, Amore Pacific Corporation, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-729 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Hoon, E-mail: shkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Biology, Research Institute for Basic Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-27

    Highlights: •MRAP enhanced HSL expression. •ACTH-mediated MRAP reduced glycerol release. •PPARγ induced MRAP expression. •PPARγ bound to the MRAP promoter. -- Abstract: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in rodents decreases lipid accumulation and body weight. Melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R) and MC2R accessory protein (MRAP) are specific receptors for ACTH in adipocytes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways such as adipogenesis and β-oxidation of fatty acids. In this study we investigated the transcriptional regulation of MRAP expression during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Stimulation with ACTH affected lipolysis in murine mature adipocytes via MRAP. Putative peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) was identified in the MRAP promoter region. In chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we observed binding of PPARγ to the MRAP promoter. The mutagenesis experiments showed that the −1209/−1198 region of the MRAP promoter could function as a PPRE site. These results suggest that PPARγ is required for transcriptional activation of the MRAP gene during adipogenesis, which contributes to understanding of the molecular mechanism of lipolysis in adipocytes.

  18. A Proposed Area for Study of Accessory Section and Point of Terrestrial Permian-Triassic Boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    After the establishment of the global stratotype section and point (GSSP) of the PermianTriassic boundary (PTB), the definition of the accessory section and point (ASP) of the terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary (TPTB) is now on the agenda. However, all good TPTB sections so far known have the following shortcomings: (1) the exact TPTB horizon is difficult to define paleontologically with high-resolution, and (2) accurate correlation between marine and terrestrial PTBs is hard to attain. In order to enhance the understanding of the nature of the global life crisis in both the marine and terrestrial environments across the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition, these shortcomings need to be addressed. In western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan, Southwest China, some fossiliferous PTB sections which include marine, paralic and terrestrial are well-developed, allowing bed-to-bed correlation of the PTB sequences.Fortunately, the marine PTB sequence in this area is almost the same as found at the Meishan Section,where the GSSP of the PTB is located, which may provide a reliable auxiliary marker for high-resolution demarcation of the TPTB. These features found in western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan make this area a good place to study the ASP of the TPTB, so we propose to study the ASP of the TPTB in this area.

  19. Rice GTPase OsRacB: Potential Accessory Factor in Plant Salt-stress Signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min LUO; Su-Hai GU; Shu-Hui ZHAO; Fang ZHANG; Nai-Hu WU

    2006-01-01

    As the sole ubiquitous signal small guanosine triphosphate-binding protein in plants, Rop gene plays an important role in plant growth and development. In this study, we focus on the relationship between the novel rice Rop gene OsRacB and plant salt tolerance. Results show that OsRacB transcription is highly accumulated in roots after treatment with salinity, but only slightly accumulated in stems and leaves under the same treatment. Promoter analysis showed that OsRacB promoter is induced by salinity and exogenous salicylic acid, not abscisic acid. To elucidate its physiological function, we generated OsRacB sense and antisense transgenic tobacco and rice. Under proper salinity treatment, sense transgenic plants grew much better than the control. This suggests that overexpression of OsRacB in tobacco and rice can improve plant salt tolerance. But under the same treatment, no difference could be observed between OsRacB antisense plants and the control. The results indicated that OsRacB is only an accessory factor in plant salt tolerance.

  20. Ammonium assimilation: An important accessory during aerobic denitrification of Pseudomonas stutzeri T13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yilu; Feng, Liang; Li, Ang; Zhang, Xuening; Yang, Jixian; Ma, Fang

    2017-03-12

    The present study investigated effect of ammonium utilization on aerobic denitrification by Pseudomonas stutzeri T13. Per nitrogen balance calculation, all consumed ammonium was utilized as nitrogen source for cell propagation by assimilation rather than heterotrophic nitrification. Total organic carbon (TOC) and ammonium were necessary substrates to sustain heterotrophic propagation of P. stutzeri T13 at optimum proportion equal to seven. Under aerobic condition, nitrate was utilized as substitute nitrogen source when ammonium was completely exhausted. Biomass production effectively increased with increasing initial ammonium from 0mg/L to 100mg/L. Owing to enlarged biomass, average nitrate reduction rate increased from 7.36mgL(-1)h(-1) to 11.95mgL(-1)h(-1). Such process also successfully reduced nitrite accumulation from 121.8mg/L to 66.16mg/L during aerobic denitrification. As important accessory during aerobic denitrification, ammonium assimilation efficiently doubled total nitrogen (TN) removal from 54.97mg/L (no ammonium provided) to 113.1mg/L (100mg/L ammonium involved).

  1. The ulcerative colitis marker protein WAFL interacts with accessory proteins in endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Fu Pan, Ing-Marie Viklund, Heng Hang Tsai, Sven Pettersson, Ichiro N. Maruyama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is one of the major forms of inflammatory bowel disease with unknown cause. A molecular marker, WAFL, has recently been found to be up-regulated in the inflamed colonic mucosa of UC patients. Towards understanding biological function of WAFL, we analyzed proteins interacting with WAFL in HEK-293 cells by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. Among four proteins found to specifically interact with WAFL, both KIAA0196 and KIAA1033 bind to α-appendage of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2, which acts as an interaction hub for accessory proteins in endocytosis mediated by clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV. The specific interaction between WAFL and KIAA0196 was also confirmed in human colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells by co-immunoprecipitation with specific antibodies. Meta-analyses of the databases of expressed genes suggest that the three genes are co-expressed in many tissues and cell types, and that their molecular function may be classified in the category of 'membrane traffic protein'. Therefore, these results suggest that WAFL may play an important role in endocytosis and subsequent membrane trafficking by interacting with AP2 through KIAA0196 and KIAA1033.

  2. Epithelioid Myoepithelioma of the Accessory Parotid Gland: Pathological and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyoshi Iguchi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumors of the accessory parotid gland (APG are rare, and pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common benign APG tumor subtype. Myoepithelioma of the APG is much rarer than PA, and to date, only 5 cases have been sporadically reported in the English literature. We describe the clinicopathological and MRI findings of an epithelioid myoepithelioma of the APG that was treated in our hospital. The patient's only clinical symptom was a slow-growing and painless mid-cheek mass. The tumor was suspected to be PA before surgery based on the following MRI findings: (1 a well-circumscribed and lobulated contour, (2 isointensity and hyperintensity relative to the muscle on T1- and T2-weighted images (WIs, respectively, (3 good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-WIs, (4 peripheral hypointensity on T2-WIs, and (5 a gradual time-signal intensity curve enhancement pattern on gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI. The tumor was completely resected via a standard parotidectomy approach, and the postoperative pathological examination of the tumor, including immunohistochemistry, confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid myoepithelioma. As it is hardly possible to distinguish myoepithelioma from PA and low-grade malignant tumors preoperatively, a pathological examination using frozen sections is helpful for surgical strategy-related decisions.

  3. Prolonged Intracellular Na+ Dynamics Govern Electrical Activity in Accessory Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaph Zylbertal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent activity has been reported in many brain areas and is hypothesized to mediate working memory and emotional brain states and to rely upon network or biophysical feedback. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which persistent neuronal activity can be generated without feedback, relying instead on the slow removal of Na+ from neurons following bursts of activity. We show that mitral cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, which plays a major role in mammalian social behavior, may respond to a brief sensory stimulation with persistent firing. By combining electrical recordings, Ca2+ and Na+ imaging, and realistic computational modeling, we explored the mechanisms underlying the persistent activity in AOB mitral cells. We found that the exceptionally slow inward current that underlies this activity is governed by prolonged dynamics of intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i, which affects neuronal electrical activity via several pathways. Specifically, elevated dendritic [Na+]i reverses the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger activity, thus modifying the [Ca2+]i set-point. This process, which relies on ubiquitous membrane mechanisms, is likely to play a role in other neuronal types in various brain regions.

  4. Accessory atlantoaxial ligament avulsion fracture of the axis: Are there any clinical implications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Niknejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to the craniocervical support structures are frequently observed in neurotrauma cases. Stability of this region is of vital importance. Literature has mainly focused on three major ligaments of the craniocervical junction: The tectorial membrane, the transverse ligament, and the alar ligaments. However, the accessory atlantoaxial ligament (ALL also seems to be involved in craniocervical stability as shown in cadaveric specimens. Still, the biomechanical importance of this structure needs to be determined, especially in trauma settings. Here, we describe a case of isolated traumatic injury to this structure and discuss the clinical outcome. A 64 year old polytrauma patient with a remarkable avulsion fracture at the site of the insertion of the ALL was admitted to our center. We evaluated the patient both clinical and radiological at admission, after 3 months and after 1 year. We clinically assessed the upper cervical rotational stability using the cervical flexion rotation test. We observed no rotational instability or any other clinical repercussions at the long term after an isolated ALL injury. This case shows that isolated traumatic damage to the ALL is possible. Unilateral damage to the ALL probably does not cause rotational instability of the craniocervical junction. In case a similar avulsion fracture is observed, we recommend performing a magnetic resonance imaging of the craniovertebral region to assess for any ligamentous lesions.

  5. Use of botulinum toxin type A in symptomatic accessory soleus muscle: first five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isner-Horobeti, M-E; Muff, G; Lonsdorfer-Wolf, E; Deffinis, C; Masat, J; Favret, F; Dufour, S P; Lecocq, J

    2016-11-01

    Symptomatic accessory soleus muscle (ASM) can cause exercise-induced leg pain due to local nerve/vascular compression, muscle spasm, or local compartment syndrome. As intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) can reduce muscle tone and mass, we investigated whether local BTX-A injections relieve the pain associated with symptomatic ASM. We describe five patients presenting peri/retromalleolar exertional pain and a contractile muscle mass in the painful region. Com-pression neuropathy was ruled out by electromyo-graphic analysis of the lower limb muscles. Doppler ultrasonography was normal, excluding a local vascular compression. ASM was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. After a treadmill stress test, abnormal intramuscular pressure values in the ASM, confirmed the diagnosis of compartment syndrome only in one patient. All five patients received BTX-A injections in two points of the ASM. The treatment efficacy was evaluated based on the disappearance of exercise-induced pain and the resumption of normal physical and sports activities. After BTX-A injection, exertional pain disappeared and all five patients resumed their normal level of physical and sports performances. Neither side effects nor motor deficits were observed. BTX-A is well tolerated in patients with ASM and could be used as a new conservative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of symptomatic ASM before surgery.

  6. Expanding what is known of the anatomy of the spinal accessory nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Carlos E; Tubbs, R Shane; Spinner, Robert J

    2015-05-01

    The spinal accessory nerve (SAN) is classically considered a motor nerve innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. Its anatomical relevance derives from the high prevalence of lesions following head and neck surgeries. As expected, trapezius weakness and atrophy are the most common findings; however, it is also commonly accompanied by pain and other sensory deficits that have no clear explanation, suggesting other functions. We have recently seen two patients presenting with an unrecognized sign, that is, subclavicular/pectoral asymmetry secondary to the SAN lesion. Retrospectively, we reviewed other patients with similar findings in our case series and in the literature. We discuss the anatomical connections of the SAN with the superficial cervical plexus and propose an explanation for this finding. Of the 41 patients in our series, we identified this sign in all who had preoperative photographs. New insights on the anatomy and connections of the SAN may account for the diversity of symptoms and signs presented following an operative intervention as well as the variability of its severity.

  7. Does breathing type influence electromyographic activity of obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, M F; Valenzuela, S; Miralles, R; Portus, C; Santander, H; Fuentes, A D; Celhay, I

    2014-11-01

    Craniomandibular electromyographic (EMG) studies frequently include several parameters, e.g. resting, chewing and tooth-clenching. EMG activity during these parameters has been recorded in the elevator muscles, but little is known about the respiratory muscles. The aim of this study was to compare EMG activity in obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles between subjects with different breathing types. Forty male subjects were classified according to their breathing type into two groups of 20 each: costo-diaphragmatic breathing type and upper costal breathing type. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm, external intercostal and latissimus dorsi muscles. EMG activity was recorded during the following tasks: (i) normal quiet breathing, (ii) maximal voluntary clenching in intercuspal position, (iii) natural rate chewing until swallowing threshold, (iv) short-time chewing. Diaphragm EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal breathing type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in all tasks (P breathing type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in tasks 3 and 4 (P breathing types in the tasks studied (P > 0·05). The significantly higher EMG activity observed in subjects with upper costal breathing than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type suggests that there could be differences in motor unit recruitment strategies depending on the breathing type. This may be an expression of the adaptive capability of muscle chains in subjects who clinically have a different thoraco-abdominal expansion during inspiration at rest.

  8. DNMT3B isoforms without catalytic activity stimulate gene body methylation as accessory proteins in somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duymich, Christopher E; Charlet, Jessica; Yang, Xiaojing; Jones, Peter A; Liang, Gangning

    2016-04-28

    Promoter DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism for stable gene silencing, but is correlated with expression when located in gene bodies. Maintenance and de novo DNA methylation by catalytically active DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3A/B) require accessory proteins such as UHRF1 and DNMT3L. DNMT3B isoforms are widely expressed, although some do not have active catalytic domains and their expression can be altered during cell development and tumourigenesis, questioning their biological roles. Here, we show that DNMT3B isoforms stimulate gene body methylation and re-methylation after methylation-inhibitor treatment. This occurs independently of the isoforms' catalytic activity, demonstrating a similar functional role to the accessory protein DNMT3L, which is only expressed in undifferentiated cells and recruits DNMT3A to initiate DNA methylation. This unexpected role for DNMT3B suggests that it might substitute for the absent accessory protein DNMT3L to recruit DNMT3A in somatic cells.

  9. 副乳腺癌的诊治现状%Current status of diagnosis and treatment of accessory breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨克酩; 冯雪园; 彭永强; 闫朝岐

    2015-01-01

    The age at onset of accessory breast cancer is around 40 ~ 60,which is closed to that of breast cancer. It usually presents a hard axillary mass with an obscure boundary as its first symptom. Histopathologic examination is the key point of its diagnosis and differential diagnosis. The main pathologic type of accessory breast cancer is the invasive carcino-ma. A comprehensive treatment based on operation is recommended,which is similar to that of breast cancer. The prognosis of accessory breast cancer is poor because it easily causes lymphatic metastasis.%副乳腺癌的发病年龄与乳腺癌相仿,多在40~60岁左右,常以腋下质硬、边界不清的肿块为首发症状;病理组织学检查是该疾病诊断与鉴别诊断重点,病理类型以浸润性癌居多,治疗方式与乳腺癌相同,宜行以手术为主的综合治疗;因其易发生淋巴结转移,预后较差。

  10. Medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy with posterior tibial tendon reconstruction for the flexible flatfoot with symptomatic accessory navicular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hong-Hui; Tang, Kang-Lai; Lu, Wei-Zhong; Xu, Jian-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the clinical outcomes after medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy with reconstruction of the posterior tibial tendon insertion on the navicular, in patients with flexible flatfoot with accessory navicular symptoms. From December 2008 to July 2011, 16 patients (21 feet) with a flexible flatfoot, symptomatic accessory navicular, and obvious heel valgus underwent medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy and reconstruction with posterior tibial tendon insertion on the navicular bone. The patients were evaluated preoperatively, 6 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, and every 6 months thereafter. The clinical examination was undertaken using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle and midfoot scores. The radiologic assessments included the arch height, calcaneus inclination angle, talocalcaneal angle, and talar first metatarsal angle on the lateral weightbearing radiograph. The talocalcaneal angle and talar first metatarsal angle was assessed on the anteroposterior view of the weightbearing foot. Heel valgus alignment was assessed on the axial hindfoot radiographs. The mean follow-up duration was 28.5 months (range 18 to 48). All patients were satisfied with the clinical results and were pain free 6 months postoperatively. No cases of wound infection or nerve injury developed. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score improved from 53.3 ± 6.5 to 90.8 ± 1.4 at the last follow-up visit (p flatfoot with symptomatic accessory navicular, associated with excellent clinical outcomes and correction of the deformity.

  11. Subject-Specific Effect of Metallic Body Accessories on Path Loss of Dynamic on-Body Propagation Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, H A; Abdulmalek, M; Soh, P J; Rani, K A; Hisham, N; Vandenbosch, G A E

    2016-07-20

    This paper presents the investigation of path loss variation for subject-specific on-body radio propagation channels, considering the effect of metallic spectacles and loop like metallic accessories. Adding metallic items may affect the operability of Body Centric Wireless Communications (BCWC). Measurements were carried out in an RF-shielded room lined with microwave absorbing sheets for strategically placed bodyworn antennas covering the upper front torso and the lower limbs. The path loss of the on-body radio channel was characterized explicitly taking into account the body size of the subjects. For metallic loop-like accessories, the results indicate that for underweight subjects, there was a slightly higher influence, up to 2%, compared to normal and overweight subjects. Our findings indicate that a noticeable effect exists on on-body channels for dynamic movements where the metallic watch acts as a local scatterer that affects the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signal path between transmitter and receiver for underweight subjects in comparison to normal and overweight subjects. The path loss decreases when the receiving terminal was positioned very close to the metallic item. If a loop-like metallic accessory is not appropriately considered when designing the radio channel on a subject, the reliability of the body-centric wireless system may degrade.

  12. Presence of accessory left atrial appendage/diverticula in a population with atrial fibrillation compared with those in sinus rhythm: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupis, John; Crossett, Marcus; Scneider-Kolsky, Michal; Nandurkar, Dee

    2012-02-01

    Accessory left atrial appendages and atrial diverticula have an incidence of 10-27%. Their association with atrial fibrillation needs to be confirmed. This study determined the prevalence, number, size, location and morphology of accessory left atrial appendages/atrial diverticula in patients with atrial fibrillation compared with those in sinus rhythm. A retrospective analysis of 47 consecutive patients with atrial fibrillation who underwent 320 multidetector Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) was performed. A random group of 47 CCTA patients with sinus rhythm formed the control group. The presence, number, size, location and morphology of accessory left atrial appendages and atrial diverticula in each group were analysed. Twenty one patients had a total of 25 accessory left atrial appendages and atrial diverticula in the atrial fibrillation group and 22 patients had a total of 24 accessory left atrial appendages and atrial diverticula in the sinus rhythm group. Twenty-one atrial diverticula were identified in 19 patients in the atrial fibrillation group and 19 atrial diverticula in 17 patients in the sinus rhythm group. The mean length and width of accessory left atrial appendage was 6.9 and 4.7 mm, respectively in the atrial fibrillation group and 12 and 4.6 mm, respectively, in the sinus rhythm group, P = ns (not significant). The mean length and width of atrial diverticulum was 4.7 and 3.6 mm, respectively in the atrial fibrillation group and 6.2 and 5 mm, respectively in the sinus rhythm group (P = ns). Eighty-four % and 96% of the accessory left atrial appendages/atrial diverticula in the atrial fibrillation and sinus rhythm groups were located along the right anterosuperior left atrial wall. Accessory left atrial appendages and atrial diverticula are common structures with similar prevalence in patients with atrial fibrillation and sinus rhythm.

  13. Introduction of several positioning devices for accessory heads coupling%介绍几种附件头联结盘定位装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 韩铁柱

    2012-01-01

    Several kinds of positioning devices for accessory heads coupling are briefly introduced in this paper. By means of the positioning device, accurate positioning of coupling can be carried out, thereupon auto changing of accessory heads is performed.%简要介绍了几种附件头联结盘的定位装置,通过定位装置可将联结盘准确定位,从而实现附件头的自动更换.

  14. MR demonstration of an anomalous muscle in a patient with coexistent carpal and ulnar tunnel syndrome. Case report and literature summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiss, J; Jakab, E

    1995-01-01

    An aberrant muscle is demonstrated by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in a patient presenting with focal wrist swelling and compression neuropathy of median and ulnar nerves following 4 months of carpentry work. The muscle originated from the palmaris longus tendon and ulnar antebrachial fascia at the lower half of the forearm as a single belly, then diverged medially from palmaris longus tendon and bifurcated. Both portions of the split muscle extended into the distal ulnar tunnel or Guyon's canal. One segment joined with the abductor digiti minimi muscle and the other with the flexor retinaculum. MR was able to clearly delineate this hypertrophied, symptomatic muscle anomaly. It may be helpful when mass effect is suspected in either tunnel, or in patients with atypical work-related carpal tunnel syndrome with evidence of significant ulnar neuropathy for evaluation of underlying anomalous musculature. Normal MR images of the wrist are included for comparison and the literature is reviewed.

  15. Median and ulnar nerve compression at the wrist caused by anomalous muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, L

    2002-12-01

    Compression of the median and ulnar nerves at the wrist is frequently encountered. Carpal tunnel syndrome usually occurs without any obvious extrinsic cause; several cases have however been reported caused by anomalous or hypertrophic muscles. A survey of the literature shows that compression neuropathy of the median nerve has been reported in relation with anomalies affecting three muscles: the first (or second) lumbrical, the palmaris longus and its anatomic variants and the superficial flexor of the index finger. In the ulnar tunnel the situation is thoroughly different: so-called idiopathic ulnar tunnel syndrome is rare and an extrinsic compressing structure can usually be disclosed. Anomalous muscles belong to the palmaris longus/abductor digiti minimi group; the flexor carpi ulnaris is sometimes involved. One can suspect the presence of such an anomalous muscle when the compression syndrome concerns a patient who is not within the "usual" age group with symptoms initiated or aggravated by physical exercise.

  16. Determining physiological cross-sectional area of extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis as a whole and by regions using 3D computer muscle models created from digitized fiber bundle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Oliver, Michele L; Singh, Karan S; McKee, Nancy H; Agur, Anne M R

    2009-09-01

    Architectural parameters and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are important determinants of muscle function. Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB) are used in muscle transfers; however, their regional architectural differences have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to develop computational algorithms to quantify and compare architectural parameters (fiber bundle length, pennation angle, and volume) and PCSA of ECRL and ECRB. Fiber bundles distributed throughout the volume of ECRL (75+/-20) and ECRB (110+/-30) were digitized in eight formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens. The digitized data was reconstructed in Autodesk Maya with computational algorithms implemented in Python. The mean PCSA and fiber bundle length were significantly different between ECRL and ECRB (p < or = 0.05). Superficial ECRL had significantly longer fiber bundle length than the deep region, whereas the PCSA of superficial ECRB was significantly larger than the deep region. The regional quantification of architectural parameters and PCSA provides a framework for the exploration of partial tendon transfers of ECRL and ECRB.

  17. Effects of spaceflight in the adductor longus muscle of rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. A study employing neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and conventional morphological techniques (light and electron microscopy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, F.; Daunton, N. G.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight upon the "slow" muscle adductor longus were examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leukocytes and mononuclear cells. Neural cell adhesion molecule immunoreactivity (N-CAM-IR) was seen on the myofiber surface and in regenerating myofibers. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with apparent preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles replaced by microtubules and neurofilaments, degeneration of axon terminals, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. The present observations suggest that alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.

  18. Use of the radial groove view intra-operatively to prevent damage to the extensor pollicis longus tendon by protruding screws during volar plating of a distal radial fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S K; Bae, K W; Choy, W S

    2013-10-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of a newly designed radiological technique (the radial groove view) for the detection of protrusion of screws in the groove for the extensor pollicis longus tendon (EPL) during plating of distal radial fractures. We also aimed to determine the optimum position of the forearm to obtain this view. We initially analysed the anatomy of the EPL groove by performing three-dimensional CT on 51 normal forearms. The mean horizontal angle of the groove was 17.8° (14° to 23°). We found that the ideal position of the fluoroscopic beam to obtain this view was 20° in the horizontal plane and 5° in the sagittal plane. We then intra-operatively assessed the use of the radial groove view for detecting protrusion of screws in the EPL groove in 93 fractures that were treated by volar plating. A total of 13 protruding screws were detected. They were changed to shorter screws and these patients underwent CT scans of the wrist immediately post-operatively. There remained one screw that was protruding. These findings suggest that the use of the radial groove view intra-operatively is a good method of assessing the possible protrusion of screws into the groove of EPL when plating a fracture of the distal radius.

  19. From Spain to the Balkans: Textile Torah Scroll Accessories in the Sephardi Communities of the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv, Bracha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of three accessories of the Sephardic Torah scroll: the Torah binder–a narrow and long strip which fastened both parts of the scroll; the Torah wrapper–which protects the parchment; and the Torah mantle–the exterior covering of the Torah scroll. These textile accessories originate in the Talmudic mapppah/ miṭpaḥat, a square piece of fabric which, in the ancient period, was used to wrap the Torah scroll. This object turned out to be the origin of the European means of protecting and adorning the Torah scroll.
    While in Ashkenazi communities only the Binder and the Mantle are customary, the uniqueness of the Sephardi tradition is an additional accessory–the Wrapper. The Wrapper, a fabric equal in height to that of the parchment, is wound around the staves, and is customary to this very day in the Sephardic Diaspora.
    Although the Binder and the Mantle are common to all European and Sephardi communities, in the latter these ceremonial objects have unique visual features. One of them is the use of precious fabrics, mainly brocades and gold embroidered fabrics. Such a magnificent background did not encourage the development of dedicatory inscriptions, on the one hand, but on the other it did encourage the recycling of precious textiles that had previously served in other capacities in daily life. The article is based on the documentation of ceremonial objects from various collections as well as on Rabbinic literature and field research in Sephardi synagogues in Israel and abroad.

    Estudio del desarrollo de tres ornamentos del séfer Torá o rollo de la Ley detradición sefardí: la faja, banda estrecha y alargada que sujeta el rollo de la Ley dispuestoen torno a sus ‘amudim; el cendal, lienzo protector que cubre la cara posterior del perggamino;y la capa, manto exterior del séfer Torá. Estos accesorios textiles tienen su origenen la mappá/miṭpáḥat talm

  20. A Critical Role for the GluA1 Accessory Protein, SAP97, in Cocaine Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Samantha L; Ortinski, Pavel I; Friedman, Shayna H; Zhang, Lei; Neve, Rachael L; Kalb, Robert G; Schmidt, Heath D; Pierce, R Christopher

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the transport of GluA1 subunit-containing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) to synapses in subregions of the nucleus accumbens promotes cocaine seeking. Consistent with these findings, the present results show that administration of the CP-AMPAR antagonist, Naspm, into the caudal lateral core or caudal medial shell of the nucleus accumbens attenuated cocaine priming-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Moreover, viral-mediated overexpression of 'pore dead' GluA1 subunits (via herpes simplex virus (HSV) GluA1-Q582E) in the lateral core or medial shell attenuated the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. The overexpression of wild-type GluA1 subunits (via HSV GluA1-WT) in the medial shell, but not the lateral core, enhanced the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. These results indicate that activation of GluA1-containing AMPARs in subregions of the nucleus accumbens reinstates cocaine seeking. SAP97 and 4.1N are proteins involved in GluA1 trafficking to and stabilization in synapses; SAP97-GluA1 interactions also influence dendritic growth. We next examined potential roles of SAP97 and 4.1N in cocaine seeking. Viral-mediated expression of a microRNA that reduces SAP97 protein expression (HSV miSAP97) in the medial accumbens shell attenuated cocaine seeking. In contrast, a virus that overexpressed a dominant-negative form of a 4.1N C-terminal domain (HSV 4.1N-CTD), which prevents endogenous 4.1N binding to GluA1 subunits, had no effect on cocaine seeking. These results indicate that the GluA1 subunit accessory protein SAP97 may represent a novel target for pharmacotherapeutic intervention in the treatment of cocaine craving.

  1. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

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    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  2. Acquired premature ejaculation and male accessory gland infection: relevance of ultrasound examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Favilla, Vincenzo; Morgia, Giuseppe; Calogero, Aldo E

    2016-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a high frequency of premature ejaculation (PE) among patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound (US) features of patients with MAGI and acquired premature ejaculation (APE) associated (MAGI-APEpos). US evaluation of 50 MAGI-APEpos patients compared to 50 patients with MAGI without PE (MAGI-PEneg) which represent the control group. The diagnosis of APE was made through the evaluation of Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and confirmed with the questionnaire PEDT (Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool). The main outcome measure was represented by the frequency of US criteria suggestive of P (prostatitis), V (vesiculitis), and E (epididymitis) in MAGI-APEpos and MAGI-PEneg patients. MAGI-APEpos patients showed a total number of US criteria significantly higher compared to MAGI-PEneg patients. MAGI-APEpos showed a higher frequency of US criteria of V and E (complicated forms of MAGI). Finally, in MAGI-APEpos group, it was found a positive relationship between the anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the caudal tract of the epididymis and the APD of the seminal vesicles, as well as between both diameters and the PEDT score. MAGI-APEpos patients have a peculiar US characterization compared to MAGI-PEneg patients. According to these results, US evaluation of the epididymal and of the prostato vesicular tract should be considered in the practical clinical approach of patients with MAGI and APE. In particular, it could be a support for a possible pathophysiological interpretation of this clinical problem in these patients.

  3. Acquired premature ejaculation and male accessory gland infection: relevance of ultrasound examination

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    Sandro La Vignera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated a high frequency of premature ejaculation (PE among patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound (US features of patients with MAGI and acquired premature ejaculation (APE associated (MAGI-APEpos. US evaluation of 50 MAGI-APEpos patients compared to 50 patients with MAGI without PE (MAGI-PEneg which represent the control group. The diagnosis of APE was made through the evaluation of Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT and confirmed with the questionnaire PEDT (Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. The main outcome measure was represented by the frequency of US criteria suggestive of P (prostatitis, V (vesiculitis, and E (epididymitis in MAGI-APEpos and MAGI-PEneg patients. MAGI-APEpos patients showed a total number of US criteria significantly higher compared to MAGI-PEneg patients. MAGI-APEpos showed a higher frequency of US criteria of V and E (complicated forms of MAGI. Finally, in MAGI-APEpos group, it was found a positive relationship between the anteroposterior diameter (APD of the caudal tract of the epididymis and the APD of the seminal vesicles, as well as between both diameters and the PEDT score. MAGI-APEpos patients have a peculiar US characterization compared to MAGI-PEneg patients. According to these results, US evaluation of the epididymal and of the prostato vesicular tract should be considered in the practical clinical approach of patients with MAGI and APE. In particular, it could be a support for a possible pathophysiological interpretation of this clinical problem in these patients.

