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Sample records for accessory mineral growth

  1. Behaviour of bentonite accessory minerals during the thermal stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos, David; Bruno, Jordi [Enviros-QuantiSci, Barcelona (Spain); Benbow, Steven; Takase, Hiro [Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-15

    This report discusses in a quantitative manner the evolution of the accessory minerals in the bentonite as a result of the thermal event exerted by the spent fuel in the near field. Three different modelling approaches have been used and the results compared between them. The three different approaches have been calculated using two Differential Algebraic Equation (DAE) solver: DYLAN (Model-1) and the Nag DAE solver, d02ngf (Model-2) and the third approach (Model-3) using the last version of PHREEQC. The results from these calculations indicate the feasibility of the modelling approach to model the migration of bentonite accessory minerals and relevant aqueous species throughout the thermal gradient. These calculations indicate that the migration of quartz and quartz polymorphs is a lesser problem. The aqueous speciation of Ca in the bentonite pore water is fundamental in order to define the potential migration of anhydrite during the thermal stage. If CaSO{sub 4}(aq) is the predominant aqueous species, then anhydrite dissolves at the initial groundwater migration times through bentonite. However, if Ca{sup 2+} is considered to be the dominant Ca species at the bentonite pore water, then anhydrite migrates towards the clay/granite interface. This is the main difference in the chemical systems considered in the three model approaches used in this work. The main process affecting the trace mineral behaviour in bentonite is cation exchange. This process controls the concentration of calcium, which results in a direct control of the calcite precipitation-dissolution.

  2. Accessory minerals and subduction zone metasomatism: a geochemical comparison of two mélanges (Washington and California, U.S.A.)

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    Sorensen, Sorena S.; Grossman, Jeffrey N.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of a subducted slab or subducted sediment to contribute many incompatible trace elements to arc source regions may depend on the stabilities of accessory minerals within these rocks, which can only be studied indirectly. In contrast, the role of accessory minerals in lower-T and -P metasomatic processes within paleo-subduction zones can be studied directly in subduction-zone metamorphic terranes.

  3. Fluid components in accessory minerals of Pan-African granitoids in the S(o)r Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zi-long; CHEN Han-lin; YANG Shu-feng; TAINOSHO Yoshiaki; SHIRAISHI Kazuyuki; OWADA Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    Fluids (fluorine, chlorine, and OH) in accessory minerals (apatite, titanite and allanite) of Pan-African granitoids(Group-Ⅰ granitoids, Group-Ⅱ granitoids and Mefjell Plutonic Complex) from the Sor Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica were precisely measured by an electronic microprobe analyzer in this study. Apatites in the granites have commonly high fluorine contents. However, fluorine contents from the Group-Ⅰ, Group-Ⅱ granitoids and Mefjell Plutonic Complex (MPC) are of important variation, which F contents (3.21~7.20 wt%) in apatite from the Group-Ⅱ granitoids are much higher than those from the Group-Ⅰ granitoids (1.22~3.60 wt%) and the MPC (3.21~4.11 wt%). Titanite in the MPC has a low fluorine content (0.23~0.50 wt%), being less than those in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids (2.28 wt%) and Group-Ⅱ granitoids (1.85~2.78 wt%). Fluorine in allanite in the Group-Ⅱ granitoids seems to have much lower contents than those from the Group-Ⅰ granitoids and the MPC. Higher fluorine contents in the titanite from the Group-Ⅱ granitoids may be mainly controlled by late-magmatic fluid-rock interaction processes associated with melt, but may not be indicative of original magma contents based on its petrographic feature. Due to very lower chlorine contents from all of accessory minerals, the authors suggest that titanite and apatite with higher fluorine contents in the Group-Ⅱ granitoids have much lower H2O (OH) contents compared with those in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids according to the partition among (F, Cl, OH).Fluorine contents in whole-rock samples show a variation from the higher in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids to the lower in the Group-Ⅱ granitoids and the MPC, which are consistent with the changes of those from the biotite and hornblende as well as fluorite occurred in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids reported previously. Based on the above study of fluorine in accessory minerals and combined with the previous fluorine contents from biotites and

  4. Mineral Dissolution and Precipitation due to Carbon Dioxide-Water-Rock Interactions: The Significance of Accessory Minerals in Carbonate Reservoirs (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba, J. P.; Marcon, V.; Chopping, C.

    2013-12-01

    Accessory minerals in carbonate reservoirs, and in the caprocks that seal these reservoirs, can provide insight into multiphase fluid (CO2 + H2O)-rock interactions and the behavior of CO2 that resides in these water-rock systems. Our program integrates field data, hydrothermal experiments, and geochemical modeling to evaluate CO2-water-rock reactions and processes in a variety of carbonate reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region of the US. These studies provide insights into a wide range of geologic environments, including natural CO2 reservoirs, geologic carbon sequestration, engineered geothermal systems, enhanced oil and gas recovery, and unconventional hydrocarbon resources. One suite of experiments evaluates the Madison Limestone on the Moxa Arch, Southwest Wyoming, a sulfur-rich natural CO2 reservoir. Mineral textures and geochemical features developed in the experiments suggest that carbonate minerals which constitute the natural reservoir will initially dissolve in response to emplacement of CO2. Euhedral, bladed anhydrite concomitantly precipitates in response to injected CO2. Analogous anhydrite is observed in drill core, suggesting that secondary anhydrite in the natural reservoir may be related to emplacement of CO2 into the Madison Limestone. Carbonate minerals ultimately re-precipitate, and anhydrite dissolves, as the rock buffers the acidity and reasserts geochemical control. Another suite of experiments emulates injection of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery in the Desert Creek Limestone (Paradox Formation), Paradox Basin, Southeast Utah. Euhedral iron oxyhydroxides (hematite) precipitate at pH 4.5 to 5 and low Eh (approximately -0.1 V) as a consequence of water-rock reaction. Injection of CO2 decreases pH to approximately 3.5 and increases Eh by approximately 0.1 V, yielding secondary mineralization of euhedral pyrite instead of iron oxyhydroxides. Carbonate minerals also dissolve and ultimately re-precipitate, as determined by experiments in the

