WorldWideScience

Sample records for accessory navicular bone

  1. Symptomatic and asymptomatic accessory navicular bones: Findings of Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, N.-T.; Jou, I.-M.; Lee, B.-F.; Yao, W.-J.; Tu, D.-G.; Wu, P.-S.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: The accuracy of bone scintigraphy in diagnosing symptomatic accessory navicular bones has not been well studied. We conducted a retrospective study to explore the results and use of scintigraphy in symptomatic and asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with a total of 13 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic accessory navicular bones were included in the study. We used a scoring system to grade the scintigraphic abnormalities. The patients' symptoms and scintigraphic findings were recorded. RESULTS: Though focally increased radiopharmaceutical uptake was observed in all symptomatic accessory naviculars, half of the asymptomatic accessory navicular bones had the same manifestations. The scoring system was of no value in differentiating symptomatic from asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. CONCLUSION: Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive but not a specific tool for diagnosing a symptomatic accessory navicular. Chiu, N.-T. (2000)

  2. MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone: correlation with surgical and pathologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Kyung Tai; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kang, Heung Sik

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone and to correlate these with the surgical and pathologic findings. The MR images of 17 patients with medial foot pain and surgically proven type II accessory navicular abnormalities were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity in the accessory navicular, synchondrosis and adjacent soft tissue, the presence of synchondrosis widening, and posterior tibial tendon (PTT) pathology on the T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were analyzed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the surgical and pathologic findings. The fat-suppressed T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in the accessory navicular bones and synchondroses in all patients, and in the soft tissue in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients, as well as synchondrosis widening in 3 (17.6%) of the 17 patients. The MR images showed tendon pathology in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients with PTT dysfunction at surgery. The pathologic findings of 16 surgical specimens included areas of osteonecrosis with granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and destruction of the cartilage cap. The MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone are a persistent edema pattern in the accessory navicular bone and within the synchondrosis, indicating osteonecrosis, inflammation and destruction of the cartilage cap. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was clinically evident in most patients

  3. Clinical meaning of hot uptake on bone scan in symptomatic accessory navicular bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Ari; Ha, Jung Min; Lee, Jun Young [Chosun University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We analyzed clinical factors related to uptake on a Tc-99 m HDP bone scan of the accessory navicular (AN). We retrospectively reviewed patients who had been examined by an orthopedic surgeon and underwent bone scan due to suspected symptomatic AN. A three-point grading system was used to evaluate uptake on bone scan. Relationships between grade, symptoms, age, gender, symptom duration, and bone size were analyzed. In total, 73 ANs (30 asymptomatic, 43 symptomatic) were enrolled. The majority of asymptomatic ANs had no uptake but some had grade 1 (n = 8) or 2 (n = 2) uptake. All asymptomatic ANs with uptake remained asymptomatic during follow-up. For the asymptomatic ANs, larger bones showed a higher grade. With a cut-off value of size ≤6.8 mm, there is no chance of uptake. All symptomatic ANs showed uptake on bone scan. For symptomatic ANs, larger size and shorter pain duration were related to a higher grade. Age, gender, and left-/right-sideness were not related to grade. Multiple regressions revealed that only uptake grade, not size or symptom duration, was the significant risk factor for a symptomatic AN. With a cut-off value of grade <1, a symptomatic AN could be ruled out with a negative predictive value of 100 %. Bone scanning is useful for symptomatic ANs with a high negative predictive value. Higher grade is related to larger size and shorter pain duration. For asymptomatic ANs, grade was related to size but did not predict symptom development.

  4. Genetic Influence on Accessory Navicular Bone in the Foot: A Korean Twin and Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, In Yae; Kang, Hyo Jeong; Ko, Hyeonyoung; Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi; Hwang, Ji Hye

    2017-06-01

    An accessory navicular bone (AN) is the most common accessory ossicle in the foot. The presence of an AN bone can trigger various foot problems, such as posterior tibial tendon pathology, flattening of the medial longitudinal arch, and medial foot pain. Despite the clinical influence of presence of an AN in foot disease, the research regarding its inheritance is still insufficient. A total of 135 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins, 25 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins, and 676 singletons from families were enrolled in order to estimate genetic influences on AN. After confirmation of zygosity and family relationship with a tandem repeat marker kit and questionnaires, the presence and type of the AN was classified through bilateral feet radiographic examination. The heritability of an AN was estimated using quantitative genetic analysis based on a variance decomposition model considering various types of family relationships: father-offspring pair, mother-offspring pair, and pooled DZ twin and sibling pairs. As a result, approximately 40.96% of the participants in this study had an AN in either foot, with type II being the most common type. The heritability for the presence of any type of an AN in any foot was estimated as 0.88 (95% CI [0.82, 0.94]) after adjusting for age and sex. Specifically, type II AN showed the highest heritability of 0.82 (95% CI [0.71-0.93]). The high heritability of an AN found in this large twin and family study suggests that an AN is determined by the substantial influence of genetic factor.

  5. Hipodoncia y hueso navicular accesorio: una interesante asociación sindrómica Hypodontia and accessory navicular bone: an interesting syndromic association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cantín

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Los dientes se desarrollan a partir de múltiples interacciones recíprocas entre células del epitelio oral y el ectomesénquima. Una serie de genes participan en el desarrollo del diente, así como de otros órganos y miembros superiores e inferiores. PAX9, miembro de la familia de factores de transcripción, es uno de los principales responsables de este desarrollo, y juega un rol fundamental en la hipodoncia dental y malformaciones en los huesos del miembro inferior. El objetivo de este reporte es presentar un caso de asociación entre hipodoncia y el hueso navicular accesorio. Se trata de una paciente de 18 años de edad, que acude a la consulta dental por dolor agudo en la pieza dentaria 3.6 y dolor de 9 meses de evolución en la cara interna del pie izquierdo. Al examen radiográfico, se observó ausencia de las piezas dentarias 1.7, 2.7, 2.8, 3.8 y 4.8, además en el pie izquierdo se vio la presencia de un hueso navicular accesorio. Es interesante proponer esta rara asociación, de clara herencia autosómica dominante, dado que la agenesia dental y la presencia del hueso navicular accesorio, poseen una prevalencia semejante, lo que hace que pueda existir una nueva asociación sindrómica probablemente relacionada con la ausencia de PAX9.Teeth are developed from many interactions between oral epithelium and mesenchymal cells. A number of genes are involved in tooth development, as well as in other organs, and upper and lower limbs. PAX9, a member of the transcriptional factor family, is one of the main drivers of this development, playing a key role in dental hypodontia and malformations in the lower limb bones. The aim of this report was to present the association between hypodontia and the accessory navicular bone based on a case report. This is a 18 years old female patient, who attended a dental clinic because she had acute pain in the 3.6 tooth and also pain on the left foot's inner area. The radiographic examination showed loss of

  6. Incidence and anatomical variations of accessory navicular bone in patients with foot pain: A retrospective radiographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbouneh, Heba; Alajoulin, Omar; Alsalem, Mohammad; Humoud, Noor; Shawaqfeh, Jamil; Alkhoujah, Mohammad; Abu-Hassan, Hana; Mahafza, Waleed; Badran, Darwish

    2017-05-01

    The accessory navicular (AN) is an accessory ossicle anatomically located on the medial side of the foot, proximal to the navicular and continuous with the tibialis posterior tendon. It is occasionally a source of pain and local tenderness. Knowledge of the AN and its morphological variations can help identify the source of a patient's symptoms and prevent misinterpreting them as fractures. Foot radiographs from 1,240 patients who presented in two centers with chronic foot pain, or persistent pain developed after trauma, were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and variations of the AN in relation to gender. The AN was found in 20.9% (259/1240). Among 259 feet with AN, Type 1 was identified in 25.4% (66/259), Type 2 in 42.4% (110/259) (20.0% (52/259) Type 2 A and 22.4% (58/259) Type 2B), and Type 3 in 32.0% (83/259). After 13 patients with incomplete medical records had been excluded, the remaining records showed that foot pain was associated with an AN in 10.6% of patients (26/246). In 1.2% of cases, two additional ossicles were found proximal to the navicular, possibly the result of multiple ossification centers that did not unite at the time of development. Patient symptomatology was related to the presence of an AN in 2% of patients with chronic foot pain. The AN could vary morphologically. Our data can enhance our diagnostic skills in detecting these ossicles. Clin. Anat. 30:436-444, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Navicular bone fracture in the pelvic limb in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser-Hotz, B.; Ueltschi, G.; Hess, N.

    1991-01-01

    The case history, radiographic and scintigraphic findings of two horses with pelvic limb navicular bone fractures are presented. In both cases the fractures were of traumatic origin. One horse had a bilateral fracture of the navicular bone, distal border, the other horse had a fracture of the proximal articular border in one pelvic limb navicular bone

  8. Symptomatic accessory navicular bone: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahibzada N. Mansoor

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Conservative treatment is sufficient for most patients while surgical treatment is usually reserved for those with chronic persistent pain and complications. Early diagnosis and management can halt the progression of ANB to chronic pain and foot deformities.

  9. Vascularized pedicle bone grafting for nonunions of the tarsal navicular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Felicity G; Adams, Samuel B; Easley, Mark E; Nunley, James A

    2012-09-01

    Osteonecrosis and nonunions of the tarsal navicular remain a challenging clinical problem. This article presents a series of patients treated with local vascularized pedicle bone grafting to the navicular. The purpose of this study was to determine the early clinical and radiographic outcomes of this technique. Patients who underwent local vascularized pedicle bone grafting for osteonecrosis of the navicular from 2002 to 2007 were included in this study. The Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS), the Revised Foot Function Index (FFI-R), and the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) outcomes questionnaires were administered at most recent followup. Postoperative imaging was reviewed for evidence of healing. Eight patients with a mean age of 47.5 (range, 18 to 68) years were included in this study. The mean followup time was 61 (range, 32 to 72) months. Two patients underwent concomitant talonavicular arthrodesis. Two patients underwent additional procedures to address continued nonunion of the navicular. Neither patient elected to complete the outcomes questionnaires. The mean postoperative FFI score was 35.2 (range, 16.6 to 59). SF-36 subscales were as follows: bodily pain, 53; general health, 55; mental health, 75; physical function, 56; role emotional, 61; role physical, 37.5; social function, 71; and vitality, 56. The mean postoperative AOS pain score was 27.9 (range, 0 to 46.2) and the average disability score was 31.4 (range, 0 to 78.2). Postoperative imaging revealed consolidation and full healing in six of eight patients. Vascularized pedicle bone grafting is a treatment option for patients with chronic nonunion or osteonecrosis of the navicular. Additionally, it may serve as an adjunct procedure to provide increased vascularity to talonavicular arthrodesis in cases of navicular osteonecrosis and talonavicular arthritis.

  10. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI: a reproducibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Philip; Nybing, Janus D. [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg and Bispebjerg, Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Johannsen, Finn E.; Stallknecht, Sandra E. [Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Copenhagen, NV (Denmark); Hangaard, Stine; Hansen, Bjarke B. [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg, Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Boesen, Mikael [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg and Bispebjerg, Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg, Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    To examine intraobserver, interobserver and between-day reproducibility of positional MRI for evaluation of navicular bone height (NVH) and medial navicular position (MNP). Positional MRI (pMRI) of the foot was performed on ten healthy participants (0.25 T G-scanner). Scanning was performed in supine and standing position, respectively. Two radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded manner. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95 % limits of agreement as a percentage of the mean (LOA%). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was ''substantial'' in both supine and standing position (ICC 0.86-0.98) and showed good agreement (LOA% 4.9-14.7 %). Between-day reliability of navicular height and medial navicular position in standing position remained substantial (ICC 0.85-0.92) with adequate agreement (LOA% 8.3-19.8 %). In supine position between-day reliability was ''moderate'' for NVH (ICC 0.72) and ''slight'' for MNP (ICC 0.39). Agreement remained adequate between-days for MNP in supine position (LOA% 17.7 %), but it was less than adequate for NVH in supine position (LOA% 24.2 %). Navicular height and medial navicular position can be measured by pMRI in a very reproducible manner within and between observers. Increased measurement variation is observed between-days in supine position, which may be due to small positional differences or other unknown biomechanical factors. (orig.)

  11. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI: a reproducibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Philip; Nybing, Janus D.; Johannsen, Finn E.; Stallknecht, Sandra E.; Hangaard, Stine; Hansen, Bjarke B.; Boesen, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    To examine intraobserver, interobserver and between-day reproducibility of positional MRI for evaluation of navicular bone height (NVH) and medial navicular position (MNP). Positional MRI (pMRI) of the foot was performed on ten healthy participants (0.25 T G-scanner). Scanning was performed in supine and standing position, respectively. Two radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded manner. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95 % limits of agreement as a percentage of the mean (LOA%). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was ''substantial'' in both supine and standing position (ICC 0.86-0.98) and showed good agreement (LOA% 4.9-14.7 %). Between-day reliability of navicular height and medial navicular position in standing position remained substantial (ICC 0.85-0.92) with adequate agreement (LOA% 8.3-19.8 %). In supine position between-day reliability was ''moderate'' for NVH (ICC 0.72) and ''slight'' for MNP (ICC 0.39). Agreement remained adequate between-days for MNP in supine position (LOA% 17.7 %), but it was less than adequate for NVH in supine position (LOA% 24.2 %). Navicular height and medial navicular position can be measured by pMRI in a very reproducible manner within and between observers. Increased measurement variation is observed between-days in supine position, which may be due to small positional differences or other unknown biomechanical factors. (orig.)

  12. The Relationship Between Accessory Navicular and Flat Foot: A Radiologic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hoon; Hwang, Jin Ho; Seo, Joon Oh; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between accessory navicular (AN) and flat foot and to evaluate the association between flat foot and the symptoms of patients with AN. We enrolled 196 patients with painful or asymptomatic AN in this study. Patients who were older than 18 years or who had no weight-bearing radiographs of the feet were not included. Another 46 normal participants were used as a control group. The AN group was divided into 3 subgroups: a group with asymptomatic AN; a symptomatic group that had not undergone excision; and a symptomatic group that had undergone surgery. Seven radiographic indices were measured including calcaneal pitch angle, tibiocalcaneal angle, talocalcaneal angle, naviculocuboid overlap, talonavicular coverage angle, lateral talo-first metatarsal angle, and AP talo-first metatarsal angle. Groups were compared regarding age, sex, presence of pain at the time of surgery, and radiographic parameters. The calcaneal pitch angle in the AN group was significantly smaller than that of controls (P=0.004). Naviculocuboid overlap (P=0.001), talonavicular coverage angle (Pflat foot; however, the degree of flat foot was not associated with the development and severity of symptoms in patients with AN.

  13. The navicular position test - a reliable measure of the navicular bone position during rest and loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Dåsberg, Brian; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lower limb injuries are a large problem in athletes. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the relationship between alignment of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) of the foot and development of such injuries. A reliable and valid test to quantify foot type is needed to be able...... to investigate the relationship between arch type and injury likelihood. Feiss Line is a valid clinical measure of the MLA. However, no study has investigated the reliability of the test. Objectives: The purpose was to describe a modified version of the Feiss Line test and to determine the intra- and inter......-tester reliability of this new foot alignment test. To emphasize the purpose of the modified test, the authors have named it The Navicular Position Test. Methods: Intra- and inter-tester reliability were evaluated of The Navicular Position Test with the use of ICC (interclass correlation coefficient) and Bland...

  14. Clinicopathological findings in horses with a bi- or tripartite navicular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zaag, Ellen J; Weerts, Erik A W S; van den Belt, Antoon J M; Back, Willem

    2016-04-09

    Navicular bone partition is a rare condition reported in horses, which is during the evaluation of a lameness or prepurchase examination often misinterpreted for a parasagittal fracture. In this report, the clinicopathological findings of three cases of navicular bone partition are evaluated. The possible pathomechanisms underlying the condition are hypothesised, focusing on a potential origin of foetal vascular disturbance. This study is furthermore aiming at a clearer and earlier recognition of navicular bone partition, since this condition would finally predispose for a clinical lameness with a poor prognosis. Case 1 was a 10-year-old Belgian Warmblood gelding with a Grade 3/5 chronic, recurrent left-forelimb lameness that had persisted for 4 months. Perineural palmar digital nerve block of the distal foot abolished the lameness. Radiographic examination revealed a bipartite navicular bone in the left forelimb. Unfortunately, the animal was lost to follow-up. Case 2 was a 7-year-old Quarter Horse stallion with a Grade 3/5 recurrent right forelimb lameness that had persisted for 2 years. The lameness switched to the contralateral left forelimb with a palmar digital nerve block. Radiographic examination identified a tripartite navicular bone in both forelimbs. Pathological examination additionally revealed chronic degenerative changes of the cartilage and subchondral bone with marked cystic changes. Case 3 was a 5-year-old Dutch Warmblood gelding with a Grade 3/5 recurrent left hindlimb lameness that had persisted for 6 months. Owing to the uncooperative behaviour of the horse, only a combined peroneal and tibial nerve block could be performed, which abolished the lameness. Radiographic examination revealed a bipartite navicular bone in the left hindlimb. Pathological examination showed a navicular bipartition in the left hindlimb, with microscopic changes comparable to those evident in Case 2; additionally, cartilage indentations were also found in the navicular

  15. The adult tarsal navicular: why it matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott-Moncrieff, A.; Forster, B.B.; Andrews, G.; Khan, K.

    2007-01-01

    The adult tarsal navicular is an integral part of the midfoot. Many unique pathological conditions affect its function, and while subtle in their presentation, they can be significant sources of pain and deformity. Recognition of these abnormalities in imaging is essential to obtaining prompt diagnoses and instigating early management interventions. In this pictorial essay, accessory ossicles, stress fractures, avascular necrosis, and tarsal coalitions involving the navicular will be discussed in terms of their characteristic imaging findings. Normal anatomy and biomechanical functional aspects of the navicular will be reviewed and multiple images from plain film, ultrasound, bone scan, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging will be presented. Improved familiarity with the adult tarsal navicular and its various abnormalities will enable radiologists to recognize its importance in the differential diagnosis of midfoot pathology. (author)

  16. The adult tarsal navicular: why it matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott-Moncrieff, A. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)], E-mail: ascottmo@interchange.ubc.ca; Forster, B.B.; Andrews, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of British Columbia Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Khan, K. [Dept. of Family Practice, Univ. of British Columbia Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Allan McGavin Sports Medicine Clinic, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    The adult tarsal navicular is an integral part of the midfoot. Many unique pathological conditions affect its function, and while subtle in their presentation, they can be significant sources of pain and deformity. Recognition of these abnormalities in imaging is essential to obtaining prompt diagnoses and instigating early management interventions. In this pictorial essay, accessory ossicles, stress fractures, avascular necrosis, and tarsal coalitions involving the navicular will be discussed in terms of their characteristic imaging findings. Normal anatomy and biomechanical functional aspects of the navicular will be reviewed and multiple images from plain film, ultrasound, bone scan, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging will be presented. Improved familiarity with the adult tarsal navicular and its various abnormalities will enable radiologists to recognize its importance in the differential diagnosis of midfoot pathology. (author)

  17. Dedicated computer system AOTK for image processing and analysis of horse navicular bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowicz, M.; Fojud, A.; Koszela, K.; Mueller, W.; Górna, K.; Okoń, P.; Piekarska-Boniecka, H.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the research was made the dedicated application AOTK (pol. Analiza Obrazu Trzeszczki Kopytowej) for image processing and analysis of horse navicular bone. The application was produced by using specialized software like Visual Studio 2013 and the .NET platform. To implement algorithms of image processing and analysis were used libraries of Aforge.NET. Implemented algorithms enabling accurate extraction of the characteristics of navicular bones and saving data to external files. Implemented in AOTK modules allowing the calculations of distance selected by user, preliminary assessment of conservation of structure of the examined objects. The application interface is designed in a way that ensures user the best possible view of the analyzed images.

  18. Radiographic study of the sound navicular bone. Part 1: What about the canals on the distal border

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, A.; Jolly, S.; Detilleux, J.; Snaps, F.; Serteyn, D.; Collin, B.

    1998-01-01

    The scoring system based on the different types of navicular distal border canals is a good method to quantify and relativise the anomalies in number, shape and localisation of the canals. The distal border score varies significantly with the limb (fore or rear), the morphological type, the gender and the age of the horse. These anatomical variations are of importance and must be taken into account when examining a suspect bone. The score is larger for the fore navicular bone than for the rear. It could be interesting to compare both scores: rear navicular bone score is generally equal to half (or slight less) that of the fore. The score is larger for heavy types of horses and ponies (drafthorse, heavy halfbreds and Fjords). This phenomenon could be related to a larger pressure within the distal interphalangeal joint. The score is lower for the athletic halfbred than for other half-breds. This could be the result of the changes in bone architecture induced by exercise and particularly bone densification. The score is lower for the female than for the male. We think that navicular bone quality is better for the female and this idea corroborates that of other authors that consider that the risk to develop navicular disease is smaller for the female than for the male. The score increases with age. It is particularly small in young horses less than two years old and then increases strongly. This phenomenon is to be related to the progressive development, in the first year of life, of the groove between articular cartilage and distal impar ligament, canals developping only later one. In athletic horses, the score is higher between 7 and 12 years of age. During this time, we also observe more degenerative changes within the navicular bone, which could mean that bone is of lesser quality

  19. Radiographic/morphologic investigation of a radiolucent crescent within the flexor central eminence of the navicular bone in Thoroughbreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, C.R.; Pool, R.R.; Stover, S.; O'Brien, T.R.; Koblik, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    The source of a previously described radiolucent crescent in the flexor cortex of the distal sesamoid (navicular) bone on the palmaro45 degrees proximal-palmarodistal oblique (Pa45 degrees Pr-PaDio) clinical radiographic projection was investigated in 48 forelimb navicular bones from 24 Thoroughbreds by use of high-detail radiography and x-ray computed tomography (CT). Twenty-five of these bones also were evaluated, using microradiography and histologic examinations. Of these 25 bones, 5 had been labeled in vivo with fluorochrome markers. Tetrachrome-stained 100-microns-thick nondecalcified sections of these 5 bones were examined, using epifluorescence microscopy. A reinforcement line of compacted cancellous bone, parallel and several millimeters deep to the flexor cortex in the region of the flexor central eminence, was visualized by CT in 42 of 48 navicular bones and by microradiography in 23 of 25 navicular bones investigated. Variable degrees of compaction were observed in the cancellous bone between the flexor cortex and the reinforcement line. High-detail skyline radiographic projections and reconstructed CT images indicated a crescent-shaped lucency within the flexor central eminence of the flexor cortex in the bones in which the reinforcement line was identified, but the cancellous bone between the reinforcement line and the flexor cortex had not been compacted. The radiolucent crescent seen in the flexor central eminence of the navicular bone on the Pa45 degrees Pr-PaDiO projection was not caused by the concave defect or synovial fossa of the flexor central eminence overlying the flexor cortex, as was described

  20. [Stress fractures of the tarsal navicular bone. Causality, diagnosis, therapy, prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanic, G M; Juranitsch, T; Myerson, M S; Trnka, H J

    2003-12-01

    Stress fractures of the tarsal navicular bone are a challenge in diagnosis and therapy. First and foremost you have to think about this fracture. The origin of the injury can be detected in a wrong or too heavy strain of the bone especially in long distance runners and recruits. The MRI is the diagnostic tool of first choice. Therapy of displaced or comminuted fractures as well as pseudarthrosis is best done with surgical procedures like direct screw fixation or interposition of autologous bone depending on the circumstances and the age of injury. Conservative treatment with a plaster of Paris is useful in non-displaced and non-comminuted fractures. Prophylaxis with technical aids and a changing habits is recommended.

  1. Insight into the pathomorphology of the distal border of the equine navicular bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Frątczak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological changes of the equine navicular bone are found in a variety of forms in numerous old and also relatively young horses. Therefore, investigations on this small bone are of major practical significance. The current article presents a view of the alterations observed on the distal aspect of the bone and analyzes their origin and importance. As a result of pressure subjected by the deep digital flexor tendon and adaptive remodelling of the bone tissue, distal border of the navicular bone extends and becomes sharpened. Osseous distal border fragments may be a consequence of this phenomenon. However, the origin of fragments is also associated with the development of entheseophytes on the margins, which can result from stress induced by the distal impar sesamoid ligament. The authors are not unanimous about the clinical importance of fragments, but it seems that the most dangerous are large-sized ones, especially when occurring together with other lesions. An important issue is also the alterations of the nutrient foramina located on the distal border, due to the main role of this surface in blood supply. Changes in the size and shape of pathological synovial invaginations can be a sign of circulatory disturbances and abnormal turnover of the bone tissue. Some researchers link synovial invaginations to cases of lameness, but their importance is still enigmatic. Majority of studies focus on warmblood horses, and a lower interest in coldblood horses can be seen. Nonetheless, certain data are a strong argument that the breed and morphotype can affect the frequency of adverse changes.

  2. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for use... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120...

  3. Use of the medial femoral condyle vascularized bone flap in traumatic avascular necrosis of the navicular: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Janson; Vangelisti, Garrett; Remmers, Jared

    2012-01-01

    The medial femoral condyle vascularized bone flap has a high success rate in published literature regarding its use in nonunions and avascular necrosis of the upper and lower extremities. It is reported to have minimal donor site morbidity and the ability to provide structural support and torsional strength to load-bearing areas. The flap has found particular success in the treatment of scaphoid nonunions. The tarsal navicular, similar to the scaphoid, is largely articular cancellous bone with little surface area for vascular inflow. These anatomic features make the navicular prone to nonunion and avascular necrosis in traumatic scenarios. We describe a case of nonunion and avascular necrosis of the tarsal navicular occurring as sequelae of a high-impact midfoot injury sustained in an automobile accident. After an initial attempt at open reduction and internal fixation with midfoot bridge plating, subsidence and nonunion resulted. An attempt at arthrodesis of the talonavicular and naviculocuneiform joints was then undertaken. This too failed, leading to the development of additional collapse and avascular necrosis. The site was treated with a medial femoral condyle vascularized bone flap. In this single case, the patient returned to pain-free ambulation and reported excellent outcomes and functional capacity. Although we present a successful case, a larger case series is necessary to establish the use of this flap as a reliable option for the treatment of nonunion and avascular necrosis of the tarsal navicular. Copyright © 2012 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Distal border fragments of the equine navicular bone: association between magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and clinical lameness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, Elizabeth H.; Judy, Carter E.; Saveraid, Travis C.; McGowan, Conor P.; Caldwell, Fred J.

    2014-01-01

    Distal border fragments of the navicular bone are increasingly being detected due to the improved capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but their clinical significance remains unclear. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the location, size, and frequency of fragments in a cohort of horses presented for MRI of the foot and to compare MRI findings with severity of lameness. Archived MRI studies and medical records were searched from March 2006 to June 2008. Horses were included if a distal border fragment of the navicular bone was visible in MRI scans. Confidence interval comparisons and linear regression analyses were used to test hypotheses that fragments were associated with lameness and lameness severity was positively correlated with fragment volume and biaxial location. A total of 453 horses (874 limbs) were included. Fragments were identified in 60 horses (13.25%) and 90 limbs (10.3%). Fifty percent of the horses had unilateral fragments and 50% had bilateral fragments. Fragments were located at the lateral (62.2%), medial (8.89%), or medial and lateral (28.9%) angles of the distal border of the navicular bone. There was no increased probability of being categorized as lame if a fragment was present. There was no significant difference in fragment volume across lameness severity categorizations. Confidence intervals indicated a slightly increased probability of being classified as lame if both medial and lateral fragments were present. Findings indicated that distal border fragments of the navicular bone in equine MRI studies are unlikely to be related to existing lameness.

  5. Combined fracture dislocation of the navicular bone along with cuboid, cuneiform and longitudinal split fracture of the lateral malleolus: a rare combination of fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri Chhetri*, Kapil Mani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fracture dislocation of the navicular bone, fracture of the cuboid, cuneiform, and longitudinal split fracture of the lateral malleolus is a rare combination of fractures. This is a high velocity injury fracture and can be caused by forcible plantar flexion and inversion of the foot at the time of impact onto the ground. Here we reported such a case in a 35-year-old male patient who was treated by open reduction and fixation with a partially threaded screw and two K-wires for the navicular bone, and two interfragmentary screws with a one third tubular plate for the lateral malleolus. K-wires were removed 6 weeks after surgery followed by partial weight bearing. After 6 months, the patient can walk normally with minimal pain and swelling of the foot. Key words: Arthritis; Navicular fracture dislocation; Split fracture of lateral malleolus

  6. Accessory bones of the feet: Radiological analysis of frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Vladica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Accessory bones are most commonly found on the feet and they represent an anatomic variant. They occur when there is a failure in the formation of a unique bone from separated centre of ossification. The aim of this study was to establish their frequency and medical significance. Methods. Anteroposterior and lateral foot radiography was performed in 270 patients aged of 20-80 years with a history of trauma (180 and rheumatology disease (90. The presence and distribution of accessory bones was analysed in relation to the total number of patients and their gender. The results are expressed in numeric values and in terms of percentage. Results. Accessory bones were identified in 62 (22.96% patients: 29 (10.74% of them were found in female patients and 33 (12.22% in males. The most common accessory bones were as follows: os tibiale externum 50%, os peroneum 29.03%, ostrigonum 11.29%, os vaselianum 9.68%. Conclusion. Accessory bones found in 23% of patients with trauma and some of rheumatological diseases. Their significance is demonstrated in the differential diagnosis among degenerative diseases, avulsion fractures, muscle and tendon trauma and other types of injuries which can cause painful affection of the foot, as well as in forensic practice.

  7. Progress in the clinical imaging research of bone diseases on ankle and foot sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaozhong; Shi, Lenian; Liu, Taiyun; Wang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Summary Sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles are research focuses of foot and ankle surgery. Pains of the foot and ankle are related to sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles. The specific anatomical and functional relationship of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles can cause such bone diseases as the dislocation of sesamoid bones and accessory bones, infection, inflammation and necrosis of sesamoid bones, cartilage softening, tenosynovitis of sesamoid bones and the sesamoid bone syndrome. However, these bone diseases are often misdiagnosed or mistreated. In patients with trauma history, relevant diseases of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles as above mentioned are highly probable to be misdiagnosed as avulsion fractures. In such cases, radiographic findings may provide a basis for clinical diagnosis. PMID:25343083

  8. Surgical treatment of a comminuted articular fracture of the accessory carpal bone in a thoroughbred horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munroe, G.A.; Cauvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings in a case ofa comminuted articular fracture of the accessory carpal bone of a thoroughbred chaser are described, and its surgical treatment and aftercare are detailed. The horse made an uneventful recovery and successfully returned to racing

  9. INTRA-RATER RELIABILITY OF USING THE NAVICULAR DROP TEST FOR MEASURING FOOT PRONATION

    OpenAIRE

    Vauhnik, Renata; Turk, Zmago; Pilih, Iztok A.; Mičetić-Turk, Dučanka

    2006-01-01

    The navicular drop test was used as an indicator of foot pronation. It is defined as the distance between the original height of the navicular from the floor, with the foot on the floor in sitting in the subtalar neutral position, and the final weight-bearing position of the navicular in relaxed stance. This measurement is thought to represent the sagittal plane displacement of the navicular bone from a neutral position to a relaxed standing position. The purpose of this study was to test int...

  10. Comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone removed via an arthroscopic-assisted arthrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Alvaro G; Santschi, Elizabeth M

    2015-02-01

    A 16-year-old American paint horse gelding was presented for evaluation of a left forelimb lameness grade III/V. Radiographs and computed tomography revealed a comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone involving the entire articulation with the distal radius and the proximal aspect of the articulation with the ulnar carpal bone. Multiple fragments were present in the palmar pouch of the antebrachiocarpal joint. An arthroscopic-assisted open approach was necessary to remove all fractured fragments. Subsequently the horse was re-admitted for lameness and was treated successfully with antibiotics and long-term supportive bandaging.

  11. Comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone removed via an arthroscopic-assisted arthrotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Alvaro G.; Santschi, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year-old American paint horse gelding was presented for evaluation of a left forelimb lameness grade III/V. Radiographs and computed tomography revealed a comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone involving the entire articulation with the distal radius and the proximal aspect of the articulation with the ulnar carpal bone. Multiple fragments were present in the palmar pouch of the antebrachiocarpal joint. An arthroscopic-assisted open approach was necessary to remove all fractured fragments. Subsequently the horse was re-admitted for lameness and was treated successfully with antibiotics and long-term supportive bandaging. PMID:25694665

  12. Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot: imaging findings, clinical significance and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellado, J.M.; Ramos, A.; Salvado, E.; Camins, A.; Sauri, A. [Inst. de Diagnostic per la Imatge, Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, Tarragona (Spain); Danus, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, Tarragona (Spain)

    2003-12-01

    Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones are frequent findings in routine radiographs of the ankle and foot. They are commonly considered fortuitous and unrelated to the patient's complaint; however, they may eventually cause painful syndromes or degenerative changes in response to overuse and trauma. They may also suffer or simulate fractures. Our aim was to review, illustrate and discuss the imaging findings of some of the more frequent accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot region, with particular emphasis on those that may be of clinical significance or simulate fractures. (orig.)

  13. Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot: imaging findings, clinical significance and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellado, J.M.; Ramos, A.; Salvado, E.; Camins, A.; Sauri, A.; Danus, M.

    2003-01-01

    Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones are frequent findings in routine radiographs of the ankle and foot. They are commonly considered fortuitous and unrelated to the patient's complaint; however, they may eventually cause painful syndromes or degenerative changes in response to overuse and trauma. They may also suffer or simulate fractures. Our aim was to review, illustrate and discuss the imaging findings of some of the more frequent accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot region, with particular emphasis on those that may be of clinical significance or simulate fractures. (orig.)

  14. Puncture wounds into the navicular bursa of the horse: role of radiographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, G.L.; O'Brien, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    Radiography was used to evaluate 32 horses presented for puncture wounds into the navicular bursa. At the initial radiographic examination, 21 horses had no radiographic signs of osteomyelitis, while 11 did. The mean-time interval between injury and radiographic examination was 20.6 days for horses without evidence of osteomyelitis and 59.3 days for those with evidence of osteomyelitis. Radiographic signs of osteomyelitis of the navicular bone included flexor cortical destruction and irregularity of the flexor surface. Other abnormalities included pathologic fracture of the navicular bone, subluxation of the distal interphalangeal joint, or secondary joint disease. The lateromedial and palmaroproximal-palmarodistal oblique projections were most useful for identifying abnormalities of the navicular bone. There was a high correlation between horses that had positive presurgical radiographic signs and surgical findings. However, approximately 50% of horses that had negative radiographic findings initially had positive surgical findings. Ten of 21 horses with negative radiographic findings on initial examination had evidence of bony lesions when reevaluated from 3 weeks to 6 years later. Nine of 11 horses with radiographic signs of osteomyelitis on initial radiographic examination were euthanatized or had an unsatisfactory outcome. Seven of 10 horses with radiographic signs on reexamination were euthanatized. Thirteen of 20 horses with positive surgical findings for navicular bone infection were euthanatized or had an unsatisfactory outcome

  15. Navicular syndrome : anatomy, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment [Podotrochlitis chronica aseptica, in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, A.; Caudron, I.; Serteyn, D.; Collin, B.

    1994-01-01

    This article gives anatomical and physiological considerations about the equine foot. Pathogenesis and etiology of navicular bone disease are discussed in the light of study of the most recent literature on this subject. The diagnostic procedures and treatment strategies are also exposed

  16. Neglected Foreign Body, the Cause of Navicular Osteomyelitis in A Paediatric Foot: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekara C.M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foreign body injuries with date thorns, metal and wooden splinters are common in Middle East region, as most of it is desert. Some of the injuries lead to cellulitis or abscess formation, if neglected or improperly managed results in osteomyelitis or septic arthritis of foot structures. This is the first report of isolated navicular osteomyelitis following neglected foreign body in a paediatric foot. Case Report: A 10 year old male patient presented with discharging sinus in left mid-foot 3 years after penetrating injury with wooden splinter. The diagnosis of navicular osteomelitis is confirmed with plain radio-graphs. The ultrasound of foot was done to localize the foreign bodies. Patient was treated with complete removal of foreign body (wooden splinters, surgical debridement and combination of IV and oral cloxacillin for period of 6 weeks. At 18 months follow up, patient had painless foot with no recurrence or collapse of navicular bone. Conclusion: The neglected foreign body can result in osteomyelitis of small bones of foot in pediatric patient. The ultrasound is more useful tool in localizing foreign bodies; those are not radio-opaque. Early and prompt diagnosis with adequate treatment of established osteomyelitis by complete removal of foreign body, curettage and antibiotics can give good results. Keywords: Osteomyelitis; Navicular bone; Foreign body; Paediatric.

  17. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Philip; Johannsen, Finn E; Hangaard, Stine

    2016-01-01

    -scanner). Scanning was performed in supine and standing position, respectively. Two radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded manner. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95 % limits of agreement as a percentage of the mean (LOA%). RESULTS...

  18. Therapeutic Ultrasound in Navicular Stress Injuries in Elite Track and Field Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Alaseirlis, Dimosthenis; Konstantinidis, George; Papalada, Agapi; Tsifountoudis, Ioannis; Petras, Kosmas; Maffulli, Nicola

    2017-05-01

    To ascertain whether therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) can be used to assess the progression of conservative management in navicular stress injuries. This is a prospective, clinical case series. Level of evidence IV. All participants were examined and followed up in a private Sports Injury Clinic. Ten elite track and field athletes with severe dorsal midfoot pain over the navicular bone participated in this study. All patients underwent both TUS and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation. The painful threshold of TUS on initial evaluation was a mean of 0.707 ± 149 W/cm, and MRI detected a navicular stress injury in all patients. The athletes received conservative treatment and underwent sequential TUS evaluations at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Therapeutic ultrasound pain threshold values were recorded, and the patients were additionally asked to grade local tenderness on a Visual Analogue Scale. Time to return to play was also recorded. The level of pain produced by the application of TUS on a navicular stress fracture seemed to correlate well with Visual Analogue Scale scores and the grade of fracture demonstrated on MRI. The initial low TUS painful mean value increased to a normal mean value of 1.97 ± 0.067 W/cm by 16 weeks. When clinical and TUS findings had returned to normal, the patients were allowed to return to sports activities, with no recurrences experienced during the study period. The production of pain associated with the application of TUS on a navicular stress fracture is a safe and reproducible method of monitoring the resolution of these fractures. We have used it successfully in making return-to-play decisions for elite level track and field athletes.

  19. 21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-chromium-molybdenum, stainless steel, and titanium, that are intended to be held in position with fasteners... implanted consisting of one or more metallic components and their metallic fasteners. The devices contain a... involve cutting a bone. The devices may be implanted or attached through the skin so that a pulling force...

  20. Frontal plane fractures of the accessory carpal bone and implications for the carpal sheath of the digital flexor tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, G J; Wright, I M

    2014-09-01

    Accurate radiological and ultrasonographic descriptions of frontal plane fractures of the accessory carpal bone (ACB) are lacking, and implications of these fractures for the carpal sheath and its contents have not previously been reported. Aims were as follows: 1) to describe the location and radiological features of frontal plane fractures of the ACB; 2) to document communication of displaced fractures with the carpal sheath and consequent injury to the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT); 3) to describe ultrasonographic identification of lesions; and 4) to report tenoscopic evaluation and treatment. Retrospective case series. Analysis of frontal plane fractures of the ACB referred to a single hospital between 2006 and 2012, including review of radiographic, ultrasonographic and tenoscopic images. Nine fractures were identified, of which 8 displaced fractures all communicated with the carpal sheath. Comminuted fragments and/or protruding fracture margins lacerated the lateral margin of the enclosed DDFT. This was identifiable ultrasonographically and confirmed at tenoscopy in 7 cases. Treatment in these horses consisted of removal of torn tendon tissue together with fragmentation and protuberant fracture edges, and 7 of 7 cases returned to work. One horse with a nondisplaced fracture was managed with immobilisation; the fracture healed, and the horse returned to work. One horse with a displaced fracture was retired to stud. Frontal plane fractures of the ACB occur palmar to the groove in its lateral margin for the tendon of insertion of ulnaris lateralis. Comminuted fragments can displace distally within the carpal sheath to a mid-metacarpal level or abaxially to lie extrathecally, lateral to the parent bone. Displaced fractures communicate with the carpal sheath and traumatise the DDFT. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  1. Enfermedad navicular con desviación axial del hueso navicular en una yegua de 33 meses de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alvarez P

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de enfermedad navicular con desviación vertical del eje longitudinal del hueso navicular en una yegua de trocha pura, de 33 meses de edad, procedente del municipio de Montería (Córdoba, Colombia, a la cual se le detectó signos de cojera intermitente en el miembro posterior derecho con apoyo en lumbres, punteo constante y en abducción, aumento de volumen en el bulbo lateral de dicho miembro, marcado dolor al paso. A la palpación se determino sensibilidad en la parte posterior (bulbos y talones del casco derecho, prueba de flexión de nudo positiva en los miembros posteriores, más marcado en el derecho, por lo que se le realizó radiología del pie y del sistema podotroclear, detectando lisis de la corteza flexora y pérdida de la diferenciación cortico-medular con desviación axial del hueso navicular. Estos hallazgos clínicos y radiológicos obedecen principalmente a enfermedad navicular. Esta patología es también conocida en equinos como síndrome navicular, la cual es una enfermedad crónica, degenerativa y progresiva, caracterizada por afectar al hueso navicular, bursa navicular o superficies adyacentes al tendón flexor digital profundo. Se realizo tratamiento farmacológico que permitió la recuperación total del paciente.

  2. The navicular position test - a reliable measure of the navicular bone position during rest and loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Dåsberg, Brian; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lower limb injuries are a large problem in athletes. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the relationship between alignment of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) of the foot and development of such injuries. A reliable and valid test to quantify foot type is needed to be able ...

  3. The navicular position test - a reliable measure of the navicular bone position during rest and loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Dåsberg, Brian; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2011-01-01

    Lower limb injuries are a large problem in athletes. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the relationship between alignment of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) of the foot and development of such injuries. A reliable and valid test to quantify foot type is needed to be able to investiga...

  4. The navicular position test - a reliable measure of the navicular bone position during rest and loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Dåsberg, Brian; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2011-01-01

    Lower limb injuries are a large problem in athletes. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the relationship between alignment of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) of the foot and development of such injuries. A reliable and valid test to quantify foot type is needed to be able to investigate...... the relationship between arch type and injury likelihood. Feiss Line is a valid clinical measure of the MLA. However, no study has investigated the reliability of the test....

  5. The validity and reliability of the navicular fat stripe as a screening test for detection of navicular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, M; Orlinsky, M; Goldberg, R; Brotman, P

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the navicular fat stripe (NFS) is a valid and reliable screening tool in assessing potential navicular fractures. Retrospective analysis. Minor trauma section of the Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center emergency department. Study population included patients seen for wrist injury between January 1987 and December 1988. The individuals who interpreted the radiographs included eight observers with varying degrees of radiographic experience. None The positive predictive value averaged 12% or 15% depending on how we counted a straight NFS, and the negative predictive value averaged 93% or 95%, again depending on how we counted a straight NFS. A straight NFS was ten times as likely to occur among normal wrists than among those with navicular fractures. Interobserver reliability was found to be high with a Hoyt reliability coefficient of .79. An abnormal NFS is a poor predictor of a navicular fracture while both a straight and a normal NFS are good predictors of no navicular fracture. A normal NFS may allow less stringent treatment by the emergency physician. Extremes of radiographic experience were found to have no significant effect on NFS interpretation.

  6. Accessory Lobes, Accessory Fissures and Prominent Papillary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Often unreported hepatic variations include accessory fissures, lobes and processes. Variant hepatic fissures further show variations in location and depth. Accessory lobes of the liver have different size, shape, situation, connection with maternal organ. These abnormalities in the anatomy of human liver have the ...

  7. [Excessively long calcaneal spur. A rudimentary form of calcaneo-navicular synostosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, J; Pouliquen, J C

    1983-01-01

    The authors have seen 5 children aged between 12 and 16 years suffering from a painful foot described as a recurrent sprain. Movements of the subtalar joint were limited and radiographs showed a hypertrophic calcaneal spur projecting towards the navicular but without fusion between the calcaneus and navicular. The calcaneal spurs were resected with good results and with an immediate symptomatic improvement.

  8. Determination of normal values for navicular drop during walking: a new model correcting for foot length and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus G; Rathleff, Michael S; Simonsen, Ole H

    2009-01-01

    participants. Normal values have not yet been established as foot length, age, gender, and Body Mass Index (BMI) may influence the navicular drop. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of foot length, age, gender, and BMI on the navicular drop during walking. METHODS: Navicular drop...... increased by 0.40 mm for males and 0.31 mm for females. Linear models were created to calculate the navicular drop relative to foot length. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that the dynamic navicular drop is influenced by foot length and gender. Lack of adjustment for these factors may explain, at least...

  9. Accessory mental foramen

    OpenAIRE

    Balcioglu, Huseyin Avni; Kocaelli, Humeyra

    2009-01-01

    Context: Accessory mental foramen is a rare anatomical variation. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more accessory mental foramen during surgical procedures involving the mandible. Case report: A 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scan of a female patient revealed an accessory mental foramen on the right side of her mandible. Conclusion: A 3D-CT scan should be obtained prior to mandibular sur...

  10. Statistical analysis of general, clinical and radiographic parameters of navicular disease in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langfeldt, N.; Hertsch, B.

    1988-01-01

    With 20,4 % the syndrome navicular disease has a remarkable part of lameness in the equine fore limb. Although intensive investigations of the last years, there is no uniform opinion in the clinical diagnosis of navicular disease. At first there is a differential description of the diagnosis of navicular disease and a presentation of the importance of this disease from the whole patients of the equine hospital of the Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover about five years (1980-1984). After that, the importance of the identification of pain with pain provocation test and the elimination of pain by anesthetic nerve blocking are described. The result of the anesthetic block of the ''Ramus pulvinus'' of the medial and lateral palmar digital nerves is a necessary part in clinical diagnosis of navicular disease [de

  11. Accessory mental foramen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcioglu, Huseyin Avni; Kocaelli, Humeyra

    2009-11-01

    Accessory mental foramen is a rare anatomical variation. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more accessory mental foramen during surgical procedures involving the mandible. A 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scan of a female patient revealed an accessory mental foramen on the right side of her mandible. A 3D-CT scan should be obtained prior to mandibular surgeries so that the presence of accessory mental foramen can be detected, and so that the occurrence of a neurosensory disturbance or hemorrhage can be avoided. Although this anatomical variation is rare, it should be kept in mind that an accessory mental foramen may exist.

  12. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  13. Talonavicular joint coverage and bone morphology between different foot types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Philip K; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Fassbind, Michael J; Ledoux, William R

    2014-07-01

    This study explored three dimensional (3D) talonavicular joint (TNJ) coverage/orientation and bone morphology to reveal parameters that could classify and identify predispositions to cavus and planus feet. 3D models of 65 feet from 40 subjects were generated from computed tomography images classified as pes cavus, neutrally aligned, or asymptomatic/symptomatic pes planus. We calculated the talar and navicular overlap (TNJ coverage). We also measured orientation of the navicular, morphological parameters of the talus and navicular, and angular position of the talar head to body. Pes cavus showed significantly less talonavicular coverage (58 ± 2% talus and 86 ± 2% navicular) compared to asymptomatic pes planus (63 ± 2% and 95 ± 2%) and neutrally aligned feet (98 ± 2% navicular), and significantly more navicular dorsiflexion and adduction relative to the talus (p feet was inverted relative to the body compared to planus feet (p feet was everted relative to the body compared to neutrally aligned feet. Both intrinsic (bone morphology) and extrinsic (bone position) differences exist in groups of feet described as cavus and planus. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Navicular stress fractures treated with minimally invasive fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korula Mani Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Early intervention with minimally invasive surgery has significantly less morbidity and a reliable early return to active sports and is therefore the best option in high-performance athletes. Materials and Methods: Nine athletes with ten stress fractures of the navicular treated at our institution between April 1991 and October 2000. The mean age of the patients was 22.8 years (range 18-50 years. All patients were treated by minimally invasive screw fixation and early weight bearing mobilization without a cast. The average followup was 7 years (range 2-11 years. Results: Seven of the nine patients returned to their pre-fracture level of sporting activity at an average of 5 months (range 3-9 months. One patient returned to full sporting activity following a delay of 2 years due to an associated tibial stress fracture and one patient had an unsatisfactory result. Long term review at an average of 7 years showed that six of these eight patients who returned to sports remained symptom free with two patients experiencing minimal intermittent discomfort after prolonged activity. Conclusions: We recommend percutaneous screw fixation as a reliable, low morbidity procedure allowing early return to full sporting activity without long term complications or recurrences.

  15. Delayed healing of a navicular stress fracture, following limited weight-bearing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matthew; Fulcher, Mark

    2014-03-11

    This report describes a 21-year-old man, a semiprofessional football (soccer) player, with a navicular stress fracture. It highlights the difficulty in diagnosing the condition and the complications arising from inadequate management. The case discusses the optimal management of these stress fractures and the detrimental role of weight-bearing recovery. The diagnosis of navicular stress fractures is challenging, and a high index of suspicion is required. The available literature indicates that limited weightbearing is not an appropriate treatment for navicular stress injuries. Non-weight-bearing (NWB) cast immobilisation for 6-8 weeks appears to be the gold standard treatment; however, open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) has similar success rates and an equal return-to-play time but should also be followed by a period of NWB. NWB cast immobilisation for 6 weeks remains a good second option at any time following failed limited weight-bearing activity.