  4. Versatile roles of V-ATPases accessory subunit Ac45 in osteoclast formation and function.

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    An Qin

    Full Text Available Vacuolar-type H(+-ATPases (V-ATPases are macromolecular proton pumps that acidify intracellular cargos and deliver protons across the plasma membrane of a variety of specialized cells, including bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Extracellular acidification is crucial for osteoclastic bone resorption, a process that initiates the dissolution of mineralized bone matrix. While the importance of V-ATPases in osteoclastic resorptive function is well-defined, whether V-ATPases facilitate additional aspects of osteoclast function and/or formation remains largely obscure. Here we report that the V-ATPase accessory subunit Ac45 participates in both osteoclast formation and function. Using a siRNA-based approach, we show that targeted suppression of Ac45 impairs intracellular acidification and endocytosis, both are prerequisite for osteoclastic bone resorptive function in vitro. Interestingly, we find that knockdown of Ac45 also attenuates osteoclastogenesis owing to a reduced fusion capacity of osteoclastic precursor cells. Finally, in an effort to gain more detailed insights into the functional role of Ac45 in osteoclasts, we attempted to generate osteoclast-specific Ac45 conditional knockout mice using a Cathepsin K-Cre-LoxP system. Surprisingly, however, insertion of the neomycin cassette in the Ac45-Flox(Neo mice resulted in marked disturbances in CNS development and ensuing embryonic lethality thus precluding functional assessment of Ac45 in osteoclasts and peripheral bone tissues. Based on these unexpected findings we propose that, in addition to its canonical function in V-ATPase-mediated acidification, Ac45 plays versatile roles during osteoclast formation and function.

  5. Accessory cholera enterotoxin, Ace, from Vibrio cholerae: structure, unfolding, and virstatin binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Mukherjee, Debadrita; Dey, Sucharita; Pal, Aritrika; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2011-04-12

    Vibrio cholerae accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) is the third toxin, along with cholera toxin (CT) and zonula occludens toxin (Zot), that causes the endemic disease cholera. Structural characterization of Ace has been restricted because of the limited production of this toxic protein by V. cholerae. We have cloned, overexpressed, and purified Ace from V. cholerae strain O395 in Escherichia coli to homogeneity and determined its biological activity. The unfolding of the purified protein was investigated using circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Because Ace is predominantly a hydrophobic protein, the degree of exposure of hydrophobic regions was identified from the spectral changes of the environment-sensitive fluorescent probe 4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid (bis-ANS) that quenches the fluorescence of tryptophan residues of Ace in a concentration-dependent manner. Results showed that bis-ANS binds one monomeric unit of Ace with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a K' of 0.72 μM. Ace exists as a dimer, with higher oligomeric forms appearing upon glutaraldehyde cross-linking. This study also reports the binding of virstatin, a small molecule that inhibits virulence regulation in V. cholerae, to Ace. The binding constant (K=9×10(4) M(-1)) and the standard free energy change (ΔG°=-12 kcal mol(-1)) of Ace-virstatin interaction have been evaluated by the fluorescence quenching method. The binding does not affect the oligomeric status of Ace. A cell viability assay of the antibacterial activity of Ace has been performed using various microbial strains. A homology model of Ace, consistent with the experimental results, has been constructed.

  6. Male accessory gland inlfammation prevalence in type2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly relfecting autonomic neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosita A Condorelli; Enzo Vicari; Aldo E Calogero; Sandro La Vignera

    2014-01-01

    Male accessory gland inlfammation or infection(MAGI) is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type2 diabetes(DM2);speciifcally, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy(DAN) is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles(SVs) in DM2patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2patients(i.e.patients with and without symptoms that possibly relfect DAN) and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2patients with a mean(± s.e.m.) age of 42.0±6.0years(range: 34–47years) were classiifed according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly relfect DAN(groupA: DM2 with symptoms possibly relfecting DAN,n=28patients and groupB: DM2 without symptoms possibly relfecting DAN,n=32patients). The patients in GroupA exhibited a signiifcantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in groupB patients(P<0.05); moreover, the GroupA patients exhibited a signiifcantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis(P<0.05). Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were signiifcantly higher(P<0.05) in groupA compared with groupB.

  7. Interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein interacts with the type II interleukin-1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowsky, D; Lundkvist, J; Layé, S; Bartfai, T

    1998-06-16

    Stably transfected HEK-293 cells express on their surface the murine type II IL-1 receptor (mIL-1RII) as demonstrated by FACS analysis using the mAb 4E2, however binding of [125I]-hrIL-1beta to these cells is nearly absent. Saturable high affinity binding of [125I]-hrIL-1beta is observed when the murine IL-1 receptor accessory protein (mIL-1RAcP) is coexpressed with mIL-1RII. Binding of [125I]-hrIL-1beta to mIL-1RII-mIL-1RAcP complex can be inhibited either with antibodies to mIL-1RII (mAb 4E2), or by antibodies to mIL-1RAcP (mAb 4C5). The number of high affinity binding sites in cells stably transfected with the cDNA for mIL-1RII is dependent on the dose of cDNA for mIL-1RAcP used to transfect the cells. The high affinity complex between mIL-1RII and mIL-1RAcP is not preformed by interaction between the intracellular domains of these two transmembrane proteins, rather it appears to require the extracellular portions of mIL-1RII and mIL-1RAcP and the presence of a ligand. We suggest that in addition to its earlier described decoy receptor role, IL-1RII may modulate the responsiveness of cells to IL-1 by binding the IL-1RAcP in unproductive/non-signalling complexes and thus reducing the number of signalling IL-1RI-IL-1RAcP-agonist complexes when IL-1 is bound.

  8. Accessory neurovascular foramina on the lingual surface of mandible: Incidence, topography, and clinical implications

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    B V Murlimanju

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: It was suggested that the accessory neurovascular foramina of the mandible might be of significance in relation to the effectiveness of local anesthesia following the routine inferior alveolar nerve block. Aims: To investigate the incidence of neurovascular foramina over the lingual surface of the mandible in South Indian population. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at the department of anatomy. Materials and Methods: The study included 67 human adult dry mandibles, the exact ages and sexes of which were not known. The location and number of neurovascular foramina were topographically analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics. Results: The foramina were observed in 64 mandibles (95.5% and were often multiple in most of the cases. They were located between the two medial incisors in 8 mandibles (1.9%, between the medial and lateral incisor in 34 mandibles (50.7%; 25-bilateral; 7-right; 2-left, between the lateral incisor and canine in 7 mandibles (10.4%; 2-bilateral; 3-right; 2-left, between the canine and first premolar in 6 cases (8.9%; 3 on each side. Foramina were also present around the genial tubercle in 56 mandibles (83.6%. Among them, 52 mandibles showed a single foramen just above the genial tubercle, 34 mandibles had foramina below the tubercles, 13 mandibles had foramina on the right side of genial tubercle and 17 were having on the left side. Conclusion: Since the anatomical details of these foramina are important to various fields of dentistry and oncology, the present investigation was undertaken. The clinical significance and implications are emphasized.

  9. Keratinocytes function as accessory cells for presentation of endogenous antigen expressed in the epidermis.

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    Kim, Brian S; Miyagawa, Fumi; Cho, Young-Hun; Bennett, Clare L; Clausen, Björn E; Katz, Stephen I

    2009-12-01

    The precise contribution(s) of skin dendritic cells (DCs) to immune responses in the skin has not been well delineated. We developed an intradermal (i.d.) injection model in which CD8+ T (OT-I) cells that express ovalbumin (OVA) peptide-specific TCRs (Valpha2/Vbeta5) are delivered directly to the dermis of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing OVA in the epidermis. After i.d. injection, these mice reliably develop skin graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by day 7. To determine the relative contribution of Langerhans cells (LCs) to the ensuing GVHD-like reaction, we generated K14-OVA x Langerin-diphtheria-toxin-receptor (Langerin-DTR) Tg mice to allow conditional ablation of LCs in the epidermis. To delineate the role of dermal DCs (dDCs) in the reaction, we also generated K14-OVA Tg chimeras using beta(2)-microglobulin-deficient (beta(2)m) congenic donor bone marrow cells. Dermal DCs in these mice cannot present OVA to autoreactive T cells (OT-I cells), whereas the LCs are antigen presentation-competent. Unexpectedly, OT-I cell injection into diphtheria toxin (DT)-treated beta(2)m --> K14-OVA x Langerin-DTR Tg mice resulted in skin GVHD. Thus, in vivo, both LC and dDC appear to be dispensable for the induction of keratinocyte-directed, CD8-mediated effector immune responses. Furthermore and surprisingly, OVA-expressing epidermal cells depleted of LCs that could not initiate allogeneic epidermal lymphocyte reactions activated naive OT-I cells in vitro. These results indicate that keratinocytes may function as accessory cells competent to prime naive skin-reactive T cells.JID JOURNAL CLUB ARTICLE: For questions, answers, and open discussion about this article, please go to http://network.nature.com/group/jidclub.

  10. [Neuroanatomy of the optic, trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J

    1981-01-01

    1. The intracranial and intraorbital course of the optic nerve is described concisely, the intracanicular one in full details. Apart from the wide and small sections of the optic canal, its axis opposite to the cranial planes, the coating of the canal and the adjacency to the paranasal sinuses and arteries are exactly described. 2. At the trigeminal nerve the trigeminal ganglion, its roots and also the mandibular nerve have great importance in the practical medicine considering thermo-coagulation or surgery of the trigeminal nerve. This segments and also the adjacency of the fifth nerve to the internal carotid artery and subarachinoid brain vessels are exactly, the nuclei areas and central tracts are briefly explained. 3. The nuclei of the facial nerve the intracerebral and intracisternal course and its development, the facial canal and its narrow passes are described. Also the position of the internal acoustic pore in the skull, the dimensions of the internal acoustic meatus and the relations between nerves and vessels are explained. In addition to the geniculate ganglion and the chorda tympani the communications of the facial nerve inside the temporal bone, the tympanic intumescentia (ganglion) and the nervus intermedius, also the petrosal nerves are included in the description. The sheaths of the segments of the seventh cranial nerve and also the fasciculation are exactly, the somatotopic organization is briefly described. 4. The extracranial course of the glossopharyngeal nerve is briefly, its intracranial sections are included exactly in the investigation. 5. The nuclei of the vagus nerve and the intra- und extracranial course are described. 6. The accessory nerve, its nucleus and the intra- and extracranial course are concisely explained. 7. The hypoglossal nerve, its nucleus, the emergence of the fibres and also the relations of nerves and vessels in the posterior cranial fossa are described. The hypoglossal canal and also the extracranial course are

  11. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats.

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    Wendy ePortillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB and main (MOB olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 days after females control (paced the sexual interaction an increase in the number of cells is observed in the AOB. No changes are observed in the number of cells when females are not allowed to control the sexual interaction. In the present study we investigated if in male rats sexual behavior increases the number of new cells in the OB. Male rats were divided in five groups: 1 males that did not receive any sexual stimulation, 2 males that were exposed to female odors, 3 males that mated for 1 h and could not pace their sexual interaction, 4 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 1 time and 5 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 3 times. All males received three injections of the DNA synthesis marker bromodeoxyuridine at 1h intervals, starting 1h before the beginning of the behavioral test. Fifteen days later, males were sacrificed and the brains were processed to identify new cells and to evaluate if they differentiated into neurons. The number of newborn cells increased in the granular cell layer (also known as the internal cell layer of the AOB in males that ejaculated one or three times controlling (paced the rate of the sexual interaction. Some of these new cells were identified as neurons. In contrast, no significant differences were found in the mitral cell layer (also known as the external cell layer and glomerular cell layer of the AOB. In addition, no significant differences were found between groups in the MOB in

  12. Nomenclatural review of long digital forelimb flexors in carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, C F; Badoux, D M

    1986-12-01

    A hitherto-unknown atavistic muscle in the dog initiated a review of the literature on the homologies and nomenclature of the forelimb flexors in carnivores and man. A consequence is that we recommend a revision of the nomenclature in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (Ithaca, New York, 1983) so that it is in agreement with the Nomina Anatomica (Wilkins, Baltimore, 1983). This revision mainly consists of the incorporation of the terms M. palmaris longus and Mm. flexores breves manus.

  13. Extended voice-sparing surgery in selected pyriform sinus carcinoma: Techniques and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Hamoir, Marc; Fievez, Juliette; Schmitz, Sandra; Velasco, Dorris; Lengelé, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organ-preservation approaches are frequently favored in the treatment of advanced pyriform sinus carcinoma. In selected cases, use of free flaps allows voice-sparing surgery. METHODS:Thirteen patients underwent conservative extended laryngopharyngectomy. In 11 patients, the resection included the supraglottic larynx, whereas the whole hemilarynx was resected in 2. Reconstruction was achieved with a radial forearm free flap with the palmaris longus tendon. In hemilarynx resection, ...

  14. A novel method using intranasal delivery of EdU demonstrates that accessory olfactory ensheathing cells respond to injury by proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehrehasa, Fatemeh; Ekberg, Jenny A K; St John, James A

    2014-03-20

    Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) play an important role in the continuous regeneration of the primary olfactory nervous system throughout life and for regeneration of olfactory neurons after injury. While it is known that several individual OEC subpopulations with distinct properties exist in different anatomical locations, it remains unclear how these different subpopulations respond to a major injury. We have examined the proliferation of OECs from one distinct location, the peripheral accessory olfactory nervous system, following large-scale injury (bulbectomy) in mice. We used crosses of two transgenic reporter mouse lines, S100ß-DsRed and OMP-ZsGreen, to visualise OECs, and main/accessory olfactory neurons, respectively. We surgically removed one olfactory bulb including the accessory olfactory bulb to induce degeneration, and found that accessory OECs in the nerve bundles that terminate in the accessory olfactory bulb responded by increased proliferation with a peak occurring 2 days after the injury. To label proliferating cells we used the thymidine analogue ethynyl deoxyuridine (EdU) using intranasal delivery instead of intraperitoneal injection. We compared and quantified the number of proliferating cells at different regions at one and four days after EdU labelling by the two different methods and found that intranasal delivery method was as effective as intraperitoneal injection. We demonstrated that accessory OECs actively respond to widespread degeneration of accessory olfactory axons by proliferating. These results have important implications for selecting the source of OECs for neural regeneration therapies and show that intranasal delivery of EdU is an efficient and reliable method for assessing proliferation of olfactory glia.

  15. Reconstruction of a Total Soft Palatal Defect Using

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    Won Jai Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The soft palate functions as a valve and helps generate the oral pressurerequired for normal speech resonance. Speech problems and nasal regurgitation can resultfrom a soft palatal defect. Reduction of the size of the velopharyngeal orifice is requiredto compensate for the lack of mobility in a reconstructed soft palate. We suggest a largevolume folded free flap for reduction of the caliber and a palmaris longus tendon sling forsuspension of the reconstructed palate.Methods Six patients had total soft palate resection for tonsillar cancer and reconstructionwith a large volume folded radial forearm free flap combined with a palmaris longus sling.A single surgeon and speech therapist examined the patients with three standardizedspeech assessment tools: nasometer test, consonant articulation test, and speech acuity testperformed for speech evaluation.Results Mean nasalance score was 76.20% for sentences with nasal sounds and 43.60% forsentences with oral sounds. Hypernasality was seen for oral sound sentences. The mean scoreof the picture consonant articulation test was 84% (range, 63% to 100%. The mean scoreof the speech acuity test was 5.84 (range, 5 to 6. These mean ratings represent a satisfactorylevel of speech function.Conclusions The large volume folded free flap with a palmaris longus tendon sling for totalsoft palate reconstruction resulted in satisfactory prognosis for speech despite moderatehypernasality.

  16. Transcriptional profiles of mating-responsive genes from testes and male accessory glands of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

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    Francesca Scolari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male

  17. The role of accessory proteins in the replication of feline infectious peritonitis virus in peripheral blood monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Vermeulen, Ben L; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-03-23

    The ability to productively infect monocytes/macrophages is the most important difference between the low virulent feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and the lethal feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). In vitro, the replication of FECV in peripheral blood monocytes always drops after 12h post inoculation, while FIPV sustains its replication in the monocytes from 45% of the cats. The accessory proteins of feline coronaviruses have been speculated to play a prominent role in virulence as deletions were found to be associated with attenuated viruses. Still, no functions have been ascribed to them. In order to investigate if the accessory proteins of FIPV are important for sustaining its replication in monocytes, replication kinetics were determined for FIPV 79-1146 and its deletion mutants, lacking either accessory protein open reading frame 3abc (FIPV-Δ3), 7ab (FIPV-Δ7) or both (FIPV-Δ3Δ7). Results showed that the deletion mutants FIPV-Δ7 and FIPV-Δ3Δ7 could not maintain their replication, which was in sharp contrast to wt-FIPV. FIPV-Δ3 could still sustain its replication, but the percentage of infected monocytes was always lower compared to wt-FIPV. In conclusion, this study showed that ORF7 is crucial for FIPV replication in monocytes/macrophages, giving an explanation for its importance in vivo, its role in the development of FIP and its conservation in field strains. The effect of an ORF3 deletion was less pronounced, indicating only a supportive role of ORF3 encoded proteins during the infection of the in vivo target cell by FIPVs.

  18. Operative treatment for symptomatic accessory navicular bone and stage Ⅱ A posterior tibial tendon dysfunction%足副舟骨疼痛综合征继发ⅡA期胫后肌肌腱功能不全的手术治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝文刚; 王水勋; 牛洪华; 邱俊涛; 于春旭; 易芳林; 张小刚

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To discuss the methods of the operative treatment for symptomatic accessory navicular bone and stage II A posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) . [Methods] From October 2005 to February 2010, 16 patients (5 males, 11 females; age 15~27 years, average 23. 5 years) with symptomatic accessory navicular bone and stage II A PTTD were treated by the accessory navicular bone with simple excision and flexor digitorum longus ( FDL) tendon transfer. Nine cases were left side and 7 cases were right side. The cases of accessory navicular bone in stage I , stage Ⅱ and stage Ⅲ were 4, 9 and 3. The averaged time from dignosis to operation were 8. 5 months (range ,6-24 months) . All patients were assessed before and after operation according to the hindfoot scores system ( American Orthopedics Foot and Ankle Society, AOFAS) . [ Results] The average follow up time of all the 16 patients were 28. 6 months (range, 12-66 months) . The specific index of X -ray improved significantly ( P < 0. 01) which the lateral talocalcaneal angle decreased by 9.6°, the AP talocalcaneal angle decreased by 8. 8°, the lateral talar - 1st metatarsal angle decreased by 11.9°, the calcaneal inclination angle increased by 7.4° and the talonavicular coverage angle decreased by 5.4°. The AOFAS scores before operation were 48. 26° ±2.08° and after operation was 84. 56° ± 1. 86°. The pain indexes before operation were 12. 57 ± 2.06 and after operation were 37. 50 ± 2.48. The functional indexes of the foot and ankle joint ranged before operation were 23. 32 ±2. 81 and after operation were 38. 60 ± 1.69. The longitudinal line of the Ankle - Hindfoot indexes before operation was 4. 60 ±0. 6 and after operation was 7. 40 ± 1. 06. All the data between before and after operation were significantly different by statistical analysis ( P <0.01) . And the benefits were obviously in releasing the fatigue of foot and ankle, alleviating the pain and wearing normal shoes. [ Conclusion

  19. Biological Activity of Recombinant Accessory Cholerae Enterotoxin (Ace on Rabbit Ileal Loops and Antibacterial Assay

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    Shaghayegh Anvari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae causes a potentially lethal disease named cholera. The cholera enterotoxin (CT is a major virulence factor of V. cholerae. In addition to CT, V. cholerae produces other putative toxins, such as the zonula occludens toxin (Zot and accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace. The ace gene is the third gene of the V. cholerae virulence cassette. The Ace toxin alters ion transport, causes fluid accumulation in ligated rabbit ileal loops, and is a cause of mild diarrhea. The aim of this study is the cloning and overexpression of the ace gene into Escherichia coli (E. coli and determination of some characteristics of the recombinant Ace protein.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the ace gene was amplified from V. cholerae strain 62013, then cloned in a pET28a expression vector and transformed into an E. coli (DH5 α host strain. Subsequently, the recombinant vector was retransformed into E. coli BL21 for expression, induced by isopropythio-β-D-galctoside (IPTG at a different concentration, and examined by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. A rabbit ileal loop experiment was conducted. Antibacterial activity of the Ace protein was assessed for E. coli, Stapylococcus aureus (S. aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa.Results: The recombinant Ace protein with a molecular weight of 18 kDa (dimeric form was expressed in E. coli BL21. The Ace protein showed poor staining with Coomassie blue stain, but stained efficiently with silver stain. Western blot analysis showed that the recombinant Ace protein reacted with rabbit anti-V. cholerae polyclonal antibody. The Ace protein had antibacterial activity at a concentration of ≥200 μg/ml and caused significant fluid accumulation in the ligated rabbit ileal loop test.Conclusion: This study described an E. coli cloning and expression system (E. coli BL21- pET-28a-ace for the Ace protein of V. cholerae. We confirmed the antibacterial properties and enterotoxin

  20. Dichotomous Distribution of Putative Cholinergic Interneurons in Mouse Accessory Olfactory Bulb

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    Marking, Sarah; Krosnowski, Kurt; Ogura, Tatsuya; Lin, Weihong

    2017-01-01

    Sensory information processing in the olfactory bulb (OB) relies on diverse populations of bulbar interneurons. In rodents, the accessory OB (AOB) is divided into two bulbar regions, the anterior (aAOB) and posterior (pAOB), which differ substantially in their circuitry connections and associated behaviors. We previously identified and characterized a large number of morphologically diverse cholinergic interneurons in the main OB (MOB) using transgenic mice to visualize the cell bodies of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-expressing neurons and immunolabeling (Krosnowski et al., 2012)). However, whether there are cholinergic neurons in the AOB is controversial and there is no detailed characterization of such neurons. Using the same line of ChAT(bacterial artificial chromosome, BAC)-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgenic mice, we investigated cholinergic neurons in the AOB. We found significant differences in the number and location of GFP-expressing (GFP+), putative cholinergic interneurons between the aAOB and pAOB. The highest numbers of GFP+ interneurons were found in the aAOB glomerular layer (aGL) and pAOB mitral/tufted cell layer (pMCL). We also noted a high density of GFP+ interneurons encircling the border region of the pMCL. Interestingly, a small subset of glomeruli in the middle of the GL receives strong MCL GFP+ nerve processes. These local putative cholinergic-innervated glomeruli are situated just outside the aGL, setting the boundary between the pGL and aGL. Many but not all GFP+ neurons in the AOB were weakly labeled with antibodies against ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). We further determined if these GFP+ interneurons differ from other previously characterized interneuron populations in the AOB and found that AOB GFP+ interneurons express neither GABAergic nor dopaminergic markers and most also do not express the glutamatergic marker. Similar to the cholinergic interneurons of the MOB, some AOB GFP+ interneurons

  1. Impacts of Humanized Mouse Models on the Investigation of HIV-1 Infection: Illuminating the Roles of Viral Accessory Proteins in Vivo

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    Eri Yamada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 encodes four accessory genes: vif, vpu, vpr, and nef. Recent investigations using in vitro cell culture systems have shed light on the roles of these HIV-1 accessory proteins, Vif, Vpr, Vpu, and Nef, in counteracting, modulating, and evading various cellular factors that are responsible for anti-HIV-1 intrinsic immunity. However, since humans are the exclusive target for HIV-1 infection, conventional animal models are incapable of mimicking the dynamics of HIV-1 infection in vivo. Moreover, the effects of HIV-1 accessory proteins on viral infection in vivo remain unclear. To elucidate the roles of HIV-1 accessory proteins in the dynamics of viral infection in vivo, humanized mouse models, in which the mice are xenotransplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells, has been utilized. This review describes the current knowledge of the roles of HIV-1 accessory proteins in viral infection, replication, and pathogenicity in vivo, which are revealed by the studies using humanized mouse models.

  2. Bilateral variations of the psoas major and the iliacus muscles and presence of an undescribed variant muscle--accessory iliopsoas muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelev, L; Shivarov, V; Surchev, L

    2005-07-01

    Inspite of the detailed description of the iliopsoas muscle complex, interesting variations of its main parts--the psoas major and the iliacus muscles can still be encountered. These variations may clarify some aspects of the embryological development of the iliopsoas and have certain clinical importance because of the frequent co-existence with an unusual femoral nerve by its formation and course. We present in our report a case of bilateral variations of the psoas major and the iliacus muscles combined with variations of the left and the right femoral nerves, which were found during the anatomical dissection of a female human cadaver. The most remarkable finding was noted on the left side, where an undescribed variant muscle accessory iliopsoas, was observed. It was the only finding of such a muscle among 108 human cadavers examined over a period of 22 years. The accessory iliopsoas was formed by the connection of two accessory muscles--accessory psoas major and accessory iliacus. The clinical significance of the described variant muscles and their importance as an additional factor in the femoral neuropathy are also a matter of discussion in our report.

  3. Application of longus colli muscle flap in the repair of pyriform sinus perforation%颈长肌在梨状窝穿孔修补术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程庆; 刘邦华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the result of repair of pyriform sinus perforation using longus colli muscle flap and to provide a new material of esophageal perforation repair.Methods A retrospective clinical analysis was conducted on eight cases with pyriform sinus perforation from 2003-2013.Of the patients,5 were males and 3 females,aged 45 to 68 years with a median age of 51 years.The causes included the esophagoscopy surgery (5 cases),anesthesia intubation (2 cases) and one case of swallowing foreign body.The duration were from seven days to 8 months,with a median duration of one month.All patients were associated with significant neck pain and swallowing pain.The complications were happened in all cases,including high fever in 5 cases,subcutaneous emphysema or mediastinal emphysema in 5 cases,and mediastinal abscess in 3 cases.The longus colli muscle flap was used to repair the perforation.Results The success rate of surgical repair was 100% in all 8 cases.No recurrence or esophageal stricture occured during the follow-up of six months to 10 years.Three cases complicated by mediastinal abscess and 1 case by piriform sinus-mediastinum-pleural fistula,which cured after combined treatment.Conclusions Traumatic pyriform sinus perforation may cause serious complications.Early surgical repair is needed.The longus colli muscle flap is an ideal material for the repair of pyriform sinus perforation.%目的 探讨颈长肌在梨状窝穿孔修补术中的应用,提供一种新的食管穿孔修补材料.方法 回顾性分析2003-2013年8例经保守治疗无效的梨状窝穿孔患者临床资料.其中男5例,女3例;年龄45~68岁,中位数51岁.5例为食管镜术后,2例为麻醉插管引起,1例为吞异物自虐引起.病程在7天~8个月,中位数1个月.所有患者均伴有明显的颈部疼痛和吞咽痛,均出现并发症,其中高热5例次,皮下气肿或纵隔气肿5例次,3例合并上纵隔脓肿.均采用颈长肌修补术,在食管后壁和颈椎

  4. The clinical research on using the anterior half of the peroneus longus tendon as an autograft source%腓骨长肌腱前半部作为自体移植材料的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丁峰; 皇甫小桥; 赵金忠

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate availability and outcomes of using anterior half of the peroneus longus tendon (AHPLT) in knee ligament reconstruction as an autograft source.Methods From July 2007 to January 2008,100 patients with knee ligament injuries were recruited in this study.There were 33 males and 67 females aging from 16 to 62 years (mean,32.3 years).49 cases had undergone medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction,19 cases multiligament reconstruction,18 cases double-bundle posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction and 14 cases double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.AHPLT was used as sole (49 cases) or part (51 cases) of reconstruction materials.One-incision or two-incision striping techniques were adopted to harvest AHPLT.Ligaments were fixed with screws.Post-operative assessments included Kujala knee score,Lysholm knee score,Marx knee score,International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective evaluation form and objective evaluation grade,the Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI) and the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scale.Results 92 cases were followed up for more than 24 months.Postoperative Kujala score,IKDC subjective score,Lysholm score and Marx score were improved significantly in all four groups of patients.According to IKDC objective evaluation grade,the number of patients reaching Grade A (normal) or Grade B (near-normal) in multiligament,PCL and ACL reconstruction were 17,15 and 12,with an excellent rate of 89.5% (17/19),93.7% (15/16) and 100% (12/12),respectively.Preoperative and postoperative AOFAS scores were 97.4±2.0 and 97.2±1.6,respectively,while the FADI scores preoperatively and postoperatively were 96.8±2.2 and 96.9±2.5,respectively.These results had no statistical significance.No signs of peroneal nerve injury or peroneus longus tendon rupture was found.Conclusion It is acceptable to use AHPLT as an autograft due to its feasibility to harvest,good clinical outcome,and low

  5. Right Accessory Hepatic Artery Arising From Celiac Trunk-Case Report of a Variation that Must Be Looked for During Multiorgan Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos-Neves, D; da Silva Alves, J A; Guedes Dias, L G; de Rezende, M B; Salvalaggio, P R

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the hepatic artery and its variations is important to hepatobiliary and liver transplant surgeons and interventional radiologists. We report a rare anatomic variation of liver hepatic arterial supply: a right accessory hepatic artery arising directly from the celiac trunk and observed at the time of multiorgan procurement. The anatomic variation described in this case occurs in up to 2% of cases and their knowledge is essential to avoid injuries during multiorgan procurement that could require multiple anastomoses or lead to inadvertent vessel injury. This variation is very rarely reported in the medical literature. We document successful deceased-donor liver transplantation with a graft that had an accessory right accessory hepatic artery from the celiac trunk.