  5. Accessory mineral chemistry of high Ba-Sr granites from northern Scotland:constraints on petrogenesis and records of whole-rock signature

    OpenAIRE

    Bruand, Emilie; Storey, Craig; Fowler, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The Rogart and Strontian high Ba–Sr plutons (Northern Highlands, Scotland) comprise a range of lithologies from felsic to ultramafic rocks. The latter are mantle-derived and their differentiation to produce the felsic components of the plutons is the result of fractional crystallization and variable assimilation of the surrounding Moine metasediments. New results presented here demonstrate that accessory mineral chemistry can provide further insight into their petrogenesis and highlight the p...

  6. Platinum-Group Minerals and Other Accessory Phases in Chromite Deposits of the Alapaevsk Ophiolite, Central Urals, Russia

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    Federica Zaccarini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An electron microprobe study has been carried out on platinum-group minerals, accessory phases, and chromite in several chromite deposits of the Alapaevsk ophiolite (Central Urals, Russia namely the Bakanov Kluch, Kurmanovskoe, Lesnoe, 3-d Podyony Rudnik, Bol’shaya Kruglyshka, and Krest deposits. These deposits occur in partially to totally serpentinized peridotites. The microprobe data shows that the chromite composition varies from Cr-rich to Al-rich. Tiny platinum-group minerals (PGM, 1–10 µm in size, have been found in the chromitites. The most abundant PGM is laurite, accompanied by minor cuproiridsite and alloys in the system Os–Ir–Ru. A small grain (about 20 μm was found in the interstitial serpentine of the Bakanov Kluch chromitite, and its calculated stoichiometry corresponds to (Ni,Fe5P. Olivine, occurring in the silicate matrix or included in fresh chromite, has a mantle-compatible composition in terms of major and minor elements. Several inclusions of amphibole, Na-rich phlogopite, and clinopyroxene have been identified. The bimodal Cr–Al composition of chromite probably corresponds to a vertical distribution in the ophiolite sequence, implying formation of Cr-rich chromitites in the deep mantle, and Al-rich chromitites close to the Moho-transition zone, in a supra-subduction setting. The presence of abundant hydrous silicate inclusions, such as amphibole and phlogopite, suggests that the Alapaevsk chromitites crystallized as a result of the interaction between a melt enriched in fluids and peridotites. Laurite and cuproiridsite are considered to be magmatic in origin, i.e., entrapped as solid phases during the crystallization of chromite at high temperatures. The sulfur fugacity was relatively high to allow the precipitation of Ir-bearing sulfides, but below the Os–OsS2 buffer. The alloys in the system Os–Ir–Ru are classified as secondary PGM, i.e., formed at low temperature during the serpentinization process. The

  7. Chromite Composition and Accessory Minerals in Chromitites from Sulawesi, Indonesia: Their Genetic Significance

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    Federica Zaccarini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several chromite deposits located in the in the South and Southeast Arms of Sulawesi, Indonesia, have been investigated by electron microprobe. According to the variation of the Cr# = Cr/(Cr + Fe3+, the chromite composition varies from Cr-rich to Al-rich. Small platinum-group minerals (PGM, 1–10 μm in size, occur in the chromitites. The most abundant PGM is laurite, which has been found included in fresh chromite or in contact with chlorite along cracks in the chromite. Laurite forms polygonal crystals, and it occurs as a single phase or in association with amphibole, chlorite, Co-pentlandite and apatite. Small blebs of irarsite (less than 2 μm across have been found associated with grains of awaruite and Co-pentlandite in the chlorite gangue of the chromitites. Grains of olivine, occurring in the silicate matrix or included in fresh chromite, have been analyzed. They show a composition typical of mantle-hosted olivine. The bimodal composition and the slight enrichment in TiO2 observed in some chromitites suggest a vertical zonation due to the fractionation of a single batch magma with an initial boninitic composition during its ascent, in a supra-subduction zone. This observation implies the accumulation of Cr-rich chromitites at deep mantle levels and the formation of the Al-rich chromitites close or above the Moho-transition zone. All of the laurites are considered to be magmatic in origin, i.e., entrapped as solid phases during the crystallization of chromite at temperature of around 1200 °C and a sulfur fugacity below the sulfur saturation. Irarsite possibly represents a low temperature, less than 400 °C, exsolution product.

  8. 238U/235U determinations of some commonly used reference materials and U-bearing accessory minerals (Invited)

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    Condon, D.; Noble, S.; McLean, N.; Bowring, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    We have determined 238U/235U ratios for a suite of commonly used natural (CRM 112a, SRM 950a, HU-1) and synthetic (IRMM 184 and CRM U500) uranium reference materials in addition to several U-bearing accessory phases (zircon and monazite) by thermal ionisation mass-spectrometry (TIMS) using the IRMM 3636 233U-236U double spike to accurately correct for mass fractionation. The 238U/235U values for the natural uranium reference materials differ, by up to 0.1%, from the widely used ‘consensus’ value (137.88) with all having 238U/235U values less than 137.88. Similarly, initial 238U/235U data from zircon and monazite yield 238U/235U values that are lower than the ‘consensus’ value. The data obtained from U-bearing minerals is used to assess how the uncertainty in the 238U/235U ratio contributes to the systematic discordance observed in 238U/206Pb and 235U/207Pb dates (Mattinson, 2000; Schoene et al., 2006) which has traditionally been wholly attributed to error in the U decay constants. The 238U/235U determinations made on the synthetic reference materials yield results that are considerably more precise and accurate than the certified values (0.02% vs. 0.1% for CRM U500). The calibration of isotopic tracers used for U-daughter geochronology that are partially based upon these reference materials, and the resultant age determinations, will benefit from increased accuracy and precision. Mattinson, J.M., 2000. Revising the “gold standard”—the uranium decay constants of Jaffey et al., 1971. Eos Trans. AGU, Spring Meet. Suppl., Abstract V61A-02. Schoene B., Crowley J.L., Condon D.C., Schmitz M.D., Bowring S.A., 2006, Reassessing the uranium decay constants for geochronology using ID-TIMS U-Pb data. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70: 426-445