  16. Motion analysis to track navicular displacements in the pediatric foot: relationship with foot posture, body mass index, and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Alpesh; Dixon, Philippe Courtney; Stebbins, Julie; Zavatsky, Amy Beth; Theologis, Tim

    2014-09-01

    Increased navicular drop (NDro) and navicular drift (NDri) are associated with musculoskeletal pathology in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate navicular motion in children, with respect to foot posture, and identify altered patterns of motion that demonstrate midfoot dysfunction. Navicular motion in different activities was evaluated as well as the role of flexibility and body mass index (BMI). Twenty-five children with flatfeet and 26 with neutral feet (age range, 8-15) underwent gait analysis using a 12-camera Vicon MX system (Vicon, UK). Navicular motion indices were calculated from marker coordinates. Student t tests and Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) were used to investigate navicular motion differences between groups. The relationship between NDRo, NDRi, and their dynamic counterparts was also assessed. Normalized NDri (NNDri) and normalized NDro (NNDro) correlated strongly in neutral feet (R = 0.56, P = .003) but not in flatfeet (R = 0.18, P > .05). Flatfeet demonstrated reduced NNDri compared to neutral footed children (0.7 vs 1.6, P = .007). No difference was observed in NNDro between groups. Standard and dynamic measures of NDri and NDRo were highly correlated. Navicular motion correlated poorly with BMI and flexibility. Motion of the navicular in the transverse and the sagittal plane is important when investigating foot function. Uncoupling of this motion in flatfeet may indicate impaired midfoot function. Reduced navicular medial translation in flatfeet may indicate altered alignment of the talonavicular joint. The measurement of dynamic navicular motion indices did not add information about dynamic foot function compared to measurement of static indices. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Can orthoses and navicular drop affect foot motion patterns during running?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Mansour; Ferber, Reed

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of semi-rigid foot orthoses on forefoot-rearfoot joint coupling patterns in individuals with different navicular drop measures during heel-toe running. Ten trials were collected from twenty-three male subjects who ran slowly shod at 170 steps per minute (2.23m/s) with a semi-rigid orthoses and without. Forefoot-rearfoot coupling motions were assessed using a vector coding technique during four intervals across the first 50% of stance. Subjects were divided into two groups based on navicular drop measures. A three way ANOVA was performed to examine the interaction and main effects of stance interval, orthoses condition and navicular drop (pfoot-flat phase at a rate faster than the orthoses condition (p=0.02). Foot orthoses significantly decrease the forefoot-rearfoot joint coupling angle by reducing forefoot frontal plane motion relative to the rearfoot. Navicular drop measures did not influence joint coupling relationships between the forefoot and rearfoot during the first 50% of stance regardless of orthotic condition. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  18. A Novel Method for Measuring In-Shoe Navicular Drop during Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Karstoft

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of foot movement is essential in the treatment and prevention of foot-related disorders. Measuring the in-shoe foot movement during everyday activities, such as sports, has the potential to become an important diagnostic tool in clinical practice. The current paper describes the development of a thin, flexible and robust capacitive strain sensor for the in-shoe measurement of the navicular drop. The navicular drop is a well-recognized measure of foot movement. The position of the strain sensor on the foot was analyzed to determine the optimal points of attachment. The sensor was evaluated against a state-of-the-art video-based system that tracks reflective markers on the bare foot. Preliminary experimental results show that the developed strain sensor is able to measure navicular drop on the bare foot with an accuracy on par with the video-based system and with a high reproducibility. Temporal comparison of video-based, barefoot and in-shoe measurements indicate that the developed sensor measures the navicular drop accurately in shoes and can be used without any discomfort for the user.

  19. Avaliação radiográfica e ultrassonográfica do aparato podotroclear de cavalos Quarto de Milha diagnosticados com síndrome do navicular Radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluation of the podotrochlear apparatus in American Quarter horses diagnosed with navicular syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia I.C. Peixoto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as alterações do aparato podotroclear de 22 cavalos da raça Quarto de Milha acometidos pela síndrome do navicular utilizando o acesso transcuneal. Esses equinos foram submetidos ao exame radiográfico e ultrassonográfico. No exame radiográfico foi observado a presença de invaginação sinovial de diferentes tipos, além de calcificação da bursa podotroclear e tendão flexor digital profundo, entesiófitos, osteófitos e alteração do limite córtico-medular. No exame ultrassonográfico observou-se alterações da bursa podotroclear, aderência e irregularidades nos bordos do tendão flexor digital profundo, diminuição do coxim digital, calcificação do ligamento sesamóide distal ímpar e irregularidade da superfície flexora do osso sesamóide distal. Todos os equinos que apresentavam alterações radiográficas também apresentaram alterações no exame ultrassonográfico compatíveis com a síndrome do navicular. O exame ultrassonográfico utilizando o acesso transcuneal foi um método prático e eficiente para avaliação das lesões do aparato podotroclear dos eqüinos, sendo um método complementar ao exame radiográfico.The objective of this study was to evaluate radiographically and ultrasonographically the podotrochlear apparatus using a transcuneal approach in 22 American Quarter horses suffering from navicular syndrome. On the radiographs, different forms of synovial invaginations, calcification of the podotrochlear bursa and deep digital flexor tendon, enthesophyte and osteophyte formation, and changes in the cortical-medullary margin were observed. On the ultrasound scans, changes of the podotrochlear bursa, adhesions and irregularities at the surface of the deep digital flexor tendon, the digital cushion area reduction, calcification of the impar distal sesamoideal ligament, and irregularities of the flexor surface of the distal sesamoid bone were observed. Radiographic and

  20. Accessory Transversarium Foramen of Cervical Vertebrae: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A male cadaver preserved by means of the routine embalming techniques following the completion of dissection was used for bone maceration. The soft tissues were removed and the cervical vertebrae were studied for variations. The variations recorded in this study include the presence of accessory transverse foramina in ...

  1. Unusual Variant of the Nutcracker Fracture of the Calcaneus and Tarsal Navicular

    OpenAIRE

    Gajendran, Varun K.; Yoo, Brad J.; Hunter, John C.

    2008-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman with severe seizure disorder presented with right ankle and foot pain after being found down, presumably following a seizure recurrence. Imaging showed an acute comminuted fracture of the anterolateral aspect of the right calcaneus, as well as an acute avulsion fracture of the right navicular tuberosity at the site of insertion of the tibialis posterior tendon. This fracture pattern suggests forced abduction of the midfoot or forefoot with severe compression of the lateral...

  2. Navicular stress fractures treated with minimally invasive fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Korula Mani; Paterson, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Stress fractures of the naviculum bone are uncommon injuries occurring predominantly in athletes. These fractures are usually treated nonoperatively with a nonweight bearing cast for a minimum of 6 weeks followed by rehabilitation. Further, there is a paucity of literature on the long term clinical followup of these patients. These fractures do not heal predictably with conservative management, which does not inspire great compliance and their clinical outcome is variable. We repo...

  3. Accessory Proteins at ERES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkenberg, Rafael David

    proteins. Together these components co‐operate in cargo‐selection as well as forming, loading and releasing budding vesicles from specific regions on the membrane surface of the ER. Coat components furthermore convey vesicle targeting towards the Golgi. However, not much is known about the mechanisms...... that regulate the COPII assembly at the vesicle bud site. This thesis provides the first regulatory mechanism of COPII assembly in relation to ER‐membrane lipid‐signal recognition by the accessory protein p125A (Sec23IP). The aim of the project was to characterize p125A function by dissecting two main domains...... in the protein; a putative lipid‐associating domain termed the DDHD domain that is defined by the four amino acid motif that gives the domain its name; and a ubiquitously found domain termed Sterile α‐motif (SAM), which is mostly associated with oligomerization and polymerization. We first show, that the DDHD...

  4. Ultrasonographic findings of accessory breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Ki Keun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Yoon, Choon Sik; Kim, Mi Hye

    1993-01-01

    Accessory breast is an ectopic breast tissue from developmental remnants. It sometimes begins to make symptom, pain and swelling, during premenstrual period or pregnancy. For it has been known as a rear condition, it has occasionally misdiagnosed as a abnormal mass, such as lymphadenitis or hidradentis. We have analyzed 52 accessory breast tissues prospectively, to document the characteristic findings of accessory breast. In summary, the characteristic sonographic findings of accessory breast were the presence of breast tissue superficial to the axillary fascia or underlying fascia if not in axilla, resembling the patient's own breast pattern, the presence of converging appearance of dilated ducts, presence of nipple and/or areola, the obliteration of inner wall of dermis, the obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer, and the downward displacement of axillary fascia or underlying fascia if not in axilla without interruption

  5. Short-term effects of sports taping on navicular height, navicular drop and peak plantar pressure in healthy elite athletes: A within-subject comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taegyu; Park, Jong-Chul

    2017-11-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common exercise-induced leg pain. The navicular drop (ND) was identified as a risk factor for MTSS. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of sports taping applied to the supporting lower leg during sitting, standing, walking, and jogging to restrict the ND in healthy elite athletes.Twenty-four healthy elite athletes without a history of exercise-induced pain or injuries in the lower limbs participated in this study (median age: 21.00 years; 1st--3rd quartiles; 19.25-22.00). The 4 taping conditions were used: rigid taping (RT), kinesiology taping (KT), placebo taping (PT), and non-taping (NT). The order of taping techniques was randomly assigned. Normalized navicular height (NH), ND, and normalized ND evaluated using 3-dimensional motion analysis, and normalized peak plantar pressure (PP) were compared in 4 taping conditions during sitting, standing, walking, and jogging.During sitting, the normalized NH of RT is higher than that of NT, KT, and PT (χ = 17.30, P = .001), while during jogging, the normalized NH of RT is higher than that of NT and PT (χ = 10.55, P = .014). The normalized peak PP of NT is higher than that of PT (χ = 8.871, P = .031) in the lateral midfoot region.This study showed the RT technique maintained NH during sitting and jogging, and the RT technique could be an effective preventive and treatment strategy for MTSS.

  6. Hipodoncia y hueso navicular accesorio: una interesante asociación sindrómica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cantín

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Los dientes se desarrollan a partir de múltiples interacciones recíprocas entre células del epitelio oral y el ectomesénquima. Una serie de genes participan en el desarrollo del diente, así como de otros órganos y miembros superiores e inferiores. PAX9, miembro de la familia de factores de transcripción, es uno de los principales responsables de este desarrollo, y juega un rol fundamental en la hipodoncia dental y malformaciones en los huesos del miembro inferior. El objetivo de este reporte es presentar un caso de asociación entre hipodoncia y el hueso navicular accesorio. Se trata de una paciente de 18 años de edad, que acude a la consulta dental por dolor agudo en la pieza dentaria 3.6 y dolor de 9 meses de evolución en la cara interna del pie izquierdo. Al examen radiográfico, se observó ausencia de las piezas dentarias 1.7, 2.7, 2.8, 3.8 y 4.8, además en el pie izquierdo se vio la presencia de un hueso navicular accesorio. Es interesante proponer esta rara asociación, de clara herencia autosómica dominante, dado que la agenesia dental y la presencia del hueso navicular accesorio, poseen una prevalencia semejante, lo que hace que pueda existir una nueva asociación sindrómica probablemente relacionada con la ausencia de PAX9.

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF INTRINSIC MUSCLE STRENGTHENING WITH ORTHOSIS OVER CONVENTIONAL PHYSIOTHERAPY WITH ORTHOSIS FOR NAVICULAR DROP IN PROLONG STANDING WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Saikia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foot pronation is a series of movements which is intended to absorb shock by decelerating and cushioning the foot as it comes in contact with surface. When this motion is exaggerated, the ankle rolls too far inward and the arch is flattened causing overpronation. It is seen that with an abnormal pronation, navicular drop occurs. Navicular drop causes pain in ankle and knee, fatigue, difficulty in walking. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of intrinsic muscle strengthening with orthosis over conventional physiotherapy exercises with orthosis for correction of navicular drop and Pain Disability in prolong standing workers. Method: An Experimental study design, seventy industrial workers were tested for navicular drop test out of which fifty tested positive. The subjects were divided into two groups Group A (N=25 and Group B (N=25. Group-A subjects received intrinsic muscle strengthening exercises with orthosis and Group-B received conventional physiotherapy exercises with orthosis. The duration of treatment continued was given for 8 weeks and outcome measurements were measured at 0 day, 4th week and 8th week using the Navicular drop (ND test and Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ. Results: Comparative analysis using Independent t-test was carried out separately for ND and PDQ. For ND, t =-5.01 which is highly significant (p=0.00. It has been inferred that ND decreases more when intrinsic muscle strengthening with orthosis was applied. To see the difference of means of PDQ, t = -1.97 which is significant (p = 0.049 implying that PDQ decrease more when intrinsic muscle strengthening was applied as compared to conventional physiotherapy with orthosis. Conclusion: It is concluded that 8 weeks of intrinsic muscle strengthening exercise with orthosis is more effective than conventional physiotherapy exercises with orthosis in reducing navicular drop and improving Pain Disability in prolong standing workers.

  8. Billing of Household Goods Accessorial Charges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The audit objectives were to evaluate the process of submitting bills for household goods accessorial charges for payment, and to evaluate procedures used to conduct prepayment reviews of billed accessorial charges...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A manual operating table and accessories and a manual operating chair and...

  10. Accessory hepatic vein: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Rho, Tack Soo; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the MR appearance of the accessory hepatic veins. The study included 87 consecutive patients for whom abdominal MR images were obtained. The subjects who had liver lesion or hepatic vascular abnormalities were excluded. Couinaud classified accessory hepatic veins into inferior and middle right hepatic veins. Our major interests were evaluation of the incidence, morphology, and location of the accessory hepatic vein. Inferior right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 43 out of 87 patients (49%). The morphology was linear in 35 patients (80.5%), and V-shaped in 8 patients (19.5%). In 40 patients (93%), the inferior right hepatic vein was located in the posteroinferior aspect of the right lobe. Middle right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 7 out of 87 patients (8%). All were single linear in morphology, combined with the inferior right hepatic vein, and located between the right hepatic vein and inferior right hepatic vein. The accessory hepatic vein was demonstrated in 49% among the Korean adult population, and was located in posteroinferior portion of the liver, in 93%

  11. A Rare Case of Deep Digital Flexor Tendinopathy following Centesis of the Navicular Bursa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J. Froydenlund

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Navicular bursa (NB centesis is a common diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in equine practice. This case report documents the clinical, diagnostic imaging and histological findings in a horse with a suspected iatrogenic deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT injury following centesis of the NB via a modified distal plantar approach (placement of two needles in a weight bearing position. Although it cannot be proven with absolute certainty, the authors believe that this is the first reported case where NB centesis is the likely cause of a DDFT lesion, and with magnetic resonance imaging performed both pre- and post-centesis. With this potential, though rare, complication of the procedure, alternative tendon sparing injection techniques should be considered prior to NB centesis in certain cases.

  12. Building iPhone OS Accessories

    CERN Document Server

    Maskrey, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a serious, in-depth look at Apple's External Accessory Framework and the iPhone Accessories API. You'll learn how to create new, integrated solutions that combine iPhone apps with dedicated hardware. The iPhone OS Accessories API expands the opportunities for innovative iPhone developers, allowing you to control and monitor external devices, whether you've built them yourself or obtained them from a third party. What you'll learn * Develop accessories and apps for the iPhone and iPod touch. * Use Apple's External Accessory Framework to create hardware/software interaction. *

  13. Surgical versus conservative treatment for high-risk stress fractures of the lower leg (anterior tibial cortex, navicular and fifth metatarsal base): a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallee, Wouter H.; Weel, Hanneke; van Dijk, C. Niek; van Tulder, Maurits W.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M.; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine

    2015-01-01

    To compare surgical and conservative treatment for high-risk stress fractures of the anterior tibial cortex, navicular and proximal fifth metatarsal. Systematic searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and PEDro were performed to identify relevant prospective and retrospective

  14. Does pulsed low intensity ultrasound allow early return to normal activities when treating stress fractures? A review of one tarsal navicular and eight tibial stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, J C; Brindle, T; Nyland, J; Caborn, D N; Johnson, D L

    1999-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the efficacy of daily pulsed low intensity ultrasound (LIUS) with early return to activities for the treatment of lower extremity stress fractures. Eight patients (2 males, 6 females) with radiographic and bone scan confirmed tibial stress fractures participated in this study. Additionally, a case report of a tarsal navicular stress fracture is described. All patients except one were involved in athletics. Prior to the study, subjects completed a 5 question, 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS) regarding pain level (10 = extreme pain, 1 = no pain) and were assessed for functional performance. Subjects received 20-minute LIUS treatments 5 times a week for 4 weeks. Subjects maintained all functional activities during the treatment period. Seven patients with posterior-medial stress fractures participated without a brace. Subjects were re-tested after 4 weeks of treatment. Mann-Whitney U tests (VAS data) and paired t-tests (functional tests) assessed statistical significance (psports was prescribed for the patients with the tibial stress fractures. The patient with the anterior tibial stress fracture underwent tibial intramedullary nailing at the conclusion of a season of play. In this uncontrolled experience, treatment of tibial stress fractures with daily pulsed LIUS was effective in pain relief and early return to vigorous activity without bracing for the patients with posterior-medial stress fractures.

  15. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs

  16. Tarsal navicular relations in club foot: is there a role for magnetic resonance imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, P.J.; Bos, C.F.A.; Bloem, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To correlate radiographic and MR appearances with surgical findings to determine the accuracy of these modalities in demonstrating tarsal navicular (TN) relations in order to select the appropriate surgical intervention. Design and patients. Fourteen consecutive patients with 19 club feet had anteroposterior and lateral radiographs and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging performed. Blinded retrospective interpretation of these studies was correlated with surgical findings. Movement artifact was responsible for initial non-diagnostic MR scans in 3 out of 19 feet. Results. Plain radiographs and MR imaging had sensitivities of 79% and 84% respectively for TN subluxation, while both modalities had 100% positive predictive value for TN subluxation. Each modality produced indeterminate results in cases where subluxation was present at surgery, but in combination there were no false negatives. Conclusion. Radiography confidently predicted the TN alignment in the majority of cases. MR demonstrated TN relationships in all cases where radiography was indeterminate. It is proposed that MR has a potential role to demonstrate TN relationships when radiography is indeterminate or when there is disparity between the clinical and radiographic assessment. (orig.)

  17. Tarsal navicular relations in club foot: is there a role for magnetic resonance imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, P.J. [Department of Radiology, CT/MRl Unit, The General Infirmary at Leeds (United Kingdom)]|[Department of Clinical Radiology, Leiden University Hospital, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 AA Leiden (Netherlands); Bos, C.F.A. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Leiden University Hospital, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 AA Leiden (Netherlands); Bloem, J.L. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Leiden University Hospital, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 AA Leiden (Netherlands)

    1998-08-01

    Objective. To correlate radiographic and MR appearances with surgical findings to determine the accuracy of these modalities in demonstrating tarsal navicular (TN) relations in order to select the appropriate surgical intervention. Design and patients. Fourteen consecutive patients with 19 club feet had anteroposterior and lateral radiographs and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging performed. Blinded retrospective interpretation of these studies was correlated with surgical findings. Movement artifact was responsible for initial non-diagnostic MR scans in 3 out of 19 feet. Results. Plain radiographs and MR imaging had sensitivities of 79% and 84% respectively for TN subluxation, while both modalities had 100% positive predictive value for TN subluxation. Each modality produced indeterminate results in cases where subluxation was present at surgery, but in combination there were no false negatives. Conclusion. Radiography confidently predicted the TN alignment in the majority of cases. MR demonstrated TN relationships in all cases where radiography was indeterminate. It is proposed that MR has a potential role to demonstrate TN relationships when radiography is indeterminate or when there is disparity between the clinical and radiographic assessment. (orig.) With 5 figs., 12 refs.

  18. Separated centers of ossification caudal to the wing of the pedal bone in horses - a help [to] rule out fractures of the wings and ossification in the accessory cartilages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertsch, B.; Neuberth, M.

    1991-01-01

    Radiographic evaluation of a lat-med. x-ray of the digits of 278 normal three year old standard bred stallions (group I) and of 300 mares and geldings over the age of six years (group II) was made in view of frequency and clinical relevance of a separated center of ossification caudal to each wing of the pedal bone. The material served both age associated judgement and localisation dependant morphological description of these separated ossified bone piece. Through comparative measurements of the angle of the dorsal hoof wall in the two groups of horses, a possible etiological aspect especially concerning the hoof form is discussed, to true nature of this small separated ossified bone piece

  19. The accessory fallopian tube: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum R Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rare anatomical variation in the form of accessory fallopian tube on right side. The duplication of fallopian tube was observed in a 34-year-old female during routine undergraduate dissection in our department. Fallopian tube is the part of uterus that carries the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. Accessory fallopian tube is the congenital anomaly attached to the ampullary part of main tube. This accessory tube is common site of pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, cystic swelling and torsion. The ovum released by the ovary may also be captured by the blind accessory tube leading to infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Hence, all patients of infertility or pelvic inflammatory disease should be screened to rule out the presence of accessory fallopian tube and if encountered should be removed.

  20. Radiologic findings of intrapancreatic accessory spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Acu

    2015-06-01

    Accessory spleen is a congenital abnormality consisting of normal splenic tissue in ectopic sites. They are found most commonly near the splenic hilum. One in every six accessory spleens is located in the tail of the pancreas. The diagnosis of an IPAS should be considered when a pancreatic mass has the CT densities and/or MRI signal intensities similar to those of the spleen, with and without contrast medium. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(2.000: 140-143

  1. [Spinal accessory nerve and lymphatic neck dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsolle, V; Michelet, V; Majoufre, C; Caix, P; Siberchicot, F; Pinsolle, J

    1997-09-01

    Radical neck dissection was the golden standard of treatment for cervical nodes in head and neck tumors. From the seventies, the preservation of the spinal accessory nerve has become increasingly popular in order to improve the functional result of the neck dissections. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of functional disability associated with each type of neck dissection and the value of anatomical references for dissection of the spinal accessory nerve. One hundred twenty seven patients were evaluated 1 month and 1 year after radical, functional or supraomohyoid neck dissection with a questionnaire and a physical examination. Anatomical measurements of the spinal accessory nerve were performed in 20 patients. We found considerable or severe shoulder dysfunction in 7%, 34% and 51% respectively of patients in whom supraomohyoid, functional and radical neck dissections were performed. Furthermore 49% of patients having undergone a radical neck dissection had little or no symptoms. Sacrifice of the spinal accessory nerve in radical neck dissection may lead to shoulder dysfunction. A functional disability may also be associated, although in a less extent, with any neck dissection in which the spinal accessory nerve is dissected and placed in traction. There is a large variation in the degree of functional disability and pain in patients with similar neck dissections. The course of the spinal accessory nerve in the neck makes it particularly vulnerable to injury during the dissection near the sternocleidomastoid muscle and in the posterior cervical triangle.

  2. Surgical versus conservative treatment for high-risk stress fractures of the lower leg (anterior tibial cortex, navicular and fifth metatarsal base): a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallee, W.H.; Weel, H.; van Dijk, C.N.; van Tulder, M.W.; Kerkhoffs, G.M.; Lin, C.W.C.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To compare surgical and conservative treatment for high-risk stress fractures of the anterior tibial cortex, navicular and proximal fifth metatarsal. Methods Systematic searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and PEDro were performed to identify relevant prospective and

  3. Accessory mental foramen assessment using cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naitoh, Munetaka; Hiraiwa, Yuichiro; Aimiya, Hidetoshi; Gotoh, Kenichi; Ariji, Eiichiro

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the accessory mental foramen using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. A total of 157 patients were enrolled in this investigation. The mental and accessory mental foramina, which show continuity with the mandibular canal, were assessed using axial and cross-sectional, 2-dimensional CBCT images. The sizes of the mental and accessory mental foramina were measured and statistically analyzed. Also, the distance between the mental and accessory mental foramina was measured. The accessory mental foramen was observed in 7% of patients. There was no significant difference regarding the sizes of the mental foramen between accessory mental foramen presence and absence. Also, the mean distance between the mental and accessory mental foramina was 6.3 mm (SD: 1.5 mm). The accessory mental foramen, which shows continuity with the mandibular canal, could be observed in 7% of the subjects using CBCT.

  4. Peculiar chondroblastoma involving multiple tarsal bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukunaga, Masaharu [Jikei University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Tokyo (Japan); the Jikei University Daisan Hospital, Department of Pathology, Tokyo (Japan); Asanuma, Kazuo [Jikei University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tokyo (Japan); Irie, Takeo [Jikei University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    A case of peculiar chondroblastoma involving multiple tarsal bones in a 49-year-old woman is described. The patient presented with pain and swelling of the right foot. Radiographs revealed a lytic expansile lesion of medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiform bones, navicular, cuboid, and tarsal bones of the right foot, indicating a malignant tumor. Biopsies demonstrated a diffuse proliferation of round cells with eccentric and indented nuclei with longitudinal grooves and eosinophilic cytoplasm. Atypia was prominent, but mitotic figures were rare. The stroma was chondroid with focal chicken-wire calcification. On electron microscopy, the tumor exhibited chondroblastic features. The patient is alive with the tumor 7 years after radiotherapy. The tumor is considered a chondroblastoma with low malignant potential. (orig.)

  5. AN ACCESSORY FLEXOR OF THE FIFTH TOE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The presence of accessory muscles and other organs on the lower limbs of some individuals have variously been reperted in the literature. We report an unusual muscle located on the plantar surface of the left foot of a cadaver. which had not been previously described. This muscle originated from the tendon ...

  6. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group of...

  7. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.H. II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets

  8. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered device...

  9. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864... Microscopes and accessories. (a) Identification. Microscopes and accessories are optical instruments used to enlarge images of specimens, preparations, and cultures for medical purposes. Variations of microscopes...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices intended...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits. The...

  12. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a device intended for use in...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a) Identification. A prosthetic and orthotic accessory is a device...

  14. 21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories. 884.1720... Devices § 884.1720 Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A gynecologic laparoscope...) Class II (performance standards). (2) Class I for gynecologic laparoscope accessories that are not part...

  15. Estudio mediante tomografía computarizada de los criterios radiográficos aplicados al diagnóstico del síndrome navicular del caballo

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Sanz, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    El síndrome del navicular ha sido reconocido como una de las causas más importantes de claudicación en el caballo. En la radiografía, muchas de las lesiones del hueso navicular quedan mal definidas. Y entre ellas la pérdida de definición córtico-medular. La TC es la mejor modalidad de imagen para la valoración de las características del hueso. Pero además de la información morfológica, también proporciona información sobre la atenuación radiológica de los tejidos (tomografía computarizada cua...

  16. Accessory Mental Foramen and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2017-10-26

    Accessory mental foramens should be considered in surgical procedures performed in mandibular body and symphysis. Location and content of these foramina has significant impact on the result of surgery.Lip numbness is the catastrophic result if these foramina are violated while their content is nerves that carry sensory inputs from lower lip. Examples of interferences with dental implant, orthognathic, and periapical surgeries are presented and it is discussed in which conditions they complicate oral surgical procedures.

  17. Fibroadenoma in the bilateral accessory axillary breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, P; Izzo, V; Cervelli, V

    2010-10-01

    The authors treated a case of bilateral accessory axillary breast tissue. Excision with histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of fibroadenoma. Treatment left the woman with incision scars (3.5 cm) in the axillary pyramid, a location often not seen during a patient's normal movements. Thus, despite a minor aesthetic incision, gives the advantage of complete histologic analysis was gained. Liposuction treatment was used in this case. The scar results were good.

  18. Instruments and accessories for neutron scattering research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio

    2000-04-01

    This report describes neutron scattering instruments and accessories installed by four neutron scattering research groups at the ASRC (Advanced Science Research Center) of the JAERI and the recent topics of neutron scattering research using these instruments. The specifications of nine instruments (HRPD, BIX-I, TAS-1 and PNO in the reactor hall, RESA, BIX-II, TAS-2, LTAS and SANS-J in the guide hall of the JRR-3M) are summarized in this booklet. (author)

  19. Isolated spinal accessory neuropathy and intracisternal schwannomas of the spinal accessory nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Al-Ajmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 40-year-old female patient presenting with isolated left spinal accessory neuropathy that developed insidiously over 6 years. She complained of ill-defined deep neck and shoulder pain. On examination, prominent sternocleidomastoid and trapezoid muscle weakness and atrophy, shoulder instability, and lateral scapular winging were observed. MRI identified a small mass of the cisternal portion of the spinal accessory nerve. Its appearance was typical of schwannoma. Surgical treatment was not offered because of the small tumor size, lack of mass effect and the questionable functional recovery in the presence of muscular atrophy.

  20. MR imaging of accessory muscles of the ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondello, Eduardo; Nazar, Miguel E.; Martin, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to describe the normal anatomy and the characteristics in MRI of the accessory muscles of the posterior ankle: the accessory soleus, accessory flexor digitorum longus, peroneus quartus, tibiocalcaneus internus and peroneocalcaneus internus. Material and methods: There were evaluated 280 symptomatic patients between 18 and 40 years old (85 % males). MR was performed in High Field Magnetic Resonance Units (1.5 T y 1.0 T) and multiplanar sequences. Results: We found 2 peroneus quartus (0.7%), 2 accessory soleus muscles (0.7%), 3 accessory flexor digitorum longus (1.07%) and 1 peroneocalcaneus internus (0.35%). Conclusion: The knowledge of the accessory muscles of the posterior ankle allow to explain different painful pathologies with instability or tendinous tears, which are difficult to diagnose if the muscle are not adequately recognized. (author)

  1. Complex distal insertions of the tibialis posterior tendon: detailed anatomic and MR imaging investigation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, Daniel; Cerri, Giovanni G. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Dirim, Berna; Wangwinyuvirat, Mani; Belentani, Clarissa L.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L. [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Histology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the normal complex insertional anatomy of the tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) in cadavers using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic and histologic correlation. Ten cadaveric ankles were used according to institutional guidelines. MR T1-weighted spin echo imaging was performed to demonstrate aspects of the complex anatomic distal insertions of the TPT in cadaveric specimens. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. Generally, the TPT revealed a low signal in all MR images, except near the level of the medial malleolus, where the TPT suddenly changed direction and ''magic angle'' artifact could be observed. In five out of ten specimens (50%), a type I accessory navicular bone was found in the TPT. In all cases with a type I accessory navicular bone, the TPT had an altered signal in this area. Axial and coronal planes on MR imaging were the best in identifying the distal insertions of the TPT. A normal division of the TPT was observed just proximal to the insertion into the navicular bone in five specimens (100%) occurring at a maximum proximal distance from its attachment to the navicular bone of approximately 1.5 to 2 cm. In the other five specimens, in which a type I accessory navicular bone was present, the TPT directly inserted into the accessory bone and a slip less than 1.5 mm in thickness could be observed attaching to the medial aspect of the navicular bone (100%). Anatomic inspection confirmed the sites of the distal insertions of the components of the TPT. MR imaging enabled detailed analysis of the complex distal insertions of the TPT as well as a better understanding of those features of its insertion that can simulate a lesion. (orig.)

  2. Value of transoperative scintigraphy in the detection of accessory spleens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezeur, A.; Goujard, F.; Labriolle-Vaylet, C.L. de; Wioland, M.; Douay, L.; Desmarquet, J.

    1990-01-01

    A case of accessory spleen, 1 cm in diameter, responsible for recurrence of an idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura after splenectomy is reported. This case is original in that the accessory spleen could only be detected by transoperative scintigraphy. Transoperative scintigraphy is a simple method to be used when one or several unrecognized accessory spleens are responsible for recurrence of a blood disease after excision of the principal spleen [fr

  3. Accessory hepatic lobe in right lumbar region - an incidental finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, M K; Ghartimagar, D; Ghosh, A

    2014-01-01

    An accessory lobe of liver is a rare congenital anomaly which can be detected incidentally or can even present as acute surgical emergency due to torsion. We report a case of accessory hepatic lobe in right lumbar region in a 21years old female who came for a ultrasound abdomen for lower abdominal pain. We report the importance of ultrasonography and Computed Tomogram (CT) scan for the diagnosis of accessory hepatic lobe.

  4. Osteoblastoma of the carpal navicular: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhanim, Abdelkarim; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Dlimi, Fayçal; Abouzahir, Mohammed; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2013-11-01

    Osteoblastoma of the scaphoid is an infrequent cause of hand and wrist pain. The few reported cases emphasize the rarity of osteoblastoma in hand and wrist localizations. Pathological examination is mandatory before treatment due to lack of distinctive clinical and radiological features. We report the case of a 17-year-old right-handed girl who presented with a more than 7-month history of progressive right-wrist pain. No history of trauma was reported. Conservative treatment with anti-inflammatory medications before referral was unsuccessful. The authors present the diagnostic difficulties and the treatment that was applied: proximal row carpectomy. Treatment options, according to the literature, also include scaphoidectomy and tumor curettage with bone grafting.

  5. Inflammatory breast cancer in accessory abdominal breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy C. Miles, MD, MPH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accessory breast tissue results from failure of the embryologic mammary ridge, also known as the milk line, to involute. As a result, ectopic breast tissue can develop anywhere along this ridge, which extends from the axilla—the most common location—to the groin. Primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue is uncommon but has been reported in multiple prior studies. We present a rare case of inflammatory breast cancer presenting in upper abdominal accessory breast tissue in women with a personal history of ipsilateral breast cancer, and highlight the challenges of both diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in accessory breast tissue.

  6. ACCESSORIES OF FISCAL OBLIGATION. LEGAL REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADA POSTOLACHE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The interest – which is an institution typical to private law, has been taken over by the fiscal field and adapted to the specific features of fiscal obligation – being defined by its imperative legal regime, which has at the least the following characteristic elements: unitary character, imposed legal percentage, compulsory demand of interest, automatic application. In order to render responsible fiscal debtors, the lawmaker has reintroduced, as an accessory of fiscal obligation, delayed payment penalties, which have a distinct nature and legal regime, but without the principle non bis in idem being transgressed. Our study aims to establish the legal regime ofaccessories typical to fiscal obligation, from the perspective of special normative acts, but also of the common law within the field – Civil Code and Government Ordinance No. 13/2011 – by pointing out at the same time both the particular circumstances and procedural ones regulated by the Fiscal Procedure Code, shedding light upon the controversial legal nature of accessories.

  7. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 Section 878.3925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. ...

  8. Evolution of the CT imaging findings of accessory spleen infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendi, Resham; Abramson, Lisa P.; Pillai, Srikumar B.; Rigsby, Cynthia K.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 12-year-old girl presenting with multiple episodes of left upper-quadrant pain caused by torsion of an accessory spleen. We present the CT findings of progression of accessory spleen infarction over the course of 7 days. (orig.)

  9. Bilateral bifid occipital condyles presenting with the right accessory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unlike the left occipital condyle the right occipital condyle contained an additional oblique cleft that separated the left caudal occipital segment into the inner main portion and the outer accessory articular surface. The accessory articular surface was concave in shape and covered with the articular cartilage. The exact ...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. 876... Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. (1) A peritoneal dialysis system and... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After the...

  11. KNOW-BLADE Task-2 report: Aerodynamic accessories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik

    2004-01-01

    In the EC project KNOW-BLADE a work package has been defined to investigate the possibility to numerically model aerodynamic accessories in existing Navier-Stokes solvers. Four different aerodynamic accessories have been investigated. Firstly, thepotential of applying active flow control by means...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and other dental devices and accessories. The device may be attached to a dental chair. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and...

  13. 21 CFR 884.4120 - Gynecologic electrocautery and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gynecologic electrocautery and accessories. 884.4120 Section 884.4120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Surgical Devices § 884.4120 Gynecologic electrocautery and accessories. (a) Identification. A gynecologic...

  14. Hunting for eruption ages in accessory minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    A primary goal in geochronology is to provide precise and accurate ages for tephras that serve as chronostratigraphic markers for constraining the timing and rates of volcanism, sedimentation, climate change, and catastrophic events in Earth history. Zircon remains the most versatile accessory mineral for dating silicic tephras due to its common preservation in distal pyroclastic deposits, as well as the robustness of its U-Pb and U-series systems even after host materials have been hydrothermally altered or weathered. Countless studies document that zircon may be complexly zoned in age due to inheritance, contamination, recycling of antecrysts, protracted crystallization in long-lived magma reservoirs, or any combination of these. Other accessory minerals such as allanite or chevkinite can retain similar records of protracted crystallization. If the goal is to date the durations of magmatic crystallization, differentiation, and/or magma residence, then these protracted chronologies within and between accessory minerals are a blessing. However, if the goal is to date the timing of eruption with high precision, i.e., absolute ages with millennial-scale uncertainties, then this age zoning is a curse. Observations from ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of Pleistocene zircon and allanite provide insight into the record of near-eruption crystallization in accessory minerals and serve as a guide for high-precision whole-crystal dating. Although imprecise relative to conventional techniques, ion probe analysis allows high-spatial resolution 238U-230Th dating that can document multi-millennial age distributions at the crystal scale. Analysis of unpolished rims and continuous depth profiling of zircon from small and large volume eruptions (e.g., Coso, Mono Craters, Yellowstone) reveals that the final several micrometers of crystallization often yield ages that are indistinguishable from associated eruption ages from the 40Ar/39Ar or (U-Th)/He methods. Using this approach, we

  15. Accessory mental foramen: a rare anatomical finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Gagan; Thomas, Shaji; Thayil, Sumeeth Cyriac; Nair, Preeti P

    2011-01-01

    Accessory mental foramen (AMF) is a rare anatomical variation with a prevalence ranging from 1.4 to 10%. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more AMF during surgical procedures involving the mandible. Careful surgical dissection should be performed in the region so that the presence of AMF can be detected and the occurrence of a neurosensory disturbance or haemorrhage can be avoided. Although this anatomical variation is rare, it should be kept in mind that an AMF may exist. Trigeminal neuralgia was diagnosed. On the basis of diagnostic test results, peripheral neurectomy of mental nerve was planned. Failure to do neurectomy of mental nerve branch in the reported case, coming out from AMF, would have resulted in recurrence of pain and eventually failure of the procedure. PMID:22707601

  16. Accessory spleen compromising response to splenectomy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriz, P.; Munoz, R.; Quintanar, E.; Sigler, L.; Aviles, A.; Pizzuto, J.

    1985-01-01

    Accessory spleens were sought in 28 patients who had undergone splenectomy for chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), using a variety of techniques. Abdominal scintigraphy with autologous erythrocytes labeled with Tc-99m and opsonized with anit-D IgG (radioimmune method) proved to be most useful, clearly demonstrating one or more accessory spleens in 12 cases (43%). Computed tomography (CT) was also helpful. Four out of five patients demonstrated an increased platelet count following surgery, the effectiveness of which was illustrated by the radioimmune scan. Patients who have had splenectomy for chronic ITP should be scanned using radioimmune techniques and CT to determine whether an accessory spleen is present

  17. Mechanical, corrosion and biocompatibility behaviour of Mg-3Zn-HA biodegradable composites for orthopaedic fixture accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Satish; Kumar, R Manoj; Gupta, Pallavi; Kumaraswamy, Murali; Roy, Partha; Lahiri, Debrupa

    2018-02-01

    Development of biodegradable implants has grown into one of the important areas in medical science. Degradability becomes more important for orthopaedic accessories used to support fractured and damaged bones, in order to avoid second surgery for their removal after healing. Clinically available biodegradable orthopaedic materials are mainly made of polymers or ceramics. These orthopaedic accessories have an unsatisfactory mechanical strength, when used in load-bearing parts. Magnesium and its alloys can be suitable candidate for this purpose, due to their outstanding strength to weight ratio, biodegradability, non-toxicity and mechanical properties, similar to natural bone. The major drawback of magnesium is its low corrosion resistance, which also influences its mechanical and physical characteristics in service condition. An effort has been taken in this research to improve the corrosion resistance, bioactivity and mechanical strength of biodegradable magnesium alloys by synthesizing Mg-3wt% Zn matrix composite, reinforced with thermally treated hydroxyapatite(HA) [Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ], a bioactive and osteogenic ceramic. Addition of 5wt% HA is found effective in reducing the corrosion rate by 42% and improvement in the compressive yield strength of biodegradable magnesium alloy by 23%. In-vitro evaluation, up to 56 days, reveal improved resistance to degradation with HA reinforcement to Mg. Osteoblast cells show better growth and proliferation on HA reinforced surfaces of the composite. Mg-HA composite structure shows impressive potential to be used in orthopaedic fracture fixing accessories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... phonocardiographic monitor is a device designed to detect, measure, and record fetal heart sounds electronically, in... includes the following accessories: signal analysis and display equipment, patient and equipment supports...

  19. Design of a marine sediment trap and accessories

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Janakiraman, G.; Fernando, V.; Venkatesan, R.; Rajaraman, V.S.

    The marine sediment trap and the mooring accessories were developed indigenously and were used successfully for the collection of settling sediments in the Arabian Sea The experience gained in using sediment trap and further improvements...

  20. Accessory proteins for heterotrimeric G-proteins in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins play a fundamentally important role in regulating signal transduction pathways in the kidney. Accessory proteins are being identified as direct binding partners for heterotrimeric G-protein α or βγ subunits to promote more diverse mechanisms by which G-protein signaling is controlled. In some instances, accessory proteins can modulate the signaling magnitude, localization, and duration following the activation of cell membrane-associated receptors. Alternatively, accessory proteins complexed with their G-protein α or βγ subunits can promote non-canonical models of signaling activity within the cell. In this review, we will highlight the expression profile, localization and functional importance of these newly identified accessory proteins to control the function of select G-protein subunits under normal and various disease conditions observed in the kidney.

  1. ISO and EIGA standards for cryogenic vessels and accessories

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The EIGA/WG 6’s scope is cryogenic vessels and accessories, including their design, material compatibility, operational requirements and periodical inspection. The specific responsibilities include monitoring international standardization (ISO, CEN) and regulations (UN, TPED, PED...

  2. The accessory magnocellular neurosecretory system of the rostral human hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten; Busch, Johannes R.; Jacobsen, Christina

    2018-01-01

    and supraoptic nuclei as well as the hypothalamo-hypophysial tracts exhibited strong immunoreactivity for the neurophysin antibodies. In addition, large collections of immunoreactive accessory magnocellular nuclei and single scattered neurophysin-positive neurons were located in the preoptic region between...... the paraventricular and supraoptic nucleus among the hypothalamo-hypophysial nerve fibers. In addition, smaller collections of neurophysin-immunoreactive neurons were located in the basal part of this region. Among the accessory magnocellular nuclei, the classical circular nucleus was identified. Accessory......The morphology and neurophysin expression of the magnocellular accessory neuroendocrine system located in the rostral human hypothalamus is investigated in a series of brains obtained at autopsy. The hypothalami were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin, or after cryoprotection, frozen...

  3. Unusual Bones Articulating With the Pelvic Girdle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buttock pain is commonly traced to low back conditions. (1, 2). Few local conditions offer differential diagnosis in an otherwise healthy individual. These include gluteal abscess and sciatic entrapment neuropathy (1,2). Symp- tomatic accessory girdle bones have been described for the pectoral girdle but none for the pelvis ...

  4. PERSISTENT PUPILLARY MEMBRANE OR ACCESSORY IRIS MEMBRANE?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriş, Monica; Horge, Ioan; Avram, Elena; Belicioiu, Roxana; Olteanu, Ioana Alexandra; Kedves, Hanga

    2015-01-01

    Frequently, in literature and curent practice, accessory iris membrane (AIM) and persistant pupillary membrane (PPM) are confused. Both AIM and PPM are congenital iris anomalies in which fine or thick iris strands arrise form the collarette and obscure the pupil. AIM, which is also called iris duplication, closely resembles the normal iris tissue in color and thickness and presents a virtual second pseudopupil aperture in the centre while PPM even in its extreme forms presents as a translucent or opaque membranous structure that extends across the pupil and has no pseudopupil. Mydriatiscs, laser treatment or surgery is used to clear the visual axis and optimize visual development. Surgical intervention is reserved for large, dense AIMs and PPMs. Our patient, a 29 year old male, has come with bilateral dense AIM, bilateral compound hyperopic astigmatism, BCVA OD = 0.6, BCVA OS = 0.4, IOP OU = 17 mmHg. To improve the visual acuity of the patient we decided to do a bilateral membranectomy, restoring in this way transparency of the visual axis. After surgery, the visual acuity improved to BCVA OD= 0.8, BCVA OS=0.8.

  5. An accessory mental foramen: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cağirankaya, Leyla Berna; Kansu, Hilmi

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a case of an accessory mental foramen (AMF). The mental foramen is an important anatomical structure of particular importance in local anesthesia and surgical procedures in terms of achieving effective mandibular nerve blocks and avoiding injuries to the neurovascular bundles. Although rare, multiple mental foramina have been described in humans. In these cases one foramen is termed the mental foramen and the others are referred to as an AMF. A 62-year-old woman presented for a routine dental examination. In addition to the normal radiographic image of the mental foramen, periapical radiographs of the left mandibular premolar and molar region revealed a round-shaped radiolucency with distinct borders along with an inferior extension below the apex of the mesial root of the first molar. This image was considered to be an AMF. Although no surgical operation was planned, the patient was informed about the existence and importance of the anatomical variation with regard to the need for local anesthesia, diagnosis of periapical disease, and the prevention of nerve damage during surgery in that area of the mandible.

  6. Accessory Tricuspid Valve Leaflet-Morphology, Diagnosis, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Trushar; Desai, Neelam

    2016-05-01

    Accessory tricuspid valve tissue is a rare entity associated with congenital cardiac anomalies. We report a seven-month-old child who underwent ventricular septal defect closure with excision of an accessory tricuspid valve leaflet and discuss their morphology, clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities, and treatment options. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12731 (J Card Surg 2016;31:324-326). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Accessory stimulus modulates executive function during stepping task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tatsunori; Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo; Nojima, Ippei

    2015-07-01

    When multiple sensory modalities are simultaneously presented, reaction time can be reduced while interference enlarges. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of task-irrelevant acoustic accessory stimuli simultaneously presented with visual imperative stimuli on executive function during stepping. Executive functions were assessed by analyzing temporal events and errors in the initial weight transfer of the postural responses prior to a step (anticipatory postural adjustment errors). Eleven healthy young adults stepped forward in response to a visual stimulus. We applied a choice reaction time task and the Simon task, which consisted of congruent and incongruent conditions. Accessory stimuli were randomly presented with the visual stimuli. Compared with trials without accessory stimuli, the anticipatory postural adjustment error rates were higher in trials with accessory stimuli in the incongruent condition and the reaction times were shorter in trials with accessory stimuli in all the task conditions. Analyses after division of trials according to whether anticipatory postural adjustment error occurred or not revealed that the reaction times of trials with anticipatory postural adjustment errors were reduced more than those of trials without anticipatory postural adjustment errors in the incongruent condition. These results suggest that accessory stimuli modulate the initial motor programming of stepping by lowering decision threshold and exclusively under spatial incompatibility facilitate automatic response activation. The present findings advance the knowledge of intersensory judgment processes during stepping and may aid in the development of intervention and evaluation tools for individuals at risk of falls. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  9. Accessory costs of seed production and the evolution of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Janice M; Westoby, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Accessory costs of reproduction frequently equal or exceed direct investment in offspring, and can limit the evolution of small offspring sizes. Early angiosperms had minimum seed sizes, an order of magnitude smaller than their contemporaries. It has been proposed that changes to reproductive features at the base of the angiosperm clade reduced accessory costs thus removing the fitness disadvantage of small seeds. We measured accessory costs of reproduction in 25 extant gymnosperms and angiosperms, to test whether angiosperms can produce small seeds more economically than gymnosperms. Total accessory costs scaled isometrically to seed mass for angiosperms but less than isometrically for gymnosperms, so that smaller seeds were proportionally more expensive for gymnosperms to produce. In particular, costs of abortions and packaging structures were significantly higher in gymnosperms. Also, the relationship between seed:ovule ratio and seed size was negative in angiosperms but positive in gymnosperms. We argue that the carpel was a key evolutionary innovation reducing accessory costs in angiosperms by allowing sporophytic control of pre- and postzygotic mate selection and timing of resource allocation. The resulting reduction in costs of aborting unfertilized ovules or genetically inferior embryos would have lowered total reproductive costs enabling early angiosperms to evolve small seed sizes and short generation times. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution © 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Case report: accessory head of the deep forearm flexors

    Science.gov (United States)

    JONES, M.; ABRAHAMS, P. H.; SAÑUDO, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1813 Gantzer described 2 accessory muscles in the human forearm which bear his name (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875) and these have subsequently been reported with variable attachments (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Turner, 1879; Schäfer & Thane, 1894; Le Double, 1897; Dykes & Anson, 1944; Mangini, 1960; Malhotra et al. 1982; Kida, 1988; Tountas & Bergman, 1993). The accessory heads of the deep flexors of the forearm (Gantzer's muscles) have been described as 2 different small bellies which insert either into FPL or FDP. There are no previous reports which have mentioned the existence of an accessory muscle which inserts into both of the 2 deep flexors of the forearm as in the case presented here. PMID:9306208

  11. Aplasia of the parotid glands with accessory parotid tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higley, Meghan J.; Walkiewicz, Thomas W.; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Curran, John G.; Towbin, Richard B. [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Congenital absence of the parotid gland is a rare entity. Absence is most commonly unilateral, and is not associated with accessory glandular tissue. In the majority of reported cases, parotid gland aplasia is seen with craniofacial abnormalities or hypoplasia of other ectodermal structures, particularly the lacrimal glands. We present a 14-year-old male with bilateral parotid gland aplasia detected incidentally on MRI of the brain and then confirmed on neck CT. The studies also revealed accessory parotid tissue superficial to the left masseter muscle. There were no associated craniofacial abnormalities. The lacrimal glands and submandibular glands were normal. (orig.)

  12. An Accessory Muscle of Pectoral Region: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannur, B.M.; Mallashetty, Nagaraj; Endigeri, Preetish

    2013-01-01

    Among the variations of pectoral muscles, this case appears to be unique in the literature. This was a case of an accessory pectoral muscle which was located between pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles, which was discovered during a routine anatomy dissection. The accessory muscle originated from 6th and 7th ribs at costo-chondral junction, which travelled supero-laterally and inserted by fusing with fibres of pectoralis minor. This unusual muscle holds importance for surgeons while they perform dissectomies, in avoiding complications. PMID:24179919

  13. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of gametes...

  14. ACCESSORY CYSTIC DUCT IDENTIFIED IN LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY: A RARE CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar; Kumar; Shaleen; Wasif; Amit

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 53 year old lady who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and was found to have an accessory cystic duct close to the fundus. Careful dissection of the liver bed was done and the duct clipped preventing a bile leak. The presence of such ducts though rare should be identified during surgery to prevent potential complications.

  15. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872.4920 Section 872.4920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., depending upon the operating mode selected, cuts through soft tissue or coagulates the tissue. (b...

  16. Accessory thyroid in the anterior mediastinum: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatore, M.; Gallo, A.

    1975-01-01

    A case of accessory thyroid in the anterior mediastinum, physically separated from the thyroid gland, is reported. The mediastinal thyroid was incidentally discovered during the preoperative evaluation of a patient with breast carcinoma. The extreme rarity of the case is outlined

  17. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism was analysed in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and D. sulfurigaster neonasuta for the first time, using SDS-PAGE to score polymorphism of these proteins in 2788 individuals of D. n. nasuta and 2232 individuals of D. s. neonasuta from 12 different ...