  6. Combined Analysis of Variation in Core, Accessory and Regulatory Genome Regions Provides a Super-Resolution View into the Evolution of Bacterial Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Alan; Oren, Yaara; Kelly, Darren; Sreecharan, Tristan; Vehkala, Minna; Välimäki, Niko; Prentice, Michael B.; Ashour, Amgad; Avram, Oren; Pupko, Tal; Literak, Ivan; Guenther, Sebastian; Schaufler, Katharina; Wieler, Lothar H.; Zhiyong, Zong; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Corander, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    The use of whole-genome phylogenetic analysis has revolutionized our understanding of the evolution and spread of many important bacterial pathogens due to the high resolution view it provides. However, the majority of such analyses do not consider the potential role of accessory genes when inferring evolutionary trajectories. Moreover, the recently discovered importance of the switching of gene regulatory elements suggests that an exhaustive analysis, combining information from core and accessory genes with regulatory elements could provide unparalleled detail of the evolution of a bacterial population. Here we demonstrate this principle by applying it to a worldwide multi-host sample of the important pathogenic E. coli lineage ST131. Our approach reveals the existence of multiple circulating subtypes of the major drug–resistant clade of ST131 and provides the first ever population level evidence of core genome substitutions in gene regulatory regions associated with the acquisition and maintenance of different accessory genome elements. PMID:27618184

  7. Production and characterisation of Epstein-Barr virus helicase-primase complex and its accessory protein BBLF2/3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Eric; Brennich, Martha; Round, Adam; Buisson, Marlyse; Burmeister, Wim P; Hutin, Stephanie

    2015-10-01

    The helicase-primase complex is part of the lytic DNA replication machinery of herpesviruses, but up to now, almost nothing is known about its structure. For Epstein-Barr virus it consists in the helicase BBLF4, the primase BSLF1 and the accessory protein BBLF2/3. The accessory protein shows only weak sequence homology within the herpesvirus family but may be related to an inactive B-family polymerase. BSLF1 belongs to the archaeo-eukaryotic primase family, whereas the helicase BBLF4 has been related either to Dda helicases of caudovirales or to Pif1 helicases. We produced the helicase-primase complex in insect cells using a baculovirus coding for all three proteins simultaneously. The soluble monomeric helicase-primase complex containing the three proteins with 1:1:1 stoichiometry showed ATPase activity, which is strongly stimulated in the presence of ssDNA oligomers. Furthermore, we expressed BBLF2/3 as soluble monomeric protein and performed small-angle X-ray scattering experiments which yielded an envelope whose shape is compatible with B-family polymerases.

  8. Structure, histochemistry and seasonal variations of the male reproductive accessory glands in the Pallas's mastiff bat, Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christante, Caroline M; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Negrin, Ana C; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-01-01

    Due to their wide geographical distribution, bats suffer considerable influence from abiotic factors on their reproductive strategies, detected through behavioural or functional assessment of the gonads and accessory glands. The present study aimed to characterise anatomically and morphologically the reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) of Molossus molossus (Molossidae) and evaluate their seasonal variations. The RAGs were removed, fixed, sectioned after histological processing and submitted to the following stains: haematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid--Schiff (PAS) and Gömöri's reticulin. Our data demonstrated that the RAGs of M. molossus are composed of a semi-lobed prostatic complex associated with the urethra and a pair of inguinal bulbourethral glands. Histology and three-dimensional reconstruction of the prostatic complex demonstrated the existence of two regions: ventral and dorsal (named according to the position around the urethra). The two regions had distinctive morphological and histological differences, with the ventral region being the most prominent and the dorsal formed by four lobes. Considering the seasonal evaluation, we can infer that the prostatic complex of M. molossus is active throughout the seasons in São Paulo State (Brazil) and, although each of the prostatic regions has inherent characteristics, they synchronise to establish the main reproductive peak in spring (early rainy season).

  9. Diaphragmatic amplitude and accessory inspiratory muscle activity in nasal and mouth-breathing adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Maria Elaine; Boufleur, Jalusa; Soares, Juliana Corrêa; Haygert, Carlos Jesus Pereira; Ries, Lilian Gerdi Kittel; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the electromyographic activity of the accessory inspiratory muscles and the diaphragmatic amplitude (DA) in nasal and mouth-breathing adults. The study evaluated 38 mouth-breathing (MB group) and 38 nasal-breathing (NB group) adults, from 18 to 30years old and both sexes. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to evaluate the amplitude and symmetry (POC%) of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and upper trapezius (UT) muscles at rest, during nasal slow inspiration at Lung Total Capacity (LTC) and, during rapid and abrupt inspiration: Sniff, Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow (PNIF) and Maximum Inspiratory Pressure (MIP). M-mode ultrasonography assessed the right diaphragm muscle amplitude in three different nasal inspirations: at tidal volume (TV), Sniff and inspiration at LTC. The SCM activity was significantly lower in the MB group during Sniff, PNIF (pMouth breathing reflected on lower recruitment of the accessory inspiratory muscles during fast inspiration and lower diaphragmatic amplitude, compared to nasal breathing.

  10. Accessory subunit NUYM (NDUFS4) is required for stability of the electron input module and activity of mitochondrial complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlhöfer, Flora; Kmita, Katarzyna; Wittig, Ilka; Zwicker, Klaus; Zickermann, Volker

    2017-02-01

    Mitochondrial complex I is an intricate 1MDa membrane protein complex with a central role in aerobic energy metabolism. The minimal form of complex I consists of fourteen central subunits that are conserved from bacteria to man. In addition, eukaryotic complex I comprises some 30 accessory subunits of largely unknown function. The gene for the accessory NDUFS4 subunit of human complex I is a hot spot for fatal pathogenic mutations in humans. We have deleted the gene for the orthologous NUYM subunit in the aerobic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, an established model system to study eukaryotic complex I and complex I linked diseases. We observed assembly of complex I which lacked only subunit NUYM and retained weak interaction with assembly factor N7BML (human NDUFAF2). Absence of NUYM caused distortion of iron sulfur clusters of the electron input domain leading to decreased complex I activity and increased release of reactive oxygen species. We conclude that NUYM has an important stabilizing function for the electron input module of complex I and is essential for proper complex I function.

  11. Effect of accessory pigment composition on the absorption characteristics of a dinoflagellate bloom in a coastal embayment

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    Anil Kumar Vijayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The light absorption properties of a dinoflagellate (Noctiluca scintillans Macartney bloom in Manila Bay were analysed during the onset of a whole-bay-scale bloom in March 2004. The chlorophyll a concentrations varied over a very wide range from 1.4 µg l-1 to extremely high values of 521 µg l-1. The chlorophyll specific absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (a*ph(λ varied significantly in shape and magnitude. The spectrally averaged values of a*ph(λ varied by two orders of magnitude within and outside the bloom patch. The total suspended solid concentration was high in the middle of the bay (≥4 mg l-1. The non-photosynthetic pigment (NPP index was ~0.6 at most of the stations, mainly due to the presence of photoprotective pigments like zeaxanthin, lutein and neoxanthin, which led to variations in the blue absorption maxima of the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients. The absorption properties of the accessory pigments were masked owing to the presence of overlapping pigment absorption bands. The fourth derivative of the absorption spectra was able to resolve these overlapping features and enhance the absorption characteristics of prominent accessory pigments.

  12. Homology modeling, docking studies and functional analysis of various azoreductase accessory interacting proteins of Nostoc sp.PCC7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philem, Priyadarshini Devi; Adhikari, Samrat

    2012-01-01

    Azo dyes have become a threat to public health because of its toxicity and carcinogenicity. Azoreductase enzyme plays a pivotal role in the degradation of azodyes released by industrial effluents and other resources. The degradation pathway has to be studied in detail for increasing the activity of azoreductase and for better degradation of azo dyes. But the data available on cyanobacterial azoreductase enzyme and its degradation pathway are still very less. Therefore the present work explored the azoreductase pathway of the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC7120 for better understanding of the degradation pathway and the other accessory interacting proteins involved. The accessory interacting proteins of azoreductase from cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC7120 were obtained from STRING database. The proteins do not have a comprehensive three dimensional structure and are hypothetical. The secondary structure and functional analysis indicated that the proteins are all soluble proteins, without disulphide bonds and have alpha helices only. The structural prediction and docking study showed that alr2106, alr1063 and alr2326 have best docking result which tally with the STRING database confidence score and thus these proteins could possibly enhance the azoreductase activity and better dye degradation. These results will pave way for further increase in azoreductase activity and for better understanding of the dye degradation pathway.

  13. The main but not the accessory olfactory system is involved in the processing of socially relevant chemosignals in ungulates.

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    Matthieu eKELLER

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ungulates like sheep and goats have, like many other mammalian species, two complementary olfactory systems. The relative role played by these two systems has long been of interest regarding the sensory control of social behavior. The study of ungulate social behavior could represent a complimentary alternative to rodent studies because they live in a more natural environment and their social behaviors depend heavily on olfaction. In addition, the relative size of the main olfactory bulb (in comparison to the accessory olfactory bulb is more developped than in many other lissencephalic species like rodents. In this review, we present data showing a clear involvement of the main olfactory system in two well-characterized social situations under olfactory control in ungulates, namely maternal behavior and offspring recognition at birth and the reactivation of the gonadotropic axis of females exposed to males during the anestrous season. In conclusion, we discuss the apparent discrepancy between the absence of evidence for a role of the vomeronasal system in ungulate social behavior and the existence of a developed accessory olfactory system in these species.

  14. Presence of a long accessory flexor tendon of the toes in surgical treatment for tendinopathy of the insertion of the calcaneal tendon: case report

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    Nelson Pelozo Gomes Júnior

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The presence of accessory tendons in the foot and ankle needs to be recognized, given that depending on their location, they may cause disorders relating either to pain processes or to handling of the surgical findings. We describe the presence of an accessory flexor tendon of the toes, seen in surgical exposure for transferring the long flexor tendon of the hallux to the calcaneus, due to the presence of a disorder of tendinopathy of the insertion of the calcaneal tendon in association with Haglund's syndrome.

  15. Functional anatomy of the accessory nerve studied through intraoperative electrophysiological mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brînzeu, Andrei; Sindou, Marc

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Classically the 11th cranial nerve (CN XI, or accessory nerve) is described as having a cranial and a spinal root, the latter arising from the upper segments of the spinal cord through a number of very fine rootlets. According to classical knowledge, the cranial root gives motor innervation to the vocal cords, whereas the spinal root provides the motor innervation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) and of the upper portions of the trapezius muscle (TZ). The specific function of each of the rootlets of the spinal component is not well known. Therefore the authors aimed to map, using intraoperative direct electrical stimulation and electromyographic (EMG) recordings, the innervation territory of these rootlets in relation to their exit level from the CNS. METHODS Forty-nine patients undergoing surgery with intradural exposure at the craniocervical junction were enrolled in the study. The EMG recordings included the sternal and clavicular parts of the SCM (SCM-S and SCM-C), the superior and middle parts of the TZ (TZ-S and TZ-M), and whenever possible the vocal cords. The main trunk of CN XI, its roots (both cranial and spinal), and when possible the fine cervical rootlets, were stimulated at predetermined locations, from the jugular foramen down to the lowest cervical level exposed. The EMG responses were collected, and a map of the responses was drawn up. RESULTS Monitoring and stimulation of the spinal root were performed in all cases, whereas for the cranial root this was possible in only 19 cases. A total of 262 stimulation sites were explored: 70 at the common trunk of the nerve, 19 at the cranial root, 136 at various levels on the spinal root, and 37 at the cervical rootlets. A vocal cord response was obtained by stimulation of the cranial root in 84.2% (16/19); absence of response was considered to have a technical origin. In no case did the vocal cords respond to the stimulation of the spinal root or rootlets. Stimulation of the cervical

  16. A multi-scale mathematical modeling framework to investigate anti-viral therapeutic opportunities in targeting HIV-1 accessory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Gajendra W; Hoffmann, Alexander

    2015-12-07

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) employs accessory proteins to evade innate immune responses by neutralizing the anti-viral activity of host restriction factors. Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme 3G (APOBEC3G, A3G) and bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2) are host resistance factors that potentially inhibit HIV-1 infection. BST2 reduces viral production by tethering budding HIV-1 particles to virus producing cells, while A3G inhibits the reverse transcription (RT) process and induces viral genome hypermutation through cytidine deamination, generating fewer replication competent progeny virus. Two HIV-1 proteins counter these cellular restriction factors: Vpu, which reduces surface BST2, and Vif, which degrades cellular A3G. The contest between these host and viral proteins influences whether HIV-1 infection is established and progresses towards AIDS. In this work, we present an age-structured multi-scale viral dynamics model of in vivo HIV-1 infection. We integrated the intracellular dynamics of anti-viral activity of the host factors and their neutralization by HIV-1 accessory proteins into the virus/cell population dynamics model. We calculate the basic reproductive ratio (Ro) as a function of host-viral protein interaction coefficients, and numerically simulated the multi-scale model to understand HIV-1 dynamics following host factor-induced perturbations. We found that reducing the influence of Vpu triggers a drop in Ro, revealing the impact of BST2 on viral infection control. Reducing Vif׳s effect reveals the restrictive efficacy of A3G in blocking RT and in inducing lethal hypermutations, however, neither of these factors alone is sufficient to fully restrict HIV-1 infection. Interestingly, our model further predicts that BST2 and A3G function synergistically, and delineates their relative contribution in limiting HIV-1 infection and disease progression. We provide a robust modeling framework for devising novel combination therapies that target

  17. Fluid components in accessory minerals of Pan-African granitoids in the S(o)r Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zi-long; CHEN Han-lin; YANG Shu-feng; TAINOSHO Yoshiaki; SHIRAISHI Kazuyuki; OWADA Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    Fluids (fluorine, chlorine, and OH) in accessory minerals (apatite, titanite and allanite) of Pan-African granitoids(Group-Ⅰ granitoids, Group-Ⅱ granitoids and Mefjell Plutonic Complex) from the Sor Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica were precisely measured by an electronic microprobe analyzer in this study. Apatites in the granites have commonly high fluorine contents. However, fluorine contents from the Group-Ⅰ, Group-Ⅱ granitoids and Mefjell Plutonic Complex (MPC) are of important variation, which F contents (3.21~7.20 wt%) in apatite from the Group-Ⅱ granitoids are much higher than those from the Group-Ⅰ granitoids (1.22~3.60 wt%) and the MPC (3.21~4.11 wt%). Titanite in the MPC has a low fluorine content (0.23~0.50 wt%), being less than those in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids (2.28 wt%) and Group-Ⅱ granitoids (1.85~2.78 wt%). Fluorine in allanite in the Group-Ⅱ granitoids seems to have much lower contents than those from the Group-Ⅰ granitoids and the MPC. Higher fluorine contents in the titanite from the Group-Ⅱ granitoids may be mainly controlled by late-magmatic fluid-rock interaction processes associated with melt, but may not be indicative of original magma contents based on its petrographic feature. Due to very lower chlorine contents from all of accessory minerals, the authors suggest that titanite and apatite with higher fluorine contents in the Group-Ⅱ granitoids have much lower H2O (OH) contents compared with those in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids according to the partition among (F, Cl, OH).Fluorine contents in whole-rock samples show a variation from the higher in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids to the lower in the Group-Ⅱ granitoids and the MPC, which are consistent with the changes of those from the biotite and hornblende as well as fluorite occurred in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids reported previously. Based on the above study of fluorine in accessory minerals and combined with the previous fluorine contents from biotites and

  18. The role of laparoscopy in the identification and management of missing accessory spleens after primary splenectomy: A case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaos, George; Mantadakis, Elpis; Gardikis, Stefanos; Pitiakoudis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We present a 7-year-old boy with recurrent thrombocytopenia after primary laparoscopic splenectomy for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Imaging modalities (ultrasound, computed tomography scan, and scintigraphy) revealed two accessory spleens while the subsequent second laparoscopy revealed 11, which were successfully removed. The relevant medical literature is reviewed, and the value of laparoscopy for chronic ITP is highlighted. PMID:27695216

  19. Transient and sustained afterdepolarizations in accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells are mediated by distinct mechanisms that are differentially regulated by neuromodulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Shpak (Guy); A. Zylbertal (Asaph); S. Wagner (Shlomo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSocial interactions between mammalian conspecifics rely heavily on molecular communication via the main and accessory olfactory systems. These two chemosensory systems show high similarity in the organization of information flow along their early stages: social chemical cues are detected

  20. Photoperiod regulates growth of male accessory glands through juvenile hormone signaling in the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Veronika; Bazalová, Olga; Vaněčková, Hanka; Dolezel, David

    2016-03-01

    Adult reproductive diapause is characterized by lower behavioral activity, ceased reproduction and absence of juvenile hormone (JH). The role of JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in female reproduction is well established; however, its function in male reproductive development and behavior is unclear. In the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, circadian genes are essential for mediating photoperiodically-dependent growth of the male accessory glands (MAGs). The present study explores the role of circadian genes and JH receptor in male diapause in the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus. These data indicate that circadian factors Clock, Cycle and Cry2 are responsible for photoperiod measurement, whereas Met and its partner protein Taiman participate in JH reception. Surprisingly, knockdown of the JH receptor neither lowered locomotor activity nor reduced mating behavior of males. These data suggest existence of a parallel, JH-independent or JH-upstream photoperiodic regulation of reproductive behavior.

  1. Genetic evidence of an accessory activity required specifically for cubilin brush-border expression and intrinsic factor-cobalamin absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Kozyraki, R; Newman, T C; Fyfe, J C

    1999-11-15

    Cubilin is a high molecular weight multiligand receptor that mediates intestinal absorption of intrinsic factor-cobalamin and selective protein reabsorption in renal tubules. The genetic basis of selective intestinal cobalamin malabsorption with proteinuria was investigated in a canine model closely resembling human Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome caused by cubilin mutations. Canine CUBN cDNA was cloned and sequenced, showing high identity with human and rat CUBN cDNAs. An intragenic CUBN marker was identified in the canine family and used to test the hypothesis of genetic linkage of the disease and CUBN loci. Linkage was rejected, indicating that the canine disorder resembling Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome is caused by defect of a gene product other than cubilin. These results imply that there may be locus heterogeneity among human kindreds with selective intestinal cobalamin malabsorption and proteinuria and that normal brush-border expression of cubilin requires the activity of an accessory protein.

  2. Isolation and killing of candidate chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells by antibody targeting of IL-1 receptor accessory protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järås, Marcus; Johnels, Petra; Hansen, Nils Gunder;

    2010-01-01

    will require full eradication of Ph chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) CML stem cells. Here we used gene-expression profiling to identify IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP) as up-regulated in CML CD34(+) cells and also in cord blood CD34(+) cells as a consequence of retroviral BCR/ABL1 expression. To test...... their Ph-chromosome status. Interestingly, we found that the CML CD34(+)CD38(-)IL1RAP(+) cells were Ph(+), whereas CML CD34(+)CD38(-)IL1RAP(-) cells were almost exclusively Ph(-). By performing long-term culture-initiating cell assays on the two cell populations, we found that Ph(+) and Ph(-) candidate CML...

  3. A divergent pattern of sensory axonal projections is rendered convergent by second-order neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Punta, Karina; Puche, Adam; Adams, Niels C; Rodriguez, Ivan; Mombaerts, Peter

    2002-09-12

    The mammalian vomeronasal system is specialized in pheromone detection. The neural circuitry of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) provides an anatomical substrate for the coding of pheromone information. Here, we describe the axonal projection pattern of vomeronasal sensory neurons to the AOB and the dendritic connectivity pattern of second-order neurons. Genetically traced sensory neurons expressing a given gene of the V2R class of vomeronasal receptors project their axons to six to ten glomeruli distributed in globally conserved areas of the AOB, a theme similar to V1R-expressing neurons. Surprisingly, second-order neurons tend to project their dendrites to glomeruli innervated by axons of sensory neurons expressing the same V1R or the same V2R gene. Convergence of receptor type information in the olfactory bulb may represent a common design in olfactory systems.

  4. Development and evaluation of accessories to improve the posture of veterinary surgeons in surgical procedures conducted in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A.S. Vulcani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study was conducted based on the information collected on rural properties in the state of Goiás, during practical classes of Surgical Clinic in Large Animals at the Veterinary Hospital of the Escola de Veterinária e Zootecnia of the Universidade Federal de Goiás and during the implementation of outreach projects developed by the institution. An acropostite-phimosis surgical procedure in the bulls in the field was selected, lasting over 30 minutes and requiring movements, posture and strength on the part of the surgeon. Devices were proposed and developed to provide improved comfort and safety to surgeons. The first device was a stool to be used by the professional during the execution of the surgical intervention. The use enabled the surgeon to sit down and rest their feet on the ground, reducing knee bending and distributing the support forces in various muscle groups. For the movement restriction of the surgeon, another accessory was developed to support the foreskin of the animal. Made of wood, this other device serves as a support for keeping the foreskin away from the ground and close to the surgeon. Its length, width and thickness established a good relation with the stool height, providing minimal discomfort to the professional. The third device was designed to assist in the immobilization of the animal and increase safety for the patient and surgical team. A fourth accessory was designed to protect the scapular region and avoid the occurrence of injuries in the radial nerve, myopathies and traumas during the rollover or prolonged stay of the animal in lateral decubitus. The choice of the shape, dimensions and softness of the device was mainly based on the weight of the animal. Such devices have proven to be effective, reducing the time of surgery, making cervical and lumbar movement easier, in addition to providing better support to the surgeon, reducing risks of musculoskeletal diseases.

  5. Influence Factors Analysis of Interface Pressure in High Voltage Cable Accessories%高压电缆附件界面压力的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳松; 彭嘉康; 王霞; 王陈诚; 崔浩

    2013-01-01

    The interface pressure between cable accessory and cable insulation is the key to ensure the safety of cable accessory. Based on the interface pressure which determined the discharge characteristics of cable accessory, several influence factors of interface pressure were introduced, that is the roughness between cable accessory and cable insulation, temperature and the stress relaxation characteristics of cable accessory material. The long-term operational reliability of cable accessory can increase by increasing the interface smoothness, controlling the operation temperature rise of cable and selecting the accessory materi-al with relaxation resistance.%电缆附件和电缆绝缘间的界面压力是确保电缆附件安全运行的关键。基于决定电缆附件界面放电特性的界面压力,介绍了影响电缆附件界面压力的几个主要因素:电缆附件和电缆绝缘界面的粗糙度、温度和电缆附件材料的应力松驰特性。得出增加界面光滑度、控制电缆运行温升、选择耐松驰性附件材料等措施可提高电缆附件的长期运行可靠性。

  6. Changes in testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels in male rat accessory sex organs, serum, and seminal fluid after castration: establishment of a new highly sensitive simultaneous androgen measurement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Bunzo; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Ono, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Ryota; Honma, Seijiro; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    It is known that abnormal androgen dynamics in the tissues is a cause of androgen-dependent disorders. Investigation of tissue androgen levels could provide a clue to the elucidation of disorders. However, it is difficult to measure a trace amount of androgen in the tissues. We established a highly sensitive simultaneous quantification method of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which play the most important roles in the body among androgenic steroids in trace amounts, and investigated time course changes in testosterone and DHT levels in male accessory sex organs, serum, and seminal fluid after castration in rat models. In addition, changes in the testosterone/DHT ratio of male accessory sex organs and seminal fluid were observed. The simultaneous testosterone and DHT measurement method established by us was validated. Intra-assay variation and interassay precision and accuracy were all within +/-20%, and the quantification limits of testosterone and DHT were both 15.6 pg/g. With the use of this method, the testosterone and DHT levels in the prostate, seminal vesicles, and serum immediately after castration were similar to those previously reported. The testosterone and DHT levels were 350 pg/g and 605 pg/g, respectively; which showed dominance of DHT in seminal fluid, although it was not as marked as that in the male accessory sex organs. Androgens decreased with time after castration in the accessory sex organs, serum, and seminal fluid. In the prostate and seminal vesicles, testosterone and DHT decreased to about 50% and about 2% of the normal levels, respectively, 72 hours after castration. The serum levels were under the quantification limits 6 hours after castration and thereafter. In seminal fluid, the testosterone and DHT levels decreased to 49% and 35% of normal levels, respectively, 72 hours after castration. The testosterone/DHT ratio in the male accessory sex organs was lower in the prostate (0.06) than in the seminal vesicles (0

  7. Mating behavior induces changes of expression of Fos protein, plasma testosterone and androgen receptors in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of the male mandarin vole Microtus mandarinus

    OpenAIRE

    Fengqin HE, Fadao TAI

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the neuroendocrine mechanism of the mating behavior in the adult male mandarin voles Microtus mandarinus, the radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunohistochemistry methods were used to investigate the differences in plasma testosterone (T) concentrations and distribution of T immunoreactive neurons (T-IRs), androgen receptor immunoreactive neurons (AR-IRs) and Fos protein immunoreactive neurons (Fos-IRs) in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) and the main olfactory bulb (MOB)...

  8. Routine- and on-site tests on accessories for EHV-XLPE-insulated cables; Stueck- und Inbetriebnahmepruefung an Garnituren fuer VPE-isolierte Hochspannungskabel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.; Weissenberg, W. [Pirelli Kabel und Systeme GmbH und Co. KG, Kabelwerk Berlin (Germany)

    1998-12-14

    The authors describe their experience with a new measurement system for use in unshielded rooms. By this method accessories for EHV-XLPE-cables were reliably proofed as partial discharge free at routine- as well as on-site tests. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Verfasser berichten ueber die Moeglichkeit, durch Messungen in ungeschirmten Pruefaufbauten sowohl bei der Stueck- als auch bei der Inbetriebnahmepruefung die Teilentladungsfreiheit von Garnituren fuer HS-VPE-Kabelanlagen nachzuweisen. (orig.)

  9. Folheto mitral acessório: uma causa incomum de estenose subaórtica Accessory mitral leaflet: an uncommon form of subaortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alves Pavione

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Criança de três anos, com estenose subvalvar aórtica sem definição precisa ao ecocardiograma, apresentando como diagnóstico cirúrgico um folheto mitral acessório.Three-years-old boy presenting with a subvalvar aortic stenosis without a precise definition by echocardiography, where the surgical approach revealed an accessory mitral leaflet.

  10. Distribution of lymphocytes, immunoglobulin-containing cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells in the accessory sex glands of rams experimentally infected with Actinobacillus seminis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Acosta-Dibarrat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The distribution of cells involved in the immune response in accessory sex glands of rams experimentally infected with Actinobacillus seminis was studied. Twelve one-year old rams were experimentally infected by intraurethral (IU (n=4 and intraepididymal (IE (n=4 route, and four control (CON animals were used. The animals were slaughtered 35 days post-inoculation, samples were taken from accessory sex glands, and bacteriology and histopathology tests were performed. The presence of CD4, CD8 and TCRγδ (WC1 lymphocytes, CD45RO cells, macrophages (CD14, dendritic cells (CD1b, IgA-, IgG- and IgM-containing cells (IgCC was determined. Animals of the IE group developed clinical epididymitis. No lesions were seen in rams of the IU group; two of the intraepididymal inoculated CON developed small lesions in the epididymis. A. seminis isolates were achieved from 6:16 (37.5% accessory sex glands in the IE group, but not in the IU and CON groups. In the CON group, IgA- and IgM- containing cells predominated in the bulbourethral glands and the disseminated prostate, and they were scarce or null in the vesicles and ampullae. A significant increase of IgA-, IgG- and IgM- containing cells was confirmed in the seminal vesicles, the ampullae and the bulbourethral glands in the IE group. In the IE and IU groups, an increase in CD4, CD8, WC1, CD45RO and CD14 was evidenced in the vesicles and ampullae. CD1b dendritic cells were present in the ampullae and vesicles with inflammatory processes. A. seminis triggered a local immune response in the IE and IU groups. These results indicate a different pattern of infiltrating immune cells in the accessory sex glands of infected A. seminis rams.

  11. Application of AGV Delivery System in Cigarette Factory Accessories Warehouse%AGV输送系统在烟厂辅料仓库中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘捷

    2015-01-01

    本文介绍了AGV(自动引导小车)输送系统在烟厂辅料仓库中的应用,AGV输送系统提高了烟厂自动化水平和信息化水平.%This paper introduces the application of AGV (automated guided vehicle) delivery system in the cigarette factory accessories warehouse, the AGV delivery system has improved the level of factory automation and informatiza-tion.

  12. Accessory mineral chemistry of high Ba-Sr granites from northern Scotland:constraints on petrogenesis and records of whole-rock signature

    OpenAIRE

    Bruand, Emilie; Storey, Craig; Fowler, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The Rogart and Strontian high Ba–Sr plutons (Northern Highlands, Scotland) comprise a range of lithologies from felsic to ultramafic rocks. The latter are mantle-derived and their differentiation to produce the felsic components of the plutons is the result of fractional crystallization and variable assimilation of the surrounding Moine metasediments. New results presented here demonstrate that accessory mineral chemistry can provide further insight into their petrogenesis and highlight the p...

  13. Specific projection of displaced retinal ganglion cells upon the accessory optic system in the pigeon (Columbia livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karten, J H; Fite, K V; Brecha, N

    1977-04-01

    In the pigeon, the nucleus of the basal optic root, a component of the accessory optic system, projects directly upon the vestibulo-cerebellum. This nucleus receives a prominent projection composed of large-diameter retinal axons, known as the basal optic root. The cells of origin of this tract were identified using horseradish peroxidase (donor:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.11.1.7) as a retrograde marker. Injections of horseradish peroxidase confined primarily to the basal optic root nucleus labeled displaced ganglion cells of the contralateral retina. Cell sizes were 18-30 micronm and the dendrites of these cells were confined to the first stratum of the inner plexiform layer. Approximately 3700 displaced ganglion cells were labeled after injections of horseradish peroxidase into basal optic root. In contrast, no displaced ganglion cells were labeled after injections of horseradish peroxidase into the optic tectum, which labeled only cells in the ganglion cell layer proper. These findings indicate that displaced ganglion cells constitute a unique population of retinal neurons that give rise to a bisynaptic pathway directed to the cerebellum via the nucleus of the basal optic root. These displaced ganglion cells may play a major role inoculomotor reflexes.