  9. Mineral dissolution in the Cape Cod aquifer, Massachusetts, USA: I . Reaction stoichiometry and impact of accessory feldspar and glauconite on strontium isotopes, solute concentrations, and REY distribution

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    Bau, Michael; Alexander, Brian; Chesley, John T.; Dulski, Peter; Brantley, Susan L.

    2004-03-01

    To compare relative reaction rates of mineral dissolution in a mineralogically simple groundwater aquifer, we studied the controls on solute concentrations, Sr isotopes, and rare earth element and yttrium (REY) systematics in the Cape Cod aquifer. This aquifer comprises mostly carbonate-free Pleistocene sediments that are about 90% quartz with minor K-feldspar, plagioclase, glauconite, and Fe-oxides. Silica concentrations and pH in the groundwater increase systematically with increasing depth, while Sr isotopic ratios decrease. No clear relationship between 87Sr/ 86Sr and Sr concentration is observed. At all depths, the 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio of the groundwater is considerably lower than the Sr isotopic ratio of the bulk sediment or its K-feldspar component, but similar to that of a plagioclase-rich accessory separate obtained from the sediment. The Si- 87Sr/ 86Sr-depth relationships are consistent with dissolution of accessory plagioclase. In addition, solutes such as Sr, Ca, and particularly K show concentration spikes superimposed on their respective general trends. The K-Sr- 87Sr/ 86Sr systematics suggests that accessory glauconite is another major solute source to Cape Cod groundwater. Although the authigenic glauconite in the Cape Cod sediment is rich in Rb, it is low in in-grown radiogenic 87Sr because of its young Pleistocene age. The low 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios are consistent with equilibration of glauconite with seawater. The impact of glauconite is inferred to vary due to its variable abundance in the sediments. In the Cape Cod groundwater, the variation of REY concentrations with sampling depth resembles that of K and Rb, but differs from that of Ca and Sr. Shale-normalized REY patterns are light REY depleted, show negative Ce anomalies and super-chondritic Y/Ho ratios, but no Eu anomalies. REY input from feldspar, therefore, is insignificant compared to input from a K-Rb-bearing phase, inferred to be glauconite. These results emphasize that interpretation of

  10. ACCESSORY SPLEEN

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    Radhika

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accessory spleen is a small nodule of splenic tissue found apart from main body of spleen. Other name for accessory spleen is supernumerary spleen, splenule or splenunculus. It is usually congenital failure of fusion of splenunculus found close to hilum of spleen, greater omentum, tail of pancreas. Accessory spleen is found approximately in 10% population. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study 100 cadaveric spleens obtained from routine dissection, specimens present in Department of Anatomy, Andhra Medical College, Vishakhapatnam in 3 years span, out of which 25 are foetal spleens, 75 are adult spleens. RESULTS We got 4 accessory spleens in adult and 1 in foetal spleen. CONCLUSION The knowledge of accessory spleen is medically significant. That they may result in interpretation errors in diagnostic imaging and symptoms may be continued after splenectomy.

  11. Photoperiod regulates growth of male accessory glands through juvenile hormone signaling in the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus.

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    Urbanová, Veronika; Bazalová, Olga; Vaněčková, Hanka; Dolezel, David

    2016-03-01

    Adult reproductive diapause is characterized by lower behavioral activity, ceased reproduction and absence of juvenile hormone (JH). The role of JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in female reproduction is well established; however, its function in male reproductive development and behavior is unclear. In the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, circadian genes are essential for mediating photoperiodically-dependent growth of the male accessory glands (MAGs). The present study explores the role of circadian genes and JH receptor in male diapause in the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus. These data indicate that circadian factors Clock, Cycle and Cry2 are responsible for photoperiod measurement, whereas Met and its partner protein Taiman participate in JH reception. Surprisingly, knockdown of the JH receptor neither lowered locomotor activity nor reduced mating behavior of males. These data suggest existence of a parallel, JH-independent or JH-upstream photoperiodic regulation of reproductive behavior.

  12. Fluid-driven destabilization of REE-bearing accessory minerals in the granitic orthogneisses of North Veporic basement (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

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    Ondrejka, M.; Putiš, M.; Uher, P.; Schmiedt, I.; Pukančík, L.; Konečný, P.