  18. Quantitative analysis of solid samples using modified specular reflectance accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Tomasz; Mazurek, Sylwester; Szostak, Roman

    2016-12-01

    Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is a fast, reliable and cost effective analytical method, requiring minimal or no sample preparation. It is commonly used in the course of qualitative and quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical ingredients and food. We demonstrate that simpler and cheaper specular reflectance (SR) accessory working in a DRIFTS like mode (SR-DL) can be an alternative for DIRFTS attachment. An application of a modified SR accessory for quantitative analysis of solids samples is presented. As a case study the concentration of cinnarizine in commercial tablets has been determined from DRIFTS and SR-DL infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra recorded using DTGS (deuterated triglicine sulphate) detector in the IR and NIR regions and InGaAs (indium-gallium arsenide) detector in the NIR range. Based on these spectra Partial Least Squares (PLS) models were constructed and relative standard errors of prediction (RSEP) were calculated for the calibration, validation and analysed data sets. They amounted to 2.4-2.5%, 2.1-2.7% and 2.0-2.6% for the DRIFTS attachment while 2.1-2.2%, 2.0-2.3% and 1.9-2.6%, respectively, for the modified SR accessory. Obtained error values indicate that modified SR accessory can be effectively used for quantification of solid pharmaceutical samples in the mid- and near-infrared regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Validated Competency Task Lists for Apparel and Accessories Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selke-Kern, Barbara E.

    Developed by a project that validated task lists by a variety of teachers and apparel marketing business persons, this guide contains task lists for occupations in the field of apparel and accessories marketing. The guide is organized in three sections. Section 1 includes the following: (1) notes on using the information in the guide; (2) a…

  20. Modeling and Simulation of Two Wheelchair Accessories for Pushing Doors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Soran Jalal; Shaikh Mohammed, Javeed

    2017-03-27

    Independent mobility is vital to individuals of all ages, and wheelchairs have proven to be great personal mobility devices. The tasks of opening and navigating through a door are trivial for healthy people, while the same tasks could be difficult for some wheelchair users. A wide range of intelligent wheelchair controllers and systems, robotic arms, or manipulator attachments integrated with wheelchairs have been developed for various applications, including manipulating door knobs. Unfortunately, the intelligent wheelchairs and robotic attachments are not widely available as commercial products. Therefore, the current manuscript presents the modeling and simulation of a novel but simple technology in the form of a passive wheelchair accessory (straight, arm-like with a single wheel, and arc-shaped with multiple wheels) for pushing doors open from a wheelchair. From the simulations using different wheel shapes and sizes, it was found that the arc-shaped accessory could push open the doors faster and with almost half the required force as compared to the arm-like accessory. Also, smaller spherical wheels were found to be best in terms of reaction forces on the wheels. Prototypes based on the arc-shaped accessory design will be manufactured and evaluated for pushing doors open and dodging or gliding other obstacles.

  1. Colonization, Infection, and the Accessory Genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rebekah M.; Bachman, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen that has a large accessory genome of plasmids and chromosomal gene loci. This accessory genome divides K. pneumoniae strains into opportunistic, hypervirulent, and multidrug-resistant groups and separates K. pneumoniae from two closely related species, Klebsiella variicola and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae. Some strains of K. pneumoniae act as opportunistic pathogens, infecting critically ill and immunocompromised patients. These K. pneumoniae are a common cause of health-care associated infections including pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and bloodstream infections. K. variicola and K. quasipneumoniae are often clinically indistinguishable from opportunistic K. pneumoniae. Other strains of K. pneumoniae are hypervirulent, infecting healthy people in community settings and causing severe infections including pyogenic liver abscess, endophthalmitis, and meningitis. A third group of K. pneumoniae encode carbapenemases, making them highly antibiotic-resistant. These strains act as opportunists but are exceedingly difficult to treat. All of these groups of K. pneumoniae and related species can colonize the gastrointestinal tract, and the accessory genome may determine if a colonizing strain remains asymptomatic or progresses to cause disease. This review will explore the associations between colonization and infection with opportunistic, antibiotic-resistant, and hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains and the role of the accessory genome in distinguishing these groups and related species. As K. pneumoniae infections become progressively more difficult to treat in the face of antibiotic resistance and hypervirulent strains, an increased understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these bacteria is vital. PMID:29404282

  2. Termination pattern of the main and accessory pancreatic ducts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pancreas has the main and occasionally a patent accessory pancreatic ducts that carry secretions to the duodenum. Anatomical studies on these ducts are limited. The present study observed the anatomy of the two ducts in eighty six Tanzanians' autopsy subjects to find out if the pattern is similar to those reported from ...

  3. Accessory enzymes from Aspergillus involved in xylan and pectin degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzyme systems from Aspergillus have been the subject of study for many years. Although the main chain cleaving enzymes and their encoding genes have been studied in detail, little information is available about most of the accessory

  4. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism was analysed in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and. D. sulfurigaster neonasuta for the first time, using SDS-PAGE to score polymorphism of these proteins in 2788 individuals of D. n. nasuta and 2232 individuals of D. s. neonasuta from 12 different ...

  5. The benefits of using bluetooth accessories with hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pauline; Davis, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the benefits in reported outcomes after providing bluetooth accessories for established hearing aid users. Prospective observational study using validated quantitative outcome measures and detailed patient narrative before and two months after patients were provided with bluetooth accessories. Twelve patients with bilateral NHS hearing aids participated. They had a wide range of ages and hearing loss. After two months, 10 patients reported substantial additional benefit and kept the accessories; two returned them for various reasons. Statistically significant changes were seen in two validated outcome measures: the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile and the International Outcome Inventory - Hearing Aids, but not in the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale. Two notable benefits were reported: some described hearing the emotion and mood in a voice for the first time; others were amazed to report an improved ability to hear film or to hold conversations over the telephone. The provision of bluetooth accessories can give additional reported benefit for some patients - we need better knowledge about who benefits, and whether further support/training to individuals would make a difference.

  6. Design of Fashion Accessories Using Akwa-Ocha Motifs and Symbols

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    motifs and symbols feature in the changing landscape in the design of fashion accessories in Nigeria. ... However, the neglect of Nigerian indigenous elements for the design of fashion accessories is particularly true ..... There are other end use products or fashion accessories such as portable hand bags, purses and shoes ...

  7. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  8. The effects of gluteus maximus and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises for four weeks on navicular drop and lower extremity muscle activity during gait with flatfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Jin-Yong

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of abductor hallucis and gluteus maximus strengthening exercises on pronated feet. [Subjects and Methods] The present study was conducted with 18 adults without no history of surgery on the foot or ankle. One group performed both gluteus maximus strengthening exercises and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises, while the other group performed only abductor hallucis strengthening exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] The group that performed both gluteus maximus and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises showed smaller values in the height of navicular drop than the group that performed only abductor hallucis strengthening exercises. The muscle activity of the gluteus maximus and the vastus medialis increased during heel-strike in the group that added gluteus maximus exercises, and the muscle activity of the abductor hallucis significantly increased in both groups. [Conclusion] Given the results of the present study, it can be suggested that strengthening the gluteus maximus while also performing exercises to correct the pronated foot is an effective method for achieving normal gait.

  9. Measurement of accessory motion: critical issues and related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, D L

    1992-12-01

    The term "manual therapy" has traditionally been associated with physical therapists who examine and treat patients who have disorders related to the musculoskeletal system. In addition to using instruments to collect patient data, these therapists use a large variety of manually applied examination procedures. Range-of-motion tests, manual muscle tests, neurological tests, and palpation tests are just a few of the categories of tests these therapists use as part of the clinical decision-making process. The major sources of error that can affect the usefulness of manually obtained measurements are discussed. The literature that provides the theoretical and clinical bases for the assessment of joint surface movement is thoroughly reviewed. Conclusions are made about what is currently known about the usefulness of accessory motion tests. Suggestions are made for future research needs in order to clarify and enhance the usefulness of accessory motion tests and other examination procedures used by manual therapists.

  10. Painful os styloideum: bone scintigraphy in carpe bossu disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apple, J.S.; Martinez, S.; Nunley, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The os styloideum (ninth carpal bone) is an anatomic variant that may occur as an accessory ossicle located dorsally between the capitate and trapezoid, and the bases of the second and third metacarpals. The association of dorsal wrist pain or fatigability with an os styloideum is known as carpe bossu disease. The authors describe a woman with dorsal wrist pain in whom the diagnosis of painful os styloideum (carpe bossu disease) was made using plain radiography, bone scintigraphy and tomography

  11. Accessory hepatic lobe simulating a left hemidiaphragmatic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroiwa, Toshiro; Hirata, Hitoshi; Iwashita, Akinori; Yasumori, Kotaro; Mogami, Hiroshi; Teraoka, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman with a 20-year history of neuralgia was confirmed at surgery to have a tumor in the left hemidiaphragmatic region which was connected with the left lobe of the liver. Reassessment of radiological diagnosis after surgery revealed that hepatobiliary scintigraphy and computed tomography using left anterior oblique scanning are useful in differentiating the accessory hepatic lobe of the liver from a tumor and in confirming the diagnosis, respectively. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Thermomechanical milling of accessory lithics in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michelle E.; Russell, James K.; Porritt, Lucy A.

    2013-09-01

    Accessory lithic clasts recovered from pyroclastic deposits commonly result from the failure of conduit wall rocks, and represent an underutilized resource for constraining conduit processes during explosive volcanic eruptions. The morphological features of lithic clasts provide distinctive 'textural fingerprints' of processes that have reshaped them during transport in the conduit. Here, we present the first study focused on accessory lithic clast morphology and show how the shapes and surfaces of these accessory pyroclasts can inform on conduit processes. We use two main types of accessory lithic clasts from pyroclastic fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. subplinian eruption of Mount Meager, British Columbia, as a case study: (i) rough and subangular dacite clasts, and (ii) variably rounded and smoothed monzogranite clasts. The quantitative morphological data collected on these lithics include: mass, volume, density, 2-D image analysis of convexity (C), and 3-D laser scans for sphericity (Ψ) and smoothness (S). Shaping and comminution (i.e. milling) of clasts within the conduit are ascribed to three processes: (1) disruptive fragmentation due to high-energy impacts between clasts or between clasts and conduit walls, (2) ash-blasting of clasts suspended within the volcanic flux, and (3) thermal effects. We use a simplified conduit eruption model to predict ash-blasting velocities and lithic residence times as a function of clast size and source depth, thereby constraining the lithic milling processes. The extent of shape and surface modification (i.e. rounding and honing) is directly proportional to clast residence times within the conduit prior to evacuation. We postulate that the shallow-seated dacite clasts remain subangular and rough due to short (model residence times and mass loss estimates for rounded clasts are used to estimate minimum attrition rates due to volcanic ash-blasting within the conduit (e.g., 12 cm3 s-1 for 25 cm clasts, sourced at 2500 m

  13. Early Subchondral Bone Loss at Arthritis Onset Predicted Late Arthritis Severity in a Rat Arthritis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbon, Guillaume; Cleret, Damien; Linossier, Marie-Thérèse; Vico, Laurence; Marotte, Hubert

    2017-06-01

    Synovitis is usually observed before loss of articular function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition to the synovium and according to the "Inside-Outside" theory, bone compartment is also involved in RA pathogenesis. Then, we investigated time dependent articular bone loss and prediction of early bone loss to late arthritis severity on the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model. Lewis female rats were longitudinally monitored from arthritis induction (day 0), with early (day 10) and late (day 17) steps. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture parameters of four ankle bones were assessed by microcomputed tomography. Gene expression was determined at sacrifice. Arthritis occurred at day 10 in AIA rats. At this time, bone erosions were detected on four ankle bones, with cortical porosity increase (+67%) and trabecular alterations including bone volume fraction (BV/TV: -13%), and trabecular thickness decrease. Navicular bone assessment was the most reproducible and sensitive. Furthermore, strong correlations were observed between bone alterations at day 10 and arthritis severity or bone loss at day 17, including predictability of day 10 BV/TV to day 17 articular index (R 2  = 0.76). Finally, gene expression at day 17 confirmed massive osteoclast activation and interestingly provided insights on strong activation of bone formation inhibitor markers at the joint level. In rat AIA, bone loss was already observed at synovitis onset and was predicted late arthritis severity. Our results reinforced the key role of subchondral bone in arthritis pathogenesis, in favour to the "Inside-Outside" theory. Mechanisms of bone loss in rat AIA involved resorption activation and formation inhibition changes. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1318-1325, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Kenny, Paul J; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-05-29

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4, β2, and sometimes other subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of α4 and β2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is α4 but not if it is β2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical α4β2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (α4β2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and α4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that α2, α3, α4, and α6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with α4 subunits, but β2 and β4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, α4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of α4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the α4β2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Study on reduction of accessory-horsepower requirements. Third quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-23

    The objective of this study program is to minimize automotive accessory horsepower consumption, and thereby maximize overall vehicle fuel economy, by utilizing continuously variable speed drives or auxiliary power units (APUs) in a standard passenger automobile. As an aid to definitizing accessory performance, load requirements and fuel economy, a baseline vehicle has beeen established. This vehicle is a conventional intermediate size 5- or 6-passenger automobile with a 4.1 to 5.7 liter (250 to 350 cubic inch) displacement, spark ignition engine. Accessories to be considered are the alternator, power steering system, power brakes, air conditioner, cooling fan, water pump and emission control air pump. A program summary of major accomplishments is presented including: accessory drive devices analyses; vehicle computer model fuel economy analyses; improved accessory efficiency analysis; resized engine fuel economy analysis; accessory evaluation matrix completed; drive-systems trade-study completed and the prime concept presented; and variable-speed belt-drive concepts reviewed.

  16. Accessory spleen presenting as acute abdomen: A case report and operative management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Landmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accessory spleens are found in 10–30% of patients and are asymptomatic. Rarely, torsion of an accessory spleen can cause abdominal pain and acute abdomen. We present the case of an 8-year-old girl who arrives to the emergency room with left upper quadrant abdominal pain. CT scan revealed a non-enhancing soft tissue mass and multiple small splenules. Laparoscopy revealed a torsed accessory spleen and malrotation. Accessory spleen is a common congenital anomaly that is frequently asymptomatic. Rarely, an accessory spleen may become torsed around its vascular pedicle resulting in severe abdominal pain. Treatment is surgical resection. Torsion of accessory splenic tissue is a rare cause of acute abdomen in pediatric patients.

  17. Snapping wrist due to multiple accessory tendon of first extensor compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhiyaneswaran Subramaniyam

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: There are various causes for snapping wrist syndrome. Multiple accessory tendon can also cause snapping as shown in this case report. Moreover am presenting this case to highlight the diagnostic failure with non dynamic radiological investigation and to consider multiple accessory tendon as differential diagnosis for snapping wrist syndrome. Also suggest dynamic study could be a better choice of investigation to diagnosis snapping syndrome. First compartment tunnel release with few accessory tendon slip tenotomy gives good result.

  18. Accessory Genes Confer a High Replication Rate to Virulent Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Troyer, Ryan M.; Thompson, Jesse; Elder, John H.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats, similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in humans. The FIV accessory protein Vif abrogates the inhibition of infection by cat APOBEC3 restriction factors. FIV also encodes a multifunctional OrfA accessory protein that has characteristics similar to HIV Tat, Vpu, Vpr, and Nef. To examine the role of vif and orfA accessory genes in FIV replication and pathogenicity, we generated chimeras between tw...

  19. A rare nasal cavity mass in a child: Accessory middle turbinate

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Andrew; Ulualp, Seckin O; Koral, Korgun; Veling, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The accessory middle turbinate, a rare anatomical variation of the nasal cavity, have been systematically studied in adults. Presence of accessory middle turbinate and its clinical significance in a child has not been reported. We describe clinical appearance and radiologic features of accessory middle turbinate in a child. Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: A 3-year-old boy presented to the otolaryngology clinic for evaluation of recurrent epistaxis. Anterior rhinoscop...

  20. Torsion of the accessory spleen with infarction : CT features in a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Jung Kyung; Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Mee Eun; Pyun, Hae Wook; Lee, Il Gi; Lee, Jong Gil; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Ik Su [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    Torsion of the accessory spleen is a rare entity that can have variable clinical presentations. We report case involving an 11-year-old boy with severe abdominal pain and a mass that was found to be due to infarction of the accessory spleen, which was twisted on its pedicle. CT revealed a low-attenuating mass with peripheral inflammatory changes in the left upper abdomen. The mass was pathologically confirmed as torsion of the accessory spleen with infarction. (author)

  1. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  2. GSM accessories now available from the CERN Stores

    CERN Multimedia

    Labo Telecom

    2001-01-01

    As of 1st October you can order and receive GSM accessories from the CERN stores like any other article. The CERN stores also manage GSM telephones but, for technical reasons, only the Labo Telecom shop (Building 31, Room S026) is able to make the standard sales, repairs and exchanges for authorised persons with a CERN subscription. Labo Telecom will thus become a specialist shop, open from 11 a.m. to 12 a.m., and will apply the usual rules and authorisation procedures of the stores. The paper form for requests for GSM subscriptions is being computerized and will be available on EDH in the near future.

  3. Behaviour of bentonite accessory minerals during the thermal stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, David; Bruno, Jordi; Benbow, Steven; Takase, Hiro

    2000-03-01

    This report discusses in a quantitative manner the evolution of the accessory minerals in the bentonite as a result of the thermal event exerted by the spent fuel in the near field. Three different modelling approaches have been used and the results compared between them. The three different approaches have been calculated using two Differential Algebraic Equation (DAE) solver: DYLAN (Model-1) and the Nag DAE solver, d02ngf (Model-2) and the third approach (Model-3) using the last version of PHREEQC. The results from these calculations indicate the feasibility of the modelling approach to model the migration of bentonite accessory minerals and relevant aqueous species throughout the thermal gradient. These calculations indicate that the migration of quartz and quartz polymorphs is a lesser problem. The aqueous speciation of Ca in the bentonite pore water is fundamental in order to define the potential migration of anhydrite during the thermal stage. If CaSO 4 (aq) is the predominant aqueous species, then anhydrite dissolves at the initial groundwater migration times through bentonite. However, if Ca 2+ is considered to be the dominant Ca species at the bentonite pore water, then anhydrite migrates towards the clay/granite interface. This is the main difference in the chemical systems considered in the three model approaches used in this work. The main process affecting the trace mineral behaviour in bentonite is cation exchange. This process controls the concentration of calcium, which results in a direct control of the calcite precipitation-dissolution

  4. The accessory coracobrachialis muscle: ultrasound and MR features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauones, Salem [Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM), Department of Radiology, Hopital Saint-Luc, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Moraux, Antoine [Imagerie Medicale Jacquemars Gielee, Lille (France)

    2015-09-15

    To present the prevalence, clinical relevance, and ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of the accessory coracobrachialis (ACB) muscle. We present an US prospective study of the ACB muscle over a 2-year period. Five of the eight patients with suspected ACB on US were subsequently examined by MRI. An ACB muscle was demonstrated by US in eight patients (eight shoulders), including seven females, one male, with mean age 39 years, over 770 (664 patients) consecutive shoulder US examinations referred to our institution yielding a prevalence of 1.04 %. In dynamic US assessment, one case of subcoracoid impingement secondary to a bulky ACB was diagnosed. No thoracic outlet syndrome was encountered in the remaining cases. MRI confirmed the presence of the accessory muscle in five cases. ACB muscle is a rarely reported yet not uncommon anatomic variation of the shoulder musculature encountered only in eight of 664 patients referred for shoulder US study. Its US and MRI appearance is described. One of our patients presented with subcoracoid impingement related to the presence of an ACB. (orig.)

  5. Digital dermatitis of the accessory digits of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso A. Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This report characterizes the digital dermatitis (DD lesions in the accessory digits of dairy cows and presents data on the applied therapy. Fifteen Holstein cattle with DD affecting the accessory digits of the hindlimbs from four dairy farms with previous history of DD were evaluated. Lesions were excised, the wounds were sutured, and a topical application of oxytetracycline powder covered by bandaging was associated with a single parenteral administration of long acting oxytetracycline IM (20mg/kg. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathology and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM. Lesions from all the animals were recuperated 15 days after surgical procedure. Overal, most DD lesions were papillomatous epidermal projections or wartlike verrucous lesions. Histopathologically, samples revealed hyperplasia of epidermis with hyperkeratosis, several mitoses in the stratum basale and elongated rete ridges in the superficial and middle dermis. TEM revealed long, thin spirochete-like bacteria. Morphologic features of lesions and its response to therapy were comparable to those described for DD.

  6. Antagonism of Innate Immunity by Paramyxovirus Accessory Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raychel Chambers

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Paramyxovirinae, a subfamily of Paramyxoviridae, are negative strand RNA viruses comprised of many important human and animal pathogens, which share a high degree of genetic and structural homology. The accessory proteins expressed from the P/V/C gene are major factors in the pathogenicity of the viruses, because of their ability to abrogate various facets of type I interferon (IFN induction and signaling. Most of the paramyxoviruses exhibit a commonality in their ability to antagonize innate immunity by blocking IFN induction and the Jak/STAT pathway. However, the manner in which the accessory proteins inhibit the pathway differs among viruses. Similarly, there are variations in the capability of the viruses to counteract intracellular detectors (RNA helicases, mda-5 and RIG-I. Furthermore, a functional specificity in the antagonism of the IFN response has been reported, suggesting that specificity in the circumvention of innate immunity restricts viral host range. Available evidence indicates that paramyxoviruses employ specific strategies to antagonize the IFN response of their specific hosts, which is one of the major factors that determine viral pathogenicity and host range.

  7. The accessory coracobrachialis muscle: ultrasound and MR features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauones, Salem; Moraux, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    To present the prevalence, clinical relevance, and ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of the accessory coracobrachialis (ACB) muscle. We present an US prospective study of the ACB muscle over a 2-year period. Five of the eight patients with suspected ACB on US were subsequently examined by MRI. An ACB muscle was demonstrated by US in eight patients (eight shoulders), including seven females, one male, with mean age 39 years, over 770 (664 patients) consecutive shoulder US examinations referred to our institution yielding a prevalence of 1.04 %. In dynamic US assessment, one case of subcoracoid impingement secondary to a bulky ACB was diagnosed. No thoracic outlet syndrome was encountered in the remaining cases. MRI confirmed the presence of the accessory muscle in five cases. ACB muscle is a rarely reported yet not uncommon anatomic variation of the shoulder musculature encountered only in eight of 664 patients referred for shoulder US study. Its US and MRI appearance is described. One of our patients presented with subcoracoid impingement related to the presence of an ACB. (orig.)

  8. Decontamination of minimally invasive surgical endoscopes and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayliffe, G

    2000-08-01

    (1) Infections following invasive endoscopy are rare and are usually of endogenous origin. Nevertheless, infections do occur due to inadequate cleaning and disinfection and the use of contaminated rinse water and processing equipment. (2) Rigid and flexible operative endoscopes and accessories should be thoroughly cleaned and preferably sterilized using properly validated processes. (3) Heat tolerant operative endoscopes and accessories should be sterilized using a vacuum assisted steam sterilizer. Use autoclavable instrument trays or containers to protect equipment during transit and processing. Small bench top sterilizers without vacuum assisted air removal are unsuitable for packaged and lumened devices. (4) Heat sensitive rigid and flexible endoscopes and accessories should preferably be sterilized using ethylene oxide, low temperature steam and formaldehyde (rigid only) or gas plasma (if appropriate). (5) If there are insufficient instruments or time to sterilize invasive endoscopes, or if no suitable method is available locally, they may be disinfected by immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or a suitable alternative. An immersion time of at least 10 min should be adopted for glutaraldehyde. This is sufficient to inactivate most vegetative bacteria and viruses including HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Longer contact times of 20 min or more may be necessary if a mycobacterial infection is known or suspected. At least 3 h immersion in glutaraldehyde is required to kill spores. (6) Glutaraldehyde is irritant and sensitizing to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Measures must be taken to ensure glutaraldehyde is used in a safe manner, i.e., total containment and/or extraction of harmful vapour and the provision of suitable personal protective equipment, i.e., gloves, apron and eye protection if splashing could occur. Health surveillance of staff is recommended and should include a pre-employment enquiry regarding asthma, skin and mucosal sensitivity problems and

  9. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  10. 14 CFR 221.52 - Airport to airport application, accessorial services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airport to airport application, accessorial... Charges § 221.52 Airport to airport application, accessorial services. Tariffs shall specify whether or not the fares therein include services in addition to airport-to-airport transportation. ...

  11. Accessory minerals of Permian volcanites of South Gemeric Unit and Borka Nappe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smelko, M.; Vozarova, A.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to summarize and complete the results from the study of metavolcanites and their accessory minerals (Zircon Zr 2 SiO 4 , Monazite CePO 4 and Xenotime YPO 4 ) from the Southern Gemericum Unit and from the Borka Nappe. The acid metavolcanites and their accessory minerals were observed of the modern analytical methods.

  12. An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen simulating tumors of the tail of pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sinha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen, a rare condition may present as pseudocyst of pancreas and other cystic tumors of the pancreas. This case report along with the review of literature attributes some clinical features and investigative pattern to differentiate between epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen and other cystic tumor of pancreas.

  13. Accidental identification of accessory mental nerve and foramen during implant surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sudhindra; Kumar, Sampath; Kamath, Sujata; Thakur, Srinath

    2011-01-01

    The accessory mental nerve and the corresponding foramen are not a very common occurrence. In the current case report, we present the notice of an accessory mental nerve in the mandibular molar area during implant placement. The case was managed well without any complications.

  14. The posterior triangle and the painful shoulder: spinal accessory nerve injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, W. W.; Twyman, R. S.; Donell, S. T.; Birch, R.

    1996-01-01

    Forty-three cases of accessory nerve injury referred to the Peripheral Nerve Injury Unit have been reviewed. Accessory nerve injury results in a characteristic group of symptoms and signs. Referral for treatment is usually delayed, the average time being 11.3 months. Surgical treatment resulted in improvement of symptoms in almost all cases.

  15. 29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto. 1919.28... Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.28 Unit proof tests—cranes and gear accessory thereto... shall be adhered to with respect to unit proof tests and examinations. ...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and....4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a device intended to remove tissue and control...

  17. Intermittent torsion of accessory hepatic lobe: An unusual cause of recurrent right upper quadrant pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambhekar Kedar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An accessory lobe of the liver is a rare congenital anomaly that can undergo torsion and present as an acute surgical emergency. It is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. We report the preoperative utility of CT scan and MRI in the diagnosis and surgical planning of a case of intermittent accessory hepatic lobe torsion.

  18. Design of Fashion Accessories Using Akwa-Ocha Motifs and Symbols

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exploration of Akwa-Ocha motifs and symbols for the design of fashion accessories for obvious reasons include creating an identity, checking the emphasis already placed on foreign fashion accessories, creating awareness and projecting one of Nigeria's rich cultural heritages. Key Words: Akwa-Ocha, motifs, symbols, ...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4062(b)-1 - Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or accessories sold on an exchange basis. The sale price of a rebuilt part or accessory on which the... will be the basis for tax. For example, if a rebuilt automobile engine is sold for $100, plus another automobile engine, the tax on the rebuilt engine will be computed on the basis of $100. ...

  20. Oligopeptide antigens of the angiotensin lineage compete for presentation by paraformaldehyde-treated accessory cells to T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1986-01-01

    series are highly susceptible to proteolytic destruction in cultures containing prefixed accessory cells. The proteases responsible for the destruction of these peptides are apparently located in the plasma membrane of accessory cells. These enzymes represent a methodologic problem in studies...

  1. Chloroquine inhibits accessory cell presentation of soluble natural and synthetic protein antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the in vitro effect of the lysosomotrophic agent, chloroquine, on the presentation of soluble protein antigens by guinea pig accessory cells. Chloroquine inhibited the capacity of antigen-pulsed accessory cells to stimulate proliferation in appropriately primed T cells. The effect...... was time- and dose-dependent. A brief treatment solely of the accessory cells with the drug compromised their ability to stimulate primed T cells in a subsequent culture provided the accessory cells were treated with chloroquine before their exposure to the antigen. These results suggest that chloroquine...... acts on an early event in the antigen handling by accessory cells. Chloroquine is a well known inhibitor of lysosomal proteolysis, and it is likely that its effect on antigen presentation is caused by an inhibition of antigen degradation....

  2. Role of nuclear medicine imaging in differential diagnosis of accessory spleens in patients after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Amico, Andrea; Cofalik, Anna; Przeorek, Cesary; Gawlik, Tomasz; Olczyk, Tomasz; Kalemba, Michał; Modorowska, Alicja; Turska-d’Amico, Maria; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara; Jarzab, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    More than 10% of healthy population has one or more accessory spleens. The most common location is the hilum of the spleen or area near the tail of the pancreas. The radiological appearance of accessory spleens in oncologic patients who underwent splenectomy can be misinterpreted as a recurrence, especially in the case of compensatory growth of an accessory spleen in successive radiological examinations. We present the cases of three patients who underwent splenectomy for gastric carcinoid, gastric adenocarcinoma and cancer of the left adrenal gland, respectively. CT examination and/or PET-CT scan revealed suspicious findings in the left upper abdomen. In one patient, the dimensional increase of this finding in successive examinations was initially considered suggestive for cancer recurrence. Scintigraphy with 99m Tc-nanocolloid was able to confirm the presence of an accessory spleen in all these patients. Splenic scintigraphy is an economical, accessible and accurate tool in differential diagnosis of accessory spleens in patients after splenectomy

  3. Using Stator Blades in Accessory Tracts of Hermetic Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Cheryomushkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal pumps are the most extensive class of dynamic hydraulic machines, which are commonly used. So-called hermetic pumps, which possess a number of calculation and design features, stand apart among these machines. Rather complicated task is to calculate internal tracts of the hermetic pump, which are used to cool and lubricate its units. The article is concerned with this calculation, namely, the study of the hollow flow. In designing the hermetic pump, when simulating the flow through the accessory tracts, a so-called “lock” effect was detected between the rotor end and the side cover. This effect is caused by a macro-vortex formed in the hollow, which resulted in a significant pressure drop at the inlet of the shaft opening. Such a pressure drop leads to reducing fluid flow through the accessory tracts, which can cause overheating and failure of the engine and bearing units. In view of the large width of the hollow under consideration, to describe theoretically its flow is difficult. Therefore, a numerical simulation is the most accurate way to determine the impact degree of the macro-vortex on the flow process. The article shows a mathematical model used in computer modeling. Presents the images of a flowing part of the accessory tracts and the computation mesh. Also, gives the models to construct a mesh and the boundary conditions desirable to provide hydrodynamic calculation. Then, describes the possible ways to eliminate the “block” effect, i.e. to set an additional impeller, completely change the configuration of a flowing part of the internal tracts, as well as to add the stator blades to the side cover. The latter option was chosen, as the most optimal in terms of labor intensity and manufacturability. Further, to compare the nature of the flow with the blades and without them the article shows pressure distribution fields, vectors of velocity, and turbulent kinetic energy values. All the results obtained, including

  4. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone ... to people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether ...

  5. Detailed anatomy of a left accessory aberrant colic artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, M C; Vlad, M; Voinea, L M; Curcă, G C; Sişu, A M

    2008-10-01

    In an aged human female cadaver a left accessory aberrant colic artery (LAACA) was observed and studied. It originated from the superior mesenteric artery at 3 cm proximal to the middle colic artery, at the inferior border of pancreas, passing over Treitz's muscle and continued covered by the superior duodenal fold where it crossed the inferior mesenteric vein. Further, it continued with a satellite vein anterior to the left renal vein and the anterior branch of the renal artery. The LAACA divided into an ascending branch and a descending one, anastomosed with the middle colic and proper left colic arteries; between its two primary branches and the splenic flexure of colon, a hypovascular area was observed. The surgical relevance of the LAACA detailed anatomy mainly relates to specific procedures performed in left colectomies and nephrectomies.

  6. Study of oxygen isotope ratio in accessory zircons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibikova, E.V.; Ustinov, V.I.; Gracheva, T.V.; Kiselevskij, M.A.; Shukolyukov, Yu.A.

    1982-01-01

    The isotope ratio of oxygen has been studied in accessory zircons of ores predominantly of granite composition, of different age with a known contents and distribution of radioactive elements in the grain volume, which enabled one to calculate the integral dose of the mineral structure irradiation by alpha-particles. The degree of zircon structure metamict character has been also calculated from the data obtained with the use of infrared spectroscopy. It is shown that for the totally metamictous zircons the exchange between the structural oxygen and the oxygen of water is characteristic, the water easily penetrating into broken structure of the mineral and washing out the radiogenic lead. The prevailing role of the chemical processes is confirmed, but not of the diffusion ones resulting in the lead carry-over, break of the U-Pb isotope system, and appearance of discordant ages. The isotopically light zircon proves to be less suitable for geochronological studies

  7. The Tarsal Bone Test: A Basic Test of Health Sciences Students' Knowledge of Lower Limb Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Castillo-López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the present study was to design an easy-to-use tool, the tarsal bone test (TBT, to provide a snapshot of podiatry students’ basic anatomical knowledge of the bones of the lower limb. Methods. The study included 254 podiatry students from three different universities, 145 of them were first-year students and 109 were in their fourth and final years. The TBT was administered without prior notice to the participants and was to be completed in 5 minutes. Results. The results show that 97.2% of the subjects (n=247 correctly labelled all tarsal bones, while the other 2.8% (n=7 incorrectly labelled at least one bone, that was either the cuboid (7 times or the navicular (6 times. Although only one fourth-year student inaccurately identified one bone, no significant differences in the distribution of the correct and incorrect responses were found between first and fourth-year students. Conclusions. The TBT seems to be a straightforward and easy-to-apply instrument, and provides an objective view of the level of knowledge acquired at different stages of podiatry studies.

  8. Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal gland physiology and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselova, T V; Jackson, D; Campbell, D C; Clark, A J L; Chan, L F

    2013-04-01

    The melanocortin receptor (MCR) family consists of five G-protein-coupled receptors (MC1R-MC5R) with diverse physiological roles. MC1R controls pigmentation, MC2R is a critical component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, MC3R and MC4R have a vital role in energy homeostasis and MC5R is involved in exocrine function. The melanocortin receptor accessory protein (MRAP) and its paralogue MRAP2 are small single-pass transmembrane proteins that have been shown to regulate MCR expression and function. In the adrenal gland, MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency, where inactivating MRAP mutations account for ∼20% of cases. MRAP is highly expressed in both the zona fasciculata and the undifferentiated zone. Expression in the undifferentiated zone suggests that MRAP could also be important in adrenal cell differentiation and/or maintenance. In contrast, the role of adrenal MRAP2, which is highly expressed in the foetal gland, is unclear. The expression of MRAPs outside the adrenal gland is suggestive of a wider physiological purpose, beyond MC2R-mediated adrenal steroidogenesis. In vitro, MRAPs have been shown to reduce surface expression and signalling of all the other MCRs (MC1,3,4,5R). MRAP2 is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus, a site that also expresses a high level of MC3R and MC4R. This raises the intriguing possibility of a CNS role for the MRAPs.

  9. Functional male accessory glands and fertility in Drosophila require novel ecdysone receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Sharma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In many insects, the accessory gland, a secretory tissue of the male reproductive system, is essential for male fertility. Male accessory gland is the major source of proteinaceous secretions, collectively called as seminal proteins (or accessory gland proteins, which upon transfer, manipulate the physiology and behavior of mated females. Insect hormones such as ecdysteroids and juvenoids play a key role in accessory gland development and protein synthesis but little is known about underlying molecular players and their mechanism of action. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the roles of hormone-dependent transcription factors (Nuclear Receptors, in accessory gland development, function and male fertility of a genetically tractable insect model, Drosophila melanogaster. First, we carried out an RNAi screen involving 19 hormone receptors, individually and specifically, in a male reproductive tissue (accessory gland for their requirement in Drosophila male fertility. Subsequently, by using independent RNAi/ dominant negative forms, we show that Ecdysone Receptor (EcR is essential for male fertility due to its requirement in the normal development of accessory glands in Drosophila: EcR depleted glands fail to make seminal proteins and have dying cells. Further, our data point to a novel ecdysone receptor that does not include Ultraspiracle but is probably comprised of EcR isoforms in Drosophila male accessory glands. Our data suggest that this novel ecdysone receptor might act downstream of homeodomain transcription factor paired (prd in the male accessory gland. Overall, the study suggests novel ecdysone receptor as an important player in the hormonal regulation of seminal protein production and insect male fertility.

  10. Deleterious effect of ultraviolet-B radiation on accessory function of human blood adherent mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, E.A.; Elmets, C.A.; Fujiwara, H.; Wallis, R.S.; Ellner, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) on accessory function of human blood adherent mononuclear cells (ADH) for antigen and mitogen-induced responses, and production by ADH of the amplifying cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) were examined. Responder lymphocytes were rendered accessory cell dependent by treatment of nonadherent cells with OKIal + complement. UV-B depressed accessory function of ADH in a dose-dependent manner. UV-B decreased accessory function of ADH for tetanus toxoid-induced responses and phytohaemagglutinin-induced responses. UV-B also decreased accessory activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells for a PPD-reactive T cell line. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) activity of supernatants of ADH was assayed on C3H/HeJ mouse thymocytes. Pretreatment of ADH with UV-B decreased lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IL-1 activity. Lysates of UV-B irradiated, LPS-stimulated ADH had no discernible IL-1 activity. Addition of IL-1 partially restored accessory activity of UV-B irradiated ADH for lymphocyte responses to TT. Exposure of ADH to TT or PHA for 30 min before irradiation blocked the inhibitory effect of UV-B on accessory activity. Thus, low doses of UV-B are deleterious to accessory function and to production of IL-1 by ADH. Interference with production of cytokines and with initial interactions of accessory cells with antigen and mitogen may be critical to the effects of UV-B on immunoregulatory function of ADH. (author)

  11. Demonstration of the accessory mental foramen using rotational panoramic radiography compared with cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naitoh, Munetaka; Yoshida, Kazuhito; Nakahara, Kino; Gotoh, Kenichi; Ariji, Eiichiro

    2011-12-01

    Rotational panoramic radiography is routinely used in dental practice. It has not been clarified, however, whether an accessory mental foramen can be demonstrated using this technique. The visibility of accessory mental foramina on rotational panoramic radiographs was compared with those on para-panoramic images reconstructed from cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images. A total of 365 patients (130 males and 235 females) were retrospectively analyzed. Para-panoramic images were reconstructed from CBCT images with the accessory mental foramen/foramina using three-dimensional visualization and measurement software, and then the accessory mental foramen on rotational panoramic images was compared with that on para-panoramic images. A total of 37 accessory mental foramina were observed in 28 patients on CBCT images. The rate of being able to visualize the accessory mental foramen or bony canal between the point of bifurcation from the mandibular canal and the accessory mental foramen on rotational panoramic radiographs was 48.6% (18 of 37 accessory mental foramina). Approximately half of the accessory mental foramina-positive CBCT images demonstrated the accessory mental foramen, or bony canal between the point of bifurcation from the mandibular canal and accessory mental foramen on rotational panoramic radiographs. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  13. Bone-scintigraphy in painful bipartite patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iossifidis, A. [Orthopaedic Academic Unit, St. Thomas` Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Brueton, R.N. [Orthopaedic Academic Unit, St. Thomas` Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Nunan, T.O. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, St. Thomas` Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-01

    Although, the use of technetium scintigraphy in the assessment of anterior knee pain has been described, no reference has been made to the scintigraphic appearances of painful bipartite patella. We report the scintigraphic-appearances of painful bipartite patella in 25-year-old man a 2 1/2 years history of unexplained patellar pain. Painful bipartite patella is a rare cause of chronic post-traumatic patellar pain. Bone scintigraphy, by demonstrating increased uptake by the painful accessory bipartite fragment, appears to be an imaging method of choice in the diagnosis of this condition. (orig./MG)

  14. Implementation of immobilization accessories for positioning of small animals for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vettorato, M.C.; Girotto, C.H.; Fogaça, J.L.; Vulcano, L.C.; Fernandes, M.A.R., E-mail: m_vettorato@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    Radiation therapy is a modality that is presenting great advances in veterinary medicine worldwide. In Brazil, this therapeutic option is underachieved. The success of this method depends on several factors, including the use of appropriate accessories for protection and immobilization of patients. For the immobilization of small animals during treatment, in addition to sedation and anesthesia, immobilizing accessories, similar to those used in human radiotherapy, are used. This study aimed to present proposals for immobilizing accessories adapted to the positioning of small animals in order to be used in radiotherapy planning. In order to achieve results, accessories were made and tested in a living animal simulating a radiotherapy planning, which proved to be favorable to use in positioning small animals undergoing radiotherapy and for implementation processes. (author)

  15. Unusual scintigraphic appearances of a mobile accessory lobe of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, J.B.; Maisey, M.N.

    1978-01-01

    Accessory hepatic lobules are an uncommon occurrence. In a gallium scan, a highly mobile, asymptomatic liver lobule gave rise to diagnostic confusion. It was resolved by the use of multiple radiopharmaceuticals

  16. A variation of the extensor hallucis longus muscle (accessory extensor digiti secundus muscle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezer, Murat; Cicekcibasi, Aynur Emine

    2012-06-01

    An accessory muscle adjacent to the extensor hallucis longus muscle (EHL) was observed between the EHL and the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) in the anterior side of both legs of the cadaver of a 72-year-old male, during educational dissection, and it was observed that the tendon of this muscle extended to the second toe. The tendon of this muscle united with the second toe tendon of the EDL. These common tendons appeared before reaching the toe media phalanxes and extended to the related media phalanxes of toe. However, an additional tendon separating from this accessory muscle tendon united with the EHL tendon at the left foot. This accessory muscle, unlike the variations identified to date, is considered to extend to the second toe, and the name "accessory extensor digiti secundus muscle" is offered.

  17. Hidden female physiological resistance to male accessory gland substances in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodi, Monica; Koene, Joris M

    2017-01-01

    To increase fertilization chances compared with rivals, males are favoured to transfer accessory gland proteins to females during mating. These substances, by influencing female physiology, cause alteration of her sperm usage and remating rate. Simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails with

  18. Implementation of immobilization accessories for positioning of small animals for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettorato, M.C.; Girotto, C.H.; Fogaça, J.L.; Vulcano, L.C.; Fernandes, M.A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a modality that is presenting great advances in veterinary medicine worldwide. In Brazil, this therapeutic option is underachieved. The success of this method depends on several factors, including the use of appropriate accessories for protection and immobilization of patients. For the immobilization of small animals during treatment, in addition to sedation and anesthesia, immobilizing accessories, similar to those used in human radiotherapy, are used. This study aimed to present proposals for immobilizing accessories adapted to the positioning of small animals in order to be used in radiotherapy planning. In order to achieve results, accessories were made and tested in a living animal simulating a radiotherapy planning, which proved to be favorable to use in positioning small animals undergoing radiotherapy and for implementation processes. (author)

  19. The Online Marketing Research on the Factors of Competitiveness of Enterprises in the Computer Accessory Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashkina Oksana I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at identifyng the factors of competitiveness of enterprises in the market for computer accessories (on the example of the «ZONA51» store and suggesting certain actions as to creating and strengthening competitive advantages. The main competitors of the enterprise, which offer computer accessories, as well as the basic preferences of consumers in choosing the game-oriented computer accessories, have been explored. The study has found that price and active Internet communications are the main factors in the competitiveness of enterprises in the market for computer accessories. It is also important to use communicative channels such as «word-of-mouth marketing» for specific types of goods. The target audience of the products analyzed is young people, so it is also important to advertise resources near the places of youth gatherings to provide active communications. Further studies should consider the factors of competitiveness of Internet shops with different orientation.

  20. Scintigraphic diagnosis and computed tomographic localization of an accessory spleen following relapse of chronic immune thrombocytopaenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardaci, G.T.; Blake, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Chronic immune thrombocytopaenia is an immunologically mediated disorder resulting in disordered platelet kinetics and potentially life-threatening disease. Failure of medical therapy is an indication for splenectomy, and responses are seen in 80% of patients following this procedure. An important cause of relapse following splenectomy is the presence of an accessory spleen. A patient with Hodgkin's Disease developed chronic immune thrombocytopaenia despite previous splenectomy. A remission was induced with immunosuppressive therapy, but he later relapsed. An accessory spleen was detected using 99 m Tc denatured red blood cells and localized using computed tomography. Resection of the accessory spleen resulted in clinical remission. As accessory spleens are often small in size, combined modality imaging is recommended in the evaluation of this disorder. 15 refs., 2 figs

  1. A rare nasal cavity mass in a child: Accessory middle turbinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The accessory middle turbinate, a rare anatomical variation of the nasal cavity, have been systematically studied in adults. Presence of accessory middle turbinate and its clinical significance in a child has not been reported. We describe clinical appearance and radiologic features of accessory middle turbinate in a child. Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: A 3-year-old boy presented to the otolaryngology clinic for evaluation of recurrent epistaxis. Anterior rhinoscopy revealed moist nasal mucosa without inflammation and bilateral prominent blood vessels on the anterior nasal septum. Nasal endoscopy showed turbinate like protuberances in bilateral middle meatus. CT images documented accessory middle turbinate in the bilateral nasal cavity. Conclusion: Otolaryngologists should be cognizant of anatomical variations of middle turbinate to achieve correct diagnosis and avoid potential complications during surgical management.

  2. Macaque accessory optic system: II. Connections with the pretectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleydier, C.; Magnin, M.; Cooper, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    Connections of the accessory optic system (AOS) with the pretectum are described in the macaque monkey. Injections of tritiated amino acids in the pretectum demonstrate a major contralateral projection to the dorsal (DTN), lateral (LTN), and medial (MTN) terminal nuclei of the AOS and a sparser projection to the ipsilateral LTN. Injections of retrograde tracers, Fast Blue (FB), or wheat germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) plus nonconjugated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the LTN show that the pretectal-LTN projection originates from two nuclei. The main source of pretectal efferents to the LTN is from the pretectal olivary nucleus (OPN) and is entirely contralateral. This projection, which appears unique to primates, originates from the large multipolar cells of the OPN. In addition to this projection, the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) projects to the ipsilateral LTN, as in nonprimates. Injection of WGA-HRP in the pretectum shows a reciprocal predominantely ipsilateral projection from the LTN to the pretectum. Retinas were observed after injection of FB in the LTN. The retinal ganglion cells projecting to the AOS are mainly distributed near the fovea and in the nasal region of the contralateral eye, suggesting a nasotemporal pattern of decussation. The demonstration of a direct connection between LTN and OPN forces to a reconsideration of the functional role of the AOS. Previous descriptions of luminance responsive cells in the LTN support a possible participation of this nucleus in the control of the pupillary light reflex

  3. Transformation asymmetry and the evolution of the bacterial accessory genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apagyi, Katinka J; Fraser, Christophe; Croucher, Nicholas J

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial transformation can insert or delete genomic islands (GIs), depending on the donor and recipient genotypes, if an homologous recombination spans the GI's integration site and includes sufficiently long flanking homologous arms. Combining mathematical models of recombination with experiments using pneumococci found GI insertion rates declined geometrically with the GI's size. The decrease in acquisition frequency with length (1.08x10-3 bp-1) was higher than a previous estimate of the analogous rate at which core genome recombinations terminated. Although most efficient for shorter GIs, transformation-mediated deletion frequencies did not vary consistently with GI length, with removal of 10 kb GIs approximately 50% as efficient as acquisition of base substitutions. Fragments of two kilobases, typical of transformation event sizes, could drive all these deletions independent of island length. The strong asymmetry of transformation, and its capacity to efficiently remove GIs, suggests non-mobile accessory loci will decline in frequency without preservation by selection. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Gene Expression in Human Accessory Lacrimal Glands of Wolfring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubels, John L.; Gipson, Ilene K.; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra J.; Tisdale, Ann S.; Van Dyken, Rachel E.; Hatton, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The accessory lacrimal glands are assumed to contribute to the production of tear fluid, but little is known about their function. The goal of this study was to conduct an analysis of gene expression by glands of Wolfring that would provide a more complete picture of the function of these glands. Methods. Glands of Wolfring were isolated from frozen sections of human eyelids by laser microdissection. RNA was extracted from the cells and hybridized to gene expression arrays. The expression of several of the major genes was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Of the 24 most highly expressed genes, 9 were of direct relevance to lacrimal function. These included lysozyme, lactoferrin, tear lipocalin, and lacritin. The glands of Wolfring are enriched in genes related to protein synthesis, targeting, and secretion, and a large number of genes for proteins with antimicrobial activity were detected. Ion channels and transporters, carbonic anhydrase, and aquaporins were abundantly expressed. Genes for control of lacrimal function, including cholinergic, adrenergic, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, purinergic, androgen, and prolactin receptors were also expressed in gland of Wolfring. Conclusions. The data suggest that the function of glands of Wolfring is similar to that of main lacrimal glands and are consistent with secretion electrolytes, fluid, and protein under nervous and hormonal control. Since these glands secrete directly onto the ocular surface, their location may allow rapid response to exogenous stimuli and makes them readily accessible to topical drugs. PMID:22956620

  5. Photothermal camera port accessory for microscopic thermal diffusivity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escola, Facundo Zaldívar; Kunik, Darío; Mingolo, Nelly; Martínez, Oscar Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    The design of a scanning photothermal accessory is presented, which can be attached to the camera port of commercial microscopes to measure thermal diffusivity maps with micrometer resolution. The device is based on the thermal expansion recovery technique, which measures the defocusing of a probe beam due to the curvature induced by the local heat delivered by a focused pump beam. The beam delivery and collecting optics are built using optical fiber technology, resulting in a robust optical system that provides collinear pump and probe beams without any alignment adjustment necessary. The quasiconfocal configuration for the signal collection using the same optical fiber sets very restrictive conditions on the positioning and alignment of the optical components of the scanning unit, and a detailed discussion of the design equations is presented. The alignment procedure is carefully described, resulting in a system so robust and stable that no further alignment is necessary for the day-to-day use, becoming a tool that can be used for routine quality control, operated by a trained technician.

  6. Accessory soleus muscle as a cause of congenital talipes equino varus. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambani, Rohit; Shahid, Muhammad Salim

    2006-10-01

    The authors report a case of congenital clubfoot in a one-year-old male child, in which an accessory soleus muscle was noted intraoperatively, running anteromedially to the Achilles tendon and with a distinct insertion on the postero-medial aspect of the calcaneus. Correction of the varus and equinus of the hindfoot could only be achieved after cutting the tendon of the accessory soleus muscle at its insertion on the calcaneus.