  14. Function and composition of male accessory gland secretions in Anopheles gambiae: a comparison with other insect vectors of infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; Rogers, David W.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2012-01-01

    Human malaria, a major public health burden in tropical and subtropical countries, is transmitted exclusively by the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria control strategies aimed at inducing sexual sterility in natural vector populations are an attractive alternative to the use of insecticides. However, despite their importance as disease vectors, limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms regulating fertility in Anopheles mosquitoes. In the major malaria vector, An. gambiae, the full complement of sperm and seminal fluid required for a female’s lifelong egg production is obtained from a single mating event. This single mating has important consequences for the physiology and behavior of An. gambiae females: in particular, they become refractory to further insemination, and they start laying eggs. In other insects including Drosophila, similar post-copulatory changes are induced by seminal proteins secreted by the male accessory glands and transferred to the female during mating. In this review, we analyze the current state of knowledge on the function and characterization of male seminal proteins in An. gambiae, and provide a comparative assessment of the role of these male reproductive factors in other mosquito vectors of human disease in which female post-copulatory behavior has been studied. Knowledge of the factors and mechanisms regulating fertility in An. gambiae and other vectors can help the design of novel control strategies to fight the spread of disease. PMID:22943543

  15. Dendritic Cells are Critical Accessory Cells for Thymus-Dependent Antibody Responses in Mouse and in Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Kayo; Steinman, Ralph M.; van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Muramatsu, Shigeru

    1983-10-01

    We report that dendritic cells (DC) are necessary and potent accessory cells for anti-sheep erythrocyte responses in both mouse and man. In mice, a small number of DC (0.3-1% of the culture) restores the response of B/T-lymphocyte mixtures to that observed in unfractionated spleen. An even lower dose (0.03-0.1% DC) is needed if the T cells have been primed to antigen. Responses are both antigen and T cell dependent. Selective depletion of DC from unfractionated spleen with the monoclonal antibody 33D1 and complement ablates the antibody response. In contrast to DC, purified spleen macrophages are weak or inactive stimulators. However, when mixed with DC, macrophages can increase the yield of antibody-secreting cells about 2-fold. In man, small numbers (0.3-1%) of blood DC stimulate antibody formation in vitro. Purified human monocytes do not stimulate but in low doses (1% of the culture) inhibit the antibody response. Likewise, selective removal of human monocytes with antibody and complement enhances or accelerates the development of antibody-secreting cells. We conclude that DC are required for the development of T-dependent antibody responses by mouse and human lymphocytes in vitro.

  16. A DNA polymerase alpha accessory protein, Mcl1, is required for propagation of centromere structures in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyoaki Natsume

    Full Text Available Specialized chromatin exists at centromeres and must be precisely transmitted during DNA replication. The mechanisms involved in the propagation of these structures remain elusive. Fission yeast centromeres are composed of two chromatin domains: the central CENP-A(Cnp1 kinetochore domain and flanking heterochromatin domains. Here we show that fission yeast Mcl1, a DNA polymerase alpha (Pol alpha accessory protein, is critical for maintenance of centromeric chromatin. In a screen for mutants that alleviate both central domain and outer repeat silencing, we isolated several cos mutants, of which cos1 is allelic to mcl1. The mcl1-101 mutation causes reduced CENP-A(Cnp1 in the central domain and an aberrant increase in histone acetylation in both domains. These phenotypes are also observed in a mutant of swi7(+, which encodes a catalytic subunit of Pol alpha. Mcl1 forms S-phase-specific nuclear foci, which colocalize with those of PCNA and Pol alpha. These results suggest that Mcl1 and Pol alpha are required for propagation of centromere chromatin structures during DNA replication.

  17. Insights on Virulence and Antibiotic Resistance: A Review of the Accessory Genome of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Adebayo O; Udo, Edet E; Lin, Johnson

    2007-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus continues to be a serious health problem worldwide due to its intrinsic nature of virulence, ability to cause a wide array of infection, and its capacity to develop resistance to a number of antibiotics. The S aureus genome has continually evolved through both mutation and acquisition of exogenous genes, leading to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains with the ability for clonal dissemination across nations and continents. Methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) is one of the most commonly identified antibiotic-resistant pathogens in the hospital and community settings with substantial mortality and morbidity. This review examines the accessory genome of 8 sequenced S aureus strains regarding the variety of virulence factors and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. The remarkable nature of this organism to acquire and disseminate an array of mobile genetic elements (MBEs) through horizontal gene transfer illustrates the mechanisms for evolution and its fitness level in the face of constant environmental challenges. The relative ease of transfer of genetic materials, especially antibiotic-resistant genes, across staphylococcal species indicates that there is a potential pandemic problem in the hospital and community environment.

  18. Accuracy of the Electrocardiogram in Localizing the Accessory Pathway in Patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Carlos Manuel; Pereira, Telmo António; Lebreiro, Ana Margarida; Carvalho, Sérgio Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background There are currently several electrocardiographic algorithms to locate the accessory pathway (AP) in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Objective To compare the ability of electrocardiographic algorithms in identifying the location of the AP in patients with WPW pattern referred for ablation. Methods Observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study with 111 patients with WPW syndrome referred for AP ablation. The electrocardiogram (ECG) obtained prior to the ablation was analyzed by an experienced observer who consecutively applied seven algorithms to identify non-invasively the AP. We then compared the location estimated with this assessment with that obtained in the electrophysiological study and calculated the agreement rates. Results Among the APs, 59 (53.15%) were distributed around the mitral annulus and the remaining 52 (46.85%) were located around the tricuspid annulus. The overall absolute accuracy of the algorithms evaluated varied between 27% and 47%, increasing to between 40% and 76% when we included adjacent locations. The absolute agreement rate by AP location was 2.00-52.20% for septal APs (n = 51), increasing to 5.90-90.20% when considering adjacent locations; 7.70-69.20% for right APs (n = 13), increasing to 42.90-100% when considering adjacent locations; and 21.70-54.50% for left APs (n = 47), increasing to 50-87% when considering adjacent locations. Conclusion The agreement rates observed for the analyzed scores indicated a low discriminative ability of the ECG in locating the AP in patients with WPW. PMID:27627222

  19. Unusual hemodynamic stroke related to an accessory middle cerebral artery: The usefulness of fusion images from three-dimensional angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Noguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ischemic stroke associated with an anomaly of the middle cerebral artery (MCA is a rare occurrence. The diagnosis is very difficult when there are steno-occlusive lesions associated with an accessory middle cerebral artery (AMCA. Case Description: A 77-year-old female with hypertension and hyperlipidemia experienced repeated transient ischemic attacks (TIAs of motor aphasia and dysarthria. Although angiography showed only left intracranial occlusion, the fusion images of three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography (3-D DSA showed complex steno-occlusive lesions and an AMCA related with the TIA. The cerebral blood flow (CBF to the left frontal lobe was supplied by the AMCA, via the anterior communicating artery from the right internal carotid artery. The left temporal and parietal lobes were supplied by the stenotic MCA, via the left posterior communicating artery from the left posterior cerebral artery. Single-photon emission computed tomography showed a marked decrease in CBF to both the left frontal and temporal lobes. A left superficial temporal artery (STA-to-left MCA double anastomosis was performed, in which each branch of the STA supplied branches of the AMCA and MCA. Conclusion: This is the first reported case of ischemic stroke in a patient with an AMCA. The exact diagnosis could be made only by using fusion images of 3-D DSA, which were useful for understanding the complicated CBF pattern and for the choice of recipient artery in bypass surgery.

  20. Enhanced light-harvesting capacity by micellar assembly of free accessory chromophores and LH1-like antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michelle A; Sahin, Tuba; Jiang, Jianbing; Vairaprakash, Pothiappan; Parkes-Loach, Pamela S; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Kirmaier, Christine; Loach, Paul A; Bocian, David F; Holten, Dewey; Lindsey, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    Biohybrid light-harvesting antennas are an emerging platform technology with versatile tailorability for solar-energy conversion. These systems combine the proven peptide scaffold unit utilized for light harvesting by purple photosynthetic bacteria with attached synthetic chromophores to extend solar coverage beyond that of the natural systems. Herein, synthetic unattached chromophores are employed that partition into the organized milieu (e.g. detergent micelles) that house the LH1-like biohybrid architectures. The synthetic chromophores include a hydrophobic boron-dipyrrin dye (A1) and an amphiphilic bacteriochlorin (A2), which transfer energy with reasonable efficiency to the bacteriochlorophyll acceptor array (B875) of the LH1-like cyclic oligomers. The energy-transfer efficiencies are markedly increased upon covalent attachment of a bacteriochlorin (B1 or B2) to the peptide scaffold, where the latter likely acts as an energy-transfer relay site for the (potentially diffusing) free chromophores. The efficiencies are consistent with a Förster (through-space) mechanism for energy transfer. The overall energy-transfer efficiency from the free chromophores via the relay to the target site can approach those obtained previously by relay-assisted energy transfer from chromophores attached at distant sites on the peptides. Thus, the use of free accessory chromophores affords a simple design to enhance the overall light-harvesting capacity of biohybrid LH1-like architectures.

  1. PAXX Is an Accessory c-NHEJ Factor that Associates with Ku70 and Has Overlapping Functions with XLF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish K. Tadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In mammalian cells, classical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ is critical for DNA double-strand break repair induced by ionizing radiation and during V(DJ recombination in developing B and T lymphocytes. Recently, PAXX was identified as a c-NHEJ core component. We report here that PAXX-deficient cells exhibit a cellular phenotype uncharacteristic of a deficiency in c-NHEJ core components. PAXX-deficient cells display normal sensitivity to radiomimetic drugs, are proficient in transient V(DJ recombination assays, and do not shift toward higher micro-homology usage in plasmid repair assays. Although PAXX-deficient cells lack c-NHEJ phenotypes, PAXX forms a stable ternary complex with Ku bound to DNA. Formation of this complex involves an interaction with Ku70 and requires a bare DNA extension for stability. Moreover, the relatively weak Ku-dependent stimulation of LIG4/XRCC4 activity by PAXX is unmasked by XLF ablation. Thus, PAXX plays an accessory role during c-NHEJ that is largely overlapped by XLF’s function.

  2. Front-loaded linezolid regimens result in increased killing and suppression of the accessory gene regulator system of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Brian T; Brown, Tanya; Parasrampuria, Ridhi; Brazeau, Daniel A; Forrest, Alan; Kelchlin, Pamela A; Holden, Patricia N; Peloquin, Charles A; Hanna, Debra; Bulitta, Jurgen B

    2012-07-01

    Front loading is a strategy used to optimize the pharmacodynamic profile of an antibiotic through the administration of high doses early in therapy for a short duration. Our aims were to evaluate the impact of front loading of linezolid regimens on bacterial killing and suppression of resistance and on RNAIII, the effector molecule of the accessory gene regulator system (encoded by agr) in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Time-killing experiments over 48 h were utilized for linezolid against four strains of MRSA: USA100, USA300, USA400, and ATCC 29213. A hollow-fiber infection model simulated traditional and front-loaded human therapeutic regimens of linezolid versus USA300 at 10(6) CFU/ml over 240 h. Over 48 h in time-kill experiments, linezolid displayed bacteriostatic activity, with reductions of >1 log(10) CFU/ml for all strains. Front-loaded regimens that were administered over 5 days, 1,200 mg every 12 h (q12h) (total, 10 doses) and 2,400 mg q12h (total, 10 doses) followed by 300 mg q12h thereafter, resulted in sustained bactericidal activity, with reductions of the area under the CFU curve of -6.15 and -6.03, respectively, reaching undetectable limits at the 10-day study endpoint. All regimens displayed a reduction in RNAIII relative expression at 24 h and 240 h compared with that of the growth control. Monte Carlo simulations predicted a infections, where early aggressive therapy is necessary.

  3. Expression of accessory colonization factor subunit A (ACFA) of Vibrio cholerae and ACFA fused to cholera toxin B subunit in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Jani, Dewal; Thungapathra, M; Gautam, J K; Meena, L S; Singh, Yogendra; Ghosh, Amit; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2008-05-20

    In earlier study from our group, cholera toxin B subunit had been expressed in tomato for developing a plant-based vaccine against cholera. In the present investigation, gene for accessory colonization factor (acf) subunit A, earlier reported to be essential for efficient colonization in the intestine, has been expressed in Escherichia coli as well as tomato plants. Gene encoding for a chimeric protein having a fusion of cholera toxin B subunit and accessory colonization factor A was also expressed in tomato to generate more potent combinatorial antigen. CaMV35S promoter with a duplicated enhancer sequence was used for expression of these genes in tomato. Integration of transgenes into tomato genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern hybridization. Expression of the genes was confirmed at transcript and protein levels. Accessory colonization factor A and cholera toxin B subunit fused to this protein accumulated up to 0.25% and 0.08% of total soluble protein, respectively, in the fruits of transgenic plants. Whereas protein purified from E. coli, in combination with cholera toxin B subunit can be used for development of conventional subunit vaccine, tomato fruits expressing these proteins can be used together with tomato plants expressing cholera toxin B subunit for development of oral vaccine against cholera.

  4. Ultrasound of the elbow with emphasis on detailed assessment of ligaments, tendons, and nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Maeseneer, Michel, E-mail: Michel.demaeseneer@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Brigido, Monica Kalume, E-mail: Mbrigido@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Antic, Marijana, E-mail: Misscroa@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Lenchik, Leon, E-mail: Llenchik@wakehealth.edu [Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Milants, Annemieke, E-mail: Annemieke.Milants@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Vereecke, Evie, E-mail: Evie.Vereecke@kuleuven-kulak.be [Department of Anatomy, KULAK, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Campus Kortrijk, Kortrijk (Belgium); Jager, Tjeerd [Aalsters Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Aalst (Belgium); Shahabpour, Maryam, E-mail: Maryam.Shahabpour@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Medial and lateral tendons: the different muscles forming these tendons can be followed up to the insertion. The imaging anatomy is reviewed. •Medial and lateral ligaments: the anatomy is complex and specialized imaging planes and arm positions are necessary for accurate assessment. •Biceps tendon: the anatomy of the distal biceps and lacertus fibrosus are discussed and illustrated with cadaveric correlation. •US imaging of the nerves about the elbow and visualization of the possible compression points is discussed. -- Abstract: The high resolution and dynamic capability of ultrasound make it an excellent tool for assessment of superficial structures. The ligaments, tendons, and nerves about the elbow can be fully evaluated with ultrasound. The medial collateral ligament consists of an anterior and posterior band that can easily be identified. The lateral ligament complex consists of the radial collateral ligament, ulnar insertion of the annular ligament, and lateral ulnar collateral ligament, easily identified with specialized probe positioning. The lateral ulnar collateral ligament can best be seen in the cobra position. On ultrasound medial elbow tendons can be followed nearly up to their common insertion. The pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, and flexor digitorum superficialis can be identified. The laterally located brachioradialis and extensor carpi radialis longus insert on the supracondylar ridge. The other lateral tendons can be followed up to their common insertion on the lateral epicondyle. The extensor digitorum, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digiti minimi, and extensor carpi ulnaris can be differentiated. The distal biceps tendon is commonly bifid. For a complete assessment of the distal biceps tendon specialized views are necessary. These include an anterior axial approach, medial and lateral approach, and cobra position. In the cubital tunnel the ulnar nerve is covered by the ligament of Osborne

  5. Reconstruction of Anal External Sphincter Complex by Free Autogenous Double Palmalis Longus Muscle Transplantation for Fecal Incontinence%自体双侧掌长肌游离移植肛门括约肌复合体重建术治疗小儿肛门失禁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贵林; 马承宣; 高艳华

    1986-01-01

    @@ 自从Stephens~(1)确立耻骨直肠肌在控制排便中的作用之后,许多作者~(2~4)设计出旨在替代耻骨直肠肌的手术方法,以治疗直肠肛门发育不全术后并发的肛门失禁.1978年Hakelius首先应用自体掌长肌游离移植耻骨直肠肌成形术治疗小儿肛门失禁获得成功~(4).%In this paper we present a new technique for anal incontinence in children.The proce dure which entails simultaneous free transplan tation of autogenous double palmalis longus muscles consists of two steps:the double palmalis longus denervation and the muscle free transplantation.The denervated muscles are transplanted two weeks later,as a sling around the rectum,immitating position and function of top loop and intermediate loop of external sphincter complex.The contraction of the top transplanted muscle can draw the posterior anal wall toward the anterior and contraction of the intermediate loop sling draws the ante rior wall posteriorly.The transplanted muscles are voluntary muscles which get fatigued easily.The double muscles affect an anal occlusion not only by direct compression but also by"kinking mechanism"which contributes to a rapid and tight closure of tubular structures with thel east muscular energy.The loop arrangement can provide the muscles with maximal efficiency necessary for its func tional performance.From 1984 to 1985 we performed this procedure in five cases of fecal incontinence in children.We believe that this modified procedure is better than single muscle trans plantation.

  6. Comercio electrónico del flamenco: textiles, zapatos y complementos. Electronic-commerce of flamenco: textiles, shoes and accessories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Hurtado Guapo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El flamenco forma parte del patrimonio inmaterial de la humanidad y también es considerado un sector económico de gran potencial, formando parte de las industrias culturales de España. En los últimos años las nuevas tecnologías han hecho que los productos que antes adquiríamos en las tiendas tradicionales, lleguen a nuestras casas con tan solo un click. En el siguiente artículo se realiza una búsqueda a través del motor de búsqueda Google con las palabras clave “tiendas flamenco”, recuperándose 980.000 resultados, de los cuales 482 son tiendas en línea. Tras seleccionar 100 de éstos websites de forma aleatoria, se realiza un análisis por fases, que se corresponden con las etapas de la compra de un producto en la Red basándose en el comportamiento de la búsqueda de información. Los resultados muestran, que los aspectos relacionados con los proceso de compra del producto, son los parámetros más desatendidos en las webs de las tiendas estudiadas. Flamenco is Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, it is an economic sector and it is also part of the Cultural industries of Spain. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT can provide online purchase with (filtered to your specifications, from your desk just one click. This study began with the search engine Google using “Flamenco shops” as search term. The results showed 980,000 websites, we retrieved 482 online shops and we analyzed 100 random websites. The target of our research has been studying the cycle of purchase of flamenco textiles, shoes and accessories on each shop. Our methodology is based on human information behavior.

  7. Noninvasive Localization of Accessory Pathways in Patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: A Strain Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Esmaeilzadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noninvasive techniques for the localization of the accessory pathways (APs might help guide mapping procedures and ablation techniques. We sought to examine the diagnostic accuracy of strain imaging for the localization of the APs in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.Methods: We prospectively studied 25 patients (mean age = 32 ± 17 years, 58.3% men with evidence of pre-excitation on electrocardiography (ECG. Electromechanical interval was defined as the time difference between the onset of delta wave and the onset of regional myocardial contraction. Time differences between the onset of delta wave (δ and the onset of regional myocardial contraction (δ-So, peak systolic motion (δ-Sm, regional strain (δ-ε, peak strain (δ-εp, and peak strain rate (δ-SRp were measured.Results: There was a significant difference between time to onset of delta wave to onset of peak systolic motion (mean ± SD in the AP location (A and normal segments (B versus that in the normal volunteers (C [A: (57.08 ± 23.88 msec vs. B: (75.20 ± 14.75  vs. C: (72.9 0 ± 11.16; p value (A vs. B = 0.004 and p value (A vs. C = 0.18] and [A: (49.17 ± 35.79 vs. B: (67.60 ± 14.51 vs. C: (67.40 ± 6.06 msec; p value ( A vs. B < 0.001 and  p value (A vs. C = 0.12, respectively].Conclusion: Our study showed that strain imaging parameters [(δ-So and (δ-Strain] are superior to the ECG in the localization of the APs (84% vs. 76%.

  8. Shared and differential traits in the accessory olfactory bulb of caviomorph rodents with particular reference to the semiaquatic capybara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Rodrigo; Santibáñez, Rodrigo; Parra, Daniela; Coppi, Antonio A; Abrahão, Luciana M B; Sasahara, Tais H C; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2011-05-01

    The vomeronasal system is crucial for social and sexual communication in mammals. Two populations of vomeronasal sensory neurons, each expressing Gαi2 or Gαo proteins, send projections to glomeruli of the rostral or caudal accessory olfactory bulb, rAOB and cAOB, respectively. In rodents, the Gαi2- and Gαo-expressing vomeronasal pathways have shown differential responses to small/volatile vs. large/non-volatile semiochemicals, respectively. Moreover, early gene expression suggests predominant activation of rAOB and cAOB neurons in sexual vs. aggressive contexts, respectively. We recently described the AOB of Octodon degus, a semiarid-inhabiting diurnal caviomorph. Their AOB has a cell indentation between subdomains and the rAOB is twice the size of the cAOB. Moreover, their AOB receives innervation from the lateral aspect, contrasting with the medial innervation of all other mammals examined to date. Aiming to relate AOB anatomy with lifestyle, we performed a morphometric study on the AOB of the capybara, a semiaquatic caviomorph whose lifestyle differs remarkably from that of O. degus. Capybaras mate in water and scent-mark their surroundings with oily deposits, mostly for male-male communication. We found that, similar to O. degus, the AOB of capybaras shows a lateral innervation of the vomeronasal nerve, a cell indentation between subdomains and heterogeneous subdomains, but in contrast to O. degus the caudal portion is larger than the rostral one. We also observed that four other caviomorph species present a lateral AOB innervation and a cell indentation between AOB subdomains, suggesting that those traits could represent apomorphies of the group. We propose that although some AOB traits may be phylogenetically conserved in caviomorphs, ecological specializations may play an important role in shaping the AOB.

  9. Pheromones from males of different familiarity exert divergent effects on adult neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013.

  10. Hemolymph circulation in insect sensory appendages: functional mechanics of antennal accessory pulsatile organs (auxiliary hearts) in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppana, Sushma; Hillyer, Julián F

    2014-09-01

    Mosquito antennae provide sensory input that modulates host-seeking, mating and oviposition behaviors. Thus, mosquitoes must ensure the efficient transport of molecules into and out of these appendages. To accomplish this, mosquitoes and other insects have evolved antennal accessory pulsatile organs (APOs) that drive hemolymph into the antennal space. This study characterizes the structural mechanics of hemolymph propulsion throughout the antennae of Anopheles gambiae. Using intravital video imaging, we show that mosquitoes possess paired antennal APOs that are located on each side of the head's dorsal midline. They are situated between the frons and the vertex in an area that is dorsal to the antenna but ventral to the medial-most region of the compound eyes. Antennal APOs contract in synchrony at 1 Hz, which is 45% slower than the heart. By means of histology and intravital imaging, we show that each antennal APO propels hemolymph into the antenna through an antennal vessel that traverses the length of the appendage and has an effective diameter of 1-2 μm. When hemolymph reaches the end of the appendage, it is discharged into the antennal hemocoel and returns to the head. Because a narrow vessel empties into a larger cavity, hemolymph travels up the antenna at 0.2 mm s(-1) but reduces its velocity by 75% as it returns to the head. Finally, treatment of mosquitoes with the anesthetic agent FlyNap (triethylamine) increases both antennal APO and heart contraction rates. In summary, this study presents a comprehensive functional characterization of circulatory physiology in the mosquito antennae.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus interaction with phospholipid vesicles--a new method to accurately determine accessory gene regulator (agr activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisem Laabei

    Full Text Available The staphylococcal accessory gene regulatory (agr operon is a well-characterised global regulatory element that is important in the control of virulence gene expression for Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen. Hence, accurate and sensitive measurement of Agr activity is central in understanding the virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus, especially in the context of Agr dysfunction, which has been linked with persistent bacteraemia and reduced susceptibility to glycopeptide antibiotics. Agr function is typically measured using a synergistic haemolysis CAMP assay, which is believe to report on the level of expression of one of the translated products of the agr locus, delta toxin. In this study we develop a vesicle lysis test (VLT that is specific to small amphipathic peptides, most notably delta and Phenol Soluble Modulin (PSM toxins. To determine the accuracy of this VLT method in assaying Agr activity, we compared it to the CAMP assay using 89 clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Of the 89 isolates, 16 were designated as having dysfunctional Agr systems by the CAMP assay, whereas only three were designated as such by VLT. Molecular analysis demonstrated that of these 16 isolates, the 13 designated as having a functional Agr system by VLT transcribed rnaIII and secreted delta toxin, demonstrating they have a functional Agr system despite the results of the CAMP assay. The agr locus of all 16 isolates was sequenced, and only the 3 designated as having a dysfunctional Agr system contained mutations, explaining their Agr dysfunction. Given the potentially important link between Agr dysfunction and clinical outcome, we have developed an assay that determines this more accurately than the conventional CAMP assay.

  12. Determination of radon concentration in water using RAD7 with RAD H{sub 2}O accessories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, M. F. I. [Science and Engineering Research Centre (SERC), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan Nibong Tebal 14300 Penang (Malaysia); Rabaiee, N. A.; Jaafar, M. S. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    In the last decade, the radon issue has become one of the major problems of radiation protection. Radon exposure occurs when using water for showering, washing dishes, cooking and drinking water. RAD7 and Rad H20 accessories were used in order to measure radon concentration in water sample. In this study, four types of water were concerns which are reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Reverse osmosis (drinking water) and mineral water were bought from the nearest supermarket while tap water and well water were taken from selected areas of Pulau Pinang and Kedah. Total 20 samples were taken with 5 samples for each type of water. The measured radon concentration ranged from 2.9±2.9 to 79.5±17 pCi/L, 2.9±2.9 to 67.8±16 pCi/L, 15.97±7 to 144.25±24 pCi/L and 374.89±37 to 6409.03±130 pCi/L in reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Well water has the highest radon compared to others. It was due to their geological element such as granite. Results for all types of water are presented and compared with maximum contamination limit (MCL) recommended by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) which is 300pCi/L. Reverse osmosis water, mineral water and tap water were fall below MCL. However, well water was exceeded maximum level that was recommended. Thus, these findings were suggested that an action should be taken to reduce radon concentration level in well water as well as reduce a health risk towards the public.

  13. Anatomic research on the transposition of accessory nerve to phrenic nerve%副神经移位膈神经的人体解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王策; 袁文; 周许辉; 王新伟; 史升; 徐贵青; 吴国新; 薄音

    2010-01-01

    Objective To comprehend the anatomic characteristics and correlations between the accessory nerve and the phrenic nerve in the adult corpses. Methods The bilateral accessory nerves,phrenic nerves, and their branches of 20 adult corpses (38 sides ) were underwent exposure. The morphologic data of the accessory nerves and the phrenic nerves above clavicle were measured. In addition,the minimal and maximal distances from several points on the accessory nerve to the full length of the phrenic nerve above clavicle were measased. Then, the number of motor nerve fibers on different locations of the nerves utilizing the method of immunohistochemistry were counted and compared. Result The accessory nerves after sending out the sternocleido-mastoid muscular branches were similar in the morphologic data with the phrenic nerves. Meanwhile, the accessory nerve had a coiled appearance within this geometrical area.The possibly minimal distance between the accessory nerve and phrenic nerve was (3.19±1.23) cm, and the possibly maximal distance between the starting point of accessory nerve and the end of the phrenic nerve above clavicle was (8.71±0.75) cm. Conclusions The accessory nerve and the phrenic nerve are similar in the anatomic evidences and the number of motor nerve fibers. And the length of accessory nerve is sufficiently long to connect with phrenic nerve as needed. It is possible to suture them without strain directly.%目的 了解副神经及膈神经的解剖特点、位置关系及内部运动神经纤维含量,为副神经移位膈神经重建高位颈髓损伤后患者呼吸功能提供解剖学依据.方法 选取20具(38侧)福尔马林固定的成人尸体标本,解剖并观察副神经、膈神经的走形特点,测量副神经及膈神经的长、宽及厚度,副神经舌骨水平至膈神经颈部起点及终点的距离.利用免疫组化方法对膈神经及副神经不同位置进行切片染色,对比纤维含量.结果 副神经发出胸锁乳突

  14. Independent evolution of the core and accessory gene sets in the genus Neisseria: insights gained from the genome of Neisseria lactamica isolate 020-06

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Brian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Neisseria contains two important yet very different pathogens, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae, in addition to non-pathogenic species, of which N. lactamica is the best characterized. Genomic comparisons of these three bacteria will provide insights into the mechanisms and evolution of pathogenesis in this group of organisms, which are applicable to understanding these processes more generally. Results Non-pathogenic N. lactamica exhibits very similar population structure and levels of diversity to the meningococcus, whilst gonococci are essentially recent descendents of a single clone. All three species share a common core gene set estimated to comprise around 1190 CDSs, corresponding to about 60% of the genome. However, some of the nucleotide sequence diversity within this core genome is particular to each group, indicating that cross-species recombination is rare in this shared core gene set. Other than the meningococcal cps region, which encodes the polysaccharide capsule, relatively few members of the large accessory gene pool are exclusive to one species group, and cross-species recombination within this accessory genome is frequent. Conclusion The three Neisseria species groups represent coherent biological and genetic groupings which appear to be maintained by low rates of inter-species horizontal genetic exchange within the core genome. There is extensive evidence for exchange among positively selected genes and the accessory genome and some evidence of hitch-hiking of housekeeping genes with other loci. It is not possible to define a 'pathogenome' for this group of organisms and the disease causing phenotypes are therefore likely to be complex, polygenic, and different among the various disease-associated phenotypes observed.