    2016-10-01

    A variety of rare earth elements-bearing (REE) accessory mineral breakdowns were identified in granitic orthogneisses from the pre-Alpine basement in the Veporic Unit, Central Western Carpathians, Slovakia. The Ordovician granitic rocks were subjected to Variscan metamorphic-anatectic overprint in amphibolite facies. Chemical U-Th-Pb dating of monazite-(Ce) and xenotime-(Y) reveal their primary magmatic Lower to Middle Ordovician age (monazite: 472 ± 4 to 468 ± 6 Ma and xenotime: 471 ± 13 Ma) and/or metamorphic-anatectic Variscan (Carboniferous, Visean) age (monazite: 345 ± 3 Ma). Younger fluid-rock interactions caused breakdown of primary magmatic and/or metamorphic-anatectic monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y), fluorapatite and allanite-(Ce). Fluid-induced breakdown of xenotime-(Y) produced numerous tiny uraninite inclusions within the altered xenotime-(Y) domains. The monazite-(Ce) breakdown produced secondary egg-shaped coronal structures of different stages with well-developed concentric mineral zones. Secondary sulphatian monazite-(Ce) (up to 0.15 apfu S) occasionally formed along fluorapatite fissures. Localized fluorapatite and monazite-(Ce) recrystallization resulted in a very fine-grained, non-stoichiometric mixture of REE-Y-Fe-Th-Ca-P-Si phases. Finally, allanite-(Ce) decomposed to secondary REE carbonate minerals (members of the bastnäsite and synchysite groups) and calcite in some places. Although the xenotime alteration and formation of uraninite inclusions is believed to be the result of dissolution-reprecipitation between early magmatic xenotime and late-magmatic granitic fluids, the monazite, apatite and allanite breakdowns were driven by metamorphic hydrothermal fluids. While earlier impact of post-magmatic fluids originated probably from Permian acidic volcanic and microgranitic veins crosscutting the orthogneisses, another fluid-rock interaction event most likely occurred during Late Cretaceous metamorphism in the Veporic basement and covering

  13. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons.

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    Barry, Karen M; Janos, David P; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations.

  14. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic versus mineral soil horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eBarry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer versus mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations.

  15. Mineral resources and constraints on China’s economic growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢; 陈志; 崔云

    2009-01-01

    This article conducts an empirical study of how access to mineral resources can constrain China’s economic growth.The authors reckon that due to the relatively low price elasticity of supply and demand in relation to mineral resources over the short run,access to mineral resources places pronounced constraints on economic growth in the short run,but only marginal constraints on economic growth in the long run.This split is the result of alternate resource substitution and technological progress.In this article,the authors have calculated the actual effects of access to mineral resources on China’s economic growth using 2001-2006 mineral resource import and export data.The results of these calculations show that,in the short run,access to mineral resources is increasingly placing constraints on China’s economic growth.The value of these constraints rose from 4.96% of GDP in 2006 to 5.74% of GDP in 2007 (estimated).Contrastingly,in the long run,the constraints that access to mineral resources place on China’s economic growth are quite limited at approximately 0.23% of GDP.

  16. Mineralization and growth of cultured embryonic skeletal tissue in microgravity

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    Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

    1999-01-01

    Microgravity provides a unique environment in which to study normal and pathological phenomenon. Very few studies have been done to examine the effects of microgravity on developing skeletal tissue such as growth plate formation and maintenance, elongation of bone primordia, or the mineralization of growth plate cartilage. Embryonic mouse premetatarsal triads were cultured on three space shuttle flights to study cartilage growth, differentiation, and mineralization, in a microgravity environment. The premetatarsal triads that were cultured in microgravity all formed cartilage rods and grew in length. However, the premetatarsal cartilage rods cultured in microgravity grew less in length than the ground control cartilage rods. Terminal chondrocyte differentiation also occurred during culture in microgravity, as well as in the ground controls, and the matrix around the hypertrophied chondrocytes was capable of mineralizing in both groups. The same percentage of premetatarsals mineralized in the microgravity cultures as mineralized in the ground control cultures. In addition, the sizes of the mineralized areas between the two groups were very similar. However, the amount of 45Ca incorporated into the mineralized areas was significantly lower in the microgravity cultures, suggesting that the composition or density of the mineralized regions was compromised in microgravity. There was no significant difference in the amount of 45Ca liberated from prelabeled explants in microgravity or in the ground controls.

  17. MEPE is a novel regulator of growth plate cartilage mineralization.

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    Staines, K A; Mackenzie, N C W; Clarkin, C E; Zelenchuk, L; Rowe, P S; MacRae, V E; Farquharson, C

    2012-09-01

    Matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) belongs to the SIBLING protein family which play key roles in biomineralization. Although the growth plates of MEPE-overexpressing mice display severe morphological disruption, the expression and function of MEPE in growth plate matrix mineralization remains largely undefined. Here we show MEPE and its cleavage product, the acidic serine aspartate-rich MEPE-associated motif (ASARM) peptide, to be localised to the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate. We also demonstrate that the phosphorylated (p)ASARM peptide inhibits ATDC5 chondrocyte matrix mineralization. Stable MEPE-overexpressing ATDC5 cells also had significantly reduced matrix mineralization in comparison to the control cells. Interestingly, we show that the addition of the non-phosphorylated (np)ASARM peptide promoted mineralization in the ATDC5 cells. The peptides and the overexpression of MEPE did not affect the differentiation of the ATDC5 cells. For a more physiologically relevant model, we utilized the metatarsal organ culture model. We show the pASARM peptide to inhibit mineralization at two stages of development, as shown by histological and μCT analysis. Like in the ATDC5 cells, the peptides did not affect the differentiation of the metatarsals indicating that the effects seen on mineralization are direct, as is additionally confirmed by no change in alkaline phosphatase activity or mRNA expression. In the metatarsal organ cultures, the pASARM peptide also reduced endothelial cell markers and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression. Taken together these results show MEPE to be an important regulator of growth plate chondrocyte matrix mineralization through its cleavage to an ASARM peptide.

  18. Maruyamaite, a new K-dominant tourmaline coexisting with diamond -an important accessory mineral in UHP rocks

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    Stock, M. J.; Humphreys, M.; Smith, V.; Pyle, D. M.; Isaia, R.