  7. CT demonstration of accessory nasal turbinates: secondary middle turbinate and bifid inferior turbinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksungur, Erol H. [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Bicakci, Kenan [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Inal, Mehmet [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Akguel, Erol [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Binokay, Figen [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Aydogan, Barlas [Department of ENT, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Oguz, Mahmut [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey)

    1999-09-01

    Normally, there are three pairs of nasal turbinates in the nasal cavity. Coronal computed tomographies of 253 cases of sinusitis were examined for the presence of additional turbinates and bilateral secondary middle turbinates were detected in two cases. Also, we describe another accessory turbinate, 'bifid inferior turbinate', in one of these cases. Existence of these accessory turbinates may occur during embryologic development of lateral nasal wall.

  8. Centrifugal telencephalic afferent connections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; de Moya-Pinilla, Miguel; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2012-01-01

    Parallel to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, which in turn project to adjacent areas of the telencephalon, respectively. New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs partially converge in the rostral telencephalon and are non-overlapping at caudal telencephalic levels. Therefore, the basal telencephalon should be reclassified in olfactory, vomeronasal, and mixed areas. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virtually all olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures send reciprocal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Further, non-chemosensory recipient structures also projects centrifugally to the olfactory bulbs. These feed-back projections appear to be essential modulating processing of chemosensory information. The present work aims at characterizing centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs arising from olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic areas. This issue has been addressed by using tracer injections in the rat and mouse brain. Tracer injections were delivered into the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as in olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic structures. The results confirm that olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Interestingly, olfactory (e.g., piriform cortex), vomeronasal (e.g., posteromedial cortical amygdala), mixed (e.g., the anterior medial amygdaloid nucleus), and non-chemosensory-recipient (e.g., the nucleus of the diagonal band) structures project to the main and to the accessory olfactory bulbs thus providing the possibility of simultaneous modulation and interaction of both systems at different stages of chemosensory processing

  9. Incidence and morphology of accessory heads of flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus (Gantzer's muscles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    JONES, M.; ABRAHAMS, P. H.; SAÑUDO, J. R.; CAMPILLO, M.

    1997-01-01

    In 1813 Gantzer described 2 accessory muscles in the human forearm which bear his name (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Testut, 1884; Le Double, 1897). The more frequent of the 2 accessory muscles or ‘accessorius ad pollicem’ was found to arise from the coronoid process of the ulna, coursing distally to attach into the flexor pollicis longus muscle (flexor pollicis longus accessory head, FPLah). The less frequently observed or ‘accessorius ad flexorem profundum digitorum’ was again found to arise from the coronoid process and course to join into the flexor digitorum profundus (flexor digitorum profundus accessory head, FDPah). Since their initial description, they have been examined in further detail by a number of authors (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Le Double, 1897; Dykes & Anson, 1944; Mangini, 1960; Malhotra et al. 1982; Dellon & McKinnon, 1987; Kida, 1988). These studies, most of them focusing on the FPLah, all show different results of prevalence, origin, insertion, relations and nerve supply. We undertook this study with the aim of providing a more accurate account of the detailed morphology of both accessory muscles because of the above-mentioned inconsistent anatomical descriptions and the lack of information as to important aspects such as vascular supply, morphology (shape and length) and the coexistence of both accessory heads. PMID:9419002

  10. Accessory mental foramen: an anatomical study on dry mandibles and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George; Mavrodi, Alexandra; Natsis, Konstantinos

    2015-06-01

    Since numerous surgical procedures in oral and maxillofacial surgery as well as several aspects of dental practice involve the mental region, the knowledge of its anatomical variations is essential for the clinician. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence and the anatomical features of the accessory mental foramen, which is occasionally traced additionally to the main mental foramen. Ninety-six dry human mandibles of a Greek population and of unknown sex and age were examined in order to notice the presence of possible accessory mental foramina. The frequency of the accessory mental foramen was calculated, and its dimensions and its topographical relationship to the teeth of the mandible and the mental foramen were determined as well. A single accessory mental foramen was identified in 4.17% of the sample, while its mean transverse diameter was measured to be 1.09 mm and its mean distance from the mental foramen was 5.24 mm. The present study revealed an appreciable incidence of the accessory mental foramen in the Greek population, recognizably higher than the discovered incidence of past studies involving the Greek population. Consequently, the clinician should always be prepared to deal with an accessory mental foramen during surgical procedures.

  11. Snapping wrist due to multiple accessory tendon of first extensor compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniyam, S Dhiyaneswaran; Purushothaman, Rajesh; Zacharia, Balaji

    2018-01-01

    Snapping phenomena result from the sudden impingement between anatomical and/or heterotopical structures with subsequent abrupt movement and noise. Snaps are variously perceived by patients, from mild discomfort to significant pain requiring surgical management. snapping syndrome occurs at various site like hip, knee, shoulder and wrist. There are many cadaveric studies shows accessory tendon in first extensor compartment of wrist. We present a 19 year old male presents catching sensation and occasional radial side wrist pain for 6 months. Finkelstein test was negative. Radiograph showed small bony projection over the radial styloid. MRI wrist was reported as normal but retrospective analysis of image shows multiple tendons. Intraopertively we found multiple accessory tendon of extensor pollicis brevis which is causing snapping. Fibrous tunnel release with tenotomy of few accessory tendons done. On table patients catching sensation was assessed and found to be relieved. Patient is not having snapping on his follow up visit and able to carry out his daily activity without difficulties. There are various causes for snapping wrist syndrome. Multiple accessory tendon can also cause snapping as shown in this case report. Moreover am presenting this case to highlight the diagnostic failure with non dynamic radiological investigation and to consider multiple accessory tendon as differential diagnosis for snapping wrist syndrome. Also suggest dynamic study could be a better choice of investigation to diagnosis snapping syndrome. First compartment tunnel release with few accessory tendon slip tenotomy gives good result. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Fibroadenoma of the axillary accessory breast: diagnostic value of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Munehisa; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Takeuchi, Taizo; Tamaki, Takeshi; Oura, Shoji

    2010-10-01

    Accessory breast is synonymous with polymastia or supernumerary breast tissue. An accessory breast without a nipple or areola is rare. We report a case of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast with no nipple or areola in a 41-year-old woman who presented with a right axillary mass associated with five small nodules in the normally situated breast. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the accessory breast surrounding the tumor. We ignored the presence of the component surrounding the mass and made a preoperative diagnosis of an axillary mass of possible metastases from multiple breast cancers or breast cancer of unknown origin associated with multiple breast fibroadenomas. From a retrospective view, based on the histological results, MRI and dynamic MRI demonstrated a tiny component of breast-like tissue surrounding the axillary mass and an enhancement pattern typical of fibroadenoma for the axillary mass. For the later diagnosis of the axillary mass, the interpretation of whether the component of breast tissue surrounding the axillary mass was present is crucial. If the component exists, a tumor that originated from the accessory breast should be foremost in the differential diagnosis. Dynamic MRI appears to contribute to the diagnosis of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast before biopsy or surgical resection.

  13. Postsplenectomy recurrence of idiopathic thrombocitopenic purpura: role of laparoscopic splenectomy in the treatment of accessory spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, C A; Pravisani, R; Bidinost, S; Baccarani, U; Bresadola, V; Risaliti, A; Terrosu, G

    2015-01-01

    Idiopatic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is the most common indication for splenectomy. The failure rate of surgery is about 8% and the failure rate after splenectomy is approximately 28% for all patients. When the presence of an accessory spleen is diagnosed, splenectomy is recommended. Laparoscopic approach is considered the first choice. At our Department, between July and November 2011 two patients underwent laparoscopic accessory splenectomy for recurrence of ITP. Both patients had a previously laparoscopic splenectomy. Preoperative Magnetic Resonance (MR) was performed in both the cases revealing the presence of an accessory spleen. The operative time was 105 and 100 minutes respectively. No perioperative complications occured. Hospital stay was four days in both cases. The first patient had a disease free period of two months; the second one of one month. Both patients restarted immunosuppressive therapy. The relapse of thrombocytopenia post-splenectomy can be associated with the presence of an accessory spleen. The laparoscopic accessory splenectomy should be considered the first choice approach. Surgical accessory splenectomy allows a transitory remission of the disease.

  14. VPAC receptors: structure, molecular pharmacology and interaction with accessory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvineau, Alain; Laburthe, Marc

    2012-05-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide with wide distribution in both central and peripheral nervous systems, where it plays important regulatory role in many physiological processes. VIP displays a large biological functions including regulation of exocrine secretions, hormone release, fetal development, immune responses, etc. VIP appears to exert beneficial effect in neuro-degenerative and inflammatory diseases. The mechanism of action of VIP implicates two subtypes of receptors (VPAC1 and VPAC2), which are members of class B receptors belonging to the super-family of GPCR. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the structure and molecular pharmacology of VPAC receptors. The structure-function relationship of VPAC1 receptor has been extensively studied, allowing to understand the molecular basis for receptor affinity, specificity, desensitization and coupling to adenylyl cyclase. Those studies have clearly demonstrated the crucial role of the N-terminal ectodomain (N-ted) of VPAC1 receptor in VIP recognition. By using different approaches including directed mutagenesis, photoaffinity labelling, NMR, molecular modelling and molecular dynamic simulation, it has been shown that the VIP molecule interacts with the N-ted of VPAC1 receptor, which is itself structured as a 'Sushi' domain. VPAC1 receptor also interacts with a few accessory proteins that play a role in cell signalling of receptors. Recent advances in the structural characterization of VPAC receptor and more generally of class B GPCRs will lead to the design of new molecules, which could have considerable interest for the treatment of inflammatory and neuro-degenerative diseases. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Limited fluoroscopy catheter ablation of accessory pathways in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swissa, Moshe; Birk, Einat; Dagan, Tamir; Abby Naimer, Sody; Fogelman, Michal; Einbinder, Tom; Bruckheimer, Elchanan; Fogelman, Rami

    2017-10-01

    Limited fluoroscopy ablation using 3D electro-anatomical system (3DS) has been used for arrhythmias in children, however it is not a common practice. We aimed to facilitate a fluoroscopy limited approach for ablation of accessory pathways (AP) in children. Following electrophysiologic (EP) catheter placement a single dual-plane fluoroscopic image (right anterior oblique-30° and left anterior oblique-60° views) was acquired and the 3DS views were rotated to be a perfect match to the fluoroscopy. Ninety-four consecutive pediatric patients [mean age 11.8±4.1 (4.2-18) years, 61.7% males] with Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome underwent ablation of an AP. Fifty-seven had manifest AP, 54 had left-sided AP (LSAP) and 40 had right-sided AP (RSAP). The acute success rate was 95.7% (90/94), with a recurrence rate of 1.1% (1/90) at a mean follow-up of 13±5.5 (4.4-22.9) months. Mean procedure and fluoroscopy times were 144±45 (55-262)min and 1.8±1.4 (0.1-5.6)min, respectively. Comparison of the first 20 procedures to the next 74 procedures demonstrated an extended procedure time (171±53min vs 135±38min, pfluoroscopy time, the number of long applications, the time to effect, and the acute success rate were similar. There were no permanent ablation-related complications. A limited fluoroscopy approach for ablation of AP in children using 3DS is easily acquired, adapted, reduces the fluoroscopy time, and has an excellent efficacy and safety profile. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Accessory renal arteries: Prevalence in resistant hypertension and an important role in nonresponse to radiofrequency renal denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VonAchen, Paige [Minneapolis Heart Institute and Foundation at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Hamann, Jason [Boston Scientific Corporation, Maple Grove, MN (United States); Houghland, Thomas; Lesser, John R.; Wang, Yale; Caye, David; Rosenthal, Kristi; Garberich, Ross F. [Minneapolis Heart Institute and Foundation at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Daniels, Mary [Vital Images/Toshiba, Minnetonka, MN (United States); Schwartz, Robert S., E-mail: rss@rsschwartz.com [Minneapolis Heart Institute and Foundation at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to understand the role of accessory renal arteries in resistant hypertension, and to establish their role in nonresponse to radiofrequency renal denervation (RDN) procedures. Background: Prior studies suggest a role for accessory renal arteries in hypertensive syndromes, and recent clinical trials of renal denervation report that these anomalies are highly prevalent in resistant hypertension. This study evaluated the relationships among resistant hypertension, accessory renal arteries, and the response to radiofrequency (RF) renal denervation. Methods: Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 58 patients with resistant hypertension undergoing RF renal denervation (RDN) were evaluated. Results were compared with CT scans in 57 healthy, normotensive subjects undergoing screening as possible renal transplant donors. All scans were carefully studied for accessory renal arteries, and were correlated with long term blood pressure reduction. Results: Accessory renal arteries were markedly more prevalent in the hypertensive patients than normotensive renal donors (59% vs 32% respectively, p = 0.004). RDN had an overall nonresponse rate of 29% (response rate 71%). Patients without accessory vessels had a borderline higher response rate to RDN than those with at least one accessory vessel (83% vs 62% respectively, p = 0.076) and a higher RDN response than patients with untreated accessory arteries (83% vs 55%; p = 0.040). For accessory renal arteries and nonresponse, the sensitivity was 76%, specificity 49%, with positive and negative predictive values 38% and 83% respectively. Conclusions: Accessory renal arteries were markedly over-represented in resistant hypertensives compared with healthy controls. While not all patients with accessory arteries were nonresponders, nonresponse was related to both the presence and non-treatment of accessory arteries. Addressing accessory renal arteries in

  17. MERS-CoV Accessory ORFs Play Key Role for Infection and Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menachery, Vineet D.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Cockrell, Adam S.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Yount, Boyd L.; Graham, Rachel L.; McAnarney, Eileen T.; Douglas, Madeline G.; Scobey, Trevor; Beall, Anne; Dinnon, Kenneth; Kocher, Jacob F.; Hale, Andrew E.; Stratton, Kelly G.; Waters, Katrina M.; Baric, Ralph S.; Racaniello, Vincent R.

    2017-08-22

    ABSTRACT

    While dispensable for viral replication, coronavirus (CoV) accessory open reading frame (ORF) proteins often play critical roles during infection and pathogenesis. Utilizing a previously generated mutant, we demonstrate that the absence of all four Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) accessory ORFs (deletion of ORF3, -4a, -4b, and -5 [dORF3-5]) has major implications for viral replication and pathogenesis. Importantly, attenuation of the dORF3-5 mutant is primarily driven by dysregulated host responses, including disrupted cell processes, augmented interferon (IFN) pathway activation, and robust inflammation.In vitroreplication attenuation also extends toin vivomodels, allowing use of dORF3-5 as a live attenuated vaccine platform. Finally, examination of ORF5 implicates a partial role in modulation of NF-κB-mediated inflammation. Together, the results demonstrate the importance of MERS-CoV accessory ORFs for pathogenesis and highlight them as potential targets for surveillance and therapeutic treatments moving forward.

    IMPORTANCEThe initial emergence and periodic outbreaks of MERS-CoV highlight a continuing threat posed by zoonotic pathogens to global public health. In these studies, mutant virus generation demonstrates the necessity of accessory ORFs in regard to MERS-CoV infection and pathogenesis. With this in mind, accessory ORF functions can be targeted for both therapeutic and vaccine treatments in response to MERS-CoV and related group 2C coronaviruses. In addition, disruption of accessory ORFs in parallel may offer a rapid response platform to attenuation of future emergent strains based on both SARS- and MERS-CoV accessory ORF mutants.

  18. Risk factors responsible for atrial fibrillation development between symptomatic patients with concealed or manifest atrioventricular accessory pathways ?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mu; Feng, Xiangfei; Sun, Jian; Wang, Qunshan; Zhang, Pengpai; Wang, Jun; Li, Yi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with manifest atrioventricular accessory pathways (mAPs) have a greater tendency to develop atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with patients with concealed atrioventricular accessory pathways (cAPs). However, the risk factors of developing AF in patients with various atrioventricular accessory pathways (APs) are not clear. Methods: This retrospective study included 460 symptomatic patients with either cAPs (n = 246) or mAPs (n = 214) who underwent electrophysiological s...

  19. Accessories modifying based on plastic waste of shampoo bottle as home economic product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Erna; Sukesi, Siti

    2018-03-01

    Plastic is a waste that can not decompose by the soil and if its left without a good handling can pollute the environment. Plastic waste needs processing by the recycle bottles principle. Shampoo bottle is one of plastic waste with high density polyethylene type (HDPE). One of the innovation to recycling shampoo bottles waste into the new products whichbeneficially and aestheticallyform by engineered the buns accesories. Accessories are one of the tools used by most women, in the form of trinkets or ornaments which ajusted to the trend to beautify the look. Accessories from shampoo bottle waste can be obtained from household waste, beauty salon and the beauty program study by inculcating human beings' behavior by transforming waste into blessing while also increasing family income. Technique of making its by compiling through improvement of panelist team. The goal of this research is to engineering theaccessories based on shampoo bottle waste as home economics. The method are using experiment, observation and documentation, analysis using descriptive. The results obtained from the overall sensory test averaged at 93%, while the favored test averaged at 85.5%. The product can be ordered according to the desired design, but it takes a long time. Therefore accessories engineering from shampoo bottles waste-based can be used as home economics. The production of shampoo bottles waste-based accessories should improved its quality and quantity, to be marketed through the community, by the cooperation with accessories and bun craftsmen.

  20. Reversible Isolated Accessory Nerve Palsy due to a Large Thrombosed Vertebral Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayasu Saito

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Isolated accessory nerve palsy due to intracranial disorders is uncommon because intracranial accessory nerve injury usually occurs in case of a skull base tumor or trauma, resulting in one of multiple cranial nerve palsies. We report a very rare case of isolated accessory nerve palsy due to a large thrombosed aneurysm of the intracranial vertebral artery. Full recovery was achieved after surgery. Case Report: A patient complaining of transient numbness in the right side was referred to our hospital. An MRI indicated a large thrombosed aneurysm of the right vertebral artery. The aneurysm severely compressed the medulla oblongata. First, the proximal vertebral artery (VA was clipped with an aneurysm clip to reduce the pressure inside the aneurysm. However, cerebral angiography revealed a partial recanalization of the right VA. The patient then underwent coil embolization of the right VA just proximal to the aneurysm clip. Subsequently, the right VA was completely obliterated. The patient was discharged without any neurological deficit. Two weeks later, however, she complained of right shoulder pain. Physical and neurological examinations demonstrated atrophy of the right trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscle, leading to a deepening of the right supraclavicular fossa. The symptoms were considered to result from the right isolated accessory nerve palsy. Follow-up MRI showed that the VA aneurysm gradually decreased in size over a period of several months. At the same time, her symptoms disappeared completely. Conclusion: We should keep in mind that isolated accessory nerve palsy can be caused by a large or giant vertebral aneurysm.

  1. Subradiographic Foot and Ankle Fractures and Bone Contusions Detected by MRI in Elite Ice Hockey Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jonathan C; Hoover, Eric G; Hillen, Travis J; Smith, Matthew V; Wright, Rick W; Rubin, David A

    2016-05-01

    In ice hockey players, serious bone injuries in the foot and ankle, especially those attributed to impact from the moving puck, may be radiographically occult and underrecognized. The purpose of this research was to study foot and ankle bone injuries detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that occurred in elite hockey players. The hypothesis was that these injuries predominate medially, especially when caused by the impact from the puck, and are associated with prolonged lost playing time. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Three independent observers, blinded to the mechanism of injury, retrospectively reviewed foot and ankle MRI examinations acquired after 31 acute injuries that occurred in 27 elite ice hockey players who had no radiographically visible fractures. Bone abnormalities were classified as fractures or varying degrees of contusion based on predetermined definitions. Interobserver agreement was analyzed with kappa statistics. The association between the injury mechanism and the bones involved was examined with the Fisher exact test. A t test was applied to determine if MRI evidence of a severe bone injury (defined as either a fracture or a high-grade bone contusion) was associated with longer recovery times, when return-to-play information was available. The observers identified at least 1 bone injury in 27 of the 31 MRI examinations, including 10 with radiographically occult fractures. Agreement among the 3 observers for injury categorization was substantial (κ = 0.76). Seventeen injuries were caused by a direct blow (15 from a moving puck, 2 from an uncertain source), resulting in 6 fractures and 6 high-grade bone contusions, with 14 of the 17 involving a medial bone (medial malleolus, navicular, or first metatarsal base). Compared with other mechanisms, direct impaction was statistically more likely to result in a severe bone injury and to involve the medial foot and ankle. In 20 injuries where return-to-play information was available

  2. Acquired cavo-varus deformity caused by an accessory calcaneus: a case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh Baghla, Davinder Paul [Ealing Hospital, Orthopaedic Department, Southall (United Kingdom); Shariff, Sajid [Wexham Park Hospital, Orthopaedic Department, Slough (United Kingdom); Bashir, Waseem A. [Ealing Hospital, Radiology Department, Southall (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    We describe an unusual cause of an acquired cavo-varus foot deformity produced by progressive enlargement of an accessory calcaneal ossicle. A 13-year-old boy with constitutional plano-valgus flat feet noted a gradual change in foot shape associated with lateral ankle pain on ambulation following an inversion injury 2 years earlier. CT and MRI scans confirmed a large accessory calcaneal ossicle lying within the sinus tarsi, with associated marrow oedema. Following surgical excision of the ossicle, the foot returned to its original shape and the symptoms were alleviated. This is the fifth reported case of an accessory calcaneal ossicle, but the only case that has occurred in a flatfooted individual. We also present the first reported MRI images of the lesion confirming pathological marrow oedema as a response to mechanical stress. (orig.)

  3. Analysis of pressure sensitive adhesive tape: I. Evaluation of infrared ATR accessory advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill; Bartick

    2000-01-01

    Attenuated total reflection (ATR), also known as internal reflection spectroscopy (IRS), is a forensically accepted method for infrared (IR) analysis of pressure sensitive adhesive tapes. Advancements of ATR accessories in the last decade have provided the forensic examiner several ATR methods to choose from. These accessories offer a variety of ATR crystal choices with a variety of prices and capabilities. Four different types of pressure sensitive adhesive tapes including duct tape, electrical tape, packaging tape and office tape have been used to compare six different ATR methods. Each of the methods tested offers both benefits and limitaltions which must be considered for the type of sample to be analyze. The intent of this paper is to assist the reader in better understanding ATR techniques, the many differences among currently available ATR accessories and how the method is applied to the analysis of pressure sensitive adhesive tape.

  4. Accessories for detention and protection used in small animals radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettorato, Michel Campos; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Fernandes, Marco Antonio Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a medical method well established in the treatment of cancer in veterinary medicine worldwide. The radiotherapy protocols applied in animals vary according to several factors. In most procedures require sedation or anesthesia of the animal and this fact imposes the use of immobilization accessories specially developed for the different species of animals and treated as their specified procedures. Therefore, this study aims to describe the types of accessories used for immobilization and for the protection of small animals undergoing radiotherapy. For its development a literature search was performed by search sites like Google Scholar, Scielo, Bireme, PubMed, and consultations in books campus library Botucatu UNESP. Despite the limitations of each accessory rated this review, it was possible to identify the use of each and how this can be advantageous for the treatment of animals undergoing radiation therapy. (author)

  5. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand in car accessory market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplying car accessory is one of the most important growing industries in the world. Every year, millions of cars are produced and people need to have the access to necessary car accessory. In this paper, we present an exploration study to detect important factors influencing car accessory market. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 16 questions, distributes it among 200 experts and analyses it using factor analysis. Cronbach alpha and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy are calculated as 0.823 and 0.863, which validate the overall questionnaire. The results indicate that there are three influencing factors including brand capability, brand characteristics and consumers’ believe.

  6. Broken bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Broken bone URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ... following steps to reduce your risk of a broken bone: Wear protective ... pads. Create a safe home for young children. Place a gate at stairways ...

  7. Accessory left atrial diverticulae: contractile properties depicted with 64-slice cine-cardiac CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    To assess the contractility of accessory left atrial appendages (LAAs) using multiphasic cardiac CT. We retrospectively analyzed the presence, location, size and contractile properties of accessory LAAs using multiphasic cardiac 64-slice CT in 102 consecutive patients (63 males, 39 females, mean age 57). Multiplanar reformats were used to create image planes in axial oblique, sagittal oblique and coronal oblique planes. For all appendages with an orifice diameter >or= 10 mm, axial and sagittal diameters and appendage volumes were recorded in atrial diastole and systole. Regression analysis was performed to assess which imaging appearances best predicted accessory appendage contractility. Twenty-three (23%) patients demonstrated an accessory LAA, all identified along the anterior LA wall. Dimensions for axial oblique (AOD) and sagittal oblique (SOD) diameters and sagittal oblique length (SOL) were 6.3-19, 3.4-20 and 5-21 mm, respectively. All appendages (>or=10 mm) demonstrated significant contraction during atrial systole (greatest diameter reduction was AOD [3.8 mm, 27%]). Significant correlations were noted between AOD-contraction and AOD (R = 0.57, P < 0.05) and SOD-contraction and AOD, SOD and SOL (R = 0.6, P < 0.05). Mean diverticulum volume in atrial diastole was 468.4 +\\/- 493 mm(3) and in systole was 171.2 +\\/- 122 mm(3), indicating a mean change in volume of 297.2 +\\/- 390 mm(3), P < 0.0001. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed SOL to be the strongest independent predictor of appendage contractility (R(2) = 0.86, P < 0.0001) followed by SOD (R(2) = 0.91, P < 0.0001). Accessory LAAs show significant contractile properties on cardiac CT. Those accessory LAAs with a large sagittal height or depth should be evaluated for contractile properties, and if present should be examined for ectopic activity during electrophysiological studies.

  8. Accessories after the facts: Constraining the timing, duration and conditions of high-temperature metamorphic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard J. M.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Clark, Chris

    2016-11-01

    High-temperature metamorphic rocks are the result of numerous chemical and physical processes that occur during a potentially long-lived thermal evolution. These rocks chart the sequence of events during an orogenic episode including heating, cooling, exhumation and melt interaction, all of which may be interpreted through the elemental and isotopic characteristics of accessory minerals such as zircon, monazite and rutile. Developments in imaging and in situ chemical analysis have resulted in an increasing amount of information being extracted from these accessory phases. The refractory nature of these minerals, combined with both their use as geochronometers and tracers of metamorphic mineral reactions, has made them the focus of many studies of granulite-facies terrains. In such studies the primary aim is often to determine the timing and conditions of the peak of metamorphism, and high-temperature metasedimentary rocks may seem ideal for this purpose. For example pelites typically contain an abundance of accessory minerals in a variety of bulk compositions, are melt-bearing, and may have endured extreme conditions that facilitate diffusion and chemical equilibrium. However complexities arise due to the heterogeneous nature of these rocks on all scales, driven by both the composition of the protolith and metamorphic differentiation. In additional to lithological heterogeneity, the closure temperatures for both radiogenic isotopes and chemical thermometers vary between different accessory minerals. This apparent complexity can be useful as it permits a wide range of temperature and time (T-t) information to be recovered from a single rock sample. In this review we cover: 1) characteristic internal textures of accessory minerals in high temperature rocks; 2) the interpretation of zircon and monazite age data in relation to high temperature processes; 3) rare earth element partitioning; 4) trace element thermometry; 5) the incorporation of accessory mineral growth

  9. Persistent impairment of liver function caused by a pendulated accessory liver lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogh, J.; Tromholt, N.; Joergensen, F.

    1989-01-01

    A large pendulated accessory liver lobe and complete absence of the left lobe were discovered by liver scintigraphy and ultrasound scanning in a patient suspected of having an ovarian tumor. The patient had a history of fluctuating impaired liver function tests for many years, probably caused by intermittent torsion of the peduncle. Pedunculated accessory liver lobes are extremely rare and seldom diagnosed in vivo. Our patient seems to be the 11th published case, and the only one in which longstanding fluctuating impaired liver function tests have been observed. (orig.)

  10. Ablation of an atriofascicular accessory pathway with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Proietti, MD, PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old patient with recurrent palpitations and documented left bundle branch block superior axis wide complex tachycardia underwent an electrophysiological study and ablation with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure. The electrophysiological study showed a decremental antegrade conducting atriofascicular pathway. Three-dimensional CARTO-guided mapping of the tricuspid annulus in sinus rhythm was performed, and a distinct signal corresponding to the accessory pathway potential of the atriofascicular pathway was found in the posterolateral region. By using an SR0 sheath and a 4-mm-tip catheter, radiofrequency application was delivered at this point on the annulus and successfully eliminated conduction through the accessory pathway.

  11. Reactive Hypertrophy of an Accessory Spleen Mimicking Tumour Recurrence of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Tjaden

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available De novo occurrence of an accessory spleen after splenectomy is worth noting for two reasons. First, it is known that splenectomy can cause reactive hypertrophy of initially inactive and macroscopically invisible splenic tissue. Second, it can mimic tumour recurrence in situations in which splenectomy has been performed for oncological reasons. This might cause difficulties in differential diagnosis and the clinical decision for reoperation. We report the case of a patient with suspected recurrence of renal cell carcinoma after total pancreatectomy and splenectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, which finally revealed an accessory spleen as the morphological correlate of the newly diagnosed mass in the left retroperitoneum.

  12. Properties of Phase Transition of Traffic Flow on Urban Expressway Systems with Ramps and Accessory Roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Chaoqun; Liu Yejin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a cellular automaton model to describe the phase transition of traffic flow on urban expressway systems with on-off-ramps and accessory roads. The lane changing rules are given in detailed, the numerical results show that the main road and the accessory road both produce phase transitions. These phase transitions will often be influenced by the number of lanes, lane changing, the ramp flow, the input flow rate, and the geometry structure. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  13. 30 CFR 75.1106-5 - Maintenance and tests of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and equipment; requirements. 75.1106-5 Section 75.1106-5... liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and equipment; requirements. (a) Hose lines... designed for use with liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders and a suitable torchtip cleaner...

  14. Interleukin-15-activated natural killer cells kill autologous osteoclasts via LFA-1, DNAM-1 and TRAIL, and inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone erosion in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Shan; Madsen, Suzi H; Viller, Natasja N

    2015-01-01

    as well as to inflammatory sites associated with enhanced bone erosion, including the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, little is known about the impact NK cells may have on mature osteoclasts and bone erosion. We studied the interaction between human NK cells and autologous monocyte......Osteoclasts reside on bone and are the main bone resorbing cells playing an important role in bone homeostasis, while natural killer (NK) cells are bone-marrow-derived cells known to play a crucial role in immune defence against viral infections. Although mature NK cells traffic through bone marrow...... decreased bone erosion. Suppression of bone erosion requires contact between NK cells and osteoclasts, but soluble factors also play a minor role. Antibodies masking leucocyte function-associated antigen-1, DNAX accessory molecule-1 or tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand enhance...

  15. Low Bone Mineral Density in Male Athletes Is Associated With Bone Stress Injuries at Anatomic Sites With Greater Trabecular Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenforde, Adam S; Parziale, Allyson L; Popp, Kristin L; Ackerman, Kathryn E

    2018-01-01

    While sports participation is often associated with health benefits, a subset of athletes may develop impaired bone health. Bone stress injuries (BSIs) are a common overuse injury in athletes; site of injury has been shown to relate to underlying bone health in female athletes. Hypothesis/Purpose: This case series characterizes the association of type of sports participation and anatomic site of BSIs with low bone mineral density (BMD), defined as BMD Z-score athletes, it was hypothesized that male athletes who participate in running and sustain BSIs in sites of higher trabecular bone content would be more likely to have low BMD. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Chart review identified 28 male athletes aged 14 to 36 years with history of ≥1 lower-extremity BSI who were referred for evaluation of overall bone health, including assessment of lumbar spine, hip, and/or total body less head BMD per dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. BMD Z-scores were determined via age, sex, and ethnicity normative values. Prior BSIs were classified by anatomic site of injury into trabecular-rich locations (pelvis, femoral neck, and calcaneus) and cortical-rich locations (tibia, fibula, femur, metatarsal and tarsal navicular). Sport type and laboratory values were also assessed in relationship to BMD. The association of low BMD to anatomic site of BSI and sport were evaluated with P value athletes, 12 (43%) met criteria for low BMD. Athletes with a history of trabecular-rich BSIs had a 4.6-fold increased risk for low BMD as compared with those with only cortical-rich BSIs (9 of 11 vs 3 of 17, P = .002). Within sport type, runners had a 6.1-fold increased risk for low BMD versus nonrunners (11 of 18 vs 1 of 10, P = .016). Laboratory values, including 25-hydroxy vitamin D, were not associated with BMD or BSI location. Low BMD was identified in 43% of male athletes in this series. Athletes participating in sports of running and with a history of trabecular-rich BSI were at increased

  16. A novel method of lengthening the accessory nerve for direct coaptation during nerve repair and nerve transfer procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Maldonado, Andrés A; Stoves, Yolanda; Fries, Fabian N; Li, Rong; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Spinner, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The accessory nerve is frequently repaired or used for nerve transfer. The length of accessory nerve available is often insufficient or marginal (under tension) for allowing direct coaptation during nerve repair or nerve transfer (neurotization), necessitating an interpositional graft. An attractive maneuver would facilitate lengthening of the accessory nerve for direct coaptation. The aim of the present study was to identify an anatomical method for such lengthening. METHODS In 20 adult cadavers, the C-2 or C-3 connections to the accessory nerve were identified medial to the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and the anatomy of the accessory nerve/cervical nerve fibers within the SCM was documented. The cervical nerve connections were cut. Lengths of the accessory nerve were measured. Samples of the cut C-2 and C-3 nerves were examined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS The anatomy and adjacent neural connections within the SCM are complicated. However, after the accessory nerve was "detethered" from within the SCM and following transection, the additional length of the accessory nerve increased from a mean of 6 cm to a mean of 10.5 cm (increase of 4.5 cm) after cutting the C-2 connections, and from a mean of 6 cm to a mean length of 9 cm (increase of 3.5 cm) after cutting the C-3 connections. The additional length of accessory nerve even allowed direct repair of an infraclavicular target (i.e., the proximal musculocutaneous nerve). The cervical nerve connections were shown not to contain motor fibers. CONCLUSIONS An additional length of the accessory nerve made available in the posterior cervical triangle can facilitate direct repair or neurotization procedures, thus eliminating the need for an interpositional nerve graft, decreasing the time/distance for regeneration and potentially improving clinical outcomes.

  17. Assessment of exposure to manganese in welding operations during the assembly of heavy excavation machinery accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smargiassi, A; Baldwin, M; Savard, S; Kennedy, G; Mergler, D; Zayed, J

    2000-10-01

    Welder exposure to metals in various industrial sectors is poorly characterized. We had the opportunity to carry out an exploratory study to characterize manganese exposure in welding operations in a recently established Quebec factory that assembled accessories for heavy excavation machinery. Ten workers were sampled for total manganese for at least two consecutive days out of three followed by two consecutive days for respirable manganese (with a size selective sampler with a median cut-off of 4 microns), during a typical week in the summer of 1998. Parts being welded were characterized as large or small. Small parts were those being welded on tables during subassembly. Workers were divided into two groups according to the parts they were welding. Seventy-eight percent of the total manganese exposure levels of welding operations during the assembly of large accessories of heavy excavation machinery exceeded the manganese American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.20 mg/m3 (GM 0.24 mg/m3, n = 14) while none exceeded the TLV during the assembly of small pieces (GM 0.06 mg/m3, n = 8). Welding operations during the assembly of large heavy excavation machinery accessories may pose a significant health hazard. Considering the importance of task-related variables affecting exposure among workers, further studies are needed to better characterize exposure determinants of welding operations during the assembly of heavy excavation machinery accessories.

  18. Melanocortin Receptor Accessory Proteins (MRAPs): Functions in the melanocortin system and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouault, Alix A J; Srinivasan, Dinesh K; Yin, Terry C; Lee, Abigail A; Sebag, Julien A

    2017-10-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are regulated by numerous proteins including kinases, G-proteins, β-arrestins and accessory proteins. Several families of GPCR accessory proteins like Receptor Activity Modifying Proteins, Receptor Transporting Proteins and Melanocortin Receptor Accessory Proteins (MRAPs) have been identified as regulator of receptor trafficking, signaling and ligand specificity. The MRAP family contains two members, MRAP1 and MRAP2, responsible for the formation of a functional ACTH receptor and for the regulation of energy homeostasis respectively. Like all known GPCR accessory proteins, MRAPs are single transmembrane proteins, however, they form a unique structure since they assemble as an anti-parallel homodimer. Moreover, the accepted idea that MRAPs are specific regulators of melanocortin receptors was recently challenged by the discovery that MRAP2 inhibits the activity of prokineticin receptors. Recent studies are starting to explain the role of the unusual structure of MRAPs and to illustrate the importance of MRAP2 for the maintenance of both energy and glucose homeostasis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Melanocortin Receptors - edited by Ya-Xiong Tao. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tetralogy of Fallot with restrictive ventricular septal defect by accessory tricuspid leaflet tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Mahipat Raj Soni; Deepak A. Bohara; Ajay U. Mahajan; Pratap J. Nathani

    2012-01-01

    In tetralogy of Fallot septal defect is usually large because of malalignment of outlet septum, restrictive defect has been reported rarely. We present a case of tetralogy of Fallot with accessory tricuspid leaflet tissue restricting ventricular septal defect. The report includes echocardiographic and catheter images of this rare presentation of tetralogy of Fallot.

  20. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(b)-2 Definition of parts or accessories. (a... flexible housings designed as replacement parts for automotive speedometers; as well as replacement parts... adapted for use on automobiles; automobile floor mats; jacks of the mechanical or hydraulic bumper, screw...

  1. Does Accessory Ossicle Affect Management Plan in an Athlete After Ankle Sprain? A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Şeyma TORĞUTALP

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Os subfibulare is an accessory ossicle that lies at the distal part of lateral malleolus. It is typically asymptomatic and detected incidentally by the presence of ankle injuries. A case report of sixteen years old male athlete with ankle injury was presented.

  2. 21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories. 876.5880 Section 876.5880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... storage or freezing container with or without bag or preservatives, pulsatile or nonpulsatile hypothermic...

  3. A peptide from the male accessory gland in Leptinotarsa decemlineata: Purification, characterization and molecular cloning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.; Koopmanschap, A.B.; Kort, de C.A.D.; Schooneveld, H.

    1997-01-01

    Our interest in the male accessory glands (MAGs) of Leptinotarsa decemlineata was raised recently by our finding that certain cells produce a secretory substance that is recognized by one of our monoclonal antibodies (MAC-18), developed for the immunohistochemical demonstration of peptidergic

  4. An accessory flexor of the fifth toe | Asomugha | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of accessory muscles and other organs on the lower limbs of some individuals has variously been reported in the literature. We report an unusual muscle located on the plantar surface of the left foot of a cadaver, which had not been previously described. This muscle originated from the tendon of tibialis ...

  5. 29 CFR 1919.27 - Unit proof tests-winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit proof tests-winches, derricks and gear accessory... HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.27 Unit proof tests—winches, derricks and...

  6. A peptide from the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). These glands add various substances to the ejaculate. On mating, the ejaculate is transferred to the female, together with the substances from the

  7. Ultrastructure of the accessory venom gland of the puff-adder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The venom-secreting apparatus of most vipers comprises a posterior main gland, a tapering intermediate neck region con- taining a primary duct, an anteriorly situated accessory venom gland (surrounding the duct) and a terminal or secondary duct. (Kochva & Gans 1965; Gennaro, Gallahan & Lorincz 1963). Relatively little ...

  8. Accessory atrioventricular myocardial connections in the developing human heart: relevance for perinatal supraventricular tachycardias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahurij, Nathan D.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.; Kolditz, Denise P.; Bökenkamp, Regina; Schalij, Martin J.; Poelmann, Robert E.; Blom, Nico A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fetal and neonatal atrioventricular (AV) reentrant tachycardias can be life-threatening but resolve in most cases during the first year of life. The transient presence of accessory AV myocardial connections during annulus fibrosus development may explain this phenomenon. METHODS AND

  9. Bone Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... posts Join Mayo Clinic Connect Bone scan About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  10. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Bone Biopsy Sponsored by Please note ...

  11. Bone sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudry, P.

    2008-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are malignancies with peak incidence in adolescents and young adults. The most frequent are osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET, in an older adults are seen chondrosarcomas, other ones are rare. In general, biology of sarcomas is closely related to pediatric malignancies with fast growth, local aggressiveness, tendency to early hematogenic dissemination and chemo sensitivity. Diagnostics and treatment of bone sarcomas should be done in well experienced centres due to low incidence and broad issue of this topic. An interdisciplinary approach and staff education is essential in due care of patients with bone sarcoma. If these criteria are achieved, the cure rate is contemporary at 65 - 70 %, while some subpopulation of patients has chance for cure up to 90 %. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET are discussed below as types of most frequent bone sarcoma. (author)

  12. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  13. [Stress reactions in bones of the foot in sport: diagnosis, assessment and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltner, O

    2013-06-01

    Stress reactions and stress fractures are defined as structural damage to bone caused by repetitive stress or stereotypical loading. The balance between loading and unloading of bone is disrupted in stress reactions and stress fractures through the sport-specific demands and by the exogenous or endogenous risk factors present. In sports orthopedics the localization of stress reactions and stress fractures are subdivided into high risk fractures and low risk fractures. Conventional diagnostic radiology can initially be inconclusive. With symptoms persisting over 2 weeks further diagnostics using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be performed. In the area of the foot stress reactions and stress fractures can often occur bilaterally or multifocally and most commonly affect the second metatarsals followed by the third metatarsals. Fractures of the fifth metatarsal, second metatarsal base, medial malleolus as well as navicular and sesamoid fractures are high risk fractures requiring special clinical and radiological monitoring. Basically, conservative treatment using the 2-phase model is the treatment of choice. In delayed union or severe pain surgical treatment is indicated.

  14. Reconstruction of the scapholunate ligament in a cadaver model using a bone-ligament-bone autograft from the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C A; Culp, R W; Hume, E L; Osterman, A L

    1998-09-01

    This study is an investigation of a new procedure in which the scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) is reconstructed using a bone-ligament-bone autograft from the foot. After investigation, the dorsal medial portion of the navicular-first cuneiform ligament (NFCL) was chosen for testing as a potential donor since it is similar in length and thickness to the SLIL and it is easily harvested with minimal potential donor site morbidity. Eight SLILs and NFCLs were harvested from fresh-frozen cadavers. Biomechanical extensometry testing was performed using an Instron 1000 machine. A 5-mm-wide central portion of the NFCL was tested since this width was compatible with the technical aspects of reconstructing the SLIL. Both ligaments were tested for elastic properties, including stiffness, load to failure, and deformation to failure. Mean length of the NFCL was 7.6 mm (range, 5.5-8.5 mm). Stiffness of the NFCL was 10.6 x 10(5) Nm (range, 8.0-13.0 Nm) compared with 14.4 x 10(5) Nm for the SLIL (range, 10.0-19.5 Nm). Peak load to failure for the NFCL was 1,980 N (range, 1,530-2,940 N) compared with 2,940 N for the SLIL (range, 1,780-4,050 N). Total elongation to failure for the NFCL was 2.50 mm (range, 1.7-3.2 mm) compared with 3.2 mm for the SLIL (range, 2.1-5.2 mm). Thus, the biomechanical characteristics of the NFCL were found to be very similar to those of the SLIL. Having established the biomechanical similarities of the 2 ligaments, we are currently using the NFCL to reconstruct the sectioned SLIL in a fresh-frozen cadaver model. Early results suggest that this procedure is feasible for restoration of normal kinematics of the wrist.

  15. Accessory papillary muscles and papillary muscle hypertrophy are associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jae-Sun; Youn, Jong-Chan; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Park, Junbeom; Park, Jin-Kyu; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Joung, Boyoung; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2015-10-15

    The present study was performed for elucidating the associations between the morphology of the papillary muscles (PMs) and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). We retrospectively reviewed history, laboratory data, electrocardiography, echocardiography, coronary angiography, and cardiac CT/MRI for 190 patients with SCA. The prevalence of accessory PMs and PM hypertrophy in patients with SCA of unknown cause was compared with that in patients with SCA of known causes and 98 age- and sex-matched patients without SCA. An accessory PM was defined as a PM with origins separated from the anterolateral and posteromedial PMs, or a PM that branched into two or three bellies at the base of the anterolateral or posteromedial PM. PM hypertrophy was defined as at least one of the two PMs having a diameter of ≥1.1cm. In 49 patients (age 49.9±15.9years; 38 men) the cause of SCA was unknown, whereas 141 (age 54.2±16.6years; 121 men) had a known cause. The prevalence of accessory PMs was significantly higher in the unknown-cause group than in the known-cause group (24.5% and 7.8%, respectively; p=0.002) or the no-SCA group (7.1%, p=0.003). The same was true for PM hypertrophy (unknown-cause 12.2%, known-cause 2.1%, p=0.010; no SCA group 1.0%, p=0.006). By logistic regression, accessory PM and PM hypertrophy were independently associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause. An accessory PM and PM hypertrophy are associated with SCA of unknown cause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Accessory genes confer a high replication rate to virulent feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Ryan M; Thompson, Jesse; Elder, John H; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats, similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in humans. The FIV accessory protein Vif abrogates the inhibition of infection by cat APOBEC3 restriction factors. FIV also encodes a multifunctional OrfA accessory protein that has characteristics similar to HIV Tat, Vpu, Vpr, and Nef. To examine the role of vif and orfA accessory genes in FIV replication and pathogenicity, we generated chimeras between two FIV molecular clones with divergent disease potentials: a highly pathogenic isolate that replicates rapidly in vitro and is associated with significant immunopathology in vivo, FIV-C36 (referred to here as high-virulence FIV [HV-FIV]), and a less-pathogenic strain, FIV-PPR (referred to here as low-virulence FIV [LV-FIV]). Using PCR-driven overlap extension, we produced viruses in which vif, orfA, or both genes from virulent HV-FIV replaced equivalent genes in LV-FIV. The generation of these chimeras is more straightforward in FIV than in primate lentiviruses, since FIV accessory gene open reading frames have very little overlap with other genes. All three chimeric viruses exhibited increased replication kinetics in vitro compared to the replication kinetics of LV-FIV. Chimeras containing HV-Vif or Vif/OrfA had replication rates equivalent to those of the virulent HV-FIV parental virus. Furthermore, small interfering RNA knockdown of feline APOBEC3 genes resulted in equalization of replication rates between LV-FIV and LV-FIV encoding HV-FIV Vif. These findings demonstrate that Vif-APOBEC interactions play a key role in controlling the replication and pathogenicity of this immunodeficiency-inducing virus in its native host species and that accessory genes act as mediators of lentiviral strain-specific virulence.

  17. Medicines and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Medici a ne n s d Bone Loss Some types of medicines can cause bone loss, making your bones weak, if used for a long time. Use over a short time ... old bone and replaces it with new bone. Bone loss occurs when old bone breaks down faster than ...

  18. High-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow of the foot and ankle in children: red marrow or traumatic changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabshin, Nogah; Schweitzer, Mark E.; Morrison, William B.; Carrino, John A.; Keller, Marc S.; Grissom, Leslie E.

    2006-01-01

    High-signal T2-weighted bone marrow changes can be found in both bone marrow edema and hematopoietic marrow and are often seen on pediatric MR images of the feet and ankle. To evaluate whether high-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow seen on pediatric MRI of feet and ankles represent residual hematopoietic marrow. A total of 402 bones in 41 pediatric MRI studies of feet and ankles (34 children, 1-18 years) were reviewed by two observers who were blinded to the patients' ages. The studies were reviewed for the presence of high-signal changes of the bone marrow on sagittal fluid-sensitive images. The frequency and location of these foci were correlated with the patients' ages. High-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow were seen in 45/402 bones (11%) and in 24/41 patients younger than 16 years (59%). The changes were most commonly located in the calcaneus (54%), followed by the talus (35%) and navicular bone (35%), invariably at the endosteal surface. In 16 ankles, such foci were seen in the feet but not in the distal tibia/fibula. Symmetric presence (two ankles) or absence (four ankles) of high-signal marrow were seen in six of seven patients with bilateral ankles. High-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow in pediatric feet and ankle MRIs have a symmetric, fairly consistent pattern and disappear after the age of 15 years. We believe that these high-signal areas are normal and represent residual hematopoietic marrow. (orig.)

  19. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elevates intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in accessory lobe neurons of the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keita; Kitamura, Naoki; Suzuki, Yuki; Yamanaka, Yuko; Shinohara, Hikaru; Shibuya, Izumi

    2015-04-01

    Accessory lobes are protrusions located at the lateral sides of the spinal cord of chicks and it has been proposed that they play a role as a sensory organ for equilibrium during walking. We have reported that functional neurons exist in the accessory lobe. As there is histological evidence that synaptic terminals of cholinergic nerves exist near the somata of accessory lobe neurons, we examined the effects of acetylcholine on changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i), as an index of cellular activities. Acetylcholine (0.1-100 µM) caused a transient rise in the [Ca2+]i. Acetylcholine-evoked [Ca2+]i rises were observed in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, and they were abolished in the presence of cyclopiazonic acid, an inhibitor of Ca2+-ATPase of intracellular Ca2+ stores or atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. mRNAs coding M3 and M5 isoforms of the muscarinic receptors were detected in accessory lobes by the RT-PCR. These results indicate that chick accessory lobe neurons express functional muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, and that acetylcholine stimulates Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular Ca2+ stores, which elevates the [Ca2+]i in the somata of accessory lobe neurons, through activation of these receptors. Cholinergic synaptic transmission to the accessory lobe neurons may regulate some cellular functions through muscarinic receptors.