  15. 关于对未成年人犯罪适用附加刑问题的探讨%Discussion of Accessory Punishment Application of Juvenile Crime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨跃进; 许婧

    2012-01-01

    刑法并没有规定对未成年人犯罪禁止适用附加刑,所以,在我国附加刑中的罚金、剥夺政治权利、没收财产、驱逐出境都可适用于未成年人犯罪。未成年人犯罪与成年人犯罪相比,有许多不同的特点,人民法院在附加刑的适用上,必须对二者有所区别。即使都适用相同种类的附加刑,也要比照成年犯依法从轻、减轻、免除处罚,真正做到依法处罚,罚当其罪并努力追求取得教育、感化、挽救的良好效果,力争实现未成年人刑事案件审判法律效果、政治效果、社会效果的有机统一。%The criminal law doesn't forbid the accessory punishment application of juvenile crime,so the fine,deprivation of political rights,confiscation of property,and deportation in China can be used in juvenile crime.With adult,the juvenile has its characteristics,so there must be differences when the court applies the accessory punishment.Even the same type of accessory punishment,the juvenile crime should be given a lighter or mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment in comparison with adult,and punishment should be equal with its crime so that the education,reforming and remedy can be reached,and on the basis of it,the legal,political and social effects of juvenile crime case can be organically united.

  16. The V-ATPase accessory protein Atp6ap1b mediates dorsal forerunner cell proliferation and left-right asymmetry in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokey, Jason J; Dasgupta, Agnik; Amack, Jeffrey D

    2015-11-01

    Asymmetric fluid flows generated by motile cilia in a transient 'organ of asymmetry' are involved in establishing the left-right (LR) body axis during embryonic development. The vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) proton pump has been identified as an early factor in the LR pathway that functions prior to cilia, but the role(s) for V-ATPase activity are not fully understood. In the zebrafish embryo, the V-ATPase accessory protein Atp6ap1b is maternally supplied and expressed in dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs) that give rise to the ciliated organ of asymmetry called Kupffer's vesicle (KV). V-ATPase accessory proteins modulate V-ATPase activity, but little is known about their functions in development. We investigated Atp6ap1b and V-ATPase in KV development using morpholinos, mutants and pharmacological inhibitors. Depletion of both maternal and zygotic atp6ap1b expression reduced KV organ size, altered cilia length and disrupted LR patterning of the embryo. Defects in other ciliated structures-neuromasts and olfactory placodes-suggested a broad role for Atp6ap1b during development of ciliated organs. V-ATPase inhibitor treatments reduced KV size and identified a window of development in which V-ATPase activity is required for proper LR asymmetry. Interfering with Atp6ap1b or V-ATPase function reduced the rate of DFC proliferation, which resulted in fewer ciliated cells incorporating into the KV organ. Analyses of pH and subcellular V-ATPase localizations suggested Atp6ap1b functions to localize the V-ATPase to the plasma membrane where it regulates proton flux and cytoplasmic pH. These results uncover a new role for the V-ATPase accessory protein Atp6ap1b in early development to maintain the proliferation rate of precursor cells needed to construct a ciliated KV organ capable of generating LR asymmetry.

  17. Mfa4, an Accessory Protein of Mfa1 Fimbriae, Modulates Fimbrial Biogenesis, Cell Auto-Aggregation, and Biofilm Formation in Porphyromonas gingivalis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative obligate anaerobic bacterium, is considered to be a key pathogen in periodontal disease. The bacterium expresses Mfa1 fimbriae, which are composed of polymers of Mfa1. The minor accessory components Mfa3, Mfa4, and Mfa5 are incorporated into these fimbriae. In this study, we characterized Mfa4 using genetically modified strains. Deficiency in the mfa4 gene decreased, but did not eliminate, expression of Mfa1 fimbriae. However, Mfa3 and Mfa5 were not i...

  18. 耐用品垄断厂商易耗部件兼容策略%Compatible Strategy of Easy-to-wear Accessories for Durable Goods Monopolist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永全; 谭德庆; 高敏

    2014-01-01

    In the perspective of consumer utility,this paper studies the compatibility strategy of Easy-to-wear accessories for durable goods monopolist by using the condition of market-clearing and comparative analysis method.The conclusions show that,under normal circumstances,the optimal revenue of durable goods monopolist with compatibility strategy on Easy-to-wear accessories is greater than that with incompatible strategy; the reduction of the durable goods' value,the reduction of the durability of the durable goods and the reduction of their user satisfaction will respectively enhance the incentives of durable goods monopolist to adopt Easy-to-wear accessories compatible strategies; and the increment of replacement times of Easy-to-wear accessories in every stage will enhance the incentives of durable goods monopolist to adopt compatible strategies too.Finally,examples analysis is made according to the above corresponding conclusions.%从消费者效用角度,利用市场出清条件和对比分析方法研究了易耗部件兼容性策略对耐用品垄断厂商决策的影响问题.结论表明,通常情况下,耐用品垄断厂商采取易耗部件兼容策略时的最优收益大于其采取易耗部件不兼容策略时的最优收益;耐用品价值的降低、耐用品耐用度的降低以及耐用品用户满意度的降低都会分别增强耐用品垄断厂商采用易耗部件兼容策略所受到的激励;且易耗部件每阶段更换次数的增加也会加大垄断厂商采取易耗部件兼容策略的激励.针对上述结论给出了相应的例证分析.

  19. Large, but not small, antigens require time- and temperature-dependent processing in accessory cells before they can be recognized by T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1986-01-01

    of antigen presentation we used the proliferative response of appropriately primed T cells during a co-culture with the paraformaldehyde-fixed and antigen-exposed presenting cells. We demonstrate that the large synthetic polypeptide antigen, dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine, requires processing. After an initial...... time-lag of 30 min this antigen is fully processed within 2 to 4 of culture at 37 degrees C. In contrast, the immunogenic heptapeptide, angiotensin III, can be presented by pre-fixed accessory cells, viz. without any prior processing. Antigen processing was found to be temperature...

  20. Mineral dissolution in the Cape Cod aquifer, Massachusetts, USA: I . Reaction stoichiometry and impact of accessory feldspar and glauconite on strontium isotopes, solute concentrations, and REY distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, Michael; Alexander, Brian; Chesley, John T.; Dulski, Peter; Brantley, Susan L.

    2004-03-01

    To compare relative reaction rates of mineral dissolution in a mineralogically simple groundwater aquifer, we studied the controls on solute concentrations, Sr isotopes, and rare earth element and yttrium (REY) systematics in the Cape Cod aquifer. This aquifer comprises mostly carbonate-free Pleistocene sediments that are about 90% quartz with minor K-feldspar, plagioclase, glauconite, and Fe-oxides. Silica concentrations and pH in the groundwater increase systematically with increasing depth, while Sr isotopic ratios decrease. No clear relationship between 87Sr/ 86Sr and Sr concentration is observed. At all depths, the 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio of the groundwater is considerably lower than the Sr isotopic ratio of the bulk sediment or its K-feldspar component, but similar to that of a plagioclase-rich accessory separate obtained from the sediment. The Si- 87Sr/ 86Sr-depth relationships are consistent with dissolution of accessory plagioclase. In addition, solutes such as Sr, Ca, and particularly K show concentration spikes superimposed on their respective general trends. The K-Sr- 87Sr/ 86Sr systematics suggests that accessory glauconite is another major solute source to Cape Cod groundwater. Although the authigenic glauconite in the Cape Cod sediment is rich in Rb, it is low in in-grown radiogenic 87Sr because of its young Pleistocene age. The low 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios are consistent with equilibration of glauconite with seawater. The impact of glauconite is inferred to vary due to its variable abundance in the sediments. In the Cape Cod groundwater, the variation of REY concentrations with sampling depth resembles that of K and Rb, but differs from that of Ca and Sr. Shale-normalized REY patterns are light REY depleted, show negative Ce anomalies and super-chondritic Y/Ho ratios, but no Eu anomalies. REY input from feldspar, therefore, is insignificant compared to input from a K-Rb-bearing phase, inferred to be glauconite. These results emphasize that interpretation of

  1. The Role of Accessory Phases in the Sm-Nd Isotope Systematics of the Acasta Gneiss Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.; Fisher, C. M.; Vervoort, J. D.; Bowring, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Acasta Gneiss Complex (AGC) of the Slave Craton in the Northwest Territories, Canada, contains some of Earth's oldest continental crust. It is characterized by a range of compositionally diverse gneisses with crystallization ages of 3.3 to > 4.0 Ga1-5. The AGC has undergone a multistage history of metamorphism and deformation. Given these post-crystallization processes, the extent of Nd isotope heterogeneity suggested by published4-7 whole rock Sm-Nd analyses of these rocks has been called into question. Criticisms include the likelihood of mixed lithologies at the hand-sample scale and the potential for open-system behavior of the Sm-Nd isotopic system in these rocks. We obtained whole rock compositional, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope data paired with Hf in zircon and Nd in titanite and apatite data to further evaluate the isotope record, and use U-Pb and Lu-Hf of zircon as a basis for identifying mixed or complex samples. Preferential preservation of Lu-Hf over Sm-Nd isotope systematics in multiply deformed, complex rocks may be controlled by the minerals that dominate the Hf and Nd budgets, with the majority of the Hf effectively sheltered in zircon and the Nd largely hosted in accessory phases such as apatite and titanite. This composite dataset enables us to evaluate the possibility that Hf and Nd isotopic systematics have been decoupled in these samples that have such critical bearing on our understanding of early crust-forming processes. [1]Bowring and Williams (1999). CoMP, 134(1), 3-16. [2]Iizuka, T. et al. (2006) Geology, 34(4), 245-248. [3]Iizuka et al (2007). Precambrian Res, 153(3), 179-208. [4]Bowring et al. 1989. Nature, 340: 222-225. [5]Mojzsis et al. (2014). GCA, 133, 68-96. [6]Bowring and Housh (1995) Science 269, 1535-1540. [7]Moorbath et al (1997) Chem. Geol. 135, 213-231.

  2. Accessory Proteins at ERES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkenberg, Rafael David

    domain of p125A utilizes a stretch of positively charged residues (KGRKR) to bind lipid membranes that are enriched in Phosphatidylinositol‐4‐phosphates (PI(4)P). The specificity of the DDHD domain lipid recognition is demonstrated to be enhanced through p125A oligomerization mediated by the upstream SAM...... recognition strongly disperse ERES. This dispersal of the ERES can be rescued by replacing the DDHD with the PI(4)P recognizing Fapp1‐PH domain even if SAM(L690E) is still present in p125A. We additionally show that a stretch of cationic residues (KGRKR) in the DDHD abrogated p125A lipid recognition...

  3. Accessory piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Develi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Piriformis muscle originates from facies pelvica of sacrum and inserts on the trochanter major. It is one of the lateral rotator muscles of the hip and a landmark point in the gluteal region since n. ischiadicus descends to the thigh by passing close to the muscle. This contiguity may be associated with the irritation of the nerve which is known as piriformis syndrome. A rare anatomic variation of the muscle which observed on 74 years old male cadaver is discussed in this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 182-183

  4. Treatment of degenerative Achilles'tendon rupture using V-Y tendinous flap and transfer of flexor hallucis longus tendon%V-Y肌腱瓣结合屈(足母)长肌腱转移治疗退变的跟腱断裂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈宇辉; 刘津浩; 徐向阳

    2008-01-01

    目的 介绍V-Y肌腱瓣结合屈(足母)长肌腱转移治疗退变的跟腱断裂的术式、手术指征及疗效.方法 2003年10月至2006年5月对21例跟腱断裂采用V-Y肌腱瓣结合屈躅长肌腱转移治疗,其中采用铆钉17例,界面螺钉4例.介绍该手术方法,并根据文献和实践总结手术指征. 结果 本组所有患者获得12~18个月(平均14个月)随访.根据Arner-Lindholm疗效评价标准:优19例,良2例.术后伤口均一期愈合,随访期间跟腱无再次断裂,无伤口感染,无皮肤坏死,踝关节活动好,无僵直,无神经血管损伤.行走步态基本正常,对前足推进影响不大.该术式修复强度允许跟腱早期功能锻炼. 结论 采用V-Y肌腱瓣结合足屈(足母)长肌腱治疗跟腱断裂疗效好,该术式适用于跟腱组织退变、炎症和部分缺损(<3cm)患者,术中单纯V-Y肌腱瓣修补强度不够可采用屈(足母)长肌腱转移.%Objective To introduce the technique.indication and outcome of treatment of degenerative Achilles'rupture with transfer of flexor hallucis longus tendon and V-Y tendinous flap. Methods From October 2003 to May 2006,21 cases of degenerative Achilles'tendon rupture were treated in our department using transfer of flexor hallucis longus tendon and V-Y tendinous flap.Rivets were used in 17 cases and surface screws in 4.They were followed up for 12 to 18 months(average,14). Results According to the Arner-Lindholm criteria for curative results,19 of the 21 cases were excellent and 2 good.Follow-ups revealed no Achilles'tendon re-rupture,infection,skin necrosis,stiff ankle,or injury to nerves and vessels.Walking gaits nearly recovered to normal.The repair strength allowed early functional exercise of the Achilles'tendon. Conclusion Transfer of flexor hallucis longus tendon combined with V-Y tendinous flap can cure the degenerative Achilles'tendon ruptures and defects of Achilles'tendon within 3 cm.

  5. Robo-2 controls the segregation of a portion of basal vomeronasal sensory neuron axons to the posterior region of the accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Janet E A; Cho, Jin Hyung; Dumontier, Emilie; Andrews, William; Cutforth, Tyler; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Parnavelas, John; Cloutier, Jean-François

    2009-11-11

    The ability of sensory systems to detect and process information from the environment relies on the elaboration of precise connections between sensory neurons in the periphery and second order neurons in the CNS. In mice, the accessory olfactory system is thought to regulate a wide variety of social and sexual behaviors. The expression of the Slit receptors Robo-1 and Robo-2 in vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) suggests they may direct the stereotypic targeting of their axons to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Here, we have examined the roles of Robo-1 and Robo-2 in the formation of connections by VSN axons within the AOB. While Robo-1 is not necessary for the segregation of VSN axons within the anterior and posterior regions of the AOB, Robo-2 is required for the targeting of some basal VSN axons to the posterior region of the AOB but is dispensable for the fasciculation of VSN axons. Furthermore, the specific ablation of Robo-2 expression in VSNs leads to mistargeting of a portion of basal VSN axons to the anterior region of the AOB, indicating that Robo-2 expression is required on projecting VSN axons. Together, these results identify Robo-2 as a receptor that controls the targeting of basal VSN axons to the posterior AOB.

  6. Ultrastructure and synaptic connectivity of main and accessory olfactory bulb efferent projections terminating in the rat anterior piriform cortex and medial amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sook Kyung; Kim, Jong Ho; Yang, Eun Sun; Ahn, Dong Kuk; Moon, Cheil; Bae, Yong Chul

    2014-09-01

    Neurons in the main olfactory bulb relay peripheral odorant signals to the anterior piriform cortex (aPir), whereas neurons of the accessory olfactory bulb relay pheromone signals to the medial amygdala (MeA), suggesting that they belong to two functionally distinct systems. To help understand how odorant and pheromone signals are further processed in the brain, we investigated the synaptic connectivity of identified axon terminals of these neurons in layer Ia of the aPir and posterodorsal part of the MeA, using anterograde tracing with horseradish peroxidase, quantitative ultrastructural analysis of serial thin sections, and immunogold staining. All identified boutons contained round vesicles and some also contained many large dense core vesicles. The number of postsynaptic dendrites per labeled bouton was significantly higher in the aPir than in the MeA, suggesting higher synaptic divergence at a single bouton level. While a large fraction of identified boutons (29%) in the aPir contacted 2-4 postsynaptic dendrites, only 7% of the identified boutons in the MeA contacted multiple postsynaptic dendrites. In addition, the majority of the identified boutons in the aPir (95%) contacted dendritic spines, whereas most identified boutons in the MeA (64%) contacted dendritic shafts. Identified boutons and many of the postsynaptic dendrites showed glutamate immunoreactivity. These findings suggest that odorant and pheromone signals are processed differently in the brain centers of the main and accessory olfactory systems.

  7. Analysis of motor fibers in the communicating branch between the cervical nerves and the spinal accessory nerve to innervate trapezius in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Hitomi, Jiro

    2006-11-01

    The communicating branch between the ventral rami of cervical nerves and the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) has been reported to also send motor fibers to supply the trapezius. However, the motor fiber type of the communicating branch and its peripheral distribution are still unclear. To determine the fiber elements within the branch and its peripheral distribution of the motor fibers in the trapezius, the anterograde tracing method was used in this study. The results show that a few a motor end plates from the communicating branch were observed on the extrafusal fibers, while in the muscle spindle the motor elements from the communicating branch were distributed to the polar portions of the intrafusal fibers. These results indicated that the motor fibers passing through the communicating branch to supply the trapezius are mainly y motor fibers, with some a motor fibers. Moreover, the a and y motor fibers from the communicating branch were observed in the clavotrapezius, acromiotrapezius and the rostral part of spinotrapezius. These findings also correlate with the clinical observation indicating that even when the spinal accessory nerve is injured, the trapezius is still capable of slight movement.

  8. The need to accessorize: Molecular roles of HTLV-1 p30 and HTLV-2 p28 accessory proteins in the viral life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaneesh eAnupam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 over the last three decades have provided detailed knowledge on viral transformation, host-viral interactions and pathogenesis. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATL and multiple neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases while HTLV-2 disease association remains elusive, with few infected individuals displaying neurodegenerative diseases similar to HTLV-1. The HTLV group of oncoretroviruses has a genome that encodes structural and enzymatic proteins Gag, Pro and Env, regulatory proteins Tax and Rex, and several accessory proteins from the pX region. Of these proteins, HTLV-1 p30 and HTLV-2 p28 are encoded by the open reading frame (ORF II of the pX region. Like most other accessory proteins, p30 and p28 are dispensable for in vitro viral replication and transformation but are required for efficient viral replication and persistence in vivo. Both p30 and p28 regulate viral gene expression at the post-transcriptional level whereas p30 can also function at the transcriptional level. Recently, several reports have implicated p30 and p28 in multiple cellular processes, which provide novel insight into HTLV spread and survival and ultimately pathogenesis. In this review we summarize and compare what is known about p30 and p28, highlighting their roles in viral replication and viral pathogenesis.

  9. Unilateral and bilateral cryptorchidism and its effect on the testicular morphology, histology, accessory sex organs, and sperm count in laboratory mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumita Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experimental unilateral cryptorchidism (ULC and bilateral cryptorchidism (BLC are excellent methods to study undescended testis in relation to spermatogenesis against a temperature gradient. Objectives: In case of ULC, it is possible to compare the testicular functions between normal condition and cryptorchidism in the same animal, whereas BLC shows the necessity of testicular androgens for proper maintenance of reproductive structures and functions. Materials and Methods: In the present study, experimental ULC and BLC was done on same-aged adult mature male mice and kept for 15 days and 30 days, respectively, to observe the changes due to the induced cryptorchidism on the different reproductive organs, viz., the testis and accessory sex organs along with epididymal sperm count. Reproductive tissues were collected from individual animals and histopathological studies of testis were done to investigate different cytological changes. Results: The size of the testes and accessory sex organs were found to be significantly reduced in BLC mice, whereas only testicular weight reduction was observed in ULC mice. Histopathological studies showed degenerative changes throughout the seminiferous tubules. Conclusion: Thus, the present investigation showed compensatory androgen production in ULC mice, whereas absence of androgen mediated reproductive functions in BLC animals.

  10. Comparison of micro-computerized tomography and cone-beam computerized tomography in the detection of accessory canals in primary molars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acar, Buket; Kamburoglu, Kivanc [Dept. of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ankara University, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Tatar, Ilkan [Dept. of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Arikan, Volkan [Dept. of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Celik, Hakan Hamid [Dept. of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Kirikkale Unversity, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Yuksel, Selcen [Dept. of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Ozen, Tuncer [Dept. of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Gulhane Military Hospital, Dental Clinics, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2015-12-15

    This study was performed to compare the accuracy of micro-computed tomography (CT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting accessory canals in primary molars. Forty-one extracted human primary first and second molars were embedded in wax blocks and scanned using micro-CT and CBCT. After the images were taken, the samples were processed using a clearing technique and examined under a stereomicroscope in order to establish the gold standard for this study. The specimens were classified into three groups: maxillary molars, mandibular molars with three canals, and mandibular molars with four canals. Differences between the gold standard and the observations made using the imaging methods were calculated using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient test. The presence of accessory canals in micro-CT images of maxillary and mandibular root canals showed a statistically significant correlation with the stereomicroscopic images used as a gold standard. No statistically significant correlation was found between the CBCT findings and the stereomicroscopic images.Although micro-CT is not suitable for clinical use, it provides more detailed information about minor anatomical structures. However, CBCT is convenient for clinical use but may not be capable of adequately analyzing the internal anatomy of primary teeth.

  11. Prenatal exposure to a low-frequency electromagnetic field demasculinizes adult scent marking behavior and increases accessory sex organ weights in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGivern, R.F.; Sokol, R.Z.; Adey, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to a low-level, low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic (EM) field (15 Hz, 0.3 msec duration, peak intensity 8 gauss) for 15 min twice a day from day 15 through day 20 of gestation, a period in development that is critical for sexual differentiation of the male rat brain. No differences in litter size, number of stillborns, or body weight were observed in offspring from field-exposed dams. At 120 days of age, field-exposed male offspring exhibited significantly less scent marking behavior than controls. Accessory sex organ weights, including epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate, were significantly higher in field-exposed subjects at this age. However, circulating levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone, as well as epididymal sperm counts, were normal. These data indicate that brief, intermittent exposure to low-frequency EM fields during the critical prenatal period for neurobehavioral sex differentiation can demasculinize male scent marking behavior and increase accessory sex organ weights in adulthood.

  12. Melanocortin receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2) interplays with the zebrafish melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) but has no effect on its pharmacological profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Raúl; Agulleiro, Maria Josep; Navarro, Sandra; Guillot, Raúl; Sánchez, Elisa; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel

    2014-05-15

    The melanocortin system is probably one of the most complex hormonal systems since it integrates agonist, encoded in the proopiomelanocortin precursor, endogenous antagonist, agouti signaling protein and agouti-related protein, five different G-protein coupled receptors and two accessory proteins. These accessory proteins interact with melanocortin receptors to allow traffic to the plasma membrane or to regulate the pharmacological profile. The MC1R fill the extension locus, which is primarily responsible for the regulation of pigmentation. In zebrafish, both MC1R and MRAP2 system are expressed in the skin. We demonstrate that zebrafish MC1R physically, or closely, interacts with the MRAP2 system, although this interaction did not result in modification of the studied pharmacological profile. However, progressive fasting induced skin darkening but also an upregulation of the MRAP2 expression in the skin, suggesting an unknown role for MRAP2a that could involve receptor desensitization processes. We also demonstrate that crowding stress induces skin darkening and a downregulation of MC1R expression in the skin.

  13. Clinical Value of Color Doppler Ultrasound in Diagnosis of Accessory Breast%彩超诊断副乳腺的临床价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨彩色多普勒超声对副乳腺的诊断价值,以便为临床诊治和随访提供可靠的影像学依据。方法选取2008年4月~2012年8月在我院经高频超声及临床诊治的21例副乳患者,回顾性分析超声声像图特征,并鉴别诊断。结果副乳就是多余的乳房,一般发生在腋前区或腋下,也可见于胸壁、腹部等。副乳大多成对出现,对称分布,一般都比正常乳房要小,平常期的副乳实质回声一般略低于正常乳腺组织或强弱相间,高于脂肪组织,边界不整齐,无包膜,乳腺小叶结构不完整,实质内大多无明显的血流分布,与正常乳腺有明显分界,可发生小叶增生、导管扩张、纤维腺瘤、副乳癌等。结论高频超声是诊断副乳腺病变最为实用和有效的检查手段,且适用于哺乳期妇女,便于临床诊治和随访。%Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of color Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis and treatment of accessory breast in order to provide reliable imaging evidence for clinical diagnosis and follow-up. Methods 21 cases of high frequency ultrasound and clinical diagnosis and treatment of the two patients were selected in our hospital in April 2008~August 2012, retrospective analysis of the ultrasonographic features and differential diagnosis. Results Accessory breast generally occurs in the anterior axillary region or axillary, are also found in the chest, abdomen etc. accessory breast mostly appear in pairs, symmetrical distribution, generally than normal breast to small, usual accessory breast parenchyma echo generally slightly lower than normal breast tissue or strength of the interphase, higher than the adipose tissue, irregular borders, no capsule, breast lobular structure is not complete, parenchyma mostly without obvious blood flow distribution, a clear demarcation with normal breast, can occur as a result of lobular hyperplasia, duct dilatation

  14. The Concomitant Presence of Two Anomalous Muscles in the Forearm

    OpenAIRE

    Ogun, Tunç Cevat; Karalezli, Nazım; Ogun, Cemile Oztin

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the concomitant presence of two anomalous forearm muscles in a 20-year-old man, discovered accidentally during an operation for a forearm injury. The first one was similar to a reverse palmaris longus muscle except for its direction to the Guyon’s canal. The second one originated from the radial antebrachial fascia, superficial to all other forearm muscles in the lower half of the forearm, then diverged medially and extended into the Guyon’s canal and was innervated by ...

  15. Delayed repair in a case of forearm fascial muscle herniation using non-cross-linked acellular porcine dermal matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christoph E A; Branford, Olivier A; Floyd, David

    2012-09-01

    The options for treatment of symptomatic muscle herniation in the limbs traditionally include fasciotomy, direct repair, tendon weave graft (palmaris longus), fascial graft (tensor fascia lata), and synthetic mesh (prolene). A recent case report has described the use of acellular cadaveric dermal matrix to reconstruct fascial defects in 2 cases. We describe the use of Strattice, a non-cross-linked acellular porcine dermal matrix, as a fascial underlay graft in a case of symptomatic upper limb muscle herniation. We propose that Strattice has the advantages over cadaveric dermal matrices in terms of avoiding the use of human donor tissue. It has suitable tensile properties to be used for reconstructing fascial defects.

  16. A clinical study on prevention of median nerve injury in endoscopic carpal tunnel release%腕管综合征内窥镜手术预防正中神经损伤的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晓琪; 陈臣; 叶作舟; 王斌; 史其林

    2011-01-01

    目的 介绍腕管综合征内窥镜手术(endoscopic carpal tunnel release,ECTR)预防正中神经损伤并发症的方法.方法 利用彩色多普勒超声仪(B超)对37例74手患者术前进行检测.结果 71例正中神经走行在桡侧腕屈肌腱与掌长肌腱之间,3例走行在掌长肌腱与尺侧腕屈肌腱之间,并术中确认.结论 正中神经变异走行在掌长肌腱与尺侧腕屈肌腱之间是ECTR的禁忌证,B超能准确定位正中神经与掌长肌腱关系,避免内窥镜手术损伤正中神经,更具有简单、经济、方便可靠等优点.%Objective To introduce a method of preventing median never injury during endoscopic carpal tunnel release (ECTR). Methods Ultrasonography of both wrists was done to 37 patients of carpal tunnel syndrome who were going to undergo open release of the transverse carpal ligament. Structures in the carpal tunnel were visualized to guide surgical decision-making. Results Ultrasonography showed that median never lies between the tendon of flexor carpi radialis and palmaris longus in 71 patients and lies between the tendon of palmaris longus and flexor carpi ulnaris in 3 patients. These findings were confirmed during the surgeries. Conclusion It is a contraindication of ECTR if median never lies between palmaris longus and flexor carpi ulnaris. Ultrasonography can accurately reveal the relative position of median never to the palmaris longus tendon. Pre-operative ultrasonography of the wrist is a simple, inexpensive and convenient method to exclude these contraindications and thus prevent median never injuries in ECTR.

  17. Covering the Dorsal Finger Defect with Reverse Cross Finger Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Gurbuz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of finger extensor zone defects with or without tendon gaps still remains a challenge for surgeons. Although surgical treatments may differ, and range from the use of local, regional, to free flaps, the outcomes for all cases are not satisfactory. In this case report, we present a case of a 3rd finger extensor side crush injury including a defect of Dd (Digit Dorsal 1, Dd2 and Dd3 defects of extensor zones with tendon gap. Tendon gap was reconstructed using m. palmaris longus tendon graft and the defect was covered with reversed cross-finger flap (random pattern with good cosmetic and excellent functional results.

  18. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 1; A Study Employing Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules (N-CAM) Immunocytochemistry and Conventional Morphological Techniques (Light and Electron Microscopy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, N. G.; DAmelio, F.; Wu, L.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Krasnov, I. B.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight upon the 'slow' muscle adductor longus was examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. Three groups - synchronous, vivarium and basal served as controls. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, N-CAM immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy, contraction bands and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leucocytes and mononuclear cells. N-CAM immunoreactivity was seen (N-CAM-IR) on the myofiber surface, satellite cells and in regenerating myofibers reminiscent of myotubes. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments that displayed varied distributive patterns. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions consisted of a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles, degeneration of axon terminals, increased number of microtubules, vacant axonal spaces and axonal sprouting. The present observations indicate that major alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.