    2014-12-01

    The apatite crystal structure is capable of incorporating H2O, F and Cl, as well as trace CO2 and sulphur. These can be related to parental magma compositions through application of a series of pressure and temperature-dependent exchange reactions (Piccoli and Candela, 1994), permitting apatite crystals to preserve a record of all major volatile species in the melt. Furthermore, due to the general incompatibility of P in other rock-forming minerals, apatite is ubiquitous in igneous systems and often begins crystallising early, such that apatite inclusions within phenocrysts record melt volatile contents throughout magmatic differentiation. In this work, we compare the compositions of apatite inclusions and microphenocrysts with pyroxene-hosted melt inclusions from the Astroni 1 eruption of Campi Flegrei, Italy. These data are coupled with magmatic differentiation models (Gualda et al., 2012), experimental volatile solubility data (Webster et al., 2014) and thermodynamic models of apatite compositional variations (Piccoli and Candela, 1994) to determine a time-series of magmatic volatile evolution in the build-up to eruption. We find that apatite halogen/OH ratios decreased through magmatic differentiation, while melt inclusion F and Cl concentrations increased. Melt inclusion H2O contents are constant at ~2.5 wt%. These data are best explained by volatile-undersaturated differentiation over most of the crystallisation history of the Astroni 1 melt, with melt inclusion H2O contents reset during ascent, due to rapid H diffusion through the phenocryst hosts (Woods et al., 2000). Given the rapid diffusivity of volatiles in apatite (Brenan, 1993), preservation of undersaturated compositions in microphenocrysts suggests that saturation was only achieved a few days to months before eruption and that it may have been the transition into a volatile-saturated state that ultimately triggered eruption. Piccoli and Candela, 1994. Am. J. of Sc., 294, 92-135. Gualda et al., 2012

  19. Accessories after the facts: Constraining the timing, duration and conditions of high-temperature metamorphic processes

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    Taylor, Richard J. M.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Clark, Chris

    2016-11-01

    High-temperature metamorphic rocks are the result of numerous chemical and physical processes that occur during a potentially long-lived thermal evolution. These rocks chart the sequence of events during an orogenic episode including heating, cooling, exhumation and melt interaction, all of which may be interpreted through the elemental and isotopic characteristics of accessory minerals such as zircon, monazite and rutile. Developments in imaging and in situ chemical analysis have resulted in an increasing amount of information being extracted from these accessory phases. The refractory nature of these minerals, combined with both their use as geochronometers and tracers of metamorphic mineral reactions, has made them the focus of many studies of granulite-facies terrains. In such studies the primary aim is often to determine the timing and conditions of the peak of metamorphism, and high-temperature metasedimentary rocks may seem ideal for this purpose. For example pelites typically contain an abundance of accessory minerals in a variety of bulk compositions, are melt-bearing, and may have endured extreme conditions that facilitate diffusion and chemical equilibrium. However complexities arise due to the heterogeneous nature of these rocks on all scales, driven by both the composition of the protolith and metamorphic differentiation. In additional to lithological heterogeneity, the closure temperatures for both radiogenic isotopes and chemical thermometers vary between different accessory minerals. This apparent complexity can be useful as it permits a wide range of temperature and time (T-t) information to be recovered from a single rock sample. In this review we cover: 1) characteristic internal textures of accessory minerals in high temperature rocks; 2) the interpretation of zircon and monazite age data in relation to high temperature processes; 3) rare earth element partitioning; 4) trace element thermometry; 5) the incorporation of accessory mineral growth

  20. Lactic acid bacterial extract as a biogenic mineral growth modifier

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    Borah, Ballav M.; Singh, Atul K.; Ramesh, Aiyagari; Das, Gopal

    2009-04-01

    The formation of minerals and mechanisms by which bacteria could control their formation in natural habitats is now of current interest for material scientists to have an insight of the mechanism of in vivo mineralization, as well as to seek industrial and technological applications. Crystalline uniform structures of calcium and barium minerals formed micron-sized building blocks when synthesized in the presence of an organic matrix consisting of secreted protein extracts from three different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz.: Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1325, Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B4495 and Pediococcus acidilactici CFR K7. LABs are not known to form organic matrix in biological materialization processes. The influence of these bacterial extracts on the crystallization behavior was investigated in details to test the basic coordination behavior of the acidic protein. In this report, varied architecture of the mineral crystals obtained in presence of high molecular weight protein extracts of three different LAB strains has been discussed. The role of native form of high molecular weight bacterial protein extracts in the generation of nucleation centers for crystal growth was clearly established. A model for the formation of organic matrix-cation complex and the subsequent events leading to crystal growth is proposed.

  1. Effects of Replacing of Inorganic Trace Minerals by Organically Bound Trace Minerals on Growth Performance, Tissue Mineral Status, and Fecal Mineral Excretion in Commercial Grower-Finisher Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Xiong, Pingwen; Chen, Nana; He, Junna; Lin, Gang; Xue, Yan; Li, Weifen; Yu, Dongyou

    2016-10-01

    A total of 180 crossbred pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White; BW = 47.1 ± 4.8 kg) were used to investigate the effects of totally replacing inorganic trace minerals (ITMs) by organically bound trace minerals (OTMs) on growth performance, tissue mineral status, liver antioxidant enzyme activities, and fecal mineral excretion in grower-finisher pigs. A randomized complete block design with three treatments and six replicates (n = 10 pigs per pen) was used in this 69-day, 2-phase feeding trial. Experimental treatments were as follows: (1) a basal diet without trace mineral supplementation, (2) basal + ITMs (Fe, Mn, and Zn from sulfates, Cu oxychloride, and sodium selenite providing commercially recommended levels in China at 125, 22.5, 117.5, 30, and 0.3 mg/kg, respectively), and 3) basal + OTMs (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu from Bioplex and Se as Sel-Plex (Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) providing levels identical to ITMs). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among the treatments during the entire grower-finisher period. Supplementation with minerals, regardless of source, increased (P supplemented. Pigs supplemented with OTMs displayed greater activities of Cu/Zn-SOD, ALP, and GSH-Px in the liver compared to pigs supplemented with ITMs. Dietary mineral supplementation to pig diets greatly increased (P mineral (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Se) excretion in both grower and finisher phases. Fecal concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Se excretion were lower (P supplementation than that in pigs fed diets containing ITMs. These results indicate that use of organic trace minerals, as well as no trace mineral supplementation, did not influence pig growth performance. Totally replacing ITMs by equivalent levels of OTMs could improve hepatic Cu/Zn-SOD, ALP, and GSH-Px activities and reduce fecal Mn, Cu, and Se excretion for grower-finisher pigs when supplemented at commercially recommended levels.