  20. TLR4 accessory molecule RP105 (CD180 regulates monocyte-driven arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius J N M Bastiaansen

    Full Text Available AIMS: We investigated the role of the TLR4-accessory molecule RP105 (CD180 in post-ischemic neovascularization, i.e. arteriogenesis and angiogenesis. TLR4-mediated activation of pro-inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes is crucial for effective neovascularization. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that RP105+ monocytes are present in the perivascular space of remodeling collateral arterioles. As RP105 inhibits TLR4 signaling, we hypothesized that RP105 deficiency would lead to an unrestrained TLR4-mediated inflammatory response and hence to enhanced blood flow recovery after ischemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: RP105-/- and wild type (WT mice were subjected to hind limb ischemia and blood flow recovery was followed by Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging. Surprisingly, we found that blood flow recovery was severely impaired in RP105-/- mice. Immunohistochemistry showed that arteriogenesis was reduced in these mice compared to the WT. However, both in vivo and ex vivo analyses showed that circulatory pro-arteriogenic Ly6Chi monocytes were more readily activated in RP105-/- mice. FACS analyses showed that Ly6Chi monocytes became activated and migrated to the affected muscle tissues in WT mice following induction of hind limb ischemia. Although Ly6Chi monocytes were readily activated in RP105-/- mice, migration into the ischemic tissues was hampered and instead, Ly6Chi monocytes accumulated in their storage compartments, bone marrow and spleen, in RP105-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: RP105 deficiency results in an unrestrained inflammatory response and monocyte over-activation, most likely due to the lack of TLR4 regulation. Inappropriate, premature systemic activation of pro-inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes results in reduced infiltration of Ly6Chi monocytes in ischemic tissues and in impaired blood flow recovery.

  1. From bone biology to bone analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenau, E.; Saggese, G.; Peter, F.; Baroncelli, G.I.; Shaw, N.J.; Crabtree, N.J.; Zadik, Z.; Neu, C.M.; Noordam, C.; Radetti, G.; Hochberg, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Bone development is one of the key processes characterizing childhood and adolescence. Understanding this process is not only important for physicians treating pediatric bone disorders, but also for clinicians and researchers dealing with postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. Bone densitometry has

  2. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  3. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Kids / Broken Bones What's in this ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  4. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... the cut, then pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  5. Study on reduction of accessory horsepower requirements. Fourth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-07-30

    The program objective is to evolve and define an accessory drive system that will minimize system power consumption of driven accessories on an internal combustion engine in a passenger automobile. The initial three program phases established concept feasibility, determined potential fuel savings, and selected a drive system design for concept mechanization. During this quarter the major program accomplishments were: selection of candidate belt-drive concepts; completion of Phase III baseline vehicle drive systems physical and operational envelopes; completion of analysis for a mechanically controlled direct-operated belt drive with input programming; and completion of design layout and analysis for a hydromechanically controlled, servo-operated belt drive with output-speed sensing. (LLL)

  6. Physician accessories: Doctor, what you carry is every patient′s worry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections are on the rise worldwide and many a times they are carried by the health care personnel. Accessories used by physicians and healthcare personnel can be a potential source of nosocomial infection. Materials and Methods: We designed a survey with the aim to investigate the prevalence of microbial flora of accessories such as pens, stethoscopes, cell phones and white coat used by the physicians working in a tertiary care hospital. Observations: It was observed that 66% of the pens, 55% of the stethoscopes, 47.61% of the cell phones and 28.46% of the white coats used by the doctors were colonized with various microorganisms. Staphylococcus spp. was the predominant isolate followed by Escherichia coli. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was also found, which was a matter of concern. Conclusions: Awareness of appropriate hand hygiene is important in order to prevent potential transmission to patients.

  7. Sclerotic fibroma (storiform collagenoma)-like stroma in a fibroadenoma of axillary accessory breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Bernal, José Fernando; González-Vela, María Carmen; De Grado, Mauricio; Garijo, María Francisca

    2012-08-01

    Accessory breast tissue is a subcutaneous remnant persisting after normal embryological development of the breast. It occurs most frequently in the axilla. Fibroadenomas in axillary breast tissue are rare. We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who presented a fibroadenoma arising in the accessory breast tissue of the right axillary fossa. The neoplasm showed foci of sclerotic fibroma-like stroma. The patient had no signs of Cowden's syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, a lesion of this kind has not been previously reported. This stromal change suggests an uncommon involutional phase of the fibroadenoma with production of sclerotic and hypocellular collagen. The lesion should be differentiated from extraneural perineuroma, from the changes in fibroadenomas in Cowden's syndrome, from sclerosing lobular hyperplasia (fibroadenomatoid mastopathy) and from pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Accessory mental foramen: A rare anatomical variation detected by cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; De Faro Valverde, Ludmila; Vidal, Manuela Torres Andion; Crusoe-Rebello, Ieda Margarida [Dept. of Oral Radiology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    The mental foramen is a bilateral opening in the vestibular portion of the mandible through which nerve endings, such as the mental nerve, emerge. In general, the mental foramen is located between the lower premolars. This region is a common area for the placement of dental implants. It is very important to identify anatomical variations in presurgical imaging exams since damage to neurovascular bundles may have a direct influence on treatment success. In the hemimandible, the mental foramen normally appears as a single structure, but there are some rare reports on the presence and number of anatomical variations; these variations may include accessory foramina. The present report describes the presence of accessory mental foramina in the right mandible, as detected by cone-beam computed tomography before dental implant placement.

  9. Terminal phalangeal accessory ossification center of the thumb: an additional radiographic finding in Larsen syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanay, Yasemin; Utine, Gulen E.; Tuncbilek, Ergul; Lachman, Ralph S.; Krakow, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Larsen syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by multiple joint dislocations, vertebral anomalies and dysmorphic facies. Both autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive forms of the disorder have been proposed. Individuals with autosomal-dominant Larsen syndrome have characteristic ''cylindrical-shape'' thumbs caused by broad, shortened phalanges. Autosomal-dominant Larsen syndrome results from heterozygosity for mutations in filamin B, a cytoskeletal protein involved in multicellular processes. We report here a patient with a duplicated or accessory distal thumb phalanx and multiple large joint dislocations who was shown to be heterozygous for a filamin B mutation predicting the amino acid substitution G1691S. This adds a new radiographic finding, duplicated or accessory distal phalanx, to the radiographic abnormalities seen in this rare dominant disorder. (orig.)

  10. Accessory nerve function after level 2b-preserving selective neck dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Bilge; Coskun, Hakan; Kumas, Ferda F; Irdesel, Jale; Zarifoglu, Mehmet; Erisen, Levent; Onart, Selcuk

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the relationship between accessory nerve functions and level 2b-preserving selective neck dissection. Forty-one necks of 30 patients with laryngeal cancer who underwent unilateral or bilateral level 2b-preserving neck dissections, between February 2003 and July 2005, were evaluated. Neck and shoulder movements and muscle strengths were examined and electroneuromyography (ENMG) was performed preoperatively at the postoperative 21st day and 6th month. Pathological anatomical findings at the postoperative 6th month were also evaluated. All shoulder movements and muscle strengths were preserved. Neck extension, rotation movements, and flexion strengths were restricted. ENMG values were affected moderately in the early postoperative period and improved slightly in the late postoperative period. None of the patients developed shoulder syndrome or adhesive capsulitis. Preserving level 2b during selective neck dissection decreases trauma to the accessory nerve and improves functional results. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2009.

  11. Accessory mental foramen: A rare anatomical variation detected by cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; De Faro Valverde, Ludmila; Vidal, Manuela Torres Andion; Crusoe-Rebello, Ieda Margarida

    2015-01-01

    The mental foramen is a bilateral opening in the vestibular portion of the mandible through which nerve endings, such as the mental nerve, emerge. In general, the mental foramen is located between the lower premolars. This region is a common area for the placement of dental implants. It is very important to identify anatomical variations in presurgical imaging exams since damage to neurovascular bundles may have a direct influence on treatment success. In the hemimandible, the mental foramen normally appears as a single structure, but there are some rare reports on the presence and number of anatomical variations; these variations may include accessory foramina. The present report describes the presence of accessory mental foramina in the right mandible, as detected by cone-beam computed tomography before dental implant placement.

  12. Accessory mental foramen: A rare anatomical variation detected by cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; Valverde, Ludmila de Faro; Vidal, Manuela Torres Andion; Crusoé-Rebello, Iêda Margarida

    2015-03-01

    The mental foramen is a bilateral opening in the vestibular portion of the mandible through which nerve endings, such as the mental nerve, emerge. In general, the mental foramen is located between the lower premolars. This region is a common area for the placement of dental implants. It is very important to identify anatomical variations in presurgical imaging exams since damage to neurovascular bundles may have a direct influence on treatment success. In the hemimandible, the mental foramen normally appears as a single structure, but there are some rare reports on the presence and number of anatomical variations; these variations may include accessory foramina. The present report describes the presence of accessory mental foramina in the right mandible, as detected by cone-beam computed tomography before dental implant placement.

  13. Posttraumatic torsion of accessory lobe of the liver and the gallbladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplewitz, B.Z.; Manson, D.E. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto, Ont. (Canada); Ein, S.H. [Div. of General Surgery, Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Torsion of an accessory lobe of the liver and of the gallbladder is a rare etiology for acute abdominal pain in children and infants. We report a case of an 8-year-old girl who was admitted with acute epigastric pain and vomiting, after her brother had jumped on her back. Physical examination revealed an afebrile child with a nontender right upper quadrant (RUQ) mass. Color Doppler ultrasound and contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated a heterogeneous, avascular mass with displacement of a thickened-wall gallbladder. A torted, congested accessory lobe of the liver and the gallbladder were resected at laparotomy. Imaging and operative findings are presented and a differential diagnosis is discussed in order to increase awareness of this rare condition. (orig.)

  14. High level of sperm competition may increase transfer of accessory gland products carried by the love dart of land snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodi, Monica; Staikou, Alexandra; Janssen, Ruben; Koene, Joris M

    2017-01-01

    Postcopulatory adaptations that increase reproductive success compared to rivals, like the transfer of accessory gland products that promote paternity, are common when sperm competition occurs among males. In land snails, the dart shooting behavior and its adaptive significance, in promoting

  15. Preoperative computed tomography and scintigraphy to facilitate the detection of accessory spleen in patients with hematologic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Nobuhiro; Kanematsu, Takashi; Sugimachi, Keizo

    1988-01-01

    Accessory spleens of 1.5 cm in size were preoperatively identified by the combined use of computerized tomography and splenic scintigraphy in two patients with hematologic diseases. After the accessory spleen had been removed from the first patient, who had persistent hereditary spherocytosis and had undergone a splenectomy 15 months before, a postoperative decrease in hyperbilirubinemia was noted. In the other patient who had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, a successful accessory splenectomy was done at the same time as her splenectomy, and was followed by 6 months' complete remission. These events indicate that preoperative investigations using computerized tomography and scintigraphy are indispensable for ruling out an accessory spleen in those patients for whom splenectomy needs to be done in order to alleviate hematologic disorders.

  16. Cyclic guanosine 3'-5'-monphosphate. High levels in the male accessory gland of Acheta domesticus and related crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, A M; Wyatt, G R

    1975-12-05

    Guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) was found in the accessory gland of reproductively mature male house crickets (Acheta domesticus (L.)) up to the exceptionally high level of 500 pmol/mg protein (10(-4) mol/kg wet weight). The identity of cricket cyclic GMP was confirmed by enzymatic and spectral analysis. A survey of 10 closely related species of Orthoptera indicated that high levels of cyclic GMP in the accessory gland occur in the subfamily Gryllinae, to which A. domesticus belongs. In these crickets, cyclic GMP in the accessory gland increases together with protein content during two weeks after the final molt. Levels are not augmented by dissection, and are independent of the presence of sperm in the seminal vesicles and of the production of spermatophores by the gland. The function of cyclic GMP in the accessory gland is not yet understood.

  17. Preoperative computed tomography and scintigraphy to facilitate the detection of accessory spleen in patients with hematologic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Nobuhiro; Kanematsu, Takashi; Sugimachi, Keizo

    1988-01-01

    Accessory spleens of 1.5 cm in size were preoperatively identified by the combined use of computerized tomography and splenic scintigraphy in two patients with hematologic diseases. After the accessory spleen had been removed from the first patient, who had persistent hereditary spherocytosis and had undergone a splenectomy 15 months before, a postoperative decrease in hyperbilirubinemia was noted. In the other patient who had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, a successful accessory splenectomy was done at the same time as her splenectomy, and was followed by 6 months' complete remission. These events indicate that preoperative investigations using computerized tomography and scintigraphy are indispensable for ruling out an accessory spleen in those patients for whom splenectomy needs to be done in order to alleviate hematologic disorders. (author)

  18. Potential role of Arabidopsis PHP as an accessory subunit of the PAF1 transcriptional cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunchung; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Oh, Sookyung; van Nocker, Steven

    2011-08-01

    Paf1C is a transcriptional cofactor that has been implicated in various transcription-associated mechanisms spanning initiation, elongation and RNA processing, and is important for multiple aspects of development in Arabidopsis. Our recent studies suggest Arabidopsis Paf1C is crucial for proper regulation of genes within H3K27me3-enriched chromatin, and that a protein named PHP may act as an accessory subunit of Paf1C that promotes this function.

  19. Combination of Hansen Robotic system with cryocatheter in a challenging parahisian accessory pathway ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Rodríguez-Mañero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A perceived distinctive feature of cryoablation is the stability (cryoadherence of the catheter tip during cold temperatures at the desired location, even during tachycardia. We report the case report of a young patient with a parahisian accessory pathway where stability of the ablation catheter was not achieved despite using the cryocatheter with a steerable sheath. Ultimately, stability at the desired location was achieved robotically by means of Hansen system (Hansen Medical, Mountain View, CA, USA.

  20. Pain caused by a dental implant impinging on an accessory inferior alveolar canal: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Arman; Sultan, Ahmed Ali; Bottini, Gian Battista; Hopper, Colin

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a case history of intractable facial pain following the placement of a posterior mandibular implant. The pain was resistant to all medical management, but a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan showed that the implant impinged on an unusual accessory inferior alveolar nerve. The decision to remove the implant led to significant pain reduction. This clinical example underscores the need for scrupulous imaging prior to implant placement.

  1. Mobile instrumentation platform and robotic accessory for real-time screening of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.S.; Jaselskis, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    An innovative mobile laboratory for real-time field screening of soils for inorganic hazardous waste using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry sampling and analysis technique is being developed at Ames Laboratory. This sampling technique as well as the concept for installing, monitoring, and controlling the instrumentation and utilities in the mobile laboratory, the robotic sampling accessory, and manual sampling method are discussed. Benefits of this mobile configuration and future development plans also are described

  2. Transcription Factors Encoded on Core and Accessory Chromosomes of Fusarium oxysporum Induce Expression of Effector Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, H. Charlotte; Schmidt, Sarah M.; Langereis, Léon; Hughes, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins secreted by pathogens during host colonization largely determine the outcome of pathogen-host interactions and are commonly called ‘effectors’. In fungal plant pathogens, coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of effector genes is a key feature of pathogenesis and effectors are often encoded in genomic regions with distinct repeat content, histone code and rate of evolution. In the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), effector genes reside on one of four accessory chromosomes, known as the ‘pathogenicity’ chromosome, which can be exchanged between strains through horizontal transfer. The three other accessory chromosomes in the Fol reference strain may also be important for virulence towards tomato. Expression of effector genes in Fol is highly up-regulated upon infection and requires Sge1, a transcription factor encoded on the core genome. Interestingly, the pathogenicity chromosome itself contains 13 predicted transcription factor genes and for all except one, there is a homolog on the core genome. We determined DNA binding specificity for nine transcription factors using oligonucleotide arrays. The binding sites for homologous transcription factors were highly similar, suggesting that extensive neofunctionalization of DNA binding specificity has not occurred. Several DNA binding sites are enriched on accessory chromosomes, and expression of FTF1, its core homolog FTF2 and SGE1 from a constitutive promoter can induce expression of effector genes. The DNA binding sites of only these three transcription factors are enriched among genes up-regulated during infection. We further show that Ftf1, Ftf2 and Sge1 can activate transcription from their binding sites in yeast. RNAseq analysis revealed that in strains with constitutive expression of FTF1, FTF2 or SGE1, expression of a similar set of plant-responsive genes on the pathogenicity chromosome is induced, including most effector genes. We conclude that the Fol

  3. Can an accessory renal artery be safely covered during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair?

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniou, George A.; Karkos, Christos D.; Antoniou, Stavros A.; Georgiadis, George S.

    2013-01-01

    A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether coverage of an accessory renal artery (ARA) in patients undergoing endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is associated with increased risk of renal impairment. Altogether, 106 papers were located using the reported searches, of which 5 represented the best evidence to answer the question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, study type, patient group studied, rel...

  4. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling...... of aged bones....

  5. Bone marker gene expression in calvarial bones: different bone microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Osama

    2017-12-01

    In calvarial mice, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells and then differentiate into osteoblasts that differentiate into osteocytes, which become embedded within the bone matrix. In this case, the cells participating in bone formation include MSCs, osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts and osteocytes. The calvariae of C57BL/KaLwRijHsD mice consist of the following five bones: two frontal bones, two parietal bones and one interparietal bone. This study aimed to analyse some bone marker genes and bone related genes to determine whether these calvarial bones have different bone microenvironments. C57BL/KaLwRijHsD calvariae were carefully excised from five male mice that were 4-6 weeks of age. Frontal, parietal, and interparietal bones were dissected to determine the bone microenvironment in calvariae. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was used to determine the morphology of different calvarial bones under microscopy. TaqMan was used to analyse the relative expression of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANK, RANKL, OPG, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in different parts of the calvariae. Histological analysis demonstrated different bone marrow (BM) areas between the different parts of the calvariae. The data show that parietal bones have the smallest BM area compared to frontal and interparietal bones. TaqMan data show a significant increase in the expression level of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANKL, OPG, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in the parietal bones compared with the frontal and interparietal bones of calvariae. This study provides evidence that different calvarial bones, frontal, parietal and interparietal, contain different bone microenvironments.

  6. An explanation of a groove found on the nasal process of the equine incisive bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, W; Martin, E

    2001-12-01

    Thirteen fresh equine heads were dissected in an attempt to determine the cause of a groove frequently found on the dorsal border and medial side of the nasal process of the incisive bone. This groove appeared on both sides in 40 out of 44 equine skulls. The sulcus seems to be caused by the combined action of the lateralis nasi muscle and the medial accessory cartilage of the nose (cartilago nasalis accessoria medialis). Other sulci found on the nasal process of the bone may be explained as impressions caused by nerves.

  7. STUDY OF ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS AND INCIDENCE OF MENTAL FORAMEN AND ACCESSORY MENTAL FORAMEN IN DRY HUMAN MANDIBLES

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Gupta; Jagdish S. Soni

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To provide anatomical information on the position, morphological variations and incidence of mental foramen and accessory mental foramen as they are important for dental surgeons, anaesthetists in nerve block and surgical procedures to avoid injury to neurovascular bundle in mental foramen area. Method: The present study was conducted using 120 dried human mandibles of both sexes. Size, shape and position of mental foramen and accessory mental foramen were determined using digital...

  8. The Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Function Is Modulated by HIV-1 Accessory Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Barker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells’ major role in the control of viruses is to eliminate established infected cells. The capacity of NK cells to kill virus-infected cells is dependent on the interactions between ligands on the infected cell and receptors on the NK cell surface. Because of the importance of ligand-receptor interactions in modulating the NK cell cytotoxic response, HIV has developed strategies to regulate various NK cell ligands making the infected cell surprisingly refractory to NK cell lysis. This is perplexing because the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr induces expression of ligands for the NK cell activating receptor, NKG2D. In addition, the accessory protein Nef removes the inhibitory ligands HLA-A and -B. The reason for the ineffective killing by NK cells despite the strong potential to eliminate infected cells is due to HIV-1 Vpu’s ability to down modulate the co-activation ligand, NTB-A, from the cell surface. Down modulation of NTB-A prevents efficient NK cell degranulation. This review will focus on the mechanisms through which the HIV-1 accessory proteins modulate their respective ligands, and its implication for NK cell killing of HIV-infected cells.

  9. Metal transfer within the Escherichia coli HypB-HypA complex of hydrogenase accessory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Colin D; Ngu, Thanh T; Kaluarachchi, Harini; Zamble, Deborah B

    2013-09-03

    The maturation of [NiFe]-hydrogenase in Escherichia coli is a complex process involving many steps and multiple accessory proteins. The two accessory proteins HypA and HypB interact with each other and are thought to cooperate to insert nickel into the active site of the hydrogenase-3 precursor protein. Both of these accessory proteins bind metal individually, but little is known about the metal-binding activities of the proteins once they assemble together into a functional complex. In this study, we investigate how complex formation modulates metal binding to the E. coli proteins HypA and HypB. This work lead to a re-evaluation of the HypA nickel affinity, revealing a KD on the order of 10(-8) M. HypA can efficiently remove nickel, but not zinc, from the metal-binding site in the GTPase domain of HypB, a process that is less efficient when complex formation between HypA and HypB is disrupted. Furthermore, nickel release from HypB to HypA is specifically accelerated when HypB is loaded with GDP, but not GTP. These results are consistent with the HypA-HypB complex serving as a transfer step in the relay of nickel from membrane transporter to its final destination in the hydrogenase active site and suggest that this complex contributes to the metal fidelity of this pathway.

  10. Quality detection system and method of micro-accessory based on microscopic vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongjie; Wang, Shiwei; Fu, Yu

    2017-10-01

    Considering that the traditional manual detection of micro-accessory has some problems, such as heavy workload, low efficiency and large artificial error, a kind of quality inspection system of micro-accessory has been designed. Micro-vision technology has been used to inspect quality, which optimizes the structure of the detection system. The stepper motor is used to drive the rotating micro-platform to transfer quarantine device and the microscopic vision system is applied to get graphic information of micro-accessory. The methods of image processing and pattern matching, the variable scale Sobel differential edge detection algorithm and the improved Zernike moments sub-pixel edge detection algorithm are combined in the system in order to achieve a more detailed and accurate edge of the defect detection. The grade at the edge of the complex signal can be achieved accurately by extracting through the proposed system, and then it can distinguish the qualified products and unqualified products with high precision recognition.

  11. G protein-coupled receptor accessory proteins and signaling: pharmacogenomic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Miles D; Cole, David E C; Jose, Pedro A; Chidiac, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The identification and characterization of the genes encoding G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and the proteins necessary for the processes of ligand binding, GPCR activation, inactivation, and receptor trafficking to the membrane are discussed in the context of human genetic disease. In addition to functional GPCR variants, the identification of genetic disruptions affecting proteins necessary to GPCR functions have provided insights into the function of these pathways. Gsα and Gβ subunit polymorphisms have been found to result in complex phenotypes. Disruptions in accessory proteins that normally modify or organize heterotrimeric G-protein coupling may also result in disease states. These include the contribution of variants of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) protein to hypertension; the role variants of the activator of G protein signaling (AGS) proteins to phenotypes (such as the type III AGS8 variant to hypoxia); the contribution of G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) proteins, such as GRK4, in disorders such as hypertension. The role of accessory proteins in GPCR structure and function is discussed in the context of genetic disorders associated with disruption of the genes that encode them. An understanding of the pharmacogenomics of GPCR and accessory protein signaling provides the basis for examining both GPCR pharmacogenetics and the genetics of monogenic disorders that result from disruption of given receptor systems.

  12. Reliable sex and strain discrimination in the mouse vomeronasal organ and accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolokh, Illya I; Fu, Xiaoyan; Holy, Timothy E

    2013-08-21

    Animals modulate their courtship and territorial behaviors in response to olfactory cues produced by other animals. In rodents, detecting these cues is the primary role of the accessory olfactory system (AOS). We sought to systematically investigate the natural stimulus coding logic and robustness in neurons of the first two stages of accessory olfactory processing, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). We show that firing rate responses of just a few well-chosen mouse VNO or AOB neurons can be used to reliably encode both sex and strain of other mice from cues contained in urine. Additionally, we show that this population code can generalize to new concentrations of stimuli and appears to represent stimulus identity in terms of diverging paths in coding space. Together, the results indicate that firing rate code on the temporal order of seconds is sufficient for accurate classification of pheromonal patterns at different concentrations and may be used by AOS neural circuitry to discriminate among naturally occurring urine stimuli.

  13. Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Marchini, Daniela; Taylor, Phillip W

    2009-05-01

    Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly (Q-fly), Bactrocera tryoni, were investigated and compared with those of other tephritid flies. Male accessory glands were found to comprise one pair of mesodermic glands and three pairs of ectodermic glands. The mesodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined, binucleate epithelial cells, which are highly microvillated and extrude electron-dense secretions by means of macroapocrine transport into a central lumen. The ectodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined epithelial cells which have wide subcuticular cavities, lined with microvilli. The electron-transparent secretions from these glands are first extruded into the cavities and then forced out through small pores of the cuticle into the gland lumen. Secretions from the two types of accessory glands then flow into the ejaculatory duct, which is highly muscular, with epithelial cells rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and lined with a thick, deeply invaginated cuticle. While there are some notable differences, reproductive accessory glands of male Q-flies generally resemble those of the olive fruitfly, Bactrocera oleae, and to a lesser extent the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

  14. Accessory and main olfactory systems influences on predator odor-induced behavioral and endocrine stress responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Cher V; Garcia, Robert J; Sasse, Sarah K; Nyhuis, Tara J; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge

    2010-02-11

    Exposures to predator odors are very effective methods to evoke a variety of stress responses in rodents. We have previously found that ferret odor exposure leads to changes in endocrine hormones (corticosterone and ACTH) and behavior. To distinguish the contributions of the main and accessory olfactory systems in these responses, studies were designed to interfere with these two systems either independently, or simultaneously. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 10% zinc sulfate (ZnSO(4)), which renders rodents anosmic (unable to smell) while leaving the accessory olfactory areas intact, or saline, in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, the vomeronasal organs of rats were surgically removed (VNX) to block accessory olfactory processing, while leaving the main olfactory system intact. And in the third experiment both the main and accessory olfactory areas were disrupted by combining the two procedures in the same rats. Neither ZnSO(4) treatment nor VNX alone reliably reduced the increased corticosterone response to ferret odor compared to strawberry odor, but in combination, they did. This suggests that processing through the main or the accessory olfactory system can elicit the endocrine stress response to ferret odor. VNX alone also did not affect the behavioral responses to the ferret odor. ZnSO(4) treatment, alone and in combination with VNX, led to changes in behavior in response to both ferret and strawberry odor, making the behavioral results less clearly interpretable. Overall these studies suggest that both the main and accessory olfactory systems mediate the neuroendocrine response to predator odor.

  15. [Frontier in bone biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Bone is an active organ in which bone mass is maintained by the balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption, i.e., coupling of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent advances in molecular bone biology uncovered the molecular mechanism of the coupling. A fundamental role of osteocyte in the maintenance of bone mass and whole body metabolism has also been revealed recently. Moreover, neurons and neuropeptides have been shown to be intimately involved in bone homeostasis though inter-organ network, in addition to "traditional" regulators of bone metabolism such as soluble factors and cytokines

  16. The Incidence and Topographic Distribution of Sutures Including Wormian Bones in Human Skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirpan, Sibel; Aksu, Funda; Mas, Nuket

    2015-07-01

    The Wormian Bones are accessory bones located within the cranial sutures and fontanelles. The present article examines the incidence of Wormian Bones and compares the number and topographic distribution between the sutures including Wormian Bones in skulls of West Anatolian Population. One hundred fifty crania were examined. The parameters evaluated in the present study were as follows: the rate of skulls including Wormian Bones; the topographic distribution and frequencies of the sutures including Wormian Bones; the number of these sutures for each skull; the name and number of sutures that were bilaterally and symmetrically located on the right and left side of skull (paired sutures) and which coincidentally had Wormian Bones for each skull; the differences of frequencies between the paired sutures including Wormian Bones. The rate of skulls including Wormian Bones was determined as 59.3%. The maximum and minimum numbers of sutures, including Wormian Bones, were 6 in 1 skull and 1 in each of 30 skulls, respectively. The maximum and minimum rates of sutures that had Wormian Bones were found in left lambdoid 40.7% and right occipitomastoid 1.3% sutures, respectively. There was only a significant difference between the rate of right and left squamous sutures (P = 0.04). Forty-five skulls were including 55 pairs of bilaterally and symmetrically located sutures that coincidentally had Wormian Bones in each pair. Each of 35 skulls had 1 pair of sutures including Wormian Bones and each of 10 skulls had 2 pairs. In the present study, the rate of Wormian Bones was determined as 59.3% in West Anatolian Population. This incidence rate is considerably lower than the other reports, and it may be as a result of racial variations. These divergent bones were more frequently found in left lambdoid sutures (40.7%) and less frequently in right occipitomastoid sutures (1.3%). This study may guide the investigators dealing with the neurosurgery, orthopedy, radiology, anatomy, and

  17. Reliable measurement of 3D foot bone angles based on the frame-of-reference derived from a sole of the foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Lee, Dong Yeon; Park, Jinah

    2016-03-01

    Clinical management of foot pathology requires accurate and robust measurement of the anatomical angles. In order to measure a 3D angle, recent approaches have adopted a landmark-based local coordinate system to establish bone angles used in orthopedics. These measurement methods mainly assess the relative angle between bones using a representative axis derived from the morphological feature of the bone and therefore, the results can be affected by bone deformities. In this study, we propose a method of deriving a global frame-of-reference to acquire consistent direction of the foot by extracting the undersurface of the foot from the CT image data. The two lowest positions of the foot skin are identified from the surface to define the base plane, and the direction from the hallux to the fourth toe is defined together to construct the global coordinate system. We performed the experiment on 10 volumes of foot CT images of healthy subjects to verify that the proposed method provides reliable measurements. We measured 3D angles for talus-calcaneus and talus-navicular using facing articular surfaces of paired bones. The angle was reported in 3 projection angles based on both coordinate systems defined by proposed global frame-of-reference and by CT image planes (saggital, frontal, and transverse). The result shows that the quantified angle using the proposed method considerably reduced the standard deviation (SD) against the angle using the conventional projection planes, and it was also comparable with the measured angles obtained from local coordinate systems of the bones. Since our method is independent from any individual local shape of a bone, unlike the measurement method using the local coordinate system, it is suitable for inter-subject comparison studies.

  18. Os trigonum syndrome: use of bone scan in the diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Collier, B.D.; Carrera, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    The os trigonum is an accessory bone of the foot found in 7% of the normal adult population. It is located at the posterolateral projection of the talus, and can occasionally give rise to symptoms of acute and chronic unexplained ankle pain. We report three patients, one with acute fracture and two with chronic ankle symptoms. Technetium 99 methylene diphosphonate showed intense focal uptake at the posterior talus pointing to the os trigonum as the site of symptoms. It was excised in two patients with complete relief. The third went on to develop an asymptomatic nonunion. We recommend bone scanning as a procedure that is helpful in delineating obscure pain in the ankle that may be due to chronic irritative nonunion of the os trigonum

  19. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  20. Inca - interparietal bones in neurocranium of human skulls in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Rr; Yogesh, As; Pandit, Sv; Joshi, M; Trivedi, Gn

    2010-01-01

    Inca bones are accessory bones found in neurocranium of human skulls. Occurrence of Inca bones is rare as compared to other inter sutural bones such as wormian bones. These Inca ossicles are regarded as variants of the normal. The reporting of such occurrences is inadequate from Central India. To find the incidence of Inca variants in Central India. In the present study, 380 dried adult human skulls were examined. All specimen samples were procured from various Medical colleges of Central India. They were analyzed for gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones. Gross incidence of Inca bones was found to be 1.315 %. Incidence rate was higher in male skulls than female skulls (male: 1.428%; female: 1.176%). The Inca bones frequently occurred signally. Out of the five observed Inca ossicles, two were fragmented. This data gives idea regarding gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones in neurocranium of human skulls from Central India. The knowledge of this variable is useful for neurosurgeons, anthropologists and radiologists.

  1. The B. subtilis Accessory Helicase PcrA Facilitates DNA Replication through Transcription Units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N Merrikh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In bacteria the concurrence of DNA replication and transcription leads to potentially deleterious encounters between the two machineries, which can occur in either the head-on (lagging strand genes or co-directional (leading strand genes orientations. These conflicts lead to replication fork stalling and can destabilize the genome. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells possess resolution factors that reduce the severity of these encounters. Though Escherichia coli accessory helicases have been implicated in the mitigation of head-on conflicts, direct evidence of these proteins mitigating co-directional conflicts is lacking. Furthermore, the endogenous chromosomal regions where these helicases act, and the mechanism of recruitment, have not been identified. We show that the essential Bacillus subtilis accessory helicase PcrA aids replication progression through protein coding genes of both head-on and co-directional orientations, as well as rRNA and tRNA genes. ChIP-Seq experiments show that co-directional conflicts at highly transcribed rRNA, tRNA, and head-on protein coding genes are major targets of PcrA activity on the chromosome. Partial depletion of PcrA renders cells extremely sensitive to head-on conflicts, linking the essential function of PcrA to conflict resolution. Furthermore, ablating PcrA's ATPase/helicase activity simultaneously increases its association with conflict regions, while incapacitating its ability to mitigate conflicts, and leads to cell death. In contrast, disruption of PcrA's C-terminal RNA polymerase interaction domain does not impact its ability to mitigate conflicts between replication and transcription, its association with conflict regions, or cell survival. Altogether, this work establishes PcrA as an essential factor involved in mitigating transcription-replication conflicts and identifies chromosomal regions where it routinely acts. As both conflicts and accessory helicases are found in all domains of life

  2. Epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen: three case reports and review of the literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Kushida, Yoshio; Miyai, Yumi; Katsuki, Naomi; Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Bando, Kenji; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Haba, Reiji

    2010-09-01

    The development of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen is an extremely rare lesion, with only 17 cases being reported in the English literature. All such cases were located in the pancreatic tail, some of which showed carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) immunoreactivity in the lining of the epithelium. A few of them indicated an elevation of the serum CA19-9 level. Here we report three cases of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Cases 1 and 2 were 57-year-old and 70-year-old women, while case 3 was a 37-year-old man. All three cases were asymptomatic. Serum CA19-9 levels showed within normal limits (case 1), slightly elevated (case 2), and clearly elevated (case 3). They underwent a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (cases 1 and 2) and without splenectomy (case 3). Grossly, the surgical specimen was a well-demarcated, multiple (case 1) or solitary (cases 2 and 3) cystic mass in the pancreatic tail. A high level of fluid CA 19-9 was detected in case 1. Microscopically, the cystic walls were lined with squamous and cuboidal epithelium, which were surrounded by normal splenic tissue and hyalinized fibrous tissue. The lining squamous epithelium was revealed as nonkeratinizing (Cases 1 and 2) or keratinizing (Case 3). Immunohistochemically, CA19-9 was positive in the monolayer and surface layer of the cuboidal epithelium, but negative for the keratinizing squamous epithelium. As for the histogenesis, it is suggested that the cystic lining of the epithelium may derive from the pancreatic duct which protrudes into the accessory spleen.

  3. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Hentze

    Full Text Available Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E, the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E, are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot, an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH, a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH.

  4. Influence of Telecommunication Modality, Internet Transmission Quality, and Accessories on Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantokoudis, Georgios; Koller, Roger; Guignard, Jérémie; Caversaccio, Marco; Kompis, Martin; Senn, Pascal

    2017-04-24

    Telecommunication is limited or even impossible for more than one-thirds of all cochlear implant (CI) users. We sought therefore to study the impact of voice quality on speech perception with voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) under real and adverse network conditions. Telephone speech perception was assessed in 19 CI users (15-69 years, average 42 years), using the German HSM (Hochmair-Schulz-Moser) sentence test comparing Skype and conventional telephone (public switched telephone networks, PSTN) transmission using a personal computer (PC) and a digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) telephone dual device. Five different Internet transmission quality modes and four accessories (PC speakers, headphones, 3.5 mm jack audio cable, and induction loop) were compared. As a secondary outcome, the subjective perceived voice quality was assessed using the mean opinion score (MOS). Speech telephone perception was significantly better (median 91.6%, P 15%) were not superior to conventional telephony. In addition, there were no significant differences between the tested accessories (P>.05) using a PC. Coupling a Skype DECT phone device with an audio cable to the CI, however, resulted in higher speech perception (median 65%) and subjective MOS scores (3.2) than using PSTN (median 7.5%, P<.001). Skype calls significantly improve speech perception for CI users compared with conventional telephony under real network conditions. Listening accessories do not further improve listening experience. Current Skype DECT telephone devices do not fully offer technical advantages in voice quality. ©Georgios Mantokoudis, Roger Koller, Jérémie Guignard, Marco Caversaccio, Martin Kompis, Pascal Senn. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 24.04.2017.

  5. Pan-genome sequence analysis using Panseq: an online tool for the rapid analysis of core and accessory genomic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas Andre

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pan-genome of a bacterial species consists of a core and an accessory gene pool. The accessory genome is thought to be an important source of genetic variability in bacterial populations and is gained through lateral gene transfer, allowing subpopulations of bacteria to better adapt to specific niches. Low-cost and high-throughput sequencing platforms have created an exponential increase in genome sequence data and an opportunity to study the pan-genomes of many bacterial species. In this study, we describe a new online pan-genome sequence analysis program, Panseq. Results Panseq was used to identify Escherichia coli O157:H7 and E. coli K-12 genomic islands. Within a population of 60 E. coli O157:H7 strains, the existence of 65 accessory genomic regions identified by Panseq analysis was confirmed by PCR. The accessory genome and binary presence/absence data, and core genome and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of six L. monocytogenes strains were extracted with Panseq and hierarchically clustered and visualized. The nucleotide core and binary accessory data were also used to construct maximum parsimony (MP trees, which were compared to the MP tree generated by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. The topology of the accessory and core trees was identical but differed from the tree produced using seven MLST loci. The Loci Selector module found the most variable and discriminatory combinations of four loci within a 100 loci set among 10 strains in 1 s, compared to the 449 s required to exhaustively search for all possible combinations; it also found the most discriminatory 20 loci from a 96 loci E. coli O157:H7 SNP dataset. Conclusion Panseq determines the core and accessory regions among a collection of genomic sequences based on user-defined parameters. It readily extracts regions unique to a genome or group of genomes, identifies SNPs within shared core genomic regions, constructs files for use in phylogeny programs

  6. Characterization of the Proteasome Accessory Factor (paf) Operon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Festa, Richard A.; Pearce, Michael J.; Darwin, K. Heran

    2007-01-01

    In a previous screen for Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants that are hypersusceptible to reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI), two genes associated with the M. tuberculosis proteasome were identified. One of these genes, pafA (proteasome accessory factor A), encodes a protein of unknown function. In this work, we determined that pafA is in an operon with two additional genes, pafB and pafC. In order to assess the contribution of these genes to RNI resistance, we isolated mutants with transpo...

  7. Accessory soleus muscle: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palaniappan, M. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology); Rajesh, A.; Rickett, A. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology); Kershaw, C.J. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Orthopaedics)

    1999-08-01

    Accessory soleus muscle is a rare condition which presents as a soft-tissue mass medial to the calcaneum and distal Achilles tendon. Though congenital in origin, it manifests in the second and third decades of life as a soft-tissue mass due to muscle hypertrophy. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with a painful ankle mass. It is important to be aware of this condition when interpreting CT or MRI of the ankle, which show characteristic findings of a normal muscle in an abnormal location. (orig.) With 4 figs., 12 refs.

  8. Special servicing equipment for reactor pressurized vessel stud hole and stud accessories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianglian

    1999-01-01

    The author briefly introduces the design and manufacture of nuclear island special servicing equipment of Nuclear Power Institute of China. Maintenance process of reactor pressurized vessel (RPV) stud hold and stud accessories the special servicing equipment include RPV flange dummy, closed-circuit television (CCTV) inspection equipment, RPV stud hole expandable comb, RPV stud hole polisher, RPV stud hold thread lubricating equipment, RPV stud hole thread miller and RPV stud hole camera. It is presented how eight kinds of special servicing equipment perform the maintenance process concerning their function, structure, and characteristics, their practical use on site is also introduced

  9. Posterior Coronary Vein as the Substrate for an Epicardial Accessory Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cipoletta, MD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Catheter ablation of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is associated with up to 5% of failure. Coronary sinus (CS abnormalities or connections between CS myocardial coat and left ventricular epicardium are associated with posteroseptal and left posterior accessory pathways (AP. A 41-year-old patient with WPW syndrome was referred to our hospital after three unsuccessful ablations. The 12-lead ECG suggested a left posteroseptal AP. CT imaging and electro-anatomic mapping showed a relationship between AP electrical course and CS posterior branch. This finding supports the hypothesis CSAPs lie in the myocardial coat around CS and represent an extensive connection between atrial and ventricular epicardial surface.

  10. Thermistor guided radiofrequency ablation of atrial insertion sites in patients with accessory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, C M; Moore, H J; Solomon, A J; Rodak, D J; Fletcher, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radiofrequency ablation has gained acceptance in the treatment of patients with symptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relation between temperature and other electroconductive parameters in patients undergoing atrial insertion accessory pathway ablation utilizing a thermistor equipped catheter. The mean temperature and power at sites of atrial insertion ablation are lower than has been previously associated with creation of radiofrequency lesions in the ventricle. While high cavitary blood flow in the atrium may result in cooling, the thinner atrial tissue may require less energy to achieve adequate heating than ventricular myocardium.

  11. Ability of male Queensland fruit flies to inhibit receptivity in multiple mates, and the associated recovery of accessory glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Taylor, Phillip W

    2008-02-01

    Mating success of male insects is commonly determined by their ability to find and copulate with multiple females, but is also determined by their ability to transfer an effective ejaculate. In order to succeed in these tasks, males must first succeed in replenishing the necessary reproductive reserves between mating opportunities. We here investigate the ability of male Queensland fruit flies ('Q-fly') to recover from their first matings in time to both mate again the following day and to induce sexual inhibition in successive mates. We have previously found that accessory gland fluids (AGFs) transferred in the ejaculate of male Q-flies are directly responsible for induction of sexual inhibition in their mates. We here investigate changes in male accessory gland, testis and ejaculatory apodeme dimensions that are likely to reflect depletion and recovery of contents. We found no differences between virgin and previously mated males in their ability to obtain matings or to induce sexual inhibition in their mates, indicating a full recovery of the necessary reproductive reserves between mating opportunities. Whereas no changes were detected in testis or ejaculatory apodeme size following mating, the recovery of male ability to inhibit female remating was closely reflected in the mesodermal accessory gland dimensions; these accessory glands greatly diminished in size (length and area) immediately after mating, with recovery commencing between 5.5 and 11 h after mating. The accessory glands then expanded to reach their original size in time to mate the following day and induce sexual inhibition in the next mate.

  12. Comparison of the accuracy of three algorithms in predicting accessory pathways among adult Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden, Orhan; Balci, Kevser Gülcihan; Selcuk, Mehmet Timur; Balci, Mustafa Mücahit; Açar, Burak; Unal, Sefa; Kara, Meryem; Selcuk, Hatice

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of three algorithms in predicting accessory pathway locations in adult patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in Turkish population. A total of 207 adult patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome were retrospectively analyzed. The most preexcited 12-lead electrocardiogram in sinus rhythm was used for analysis. Two investigators blinded to the patient data used three algorithms for prediction of accessory pathway location. Among all locations, 48.5% were left-sided, 44% were right-sided, and 7.5% were located in the midseptum or anteroseptum. When only exact locations were accepted as match, predictive accuracy for Chiang was 71.5%, 72.4% for d'Avila, and 71.5% for Arruda. The percentage of predictive accuracy of all algorithms did not differ between the algorithms (p = 1.000; p = 0.875; p = 0.885, respectively). The best algorithm for prediction of right-sided, left-sided, and anteroseptal and midseptal accessory pathways was Arruda (p algorithms were similar in predicting accessory pathway location and the predicted accuracy was lower than previously reported by their authors. However, according to the accessory pathway site, the algorithm designed by Arruda et al. showed better predictions than the other algorithms and using this algorithm may provide advantages before a planned ablation.

  13. Dating of cremated bones

    OpenAIRE

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process. We developed a method of dating cremated bone by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), using this carbonate fraction. Here we present results for a variety of prehistoric sites and ages, showing a r...

  14. Accessory soleus in the athletes: literature review and case report of a massive muscle in a soccer player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberto; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Tron, Alessia; Ferro, Andrea; Castoldi, Filippo

    2009-08-01

    Accessory soleus is a rare congenital anatomical variant, which may manifest in the second/third decade of life as an exertional ankle pain and swelling or as an asymptomatic postero-medial mass. The incidence of this condition ranges from 0.7 to 5.5%. Many treatment options have been described in literature, including conservative treatment, excision, fasciotomy, release and closure of blood supply. We report a symptomatic massive accessory soleus (17 x 5 x 4 cm) in an 18-year-old male semi-professional soccer player. Excision of the accessory soleus was performed. The patient went back to the game 3 months after surgery. The literature review stated that either fasciotomy or excision of the muscle produce good results in the athletes.

  15. [Catheter ablation of atrio-ventricular accessory pathways in the era of ablation therapy of complex arrhythmias: a changing perspective for oncoming generation of electrophysiologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, M; Chovančík, J; Wojnarová, D; Szymeczek, H; Pindor, J; Bulková, V; Neuwirth, R; Jiravský, O; Vavřík, D; Krawiec, S; Januška, J

    2012-06-01

    Catheter ablation of atrio-ventricular accessory pathways has become a routine treatment method. However, its perspective has been changing in the era of ablation of complex arrhythmias. This study was aimed at evaluating accessory pathways ablation efficacy within the last nine years at one center. From February 2002 to June 2011, catheter ablation of accessory pathways was performed in 247 patients (100 females, 42 ± 16 years). Elimination of accessory pathways conduction in both directions was the procedure endpoint. Immediate accessory pathways conduction elimination at the first ablation was achieved in 228 (92%) patients. Ablation failed to eliminate accessory pathways conduction in 19 (8%) patients, or accessory pathways conduction subsequently recurred in another 7 (3%) patients. Repeat ablation was completed in 20 (8%) patients, 2 patients underwent a third ablation procedure. In total, accessory pathway was permanently eliminated in 238 (96%) patients. Ablation failure was connected with a risky position in the vicinity of atrio-ventricular conduction system in 6 (67 %) out of 9 patients. By the individual A, B, C, D operators experience, efficacy of the first procedure/total efficacy, was 97%/99%, 90%/96%, 87%/87%, and 91%/91%, respectively (comparison of inter-operator efficacy of the first and repeat ablation by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test: p = 0,19 and 0,05, respectively). Accessory pathways ablation efficacy exceeds 95%, and ablation failure is dominantly related to the accessory pathways location close to the atrio-ventricular conduction system. Individual operator's experience was associated with a certain disparity between high and nearly absolute accessory pathways ablation efficacy.

  16. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram...... at 146 days of life and five left and right ribs (fourth to eighth) were removed for analysis. The influence of AKG on skeletal system development was evaluated in relation to both geometrical and mechanical properties, as well as quantitative computed tomography (QCT). No significant differences between...... has a long-term effect on skeletal development when given early in neonatal life, and that changes in rib properties serve to improve chest mechanics and functioning in young animals. Moreover, neonatal administration of AKG may be considered as an effective factor enhancing proper development...

  17. Effect of accessory pigment composition on the absorption characteristics of dinoflagellate bloom in a coastal embayment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Vijayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The light absorption properties of a dinoflagellate (Noctiluca scintillans Macartney bloom in Manila Bay were analysed during the onset of a whole-bay-scale bloom in March 2004. The chlorophyll a concentrations varied over a very wide range from 1.4 μg l−1 to extremely high values of 521 μg l−1. The chlorophyll specific absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (a*ph(λ varied significantly in shape and magnitude. The spectrally averaged values of a*ph(λ varied by two orders of magnitude within and outside the bloom patch. The total suspended solid concentration was high in the middle of the bay (≥4 mg l−1. The non-photosynthetic pigment (NPP index was∼0.6 at most of the stations, mainly due to the presence of photoprotective pigments like zeaxanthin, lutein and neoxanthin, which led to variations in the blue absorption maxima of the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients. The absorption properties of the accessory pigments were masked owing to the presence of overlapping pigment absorption bands. The fourth derivative of the absorption spectra was able to resolve these overlapping features and enhance the absorption characteristics of prominent accessory pigments.

  18. Ascaris lumbricoides and its invasion of the accessory cystic duct: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Zain; Masood, Irfan; Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi

    2015-04-01

    Around the world, Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common helminthic infection. We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman, known to have had Ascaris infestation, presenting with abdominal pain, constipation and jaundice together with fever and tachycardia. There was tenderness in the right hypochondrium and liver function tests confirmed cholestatic jaundice. An abdominal ultrasound showed multiple linear echogenic foci in the distal small intestine along with cholelithiasis and a thick-walled gall bladder with a single stone compressing the common bile duct (Mirizzi syndrome). The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy; more than 100 worms were found inside the small intestine and they were removed by enterotomy and manual decompression. No worm could be palpated within the common bile duct (CBD). Cholecystectomy was performed, during which an accessory cystic duct was noted opening into the common bile duct superiorly to the main cystic duct. A 10 cm live worm was found coming out of it and was removed via forceps. Later on an endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatogram (ERCP) showed a widened ampulla, a mildly dilated common bile duct, but without any filling defects. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery being discharged on the ninth day. Worms in an accessory cystic duct have not been report in the medical literature so far. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Impact of infection on the secretory capacity of the male accessory glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marconi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies that compare the impact of different infectious entities of the male reproductive tract (MRT on the male accessory gland function are controversial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semen analyses of 71 patients with proven infections of the MRT were compared with the results of 40 healthy non-infected volunteers. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their diagnosis: chronic prostatitis NIH type II (n = 38, chronic epididymitis (n = 12, and chronic urethritis (n = 21. RESULTS: The bacteriological analysis revealed 9 different types of microorganisms, considered to be the etiological agents, isolated in different secretions, including: urine, expressed prostatic secretions, semen and urethral smears: E. Coli (n = 20, Klebsiella (n = 2, Proteus spp. (n = 1, Enterococcus (n = 20, Staphylococcus spp. (n = 1, M. tuberculosis (n = 2, N. gonorrhea (n = 8, Chlamydia tr. (n = 16 and, Ureaplasma urealyticum (n = 1. The infection group had significantly (p < 0.05 lower: semen volume, alpha-glucosidase, fructose, and zinc in seminal plasma and, higher pH than the control group. None of these parameters was sufficiently accurate in the ROC analysis to discriminate between infected and non-infected men. CONCLUSION: Proven bacterial infections of the MRT impact negatively on all the accessory gland function parameters evaluated in semen, suggesting impairment of the secretory capacity of the epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate. These findings were associated with an infectious related significant increase of semen pH. None of the semen parameters evaluated can be suggested as a diagnostic tool for infection.