  19. A novel function for the Hox gene Abd-B in the male accessory gland regulates the long-term female post-mating response in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Gligorov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In insects, products of the male reproductive tract are essential for initiating and maintaining the female post-mating response (PMR. The PMR includes changes in egg laying, receptivity to courting males, and sperm storage. In Drosophila, previous studies have determined that the main cells of the male accessory gland produce some of the products required for these processes. However, nothing was known about the contribution of the gland's other secretory cell type, the secondary cells. In the course of investigating the late functions of the homeotic gene, Abdominal-B (Abd-B, we discovered that Abd-B is specifically expressed in the secondary cells of the Drosophila male accessory gland. Using an Abd-B BAC reporter coupled with a collection of genetic deletions, we discovered an enhancer from the iab-6 regulatory domain that is responsible for Abd-B expression in these cells and that apparently works independently from the segmentally regulated chromatin domains of the bithorax complex. Removal of this enhancer results in visible morphological defects in the secondary cells. We determined that mates of iab-6 mutant males show defects in long-term egg laying and suppression of receptivity, and that products of the secondary cells are influential during sperm competition. Many of these phenotypes seem to be caused by a defect in the storage and gradual release of sex peptide in female mates of iab-6 mutant males. We also found that Abd-B expression in the secondary cells contributes to glycosylation of at least three accessory gland proteins: ovulin (Acp26Aa, CG1656, and CG1652. Our results demonstrate that long-term post-mating changes observed in mated females are not solely induced by main cell secretions, as previously believed, but that secondary cells also play an important role in male fertility by extending the female PMR. Overall, these discoveries provide new insights into how these two cell types cooperate to produce and maintain a

  20. Distinguishing HIV-1 drug resistance, accessory, and viral fitness mutations using conditional selection pressure analysis of treated versus untreated patient samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Christopher

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV can evolve drug resistance rapidly in response to new drug treatments, often through a combination of multiple mutations 123. It would be useful to develop automated analyses of HIV sequence polymorphism that are able to predict drug resistance mutations, and to distinguish different types of functional roles among such mutations, for example, those that directly cause drug resistance, versus those that play an accessory role. Detecting functional interactions between mutations is essential for this classification. We have adapted a well-known measure of evolutionary selection pressure (Ka/Ks and developed a conditional Ka/Ks approach to detect important interactions. Results We have applied this analysis to four independent HIV protease sequencing datasets: 50,000 clinical samples sequenced by Specialty Laboratories, Inc.; 1800 samples from patients treated with protease inhibitors; 2600 samples from untreated patients; 400 samples from untreated African patients. We have identified 428 mutation interactions in Specialty dataset with statistical significance and we were able to distinguish primary vs. accessory mutations for many well-studied examples. Amino acid interactions identified by conditional Ka/Ks matched 80 of 92 pair wise interactions found by a completely independent study of HIV protease (p-value for this match is significant: 10-70. Furthermore, Ka/Ks selection pressure results were highly reproducible among these independent datasets, both qualitatively and quantitatively, suggesting that they are detecting real drug-resistance and viral fitness mutations in the wild HIV-1 population. Conclusion Conditional Ka/Ks analysis can detect mutation interactions and distinguish primary vs. accessory mutations in HIV-1. Ka/Ks analysis of treated vs. untreated patient data can distinguish drug-resistance vs. viral fitness mutations. Verification of these results would require longitudinal studies. The result

  1. Zolpidem, a selective GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit agonist, induces comparable Fos expression in oxytocinergic neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular and accessory but not supraoptic nuclei in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, Alexander; Søderman, Andreas; Bundzikova, Jana;

    2006-01-01

    Functional activation of oxytocinergic (OXY) cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN), supraoptic (SON), and accessory (ACC) nuclei was investigated in response to acute treatment with Zolpidem (a GABA(A) receptor agonist with selectivity for alpha(1) subunits) utilizing dual Fos/OXY immun...

  2. Investigation of applicability of a mid-infrared spectroscopic method using an attenuated total reflection accessory and a new near-infrared transmission method for determination of faecal fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volmer, M; Kingma, AW; Borsboom, PCF; Wolthers, BG; Kema, IP

    2001-01-01

    In many laboratories, the titrimetric method of Van de Kamer is used for the analysis of faecal fat content of patients suspected of steatorrhoea. We investigated the applicability of a mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic method, using an attenuated total reflection (ATR) accessory, and a new near-infr

  3. Comparative analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands of bat species from the five Brazilian subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Fabiane F; Puga, Cintia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to morphologically characterize and compare the male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) of bats belonging to the five Brazilian subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae (Carollia perspicillata-Carollinae; Desmodus rotundus-Desmodontinae; Glossophaga soricina-Glossophaginae; Phyllostomus discolor-Phyllostominae and Platyrrhinus lineatus-Stenodermatinae). The study demonstrated that the RAGs of phyllostomid bats were comprised of a pair of extra-abdominal bulbourethral glands and an intra-abdominal complex, composed of paraurethral glands and a prostate with two (Desmodontinae and Stenodermatinae) or three (Carollinae, Glossophaginae and Phyllostominae) different regions, with the absence of the seminal vesicles; this pattern possibly evolved from a process of compaction of the prostatic regions from an ancestor with three regions.

  4. Typomorphic characteristic features of accessory ilmenite in granitoids of the polyphase Aleisk-Zmeinogorsk complex (N-W Rudny Altai area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoselov K.L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper material is devoted to the research of crystallomorphology, accessory ilmenite expansion, characteristic features of its chemical composition, paragenetic association and conditions for mineral formation in Devonian granitoids of the polyphase Aleisk-Zmeinogorsk complex. Two ilmenite generations formed at various crystallization stages of the magmatic melt have been identified by the morphological features of the ilmenite crystals, chemical composition and paragenesis. Early-magmatic Ilmenite1 singled out at the protocrystallization stage during reduction and weakly-oxidizing environment conditions. It is characterized by the crystalline-faced shapes, low content of the pyrophanite minal and V admixture. Ilmenite 2 singled out at the major crystallization stage of the melt in the conditions of higher oxygen fugacity as the forms of the flattened, xenomorphic grains with the enhanced pyrophanite concentration and Nb admixture.

  5. Proteasome Accessory Factor C (pafC) Is a novel gene Involved in Mycobacterium Intrinsic Resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics--Fluoroquinolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiming; Xie, Longxiang; Long, Quanxin; Mao, Jinxiao; Li, Hui; Zhou, Mingliang; Xie, Jianping

    2015-07-03

    Antibiotics resistance poses catastrophic threat to global public health. Novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of action will inspire better measures to control drug resistance. Fluoroquinolones are potent and widely prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics. Bacterial protein degradation pathways represent novel druggable target for the development of new classes of antibiotics. Mycobacteria proteasome accessory factor C (pafC), a component of bacterial proteasome, is involved in fluoroquinolones resistance. PafC deletion mutants are hypersensitive to fluoroquinolones, including moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, but not to other antibiotics such as isoniazid, rifampicin, spectinomycin, chloramphenicol, capreomycin. This phenotype can be restored by complementation. The pafC mutant is hypersensitive to H2O2 exposure. The iron chelator (bipyridyl) and a hydroxyl radical scavenger (thiourea) can abolish the difference. The finding that pafC is a novel intrinsic selective resistance gene provided new evidence for the bacterial protein degradation pathway as druggable target for the development of new class of antibiotics.

  6. Canal mandibular accesorio: análisis de su prevalencia y aspecto imagenológico Accessory mandibular canal: analysis of prevalence and imaging appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Suazo Galdames

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La presencia de canales accesorios en la mandíbula ha sido reportada en la literatura, siendo cuestionado el carácter de variación anatómica de su presentación. El reconocimiento de estas formaciones tiene gran importancia en la práctica de la implantología. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia del canal mandibular accesorio y establecer su trayecto y relación con elementos anatómicos circundantes, en mandíbulas secas de individuos adultos pertenecientes al museo de cráneos de la Universidad Federal de São Paulo, mediante imágenes tomografías computarizadas. Material y método: Se analizaron 294 mandíbulas de sexo y edad conocidos, pertenecientes a 195 hombres y 99 mujeres, de entre 18 y 100 años de edad, las cuales fueron inspeccionadas visualmente y con ayuda de un indicador metálico, el cual se mantuvo para obtener sus imágenes en tomografía axial computarizada, examinándose su proyección panorámica y en cortes coronales. Resultados: La prevalencia del canal mandibular accesorio fue de 1,7% (5/294, todos ellos se extendieron paralelos al canal principal, proyectándose anteriormente al foramen mentoniano, con una corticalización parcial. Discusiones: El canal mandibular accesorio presenta una baja prevalencia en la muestra analizada, proponemos que su presencia está asociada a una proyección independiente de los ramos incisivos del nervio alveolar inferior, cuya evaluación es necesaria para evitar su compromiso en los procedimientos implantológicos mandibulares.Introduction: The presence of accessory canals in the mandible has been reported in the literature, still challenge the view that anatomical variation of submission. The recognition of these formations is of great importance in implantology practice. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of accessory mandibular canal and set their course and relationship to surrounding anatomic elements in dry

  7. A method for enriching myeloid (CFU-GM) and erythroid (BFU-E) progenitor cells from human cord blood by accessory cell depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, L A; Ma, D D

    1992-10-01

    Human cord blood provides a convenient alternative to bone marrow as a rich source of hemopoietic progenitor cells. This study reports a simple means for enriching a cord blood progenitor cell population by accessory cell depletion. Two methods of monocyte depletion were tested. A Cytodex 3 microcarrier system using collagen coated dextran beads was compared to the more commonly used method of plastic plate adhesion. The method of plastic plate adhesion gave a significantly higher cell recovery. T cell depletion using a recently characterized rat monoclonal antibody which fixes human complement was also investigated. A combined method of monocyte depletion by plate adhesion and T cell depletion resulted in the removal of > 96% of monocytes and > 98% of T cells. This led to a significant enrichment of myeloid (CFU-GM) and erythroid (BFU-E) colony growth. Such enriched progenitor cell populations provide a useful starting population for any study on hemopoiesis.

  8. Synthesis, depletion and cell-type expression of a protein from the male accessory glands of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Parra, Catalina; Avila, Frank W; Deewatthanawong, Prasit; Sirot, Laura K; Wolfner, Mariana F; Harrington, Laura C

    2014-11-01

    Aedes aegypti males transfer sperm and seminal fluid proteins (Sfps), primarily produced by male accessory glands (AGs), to females during mating. When collectively injected or transplanted into females, AG tissues and/or seminal fluid homogenates have profound effects on Aedes female physiology and behavior. To identify targets and design new strategies for vector control, it is important to understand the biology of the AGs. Thus, we examined characteristics of AG secretion and development in A. aegypti, using the AG-specific seminal fluid protein, AAEL010824, as a marker. We showed that AAEL010824 is first detectable by 12h post-eclosion, and increases in amount over the first 3 days of adult life. We then showed that the amount of AAEL0010824 in the AG decreases after mating, with each successive mating depleting it further; by 5 successive matings with no time for recovery, its levels are very low. AAEL010824 levels in a depleted male are replenished by 48 h post-mating. In addition to examining the level of AAEL010824 protein, we also characterized the expression of its gene. We did this by making a transgenic mosquito line that carries an Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) fused to the AAEL0010824 promoter that we defined here. We showed that AAEL010824 is expressed in the anterior cells of the accessory glands, and that its RNA levels also respond to mating. In addition to further characterizing AAEL010824 expression, our results with the EGFP fusion provide a promoter for driving AG expression. By providing this information on the biology of an important male reproductive tissue and the production of one of its seminal proteins, our results lay the foundation for future work aimed at identifying novel targets for mosquito population control.

  9. Structure of UreG/UreF/UreH complex reveals how urease accessory proteins facilitate maturation of Helicobacter pylori urease.

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    Yu Hang Fong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Urease is a metalloenzyme essential for the survival of Helicobacter pylori in acidic gastric environment. Maturation of urease involves carbamylation of Lys219 and insertion of two nickel ions at its active site. This process requires GTP hydrolysis and the formation of a preactivation complex consisting of apo-urease and urease accessory proteins UreF, UreH, and UreG. UreF and UreH form a complex to recruit UreG, which is a SIMIBI class GTPase, to the preactivation complex. We report here the crystal structure of the UreG/UreF/UreH complex, which illustrates how UreF and UreH facilitate dimerization of UreG, and assembles its metal binding site by juxtaposing two invariant Cys66-Pro67-His68 metal binding motif at the interface to form the (UreG/UreF/UreH2 complex. Interaction studies revealed that addition of nickel and GTP to the UreG/UreF/UreH complex releases a UreG dimer that binds a nickel ion at the dimeric interface. Substitution of Cys66 and His68 with alanine abolishes the formation of the nickel-charged UreG dimer. This nickel-charged UreG dimer can activate urease in vitro in the presence of the UreF/UreH complex. Static light scattering and atomic absorption spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the nickel-charged UreG dimer, upon GTP hydrolysis, reverts to its monomeric form and releases nickel to urease. Based on our results, we propose a mechanism on how urease accessory proteins facilitate maturation of urease.

  10. Associations of anterior accessory or thigh posterior tributary and great saphenous reflux patterns in early stages of chronic venous valvular insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Engelhorn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Varicose veins are a common disorder. Extensive ultrasound (US mapping of lower extremity chronic venous valvular insufficiency includes the great saphenous vein (GSV, anterior accessory saphenous vein (AASV and thigh posterior tributary to GSV such as the posterior accessory saphenous vein (PTSV, PASV. The aim of this study was to determine associations between GSV-AASV-PTSV (including PASV reflux in a specific sample population of Southern Brazilian women, mostly euro descendents, with telangiectasias, reticular veins, varices and/or intermittent edema. US performed in 1016 extremities of 513 women, 43±18 (18-81 years old were included. Women with previous venous thrombosis, surgery, suspicion of pelvic congestion syndrome, and men were excluded. Small saphenous vein and related thigh veins were excluded from analysis. GSV-AASV-PTSV reflux patterns were analyzed; prevalence was compared using χ2 statistics. Reflux prevalence in AASV and/or thigh PTSV was 5.8% (59/1016: 1.3% at PTSV (n=13 and 4.5% at AASV (n=46, significantly lower than GSV reflux: 72% (n=727 (P<0.001. AASV and/or PTSV reflux was associated with GSV reflux (81%, n=48/59; common pattern was diffuse reflux, starting at AASV/PTSV saphenous junctions (56%, n=33/59; otherwise, short, non-diffuse reflux was noted in part of the AASV/PTSV evaluated. Isolated AASV or PTSV reflux was rare (1%, n=11/1016: 9 at the AASV, and 2 at the PTSV. US mapping of AASV/PTSV in early stages of disease, in women without pelvic congestion syndrome, increased reflux detection by 1%, and improved definition of reflux patterns in about 6% of the extremities.

  11. Online monitoring of accessories for underground electrical installations through acoustics emissions; Monitoreo en linea de accesorios de instalaciones electricas subterraneas mediante emisiones acusticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casals-Torrens, P. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Espana)]. E-mail: p.casals@upc.edu; Gonzalez-Parada, A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)]. E-mail: gonzaleza@salamanca.ugto.mx; Bosch-Tous, R. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Espana)

    2012-04-15

    The acoustic waves caused by Partial Discharges inside the dielectric materials, can be detected by acoustic emission (AE) sensors and analyzed in the time domain. The experimental results presented, show the online detection capability of these sensors in the environment near a cable accessory, such as a splice or terminal. The AE sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference and constitute a detection method non-intrusive and non-destructive, which ensures a galvanic decoupling with respect to electric networks, this technique of partial discharge detection can be applied as a test method for preventive or predictive maintenance (condition-based maintenance) to equipment or facilities of medium and high voltage in service and represents an alternative method to electrical detection systems, conventional or not, that continue to rely on the detection of current pulses. This paper presents characterization tests of the sensors AE through comparative tests of partial discharge on accessories for underground power cables. [Spanish] Las ondas acusticas provocadas por las descargas parciales en el interior de un dielectrico pueden ser detectadas por sensores de Emisiones Acusticas (EA) y analizadas en el dominio del tiempo. Los resultados experimentales que se presentan, evidencian la capacidad de deteccion en linea de estos sensores, en el entorno proximo a un accesorio de cable, empalme o terminal. Los sensores EA son inmunes a las interferencias electromagneticas, son un metodo de deteccion no destructivo y garantizan desacople galvanico respecto a la red electrica; esta tecnica de deteccion de descargas parciales puede ser aplicada como metodo de prueba para mantenimiento preventivo o predictivo (mantenimiento basado en la condicion), en equipos o instalaciones de media y alta tension en servicio, y representa una alternativa a los sistemas electricos de deteccion, convencionales o no, que continuan basandose en la deteccion del impulsos de corriente. En el

  12. Safety evaluation of long-term vas occlusion with styrene maleic anhydride and its non-invasive reversal on accessory reproductive organs in langurs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Manivannan; S. S. Bhande; S. Panneerdoss; S. Sriram; N. K. Lohiya

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the safety of the long term vas occlusion with styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) and its non-invasive reversal at the level of accessory reproductive glands (ARGs) in langurs. Methods: The morphology of seminal vesicle and ventral prostate was evaluated by light as well as transmission electron microscopy. Serum clinical chemistry and urine albumin were evaluated in an autoanalyzer using reagent kits. Fructose, acid phosphatase and zinc in the seminal plasma were evaluated spectrophotomet-ically according to the WHO manual. Serum testosterone,prostate specific antigen and sperm antibodies were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)using reagent kits and hematology was estimated according to standard procedures. Results: The morphological features and secretory activity of the seminal vesicle and prostate were normal as evidenced by the presence of welldeveloped mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, secretory granules and normal nuclear characteristics throughout the course of investigation. Serum testosterone and prostate specific antigen remained unaltered and serum antisperm antibodies level presented negative titres. Urine albumin was nil. Total red blood corpuscles (RBC), white blood corpuscles (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and red cell indices, serum protein, glucose, cholesterol,creatinine, creatine kinase (CK), serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bilirubin, urea, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) did not show appreciable changes following vas occlusion and after its non-invasive reversal. Although fructose, acid phosphatase (ACP) and zinc in the seminal plasma showed a significant reduction following vas occlusion, it could not be related to the morphology of seminal vesicle and prostate. Conclusion: SMA vas occlusion and its non-invasive reversal do not damage the accessory reproductive organs.

  13. Comparison of social interaction and neural activation in the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb between Microtus mandarinus and Microtus fortis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadao TAI, Wanying WANG, Hugh BRODERS, Ruyong SUN, Limin LIU , Hongyuan WANG

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available To gain insight into the function of AOB and MOB during different social interaction and in different vole species, the behaviors and neural activation of the olfactory bulbs in social interactions of mandarin voles Microtus mandarinus and reed voles Microtus fortis were compared in the present research. Mandarin voles spent significantly more time attacking and sniffing its opponent and sniffing sawdust than reed voles. During same sex encounters, mandarin voles attacked its opponent for a significantly longer time and sniffed its opponent for shorter time compared with male-female interactions. However, no significant behavioral differences were found during encounters of two individual reed voles, regardless of gender composition of the pair. Using c-Fos as an indicator of neural activation, we observed that neural activation was significantly higher in almost all sub-regions of the main olfactory bulb (MOB and the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB of mandarin voles compared with reed voles. Numbers of c-Fos-ir neurons in almost all sub-regions of the AOB and the MOB during male-female interactions were also higher than those in interactions of the same sex. Anterior-posterior ratios of Fos-ir neurons in the AOBM (AOBMR and the AOBG (AOBGR in male-female interaction were significantly higher than those in interaction of the same sex. The AOBMR of male mandarin voles and reed voles were larger than those of females in male-female interactions. Behavioral patterns are consistent with cellular activity patterns. Consistent level of neural activation in MOB and AOB suggests important roles of both the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb in social interaction in two species [Current Zoology 55(4: 279 –287, 2009].

  14. Clinical analysis of masses arising from the accessory parotid gland: report of 32 cases%副腮腺病变32例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹; 杨筱; 季彤; 钟来平; 张陈平; 张志愿

    2012-01-01

    目的:副腮腺病变在临床上并不多见,本研究旨在探讨副腮腺病变的临床表现、治疗和预后.方法:回顾性分析1999年4月-2008年11月收治的32例副腮腺病变患者的临床资料,包括性别、年龄、病程、症状、体格检查、影像学检查、治疗方案、术后病理检查和随访结果.结果:32例患者中,男8例,女24例,就诊年龄19~69岁,平均45岁.患者通常无明显的症状和体征,病变质地中等或偏硬,活动度良好,界限清楚.所有患者均接受手术治疗,术后病理诊断24例为良性病变(多形性腺瘤19例,良性淋巴上皮瘤3例,基底细胞腺瘤和慢性炎症各1例),8例为恶性病变(腺泡细胞癌和淋巴上皮癌各2例,乳头状囊腺癌、基底细胞癌、上皮-肌上皮癌和黏液表皮样癌各1例),恶性肿瘤患者术后追加放疗.随访12~128个月,平均36个月,预后良好,未见肿瘤复发.结论:副腮腺病变临床少见,其临床表现与良性肿瘤类似,治疗以手术为主,恶性肿瘤可追加术后放疗,预后较好.%PURPOSE: To analyze accessory parotid lesions in terms of clinical appearance, clinical differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. METHODS: From April 1999 to November 2008, 32 patients with accessory parotid lesions was treated. The patients' general condition, clinical symptoms and signs, preoperative examinations, surgical treatment, and prognosis were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 32 patients, there were 8 males and 24 females with an average age of 45 years. The patients always presented without obvious symptoms, and the masses were moderate to hard in hardness without tenderness, mobile with clear boundary. The pathological diagnosis was 24 benign lesions and 8 malignant lesions, including 19 pleomorphic adenomas, 3 benign lymphoepithelial lesions, 1 basal cell adenoma, and 1 chronic inflammation among benign lesions, while 2 acinic cell carcinomas, 2 lymphoepithelial carcinomas, 1 papillary

  15. Kicking against the PRCs - A Domesticated Transposase Antagonises Silencing Mediated by Polycomb Group Proteins and Is an Accessory Component of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Chieh Liang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Polycomb group (PcG and trithorax group (trxG genes play crucial roles in development by regulating expression of homeotic and other genes controlling cell fate. Both groups catalyse modifications of chromatin, particularly histone methylation, leading to epigenetic changes that affect gene activity. The trxG antagonizes the function of PcG genes by activating PcG target genes, and consequently trxG mutants suppress PcG mutant phenotypes. We previously identified the ANTAGONIST OF LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (ALP1 gene as a genetic suppressor of mutants in the Arabidopsis PcG gene LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (LHP1. Here, we show that ALP1 interacts genetically with several other PcG and trxG components and that it antagonizes PcG silencing. Transcriptional profiling reveals that when PcG activity is compromised numerous target genes are hyper-activated in seedlings and that in most cases this requires ALP1. Furthermore, when PcG activity is present ALP1 is needed for full activation of several floral homeotic genes that are repressed by the PcG. Strikingly, ALP1 does not encode a known chromatin protein but rather a protein related to PIF/Harbinger class transposases. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that ALP1 is broadly conserved in land plants and likely lost transposase activity and acquired a novel function during angiosperm evolution. Consistent with this, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry (IP-MS show that ALP1 associates, in vivo, with core components of POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 (PRC2, a widely conserved PcG protein complex which functions as a H3K27me3 histone methyltransferase. Furthermore, in reciprocal pulldowns using the histone methyltransferase CURLY LEAF (CLF, we identify not only ALP1 and the core PRC2 components but also plant-specific accessory components including EMBRYONIC FLOWER 1 (EMF1, a transcriptional repressor previously associated with PRC1-like complexes. Taken together our data suggest that ALP1

  16. Sequencing of mitochondrial genomes of nine Aspergillus and Penicillium species identifies mobile introns and accessory genes as main sources of genome size variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joardar Vinita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genera Aspergillus and Penicillium include some of the most beneficial as well as the most harmful fungal species such as the penicillin-producer Penicillium chrysogenum and the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively. Their mitochondrial genomic sequences may hold vital clues into the mechanisms of their evolution, population genetics, and biology, yet only a handful of these genomes have been fully sequenced and annotated. Results Here we report the complete sequence and annotation of the mitochondrial genomes of six Aspergillus and three Penicillium species: A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. oryzae, A. flavus, Neosartorya fischeri (A. fischerianus, A. terreus, P. chrysogenum, P. marneffei, and Talaromyces stipitatus (P. stipitatum. The accompanying comparative analysis of these and related publicly available mitochondrial genomes reveals wide variation in size (25–36 Kb among these closely related fungi. The sources of genome expansion include group I introns and accessory genes encoding putative homing endonucleases, DNA and RNA polymerases (presumed to be of plasmid origin and hypothetical proteins. The two smallest sequenced genomes (A. terreus and P. chrysogenum do not contain introns in protein-coding genes, whereas the largest genome (T. stipitatus, contains a total of eleven introns. All of the sequenced genomes have a group I intron in the large ribosomal subunit RNA gene, suggesting that this intron is fixed in these species. Subsequent analysis of several A. fumigatus strains showed low intraspecies variation. This study also includes a phylogenetic analysis based on 14 concatenated core mitochondrial proteins. The phylogenetic tree has a different topology from published multilocus trees, highlighting the challenges still facing the Aspergillus systematics. Conclusions The study expands the genomic resources available to fungal biologists by providing mitochondrial genomes with consistent

  17. A rare variant of the ulnar artery with important clinical implications: a case report

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    Casal Diogo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in the major arteries of the upper limb are estimated to be present in up to one fifth of people, and may have significant clinical implications. Case presentation During routine cadaveric dissection of a 69-year-old fresh female cadaver, a superficial brachioulnar artery with an aberrant path was found bilaterally. The superficial brachioulnar artery originated at midarm level from the brachial artery, pierced the brachial fascia immediately proximal to the elbow, crossed superficial to the muscles that originated from the medial epicondyle, and ran over the pronator teres muscle in a doubling of the antebrachial fascia. It then dipped into the forearm fascia, in the gap between the flexor carpi radialis and the palmaris longus. Subsequently, it ran deep to the palmaris longus muscle belly, and superficially to the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle, reaching the gap between the latter and the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, where it assumed is usual position lateral to the ulnar nerve. Conclusion As far as the authors could determine, this variant of the superficial brachioulnar artery has only been described twice before in the literature. The existence of such a variant is of particular clinical significance, as these arteries are more susceptible to trauma, and can be easily confused with superficial veins during medical and surgical procedures, potentially leading to iatrogenic distal limb ischemia.

  18. Total Lip Reconstruction with Tendinofasciocutaneous Radial Forearm Flap

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    Eldad Silberstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Squamous cell carcinoma is a common tumour of lower lip. Small defects created by surgical resection may be readily reconstructed by linear closure or with local flaps. However, large tumours resection often results with microstomia and oral incompetence, drooling, and speech incomprehension. The goal of this study is to describe our experience with composite free radial forearm-palmaris longus tendon flap for total or near total lower lip reconstruction. Patients and Methods. This procedure was used in 5 patients with 80–100% lip defect resulting from Squamous cell carcinoma. Patients’ age ranged from 46 to 82 years. They are three male patients and two female. In 3 cases chin skin was reconstructed as well and in one case a 5 cm segment of mandible was reconstructed using radius bone. In one case where palmaris longus was missing hemi-flexor carpi radialis tendon was used instead. All patients tolerated the procedure well. Results. All flaps totally survived. No patient suffered from drooling. All patients regained normal diet and normal speech. Cosmetic result was fair to good in all patients accept one. Conclusion. We conclude that tendino-fasciocutaneous radial forearm flap for total lower lip reconstruction is safe. Functional and aesthetic result approaches reconstructive goals.

  19. Clinical diagnosis and cause analysis of misdiagnosis in accessory spleens cases%副脾的临床诊断与误诊原因分析(附8例报道)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石结武; 周林玉; 诸禹平; 谈宜傲; 杨栋梁; 郝天春

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨副脾的临床诊断方法和副脾误诊的原因.方法 回顾分析8例副脾患者的诊疗过程,进一步探讨副脾的误诊原因.结果 一例经超声检查诊断,两例经CT检查诊断,此三例随访2~3年,复查均未发现异常;一例可疑患者要求行手术处理,术后病理证实为副脾,其余四例分别误诊为肝脏肿瘤一例,卵巢囊肿一例,肾上腺肿瘤两例.结论 典型的副脾有典型的影像学表现及常见发生部位,多数可在术前作出明确诊断,但是位于不典型部位或伴发梗死的副脾常容易发生误诊,积极完善术前血尿生化检查,完善超声检查,重视CT三维重建、MRI甚至核素扫描并结合临床表现,熟悉副脾可能出现的少见解剖部位,可以减少副脾的误诊率,提高术前正确诊断率.%Aim To explore the clinical diagnosis methods of accessory spleens and the possible causes of their misdiagnosis. Methods The diagnosing and treating process of eight cases of accessory spleens were retrospectively analyzed to discuss the causes of the misdiag nosis of accessory spleen further. Results Among three diagnosed cases,one was diagnosed by Supersonic and the other two cases were diagnosed by CT,which were followed up 2 ~ 3 yeas. The review showed no abnormalities. One case suspected as accessory spleen re quired surgical treatment, pathologically confirmed as deputy spleen after surgery. The remaining four cases were misdiagnosed as liver cancer(n = 1) ,ovarian cysts(n = 1) ,adrenal tumors(n = 2). Conclusion Typical accessory spleen has the typical imaging findings and common occurrence sites,most of which can be definitely diagnosed before surgery. But the accessory spleens which located in atypical areas or with infarct are easily to be misdiagnosed. Improving the preoperative blood and urine biochemical examinationactively, comple ting ultrasound examination,emphasizing on three-dimensional CT reconstruction and MRI or radionuclide scanning

  20. A group-specific inhibitor of lysosomal cysteine proteinases selectively inhibits both proteolytic degradation and presentation of the antigen dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine by guinea pig accessory cells to T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1986-01-01

    of antigens by guinea pig accessory cells. The proteinase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanylalanine-diazomethyl-ketone, which selectively inhibits cysteine proteinases, was used to block this set of enzymes in cultured cells. We demonstrate that the selective inhibition of the cysteine proteinases...... inhibitor. Another inhibitor, pepstatin A, which selectively blocks aspartic proteinases, did not block the presentation of dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine. The results identify cysteine proteinases, probably lysosomal, as one of the groups of enzymes involved in antigen processing....