  2. Growth and Mineral Composition of Passion Fruit Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Batista Lopes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth and mineral composition of the yellow passion fruit plant seedlings (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener in fertilized substrates with boron and kalium, with and without coconut fiber (25 % e 0% and bovine manure (15%. The treatments were distributed in a outlined random block with four blocks and four seedlings per portion being five kalium doses and five boron doses combined according to the main Composite Central of Box. Each 20 days were done evaluations. Were analyzed the dry and green matter of the root and the leaf, foliated area and nutriment contents of the leaf. The results were submitted to analysis of change and regression. There was no significant effect of the treatments on the seedling's height, diameter of the shaft, number of leaves and foliated area. The coconut fiber doesn’t affect their growth and mineral composition. The kalium increased in a lineal way the root growth and aerial part of the seedlings, either the foliar contents of kalium, but reduce magnesium proportions. The boron increased the foliar contents of boron and reduced the nitrogen’s.

  3. Mineral requirements for growth of wool and hair lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabelle Auxiliadora Molina de Almeida Teixeira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the body composition and the mineral requirements for growth of wool and hair lambs. A total of 34 castrated lambs with an initial body weight (BW of 19.9±0.8 kg were used; 17 of these lambs were of the genotype Ideal × Ile de France and 17 were Santa Inês. Ten lambs (5 of each genotype were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment to establish their initial body composition. The remaining lambs were assigned to one of three diets (40% roughage and 60% concentrate, 60% roughage and 40% concentrate, or 80% roughage and 20% concentrate in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. All of the diets were provided ad libitum. When the group under 40% roughage and 60% concentrate reached 35 kg BW, all of the animals were slaughtered. Linear regressions were used to determine the relationship between the shrunk BW and the empty body weight (EBW for each genotype. These equations were compared and revealed differences between the genotypes. The allometric equations were calculated using the relationship between the amount of minerals and the EBW. The equations of a given mineral for each genotype were compared to verify if they were statistically different. The equations for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium differed between genotypes. The same equations were used to estimate the major body mineral composition per kilogram of EBW. The net requirement for gain of the fleece-free Ideal × Ile de France lambs ranged from 7.77 to 6.80 g Ca, 4.54 to 4.14 g P, 0.30 to 0.27 g Mg, 1.18 to 1.07 g K and 0.84 to 0.76 g Na per kg BW gain, and the requirements of the Santa Inês animals ranged from 9.57 to 8.37 g Ca, 5.39 to 4.91 g P, 0.36 to 0.33 g Mg, 1.18 to 1.07 g K and 0.90 to 0.81 g Na per kg BW gain for the lambs weighting 20 to 35 kg. Santa Inês lambs showed higher requirements for Ca, P, Mg and Na.

  4. Compositional variation in apatite, phlogopite and other accessory minerals of the ultramafic Delitzsch complex, Germany: implication for cooling history of carbonatites

    OpenAIRE

    Seifert, W.; Horst Kämpf; J. Wasternack;  ,

    2001-01-01

    A representative suite of samples from the ultramafic lamprophyre–carbonatite (UML–CR) complex of Delitzsch, Germany, shows significant variations in mineral composition and geothermobarometry. Petrographically distinct carbonatites of intrusive dolomitic and subvolcanic dolomitic and subvolcanic calcitic types clearly show marked compositional differences in such minerals as apatite, phlogopite and pyrochlore. Increasing concentrations are established for S, Cl, Si in apatite, and Ti, Al, Cr...

  5. Growth of Crotalaria juncea L. supplied with mineral nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenira Henrique Miranda Mendonça

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants of Crotalaria juncea inoculated with Rhizobium were treated with nutrient solution containing 10 or 20mg of either N/NO3 or N/NH4.plant-1.week-1 . The control plants received nutrient solution without N. An investigation was conducted on the effect of these sources of N on growth and nitrogen fixation of plants with 30, 60 and 90 days after sowing (DAS. Those that received mineral N presented higher growth than -N plants, but the presence of nodules occurred in all the treatments. Plants treated with NH4 presented higher N content until 60 days. The highest concentrations of leghemoglobin and protein in nodules were found at 30 DAS and there was no difference in leghemoglobin content between treatments for any age and in protein from 60 DAS. Nitrogenase activity did not vary from 60 to 90 days, with the exception of plants that received 20mg N/NO3, where it was higher at 60 daysPlantas de Crotalaria juncea inoculadas com Rhizobium foram tratadas com solução nutritiva contendo 10 ou 20mg de N/NO3 ou N/NH4.planta-1 .semana-1. As plantas controle receberam solução nutritiva sem N. Foi verificado o efeito destas fontes de N no crescimento e fixação de nitrogênio em plantas com 30, 60 e 90 dias após a semeadura (DAS. Aquelas que receberam N mineral apresentaram maior crescimento que plantas -N, mas a presença de nódulos ocorreu em todos os tratamentos. Plantas tratadas com NH4 apresentaram maior conteúdo de N até os 60 dias. As maiores concentrações de leghemoglobina e proteínas em nódulos foram verificadas aos 30 DAS e não houve diferença no conteúdo de leghemoglobina entre os tratamentos, em nenhuma das idades e em proteínas a partir de 60 DAS. A atividade da nitrogenase não variou dos 60 aos 90 dias, com exceção de plantas que receberam 20mg N/NO3, nas quais esta foi maior aos 60 dias.