  20. Care of astronomical telescopes and accessories a manual for the astronomical observer and amateur telescope maker

    CERN Document Server

    Pepin, M Barlow

    2005-01-01

    Commercially-made astronomical telescopes are better and less expensive than ever before, and their optical and mechanical performance can be superb. When a good-quality telescope fails to perform as well as it might, the reason is quite probably that it needs a little care and attention! Here is a complete guide for anyone who wants to understand more than just the basics of astronomical telescopes and accessories, and how to maintain them in the peak of condition. The latest on safely adjusting, cleaning, and maintaining your equipment is combined with thoroughly updated methods from the old masters. Here, too, are details of choosing new and used optics and accessories, along with enhancements you can make to extend their versatility and useful lifetime. This book is for you. Really. Looking after an astronomical telescope isn't only for the experts - although there are some things that only an expert should attempt - and every serious amateur astronomer will find invaluable information here, gleaned from ...

  1. Roles of accessory proteins for heterotrimeric G-protein in the development of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Motohiko

    2013-01-01

    Signal processing via heterotrimeric G-proteins is one of the most widely used systems for signal transfer across the cell membrane. This signaling system regulates most physiological and pathophysiological processes in mammals and is therefore the primary target of many pharmaceutical agents. The heterotrimeric G-protein signaling system includes the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), heterotrimeric G-proteins, and effectors. The G-proteins are activated by the GPCR to mediate a signal to effector molecules. However, other players in this system that regulate the activation status of heterotrimeric G-proteins independently of GPCR have been identified. Such accessory proteins for heterotrimeric G-protein can provide additional signal input to the G-protein signaling system, or may act as alternative binding partners of G-protein subunits serving as yet unknown roles in cells. It has been reported that this class of proteins is expressed in the cardiovascular system and contributes to signal integration involved in the various diseases. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of accessory proteins for heterotrimeric G-proteins in their 4 functional subsets, including guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), and Gβγ-interacting proteins, and discusses their roles in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Better understanding of these components may contribute new insight into the complex network of molecules governing GPCR signaling in the cardiovascular system. 

  2. An augmented gravity model of South Africa’s exports of motor vehicles, parts and accessories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Sichei

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study applies an “augmented” gravity model to South Africa’s exports of motor vehicles, parts and accessories to 71 countries over the period 1994 to 2004.  A static panel data model is specified and estimated.  Several conclusions are drawn from the study.  First, a number of variables, namely, importer income, distance, level of import tariffs, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, use of right-hand drive vehicles are important determinants of bilateral trade flows for motor vehicles, parts and accessories.  Second, solving the gravity model deterministically, we show that export potential exists in a number of countries like Malawi, Zambia, Kenya and Malaysia.  A number of barriers hinder the members of the National Association of Automobile Manufacturers of South Africa (NAAMSA from exploiting these export markets. These include very high import tariffs, lack of South Africa’s diplomatic mission in the trading partner and the uncertainty regarding what happens at the expiry of the Motor Industry Development Programme (MIDP in 2012. Finally, the export potential identified by the gravity model should be regarded only as an indication since it is sensitive to the model specification and sample of countries.

  3. Morphology and development of the accessory glands in various female cricket species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The study presents new results with regard to the morphometric and ultrastructural development of the accessory glands in females of the three cricket species Gryllus bimaculatus, Gryllus assimilis, and Acheta domesticus. Furthermore, possible age-dependence of secretory productivity of single organs was analyzed by application of the ligature technique introduced in a previous contribution. Within the first 12 days of the adult phase, the accessory glands of all investigated cricket species exhibit a significant increase in length and width which assumes values between 50 and 100%. This gland growth is rather the result of a continuous increase in cellular volume and less that of mitotic cell propagation. In all species height and width of single gland cells increase by 60-80% within the studied time interval. These changes in morphometry are commonly accompanied by ultrastructural modifications. Total glandular secretion is subject to an increase from the 5th to the 12th day of adult age. This development corresponds well with the number of eggs contemporaneously oviposited into the substrate and thus underlines the hypothesis, according to which the main function of the secretion consists in acting as a lubricant for the facilitated transport of the oocytes through the ovipositor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The assessment of accessory mental foramen in a selected polish population: a CBCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmysłowska-Polakowska, Ewa; Radwański, Mateusz; Łęski, Michał; Ledzion, Sławomir; Łukomska-Szymańska, Monika; Polguj, Michał

    2017-02-20

    Accessory mental foramen (AMF) is a rare anatomical variation. When accessory mental foramen is present, the nerves and vessels that go through the mental foramen (MF) must follow alternative courses and special care must be taken during dental treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and the location of AMF in a selected Polish population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Two hundred CBCT (105 males and 95 females) examinations were evaluated for the presence of AMFs. The location and side of AMFs were reported. The mean distance between MF and AMF was also calculated. The vertical size of MF on the side with and without AMF was measured. The obtained variables were statistically analyzed. AMFs were observed in 7% of the patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the appearance of AMF and sex (p > 0.05). We found no significant difference in the vertical size of MF between individuals with and without AMFs (p < 0.05). Twenty-eight AMFs (7%) were observed from 400 sides of 200 patients. AMFs occurred more often in males (18 AMFs) than in females (10 AMFs). Twenty AMFs (71.4%) were located anteriorly, and eight (28.6%) - posteriorly. Fifteen AMFs (53.6%) were on the right side and thirteen (46.4%) - on the left.

  5. Serial radiography of the front legs of Hanoverian horses aged 3 to 7 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, F.

    1982-01-01

    In a chronologic collection of literature a general view is given about the X-ray examination of the front leg, especially the navicular bone of the horse. At this bone radiologic findings are shown which you can see in navicular disease. Isolated parts of bone near the processus extensorius are demonstrated on the pedal bone. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Interfragmentary compression profile of 4 headless bone screws: an analysis of the compression lost on reinsertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A W; Yew, Y T; Neo, P Y; Lau, C C; Tay, S C

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the interfragmentary compression force generated by 4 different types of headless compression screws and to examine the effects of removal and reinsertion of the screw. We chose foot bones rather than scaphoids for the model because they were larger and would enable comparison of 2 screw designs in the same bone, thereby controlling for the effect of interspecimen variability. A transverse osteotomy was made in 10 fresh-frozen cadaveric navicular bones and 10 medial cuneiforms. A load cell was used to measure compression between the 2 fragments as a screw was inserted across the fracture. Each bone was tested twice, with an Acutrak Mini (Acumed, Hillsboro, OR; n = 10) and an SBi AutoFIX screw (SBi, Morrisville, PA; n = 10) or an Extremifix (Osteomed, Addison, TX; n = 10) and a Barouk screw (Depuy, Warsaw, IN; n = 10). Compression was recorded at initial insertion and on removal and reinsertion of the screw twice to the same position. Compression was also measured after one additional full turn further than the initial position. The mean interfragmentary compression generated by the Acutrak Mini screw was greater than that of the SBi AutoFIX screw (96 N vs 22 N). There was a trend toward a greater mean compression generated by the Extremifix screw compared to the Barouk screw (85 N vs 22 N). There was a significant loss of compression upon removal and reinsertion of the screws. An additional full turn of the screw was able to re-establish a large proportion of the original compression. The compression forces achieved by headless screw systems appeared to vary according to the screw design, depth of insertion, and the quality of the bone. Substantial compression was lost if the screw was removed and replaced. Some screw designs appeared to require a greater depth of insertion to achieve effective compression, and the number of additional turns required to re-establish compression might vary according to the thread design. Surgeons should be aware of the

  7. Bilateral axillary masses mimicking as accessory breast with multiple fibroadenoma and bilateral gigantomastia in HIV-positive patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saumya; Mishra, Anand K; Tewari, S; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2013-06-24

    Accessory breast is a rare entity that can present as asymptomatic masses or can cause symptoms like heaviness, pain, restriction of arm movement and limitation in daily pursuits with allied apprehension and anxiety for the patient. We present a case of bilateral axillary masses mimicking as accessory breast with multiple fibroadenoma in a 28 years, nulliparous, Indian woman who is HIV positive, which proves to be a diagnostic dilemma. Excisional biopsy was diagnostic. The rarity of such cases imposes challenges on the management in terms of diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic options.

  8. Characterization of the Klebsiella aerogenes Urease Accessory Protein UreD in Fusion with the Maltose Binding Protein ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Eric L.; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Assembly of the Klebsiella aerogenes urease metallocenter requires four accessory proteins, UreD, UreE, UreF, and UreG, to effectively deliver and incorporate two Ni2+ ions into the nascent active site of the urease apoprotein (UreABC). Each accessory protein has been purified and characterized with the exception of UreD due to its insolubility when it is overproduced in recombinant cells. In this study, a translational fusion was made between the maltose binding protein (MBP) and UreD, with ...

  9. THE FISCAL FRAME OF NATIONAL TRANSPORT SERVICES ASSIMILATED TO INTRA-COMMUNITARIAN GOODS TRANSPORT, ACCESSORY SERVICES AND AFFERENT MEDIATION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pravat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The unrolling of properly intra-communitarian goods transport services may depend in many cases or be in tight connection with other services performance, such as: national transport services, accessory services (loading, unloading, handling, weighing, sorting, goods storage or the mediation services concerning the intra-communitarian goods transport or accessory services. The categories of services above mentioned are remarked through a series of specific fiscal aspects, aspects that will be presented in this paper, both from a theoretical point of view, and from the point f view of some short examples.

  10. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  11. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  12. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales G, R.; Cano P, R.; Mendoza P, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  13. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  14. [Comparison of ablation of left-sided accessory pathway by atrial septal and retrograde arterial approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J G; Bao, Z Y; Gu, X

    2017-03-07

    Objective: To compare the advantages and disadvantages of radiofrequency ablation of left-sided accessory pathways by via atrial septal approach with retrograde through aortic approach. Methods: A total of 184 patients of left-side accessory pathways were treated in Taizhou People's Hospital and the Subei People's Hospital from March 2012 to August 2015.A total of 103 cases were treated by aortic retrograde approach as through arterial group, 81 cases were treated by punctured atrial septal to left atrial for mapping and ablation as through atrial septal group.Comparison of ablation procedure time, total and pathways of different parts(subgroup) at instant success and relapse rates, safety (serious complications), and statistics other complications in operation and postoperative. Results: Through arterial group and through atrial septal group were no significant difference ( P >0.05) in the ablation procedure time((25±18 ) vs (22±15)min ), instant success(98.1% vs 97.5%) and relapse rates(1.0% vs 1.2%), security(1 vs 0 case). There was no statistical difference in septal part subgroups (all P >0.05) in the ablation procedure time((22±18)vs (25±19)min), instant success(91.7% vs 89.9 %) and relapse rates(0 vs 11.1%); posterior wall subgroup had no statistical difference in the ablation procedure time((18±15)vs (16±12)min), instant success(100% vs 100 %) and relapse rates(0 vs 0)(all P >0.05); side wall subgroup had no statistical difference in the ablation procedure time((29±20)vs (21±18) min), instant success (98.3% vs 98.1%)and relapse rates(1.7% vs 0%)(all P >0.05). Conclusion: Ablation of left-sided accessory pathways by transseptal approach and transaortic approach has no statistical difference in the procedure time, instant success and relapse rates, security.In a particular case, there is a certain complementarity between the two methods.

  15. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  16. Development of the Noise-Resistant and Sound Focusing Accessory of Ultrasonic Leak Detector for Spacecraft on Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Yan, R. X.; Sun, L. C.; Shao, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Ultrasonic signal produced by the gas leak is so week that it is difficult to detect, and easily interfered. So developing the noise-resistant and sound focusing accessory for the ultrasonic leak detector is very important for improving ultrasonic leak detector sensitivity and noise-resistant capability. Based on the theory analysis of the leak ultrasonic signal reverberation and anacampsis, the 5A06 aluminium alloy and nylon were selected as the material of noise-resistant and sound focusing accessory by calculation and compare. Then the circular cone trumpet structure was design as the accessory main structure, and the nylon expansion port, nylon shrinking port and aluminium alloy expansion port structures were manufactured. The different structure characters were shown by the contrasting experiment. The results indicate that the nylon expansion circular cone trumpet structure has better sound focusing performance and it can improve the testing sound pressure amplitude 10 bigger than the detector without the accessory. And the aluminium alloy expansion circular cone trumpet structure has better noise-resistant ability than others. These conclusions are very important for the spacecraft leak detection and it can provide some references for the design of the noise-resistant and sound focusing structure.

  17. Rare Case of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Treated by Robot-Assisted Spleen Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, Willemijn P M; Groot, Vincent P; Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIPAS) is exceedingly rare with only 57 cases reported since the first publication in 1980. Comprehensive clinical and diagnostic features remain to be clarified. We present a case of ECIPAS in a 21-year-old Philippine woman who was admitted

  18. Preparation and Dielectric Properties of SiC/LSR Nanocomposites for Insulation of High Voltage Direct Current Cable Accessories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Nanqiang; Chen, Qingguo; Wei, Xinzhe

    2018-01-01

    The conductivity mismatch in the composite insulation of high voltage direct current (HVDC) cable accessories causes electric field distribution distortion and even insulation breakdown. Therefore, a liquid silicone rubber (LSR) filled with SiC nanoparticles is prepared for the insulation of cable accessories. The micro-morphology of the SiC/LSR nanocomposites is observed by scanning electron microscopy, and their trap parameters are characterized using thermal stimulated current (TSC) tests. Moreover, the dielectric properties of SiC/LSR nanocomposites with different SiC concentrations are tested. The results show that the 3 wt % SiC/LSR sample has the best nonlinear conductivity, more than one order of magnitude higher than that of pure LSR with improved temperature and nonlinear conductivity coefficients. The relative permittivity increased 0.2 and dielectric loss factor increased 0.003, while its breakdown strength decreased 5 kV/mm compared to those of pure LSR. Moreover, the TSC results indicate the introduction of SiC nanoparticles reduced the trap level and trap density. Furthermore, the SiC nanoparticles filling significantly increased the sensitivity of LSR to electric field stress and temperature changes, enhancing the conductivity and electric field distribution within the HVDC cable accessories, thus improving the reliability of the HVDC cable accessories. PMID:29518054

  19. Types of coeliac trunk branching including accessory hepatic arteries: a new point of view based on cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olewnik, Łukasz; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Polguj, Michał; Waśniewska, Anna; Jankowski, Mateusz; Topol, Mirosław

    2017-06-14

    The coeliac trunk is major visceral branch of the abdominal aorta. Familiarity with anatomic variations of the coeliac trunk is relevant for planning radiological and surgical procedures. The aim of our research was determining variations of the coeliac trunk, including the occurrence of accessory hepatic arteries. 40 cadavers were studied. Six patterns of coeliac trunk branching were observed in this study. Accessory hepatic arteries were observed in seven specimens (17.5%). The most prevalent variation was normal trifurcation, accounting for 62.5% of cases. The rarest variation was absence of the coeliac trunk, with an incidence of 2.5%. In this variant the left gastric artery, the common hepatic artery, and the splenic artery branched directly off the abdominal aorta. The study material allowed to distinguish two coeliac tunk branching patterns which, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported before. It was a type with four branches originating from the coeliac trunk: the left gastric artery, the common hepatic artery, the splenic artery, and right accessory hepatic artery. The other previously unreported pattern variant was also a coeliac trunk which gave off the coeliac trunk gave off three branches: the common hepatic artery, the splenic artery and right accessory hepatic artery. The average distance between the aortic hiatus and the coeliac trunk calculated for all the cadavers amounted to 54 mm (SD = 11.85 mm). The average distance between the coeliac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery was 11.1 mm (SD = 7.7 mm).

  20. Accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve transfer to restore shoulder exorotation in otherwise spontaneously recovered obstetric brachial plexus lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ouwerkerk, Willem J. R.; Uitdehaag, Bernard M. J.; Strijers, Rob L. M.; Nollet, Frans; Holl, Kurt; Fellner, Franz A.; Vandertop, W. Peter

    2006-01-01

    A systematic follow-up of infants with an obstetric brachial plexus lesion of C5 and C6 or the superior trunk showing satisfactory spontaneous recovery of shoulder and arm function except for voluntary shoulder exorotation, who underwent an accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer to improve active

  1. 78 FR 47817 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Application for an Exemption From Van Hool N...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2013-0314] Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Application for an Exemption From Van Hool N... exemption from Van Hool N.V. and Coach USA (Van Hool/Coach USA) to allow the use of double deck motorcoaches...

  2. 15 CFR 742.11 - Specially designed implements of torture, thumbscrews, and thumbcuffs; and parts and accessories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specially designed implements of torture, thumbscrews, and thumbcuffs; and parts and accessories, n.e.s. 742.11 Section 742.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND...

  3. Preparation and Dielectric Properties of SiC/LSR Nanocomposites for Insulation of High Voltage Direct Current Cable Accessories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanqiang Shang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The conductivity mismatch in the composite insulation of high voltage direct current (HVDC cable accessories causes electric field distribution distortion and even insulation breakdown. Therefore, a liquid silicone rubber (LSR filled with SiC nanoparticles is prepared for the insulation of cable accessories. The micro-morphology of the SiC/LSR nanocomposites is observed by scanning electron microscopy, and their trap parameters are characterized using thermal stimulated current (TSC tests. Moreover, the dielectric properties of SiC/LSR nanocomposites with different SiC concentrations are tested. The results show that the 3 wt % SiC/LSR sample has the best nonlinear conductivity, more than one order of magnitude higher than that of pure LSR with improved temperature and nonlinear conductivity coefficients. The relative permittivity increased 0.2 and dielectric loss factor increased 0.003, while its breakdown strength decreased 5 kV/mm compared to those of pure LSR. Moreover, the TSC results indicate the introduction of SiC nanoparticles reduced the trap level and trap density. Furthermore, the SiC nanoparticles filling significantly increased the sensitivity of LSR to electric field stress and temperature changes, enhancing the conductivity and electric field distribution within the HVDC cable accessories, thus improving the reliability of the HVDC cable accessories.

  4. Cutaneous application of an accessory-gland secretion after sperm exchange in a terrestrial slug (Mollusca : Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benke, Mandy; Reise, Heike; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Koene, Joris M

    Competition for fertilisation in hermaphroditic animals seems to have led to many odd behaviours and complex morphologies involved in the transfer of accessory-gland products to the partner. Terrestrial slugs of the genus Deroceras show remarkably elaborate and interspecifically diverse penis

  5. Effect of partial saturation of bonded neo magnet on the automotive accessory motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimitkumar K. Sheth

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effects of using a partially magnetized bonded neo (NdFeB magnet in an automotive accessory motor are presented. The potential reason for partial saturation of the bonded neo magnet is explained and a simple method to ensure saturation of the magnet is discussed. A magnetizing fixture design using the 2-D Finite element analysis (FEA is presented. The motor performance at various magnet saturation levels has been estimated using the 2-D FEA. Details of the thermal demagnetization test adopted by the automotive industry is also discussed and results of the motor performance for four saturation levels are detailed. These results indicate that the effect of demagnetization is more adverse in a motor with partially saturated magnets.

  6. Effect of partial saturation of bonded neo magnet on the automotive accessory motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Nimitkumar K.; Angara, Raghu C. S. Babu

    2017-05-01

    In this paper the effects of using a partially magnetized bonded neo (NdFeB) magnet in an automotive accessory motor are presented. The potential reason for partial saturation of the bonded neo magnet is explained and a simple method to ensure saturation of the magnet is discussed. A magnetizing fixture design using the 2-D Finite element analysis (FEA) is presented. The motor performance at various magnet saturation levels has been estimated using the 2-D FEA. Details of the thermal demagnetization test adopted by the automotive industry is also discussed and results of the motor performance for four saturation levels are detailed. These results indicate that the effect of demagnetization is more adverse in a motor with partially saturated magnets.

  7. A SaTScan™ macro accessory for cartography (SMAC package implemented with SAS® software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinman Ken P

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SaTScan is a software program written to implement the scan statistic; it can be used to find clusters in space and/or time. It must often be run multiple times per day when doing disease surveillance. Running SaTScan frequently via its graphical user interface can be cumbersome, and the output can be difficult to visualize. Results The SaTScan Macro Accessory for Cartography (SMAC package consists of four SAS macros and was designed as an easier way to run SaTScan multiple times and add graphical output. The package contains individual macros which allow the user to make the necessary input files for SaTScan, run SaTScan, and create graphical output all from within SAS software. The macros can also be combined to do this all in one step. Conclusion The SMAC package can make SaTScan easier to use and can make the output more informative.

  8. Type testing of cables and accessories, a way to improve the quality of these products?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benda-Berlijn, S.M.; Roelofs, G.P.T. [KEMA Research and Development, Engineering and Consultancy for the Electric Power Industry, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Electric cable testing in the Netherlands has contributed to improving the quality of electricity infrastructure. At the KEMA High-Voltage laboratory, about 87 type-tests of cables and accessories have been performed since 1993. This includes 41 cables, 13 terminations, 19 straight through joints, 7 cross bonding joints and 7 transition joints. 31 per cent of the materials tested did not pass performance standards. IEC 502 was the standard which was successfully passed by 85 per cent of the tested materials. By providing feedback, this testing program makes it possible for manufacturers to continually improve their designs, production processes and assembling techniques. Improvements in quality is the inevitable result. 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  9. A SaTScan macro accessory for cartography (SMAC) package implemented with SAS software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Allyson M; Kleinman, Ken P

    2007-03-06

    SaTScan is a software program written to implement the scan statistic; it can be used to find clusters in space and/or time. It must often be run multiple times per day when doing disease surveillance. Running SaTScan frequently via its graphical user interface can be cumbersome, and the output can be difficult to visualize. The SaTScan Macro Accessory for Cartography (SMAC) package consists of four SAS macros and was designed as an easier way to run SaTScan multiple times and add graphical output. The package contains individual macros which allow the user to make the necessary input files for SaTScan, run SaTScan, and create graphical output all from within SAS software. The macros can also be combined to do this all in one step. The SMAC package can make SaTScan easier to use and can make the output more informative.

  10. The accessory papillary muscle with inferior J-waves - peculiarity or hidden danger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    du Toit Lorraine

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Originally described in 1953, today the so-called J-wave is the source of much controversy. As a marker of so-called "early repolarization", this variant has been regarded as a totally benign variant since the 1960's. However, since then a wealth of data have indicated that the J-wave may be a marker of a highly arrhythmogenic substrate with a resultant high risk of sudden cardiac death. In this case report a case of an accessory papillary muscle with a prominent J-wave is described. This may be the first of many possible cases where papillary muscle variants may be the cause of the J-wave.

  11. Research on the Application of New Accessory Ingredient in Cashmere Hank Yarn Dyeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-ping; Wang, Cun-tao

    There exist many problems in the process of cashmere yarn dyeing such as great difficulty in dyeing, large damage to yarn, low strength, and lack of brightness in color. Currently the technologies of hank yarn dyeing in foreign countries are very advanced, but most of them aim for hank yarn dyeing of cotton and silk with few reports on the research about hank dyeing of cashmere. In this paper, we will use reactive dyes to dye cashmere yarn, do comparative experiment on pre-treatment lotion Kierlon OL and Da ai wen, and add a smooth anti-creasing agent Primasol JET and cashmere protective agent WSM in the dyeing process and analyze their impact on the performance of cashmere hank yarn dyeing to determine a reasonable dose of accessory ingredient. This dyeing program can be applied to guide the actual production, achieving the effects of improving the performance of cashmere hank yarn dyeing and enhancing the quality of dyed yarn

  12. Ectopic Intrathoracic Hepatic Tissue and Accessory Lung Lobe Aplasia in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Rachel; Dvorak, Laura; Gardiner, David W; Bahr, Anne

    2015-01-01

    A 6 yr old male Yorkshire terrier was presented for an ~6 yr history of progressive cough and dyspnea. Thoracic radiographs revealed a 6 cm diameter mass within the right caudal thorax. Thoracic ultrasound identified an intrathoracic mass ultrasonographically consistent with liver tissue and a chronic diaphragmatic hernia was suspected. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, but no evidence of a diaphragmatic hernia was identified. Thoracic exploration identified abnormal lung parenchyma. The accessory lung lobe was removed using a stapling devise near its base. The consolidated mass had the gross appearance of liver and was histologically identified as ectopic hepatic tissue. Ectopic hepatic tissue, unlike ectopic splenic and pancreatic tissue, is rare and generally has a subdiaphragmatic distribution. This solitary case report demonstrates that ectopic intrathoracic hepatic tissue should be considered a differential diagnosis for a caudal mediastinal mass.

  13. MRI of the tibioastragalus anticus of Gruber muscle: a rare accessory muscle and normal anatomical variant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, Yaron; Amiras, Dimitri [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); St Mary' s Hospital, Imaging Department, QEQM, London (United Kingdom); Mushtaq, Nadeem [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    We present the case of a 31-year-old man who sustained a hyperplantar flexion injury of his right ankle, and was evaluated using computed tomography and MRI to assess for osseous and ligamentous injury. The MRI and CT studies demonstrated a tibioastragalus anticus of Gruber (TAAG) muscle in the lower limb's anterior compartment. To our knowledge, the imaging of this muscle has not been previously described. The TAAG muscle arises from the lower third of the anterolateral tibia and the interosseous membrane. Its tendon passes laterally, deep to the tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus tendons, and inserts onto the anterior superolateral neck of the talus in a fan-like manner. Knowledge and recognition of this tendon are important for both diagnostic accuracy and surgical planning, and could potentially be used as a tendon transfer or graft in the appropriate clinical setting. The presence of this accessory muscle should not be confused with a pathological condition. (orig.)

  14. Intraoperative Fluoroscopic Imaging for Suprascapular Nerve Localization During Spinal Accessory Nerve to Suprascapular Nerve Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabbad, Nicole C; Nuland, Kyle S; Pothula, Aravind

    2017-08-01

    Distal fiber transfer of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) to the suprascapular nerve (SSN) has been well described as an effective means to regain shoulder external rotation following upper trunk brachial plexus injuries. Both supine and prone positioning techniques have been described with comparable success. Whereas the posterior technique allows for sufficient distal length on the SAN for effective neurotization of the infraclavicular brachial plexus and SSN both proximal and distal to the suprascapular ligament, localization of the SSN within the suprascapular notch can be challenging and time intensive, especially in the obese patient. The use of intraoperative C-arm fluoroscopy is presented as a viable method for more exact suprascapular notch identification during dissection of the SSN. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dual Topology of the Melanocortin-2 Receptor Accessory Protein (MRAP Is Stable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J. Maben

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available MRAP (melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein facilitates trafficking of melanocortin 2 (MC2 receptors and is essential for ACTH binding and signaling. MRAP is a single transmembrane domain protein that forms antiparallel homodimers. These studies ask when MRAP first acquires this dual topology, whether MRAP architecture is static or stable, and whether the accessory protein undergoes rapid turnover. To answer these questions we developed a novel approach that capitalizes on the specificity of bacterial biotin ligase, which adds biotin to lysine in a short acceptor peptide sequence; the distinct mobility of MRAP protomers of opposite orientations based on their N-linked glycosylation; and the ease of identifying biotin-labeled proteins. We inserted biotin ligase acceptor peptides at the N- or C-terminal ends of MRAP and expressed the modified proteins in mammalian cells together with either cytoplasmic or endoplasmic reticulum-targeted biotin ligase. MRAP assumed dual topology early in biosynthesis in both CHO and OS3 adrenal cells. Once established, MRAP orientation was stable. Despite its conformational stability, MRAP displayed a half life of under 2 hr in CHO cells. The amount of MRAP was increased by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and MRAP underwent ubiquitylation on lysine and other amino acids. Nonetheless, when protein synthesis was blocked with cycloheximide, MRAP was rapidly degraded even when MG132 was included and all lysines were replaced by arginines, implicating non-proteasomal degradation pathways. The results show that although MRAP does not change orientations during trafficking its synthesis and degradation are dynamically regulated.

  16. Accessory genetic content in Campylobacter jejuni ST21CC isolates from feces and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarp, C P A; Akinrinade, O; Kaden, R; Johansson, C; Rautelin, H

    2017-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen and the most commonly reported bacterial cause of gastroenteritis. C. jejuni is occasionally found in blood, although mechanisms important for invasiveness have remained unclear. C. jejuni is divided into many different lineages, of which the ST21 clonal complex (CC) is widely distributed. Here, we performed comparative genomic and in vitro analyses on 17C. jejuni ST21CC strains derived from human blood and feces in order to identify features associated with isolation site. The ST21CC lineage is divided into two large groups; centered around ST-21 and ST-50. Our clinical strains, typed as ST-50, showed further microevolution into two distinct clusters. These clusters were distinguished by major differences in their capsule loci and the distribution of accessory genetic content, including C. jejuni integrated elements (CJIEs) and plasmids. Accessory genetic content was more common among fecal than blood strains, whereas blood strains contained a hybrid capsule locus which partially consisted of C. jejuni subsp. doylei-like content. In vitro infection assays with human colon cell lines did not show significant differences in adherence and invasion between the blood and fecal strains. Our results showed that CJIEs and plasmid derived genetic material were less common among blood isolates than fecal isolates; in contrast, hybrid capsule loci, especially those containing C. jejuni subsp. doylei-like gene content, were found among many isolates derived from blood. The role of these findings requires more detailed investigation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  17. Subcutaneous accessory pain system (SAPS): A novel pain pathway for myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloqayli, Haytham

    2018-02-01

    Despite the accumulating neuro-physiological evidence of myofascial pain, many clinicians are skeptical about its existence as a separate disease entity. No single theory can fully explain the four cardinal features of MPS; taut bands, local tenderness, local twitching and the characteristic pattern of referred pain. Bridging the gap between basic and clinical knowledge mandates coupling the local trigger point changes with the clinically seen distant somatically innervated referred pain. The main question addressed by the present theory is why do trigger points behave differently in comparison to the surrounding muscle tissue and are trigger points the primary problem or secondary to a primary pathology. We propose that trigger points have an extra-innervation system that connect them with other spinal structures such as the facet, the annulus and other trigger points with a role for the subcutaneous fascia as part of trigger points pathogenesis or passage for the extra-innervation. The extra-innervation system is Subcutaneous accessory pain system (SAPS). The novel SAPS system connecting trigger points to the spinal segments via dorsal rami is presented. Individuals with this accessory pathway are prone to myofascial pain, trigger point activation and segmental referred somatic pain similar to other axial spinal structures. Despite the high prevalence of myofascial pain, the mechanism is not universally agreed upon. Why do the trigger points act differently from surrounding muscle tissue and are almost constant in location in different individuals is controversial. Why does myofascial pain and its two components, trigger points and referred pain, exist or are more prevalent in some individuals than in others is unexplained. The correlation between axial spinal structures pathology and the trigger points is not explored well. The existing theories about trigger point formation and referred pain is scientifically credible for each separate component and the SAPS

  18. Pathogenicity Locus, Core Genome, and Accessory Gene Contributions to Clostridium difficile Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany B. Lewis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that causes colitis in patients with disrupted colonic microbiota. While some individuals are asymptomatic C. difficile carriers, symptomatic disease ranges from mild diarrhea to potentially lethal toxic megacolon. The wide disease spectrum has been attributed to the infected host’s age, underlying diseases, immune status, and microbiome composition. However, strain-specific differences in C. difficile virulence have also been implicated in determining colitis severity. Because patients infected with C. difficile are unique in terms of medical history, microbiome composition, and immune competence, determining the relative contribution of C. difficile virulence to disease severity has been challenging, and conclusions regarding the virulence of specific strains have been inconsistent. To address this, we used a mouse model to test 33 clinical C. difficile strains isolated from patients with disease severities ranging from asymptomatic carriage to severe colitis, and we determined their relative in vivo virulence in genetically identical, antibiotic-pretreated mice. We found that murine infections with C. difficile clade 2 strains (including multilocus sequence type 1/ribotype 027 were associated with higher lethality and that C. difficile strains associated with greater human disease severity caused more severe disease in mice. While toxin production was not strongly correlated with in vivo colonic pathology, the ability of C. difficile strains to grow in the presence of secondary bile acids was associated with greater disease severity. Whole-genome sequencing and identification of core and accessory genes identified a subset of accessory genes that distinguish high-virulence from lower-virulence C. difficile strains.

  19. Hausdorff Distance evaluation of orthodontic accessories' streaking artifacts in 3D model superimposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rino Neto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether image artifacts caused by orthodontic metal accessories interfere with the accuracy of 3D CBCT model superimposition. A human dry skull was subjected three times to a CBCT scan: at first without orthodontic brackets (T1, then with stainless steel brackets bonded without (T2 and with orthodontic arch wires (T3 inserted into the brackets' slots. The registration of image surfaces and the superimposition of 3D models were performed. Within-subject surface distances between T1-T2, T1-T3 and T2-T3 were computed and calculated for comparison among the three data sets. The minimum and maximum Hausdorff Distance units (HDu computed between the corresponding data points of the T1 and T2 CBCT 3D surface images were 0.000000 and 0.049280 HDu, respectively, and the mean distance was 0.002497 HDu. The minimum and maximum Hausdorff Distances between T1 and T3 were 0.000000 and 0.047440 HDu, respectively, with a mean distance of 0.002585 HDu. In the comparison between T2 and T3, the minimum, maximum and mean Hausdorff Distances were 0.000000, 0.025616 and 0.000347 HDu, respectively. In the current study, the image artifacts caused by metal orthodontic accessories did not compromise the accuracy of the 3D model superimposition. Color-coded maps of overlaid structures complemented the computed Hausdorff Distances and demonstrated a precise fusion between the data sets.

  20. Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, A.; Tripathi, D.N.; Ramarao, P.; Jena, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic β-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the β-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level

  1. Morphological and morphometric analysis of accessory mental foramen in dry human mandibles of south indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rajkohila

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental foramen (MF is an important landmark for administration of local anesthesia in surgical procedures involving the mandible. Additional mental foramina, called accessory mental foramina (AMF transmitting branches of mental nerve, have been reported. Detection of AMFs in presurgical imaging may reduce postoperative pain in dental surgical procedures. Aim: The aim of the study was to study the incidence and morphometric analysis of accessory MF in the dry human mandibles of South Indian population. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and sixty dry human mandibles were studied for the presence, location, shape of AMF, and its relation to MF. The horizontal diameter of AMF, and its distance from symphysis menti, the posterior border of mandible and from the base of mandible were measured and statistically analyzed. Results and Conclusions: In our study, AMF were present in 8.85% mandibles (unilateral - 7.6% [4.6% - left, 2.69% - right] and bilateral 1.6%. The most common position was below the second premolar (48.1%. AMF were round in shape (74% and was often located either superomedial or inferolateral to MF. Their transverse diameter ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm. The AMF were situated at a mean distance of 2.96 mm from MF, 23.47 mm from symphysis menti, 11.24 mm from the lower border of the body of the mandible, and 57.35 mm from the posterior border of ramus of mandible. The knowledge of the presence of AMF and its dimensions would enable the clinicians to do mandibular procedures carefully and avoid injury to the branches of mental nerve that may be passing through it.

  2. Morphological and morphometric analysis of accessory mental foramen in dry human mandibles of south indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkohila, J; Daniel, Priyanka; Ambikaipakan, Sakunthala; Rabi, Suganthy

    2018-01-01

    Mental foramen (MF) is an important landmark for administration of local anesthesia in surgical procedures involving the mandible. Additional mental foramina, called accessory mental foramina (AMF) transmitting branches of mental nerve, have been reported. Detection of AMFs in presurgical imaging may reduce postoperative pain in dental surgical procedures. Aim: The aim of the study was to study the incidence and morphometric analysis of accessory MF in the dry human mandibles of South Indian population. Two hundred and sixty dry human mandibles were studied for the presence, location, shape of AMF, and its relation to MF. The horizontal diameter of AMF, and its distance from symphysis menti, the posterior border of mandible and from the base of mandible were measured and statistically analyzed. In our study, AMF were present in 8.85% mandibles (unilateral - 7.6% [4.6% - left, 2.69% - right] and bilateral 1.6%). The most common position was below the second premolar (48.1%). AMF were round in shape (74%) and was often located either superomedial or inferolateral to MF. Their transverse diameter ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm. The AMF were situated at a mean distance of 2.96 mm from MF, 23.47 mm from symphysis menti, 11.24 mm from the lower border of the body of the mandible, and 57.35 mm from the posterior border of ramus of mandible. The knowledge of the presence of AMF and its dimensions would enable the clinicians to do mandibular procedures carefully and avoid injury to the branches of mental nerve that may be passing through it.

  3. Hidden female physiological resistance to male accessory gland substances in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Monica; Koene, Joris M

    2017-03-15

    To increase fertilization chances compared with rivals, males are favoured to transfer accessory gland proteins to females during mating. These substances, by influencing female physiology, cause alteration of her sperm usage and remating rate. Simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails with love-darts are a case in point. During courtship, a love-dart is pierced through the partner's body wall, thereby introducing accessory mucous gland products. This mucus physiologically increases paternity by inhibiting the digestion of donated sperm. The sperm, which are packaged in a spermatophore, are exchanged and received in an organ called the diverticulum. Because of its length, this organ was previously proposed to be a female anatomical adaptation that may limit the dart interference with the recipient's sperm usage. For reproductive success of the donor, an anatomically long spermatophore, relative to the partner's diverticulum, is beneficial as sperm can avoid digestion by exiting through the spermatophore's tail safely. However, the snail Eobania vermiculata possesses a diverticulum that is three times longer than the spermatophore it receives. Here, we report that the love-dart mucus of this species contains a contraction-inducing substance that shortens the diverticulum, an effect that is only properly revealed when the mucus is applied to another helicid species, Cornu aspersum This finding suggests that E. vermiculata may have evolved a physiological resistance to the manipulative substance received via the love-dart by becoming insensitive to it. This provides useful insight into the evolution of female resistance to male manipulations, indicating that it can remain hidden if tested on a single species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Anatomical evidence for the absence of a morphologically distinct cranial root of the accessory nerve in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Nirusha; Acland, Robert D; Rosse, Cornelius

    2002-01-01

    The accessory nerve is conventionally described as having a cranial and spinal root. According to standard descriptions the cranial root (or part) is formed by rootlets that emerge from the medulla between the olive and the inferior cerebellar peduncle. These rootlets are considered to join the spinal root, travel with it briefly, then separate within the jugular foramen to become part of the vagus nerve. In 15 fresh specimens we exposed the posterior cranial fossa with a coronal cut through the foramen magnum and explored the course of each posterior medullary rootlet (PMR) arising from within the retro-olivary groove. We chose the caudal end of the olive as the landmark for the caudal end of the medulla. In all specimens every PMR that did not contribute to the glossopharyngeal nerve joined the vagus nerve at the jugular foramen. The distance between the caudal limit of the olive and the origin of the most caudal PMR that contributed to the vagus nerve ranged from 1-21 mm (mean = 8.8 mm). All rootlets that joined the accessory nerve arose caudal to the olive. The distance from the caudal limit of the olive and the most rostral accessory rootlet ranged from 1-15 mm (mean = 5.4 mm). We were unable to demonstrate any connection between the accessory and vagus nerves within the jugular foramen. Our findings indicate that the accessory nerve has no cranial root; it consists only of the structure hitherto referred to as its spinal root. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Regulation of Bone Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone is formed through the processes of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. In endochondral ossification primary mesenchymal cells differentiate to chondrocytes and then are progressively substituted by bone, while in intramembranous ossification mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs differentiate directly into osteoblasts to form bone. The steps of osteogenic proliferation, differentiation, and bone homeostasis are controlled by various markers and signaling pathways. Bone needs to be remodeled to maintain integrity with osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, which are bone-degrading cells. In this review we considered the major factors and signaling pathways in bone formation; these include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, wingless-type (Wnt genes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2 and osteoblast-specific transcription factor (osterix or OSX.

  6. Bone disease in hypoparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Bart L

    2014-07-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a rare disorder that may be acquired or inherited. Postsurgical hypoparathyroidism is responsible for the majority of acquired hypoparathyroidism. Bone disease occurs in hypoparathyroidism due to markedly reduced bone remodeling due to the absence or low levels of parathyroid hormone. Chronically reduced bone turnover in patients with hypoparathyroidism typically leads to higher bone mass than in age- and sex-matched controls. Whether this increased bone density reduces fracture risk is less certain, because while increased bone mineralization may be associated with increased brittleness of bone, this does not appear to be the case in hypoparathyroidism. Treatment of hypoparathyroidism with recombinant parathyroid hormone may reduce bone mineral density but simultaneously strengthen the mechanical properties of bone.

  7. Bone-Immune Cell Crosstalk: Bone Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Mori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone diseases are associated with great morbidity; thus, the understanding of the mechanisms leading to their development represents a great challenge to improve bone health. Recent reports suggest that a large number of molecules produced by immune cells affect bone cell activity. However, the mechanisms are incompletely understood. This review aims to shed new lights into the mechanisms of bone diseases involving immune cells. In particular, we focused our attention on the major pathogenic mechanism underlying periodontal disease, psoriatic arthritis, postmenopausal osteoporosis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, metastatic solid tumors, and multiple myeloma.

  8. Macrophages and bone inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoli Gu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bone metabolism is tightly regulated by the immune system. Accelerated bone destruction is observed in many bone diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, fracture, and particle-induced osteolysis. These pathological conditions are associated with inflammatory responses, suggesting the contribution of inflammation to bone destruction. Macrophages are heterogeneous immune cells and are polarized into the proinflammatory M1 and antiinflammatory M2 phenotypes in different microenvironments. The cytokines produced by macrophages depend on the macrophage activation and polarization. Macrophages and macrophage-derived cytokines are important to bone loss in inflammatory bone disease. Recent studies have shown that macrophages can be detected in bone tissue and interact with bone cells. The interplay between macrophages and bone cells is critical to bone formation and repair. In this article, we focus on the role of macrophages in inflammatory bone diseases, as well as discuss the latest studies about macrophages and bone formation, which will provide new insights into the therapeutic strategy for bone disease.

  9. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  10. Temporal bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Although pluridirectional tomography had been the standard method to evaluate the temporal bone, computed tomography has replaced it for nearly all applications. Magnetic resonance imaging can demonstrate nonosseous temporal bone structures as well

  11. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or ... marrow makes too many white blood cells Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone ...

  12. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  13. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, De Groot ...

  14. Gracile bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2002-09-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  15. [Artificial bone substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koníček, Petr

    Bone tissue substitutes are divided into basic classification with its pros and cons described. Arteficial bone grafts are especially pointed out in article, publishing our own experience with two specific synthetic preps. Finally there is a blink in the near future of bone tissue augmentation.

  16. (unicameral) bone cysts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When encountering a radiologically benign lucent bone lesion in a child, a simple bone cyst is a reasonable diagnostic consideration. Simple or unicameral bone cysts are expansile, serous-fluid-containing defects, that are not true neoplasms. Peak age ranges between 3 and 14 years in. 80% of cases. The incidence is ...

  17. Detection and sequence analysis of accessory gene regulator genes of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ananda Chitra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP is the major pathogenic species of dogs involved in a wide variety of skin and soft tissue infections. The accessory gene regulator (agr locus of Staphylococcus aureus has been extensively studied, and it influences the expression of many virulence genes. It encodes a two-component signal transduction system that leads to down-regulation of surface proteins and up-regulation of secreted proteins during in vitro growth of S. aureus. The objective of this study was to detect and sequence analyzing the AgrA, B, and D of SP isolated from canine skin infections. Materials and Methods: In this study, we have isolated and identified SP from canine pyoderma and otitis cases by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and confirmed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Primers for SP agrA and agrBD genes were designed using online primer designing software and BLAST searched for its specificity. Amplification of the agr genes was carried out for 53 isolates of SP by PCR and sequencing of agrA, B, and D were carried out for five isolates and analyzed using DNAstar and Mega5.2 software. Results: A total of 53 (59% SP isolates were obtained from 90 samples. 15 isolates (28% were confirmed to be methicillinresistant SP (MRSP with the detection of the mecA gene. Accessory gene regulator A, B, and D genes were detected in all the SP isolates. Complete nucleotide sequences of the above three genes for five isolates were submitted to GenBank, and their accession numbers are from KJ133557 to KJ133571. AgrA amino acid sequence analysis showed that it is mainly made of alpha-helices and is hydrophilic in nature. AgrB is a transmembrane protein, and AgrD encodes the precursor of the autoinducing peptide (AIP. Sequencing of the agrD gene revealed that the 5 canine SP strains tested could be divided into three Agr specificity groups (RIPTSTGFF, KIPTSTGFF, and RIPISTGFF based on the putative AIP produced by each strain

  18. Cytology of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Cytology of bone is a useful diagnostic tool. Aspiration of lytic or proliferative lesions can assist with the diagnosis of inflammatory or neoplastic processes. Bacterial, fungal, and protozoal organisms can result in significant osteomyelitis, and these organisms can be identified on cytology. Neoplasms of bone including primary bone tumors such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, synovial cell sarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma and tumors of bone marrow including plasma cell neoplasia and lymphoma and metastatic neoplasia can result in significant bone lysis or proliferation and can be diagnosed effectively with cytology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Os cuboideum secundarium: A rare accessory ossicle with the potential to mimic a mass on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffmann, Gregory [University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Stacy, G.S. [University of Chicago, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Accessory ossicles are common incidental findings on radiographs of the ankle and foot. While typically asymptomatic and of no clinical significance, they are sometimes associated with local pain or even mistaken for pathological conditions such as fractures. Given the potential for misinterpretation, it is important to understand their typical locations and appearances. This case highlights an exceptionally rare accessory ossicle called the os cuboideum secundarium, located adjacent to the cuboid and calcaneus. Interestingly, this case demonstrates the potential for this rare ossicle to mimic a mass on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, despite the significant improvements in the understanding of musculoskeletal pathology afforded by advancements in cross-sectional imaging techniques, this case is a reminder of certain pitfalls that remain. Lastly, it highlights the importance of radiographs as an initial diagnostic study in evaluating foot pain. (orig.)

  20. Presence of accessory penis, colonic duplication and several other congenital anomalies in a child: a very rare association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sayan; Mondal, Prabodh Chandra; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Achar, Arun

    2014-10-01

    An accessory penis is a very rare anomaly. Only five cases have been reported thus far to our knowledge. We present the case of a child aged 2 years and 10 months who had a penis-like structure (containing phallus and glans) attached to the right buttock. Associated anomalies were a non-communicating type of colonic duplication, a paramedian stenosed anal opening, a horse-shoe kidney, posterior urethral valves, scoliosis of the lumbo-sacral spine, polydactyly and equino-varus deformity of the right foot. As far as we can tell, this is the first report of an accessory penis associated with colonic duplication and other congenital anomalies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Os cuboideum secundarium: A rare accessory ossicle with the potential to mimic a mass on magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, Gregory; Stacy, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Accessory ossicles are common incidental findings on radiographs of the ankle and foot. While typically asymptomatic and of no clinical significance, they are sometimes associated with local pain or even mistaken for pathological conditions such as fractures. Given the potential for misinterpretation, it is important to understand their typical locations and appearances. This case highlights an exceptionally rare accessory ossicle called the os cuboideum secundarium, located adjacent to the cuboid and calcaneus. Interestingly, this case demonstrates the potential for this rare ossicle to mimic a mass on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, despite the significant improvements in the understanding of musculoskeletal pathology afforded by advancements in cross-sectional imaging techniques, this case is a reminder of certain pitfalls that remain. Lastly, it highlights the importance of radiographs as an initial diagnostic study in evaluating foot pain. (orig.)

  2. Ultra violet radiation-induced defects in accessory cell function in the human proliferative response to tetanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretell, J.O.; Wimberly, J.; Parrish, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet B radiation (290-320 nm) has been shown to interfere with accessory cell function of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the generation of a proliferative response to tetanus. By altering the timing of irradiation of adherent cells and using short pulses of antigen, we have identified a minimum of two u.v. sensitive accessory cell functions. The first involves antigen presentation and is not readily reversible with time in culture after irradiation. The second is demonstrated by the ability of low doses of u.v. radiation given after the tetanus toxoid pulse to inhibit an event(s) occuring independent of antigen processing. Both occur within a range of doses which would penetrate to the vasculature of the skin of humans exposed to the sun or to phototherapy. (author)

  3. Immune evasion activities of accessory proteins Vpu, Nef and Vif are conserved in acute and chronic HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlcochova, Petra; Apolonia, Luis; Kluge, Silvia F; Sridharan, Aishwarya; Kirchhoff, Frank; Malim, Michael H; Sauter, Daniel; Gupta, Ravindra K

    2015-08-01

    Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission has been identified as a genetic bottleneck and a single transmitted/founder (T/F) variant with reduced sensitivity to type I interferon initiates productive infection in most cases. We hypothesized that particularly active accessory protein(s) may confer T/F viruses with a selective advantage in establishing HIV infection. Thus, we tested vpu, vif and nef alleles from six T/F and six chronic (CC) viruses in assays for 9 immune evasion activities involving the counteraction of interferon-stimulated genes and modulation of ligands known to activate innate immune cells. All functions were highly conserved with no significant differences between T/F and CC viruses, suggesting that these accessory protein functions are important throughout the course of infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chlorophyll accessory pigments collected from OSCAR ELTON SETTE in North Pacific Ocean from 2008-03-01 to 2011-04-01 (NODC Accession 0129395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the chlorophyll accessory pigments measured from discrete depth water samples collected in CTD-mounted 10 liter Niskin bottles as part of NOAA...

  5. Chlorophyll accessory pigments collected from NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in North Pacific Ocean from 2008-03-01 to 2011-04-01 (NCEI Accession 0129395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the chlorophyll accessory pigments measured from discrete depth water samples collected in CTD-mounted 10 liter Niskin bottles as part of NOAA...

  6. Bone disease in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V.; Hansen, Stinus; Frost, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are generally accepted to be associated with increased bone fracture risk. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetic bone disease are poorly understood, and whether the associated increased skeletal fragility is a comorbidity or a complication of diabetes...... remains under debate. Although there is some indication of a direct deleterious effect of microangiopathy on bone, the evidence is open to question, and whether diabetic osteopathy can be classified as a chronic, microvascular complication of diabetes remains uncertain. Here, we review the current...... knowledge of potential contributory factors to diabetic bone disease, particularly the association between diabetic microangiopathy and bone mineral density, bone structure, and bone turnover. Additionally, we discuss and propose a pathophysiological model of the effects of diabetic microvascular disease...