  1. Improvement of accessory symptoms of hypertension by TSUMURA Orengedokuto Extract, a four herbal drugs containing Kampo-Medicine Granules for ethical use: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, K; Saruta, T; Abe, K; Iimura, O; Ishii, M; Ogihara, T; Hiwada, K; Fukiyama, K; Fujishima, M; Mizuno, Y; Kikuchi, T; Takaori, S

    2006-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and utility of TSUMURA Orengedokuto Extract Granules for Ethical Use (TJ-15) as a treatment for the accessory symptoms of hypertension. Two capsules of the study drug were administered orally 3 times daily (i.e., before meals) for 8 weeks. Among 265 patients enrolled in the study, 134 were assigned to the TJ-15 group and 131 were assigned to the placebo group, of whom 204 patients (103 in the TJ-15 group and 101 in the placebo group) were included in the efficacy and utility analyze and 251 patients (128 in the TJ-15 group and 123 in the placebo group) were included in the safety analysis. Efficacy was significantly higher in the TJ-15 group based on the total score for the accessory symptoms of hypertensions which was the primary efficacy endpoint (Wilcoxon's rank sum test, p=0.013). When each accessory symptom of hypertension was assessed separately, efficacy was higher for hot flushes and facial suffusion in the TJ-15 group (Wilcoxon's rank sum test, p=0.034, and 0.022, respectively). There were no significant differences between the TJ-15 and the placebo groups with respect to the decrease of blood pressure or the antihypertensive effect. There was also no significant difference between the two groups with regard to the overall safety rating. The utility rating was significantly higher in the TJ-15 group than in the placebo group (Wilcoxon's rank sum test, p=0.016). In conclusion, TJ-15 was superior to placebo with respect to efficacy, safety, and utility for the treatment of accessory symptoms of hypertension.

  2. Seminal vesicles of infertile patients with male accessory gland infection: ultrasound evaluation after prolonged treatment with tadalafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vignera, S

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible ultrasound seminal vesicle (SV) changes in infertile patients with 'hypertrophic-congestive' (HCUF) or 'fibro-sclerotic' (FSUF) ultrasound form of male accessory gland infection (MAGI) after prolonged administration of tadalafil (TAD), a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor. Forty infertile patients with HCUF and 40 patients with FSUF and erectile dysfunction were selected and arbitrarily divided into two groups, who were prescribed TAD 5 mg daily for 3 months, the first 20 consecutive patients with HCUF (group A1) or FSUF (group A2) or placebo, the second 20 consecutive patients with HCUF (group B1) or FSUF (group B2). All patients underwent scrotal and prostate-vesicular transrectal ultrasound evaluation and semen analysis (WHO, 2010) before and after treatment. Group A1 patients showed a significant reduction in fundus/body ratio and higher pre- and post-ejaculatory body SV antero-posterior diameter difference compared with the other three groups. These patients showed also a significant increase in SV ejection fraction and a significant improvement in the total sperm count, progressive motility, seminal levels of fructose and ejaculate volume. These results suggest that infertile patients with HCUF had an improvement in SV ultrasound features suggestive of chronic inflammation after daily treatment with low doses of TAD.

  3. Transcriptome analysis to identify genes for peptides and proteins involved in immunity and reproduction from male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct of Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dong; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Liu, Shi-Huo; Wang, Tao; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    In the male reproductive system of insects, the male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct (MAG/ED) are important organs and their primary function is to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa. Proteins secreted by the MAG/ED are also known to induce post-mating changes and immunity responses in the female insect. To understand the gene expression profile in the MAG/ED of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), that is an important pest in fruits, we performed an Illumina-based deep sequencing of mRNA. This yielded 54,577,630 clean reads corresponding to 4.91Gb total nucleotides that were assembled and clustered to 30,669 unigenes (average 645bp). Among them, 20,419 unigenes were functionally annotated to known proteins/peptides in Gene Orthology, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway databases. Typically, many genes were involved in immunity and these included microbial recognition proteins and antimicrobial peptides. Subsequently, the inducible expression of these immunity-related genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis when insects were challenged with immunity-inducible factors, suggesting their function in guaranteeing fertilization success. Besides, we identified some important reproductive genes such as juvenile hormone- and ecdysteroid-related genes in this de novo assembly. In conclusion, this transcriptomic sequencing of B. dorsalis MAG/ED provides insights to facilitate further functional research of reproduction, immunity and molecular evolution of reproductive proteins in this important agricultural pest.

  4. Structure, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands in the neotropical flat-faced fruit-eating bat Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, Cíntia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Negrin, Ana C; Christante, Caroline M; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2013-01-01

    Chiroptera, the second largest mammalian order, presents different reproductive strategies and unique reproductive features. However, there are few reports regarding male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) in Chiroptera. Thus, the aim of the present study was to characterise the RAGs of the exclusively neotropical bat Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) macroscopically, microscopically and ultrastructurally. The RAGs were composed of a prostatic complex with two regions (ventral and dorsal) and paraurethral and bulbourethral glands, but no seminal vesicles. The ventral region had an undefined epithelium, with secretory and basal cells, and its secretions were periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive. The dorsal region received both deferens ducts, had a columnar pseudostratified epithelium with secretory and basal cells. There were two types of secretions from the dorsal region: one that was basophilic and another that was mixed PAS positive and PAS negative. The paraurethral glands were dispersed in the connective tissue of the urethra, whereas the bulbourethral glands were located in the penile root. Histological and ultrastructural data confirmed the prostatic nature of the ventral and dorsal regions and the holocrine nature of the ventral region, with the latter finding never having been described previously for the prostate gland. Our findings demonstrate the wide discrepancy of RAGs between A. planirostris and other mammals in terms of their composition, structure and morphology.

  5. Noradrenaline-induced enhancement of oscillatory local field potentials in the mouse accessory olfactory bulb does not depend on disinhibition of mitral cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszkowicz, Emilia; Khan, Selina; Ng, Stephanie; Ved, Nikita; Swallow, Daniel L; Brennan, Peter A

    2012-05-01

    The olfactory bulb differs from other brain regions by its use of bidirectional synaptic transmission at dendrodendritic reciprocal synapses. These reciprocal synapses provide tight coupling of inhibitory feedback from granule cell interneurons to mitral cell projection neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), at the first stage of vomeronasal processing. It has been proposed that both the mGluR2 agonist DCG-IV and noradrenaline promote mate recognition memory formation by reducing GABAergic feedback on mitral cells. The resultant mitral cell disinhibition is thought to induce a long-lasting enhancement in the gain of inhibitory feedback from granule to mitral cells, which selectively gates the transmission of the learned chemosensory information. However, we found that local infusions of both noradrenaline and DCG-IV failed to disinhibit AOB neural activity in urethane-anaesthetised mice. DCG-IV infusion had similar effects to the GABA(A) agonist isoguvacine, suggesting that it increased GABAergic inhibition in the AOB rather than reducing it. Noradrenaline infusion into the AOB also failed to disinhibit mitral cells in awake mice despite inducing long-term increases in power of AOB local field potentials, similar to those observed following memory formation. These results suggest that mitral cell disinhibition is not essential for the neural changes in the AOB that underlie mate recognition memory formation in mice.

  6. Human pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 1a (PSG1a) induces alternative activation in human and mouse monocytes and suppresses the accessory cell-dependent T cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motrán, Claudia Cristina; Díaz, Fernando López; Gruppi, Adriana; Slavin, Daniela; Chatton, Bruno; Bocco, José Luis

    2002-09-01

    It has been proposed that pregnancy-specific factors induce the suppression of a specific arm of the maternal response accompanied by activation of the nonspecific, innate immune system. The aim of this study was to determine whether pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 1a (PSG1a), the major variant of PSG polypeptides, is able to modulate the monocyte/macrophage (Mo) metabolism to regulate T cell activation and proliferation. Using the recombinant form of this glycoprotein (rec-PSG1a), expressed in mammalian cells with a vaccinia-based expression vector, we have demonstrated that human PSG1a induces arginase activity in peripheral blood human Mo and human and murine Mo cell lines. In addition, rec-PSG1a is able to induce alternative activation because it up-regulates the arginase activity and inhibits the nitric oxide production in Mo activated by lipopolysaccharides. We also observed that rec-PSG1a is an important accessory cells-dependent T cell suppressor factor that causes partial growth arrest at the S/G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Additionally, an impaired T cell proliferative response induced by mitogens and specific antigen was observed in BALB/c mice upon in vivo expression of PSG1a. Our results suggest that PSG1a function contributes to the immunomodulation during pregnancy, having opposite effects on maternal innate and adaptative systems.

  7. 民族元素在服饰品设计中的应用%The application of ethnic elements in clothing accessories design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 周娥

    2014-01-01

    具有民族特色的服饰品占领着越来越大的市场,民族元素越来越多地被用于服装及服饰品设计。为了传承、保护和开发传统民族服饰,在研究中国民族元素的基础上,选取具有代表性的民族元素,通过筛选和抽象变形的手法,将材质、纹样、色彩、造型、工艺及设计手法等运用于现代服饰品设计中。同时,设计中要注意与流行元素结合,而非生搬硬套。%Clothing products with national characteristics occupy more and more market ,ethnic elements are increasingly used in the design of clothing and clothing accessories .In order to protect ,inherit and de-velop traditional ethnic costumes ,the representative national elements are selected and applied on the modern apparel products through the screening and abstract deformation technique based on the study of Chinese national elements .It is suggested that ethnic elements should combine with fashion elements in the design ,rather than mechanically .

  8. Accessory Interaction Motifs in the Atg19 Cargo Receptor Enable Strong Binding to the Clustered Ubiquitin-related Atg8 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abert, Christine; Kontaxis, Georg; Martens, Sascha

    2016-09-02

    Selective autophagy contributes to cellular homeostasis by delivering harmful material into the lysosomal system for degradation via vesicular intermediates referred to as autophagosomes. The cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway is a variant of selective autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during which hydrolases such as prApe1 are transported into the vacuole. In general, selectivity is achieved by autophagic cargo receptors that link the cargo to autophagosomal membranes because of their ability to simultaneously interact with the cargo and Atg8 proteins that coat the membrane. The Atg19 receptor contains multiple Atg8 interaction sites in its C terminus in addition to a canonical Atg8-interacting LC3-interacting region (LIR, with LC3 being a homolog of Atg8) motif, but their mode of interaction with Atg8 is unclear. Here we show, using a combination of NMR, microscopy-based interaction assays, and prApe1 processing experiments, that two additional sites interact with Atg8 in a LIR-like and thus mutually exclusive manner. We term these motifs accessory LIR motifs because their affinities are lower than that of the canonical LIR motif. Thus, one Atg19 molecule has the ability to interact with multiple Atg8 proteins simultaneously, resulting in a high-avidity interaction that may confer specific binding to the Atg8-coated autophagosomal membrane on which Atg8 is concentrated.

  9. ORF7-encoded accessory protein 7a of feline infectious peritonitis virus as a counteragent against IFN-α-induced antiviral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Roukaerts, Inge D M; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-02-01

    The type I IFN-mediated immune response is the first line of antiviral defence. Coronaviruses, like many other viruses, have evolved mechanisms to evade this innate response, ensuring their survival. Several coronavirus accessory genes play a central role in these pathways, but for feline coronaviruses this has never to our knowledge been studied. As it has been demonstrated previously that ORF7 is essential for efficient replication in vitro and virulence in vivo of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), the role of this ORF in the evasion of the IFN-α antiviral response was investigated. Deletion of ORF7 from FIPV strain 79-1146 (FIPV-Δ7) rendered the virus more susceptible to IFN-α treatment. Given that ORF7 encodes two proteins, 7a and 7b, it was further explored which of these proteins is active in this mechanism. Providing 7a protein in trans rescued the mutant FIPV-Δ7 from IFN sensitivity, which was not achieved by addition of 7b protein. Nevertheless, addition of protein 7a to FIPV-Δ3Δ7, a FIPV mutant deleted in both ORF3 and ORF7, could no longer increase the replication capacity of this mutant in the presence of IFN. These results indicate that FIPV 7a protein is a type I IFN antagonist and protects the virus from the antiviral state induced by IFN, but it needs the presence of ORF3-encoded proteins to exert its antagonistic function.

  10. Study of the UHF Bowtie Antenna Used for Partial Discharge in HV Cable Accessories%检测高压电缆附件局部放电用超高频蝶形天线的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪沨; 石倩; 刘烨; 姚亚利; 张广东

    2013-01-01

    针对电缆附件的结构及附件内部易发生绝缘故障导致局部放电的特点,设计了用于电缆附件局部放电信号检测的内置超高频超宽带蝶形天线传感器.仿真和实测表明,该蝶形天线的有效工作频带为350~585 MHz.模拟实验表明该天线传感器灵敏度高、性能优越,能在有效频率范围内检测到局部放电信号,可以用于电缆附件局部放电超高频信号的检测.%Considering cable accessories structure and the characteristic that insulation failure easily occurs in internal attachment resulting in partial discharge, this paper designed a built-in UHF and UWB bowtie antennas sensor to detect partial discharge signal for cable accessories. Simulation results show that the effective bandwidth of the antenna is 350~585 MHz. Measurement results also show that the antenna sensor has high sensitivity and superior performance, and can be applied to PD UHF signal detection of cable accessories.

  11. 脂肪抽吸联合腋下小切口治疗腋下副乳腺%liposuction plus axillary small incision surgery for treatment of accessory breast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新; 刘薇

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the feasibility of liposuction plus axil ary smal incision surgery in treating accessory breast. Methods:From January 2009 to December 2011 a total of 256 accessory breasts of 148 female patients were treated in our department. Their age ranged 23 to 48years.Forty patients had unilateral accessory breast and 108 bilateral. Tumesent anAfter tumescent anesthesia injected iesthesia was injected at the subcutaneous fat layer in axil ary surgery area, negative pressure aspiration was performed to suck out the adipose tssue and accessory breast tissue, then the residual accessory breast tissue was removed through a 2 cm smal incision which was made at the axil a. Results:Two hundred and fifty-six accessory breasts of 148 patients were successful y treated with the liposuction plus axil ary smal incision surgery method. The patients were fol owed up for 6-12 months. Good outcome was achieved. Al patients had fast healing, with smal scar and good appearance. No infection, hydrops, bleeding or wound fracture occurred. Only one patient had slight numb in the upper extremity of the affected side, but recovered automatical y about six months later. Conclusion: The method of liposuction plush axil ary smal incision surgery in treating accessory breast is feasible. It is safe and has advantages of easy operation, , minimal y invasive, less bleeding, less complications, fast recovery and good appearance.%目的:探讨脂肪抽吸联合腋下小切口治疗腋下副乳腺手术的可行性。方法:本科2009年1月至2011年12月行脂肪抽吸联合腋下小切口手术治疗148例,共256个副乳腺,其中40例患者为单侧,108例为双侧,均为女性,年龄23~48岁。在腋窝手术区域皮下脂肪层内注射肿胀麻醉液,采用负压吸引抽吸该区域内的脂肪组织及副乳腺组织,在腋下局部行2cm皮肤小切口切除余下副乳腺组织。结果:采用脂肪抽吸联合腋下小切口手术成功治疗148

  12. Study Casts Doubt on Long-Used Morning Sickness Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... team published their analysis online Jan. 4 in PLOS One . SOURCES: Nav Persaud, M.D., family physician, St. ... Hill Hospital, New York City; Jan. 4, 2017, PLOS One , online HealthDay Copyright (c) 2017 HealthDay . All rights ...

  13. Biophysical and physiological characterization of ZraP from Escherichia coli, the periplasmic accessory protein of the atypical ZraSR two-component system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Härtlein, Isabelle; Rome, Kevin; de Rosny, Eve; Molton, Florian; Duboc, Carole; Gueguen, Erwan; Rodrigue, Agnès; Covès, Jacques

    2015-12-01

    The ZraSR system belongs to the family of TCSs (two-component signal transduction systems). In Escherichia coli, it was proposed to participate in zinc balance and to protect cytoplasmic zinc overload by sequestering this metal ion into the periplasm. This system controls the expression of the accessory protein ZraP that would be a periplasmic zinc scavenger. ZraPSR is functionally homologous with CpxPAR that integrates signals of envelope perturbation, including misfolded periplasmic proteins. The auxiliary periplasmic regulator CpxP inhibits the Cpx pathway by interacting with CpxA. Upon envelope stress sensing, the inhibitory function of CpxP is relieved, resulting in CpxR activation. Similarly to CpxPAR, ZraPSR probably plays a role in envelope stress response as a zinc-dependent chaperone activity was demonstrated for ZraP in Salmonella. We have purified ZraP from E. coli and shown that it is an octamer containing four interfacial metal-binding sites contributing to dimer stability. These sites are located close to the N-terminus, whereas the C-terminus is involved in polymerization of the protein to form a tetramer of dimers. In vitro, ZraP binds copper with a higher affinity than zinc and displays chaperone properties partially dependent on zinc binding. In vivo, zinc-bound ZraP is a repressor of the expression of the zraPSR operon. However, we have demonstrated that none of the Zra proteins are involved in zinc or copper resistance. We propose an integrated mechanism in which zinc is a marker of envelope stress perturbation and ZraPSR TCS is a sentinel sensing and responding to zinc entry into the periplasm.

  14. STUDY ON VARIATIONS OF SHAPE, SIZE, LOCATION AND POSITION OF MENTAL FORAMEN AND INCIDENCE OF ACCESSORY MENTAL FORAMEN IN HUMAN MANDIBLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM AND OBJECTIVE The present study was conducted with an objective to determine the size, shape, location, position and number of Mental Foramen (MF and Accessory Mental Foramen (AMF on both sides of mandible and incidence of MF and AMF with respect to the surgically encountered important anatomical landmarks and compare with the findings of available literatures. METHODS AND MATERIALS The study was conducted on 50 dry adult human mandibles of unknown sex and age obtained from the Department of Anatomy of Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS, Imphal, Manipur, India. The shape, size, location and position of MF were measured on both sides of mandible by using Digital Vernier Caliper. RESULTS Mental foramen was present in all 50 mandibles and it was bilateral and the incidence of AMF was observed in only four mandibles (8%. In the present study, the round shape MF was observed in 17.05% and the oval shape of MF in 82.95%. Average size of AMF was 1.50 mm ranging from 1.00 mm to 2.00 mm. The location of the MF was found mostly below the apex of second premolar in 74.50 %, while it was 25.50% between the first and second premolars. CONCLUSION The knowledge about variations in size, shape, location and position of MF and presence of AMF will help the Dental Surgeons to determine accurate site of local anaesthesia and in avoiding injury to mental nerve and prevent unwanted spread of infections while performing periodontal or endodontic surgery.

  15. Identification of domains within the V-ATPase accessory subunit Ac45 involved in V-ATPase transport and Ca2+-dependent exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Eric J R; van Bakel, Nick H M; Olde Loohuis, Nikkie F M; Hafmans, Theo G M; Arentsen, Tim; Coenen, Anthon J M; Scheenen, Wim J J M; Martens, Gerard J M

    2012-08-10

    The vacuolar (H(+))-ATPase (V-ATPase) is crucial for maintenance of the acidic microenvironment in intracellular organelles, whereas its membrane-bound V(0)-sector is involved in Ca(2+)-dependent membrane fusion. In the secretory pathway, the V-ATPase is regulated by its type I transmembrane and V(0)-associated accessory subunit Ac45. To execute its function, the intact-Ac45 protein is proteolytically processed to cleaved-Ac45 thereby releasing its N-terminal domain. Here, we searched for the functional domains within Ac45 by analyzing a set of deletion mutants close to the in vivo situation, namely in transgenic Xenopus intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells. Intact-Ac45 was poorly processed and accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum of the transgenic melanotrope cells. In contrast, cleaved-Ac45 was efficiently transported through the secretory pathway, caused an accumulation of the V-ATPase at the plasma membrane and reduced dopaminergic inhibition of Ca(2+)-dependent peptide secretion. Surprisingly, removal of the C-tail from intact-Ac45 caused cellular phenotypes also found for cleaved-Ac45, whereas C-tail removal from cleaved-Ac45 still allowed its transport to the plasma membrane, but abolished V-ATPase recruitment into the secretory pathway and left dopaminergic inhibition of the cells unaffected. We conclude that domains located in the N- and C-terminal portions of the Ac45 protein direct its trafficking, V-ATPase recruitment and Ca(2+)-dependent-regulated exocytosis.

  16. Morphophysiology and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands of the bats Carollia perspicillata, Glossophaga soricina and Phyllostomus discolor (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Fabiane F; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-07-01

    The male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) are important organs that contribute to the secretion of different substances that composed the ejaculate. Despite this important function, their composition, anatomy and function vary widely between species. Thus, the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats were morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized and compared in this study. The RAGs of the three analyzed species are composed of a prostate and a pair of bulbourethral glands (BG). In all species, the prostate is composed of three well-defined regions (ventral, dorsolateral and dorsal regions). The ventral region showed an atypical epithelium (undefined) with no obvious cellular limits and a holocrine PAS-positive secretion. The dorsolateral region of Carollia perspicillata and Phyllostomus discolor showed a pseudostratified cubic morphology, and that from Glossophaga soricina had a columnar morphology endowed with cytoplasmic projections and stereocilia. The dorsal region of the three analyzed species is composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium endowed with stereocilia; however, G. soricina also presented cytoplasmic projections in the apical portions of the secretory cells similar to those in the dorsolateral region. The BG of the three analyzed species are composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium including basal and PAS-positive secretory cells. In conclusion, this study morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats, demonstrating the presence of a novel third prostatic region in species of this family. The results also showed the absence of seminal vesicles and ampullary glands, and better characterized the holocrine pattern of the prostatic ventral region, which is unique to bats.

  17. A job for quantum dots: use of a smartphone and 3D-printed accessory for all-in-one excitation and imaging of photoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryayeva, Eleonora; Algar, W Russ

    2016-04-01

    Point-of-care (POC) diagnostic technologies are needed to improve global health and smartphones are a prospective platform for these technologies. While many fluorescence or photoluminescence-based smartphone assays have been reported in the literature, common shortcomings are the requirement of an excitation light source external to the smartphone and complicated integration of that excitation source with the smartphone. Here, we show that the photographic flash associated with the smartphone camera can be utilized to enable all-in-one excitation and imaging of photoluminescence (PL), thus eliminating the need for an excitation light source external to the smartphone. A simple and low-cost 3D-printed accessory was designed to create a dark environment and direct excitation light from the smartphone flash onto a sample. Multiple colors and compositions of semiconductor quantum dot (QD) were evaluated as photoluminescent materials for all-in-one smartphone excitation and imaging of PL, and these were compared with fluorescein and R-phycoerythrin (R-PE), which are widely utilized molecular and protein materials for fluorescence-based bioanalysis. The QDs were found to exhibit much better brightness and have the best potential for two-color detection. A model protein binding assay with a sub-microgram per milliliter detection limit and a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay for proteolytic activity were demonstrated, including imaging with serum as a sample matrix. In addition, FRET within tandem conjugates of a QD donor and fluorescent dye acceptor enabled smartphone detection of dye fluorescence that was otherwise unobservable without the QD to enhance its brightness. The ideal properties of photoluminescent materials for all-in-one smartphone excitation and imaging are discussed in the context of several different materials, where QDs appear to be the best overall material for this application.

  18. Analysis on Factors Influencing Ultra-Precision Accessory Machining%超精密零件加工的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏欢; 吉方; 陶继忠; 赵午云

    2012-01-01

    The precision of ultra-precision machining is an important standard to represent a national's manufacturing technology.With higher and higher machining accuracy,the parts to be machined on the machine surroundings are of increasingly high requirements.In addition to the fluctuations of hydraulic pressure source, temperature,cleanliness of the working environment and vibration in ultra—precision machining also have a great influence on the quality of process ing.So here the influence of ultra-precision accessory machining is introduced form the aspects of the gas source pressure fluctuation,environment temperature changing,in and outside vibration.The influence causation of machining precision is analyzed,and the solving scheme is put forward.This research provides a reference to construct the ultra-precision machining environment.%超精密加工所能达到的精度是衡量一个国家制造技术水平的重要标志之一.随着加工精度越来越高,被加工零件对机床周围环境的要求也越来越高.超精密加工中除了液压、气压源的波动外,工作环境的温度、洁净度和振动等方面对加工质量影响很大.因此,主要从气源压力波动、环境温度变化、外界和自身振动几个主要因素,详细介绍了以上因素对超精密零件加工的影响,分析了影响原因,并提出了相应解决途径,为超精密加工环境建设提供了参考.

  19. Association between Accessory Gene Regulator Polymorphism and Mortality among Critically Ill Patients Receiving Vancomycin for Nosocomial MRSA Bacteremia: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechinel, Angélica; Machado, Denise P.; Turra, Eduardo; Pereira, Dariane; dos Santos, Rodrigo P.; Rosa, Regis G.; Goldani, Luciano Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Polymorphism of the accessory gene regulator group II (agr) in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is predictive of vancomycin failure therapy. Nevertheless, the impact of group II agr expression on mortality of patients with severe MRSA infections is not well established. Objective. The goal of our study was to evaluate the association between agr polymorphism and all-cause in-hospital mortality among critically ill patients receiving vancomycin for nosocomial MRSA bacteremia. Methods. All patients with documented bacteremia by MRSA requiring treatment in the ICU between May 2009 and November 2011 were included in the study. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to evaluate whether agr polymorphism was associated with all-cause in-hospital mortality. Covariates included age, APACHE II score, initial C-reactive protein plasma levels, initial serum creatinine levels, vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration, vancomycin serum levels, and time to effective antibiotic administration. Results. The prevalence of group I and group II agr expression was 52.4% and 47.6%, respectively. Bacteremia by MRSA group III or group IV agr was not documented in our patients. The mean APACHE II of the study population was 24.3 (standard deviation 8.5). The overall cohort mortality was 66.6% (14 patients). After multivariate analysis, initial plasma C-reactive protein levels (P = 0.01), initial serum creatinine levels (P = 0.008), and expression of group II agr (P = 0.006) were positively associated with all-cause in-hospital mortality. Patients with bacteremia by MRSA with group II agr expression had their risk of death increased by 12.6 times when compared with those with bacteremia by MRSA with group I agr expression. Conclusion. Group II agr polymorphism is associated with an increase in mortality in critically ill patients with bacteremia by MRSA treated with vancomycin. PMID:27366180

  20. Mating behavior induces changes of expression of Fos protein, plasma testosterone and androgen receptors in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB of the male mandarin vole Microtus mandarinus

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    Fengqin HE, Fadao TAI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the neuroendocrine mechanism of the mating behavior in the adult male mandarin voles Microtus mandarinus, the radioimmunoassay (RIA and immunohistochemistry methods were used to investigate the differences in plasma testosterone (T concentrations and distribution of T immunoreactive neurons (T-IRs, androgen receptor immunoreactive neurons (AR-IRs and Fos protein immunoreactive neurons (Fos-IRs in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB and the main olfactory bulb (MOB following exposure to clean hard-wood shavings (control group, soiled bedding (exposure group or contact with an estrous female (mating group. Results showed that plasma T concentration was significantly higher in the mating group than that in the exposure group, and both the mating group and the exposure group displayed significantly higher plasma T concentration than the control group. T-IRs, AR-IRs and Fos-IRs were investigated with the immunohistochemistry method in granule cell (GC and mitral cell (MC of the MOB and the AOB in the three groups. There were significantly more T-IRs, AR-IRs and Fos-IRs in MC and GC of the AOB in the mating group than that in the exposure group or the control group. T-IRs, AR-IRs and Fos-IRs did not show significant differences between the exposure group and the control group. Furthermore, obvious differences in MC and GC of the MOB were not found among the three groups. The results confirm that both changes of T and AR in the AOB might be underlying mating behavior in the adult male mandarin voles [Current Zoology 55 (4: 288–295, 2009].

  1. Fluid-driven destabilization of REE-bearing accessory minerals in the granitic orthogneisses of North Veporic basement (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrejka, M.; Putiš, M.; Uher, P.; Schmiedt, I.; Pukančík, L.; Konečný, P.