  6. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  7. Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Growth Hormone Deficient Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Growth hormone deficiency patients exhibited reduced bone mineral density compared with healthy controls, but previous researches demonstrated uncertainty about the effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone in growth hormone deficient adults. The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth hormone replacement therapy could elevate bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Methods. In this meta-analysis, searches of Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were undertaken to identify studies in humans of the association between growth hormone treatment and bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Random effects model was used for this meta-analysis. Results. A total of 20 studies (including one outlier study with 936 subjects were included in our research. We detected significant overall association of growth hormone treatment with increased bone mineral density of spine, femoral neck, and total body, but some results of subgroup analyses were not consistent with the overall analyses. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggested that growth hormone replacement therapy could have beneficial influence on bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults, but, in some subject populations, the influence was not evident.

  8. Integrated single crystal laser ablation U/Pb and (U-Th)/He dating of detrital accessory minerals - Proof-of-concept studies of titanites and zircons from the Fish Canyon tuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Alexandra M.; van Soest, Matthijs C.; Hodges, Kip V.; Tripathy-Lang, Alka; Hourigan, Jeremy K.

    2016-04-01

    Excimer laser technologies enable a rapid and effective approach to simultaneous U/Pb geochronology and (U-Th)/He thermochronology of a wide range of detrital accessory minerals. Here we describe the 'laser ablation double dating' (LADD) method and demonstrate its viability by applying it to zircon and titanite crystals from the well-characterized Fish Canyon tuff. We found that LADD dates for Fish Canyon zircon (206Pb/238U - 28.63 ± 0.11 Ma; (U-Th)/He - 28.38 ± 0.73 Ma) are statistically indistinguishable from those obtained through established, traditional methods of single-crystal dating. The same is true for Fish Canyon titanite LADD dates: 206Pb/238U - 28.08 ± 0.90 Ma; (U-Th)/He - 27.98 ± 0.86 Ma. As anticipated, given that LADD involves the analysis of smaller amounts of material than traditional methods, it yields dates with higher analytical uncertainty. However, this does not substantially reduce the utility of the results for most applications to detrital datasets. An important characteristic of LADD is that it encourages the chemical characterization of crystals by backscattered electron, cathodoluminescence, and/or Raman mapping prior to dating. In addition, by permitting the rapid and robust dating of crystals regardless of the degree of their abrasion during sedimentary transport, the method theoretically should yield dates that are more broadly representative of those of the entire population of detrital crystals in a natural sample.

  9. Who's on first? Part I: Influence of plant growth on C association with fresh soil minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurath, R.; Whitman, T.; Nico, P. S.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Firestone, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral surfaces provide sites for carbon stabilization in soils, protecting soil organic matter (SOM) from microbial degradation. SOM distributed across mineral surfaces is expected to be patchy and certain minerals undergo re-mineralization under dynamic soil conditions, such that soil minerals surfaces can range from fresh to thickly-coated with SOM. Our research investigates the intersection of microbiology and geochemistry, and aims to build a mechanistic understanding of plant-derived carbon (C) association with mineral surfaces and the factors that determine SOM fate in soil. Plants are the primary source of C in soil, with roots exuding low-molecular weight compounds during growth and contributing more complex litter compounds at senescence. We grew the annual grass, Avena barbata, (wild oat) in a 99 atom% 13CO2 atmosphere in soil microcosms incubated with three mineral types representing a spectrum of reactivity and surface area: quartz, kaolinite, and ferrihydrite. These minerals, isolated in mesh bags to exclude roots but not microorganisms, were extracted and analyzed for total C and 13C at multiple plant growth stages. At plant senescence, the quartz had the least mineral-bound C (0.40 mg-g-1) and ferrihydrite the most (0.78 mg-g-1). Ferrihydrite and kaolinite also accumulated more plant-derived C (3.0 and 3.1% 13C, respectively). The experiment was repeated with partially digested 13C-labled root litter to simulate litter decomposition during plant senescence. Thus, we are able evaluate contributions derived from living and dead root materials on soil minerals using FTIR and 13C-NMR. We find that mineral-associated C bears a distinct microbial signature, with soil microbes not only transforming SOM prior to mineral association, but also populating mineral surfaces over time. Our research shows that both soil mineralogy and the chemical character of plant-derived compounds are important controls of mineral protection of SOM.

  10. Controllable mineral coatings on scaffolds as carriers for growth factor release for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurez-Gonzalez, Darilis

    The work presented in this document, focused on the development and characterization of mineral coatings on scaffold materials to serve as templates for growth factor binding and release. Mineral coatings were formed using a biomimetic approach that consisted in the incubation of scaffolds in modified simulated body fluids (mSBF). To modulate the properties of the mineral coating, which we hypothesized would dictate growth factor release, we used carbonate (HCO3) concentration in mSBF of 4.2 mM, 25mM, and 100mM. Analysis of the mineral coatings formed using scanning electron microscopy indicated growth of a continuous layer of mineral with different morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis showed peaks associated with hydroxyapatite. FTIR data confirmed the substitution of HCO3 in the mineral. As the extent of HCO3 substitution increased, the coating exhibited more rapid dissolution kinetics in an environment deficient in calcium and phosphate. The mineral coatings provided an effective mechanism for bioactive growth factor binding and release. Peptide versions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were bound with efficiencies up to 90% to mineral-coated PCL scaffolds. Recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) also bound to mineral coated scaffolds with lower efficiency (20%) and released with faster release kinetics compared to peptides growth factor. Released rhVEGF induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation in vitro and enhanced blood vessel formation in vivo in an intramuscular sheep model. In addition to the use the mineral coatings for single growth factor release, we expanded the concept and bound both an angiogenic (rhVEGF) and osteogenic (mBMP2) growth factor by a simple double dipping process. Sustained release of both growth factors was demonstrated for over 60 days. Released rhVEGF enhanced blood vessel formation in vivo in sheep and its biological activity was