  7. Bone regeneration in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Paolo; Duvina, Marco; Barbato, Luigi; Biondi, Eleonora; Nuti, Niccolò; Brancato, Leila; Rose, Giovanna Delle

    2011-01-01

    Summary The edentulism of the jaws and the periodontal disease represent conditions that frequently leads to disruption of the alveolar bone. The loss of the tooth and of its bone of support lead to the creation of crestal defects or situation of maxillary atrophy. The restoration of a functional condition involves the use of endosseous implants who require adequate bone volume, to deal with the masticatory load. In such situations the bone need to be regenerated, taking advantage of the biological principles of osteogenesis, osteoinduction and osteoconduction. Several techniques combine these principles with different results, due to the condition of the bone base on which we operate changes, the surgical technique that we use, and finally for the bone metabolic conditions of the patient who can be in a state of systemic osteopenia or osteoporosis; these can also affect the result of jaw bone reconstruction. PMID:22461825

  8. Bone stress injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuru, M.J.; Pihlajamaeki, H.K.; Ahovuo, J.A. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-05-01

    Bone stress injuries are due to cyclical overuse of the bone. They are relatively common in athletes and military recruits but also among otherwise healthy people who have recently started new or intensive physical activity. Diagnosis of bone stress injuries is based on the patient's history of increased physical activity and on imaging findings. The general symptom of a bone stress injury is stress-related pain. Bone stress injuries are difficult to diagnose based only on a clinical examination because the clinical symptoms may vary depending on the phase of the pathophysiological spectrum in the bone stress injury. Imaging studies are needed to ensure an early and exact diagnosis, because if the diagnosis is not delayed most bone stress injuries heal well without complications.

  9. Bone allografting in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovoy, M. A.; Kirilova, I. A.; Podorognaya, V. T.; Matsuk, S. A.; Novoselov, V. P.; Moskalev, A. V.; Bondarenko, A. V.; Afanasev, L. M.; Gubina, E. V.

    2017-09-01

    A total of 522 patients with benign and intermediate bone tumors of various locations, aged 1 to 15 years, were operated in the period from 1996 to 2016. To diagnose skeleton tumors, we used clinical observation, X-ray, and, if indicated, tomography and tumor site biopsy. In the extensive bone resection, we performed bone reconstruction with the replacement of a defect with an allograft (bone strips, deproteinized and spongy grafts), sometimes in the combination with bone autografting. After segmental resection, the defects were filled with bone strips in the form of matchstick grafts; the allografts were received from the Laboratory for Tissue Preparation and Preservation of the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics. According to the X-ray data, a complete reorganization of bone grafts occurred within 1.5 to 3 years. The long-term result was assessed as good.

  10. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  11. BONES WITH BIOCERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about ceramics in application as bone implant. Bioceramics for instance Hydroxyapatite, usually is abbreviated with HA or HAp, is a mineral that is very good physical properties as bone replacement in human body. To produce Hydroxyapatite, coating process is used which have good potential as they can exploit the biocompatible and bone bonding properties of the ceramic. There are many advantages and disadvantages of bioceramics as bone implant. Advantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are rapidly integrated into the human body, and is most interesting property that will bond to bone forming indistinguishable unions. On contrary, disadvantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are poor mechanical properties (in particular fatigue properties mean that hydroxyapatite cannot be used in bulk form for load bearing applications such as orthopaedics and poor adhesion between the calcium phosphate coating and the material implant will occur.

  12. Classical torus conformal block, = 2∗ twisted superpotential and the accessory parameter of Lamé equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatek, Marcin

    2014-03-01

    In this work the correspondence between the semiclassical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory on the torus and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the = 2∗ (Ω-deformed) U(2) super-Yang-Mills theory is used to propose new formulae for the accessory parameter of the Lamé equation. This quantity is in particular crucial for solving the problem of uniformization of the one-punctured torus. The computation of the accessory parameters for torus and sphere is an open longstanding problem which can however be solved if one succeeds to derive an expression for the so-called classical Liouville action. The method of calculation of the latter has been proposed some time ago by Zamolod-chikov brothers. Studying the semiclassical limit of the four-point function of the quantum Liouville theory on the sphere they have derived the classical action for the Riemann sphere with four punctures. In the present work Zamolodchikovs idea is exploited in the case of the Liouville field theory on the torus. It is found that the Lamé accessory parameter is determined by the classical Liouville action on the one-punctured torus or more concretely by the torus classical block evaluated on the saddle point intermediate classical weight. Secondly, as an implication of the aforementioned correspondence it is obtained that the torus accessory parameter is related to the sum of all rescaled column lengths of the so-called "critical" Young diagrams extremizing the instanton "free energy" for the = 2∗ gauge theory. Finally, it is pointed out that thanks to the known relation the sum over the "critical" column lengths can be expressed in terms of a contour integral in which the integrand is built out of certain special functions.

  13. Localization of accessory pathway in patients with wolff-parkinson-white syndrome from surface ecg using arruda algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidullah, S.; Shah, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To ablate accessory pathway successfully and conveniently, accurate localization of the pathway is needed. Electrophysiologists use different algorithms before taking the patients to the electrophysiology (EP) laboratory to plan the intervention accordingly. In this study, we used Arruda algorithm to locate the accessory pathway. The objective of the study was to determine the accuracy of the Arruda algorithm for locating the pathway on surface ECG. Methods: It was a cross-sectional observational study conducted from January 2014 to January 2016 in the electrophysiology department of Hayat Abad Medical Complex Peshawar Pakistan. A total of fifty nine (n=59) consecutive patients of both genders between age 14-60 years presented with WPW syndrome (Symptomatic tachycardia with delta wave on surface ECG) were included in the study. Patient's electrocardiogram (ECG) before taking patients to laboratory was analysed on Arruda algorithm. Standard four wires protocol was used for EP study before ablation. Once the findings were confirmed the pathway was ablated as per standard guidelines. Results: A total of fifty nine (n=59) patients between the age 14-60 years were included in the study. Cumulative mean age was 31.5 years ± 12.5 SD. There were 56.4% (n=31) males with mean age 28.2 years ± 10.2 SD and 43.6% (n=24) were females with mean age 35.9 years ± 14.0 SD. Arruda algorithm was found to be accurate in predicting the exact accessory pathway (AP) in 83.6% (n=46) cases. Among all inaccurate predictions (n=9), Arruda inaccurately predicted two third (n=6; 66.7%) pathways towards right side (right posteroseptal, right posterolateral and right antrolateral). Conclusion: Arruda algorithm was found highly accurate in predicting accessory pathway before ablation. (author)

  14. Brazil and the new luxury: an analysis of the consumption and creation of luxury apparel and accessories in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Galsworthy, Antony

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates how a rising nation’s consumers and producers are defining their relationship with luxury apparel and accessories. In the context of these products it seeks to identify the core attributes required to merit the luxury soubriquet, in order to arrive at a contemporary definition that also encompasses the impact of branding both of product and place of origin. Luxury consumption accompanies rapid economic growth and the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, China) have become...

  15. Accessory Meningeal Arterial Supply to the Posterior Nasal Cavity: Another Reason for Failed Endovascular Treatment of Epistaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, I.C.; Santos, C. Dos

    2003-01-01

    A patient with intractable posterior epistaxis was treated with embolization of the ipsilateral sphenopalatine and facial arteries and contralateral sphenopalatine artery. She continued to bleed despite a seemingly adequate embolization procedure. A second angiogram revealed a significant collateral blood supply to the posterior nasal cavity from the accessory meningeal artery not identified during the first procedure. This was then embolized with no further epistaxis encountered. This case demonstrates yet another collateral arterial pathway that might account for a failed embolization

  16. Homology of the Fifth Epibranchial and Accessory Elements of the Ceratobranchials among Gnathostomes: Insights from the Development of Ostariophysans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Murilo; Bockmann, Flávio Alicino; de Carvalho, Marcelo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Epibranchials are among the main dorsal elements of the gill basket in jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Among extant fishes, chondrichthyans most resemble the putative ancestral condition as all branchial arches possess every serially homologous piece. In osteichthyans, a primitive rod-like epibranchial 5, articulated to ceratobranchial 5, is absent. Instead, epibranchial 5 of many actinopterygians is here identified as an accessory element attached to ceratobranchial 4. Differences in shape and attachment of epibranchial 5 in chondrichthyans and actinopterygians raised suspicions about their homology, prompting us to conduct a detailed study of the morphology and development of the branchial basket of three ostariophysans (Prochilodus argenteus, Characiformes; Lophiosilurus alexandri and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Siluriformes). Results were interpreted within a phylogenetic context of major gnathostome lineages. Developmental series strongly suggest that the so-called epibranchial 5 of actinopterygians does not belong to the epal series because it shares the same chondroblastic layer with ceratobranchial 4 and its ontogenetic emergence is considerably late. This neomorphic structure is called accessory element of ceratobranchial 4. Its distribution among gnathostomes indicates it is a teleost synapomorphy, occurring homoplastically in Polypteriformes, whereas the loss of the true epibranchial 5 is an osteichthyan synapomorphy. The origin of the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 appears to have occurred twice in osteichthyans, but it may have a single origin; in this case, the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 would represent a remnant of a series of elements distally attached to ceratobranchials 1–4, a condition totally or partially retained in basal actinopterygians. Situations wherein a structure is lost while a similar neomorphic element is present may lead to erroneous homology assessments; these can be avoided by detailed morphological and

  17. Prolonged Intracellular Na+ Dynamics Govern Electrical Activity in Accessory Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaph Zylbertal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent activity has been reported in many brain areas and is hypothesized to mediate working memory and emotional brain states and to rely upon network or biophysical feedback. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which persistent neuronal activity can be generated without feedback, relying instead on the slow removal of Na+ from neurons following bursts of activity. We show that mitral cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, which plays a major role in mammalian social behavior, may respond to a brief sensory stimulation with persistent firing. By combining electrical recordings, Ca2+ and Na+ imaging, and realistic computational modeling, we explored the mechanisms underlying the persistent activity in AOB mitral cells. We found that the exceptionally slow inward current that underlies this activity is governed by prolonged dynamics of intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i, which affects neuronal electrical activity via several pathways. Specifically, elevated dendritic [Na+]i reverses the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger activity, thus modifying the [Ca2+]i set-point. This process, which relies on ubiquitous membrane mechanisms, is likely to play a role in other neuronal types in various brain regions.

  18. Study of degradation on polypropylene accessories used in radiotherapy services due to interaction with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Antonio R.; Azevedo, Elaine C.; Soboll, Danyel S.

    2013-01-01

    Polypropylene is a polymer used in radiotherapy services as immobilization parts and masks due to their thermoplastic properties that allow specific formats of construction and has a low cost production. However this material can present degradation over time and may hinder basic procedures as cleaning between uses of this accessory. In this study, samples of PP (polypropylene) were evaluated before and after irradiation with doses from 5 kGy to 25 kGy by infrared absorption spectrometry and contact angle analysis. The infrared spectrum showed material degradation by analyzing the peaks corresponding to the chemical bonds C-H, C-H2 and C-H3 which increased absorption to all doses when compared with the non-irradiated spectrum. The contact angle demonstrated that on the PP surface the contact angle decreased in all comparisons among samples irradiated and non-irradiated, showing a hydrophilic behavior. However, starting at 20 kGy it was observed less variation of angles when compared with lower doses. Irradiated at 25 kGy the material presented a contact angle almost identical to the non-irradiated material. (author)

  19. Activity Dependent Modulation of Granule Cell Survival in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb at Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio Oboti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The vomeronasal system (VNS is specialized in the detection of salient chemical cues triggering social and neuroendocrine responses. Such responses are not always stereotyped, instead, they vary depending on age, sex, and reproductive state, yet the mechanisms underlying this variability are unclear. Here, by analyzing neuronal survival in the first processing nucleus of the VNS, namely the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, through multiple bromodeoxyuridine birthdating protocols, we show that exposure of female mice to male soiled bedding material affects the integration of newborn granule interneurons mainly after puberty. This effect is induced by urine compounds produced by mature males, as bedding soiled by younger males was ineffective. The granule cell increase induced by mature male odor exposure is not prevented by pre-pubertal ovariectomy, indicating a lesser role of circulating estrogens in this plasticity. Interestingly, the intake of adult male urine-derived cues by the female vomeronasal organ increases during puberty, suggesting a direct correlation between sensory activity and AOB neuronal plasticity. Thus, as odor exposure increases the responses of newly born cells to the experienced stimuli, the addition of new GABAergic inhibitory cells to the AOB might contribute to the shaping of vomeronasal processing of male cues after puberty. Consistently, only after puberty, female mice are capable to discriminate individual male odors through the VNS.

  20. The "hidden" concealed left-sided accessory pathway: An uncommon cause of SVT in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Robert H; Liberman, Leonardo; Silver, Eric S; Janson, Christopher M; Blaufox, Andrew D; Nappo, Lynn; Ceresnak, Scott R

    2018-01-12

    Concealed left-sided accessory pathways (CLAP) are a cause of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in the young. Most are mapped with right ventricular (RV) apical/outflow pacing. Rarely, alternative means of mapping are required. We review our experience from three pediatric electrophysiology (EP) centers with a rare form of "hidden" CLAP. All patients SVT and one AFIB (4%). APs were adenosine sensitive in 7/20 patients (35%) and VA conduction was decremental in six (26%). CLAP conduction was demonstrable with orthodromic reentrant tachycardia in all patients, with RV extrastimulus testing in seven (30%) and with rapid RV pacing (

  1. Does breathing type influence electromyographic activity of obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, M F; Valenzuela, S; Miralles, R; Portus, C; Santander, H; Fuentes, A D; Celhay, I

    2014-11-01

    Craniomandibular electromyographic (EMG) studies frequently include several parameters, e.g. resting, chewing and tooth-clenching. EMG activity during these parameters has been recorded in the elevator muscles, but little is known about the respiratory muscles. The aim of this study was to compare EMG activity in obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles between subjects with different breathing types. Forty male subjects were classified according to their breathing type into two groups of 20 each: costo-diaphragmatic breathing type and upper costal breathing type. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm, external intercostal and latissimus dorsi muscles. EMG activity was recorded during the following tasks: (i) normal quiet breathing, (ii) maximal voluntary clenching in intercuspal position, (iii) natural rate chewing until swallowing threshold, (iv) short-time chewing. Diaphragm EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal breathing type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in all tasks (P breathing type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in tasks 3 and 4 (P breathing types in the tasks studied (P > 0·05). The significantly higher EMG activity observed in subjects with upper costal breathing than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type suggests that there could be differences in motor unit recruitment strategies depending on the breathing type. This may be an expression of the adaptive capability of muscle chains in subjects who clinically have a different thoraco-abdominal expansion during inspiration at rest. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Assembly and breakdown of Cajal bodies in accessory nuclei of Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglarz, Mariusz K; Bilinski, Szczepan M; Kloc, Malgorzata

    2005-03-01

    In some species of insects, oocytes have vesicular organelles, termed accessory nuclei (ANs). The ANs form by budding off from the nuclear envelope of the oocyte and are filled with translucent matrix containing dense inclusions. One type of these inclusions contains coilin and small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and is homologous to Cajal bodies. We describe the early events in the morphogenesis of Cajal bodies in the ANs (ANCBs) of the common wasp, Vespula germanica, and show that they contain survival of motor neurons (SMN) protein. We present evidence that in the wasp, ANCBs form by the gradual accumulation of aggregates composed of SMN and small nuclear RNAs. We also show that ANCBs break down and disperse within the ANs as the ANs, which initially surround the oocyte nucleus, localize to the oocyte cortex. The components of dispersed ANCBs are retained within ANs until the end of oogenesis, which suggests that their function may be required at the onset of embryonic development. Because the morphology and behavior of ANs and their Cajal body-like inclusions are conserved in two other hymenopteran species, these features might be characteristic of all hymenopterans.

  3. Accessory atlantoaxial ligament avulsion fracture of the axis: Are there any clinical implications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Niknejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to the craniocervical support structures are frequently observed in neurotrauma cases. Stability of this region is of vital importance. Literature has mainly focused on three major ligaments of the craniocervical junction: The tectorial membrane, the transverse ligament, and the alar ligaments. However, the accessory atlantoaxial ligament (ALL also seems to be involved in craniocervical stability as shown in cadaveric specimens. Still, the biomechanical importance of this structure needs to be determined, especially in trauma settings. Here, we describe a case of isolated traumatic injury to this structure and discuss the clinical outcome. A 64 year old polytrauma patient with a remarkable avulsion fracture at the site of the insertion of the ALL was admitted to our center. We evaluated the patient both clinical and radiological at admission, after 3 months and after 1 year. We clinically assessed the upper cervical rotational stability using the cervical flexion rotation test. We observed no rotational instability or any other clinical repercussions at the long term after an isolated ALL injury. This case shows that isolated traumatic damage to the ALL is possible. Unilateral damage to the ALL probably does not cause rotational instability of the craniocervical junction. In case a similar avulsion fracture is observed, we recommend performing a magnetic resonance imaging of the craniovertebral region to assess for any ligamentous lesions.

  4. Diagnosis of accessory conduction pathway using ECG-gated emission CT analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misaki, Takuro; Mukai, Keiichi; Tsubota, Makoto; Iwa, Takashi; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Hisada, Kin-ichi

    1987-01-01

    Pinpointing the location of accessory conduction pathway (ACP) is of great importance in the surgical treatment for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. For this purpose, this study explored the usefulness of ECG-gated emission computed tomography (Gated-ECT) in 30 patients who preoperatively underwent Gated-ECT. The site of earliest contraction at level of atrioventicular valves, obtained on tomographic phase analysis, was compared with the site of earliest activation, obtained on epicardial mapping during surgery. The concordance rate of the two methods was 94 % (28/30). Among them, one patient was found to have the association of corrected transposition of great arteries on Gated-ECT. Gated-ECT was, however, of limited value in differentiating right posterior ACP from right postseptal ACP. The discordance between the sites of earliest contraction and activation, which was observed in the two others, was likely due to decreased wall motion resulting from myocardial disturbance. Gated-ECT may have a diagnostic potential for the location of ACP, especially in view of providing images that corresponded to the surgical anatomy. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Epithelioid Myoepithelioma of the Accessory Parotid Gland: Pathological and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyoshi Iguchi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumors of the accessory parotid gland (APG are rare, and pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common benign APG tumor subtype. Myoepithelioma of the APG is much rarer than PA, and to date, only 5 cases have been sporadically reported in the English literature. We describe the clinicopathological and MRI findings of an epithelioid myoepithelioma of the APG that was treated in our hospital. The patient's only clinical symptom was a slow-growing and painless mid-cheek mass. The tumor was suspected to be PA before surgery based on the following MRI findings: (1 a well-circumscribed and lobulated contour, (2 isointensity and hyperintensity relative to the muscle on T1- and T2-weighted images (WIs, respectively, (3 good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-WIs, (4 peripheral hypointensity on T2-WIs, and (5 a gradual time-signal intensity curve enhancement pattern on gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI. The tumor was completely resected via a standard parotidectomy approach, and the postoperative pathological examination of the tumor, including immunohistochemistry, confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid myoepithelioma. As it is hardly possible to distinguish myoepithelioma from PA and low-grade malignant tumors preoperatively, a pathological examination using frozen sections is helpful for surgical strategy-related decisions.

  6. Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 accessory proteins that suppress beta interferon production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Kenji; Gotoh, Bin

    2007-07-01

    The paramyxovirus P gene encodes accessory proteins antagonistic to interferon (IFN). Viral proteins responsible for the IFN antagonism, however, are distinct among paramyxoviruses. Here we determine bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bPIV3) IFN antagonists that suppress IFN-beta production, and investigate the underlying molecular mechanism. Of bPIV3 P gene products, C and V proteins were found to suppress double-stranded RNA-stimulated IFN-beta production. The V protein of bPIV3 and Sendai virus in the same genus Respirovirus significantly inhibits double-stranded RNA-stimulated IFN-beta production and the IFN-beta promoter activation enhanced by overexpression of MDA5 but not RIG-I, and yet does not suppress IFN-beta production induced by TRIF, TBK1, and IKKi. The V protein of both viruses specifically binds to MDA5 but not RIG-I. These results suggest that the V protein targets MDA5 for blockage of the IFN-beta gene activation signal. On the other hand, both bPIV3 and Sendai virus C proteins modestly inhibited IFN-beta production irrespective of a species of the signaling molecules used as an inducer. Interestingly, reporter gene expression driven by various promoters was also suppressed by the C proteins irrespective of the promoter species. These results demonstrate that the target of the respirovirus C protein is undoubtedly different from that of the V protein.

  7. Accessory components in gas-lubricated floating ring seals; Zusatzeinrichtungen an gasgeschmierten Gleitringdichtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, C.; Victor, K.H.

    1995-12-31

    The present paper uses existing designs of floating-ring seal systems to illustrate their use as accessory components in gas-lubricated axial-face seals. These floating-ring seals may be used as pre-seals on the side of the axial-face seal facing the product. Here they are subject to high ambient pressure and small pressure differences. On the side of the axial-face seal facing the sliding bearing they are used as post-seals, where they are subject to atmospheric conditions and small pressure differences. The authors present various purpose-specific designs of these seal systems. Theoretical calculation models are compared with measuring results obtained under conditions close to actual practice. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand von ausgefuehrten Konstruktionen werden Schwimmring-Dichtungssysteme als Zusatzeinrichtung an gasgeschmierten Gleitringdichtungen (GLRD) erlaeutert. Auf der produktzugewandten Seite der GLRD werden diese Schwimmringdichtungen als Vordichtung (Pre-Seal) eingesetzt, die bei hohen Umgebungsdruecken und geringen Druckdifferenzen betrieben werden. Auf der dem Gleitlager zugewandten Seite der GLRD werden Schwimmringdichtungen bei atmosphaerischen Bedingungen und ebenfalls geringen Druckdifferenzen als nachgeschaltete Dichtung (Post-Seal) eingesetzt. Es werden konstruktive Loesungen fuer die verschiedenen Aufgaben dieser Dichtungssysteme vorgestellt. Theoretische Berechnungsmodelle werden mit praxisnahen Messergebnissen verglichen. (orig.)

  8. Spinal accessory nerve injury: A potentially missed cause of a painful, droopy shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Steven; Ross, Douglas C; Doherty, Timothy J; Doherty, Christopher D; Miller, Thomas A

    2016-11-21

    Spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury can be an overlooked cause of scapular winging and shoulder dysfunction. The most common etiology is iatrogenic injury following surgical procedures at the posterior triangle of the neck. We present three cases of isolated injury to the SAN following trauma. To improve detection of SAN injuries through highlighting the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment via three cases in which the injuries were initially missed. Clinical case series and narrative review. Three (3) patients were evaluated by history, physical exam and electrodiagnostic study (EMG). Clinical symptoms included, a painful, droopy shoulder and difficulties with overhead activities. Clinical signs included the observation of scapular winging, and focal atrophy of the trapezius and in some cases the sternocleidomastoid (SCM). Novel clinical signs such as the active elevation lag sign and triangle sign were also helpful clinically to highlight the SAN as the site of pathology. EMG revealed denervation and reduced motor unit recruitment in the trapezius and SCM. Early detection of SAN injuries can be improved through appropriate clinical suspicion, a detailed history and careful physical exam. EMG testing can help guide prognosis, direct conservative and surgical treatment, and reduce patient morbidity.

  9. Laparoscopic Resection of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Suzumura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIAS is rare. We herein report a case of a patient with ECIAS who underwent laparoscopic surgery. A 57-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of a pancreatic tail tumor. She was asymptomatic, and a physical examination revealed no remarkable abnormalities. The levels of the tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9 and s-pancreas-1 antigen (SPan-1 were elevated. Ultrasonography showed a well-defined homogeneous cystic tumor. Computed tomography showed a well-demarcated cystic tumor in the pancreatic tail. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the cystic tumor exhibited low intensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2-weighted images. The cystic tumor was diagnosed as mucinous cystic neoplasm preoperatively. The patient underwent laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. A histopathological examination revealed the cyst wall to be lined by stratified squamous epithelium within splenic parenchyma, and the ultimate diagnosis was ECIAS. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 12. ECIAS is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Laparoscopic surgery is a safe and minimally invasive procedure for patients with difficult-to-diagnose pancreatic tail tumor suspected of having low-grade malignancy.

  10. Encountering the Accessory Polar Renal Artery during Laparoscopic Para-Aortic Lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Moo; Choi, Joong Sub; Bae, Jaeman; Jung, Un Suk; Eom, Jeong Min

    2018-01-01

    A 60-year-old Korean woman underwent laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and was confirmed to have high-grade serous carcinoma of both ovaries with a huge omental cake, extensive agglutinated intra-abdominal metastatic masses, extensive serosa invasion of the intestines, and mesenterial deposits. She underwent 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by laparoscopic interval debulking surgery, including hysterectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy, appendectomy, partial peritonectomy, and omentectomy. We encountered the right accessory polar renal artery (APRA) during the surgery and carefully preserved the right APRA from the abdominal aorta to the right kidney (Fig. 1). Postoperative computed tomography angiography showed an intact right APRA and normal-appearing kidney (Fig. 2). The patient had adjuvant chemotherapy and is alive without disease recurrence. Because APRA is a functional end artery, it is important to preserve it during surgery to prevent ischemic damage and renal failure [1]. It is very important for the gynecologic-oncologist to have knowledge of the retroperitoneal vascular anatomy, experience in laparoscopic surgery, and an accurate surgical technique to avoid vascular injury during laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimation of Phytoplankton Accessory Pigments From Hyperspectral Reflectance Spectra: Toward a Global Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, A. P.; Boss, E.; Cetinić, I.; Slade, W.

    2017-12-01

    Phytoplankton community composition in the ocean is complex and highly variable over a wide range of space and time scales. Able to cover these scales, remote-sensing reflectance spectra can be measured both by satellite and by in situ radiometers. The spectral shape of reflectance in the open ocean is influenced by the particles in the water, mainly phytoplankton and covarying nonalgal particles. We investigate the utility of in situ hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance measurements to detect phytoplankton pigments by using an inversion algorithm that defines phytoplankton pigment absorption as a sum of Gaussian functions. The inverted amplitudes of the Gaussian functions representing pigment absorption are compared to coincident High Performance Liquid Chromatography measurements of pigment concentration. We determined strong predictive capability for chlorophylls a, b, c1+c2, and the photoprotective carotenoids. We also tested the estimation of pigment concentrations from reflectance-derived chlorophyll a using global relationships of covariation between chlorophyll a and the accessory pigments. We found similar errors in pigment estimation based on the relationships of covariation versus the inversion algorithm. An investigation of spectral residuals in reflectance data after removal of chlorophyll-based average absorption spectra showed no strong relationship between spectral residuals and pigments. Ultimately, we are able to estimate concentrations of three chlorophylls and the photoprotective carotenoid pigments, noting that further work is necessary to address the challenge of extracting information from hyperspectral reflectance beyond the information that can be determined from chlorophyll a and its covariation with other pigments.

  12. Age-related location of manifest accessory pathway and clinical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembilla-Perrot, Béatrice; Huttin, Olivier; Olivier, Arnaud; Sellal, Jean Marc; Villemin, Thibaut; Manenti, Vladimir; Moulin-Zinsch, Anne; Marçon, François; Simon, Gauthier; Andronache, Marius; Beurrier, Daniel; de Chillou, Christian; Girerd, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Accessory pathway (AP) ablation is not always easy. Our purpose was to assess the age-related prevalence of AP location, electrophysiological and prognostic data according to this location. Electrophysiologic study (EPS) was performed in 994 patients for a pre-excitation syndrome. AP location was determined on a 12 lead ECG during atrial pacing at maximal preexcitation and confirmed at intracardiac EPS in 494 patients. AP location was classified as anteroseptal (AS)(96), right lateral (RL)(54), posteroseptal (PS)(459), left lateral (LL)(363), nodoventricular (NV)(22). Patients with ASAP or RLAP were younger than patients with another AP location. Poorly-tolerated arrhythmias were more frequent in patients with LLAP than in other patients (0.009 for ASAP, 0.0037 for RLAP, location was confirmed at intracardiac EPS. Among untreated patients, poorly-tolerated arrhythmia occurred in patients with LLAP (3) or PSAP (6). Failures of ablation were more frequent for AS or RL AP than for LL or PS AP. AS and RLAP location in pre-excitation syndrome was more frequent in young patients. Maximal rate conducted over AP was lower than in other locations. Absence of poorly-tolerated arrhythmias during follow-up and higher risk of ablation failure should be taken into account for indications of AP ablation in children with few symptoms.

  13. Incidence of Accessory Phrenic Nerve and its Clinical Significance: A Cadaveric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhagya R. Nayak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of accessory phrenic nerve (APN in the standard textbooks and available literature is vague and sometimes limited to few lines. The incidence of APN varies a great deal from 17.6 % to 80.9 % in the available literature. The aim of the present study was to calculate the incidence and variation of APN in Indian population. Material and methods: Forty five adult formalin-fixed cadavers (35 male, 10 female; 90 sides used for gross anatomy dissection for undergraduates; during the 2 year period 2006–2007 were considered. Findings were recorded at different stages of the dissection. Results: Out of 90 body sides studied, the APN was present in 48 sides (53.3 %. In 17 of the above sides the APN was confined to the cervical region (Cervical type and in 31 sides the APN entered the thorax (Thoracic type, all anterior to the subclavian vein (SV. In eleven specimens the APN was found bilaterally. Conclusion: The incidence of APN, with its course and relation to the various structures in cervical and thoracic region will help the surgeons while performing internal thoracic artery (ITA grafting and other radical neck surgery.

  14. Radiologic Evaluation of the Renal Axis in Patients with an Accessory Renal Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Joon Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lim, Joo Won; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Eun Ha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between an accessory renal artery (ARA) and the renal axis seen on radiographs. The MDCT axial images of 428 patients were used to detect the presence of an ARA and its location. The plain radiographs were used to measure the renal axis angle, which was the angle between the longitudinal spinal axis and the renal axis. We correlated these results to determine the association between an ARA and the renal axis. Of the 856 kidneys (428 patients), 19 kidneys had an ARA in the upper pole, 63 kidneys had an ARA in the hilum and 20 kidneys had an ARA in the lower pole. The mean renal axis angles of these three groups were 16.7 degrees, 15.9 degrees and 11.2 degrees respectively. The mean renal axis angle without an ARA was 16.8 degrees. The renal axis angles with an ARA in the upper pole or hilum showed no significant differences compared to those without an ARA. However, the renal axis angle with an ARA in the lower pole was significantly smaller than those without an ARA. On plain radiographs, the axis of kidneys with an ARA in the lower pole maybe more vertical than those without an ARA

  15. Stenosing Tenosynovitis of the Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Associated with the Plantar Capsular Accessory Ossicle at the Interphalangeal Joint of the Great Toe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Ho Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus tendon associated with the plantar capsular accessory ossicle at the interphalangeal joint of the great toe, which was confirmed by intraoperative observation and was successfully treated with surgical resection of the ossicle. As the plantar capsular accessory ossicle was not visible radiographically due to the lack of ossification, ultrasonography was helpful for diagnosing this disorder.

  16. Effects of breathing maneuver and sitting posture on muscle activity in inspiratory accessory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ki-song; Byun, Min-kwang; Lee, Won-hwee; Cynn, Heon-seock; Kwon, Oh-yun; Yi, Chung-hwi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background To determine the influence of breathing maneuver and sitting posture on tidal volume (TV), respiratory rate (RR), and muscle activity of the inspiratory accessory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Twelve men with COPD participated in the study. Inductive respiratory plethysmography and surface electromyography were used to simultaneously measure TV, RR, and muscle activity of the inspiratory accessory muscles [the scalenus (SM),...

  17. Potential health hazards associated with exposures to asbestos-containing drywall accessory products: A state-of-the-science assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelka, Amanda D; Finley, Brent L

    2012-01-01

    Until the late 1970s, chrysotile asbestos was an ingredient in most industrial and consumer drywall accessory products manufactured in the US. In 1977, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) issued a ban of consumer patching compounds containing "respirable, free-form asbestos" based on their prediction of exceptionally high rates of asbestos-related diseases among individuals using patching compounds for as little as a few days. Although hundreds of thousands of workers and homeowners handling these products may have experienced exposure to asbestos prior to the ban, there has been no systematic effort to summarize and interpret the information relevant to the potential health effects of such exposures. In this analysis, we provide a comprehensive review and analysis of the scientific studies assessing fiber type and dimension, toxicological and epidemiological endpoints, and airborne fiber concentrations associated with joint compound use. We conclude that: 1) asbestos in drywall accessory products was primarily short fiber (compound particulate is probably not biopersistent in the lung, 3) estimated cumulative chrysotile exposures experienced by workers and homeowners are below levels known to be associated with respiratory disease, and 4) mortality studies of drywall installers have not demonstrated a significantly increased incidence of death attributable to any asbestos-related disease. Consequently, contrary to the predictions of the CPSC, the current weight of evidence does not indicate any clear health risks associated with the use of asbestos-containing drywall accessory products. We also describe information gaps and suggest possible areas of future research.

  18. Mitogenic activation of B cells in vitro: the properties of adherent accessory cells as revealed by partition analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettman, J.R.; Soederberg, A.; Lefkovits, I.

    1986-08-15

    The requirement of B cells activated by mitogen (dextran sulfate plus lipopolysaccharide) for accessory cells was studied by partition analysis. Small numbers of splenic B cells were activated to clonal growth, as determined by visual inspection, and to immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis, as determined by release of Ig into the culture fluid. By placing irradiated adherent cells in the periphery of the microculture wells and forcing responding cells to different areas of the well (slant experiments), it was observed that no cell contact was necessary for B cell activation, and that promoted contact (Rock and Roll experiments) does not increase the efficiency of activation. Sequential microcultures suggest that only some irradiated adherent cells act as accessory cells, but they can perform this function to more than one B cell. Attempts to perform limiting dilution analysis by varying irradiated adherent cell input showed non-single-hit behavior. When the data were rearranged, taking into account the distribution of irradiated adherent cells, then single-hit behavior with about 1 to 5% of irradiated adherent cells acting as an accessory cells for B cell clonal activation was observed. The evidence suggests that an uncommon irradiated adherent cell releases a soluble factor necessary for B cell activation and/or clonal proliferation.

  19. Congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Gu, Yongchun; Zhang, Li; Hua, Zequan

    2014-03-01

    We report a rare case of congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region in an adult. The patient, a 25-year-old woman, complained of 3 masses in her right midcheek. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings showed an irregular-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the masseter muscle region, an ellipse-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the right buccal region, and a comma-shaped mass (no calcifications) with a well-defined margin separate from the parotid gland in the right accessory parotid gland region. These iconographic findings suggested that the masses were all hemangiomas separately originating from the parotid gland, accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle. The masses were completely removed through a standard parotid incision without postoperative facial palsy, skin deformity, and difficulty in secreting saliva. Findings from histologic examination of the tumor revealed multiple, thin-walled, and dilated blood vessels, confirming the diagnosis of cavernous hemangiomas. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings were extremely useful in diagnosing the mass/masses as hemangioma before surgery, clarifying relationships between the mass and adjacent structures, and determining the surgical approach to the mass/masses.

  20. Synergistic action of recombinant accessory hemicellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes to Trichoderma reesei cellulase on rice straw degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Bunterngsook, Benjarat; Suwannarangsee, Surisa; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Champreda, Verawat

    2015-12-01

    Synergism between core cellulases and accessory hydrolytic/non-hydrolytic enzymes is the basis of efficient hydrolysis of lignocelluloses. In this study, the synergistic action of three recombinant accessory enzymes, namely GH62 α-l-arabinofuranosidase (ARA), CE8 pectin esterase (PET), and GH10 endo-1,4-beta-xylanase (XYL) from Aspergillus aculeatus expressed in Pichia pastoris to a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase (Accellerase® 1500; ACR) on hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated rice straw was studied using a mixture design approach. Applying the full cubic model, the optimal ratio of quaternary enzyme mixture was predicted to be ACR:ARA:PET:XYL of 0.171:0.079:0.100:0.150, which showed a glucose releasing efficiency of 0.173 gglc/FPU, higher than the binary ACR:XYL mixture (0.122 gglc/FPU) and ACR alone (0.081 gglc/FPU) leading to a 47.3% increase in glucose yield compared with that from ACR at the same cellulase dosage. The result demonstrates the varying degree of synergism of accessory enzymes to cellulases useful for developing tailor-made enzyme systems for bio-industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical results of a new strategy (modified CHIVA) for surgical treatment of anterior accessory great saphenous varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Fernández, Nicolás; Linares-Palomino, Jose Patricio; López-Espada, Cristina; Martínez-Gámez, Francisco Javier; Ros-Díe, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Traditionally, anterior accessory great saphenous vein insufficiency was managed by crossectomy and resection of varicose veins. The aim of this paper is to show the safety and efficacy of a new therapeutic strategy for anterior accessory great saphenous varicose veins. This non-randomised prospective study included 65 patients with varicose veins from the anterior accessory great saphenous vein. The novelty of the technique is to avoid the great saphenous vein crossectomy and perform just flebectomy of the visible veins. Venous duplex studies were performed preoperatively, a month and a year postoperatively. The clinical assessment was done by the Fligelstone scale. The baseline CEAP clinical classification was: 58% C2, 26% C3 and 15% C4-6. The new strategy was applied to all cases. 3 haematomas, 7 cases of asymptomatic partial anterior saphenous thrombosis. Reduction of the initial average diameter was from 6.4 mm anterior saphenous to 3.4 mm by one year (p <0.001). At twelve months a forward flow is maintained in 82% of cases. Recurrence of varicose veins was 8%. All patients improved their clinical status based on the Fligelstone scale. Cases with saphenous diameter bigger than 7.5 mm and obesity were identified as predictors of worse clinical and hemodynamic outcome. This modified surgical strategy for anterior saphenous varicose veins results in better clinical outcomes at one year postoperatively. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Mitogenic activation of B cells in vitro: the properties of adherent accessory cells as revealed by partition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettman, J.R.; Soederberg, A.; Lefkovits, I.

    1986-01-01

    The requirement of B cells activated by mitogen (dextran sulfate plus lipopolysaccharide) for accessory cells was studied by partition analysis. Small numbers of splenic B cells were activated to clonal growth, as determined by visual inspection, and to immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis, as determined by release of Ig into the culture fluid. By placing irradiated adherent cells in the periphery of the microculture wells and forcing responding cells to different areas of the well (slant experiments), it was observed that no cell contact was necessary for B cell activation, and that promoted contact (Rock and Roll experiments) does not increase the efficiency of activation. Sequential microcultures suggest that only some irradiated adherent cells act as accessory cells, but they can perform this function to more than one B cell. Attempts to perform limiting dilution analysis by varying irradiated adherent cell input showed non-single-hit behavior. When the data were rearranged, taking into account the distribution of irradiated adherent cells, then single-hit behavior with about 1 to 5% of irradiated adherent cells acting as an accessory cells for B cell clonal activation was observed. The evidence suggests that an uncommon irradiated adherent cell releases a soluble factor necessary for B cell activation and/or clonal proliferation

  3. [Bone homeostasis and Mechano biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoki

    The weight-bearing exercises help to build bones and to maintain them strength. Bone is constantly renewed by the balanced action of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption both of which mainly occur at the bone surface. This restructuring process called "bone remodeling" is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. During bone remodeling, resorption by osteoclasts precedes bone formation by osteoblasts. Based on the osteocyte location within the bone matrix and the cellular morphology, it is proposed that osteocytes potentially contribute to the regulation of bone remodeling in response to mechanical and endocrine stimuli.

  4. Toxicokinetics of bone lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, M B

    1991-02-01

    This article discusses bone as a source of lead to the rest of the body and as a record of past lead exposure. Bone lead levels generally increase with age at rates dependent on the skeletal site and lead exposure. After occupational exposure, the slow decline in blood lead, a 5- to 19-year half-life, reflects the long skeletal half-life. Repeated measurements of bone lead demonstrate the slow elimination of lead from bone. Stable isotope ratios have revealed many details of skeletal uptake and subsequent release. The bulk turnover rates for compact bone are about 2% per year and 8% for spine. Turnover activity varies with age and health. Even though lead approximates calcium, radium, strontium, barium, fluorine, and other bone seekers, the rates for each are different. A simple, two-pool (bone and blood) kinetic model is presented with proposed numerical values for the changes in blood lead levels that occur with changes in turnover rates. Two approaches are offered to further quantify lead turnover. One involves a study of subjects with known past exposure. Changes in the ratio of blood lead to bone lead with time would reflect the course of bone lead availability. Also, stable isotopes and subjects who move from one geographical area to another offer opportunities. Sequential isotope measurements would indicate how much of the lead in blood is from current exposure or bone stores, distinct from changes in absorption or excretion.

  5. Biomaterials and bone mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikavitsas, V. I.; Temenoff, J. S.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Bone is an extremely complex tissue that provides many essential functions in the body. Bone tissue engineering holds great promise in providing strategies that will result in complete regeneration of bone and restoration of its function. Currently, such strategies include the transplantation of highly porous scaffolds seeded with cells. Prior to transplantation the seeded cells are cultured in vitro in order for the cells to proliferate, differentiate and generate extracellular matrix. Factors that can affect cellular function include the cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the biochemical and the mechanical environment. To optimize culture conditions, good understanding of these parameters is necessary. The new developments in bone biology, bone cell mechanotransduction, and cell-surface interactions are reviewed here to demonstrate that bone mechanotransduction is strongly influenced by the biomaterial properties.

  6. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more-serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss [Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, http://research.hq.nasa.gov/code_u/bcpr/index.cfm]. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It shows that an extrapolation of the microgravity induced bone loss rates to longer time scales, such as a 2.5 year round-trip to Mars (6 months out at 0 g, 1.5 year stay on Mars at 0.38 g, 6 months back at 0 g), could severely compromise the skeletal system of such a person.

  7. Poster - 23: Dosimetric Characterization and Transferability of an Accessory Mounted Mini-Beam Collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, William; Crewson, Cody; Alexander, Andrew; Cranmer-Sargison, Gavin; Kundapur, Vijayananda

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The dosimetric characterization of an accessory-mounted mini-beam collimator across three beam matched linear accelerators. Materials and Methods: Percent depth dose and profiles were measured for the open and mini-beam collimated fields. The average beam quality and peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR), the ratio of average peak dose to average valley dose, were obtained from these measurements. The open field relative output and the mini-beam collimator factor, the ratio of the mini-beam dose to open field dose at the beam center, were measured for square fields of side 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm. Mini-beam output as a function of collimator inclination angle relative to the central axis was also investigated. Results and Discussion: Beam quality for both the open and mini-beam collimated fields agreed across all linacs to within ±1.0%. The PVDR was found to vary by up to ±6.6% from the mean. For the 2, 3, and 4 cm fields the average open field relative output with respect to the 5 cm field was 0.874±0.4%, 0.921±0.3%, and 0.962±0.1%. The average collimator factors were 0.450±3.9%, 0.443±3.9%, 0.438±3.9%, and 0.434±3.9%. A decrease in collimator factor greater than 7% was found for an inclination angle change of 0.09°. Conclusion: The mini-beam collimator has revealed a difference between the three linacs not apparent in the open field data, yet transferability can still be attained through thorough dosimetric characterization.

  8. Determination of radon concentration in water using RAD7 with RAD H2O accessories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M. F. I.; Rabaiee, N. A.; Jaafar, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the radon issue has become one of the major problems of radiation protection. Radon exposure occurs when using water for showering, washing dishes, cooking and drinking water. RAD7 and Rad H20 accessories were used in order to measure radon concentration in water sample. In this study, four types of water were concerns which are reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Reverse osmosis (drinking water) and mineral water were bought from the nearest supermarket while tap water and well water were taken from selected areas of Pulau Pinang and Kedah. Total 20 samples were taken with 5 samples for each type of water. The measured radon concentration ranged from 2.9±2.9 to 79.5±17 pCi/L, 2.9±2.9 to 67.8±16 pCi/L, 15.97±7 to 144.25±24 pCi/L and 374.89±37 to 6409.03±130 pCi/L in reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Well water has the highest radon compared to others. It was due to their geological element such as granite. Results for all types of water are presented and compared with maximum contamination limit (MCL) recommended by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) which is 300pCi/L. Reverse osmosis water, mineral water and tap water were fall below MCL. However, well water was exceeded maximum level that was recommended. Thus, these findings were suggested that an action should be taken to reduce radon concentration level in well water as well as reduce a health risk towards the public

  9. Importance of accessory outflow pathways in hydrocephalus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebel, R.W.; Black, P.M.; Pile-Spellman, J.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    This study evaluated the changes in pathways of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow that accompanied acute and compensated hydrocephalus in the rabbit. Intraventricularly injected 99mTc antimony sulfide was used as a tracer of outflow pathways, and specified structures were counted 12 to 24 hours after injection. Fifteen rabbits were divided into three groups: 1) an acutely hydrocephalic group in which 3 cisternal injections of blood were followed by a study of CSF pressure, ventricular size, and CSF outflow pathways 1 week after the last injection; 2) a control group treated according to the same protocol, except that sterile saline was injected instead of blood; and 3) a chronic group also treated according to the same protocol but in which the animals were maintained an average of 4 weeks after the last blood injection. Ventricular size was measured by computed digitation and expressed as an area ratio of ventricle to brain (VBR). In control animals, 11.8% of the injected colloid dosage was found in cranial perineural lymphatic channels, and 4.8% appeared in the spinal cord. The mean CSF pressure was 149 +/- 20.2 mm H20 (mean +/- SE) and the mean VBR was 0.040 +/- 0.003. In animals evaluated 1 week after subarachnoid injection, accessory cranial perineural lymphatic outflow decreased significantly to 3.4%, and spinal cord activity increased to 9.8% (P less than 0.05, two-tailed t-test). These animals were hydrocephalic and had CSF pressure of 247 +/- 25.1 mm H20 (mean +/- SE) and VBR of 0.083 +/- 0.009

  10. A Practical ECG Criterion to Unmask Left Accessory AV Connections in Patients With Subtle Preexcitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J Jenkins; Shah, Jignesh; Charnigo, Richard; Tackett, Andrea; Darrat, Yousef H; Bailey, Alison; Delisle, Brian; Kakavand, Bahram; DI Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Morales, Gustavo; Elayi, Claude S

    2015-05-20

    Accessory AV-connections capable of antegrade conduction need to be recognized because of the potential for life-threatening arrhythmias. However, the preexcited ECG pattern may be subtle, especially among left-sided AV-connections. We explored whether additional ECG criteria might help identify left-sided AV-connections. We analyzed 156 patients who underwent an electrophysiology study (EPS) and ablation for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias (PSVT). Patients were divided into 2 groups: those with left-sided AV-connections (Group 1) and all other PSVT (Group 2). Various ECG parameters were compared before and after ablation in both groups. The EPS identified left-sided AV-connections among 43 patients (Group 1) and excluded it among 113 (Group 2). Baseline ECG in Group 1 demonstrated obvious preexcitation among 24/43 patients (55.8%), the remaining 19/43 missing obvious preexcitation. R/S ratio > 0.5 in V1 was noted in 38/43 (88.4%) patients in Group 1 before ablation (median 1.00; IQR 0.58-2.20), including 16/19 (84.2%) patients lacking obvious left-sided AVconnections. Conversely, only 10/113 (8.8%) patients in Group 2 had R/S ratios in V1 ≥ 0.5 (0.20; 0.10-0.31), P AV-connections (sensitivity 93.0%). The negative predictive value of this combined criterion was 103/106 (97.2%). In symptomatic patients, combining the R/S ratio (≥ 0.5) in lead V1 with the classic preexcitation pattern on ECG markedly improved the sensitivity to diagnose left-sided AV-connections. This ratio may be particularly useful among patients lacking obvious preexcitation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Distinctive Accessory Minerals, Textures and Crystal Habits in Biofilm Associated Gypsum Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M.; Des Marais, D.; Jahnke, L.; Parenteau, M.

    2008-12-01

    Gypsum-depositing environments near Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico were investigated in order to differentiate the influence of microbial activity versus nonbiological processes upon sedimentary fabrics and minerals. Field sites were located in sabkhas (mudflats and anchialine pools) and in seawater concentration ponds in the salt production facility operated by Exportadora de Sal, S. A. Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) was classified according to sedimentary environment (e.g., mudflats, anchialine pools, saltern ponds, surface and subsurface sediments), sedimentary texture, mineral composition, crystal habit, brine composition and other geochemical and biological factors. Gypsum types that develop in the absence of biofilms include water column precipitates (pelagic grains) and subsedimentary crystalline discs that form from phreatic brine ripening. Subsedimentary gypsum forming in sabkha environments had a sinuous axial microtexture and poikilitically enclosed detrital particles whereas water column precipitates exhibited euhedral prismatic habits and extensive penetrative twinning. Gypsum that was influenced by biofilms included cumulate crusts and gypsooids / gypsolite developing in anchialine pools and in saltern concentration ponds. Gypsum precipitating within subaqueous benthic microbial mats, or biofilm/sediment surfaces offered compelling evidence of biofilm influence on crystal textures and habits. Biofilm effects include irregular high relief surface textures, accessory minerals (elemental sulfur, Ca-carbonate, Sr/Ca-sulfate, Mg-oxide and Mg- sulfate) and distinctive crystal habits. Elemental sulfur, Ca-carbonate, and Sr/Ca-sulfate are known byproducts of bacterially mediated sulfate reduction (BSR). Populations of gypsum crystals within biofilms exhibited euhedral to lensoidal morphologies with unique equant and distorted prismatic forms. These forms had been shown to arise from form- and face-specific inhibition by bioorganic functional groups (Cody

  12. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  13. Complete genome viral phylogenies suggests the concerted evolution of regulatory cores and accessory satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Zanotto, Paolo Marinho; Krakauer, David C

    2008-01-01

    We consider the concerted evolution of viral genomes in four families of DNA viruses. Given the high rate of horizontal gene transfer among viruses and their hosts, it is an open question as to how representative particular genes are of the evolutionary history of the complete genome. To address the concerted evolution of viral genes, we compared genomic evolution across four distinct, extant viral families. For all four viral families we constructed DNA-dependent DNA polymerase-based (DdDp) phylogenies and in addition, whole genome sequence, as quantitative descriptions of inter-genome relationships. We found that the history of the polymerase gene was highly predictive of the history of the genome as a whole, which we explain in terms of repeated, co-divergence events of the core DdDp gene accompanied by a number of satellite, accessory genetic loci. We also found that the rate of gene gain in baculovirus and poxviruses proceeds significantly more quickly than the rate of gene loss and that there is convergent acquisition of satellite functions promoting contextual adaptation when distinct viral families infect related hosts. The congruence of the genome and polymerase trees suggests that a large set of viral genes, including polymerase, derive from a phylogenetically conserved core of genes of host origin, secondarily reinforced by gene acquisition from common hosts or co-infecting viruses within the host. A single viral genome can be thought of as a mutualistic network, with the core genes acting as an effective host and the satellite genes as effective symbionts. Larger virus genomes show a greater departure from linkage equilibrium between core and satellites functions.