    2016-10-01

    A variety of rare earth elements-bearing (REE) accessory mineral breakdowns were identified in granitic orthogneisses from the pre-Alpine basement in the Veporic Unit, Central Western Carpathians, Slovakia. The Ordovician granitic rocks were subjected to Variscan metamorphic-anatectic overprint in amphibolite facies. Chemical U-Th-Pb dating of monazite-(Ce) and xenotime-(Y) reveal their primary magmatic Lower to Middle Ordovician age (monazite: 472 ± 4 to 468 ± 6 Ma and xenotime: 471 ± 13 Ma) and/or metamorphic-anatectic Variscan (Carboniferous, Visean) age (monazite: 345 ± 3 Ma). Younger fluid-rock interactions caused breakdown of primary magmatic and/or metamorphic-anatectic monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y), fluorapatite and allanite-(Ce). Fluid-induced breakdown of xenotime-(Y) produced numerous tiny uraninite inclusions within the altered xenotime-(Y) domains. The monazite-(Ce) breakdown produced secondary egg-shaped coronal structures of different stages with well-developed concentric mineral zones. Secondary sulphatian monazite-(Ce) (up to 0.15 apfu S) occasionally formed along fluorapatite fissures. Localized fluorapatite and monazite-(Ce) recrystallization resulted in a very fine-grained, non-stoichiometric mixture of REE-Y-Fe-Th-Ca-P-Si phases. Finally, allanite-(Ce) decomposed to secondary REE carbonate minerals (members of the bastnäsite and synchysite groups) and calcite in some places. Although the xenotime alteration and formation of uraninite inclusions is believed to be the result of dissolution-reprecipitation between early magmatic xenotime and late-magmatic granitic fluids, the monazite, apatite and allanite breakdowns were driven by metamorphic hydrothermal fluids. While earlier impact of post-magmatic fluids originated probably from Permian acidic volcanic and microgranitic veins crosscutting the orthogneisses, another fluid-rock interaction event most likely occurred during Late Cretaceous metamorphism in the Veporic basement and covering

  2. Interleukin (IL)-1 in rat parturition: IL-1 receptors 1 and 2 and accessory proteins abundance in pregnant rat uterus at term - regulation by progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Tomohito; Takeda, Jun; Fang, Xin; Bronson, Heather; Olson, David M

    2016-07-01

    The role of interleukin-1 (IL-1), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in parturition is typically noted by changes in its concentrations. Studying the expression of its receptor family, IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) 1, IL-1R2, IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), and its predominantly brain isoform, IL-1RAcPb, during late gestation in the uterus in the Long-Evans rat is another. We assessed changes in their mRNA and protein relative abundance in the uterus and compared IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance in uterus, cervix, ovaries, placenta, and whole blood of Long-Evans rats during late gestation or in RU486 and progesterone-treated dams using quantitative real-time PCR and western immunoblotting. IL-1R1, IL-1RAcP, and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance significantly increased in the uterus at delivery whereas IL-1R2 mRNA abundance significantly decreased. IL-1R1 protein increased at term and IL-1R2 protein decreased at term compared to nonpregnant uteri. IL1-RAcPb mRNA abundance was less than IL-1RAcP, but in the lower uterine segment it was the highest of all tissues examined. RU486 stimulated preterm delivery and an increase in IL-1R1 mRNA abundance whereas progesterone administration extended pregnancy and suppressed the increase in IL-1R1. These data suggest that changes in uterine sensitivity to IL-1 occur during late gestation and suggest another level of regulation for the control of delivery. The roles for IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb need to be determined, but may relate to different intracellular signaling pathways.

  3. The occurrence of new arrhythmias after catheter-ablation of accessory pathway: Delayed arrhythmic side-effect of curative radiofrequency lesion?

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    Mujović Nebojša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. New arrhythmias (NA may appear late after accessory pathway (AP ablation, but their relation to curative radiofrequency (RF lesion is unknown. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors for NA occurrence after AP ablation and to investigate pro-arrhythmic effect of RF. Methods. Total of 124 patients (88 males, mean age 43±14 years with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and single AP have been followed after successful RF ablation. Post-ablation finding of arrhythmia, not recorded before the procedure, was considered a NA. The origin of NA was assessed by analysis of P-wave and/or QRS-complex morphology, and, thereafter, it was compared with locations of previously ablated APs. Results. Over the follow-up of 4.3±3.9 years, NA was registered in 20 patients (16%. The prevalence of specific NAs was as follows: atrioventricular (AV block 0.8%, atrial premature beats 1.6%, atrial fibrillation 5.4%, atrial flutter 0.8%, sinus tachycardia 4.8%, ventricular premature beats (VPBs 7.3%. Multivariate Cox-regression analysis identified (1 pre-ablation history of pathway-mediated tachyarrhythmias >10 years (HR=3.54, p=0.016 and (2 septal AP location (HR=4.25, p=0.003, as the independent predictors for NA occurrence. In four NA cases (two cases of septal VPBs, one of typical AFL and one of AV-block presumed NA origin was identified in the vicinity of previous ablation target. Conclusion. NAs were found in 16% of patients after AP elimination. In few of these cases, late on-site arrhythmic effect of initially curative RF lesion might be possible. While earlier intervention could prevent NA occurrence, closer follow-up is advised after ablation of septal AP.

  4. Effects of Small Molecule Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Inhibitors on Structure and Function of Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace of Vibrio cholerae.

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    Tanaya Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace secreted by Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/bicarbonate transport that augments fluid secretion resulting in diarrhea. These channels have been targeted for drug development. However, lesser attention has been paid to the interaction of chloride channel modulators with bacterial toxins. Here we report the modulation of the structure/function of recombinant Ace by small molecule calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC inhibitors, namely CaCCinh-A01, digallic acid (DGA and tannic acid. Biophysical studies indicate that the unfolding (induced by urea free energy increases upon binding CaCCinh-A01 and DGA, compared to native Ace, whereas binding of tannic acid destabilizes the protein. Far-UV CD experiments revealed that the α-helical content of Ace-CaCCinh-A01 and Ace-DGA complexes increased relative to Ace. In contrast, binding to tannic acid had the opposite effect, indicating the loss of protein secondary structure. The modulation of Ace structure induced by CaCC inhibitors was also analyzed using docking and molecular dynamics (MD simulation. Functional studies, performed using mouse ileal loops and Ussing chamber experiments, corroborate biophysical data, all pointing to the fact that tannic acid destabilizes Ace, inhibiting its function, whereas DGA stabilizes the toxin with enhanced fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop. The efficacy of tannic acid in mouse model suggests that the targeted modulation of Ace structure may be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders.

  5. Analysis of the pharmacological properties of chicken melanocortin-2 receptor (cMC2R) and chicken melanocortin-2 accessory protein 1 (cMRAP1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlock, Travis K; Gehr, Deshae T; Dores, Robert M

    2014-09-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) melanocortin-2 receptor (cMC2R) can be functionally expressed in CHO cells when chicken melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein 1 (cMRAP1) is co-expressed. The transiently transfected CHO cells responded in a robust manner to stimulation by hACTH(1-24) (EC50 value=2.7 × 10(-12)M +/- 1.3 × 10(-12)), but the transfected CHO cells could not be stimulated by NDP-MSH at concentrations as high as 10(-7)M. Incubation of cMC2R/cMRAP1 transfected cells with alanine substituted analogs of hACTH(1-24) at amino acid positions F(7) or W(9) completely blocked stimulation of the transfected cells. Similarly, incubation of cMC2R/cMRAP1 transfected cells with an analog of hACTH(1-24) with alanine substitutions at amino acid positions R(17)R(18)P(19) resulted in a 276 fold shift in EC50 value relative to the positive control (pHFRW motif and KKRRP motif of hACTH(1-24), and both motifs are required for full activation of the receptor. While previous studies had shown that Anolis carolinensis MC2R and Xenopus tropicalis MC2R could be functionally expressed in CHO cells that co-expressed mouse MRAP1, co-expression of these non-mammalian tetrapod MC2Rs with cMRAP1 resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity to hACTH(1-24), as measured by EC50 value, for A. carolinensis MC2R (p<0.005) and X. tropicalis MC2R (p<0.007). The implications of these observations are discussed.

  6. Optogenetic Activation of Accessory Olfactory Bulb Input to the Forebrain Differentially Modulates Investigation of Opposite versus Same-Sex Urinary Chemosignals and Stimulates Mating in Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Elizabeth A.; Korzan, Wayne J.; Doctor, Danielle; Han, Xue; Baum, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Surgical or genetic disruption of vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) function previously eliminated the ability of male mice to processes pheromones that elicit territorial behavior and aggression. By contrast, neither disruption significantly affected mating behaviors, although VNO lesions reduced males’ investigation of nonvolatile female pheromones. We explored the contribution of VNO-AOB pheromonal processing to male courtship using optogenetic activation of AOB projections to the forebrain. Protocadherin-Cre male transgenic mice received bilateral AOB infections with channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2) viral vectors, and an optical fiber was implanted above the AOB. In olfactory choice tests, males preferred estrous female urine (EFU) over water; however, this preference was eliminated when diluted (5%) EFU was substituted for 100% EFU. Optogenetic AOB activation concurrent with nasal contact significantly augmented males’ investigation compared to 5% EFU alone. Conversely, concurrent optogenetic AOB activation significantly reduced males’ nasal investigation of diluted urine from gonadally intact males (5% IMU) compared to 5% IMU alone. These divergent effects of AOB optogenetic activation were lost when males were prevented from making direct nasal contact. Optogenetic AOB stimulation also failed to augment males’ nasal investigation of deionized water or of food odors. Finally, during mating tests, optogenetic AOB stimulation delivered for 30 s when the male was in physical contact with an estrous female significantly facilitated the occurrence of penile intromission. Our results suggest that VNO-AOB signaling differentially modifies males’ motivation to seek out female vs male urinary pheromones while augmenting males’ sexual arousal leading to intromission and improved reproductive performance. PMID:28374006

  7. Association between Accessory Gene Regulator Polymorphism and Mortality among Critically Ill Patients Receiving Vancomycin for Nosocomial MRSA Bacteremia: A Cohort Study

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    Angélica Cechinel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polymorphism of the accessory gene regulator group II (agr in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is predictive of vancomycin failure therapy. Nevertheless, the impact of group II agr expression on mortality of patients with severe MRSA infections is not well established. Objective. The goal of our study was to evaluate the association between agr polymorphism and all-cause in-hospital mortality among critically ill patients receiving vancomycin for nosocomial MRSA bacteremia. Methods. All patients with documented bacteremia by MRSA requiring treatment in the ICU between May 2009 and November 2011 were included in the study. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to evaluate whether agr polymorphism was associated with all-cause in-hospital mortality. Covariates included age, APACHE II score, initial C-reactive protein plasma levels, initial serum creatinine levels, vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration, vancomycin serum levels, and time to effective antibiotic administration. Results. The prevalence of group I and group II agr expression was 52.4% and 47.6%, respectively. Bacteremia by MRSA group III or group IV agr was not documented in our patients. The mean APACHE II of the study population was 24.3 (standard deviation 8.5. The overall cohort mortality was 66.6% (14 patients. After multivariate analysis, initial plasma C-reactive protein levels (P=0.01, initial serum creatinine levels (P=0.008, and expression of group II agr (P=0.006 were positively associated with all-cause in-hospital mortality. Patients with bacteremia by MRSA with group II agr expression had their risk of death increased by 12.6 times when compared with those with bacteremia by MRSA with group I agr expression. Conclusion. Group II agr polymorphism is associated with an increase in mortality in critically ill patients with bacteremia by MRSA treated with vancomycin.

  8. Effects of Small Molecule Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Inhibitors on Structure and Function of Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Chakravarty, Devlina; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Chakrabarti, Manoj K.; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2015-01-01

    Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX) and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) secreted by Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/bicarbonate transport that augments fluid secretion resulting in diarrhea. These channels have been targeted for drug development. However, lesser attention has been paid to the interaction of chloride channel modulators with bacterial toxins. Here we report the modulation of the structure/function of recombinant Ace by small molecule calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitors, namely CaCCinh-A01, digallic acid (DGA) and tannic acid. Biophysical studies indicate that the unfolding (induced by urea) free energy increases upon binding CaCCinh-A01 and DGA, compared to native Ace, whereas binding of tannic acid destabilizes the protein. Far-UV CD experiments revealed that the α-helical content of Ace-CaCCinh-A01 and Ace-DGA complexes increased relative to Ace. In contrast, binding to tannic acid had the opposite effect, indicating the loss of protein secondary structure. The modulation of Ace structure induced by CaCC inhibitors was also analyzed using docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Functional studies, performed using mouse ileal loops and Ussing chamber experiments, corroborate biophysical data, all pointing to the fact that tannic acid destabilizes Ace, inhibiting its function, whereas DGA stabilizes the toxin with enhanced fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop. The efficacy of tannic acid in mouse model suggests that the targeted modulation of Ace structure may be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26540279

  9. Anoctamin 6 Contributes to Cl- Secretion in Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace)-stimulated Diarrhea: AN ESSENTIAL ROLE FOR PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 4,5-BISPHOSPHATE (PIP2) SIGNALING IN CHOLERA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Joydeep; Hayashi, Mikio; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Ghosh, Priyanka; Bhowmick, Rajsekhar; Ghosh, Dipanjan; Chatterjee, Tanaya; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Chakrabarti, Manoj K; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2016-12-23

    Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae has been shown to contribute to diarrhea. However, the signaling mechanism and specific type of Cl(-) channel activated by Ace are still unknown. We have shown here that the recombinant Ace protein induced ICl of apical plasma membrane, which was inhibited by classical CaCC blockers. Surprisingly, an Ace-elicited rise of current was neither affected by ANO1 (TMEM16A)-specific inhibitor T16A(inh)-AO1(TAO1) nor by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) blocker, CFTR inh-172. Ace stimulated whole-cell current in Caco-2 cells. However, the apical ICl was attenuated by knockdown of ANO6 (TMEM16F). This impaired phenotype was restored by re-expression of ANO6 in Caco-2 cells. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of ANO currents in HEK293 cells transiently expressing mouse ANO1-mCherry or ANO6-GFP confirmed that Ace induced Cl(-) secretion. Application of Ace produced ANO6 but not the ANO1 currents. Ace was not able to induce a [Ca(2+)]i rise in Caco-2 cells, but cellular abundance of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) increased. Identification of the PIP2-binding motif at the N-terminal sequence among human and mouse ANO6 variants along with binding of PIP2 directly to ANO6 in HEK293 cells indicate likely PIP2 regulation of ANO6. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of Ace stimulated Cl(-) current along with intestinal fluid accumulation, and binding of PIP2 to the proximal KR motif of channel proteins, whose mutagenesis correlates with altered binding of PIP2, is comparable with ANO6 stimulation. We conclude that ANO6 is predominantly expressed in intestinal epithelia, where it contributes secretory diarrhea by Ace stimulation in a calcium-independent mechanism of RhoA-ROCK-PIP2 signaling.

  10. Absence of paternal accessory sex gland secretions disturbs epigenetic reprogramming and expression of Igf2 and Dlk1 in golden hamster embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, H K; Lee, K H; Wong, C L; O, W S; Chow, P H

    2009-06-01

    Accessory sex gland (ASG) secretion is known to exert an effect on sperm that is heritable in hamster embryos. We hypothesized that ASG secretion changes the sperm epigenome, which in turn is propagated in sired embryos. To test our hypothesis, we produced male hamsters that were devoid of either all ASG (TX) or only the ventral lobe of the prostate gland (VPX). A sham-operated control group (SH) was also established. These males were mated with normal females; uterine sperm, fertilized oocytes, and pre-implantation embryos were harvested from the females after mating. Epididymal sperm were collected at the end of experiments. Immunofluorescent staining was performed on these harvested specimens using antibodies against 5-methylcytosine, Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, protamine 1, protamine 2, and aectyl-H4K5. Expression of Igf2 and Dlk1 were analyzed by real-time RT PCR and in situ hybridization. We demonstrated that the DNA methylation pattern changed dynamically in SH, TX, and VPX fertilized oocytes. In VPX and TX embryos, DNA demethylation was slower and remethylation was delayed when compared with SH embryos. In addition, Dnmt3b expression was also abnormal. When sperm from VPX and TX males were exposed to whole ASG secretion in vivo, the resulting embryos all methylated normally. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that there was no difference in protamine packaging of uterine sperm from VPX and TX males. The staining also showed a lower level of acetyl-H4K5 expression in the male pronuclei of TX produced embryos. Furthermore, the VPX and TX embryos also expressed higher levels Igf2, and Dlk1. We concluded that interactions between ASG and sperm affected: (1) histone acetylation in male pronuclei; (2) DNA methylation in fertilized oocytes; and (3) Igf2 and Dlk1 expression embryos.

  11. 广西壮族传统服饰配件造型艺术研究%A Research of Modeling Art of the Traditional Dress Accessories in Guangxi Zhuang Minority Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲义

    2015-01-01

    From the angle of function and sex, the traditional clothing accessories items in Guangxi Zhuang Minority Autonomous Region can be classified into four types: men-only, woman-only, man-and-woman-shared, attachment-expressing. The man-and-woman-shared type includes brocade cloth, scouring, GUI (tube) cloth, shoulder pads, "non" shoes and shroud parts; man-only type includes male Cape Horn, tobacco boxes, wedding shoes, bags and head hunting broadsword; women-only accessories include stockings, Tao's hat, apron, Sachet, pointed shoes, woven ribbon and silver jewelry; attachment-expressing type has hydrangea, tokens of love, love fan and purse. This paper has an artistic analysis of them and surveys the artistry of each type. It is hoped this study can deepen the research of the accessories to shed light on the protection of the accessory-type non-material products in Guangxi Zhang Minority Autonomous Region.%针对广西壮族传统服饰上的配件物品,按照性别与功能,将其划分为男女共用、男装、女装和传情类配件四类.男女共用配件包括壮锦、练子布、桂(管)布、垫肩、"非"形鞋和寿衣配件;男装配件包括道公披肩、牛角烟叶盒、圆头婚鞋、猎袋和腰刀;女装配件包括长筒袜、道婆帽、围裙、香袋、尖头鞋、编织彩带和银饰品;传情配饰包括绣球、定情扇和荷包三种.从艺术学的角度分别针对各自的造型进行分析,总结出广西壮族各类典型配饰的造型艺术特点,旨在丰富壮族服饰艺术的研究成果,为壮族传统服饰艺术非物质文化遗产的研究与保护工作提供参考依据.

  12. Characterisation of Australian MRSA strains ST75- and ST883-MRSA-IV and analysis of their accessory gene regulator locus.

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    Stefan Monecke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have become a major problem in Australia. These strains have now been isolated throughout Australia including remote Indigenous communities that have had minimal exposure to healthcare facilities. Some of these strains, belonging to sequence types ST75 and ST883, have previously been reported to harbour highly divergent alleles of the housekeeping genes used in multilocus sequence typing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ST75-MRSA-IV and ST883-MRSA-IV isolates were characterised in detail. Morphological features as well as 16S sequences were identical to other S. aureus strains. Although a partial rnpB gene sequence was not identical to previously known S. aureus sequences, it was found to be more closely related to S. aureus than to other staphylococci. Isolates also were screened using diagnostic DNA microarrays. These isolates yielded hybridisation results atypical for S. aureus. Primer directed amplification assays failed to detect species markers (femA, katA, sbi, spa. However, arbitrarily primed amplification indicated the presence of unknown alleles of these genes. Isolates could not be assigned to capsule types 1, 5 or 8. The allelic group of the accessory gene regulator (agr locus was not determinable. Sequencing of a region of agrB, agrC and agrD (approximately 2,100 bp revealed a divergent sequence. However, this sequence is more related to S. aureus agr alleles I and IV than to agr sequences from other Staphylococcus species. The predicted auto-inducing peptide (AIP sequence of ST75 was identical to that of agr group I, while the predicted AIP sequence of ST883 was identical to agr group IV. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The genetic properties of ST75/ST883-MRSA may be due to a series of evolutionary events in ancient insulated S. aureus strains including a convergent evolution leading to agr group I- or IV-like AIP sequences and a recent acquisition of SCCmec IV

  13. Chemical and textural record of REE accessory phases along a well constrained prograde pelitic suite: implications for allanite and monazite petrochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyr, M.; Goswami-Banerjee, S.; Engi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Because metamorphism comprises a complex sequence of structural changes and chemical reactions that can be extended over several millions of years, metamorphic rocks cannot in general be said to have "an age". As a consequence, interpreting radiometric age data from metamorphic rocks requires first to establish the behavior of the isotopic system used for dating relative to the P-T conditions that a metamorphic rock experienced. As the U-Th-Pb system in monazite and allanite is not easily reset during subsequent temperature increase, allanite and monazite ages are interpreted as reflecting crystallization ages. Consequently, to interpret allanite and monazite crystallization ages, it is crucial to determine the physical conditions of their crystallization. A detailed account of the textural and chemical evolution of allanite and monazite along a well constrained prograde metamorphic suite of detrital sediments of the Greater Himalaya of Zanskar reveals that: (1) allanite is the stable REE accessory phase in the biotite and garnet zone and (2) at the staurolite-in isograd, allanite disappears abruptly from the metamorphic assemblage, simultaneously with the occurrence of the first metamorphic monazite. The finding of both monazite and allanite as inclusion in staurolite indicates that the breakdown of allanite and the formation of monazite occurred during staurolite crystallization. The preservation of allanite and monazite inclusions in garnet core and rim respectively allows to accurately identify the P-T conditions of the formation of the first metamorphic monazite. Thermobarometry indicates that, in both cases, monazite crystallization occurred at 600 °C. The fact that the substitution of allanite by monazite occurs spatially close, i.e. at similar P-T conditions, in all types of rocks whether they are Al-rich metapelites or more psammitic metasediments indicates that major silicate phases like staurolite or garnet do not play a significant role in the monazite

  14. Reassessment of the Listeria monocytogenes pan-genome reveals dynamic integration hotspots and mobile genetic elements as major components of the accessory genome

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    Kuenne Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Listeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogen and model organism for host-pathogen interaction, thus representing an invaluable target considering research on the forces governing the evolution of such microbes. The diversity of this species has not been exhaustively explored yet, as previous efforts have focused on analyses of serotypes primarily implicated in human listeriosis. We conducted complete genome sequencing of 11 strains employing 454 GS FLX technology, thereby achieving full coverage of all serotypes including the first complete strains of serotypes 1/2b, 3c, 3b, 4c, 4d, and 4e. These were comparatively analyzed in conjunction with publicly available data and assessed for pathogenicity in the Galleria mellonella insect model. Results The species pan-genome of L. monocytogenes is highly stable but open, suggesting an ability to adapt to new niches by generating or including new genetic information. The majority of gene-scale differences represented by the accessory genome resulted from nine hyper variable hotspots, a similar number of different prophages, three transposons (Tn916, Tn554, IS3-like, and two mobilizable islands. Only a subset of strains showed CRISPR/Cas bacteriophage resistance systems of different subtypes, suggesting a supplementary function in maintenance of chromosomal stability. Multiple phylogenetic branches of the genus Listeria imply long common histories of strains of each lineage as revealed by a SNP-based core genome tree highlighting the impact of small mutations for the evolution of species L. monocytogenes. Frequent loss or truncation of genes described to be vital for virulence or pathogenicity was confirmed as a recurring pattern, especially for strains belonging to lineages III and II. New candidate genes implicated in virulence function were predicted based on functional domains and phylogenetic distribution. A comparative analysis of small regulatory RNA candidates

  15. The enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates by the addition of accessory enzymes such as xylanase: is it an additive or synergistic effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddler Jack N

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We and other workers have shown that accessory enzymes, such as β-glucosidase, xylanase, and cellulase cofactors, such as GH61, can considerably enhance the hydrolysis effectiveness of cellulase cocktails when added to pretreated lignocellulosic substrates. It is generally acknowledged that, among the several factors that hamper our current ability to attain efficient lignocellulosic biomass conversion yields at low enzyme loadings, a major problem lies in our incomplete understanding of the cooperative action of the different enzymes acting on pretreated lignocellulosic substrates. Results The reported work assessed the interaction between cellulase and xylanase enzymes and their potential to improve the hydrolysis efficiency of various pretreated lignocellulosic substrates when added at low protein loadings. When xylanases were added to the minimum amount of cellulase enzymes required to achieve 70% cellulose hydrolysis of steam pretreated corn stover (SPCS, or used to partially replace the equivalent cellulase dose, both approaches resulted in enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis. However, the xylanase supplementation approach increased the total protein loading required to achieve significant improvements in hydrolysis (an additive effect, whereas the partial replacement of cellulases with xylanase resulted in similar improvements in hydrolysis without increasing enzyme loading (a synergistic effect. The enhancement resulting from xylanase-aided synergism was higher when enzymes were added simultaneously at the beginning of hydrolysis. This co-hydrolysis of the xylan also influenced the gross fiber characteristics (for example, fiber swelling resulting in increased accessibility of the cellulose to the cellulase enzymes. These apparent increases in accessibility enhanced the steam pretreated corn stover digestibility, resulting in three times faster cellulose and xylan hydrolysis, a seven-fold decrease in cellulase loading and

  16. Interleukin-1-mediated febrile responses in mice and interleukin-1 beta activation of NFkappaB in mouse primary astrocytes, involves the interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterström, M; Lundkvist, J; Malinowsky, D; Eriksson, G; Bartfai, T

    1998-06-01

    The endogenous pyrogen interleukin-1 (IL-1) is considered as one of the key molecules in orchestrating the host response of injury and inflammation. IL-1 exerts its effects upon binding to the type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1RI). The IL-1-IL-1RI complex is further thought to associate with the IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), which is suggested to be important for most IL-1 signal transduction pathways. With the aim of investigating the importance of the IL-1RAcP in IL-1 signalling, IL-1alpha and IL-1beta induced febrile responses and IL-1beta-mediated activation of NFkappaB in primary astrocyte cultures were examined using IL-1RAcP-deficient (IL-1RAcP KO) and wild type mice, respectively. It was shown that neither recombinant rat IL-1alpha (rrIL-1alpha, 25 microg/kg), recombinant rat IL-1beta (rrIL-1beta, 40 microg/kg) nor recombinant human IL-1beta (rhIL-1beta, 50 microg/kg) injected i.p. could elicit febrile responses in the IL-1RAcP-deficient mice, while the same doses of rrIL-1alpha/beta or rhIL-1beta injected into wild type mice caused normal fever responses. A febrile response could be induced in the IL-1RAcP-deficient mice by i.p. administration of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 microg/kg) and this response was similar to that obtained in wild type mice. Furthermore, it was shown that rhIL-1beta activated, in a concentration-dependent manner, nuclear translocation of the transcriptional nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) in primary astrocyte cultures prepared from wild type mice, whereas no IL-1beta-induced translocation of NFkappaB could be detected in cultures prepared from IL-1RAcP-deficient mice, as revealed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The rhIL-1beta-induced NFkappaB complexes were shown to contain p50 but no, or very little, p65 and cRel immunoreactive proteins.

  17. Ultrasonic appearance of diaphragmatic muscular slips and liver accessory fissures%膈褶与肝副裂的超声表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永; 肖萤; 李涛

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨膈褶及其在肝表面所形成的肝副裂的超声声像图表现。方法连续观察2012年5月至2013年12月中南大学湘雅医院2037名腹部超声受检者,分析肝内出现膈褶受检者的临床资料和超声表现。结果2037名受检者中共15名检出膈褶,男性5名,女性10名,平均年龄(79.4±9.50)岁,不同性别受检者膈褶检出率差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.1382,P>0.05);50岁及以下受检者,无一名膈褶检出;50岁以上受检者,随着年龄的增长,膈褶检出率呈增加趋势,80岁及以上者共检出10名;伴有慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者的膈褶检出率高于无COPD的受检者[5.49%(5/91) vs 0.91%(10/1091)],且差异有统计学意义(χ2=29.5034,P=0.0000)。单发者12名,多发者3名,膈褶宽度均值为(9.48±2.47)mm,均位于肝右叶膈面且呈后上-前下走向。超声声像图长轴切面上表现为宽度基本一致的长条形稍强回声带,且回声强弱相间,呈“栅栏状”改变;短轴切面上表现为紧贴膈下的类圆形稍强回声团,内部回声强弱相间。结论膈褶及肝副裂相伴出现,其超声表现比较典型,易于发现但难以识别,其超声表现与一些肝内正常结构或病变相类似。%Objective To study the ultrasonic appearance of diaphragmatic muscular slips and accessory ifssures of liver. Methods The observations were based on 2 037 cases of abdominal sonography from May 2012 to December 2013 in Xiangya Hospital Center South University. The clinical data and ultrasonic appearances in patients with diaphragmatic muscular slips were retrospectively analyzed. Results Among the 2 037 cases, diaphragmatic muscular slips were found in 15 patients with a mean age of 79.4±9.5 years, including ten females and ifve males. The detection rate of diaphragmatic muscular slips showed no signiifcant gender predisposition (χ2=0.138 2, P>0.05). No diaphragmatic

  18. Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2014-10-01

    Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands.

  19. Surgical fasciectomy of the trapezius muscle combined with neurolysis of the Spinal accessory nerve; results and long-term follow-up in 30 consecutive cases of refractory chronic whiplash syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Michael

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic problems from whiplash trauma generally include headache, pain and neck stiffness that may prove refractory to conservative treatment modalities. As has previously been reported, such afflicted patients may experience significant temporary relief with injections of local anesthetic to painful trigger points in muscles of the shoulder and neck, or lasting symptomatic improvement through surgical excision of myofascial trigger points. In a subset of patients who present with chronic whiplash syndrome, the clinical findings suggest an affliction of the spinal accessory nerve (CN XI, SAN by entrapment under the fascia of the trapezius muscle. The present study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of SAN neurolysis in chronic whiplash syndrome. Methods A standardized questionnaire and a linear visual-analogue scale graded 0-10 was used to assess disability related to five symptoms (pain, headache, insomnia, weakness, and stiffness before, and one year after surgery in a series of thirty consecutive patients. Results The preoperative duration of symptoms ranged from seven months to 13 years. The following changes in disability scores were documented one year after surgery: Overall pain decreased from 9.5 +/- 0.9 to 3.2 +/- 2.6 (p Conclusions Entrapment of the spinal accessory nerve and/or chronic compartment syndrome of the trapezius muscle may cause chronic debilitating pain after whiplash trauma, without radiological or electrodiagnostic evidence of injury. In such cases, surgical treatment may provide lasting relief.

  20. Simulation of Typical Defects and Analysis of Insulation Breakdown in 10 kV Cable Accessory%10kV电缆附件典型缺陷仿真与绝缘故障分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凤争; 孟庆霖; 朱晓辉; 郭勇; 沈毅; 齐效华; 刘宝成

    2011-01-01

    Two typical defects produced during the installation period of cable accessories were simulated by finite element method. The results show that the electric field intensity in the defect field is higher than the average electric .field intensity of air (30kV/mm), which can easily induce partial discharge and lead to insulation failure. Finally an insulation failure accident in 10 kV cable accessories was analyzed and corresponding measures were proposed.%采用有限元方法对10 kV电缆附件安装过程中产生的两种典型绝缘缺陷(外半导电层断口处主绝缘割伤、外半导电层断口台阶)进行仿真,研究表明:缺陷处的电场集中,电场强度大于空气的平均击穿场强30kV/cm,容易引发局部放电,导致绝缘故障.通过对一起典型缺陷引起的绝缘事故进行分析,并提出预防措施.