  14. Evaluation of the accessory mental foramen in a pediatric population using cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantekin, K; Şekerci, Ae

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the occurrence, diameter, and location of the accessory mental foramen (AMF) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images from a sample of Turkish children. This retrospective was carried out using a total of 275 CBCT images from child and adolescent patients were randomly selected from existing records in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology at the University of Erciyes, Kayseri, Turkey. The mental foramen (MF) and AMF were assessed on axial, sagittal, and coronal CBCT slices. The mean age was 10.51 ± 3.32 years, consisting of 139 males (mean age 10.64 ± 3.42) and 126 females (mean age 10.38 ± 3.18). Twenty-one AMFs were observed in 18 of 275 patients (6.5%, 10 boys and eight girls). There was no significant difference in gender in relation to the prevalence of AMF (p = 0.65). The mean area of the 21 AMFs and the MF on the side with the AMF were 0.7 mm² (SD ± 0.5) and 3.8 mm² (SD ± 2.2), respectively. It is important to stress that detecting the AMN using CBCT with 3D reconstructions may reduce the risk of paralysis, hemorrhage, and postoperative pain in this region. Our study presents the first report assessing the occurrence, diameter, and location of the AMF in the pediatric population using CBCT images. In this respect, not surprisingly, the mean size of the AMF of our population is smaller than other reports in the literature that involve adult populations.

  15. Detection and characterization of the mandibular accessory buccal foramen using CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisman, Y; Sahman, H; Sekerci, AE; Tokmak, T T; Aksu, Y; Mavili, E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the frequency and characteristics of the mandibular accessory buccal foramen (ABF) with CT. Methods A retrospective study was carried out using the CT records of 504 patients referred to the Erciyes University Medical School (Kayseri, Turkey) between 2007 and 2010. Presence, location, diameter, area and number of ABFs and their continuity with mandibular canal and distance to the mental foramen were evaluated using axial, sagittal and three-dimensional CT images. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS® v. 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL), and t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results 14 ABFs were observed in 10 (2%) of 504 patients. The frequency of ABFs was found to be 2.6% in males and 1% in females. The mean distance between the ABF and the mental foramen was 5.0 mm [standard deviation (SD) ± 2.48]. The mean long axis of the ABFs was 1.4 mm (SD ± 0.4) and the mean area of them was 1.5 mm2 (SD ± 0.8). The mean area of the mental foramen on the side with the ABF was 4.1 mm2 (SD ± 2.71). Conclusions This study presents a relatively lower frequency of ABFs than that in the literature. These foramina could have more complex neurovascular structures than was previously thought. Thus, in special cases where a direct surgical exploration during the planned surgery is not indicated, CT or cone beam CT examination to determine the possible presence of ABFs may be indicated. PMID:22499130

  16. Detection and characterization of the accessory mental foramen using cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihan; Yang, Xiangwen; Zhang, Bichu; Wei, Bin; Gong, Yao

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the frequency and characteristics of accessory mental foramina (AMFs) and their bony canals in a selected Chinese population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Reconstructed CBCT images of the mandible in 784 Chinese patients (305 males and 479 females) were retrospectively analysed to identify the AMF. The presence, dimension and location of the AMF as well as the origin and course of the associated bony canal were evaluated and classified. Variations in these characteristics were analysed according to gender, side and age. A total of 66 AMFs were found in 57 (7.3%) of the 784 patients. The frequency of AMFs was significantly influenced by gender and side of the mandible (p mental foramen) accounted for 54.5% of the total. The mean horizontal and vertical diameters of the AMF were 1.38 ± 0.47 and 1.23 ± 0.37 mm, respectively. Two typical types of the bony canal leading to the AMF were identified according to their bifurcation site from the mandibular canal. Most bony canals originated from the anterior loop of the mental canal (56.1%) and coursed posterosuperiorly (36.3%). The mean length of the bony canals was 5.78 ± 2.31 mm. This study presents a considerable frequency of AMFs in a Chinese population. The high-position AMF and the associated bony canal coursing in the oblique upward direction appear frequently. Thus, clinicians should be alert to the presence of the AMF to avoid neurovascular complications especially when dental procedures require periosteum detachment and implant insertion in the mental region.

  17. Morphological analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands of the bat Artibeus lituratus (Phyllostomidae: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Renata T S; Pires, Laís R M; Albernaz, Edna S S; Andrade, Cleber S; Santiago, Cornélio S; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R; Beguelini, Mateus R

    2018-02-01

    Bats are distributed worldwide from tropical to temperate regions. Despite their wide geographical radiation and advances in studies using evolutionary approaches, aspects related to the reproduction of these animals remain poorly explored, especially those related to the male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the morphophysiology of the male RAGs in the bat Artibeus lituratus. The RAGs in A. lituratus are composed of a compact intra-abdominal glandular complex, consisting of the prostate with two prostatic regions (ventral and dorsal), plus Littre glands and a pair of extra-abdominal bulbourethral glands. The ventral region of the prostate has an epithelium with variable morphology, due to its holocrine type of secretion. In contrast, the dorsal region has a typical cubic-to-columnar pseudostratified epithelium. Both regions contain two cell types, basal and secretory cells. Similar to the epithelial morphology, the secretion also varies, with the ventral region containing numerous PAS-positive globular vesicles, whereas the dorsal region has a more fluid, hyaline and PAS-negative secretion. Littre glands are dispersed in the connective tissue of the urethra, while the bulbourethral glands are located in the penile root, both glands with cubic-to-columnar pseudostratified epithelium and globular PAS-positive secretion. The results demonstrate that the RAGs of A. lituratus are composed of two prostatic regions, ventral and dorsal, and urethral and bulbourethral glands, with no seminal vesicles. Each prostatic region has unique and distinctive characteristics, with the ventral region presenting an exclusive holocrine nature and the dorsal region having similarities to the ventral prostate of rodents. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Ignition systems and blasting accessories; L'amorcage et les accessoires de tir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Mouza, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 75 - Paris (France); Monnery, J. [SFEPA, 92 - Puteaux (France); Vuillaume, P. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (INERIS) (France); Cervellera, St. [Titanite SA, 21 - Pontailler sur Saone (France); Houeix, T.

    2002-03-01

    1. General: Blasting caps or detonators are the main elements of the pyrotechnical sequence. They should be reliable in order to guaranty the quality, the safety and the energy liberated by the explosive. They transmit to the explosive the minimum required energy to initiate the detonation. The pyrotechnical sequence comprises a mechanical or electrical device, the blasting cap able to produce a shock or a spark initiating the explosion directly or through a primary explosive more sensible than the main one. 2. Initiation systems: Various types of systems are described determining the way the shock wave is propagated within the explosive. Initiation may be made punctually, by means of a detonator or laterally by means of a cord. Detonators may be operated electrically, non-electrically or electronically. Special devices allow for the retardation of the initiation. 3. Retardation reliability and accuracy: Some points about the consequences of dispersions in lengths of retardation of detonators such as the possible overlapping of explosive loads and combination of vibration trains in the environment are discussed. A smaller dispersion offered by electronic detonators, which are by far the most frequently used, should be able to overcome these difficulties. 4. Impact of the initiation on the explosive yield: The way the ignition is performed has a direct consequence on the yield of the explosive. When a primer explosive is utilised as a booster, various factors (weight, position and diameter) play an important role on the detonation pressure and speed. A chart indicates the explosive energy liberated depending on the way ignition is performed. 5. Blasting accessories: Dynamos were largely used in the past to generate the electric current required to actuate blasting caps. Now this electric current is generated by the discharge of capacitors associated with electronic devices to control the blasting sequence. Ohmmeters are also used to check the electric circuits

  19. The petrous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise Schjellerup; Heinemeier, Jan; Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Intraskeletal variation in the composition of carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) stable isotopes measured in collagen is tested from various human bones and dentine. Samples were taken from the femur, rib, and petrous part of the temporal bone from well-preserved skeletons of both adul...... of this study it is believed the petrous bone may be a new useful bone element and a supplement or a proxy for teeth in the analysis of early dietary patterns as it may reflect diet in fetal stages and early years of life....

  20. Toxicokinetics of bone lead.

    OpenAIRE

    Rabinowitz, M B

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses bone as a source of lead to the rest of the body and as a record of past lead exposure. Bone lead levels generally increase with age at rates dependent on the skeletal site and lead exposure. After occupational exposure, the slow decline in blood lead, a 5- to 19-year half-life, reflects the long skeletal half-life. Repeated measurements of bone lead demonstrate the slow elimination of lead from bone. Stable isotope ratios have revealed many details of skeletal uptake a...

  1. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favus, Murray J.

    2008-09-01

    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  2. Traumatic bone cyst, idiopathic origin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    BACKGROUND: Traumatic bone cyst (TBC) is an uncommon non-epithelial lined cavity of the jaws. Traumatic bone cysts have been reported in the literature under a variety of names: solitary bone cyst, haemorrhagic bone cyst, extravasation cyst and simple bone cyst. The multitude of names applied to this lesion implies ...

  3. Extraskeletal and intraskeletal new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix combined with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, T.S.; Nilsson, O.S.; Lindholm, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    Dilutions of fresh autogenous bone marrow cells in combination with allogeneic demineralized cortical bone matrix were tested extraskeletally in rats using roentgenographic, histologic, and 45 Ca techniques. Suspensions of bone marrow cells (especially diluted 1:2 with culture media) combined with demineralized cortical bone seemed to induce significantly more new bone than did demineralized bone, bone marrow, or composite grafts with whole bone marrow, respectively. In a short-term spinal fusion experiment, demineralized cortical bone combined with fresh bone marrow produced new bone and bridged the interspace between the spinous processes faster than other transplantation procedures. The induction of undifferentiated host cells by demineralized bone matrix is further complemented by addition of autogenous, especially slightly diluted, bone marrow cells

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special ...

  6. Bone-building exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exercise plays an important role in the retention of bone density in the aging person. Studies show that exercises requiring muscles to pull on bones cause the bones to retain and possibly gain density.

  7. Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go on to optimize their bone mass. Teen pregnancy and bone health. Teenage mothers may be at especially high risk for bone loss during pregnancy and for osteoporosis later in life. Unlike older ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How ... bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  9. Biologicals and bone loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krieckaert, C.L.M.; Lems, W.F.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory joint diseases are associated with extra-articular side effects including bone involvement.There is an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. The pathogeneses of local and generalized bone loss share a common pathway. Early and active rheumatoid arthritis is associated with

  10. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium supplement if necessary. • Vitamin D. Your body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium and move it into ... bone density test? • Should I take calcium and vitamin D supplements? How much do I need? • Do I need medication for my bone loss? • ...

  11. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Won-Jong; Mirra, Joseph M.

    2004-01-01

    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  12. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  13. Flexoelectricity in Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Sancho, Fabian; Abdollahi, Amir; Damjanovic, Dragan; Catalan, Gustau

    2018-03-01

    Bones generate electricity under pressure, and this electromechanical behavior is thought to be essential for bone's self-repair and remodeling properties. The origin of this response is attributed to the piezoelectricity of collagen, which is the main structural protein of bones. In theory, however, any material can also generate voltages in response to strain gradients, thanks to the property known as flexoelectricity. In this work, the flexoelectricity of bone and pure bone mineral (hydroxyapatite) are measured and found to be of the same order of magnitude; the quantitative similarity suggests that hydroxyapatite flexoelectricity is the main source of bending-induced polarization in cortical bone. In addition, the measured flexoelectric coefficients are used to calculate the (flexo)electric fields generated by cracks in bone mineral. The results indicate that crack-generated flexoelectricity is theoretically large enough to induce osteocyte apoptosis and thus initiate the crack-healing process, suggesting a central role of flexoelectricity in bone repair and remodeling. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Benign bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilday, D.L.; Ash, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    There is little information in the literature concerning the role of bone scanning in benign bone neoplasms except for sporadic reports. Since the advent of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate, bone imaging has proven feasible and useful in locating the cause of bone pain, such as in osteoid osteomas, which are not always radiologically apparent, and in evaluating whether or not a radiologic lesion is indeed benign and solitary. Blood-pool images are particularly important in neoplastic disease, since the absence of hyperemia in the immediate postinjection period favors the diagnosis of a benign neoplasm, as does low-grade uptake on the delayed study. The scan, including pinhole magnification images, is especially valuable in diagnosing lesions in the spine and pelvis, which are poorly seen radiologically. We have studied various types of benign bone tumors, including simple and aneurysmal bone cysts, fibrous cortical defects, and nonossifying fibromas, all of which had minimal or no increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical, unless traumatized. Although osteochondromas and enchondromas showed varied accumulation of activity, the scan was useful in differentiating these from sarcomatous lesions. All osteoid osteomas demonstrated marked activity, and could be accurately located preoperatively, as could the extent of fibrous dysplasia. The bone scan in the reticuloses also showed abnormal accumulation of activity, and aided in arriving at the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic bone lesions

  15. Caisson disease of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P J; Walder, D N

    1986-09-01

    Caisson disease of bone, which may affect compressed air workers and divers, is characterized by regions of bone and marrow necrosis that may lead to secondary osteoarthrosis of the hip and shoulder joints. A review of the pathologic, radiologic, and clinical aspects demonstrated uncertainties in the exact etiology. Early diagnosis is often not possible because of the delayed appearance of radiologic abnormalities. Research into these two aspects of this condition was carried out by the Medical Research Council Decompression Sickness Research Team in Newcastle upon Tyne over a ten-year period (1972 to 1982). Because no suitable animal model exists for the study of this condition, bone and marrow necrosis was produced by embolism of bone blood vessels with glass microspheres. With this model, it was shown that the presence of bone and marrow necrosis could be detected by bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-MDP and by measuring changes in serum ferritin concentration at a much earlier stage than was possible by radiography. However, only the former method has proved useful in clinical practice. Investigations into the etiology of caisson disease of bone have shown evidence for an increase in marrow fat cell size resulting from hyperoxia. This phenomenon may play a role in the production and localization of gas bubble emboli, which are thought to be the cause of the bone and marrow necrosis.

  16. Children's bone health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis can be divided in two main parts. In the first part (Chapter 2 to 5) bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition in healthy children and young adults have been evaluated, while in the second part (Chapter 6 to 10) these issues were studied in children

  17. Accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve transfer to restore shoulder exorotation in otherwise spontaneously recovered obstetric brachial plexus lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ouwerkerk, Willem J R; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Strijers, Rob L M; Frans, Nollet; Holl, Kurt; Fellner, Franz A; Vandertop, W Peter

    2006-10-01

    A systematic follow-up of infants with an obstetric brachial plexus lesion of C5 and C6 or the superior trunk showing satisfactory spontaneous recovery of shoulder and arm function except for voluntary shoulder exorotation, who underwent an accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer to improve active shoulder exorotation, to evaluate for functional recovery, and to understand why other superior trunk functions spontaneously recover in contrast with exorotation. In 54 children, an accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer was performed as a separate procedure at a mean age of 21.7 months. Follow-up examinations were conducted before and at 4, 8, 12, 24, and 36 months after operation and included scoring of shoulder exorotation and abduction. Intraoperative reactivity of spinatus muscles and additional needle electromyographic responses were registered after electrostimulation of suprascapular nerves. Histological examination of suprascapular nerves was performed. Trophy of spinatus muscles was followed by magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The influence of perinatal variables and results of ancillary investigations on outcome were evaluated. Exorotation improved from 70 degrees to functional levels exceeding 0 degrees, except in two patients. Abduction improved in 27 patients, with results of 90 degrees or more in 49 patients. Electromyography at 4 months did not show signs of denervation in 39 out of 40 patients. Intraoperative electrostimulation of suprascapular nerves elicited spinatus muscle reaction in 44 out of 48 patients. Histology of suprascapular nerves was normal. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scans showed only minor wasting of spinatus muscles in contrast with major wasting after successful operations. An accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer is effective to restore active exorotation when performed as the primary or a separate secondary procedure in children older than 10 months of age. Contradictory spontaneous recovery of other superior

  18. Isolation and killing of candidate chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells by antibody targeting of IL-1 receptor accessory protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järås, Marcus; Johnels, Petra; Hansen, Nils Gunder

    2010-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is genetically characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, formed through a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 and giving rise to the constitutively active tyrosine kinase P210 BCR/ABL1. Therapeutic strategies aiming for a cure of CML...... will require full eradication of Ph chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) CML stem cells. Here we used gene-expression profiling to identify IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP) as up-regulated in CML CD34(+) cells and also in cord blood CD34(+) cells as a consequence of retroviral BCR/ABL1 expression. To test...

  19. Isoform-specific functions of Mud/NuMA mediate binucleation of Drosophila male accessory gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Kokuryo, Akihiko; Imano, Takao; Minami, Ryunosuke; Nakagoshi, Hideki; Adachi-Yamada, Takashi

    2014-12-20

    In standard cell division, the cells undergo karyokinesis and then cytokinesis. Some cells, however, such as cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, can produce binucleate cells by going through mitosis without cytokinesis. This cytokinesis skipping is thought to be due to the inhibition of cytokinesis machinery such as the central spindle or the contractile ring, but the mechanisms regulating it are unclear. We investigated them by characterizing the binucleation event during development of the Drosophila male accessory gland, in which all cells are binucleate. The accessory gland cells arrested the cell cycle at 50 hours after puparium formation (APF) and in the middle of the pupal stage stopped proliferating for 5 hours. They then restarted the cell cycle and at 55 hours APF entered the M-phase synchronously. At this stage, accessory gland cells binucleated by mitosis without cytokinesis. Binucleating cells displayed the standard karyokinesis progression but also showed unusual features such as a non-round shape, spindle orientation along the apico-basal axis, and poor assembly of the central spindle. Mud, a Drosophila homolog of NuMA, regulated the processes responsible for these three features, the classical isoform Mud(PBD) and the two newly characterized isoforms Mud(L) and Mud(S) regulated them differently: Mud(L) repressed cell rounding, Mud(PBD) and Mud(S) oriented the spindle along the apico-basal axis, and Mud(S) and Mud(L) repressed central spindle assembly. Importantly, overexpression of Mud(S) induced binucleation even in standard proliferating cells such as those in imaginal discs. We characterized the binucleation in the Drosophila male accessory gland and examined mechanisms that regulated unusual morphologies of binucleating cells. We demonstrated that Mud, a microtubule binding protein regulating spindle orientation, was involved in this binucleation. We suggest that atypical functions exerted by three structurally different isoforms of Mud regulate

  20. Complete diphallia, imperforate ani (type 2 atresia ani), and an accessory scrotum in a 5-day-old calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loynachan, Alan T; Jackson, Carney B; Harrison, Lenn R

    2006-07-01

    A 5-day-old Angus calf was submitted to the necropsy service at the University of Kentucky Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center. At birth, the calf was noted to have 2 scrota. Five days post-calving the calf developed severe tenesmus and an umbilical infection. Clinical examination revealed atresia ani. At necropsy, complete diphallus, imperforate ani (type 2 atresia ani), and remnants of 2 scrota were identified. This report describes the gross pathologic appearance of a rare case of complete diphallia, imperforate ani (type 2 atresia ani), and an accessory scrotum in a 5-day-old calf.

  1. Location of accessory pathways and its radiofrequency ablation in Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukajlović Dejan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA of accessory pathways (AP is the first line therapy in symptomatic patients with preexcitation syndrome, resistant to medical therapy. Objective: To evaluate the influence of AP location on RFA effectiveness. Method: The study compared RFA results of AP located on the left side, right side, and in septal area of the heart in the first 101 consecutive patients treated at Dedinje Cardiovascular Institute in Belgrade. Results: There was no significant difference between the right-, left- and septal-AP in relation to primary success rates (66.7%, 84.3%, 73.7%, respectively, p=0.285, recurrence rates (12.5%, 6.97%,14.3%, p=0.591, and final success rates (66%, 84.3%, 78.9%, p=0.37. Maximally achieved interface temperature was lowest at right-sided AP (49.8±1.9єC as compared to the left (53.0±3.5єC or septal AP (52.9±3.0єC (p<0.01. Fluoroscopy time did not differ significantly (p=0.062, while total procedure time and the number of applied RF pulses was higher in the left-sided AP as compared to other two (104.6±44.9 for the left, 98.9±47.5 for the right and 80.7±39.8 minutes for the septal AP, p<0.05; 11.0±8.8 pulses for the left, 6.5±3.8 for the right and 6.4±5.0 for septal AP, p<0.01. Two major complications developed: one third-degree AV block after ablation of midseptal AP, and one pericardial effusion without tamponade, with spontaneous regression. Conclusion: The success rate of RFA of the right-, left- and septal-AP was similar. Heating of the tissue was weakest during RFA of the right-sided AP.

  2. Outcome following spinal accessory to suprascapular (spinoscapular) nerve transfer in infants with brachial plexus birth injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchelsman, David E; Ramos, Lorna E; Alfonso, Israel; Price, Andrew E; Grossman, Agatha; Grossman, John A I

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the value of distal spinal accessory nerve (SAN) transfer to the suprascapular nerve (SSN) in children with brachial plexus birth injuries in order to better define the application and outcome of this transfer in these infants. Over a 3-year period, 34 infants with brachial plexus injuries underwent transfer of the SAN to the SSN as part of the primary surgical reconstruction. Twenty-five patients (direct repair, n = 20; interposition graft, n = 5) achieved a minimum follow-up of 24 months. Fourteen children underwent plexus reconstruction with SAN-to-SSN transfer at less than 9 months of age, and 11 underwent surgical reconstruction at the age of 9 months or older. Mean age at the time of nerve transfer was 11.6 months (range, 5-30 months). At latest follow-up, active shoulder external rotation was measured in the arm abducted position and confirmed by review of videos. The Gilbert and Miami shoulder classification scores were utilized to report shoulder-specific functional outcomes. The effects of patient age at the time of nerve transfer and the use of interpositional nerve graft were analyzed. Overall mean active external rotation measured 69.6°; mean Gilbert score was 4.1 and the mean Miami score was 7.1, corresponding to overall good shoulder functional outcomes. Similar clinical and shoulder-specific functional outcomes were obtained in patients undergoing early (9 months of age, n = 11) SAN-to-SSN transfer and primary plexus reconstruction. Nine patients (27%) were lost to follow-up and are not included in the analysis. Optimum results were achieved following direct transfer (n = 20). Results following the use of an interpositional graft (n = 5) were rated satisfactory. No patient required a secondary shoulder procedure during the study period. There were no postoperative complications. Distal SAN-to-SSN (spinoscapular) nerve transfer is a reliable option for shoulder reinnervation in

  3. Nerve fascicle transfer using a part of the C-7 nerve for spinal accessory nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuan; Shen, Yun-Dong; Feng, Jun-Tao; Xu, Wen-Dong

    2018-02-09

    OBJECTIVE Spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury results in a series of shoulder dysfunctions and continuous pain. However, current treatments are limited by the lack of donor nerves as well as by undesirable nerve regeneration. Here, the authors report a modified nerve transfer technique in which they employ a nerve fascicle from the posterior division (PD) of the ipsilateral C-7 nerve to repair SAN injury. The technique, first performed in cadavers, was then undertaken in 2 patients. METHODS Six fresh cadavers (12 sides of the SAN and ipsilateral C-7) were studied to observe the anatomical relationship between the SAN and C-7 nerve. The length from artificial bifurcation of the middle trunk to the point of the posterior cord formation in the PD (namely, donor nerve fascicle) and the linear distance from the cut end of the donor fascicle to both sites of the jugular foramen and medial border of the trapezius muscle (d-SCM and d-Traps, respectively) were measured. Meanwhile, an optimal route for nerve fascicle transfer (NFT) was designed. The authors then performed successful NFT operations in 2 patients, one with an injury at the proximal SAN and another with an injury at the distal SAN. RESULTS The mean lengths of the cadaver donor nerve fascicle, d-SCM, and d-Traps were 4.2, 5.2, and 2.5 cm, respectively. In one patient who underwent proximal SAN excision necessitated by a partial thyroidectomy, early signs of reinnervation were seen on electrophysiological testing at 6 months after surgery, and an impaired left trapezius muscle, which was completely atrophic preoperatively, had visible signs of improvement (from grade M0 to grade M3 strength). In the other patient in whom a distal SAN injury was the result of a neck cyst resection, reinnervation and complex repetitive discharges were seen 1 year after surgery. Additionally, the patient's denervated trapezius muscle was completely resolved (from grade M2 to grade M4 strength), and her shoulder pain had disappeared

  4. SILICON AND BONE HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    JUGDAOHSINGH, R.

    2009-01-01

    Low bone mass (osteoporosis) is a silent epidemic of the 21st century, which presently in the UK results in over 200,000 fractures annually at a cost of over one billion pounds. Figures are set to increase worldwide. Understanding the factors which affect bone metabolism is thus of primary importance in order to establish preventative measures or treatments for this condition. Nutrition is an important determinant of bone health, but the effects of the individual nutrients and minerals, other than calcium, is little understood. Accumulating evidence over the last 30 years strongly suggest that dietary silicon is beneficial to bone and connective tissue health and we recently reported strong positive associations between dietary Si intake and bone mineral density in US and UK cohorts. The exact biological role(s) of silicon in bone health is still not clear, although a number of possible mechanisms have been suggested, including the synthesis of collagen and/or its stabilization, and matrix mineralization. This review gives an overview of this naturally occurring dietary element, its metabolism and the evidence of its potential role in bone health. PMID:17435952

  5. Aneurysmal bone cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangachari P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Aneurysmal bone cysts have raised intra-cystic pressures which are dynamic and diagnostic in nature. Aneurysmal bone cysts could be diagnosed from other benign cystic lesions of bone by recording their intra-cystic pressures with a spinal manometer. Raised intra-cystic pressures in aneurysmal bone cysts are maintained as long as the periosteum over the cyst is intact even in those with pathological fractures. Even though its pathology is definite its aetio-pathology is not clear Method: Fourteen out of 16 radiologically benign cystic lesions of bone were subjected to intra-cystic pressure recordings with spinal manometer. Other two cysts had displaced unimpacted pathological fractures and so their intra-cystic pressures could not be recorded. All 16 cysts were subjected to histo-pathological examination to confirm their diagnosis and to find out for any pre-existing benign pathology. All the cysts were surgically treated. Results: Fourteen benign cystic lesions of bone were diagnosed as aneurysmal bone cysts preoperatively by recording raised intra-cystic pressures and confirmed by histo-pathology. In addition, histo-pathology revealed pre-existing benign pathology. All cysts were successfully treated surgically. Conclusions: Since, there is appreciable rise in intra-cystic dynamic pressures, the aneurysmal bone cyst is considered to be due to either sudden venous obstruction or arterio-venous shunt. Pre-operative intra-cystic pressure recordings help not only to diagnose aneurysmal bone cysts but also to assess the quantum of blood loss and its replacement during surgery.

  6. Autogenous tooth bone graft: Ingenious bone regeneration material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadalavada Sarala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tooth-derived bone graft material, which is proved to be rich in bone growth factors and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs, have been becoming a practical substitute to bone grafting. It can also be used as a carrier for growth factors and stem cells as reported in many recent studies. Autogenous-tooth bone grafting technique is significant as this biomaterial has excellent bone regeneration capacity and also relatively non-existent chances of antigenicity, genetic diseases and disease transmission. In this article, a broad overview of the published findings with regard to the properties and uses of tooth-derived regenerative bone grafting is discussed.

  7. Bone changes in endometrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, P.S.; Orphanoudakis, S.C.; Hutchinson-Williams, K.; Lewis, A.B.; Lovett, L.; Polan, M.L.; DeCherney, A.H.; Comite, F.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, quantitative CT is used to measure bone in the distal radius in normal women, women with endometriosis who had not been treated, and women with endometriosis who had been treated with danazol--an anabolic (androgen) steroid. Measurements of cortex and trabeculae indicate that untreated women have decreased bone mass (1125 HU and 160 HU, respectively), compared with bone mass in normal women (1269 HU and 257 HU; P < .05) and treated women (1238 HU and 255 HU). This finding is important because the most effective way to reduce the complications of osteoporosis is identification of risk factors, prevention, and early treatment

  8. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  9. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, L.W.J. van der.

    1985-01-01

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  10. Effect of accessory pigment composition on the absorption characteristics of a dinoflagellate bloom in a coastal embayment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Vijayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The light absorption properties of a dinoflagellate (Noctiluca scintillans Macartney bloom in Manila Bay were analysed during the onset of a whole-bay-scale bloom in March 2004. The chlorophyll a concentrations varied over a very wide range from 1.4 µg l-1 to extremely high values of 521 µg l-1. The chlorophyll specific absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (a*ph(λ varied significantly in shape and magnitude. The spectrally averaged values of a*ph(λ varied by two orders of magnitude within and outside the bloom patch. The total suspended solid concentration was high in the middle of the bay (≥4 mg l-1. The non-photosynthetic pigment (NPP index was ~0.6 at most of the stations, mainly due to the presence of photoprotective pigments like zeaxanthin, lutein and neoxanthin, which led to variations in the blue absorption maxima of the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients. The absorption properties of the accessory pigments were masked owing to the presence of overlapping pigment absorption bands. The fourth derivative of the absorption spectra was able to resolve these overlapping features and enhance the absorption characteristics of prominent accessory pigments.

  11. Morphology and Ultrastructure of the Accessory Glands in the Female Genital Tract of the House Cricket, Acheta domesticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The accessory glands in the genital tract of female Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were investigated in detail. The glands are situated within the 7th and 8th abdominal segment and lead to the genital chamber lateral to the terminal papilla of the ductus receptaculi. The shape of the gland is characterized by a complex system of tubules, including numerous ramifications. The gland's size ranges from 2 to 4 mm. The epithelium is constructed according to a simple scheme and consists of a cuticular intima at the luminal side, one layer of gland cells, and a basallamina at the outermost side. The observed morphology of the accessory glands widely corresponds with that in other cricket species (e.g., Teleogryllus commodus). This is also true for the structure of a single gland cell, which can be subdivided into a basal part with nucleus and intracellular cisternae, as well as an apical part with all those compartments responsible for the production of the secretion. The secretion itself may be classified as lipophilic and is produced for the first time 4 to 6 days after the imaginai moult. Several endogenic functions of the secretion are discussed (lubricant for oviposition, support for introducing the tube of the spermatophore into the ductus receptaculi, etc.). PMID:23425229

  12. The S2 accessory gene of equine infectious anemia virus is essential for expression of disease in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerness, Angela J; Flaherty, Maureen T; Perry, Stephanie T; Jia, Bin; Payne, Susan L; Fuller, Frederick J

    2006-05-25

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus that persistently infects horses and causes a disease that is characterized by periodic episodes of fever, thrombocytopenia, and viremia. EIAV encodes only four regulatory/accessory genes, (tat, rev, ttm, and S2) and is the least genetically complex of all known lentiviruses. We sought to determine the role of the EIAV S2 accessory gene of EIAV by introducing mutations that would prevent S2 expression on the p19/wenv17 infectious molecular clone. Virus derived from the p19/wenv17 molecular clone is highly virulent and routinely fatal when given in high doses (J. Virol. 72 (1998) 483). In contrast, an S2 deletion mutant on the p19/wenv17 background is unable to induce acute disease and plasma virus loads were reduced by 2.5 to 4.0 logs at 15 days post-infection. The S2 deleted virus failed to produce any detectable clinical signs during a 5-month observation period. These results demonstrate that S2 gene expression is essential for disease expression of EIAV.

  13. The main but not the accessory olfactory system is involved in the processing of socially relevant chemosignals in ungulates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu eKELLER

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ungulates like sheep and goats have, like many other mammalian species, two complementary olfactory systems. The relative role played by these two systems has long been of interest regarding the sensory control of social behavior. The study of ungulate social behavior could represent a complimentary alternative to rodent studies because they live in a more natural environment and their social behaviors depend heavily on olfaction. In addition, the relative size of the main olfactory bulb (in comparison to the accessory olfactory bulb is more developped than in many other lissencephalic species like rodents. In this review, we present data showing a clear involvement of the main olfactory system in two well-characterized social situations under olfactory control in ungulates, namely maternal behavior and offspring recognition at birth and the reactivation of the gonadotropic axis of females exposed to males during the anestrous season. In conclusion, we discuss the apparent discrepancy between the absence of evidence for a role of the vomeronasal system in ungulate social behavior and the existence of a developed accessory olfactory system in these species.

  14. The main but not the accessory olfactory system is involved in the processing of socially relevant chemosignals in ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthieu; Lévy, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Ungulates like sheep and goats have, like many other mammalian species, two complementary olfactory systems. The relative role played by these two systems has long been of interest regarding the sensory control of social behavior. The study of ungulate social behavior could represent a complimentary alternative to rodent studies because they live in a more natural environment and their social behaviors depend heavily on olfaction. In addition, the relative size of the main olfactory bulb (MOB) [in comparison to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)] is more developed than in many other lissencephalic species like rodents. In this review, we present data showing a clear involvement of the main olfactory system in two well-characterized social situations under olfactory control in ungulates, namely maternal behavior and offspring recognition at birth and the reactivation of the gonadotropic axis of females exposed to males during the anestrous season. In conclusion, we discuss the apparent discrepancy between the absence of evidence for a role of the vomeronasal system in ungulate social behavior and the existence of a developed accessory olfactory system in these species.

  15. Retromolar Canal Associated with Age, Side, Sex, Bifid Mandibular Canal, and Accessory Mental Foramen in Panoramic Radiographs of Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticiana Sidorenko de O. Capote

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The retromolar canal (RMC is an anatomical variation that can cause complications in dental procedures. Method. The RMC was evaluated according to age, sex, and presence of accessory mandibular canal and accessory mental foramen, on both sides in 500 panoramic radiographs, belonging to individuals at the age of 7 to 20 years. The associations of interest were studied through Fisher’s Exact Test and Pearson’s Chi-Square Test, and the correlation was studied through Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient (r. The significance level used was 5%. Results. The RMC was observed in 44 radiographs (8.8%, and out of those 24 were females. There was no statistically significant association between the RMC and age (p>0.05; Fisher’s Exact Test, sex (p=0.787; Pearson’s Chi-Square Test, amount of mandibular canals and mental foramina, on both sides (p>0.05; Pearson’s Chi-Square Test. There was a significant association between RMC and side, the higher frequency of the canal being on the right side (p<0.05; Fisher’s Exact Test. Conclusions. Despite the low occurrence of the RMC, its identification and the verification of its dimensions and path are relevant, mainly in cases when anesthetic and surgical procedures can present failures or difficulties.

  16. Retromolar Canal Associated with Age, Side, Sex, Bifid Mandibular Canal, and Accessory Mental Foramen in Panoramic Radiographs of Brazilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote, Ticiana Sidorenko de O; Gonçalves, Marcela de Almeida; Campos, Juliana Álvares Duarte Bonini

    2015-01-01

    Background. The retromolar canal (RMC) is an anatomical variation that can cause complications in dental procedures. Method. The RMC was evaluated according to age, sex, and presence of accessory mandibular canal and accessory mental foramen, on both sides in 500 panoramic radiographs, belonging to individuals at the age of 7 to 20 years. The associations of interest were studied through Fisher's Exact Test and Pearson's Chi-Square Test, and the correlation was studied through Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (r). The significance level used was 5%. Results. The RMC was observed in 44 radiographs (8.8%), and out of those 24 were females. There was no statistically significant association between the RMC and age (p > 0.05; Fisher's Exact Test), sex (p = 0.787; Pearson's Chi-Square Test), amount of mandibular canals and mental foramina, on both sides (p > 0.05; Pearson's Chi-Square Test). There was a significant association between RMC and side, the higher frequency of the canal being on the right side (p < 0.05; Fisher's Exact Test). Conclusions. Despite the low occurrence of the RMC, its identification and the verification of its dimensions and path are relevant, mainly in cases when anesthetic and surgical procedures can present failures or difficulties.

  17. Morphology and ultrastructure of the accessory glands in the female genital tract of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The accessory glands in the genital tract of female Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were investigated in detail. The glands are situated within the 7(th) and 8(th) abdominal segment and lead to the genital chamber lateral to the terminal papilla of the ductus receptaculi. The shape of the gland is characterized by a complex system of tubules, including numerous ramifications. The gland's size ranges from 2 to 4 mm. The epithelium is constructed according to a simple scheme and consists of a cuticular intima at the luminal side, one layer of gland cells, and a basallamina at the outermost side. The observed morphology of the accessory glands widely corresponds with that in other cricket species (e.g., Teleogryllus commodus). This is also true for the structure of a single gland cell, which can be subdivided into a basal part with nucleus and intracellular cisternae, as well as an apical part with all those compartments responsible for the production of the secretion. The secretion itself may be classified as lipophilic and is produced for the first time 4 to 6 days after the imaginai moult. Several endogenic functions of the secretion are discussed (lubricant for oviposition, support for introducing the tube of the spermatophore into the ductus receptaculi, etc.).

  18. Making Sense of Multifunctional Proteins: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Accessory and Regulatory Proteins and Connections to Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Tyler B; Binning, Jennifer M; Gross, John D; Frankel, Alan D

    2017-09-29

    Viruses are completely dependent upon cellular machinery to support replication and have therefore developed strategies to co-opt cellular processes to optimize infection and counter host immune defenses. Many viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), encode a relatively small number of genes. Viruses with limited genetic content often encode multifunctional proteins that function at multiple stages of the viral replication cycle. In this review, we discuss the functions of HIV-1 regulatory (Tat and Rev) and accessory (Vif, Vpr, Vpu, and Nef) proteins. Each of these proteins has a highly conserved primary activity; however, numerous additional activities have been attributed to these viral proteins. We explore the possibility that HIV-1 proteins leverage their multifunctional nature to alter host transcriptional networks to elicit a diverse set of cellular responses. Although these transcriptional effects appear to benefit the virus, it is not yet clear whether they are strongly selected for during viral evolution or are a ripple effect from the primary function. As our detailed knowledge of these viral proteins improves, we will undoubtedly uncover how the multifunctional nature of these HIV-1 regulatory and accessory proteins, and in particular their transcriptional functions, work to drive viral pathogenesis.

  19. Lutein Enhances Bone Mass by Stimulating Bone Formation and Suppressing Bone Resorption in Growing Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Tominari, Tsukasa; Hirata, Michiko; Watanabe, Kenta; Matsumoto, Chiho; Grundler, Florian M W; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2017-01-01

    Lutein is a member of the xanthophyll family of carotenoids, which are known to prevent hypoxia-induced cell damage in the eye by removing free radicals. However, its role in other tissues is controversial, and the effects of lutein on bone tissues are unknown. To identify a possible role of lutein in bone tissues, we examined the effects of lutein on bone formation and bone resorption and on femoral bone mass in mice. Lutein enhanced the formation of mineralized bone nodules in cultures of osteoblasts. On the other hand, lutein clearly suppressed 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -induced bone resorption as measured by pit formation in organ culture of mouse calvaria. In co-cultures of bone marrow cells and osteoblasts, lutein suppressed 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -induced osteoclast formation. In cultures of bone marrow macrophages, lutein suppressed soluble RANKL, the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) ligand, induced osteoclast formation. When five-week-old male mice were orally administered lutein for 4 weeks, the femoral bone mass was clearly enhanced in cortical bone, as measured by bone mineral density in dual X-ray absorptiometry and micro computed tomography (µCT) analyses. The present study indicates that lutein enhances bone mass in growing mice by suppressing bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. Lutein may be a natural agent that promotes bone turnover and may be beneficial for bone health in humans.

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  4. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spinal deformity, or who have some types of disc herniations. In certain types of spinal fusion, bone grafts ... Specialist SEARCH Download Brochure ENGLISH Related Treatments Cervical Disc Herniation Fusion Lumbar Disc Herniation {1} ##LOC[OK]## {1} ## ...

  5. BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION. AUTOLOGOUS TRANSPLANTS: Oct 1986 - Dec 2007. Multiple Myeloma 90. NHL 39. Hodgkins lymphoma 19. AML 36. APML 9. ALL 2. Amyloidosis 2. Granulocytic Sarcoma 1.

  6. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Acute myeloid leukemia - adult Aplastic anemia Bone marrow transplant Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) Graft-versus-host disease Hodgkin lymphoma Multiple myeloma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Patient ...

  7. Bone marrow biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test is used to diagnose leukemia, infections, some types of anemia, and other blood disorders. It may also be ... the bone marrow contains the proper number and types of blood-forming (hematopoietic) cells, fat cells, and connective tissues.

  8. Nanocomposites for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Pan, Yong Zheng; Li, Lin; He, Chao Bin

    2013-04-01

    Natural bone tissue possesses a nanocomposite structure that provides appropriate physical and biological properties. For bone tissue regeneration, it is crucial for the biomaterial to mimic living bone tissue. Since no single type of material is able to mimic the composition, structure and properties of native bone, nanocomposites are the best choice for bone tissue regeneration as they can provide the appropriate matrix environment, integrate desirable biological properties, and provide controlled, sequential delivery of multiple growth factors for the different stages of bone tissue regeneration. This article reviews the composition, structure and properties of advanced nanocomposites for bone tissue regeneration. It covers aspects of interest such as the biomimetic synthesis of bone-like nanocomposites, guided bone regeneration from inert biomaterials and bioactive nanocomposites, and nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. The design, fabrication, and in vitro and in vivo characterization of such nanocomposites are reviewed.

  9. Uranium in fossil bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the uranium content and thus the age of certain fossil bones Haritalyangarh (Himachal Pradesh), India. The results indicate that bones rich in apatite are also rich in uranium, and that the radioactivity is due to radionuclides in the uranium series. The larger animals apparently have a higher concentration of uranium than the small. The dating of a fossil jaw (elephant) places it in the Pleistocene. (Auth.)

  10. Engineered vascularized bone grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Tsigkou, Olga; Pomerantseva, Irina; Spencer, Joel A.; Redondo, Patricia A.; Hart, Alison R.; O’Doherty, Elisabeth; Lin, Yunfeng; Friedrich, Claudia C.; Daheron, Laurence; Lin, Charles P.; Sundback, Cathryn A.; Vacanti, Joseph P.; Neville, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Clinical protocols utilize bone marrow to seed synthetic and decellularized allogeneic bone grafts for enhancement of scaffold remodeling and fusion. Marrow-derived cytokines induce host neovascularization at the graft surface, but hypoxic conditions cause cell death at the core. Addition of cellular components that generate an extensive primitive plexus-like vascular network that would perfuse the entire scaffold upon anastomosis could potentially yield significantly higher-quality grafts. W...

  11. Bone changes in phenylketonuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Hwan

    1998-01-01

    While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  12. Bone changes in phenylketonuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Hwan [Soonchunhyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Hospital

    1998-02-01

    While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  13. Bone nutrients for vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, Ann Reed

    2014-07-01

    The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Bone mineral density and elemental composition of bone tissues in "red-boned" Guishan goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenchen; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Peng; Liu, Guowen; Li, Xiaobing; Ma, Huarong; Wang, Weizhong; Wang, Zhe; Ge, Changrong; Gao, Shizheng

    2012-12-01

    Red-colored bones were first found in Guishan goats in the 1980s, and they were subsequently designated red-boned Guishan goats. However, the difference remains unclear between the bone mineral density (BMD) or elemental composition in bones between red-boned Guishan goats and common Guishan goats. Analysis of femoral bone samples by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry revealed an increase in bone mineral density in the femoral diaphysis and distal femur of red-boned Guishan goats at 18 and 36 months of age. The data revealed that BMD increased in both the red-boned and common Guishan goats from 18 to 36 months of age. The data also indicated that the ratio of the BMD values of red-boned to common Guishan goats was higher at 36 months of age than they were at 18 months of age. Furthermore, the levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, barium, zinc, manganese, and aluminum were significantly higher in red-boned Guishan goats than common Guishan goats at 18 and 36 months of age. The results indicate that the red-boned Guishan goats were linked to the elevated levels of mineral salts observed in the bones and that this in turn may be linked to the elevated BMD levels encountered in red-boned Guishan goats. These reasons may be responsible for the red coloration in the bones of red-boned Guishan goats.

  15. Guided bone regeneration : the influence of barrier membranes on bone grafts and bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn Frans Marie

    2008-01-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) can be described as the use of a barrier membrane to provide a space available for new bone formation in a bony defect. The barrier membrane protects the defect from in-growth of soft tissue cells and allows bone progenitor cells to develop bone within a blood clot

  16. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth.The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests.The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony defect.Our findings suggested a new bioactive

  17. Horizontal bone augmentation by means of guided bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benic, Goran I; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2014-10-01

    The development of bone augmentation procedures has allowed placement of dental implants into jaw bone areas lacking an amount of bone sufficient for standard implant placement. Thus, the indications for implants have broadened to include jaw regions with bone defects and those with a bone anatomy that is unfavorable for implant anchorage. Of the different techniques, the best documented and the most widely used method to augment bone in localized alveolar defects is guided bone regeneration. A large body of evidence has demonstrated the successful use of guided bone regeneration to regenerate missing bone at implant sites with insufficient bone volume and the long-term success of implants placed simultaneously with, or after, guided bone regeneration. However, the influence of guided bone regeneration on implant survival and success rates, and the long-term stability of the augmented bone, remain unknown. Many of the materials and techniques currently available for bone regeneration of alveolar ridge defects were developed many years ago. Recently, various new materials and techniques have been introduced. Many of them have, however, not been sufficiently documented in clinical studies. The aim of this review was to present the scientific basis of guided bone regeneration and the accepted clinical procedures. A classification of bone defects has been presented, aiming at simplifying the decision-making process regarding the choice of strategy for bone augmentation. Finally, an outlook into actual research and the possible future options related to bone augmentation has been provided. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Accessory Genome of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Defines a Persistent Colonization Type in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Stefanie A; Menge, Christian; Eichhorn, Inga; Semmler, Torsten; Wieler, Lothar H; Pickard, Derek; Belka, Ariane; Berens, Christian; Geue, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains can colonize cattle for several months and may, thus, serve as gene reservoirs for the genesis of highly virulent zoonotic enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Attempts to reduce the human risk for acquiring EHEC infections should include strategies to control such STEC strains persisting in cattle. We therefore aimed to identify genetic patterns associated with the STEC colonization type in the bovine host. We included 88 persistent colonizing STEC (STEC(per)) (shedding for ≥4 months) and 74 sporadically colonizing STEC (STEC(spo)) (shedding for ≤2 months) isolates from cattle and 16 bovine STEC isolates with unknown colonization types. Genoserotypes and multilocus sequence types (MLSTs) were determined, and the isolates were probed with a DNA microarray for virulence-associated genes (VAGs). All STEC(per) isolates belonged to only four genoserotypes (O26:H11, O156:H25, O165:H25, O182:H25), which formed three genetic clusters (ST21/396/1705, ST300/688, ST119). In contrast, STEC(spo) isolates were scattered among 28 genoserotypes and 30 MLSTs, with O157:H7 (ST11) and O6:H49 (ST1079) being the most prevalent. The microarray analysis identified 139 unique gene patterns that clustered with the genoserotypes and MLSTs of the strains. While the STEC(per) isolates possessed heterogeneous phylogenetic backgrounds, the accessory genome clustered these isolates together, separating them from the STEC(spo) isolates. Given the vast genetic heterogeneity of bovine STEC strains, defining the genetic patterns distinguishing STEC(per) from STEC(spo) isolates will facilitate the targeted design of new intervention strategies to counteract these zoonotic pathogens at the farm level. Ruminants, especially cattle, are sources of food-borne infections by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in humans. Some STEC strains persist in cattle for longer periods of time, while others are detected only sporadically. Persisting

  19. Gene Expression in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrogio, A.

    Skeletal system has two main functions, to provide mechanical integrity for both locomotion and protection and to play an important role in mineral homeostasis. There is extensive evidence showing loss of bone mass during long-term Space-Flights. The loss is due to a break in the equilibrium between the activity of osteoblasts (the cells that forms bone) and the activity of osteoclasts (the cells that resorbs bone). Surprisingly, there is scanty information about the possible altered gene expression occurring in cells that form bone in microgravity.(Just 69 articles result from a "gene expression in microgravity" MedLine query.) Gene-chip or microarray technology allows to screen thousands of genes at the same time: the use of this technology on samples coming from cells exposed to microgravity could provide us with many important informations. For example, the identification of the molecules or structures which are the first sensors of the mechanical stress derived from lack of gravity, could help in understanding which is the first event leading to bone loss due to long-term exposure to microgravity. Consequently, this structure could become a target for a custom-designed drug. It is evident that bone mass loss, observed during long-time stay in Space, represents an accelerated model of what happens in aging osteoporosis. Therefore, the discovery and design of drugs able to interfere with the bone-loss process, could help also in preventing negative physiological processes normally observed on Earth. Considering the aims stated above, my research is designed to:

  20. Temporal bone meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrionis, F D; Robertson, J H; Gardner, G; Heilman, C B

    1999-01-01

    Meningiomas involving the temporal bone may originate from arachnoid cell nests present within the temporal bone (intratemporal), but more frequently originate from arachnoid cell nests of the posterior or middle cranial fossa with secondary invasion of the TB (extratemporal). In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of 13 patients with meningiomas involving the temporal bone who underwent surgery. Tumors of the posterior fossa with only temporal bone hyperostosis, but without invasion, were excluded. Patients presented primarily with otologic symptoms and signs. The tumors originated in the temporal bone (5/13), jugular foramen (4/13), petroclival region (2/13), the asterion (1/13) or the internal auditory meatus (1/13). All of the intratemporal meningiomas had the radiological appearance of en-plaque menigiomas. The tumor extended into the middle ear (11/13), eustachian tube (5/13), and/or the labyrinth (3/13). A gross total resection was achieved in 11 patients and a subtotal resection in 2 patients. The lower cranial nerves were infiltrated by tumor in 4 patients, and were sacrificed. At a mean follow-up of approximately 6 years, 12 patients are currently alive and doing well and 1 died from tumor progression. Six patients showed tumor recurrence and were reoperated on (5/6) or followed conservatively (1/6). Surgical treatment of temporal bone meningiomas is associated with high recurrence rate due to indiscreet tumor margins. Combined surgical approaches (temporal craniotomy and mastoidectomy) by neurosurgical and otological teams are recommended for meningiomas originating in the temporal bone.