  11. Polycarboxylate derivative of -amino acid as growth modifier of sulphide minerals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harjyoti Thakuria; Gopal Das

    2011-02-01

    Construction of modified inorganic mineral with controlled mineralization analogues of those produced by nature is now of current interest for understanding the mechanism of the in vivo biomineralization processes, as well as looking for fresh industrial and technological applications. Low-molecular-weight chiral polycarboxylate ligands derived fromnaturally occurring -\\alpha-amino acids have been used asmodel systems to study the effect of small organic matrix on crystal growth modification. The sulphide minerals are characterized by PXRD, FT–IR and SEM. Furthermore, the optical properties of these minerals have been characterized by UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectra.

  12. Accelerated growth plate mineralization and foreshortened proximal limb bones in fetuin-A knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Jong; Busse, Björn; Gupta, Himadri S; Schäfer, Cora; Krauss, Stefanie; Dunlop, John W C; Masic, Admir; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Zaslansky, Paul; Boesecke, Peter; Catalá-Lehnen, Philip; Schinke, Thorsten; Fratzl, Peter; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

    2012-01-01

    The plasma protein fetuin-A/alpha2-HS-glycoprotein (genetic symbol Ahsg) is a systemic inhibitor of extraskeletal mineralization, which is best underscored by the excessive mineral deposition found in various tissues of fetuin-A deficient mice on the calcification-prone genetic background DBA/2. Fetuin-A is known to accumulate in the bone matrix thus an effect of fetuin-A on skeletal mineralization is expected. We examined the bones of fetuin-A deficient mice maintained on a C57BL/6 genetic background to avoid bone disease secondary to renal calcification. Here, we show that fetuin-A deficient mice display normal trabecular bone mass in the spine, but increased cortical thickness in the femur. Bone material properties, as well as mineral and collagen characteristics of cortical bone were unaffected by the absence of fetuin-A. In contrast, the long bones especially proximal limb bones were severely stunted in fetuin-A deficient mice compared to wildtype littermates, resulting in increased biomechanical stability of fetuin-A deficient femora in three-point-bending tests. Elevated backscattered electron signal intensities reflected an increased mineral content in the growth plates of fetuin-A deficient long bones, corroborating its physiological role as an inhibitor of excessive mineralization in the growth plate cartilage matrix--a site of vigorous physiological mineralization. We show that in the case of fetuin-A deficiency, active mineralization inhibition is a necessity for proper long bone growth.

  13. Timing of growth hormone treatment affects trabecular bone microarchitecture and mineralization in growth hormone deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Erika; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Morck, Douglas W; Boyd, Steven K

    2010-08-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is essential in the development of bone mass, and a growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in childhood is frequently treated with daily injections of GH. It is not clear what effect GHD and its treatment has on bone. It was hypothesized that GHD would result in impaired microarchitecture, and an early onset of treatment would result in a better recovery than late onset. Growth hormone deficient homozygous (lit/lit) mice of both sexes were divided into two treatment groups receiving daily injections of GH, starting at an early (21 days of age) or a late time point (35 days of age, corresponding to the end of puberty). A group of heterozygous mice with normal levels of growth hormone served as controls. In vivo micro-computed tomography scans of the fourth lumbar vertebra were obtained at five time points between 21 and 60 days of age, and trabecular morphology and volumetric BMD were analyzed to determine the effects of GH on bone microarchitecture. Early GH treatment led to significant improvements in bone volume ratio (p=0.006), tissue mineral density (p=0.005), and structure model index (p=0.004) by the study endpoint (day 60), with no detected change in trabecular thickness. Trabecular number increased and trabecular separation decreased in GHD mice regardless of treatment compared to heterozygous mice. This suggests fundamental differences in the structure of trabecular bone in GHD and GH treated mice, reflected by an increased number of thinner trabeculae in these mice compared to heterozygous controls. There were no significant differences between the late treatment group and GHD mice except for connectivity density. Taken together, these results indicate that bone responds to GH treatment initiated before puberty but not to treatment commencing post-puberty, and that GH treatment does not rescue the structure of trabecular bone to that of heterozygous controls. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Tsikaras, Prokopios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2006-09-01

    The subscapular artery arises from the third part of the axillary artery and gives off the circumflex scapular and the thoracodorsal arteries. Although anatomical variations of the axillary artery are very common, the existence of a unilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery has been described in the literature only once. There are no reports of bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, in the literature. In the present study, a bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, originating on either side of the third part of the axillary artery, is described in a 68-year-old female cadaver. All the other branches of the axillary artery had a typical origin, course, distribution and termination. This extremely rare anatomical variation apart from the anatomical importance also has clinical significance for surgeons in this area. Especially, during the dissection or mobilization of the latissimus dorsi that is partly used for coverage problems in many regions of the body and also in dynamic cardiomyoplasty, any iatrogenic injury of this accessory artery may result in ischemia and functional loss of the graft.

  15. Does abalone nacre form by heteroepitaxial nucleation or by growth through mineral bridges?

    OpenAIRE

    Schäffer, Tilman E.; Ionescu-Zanetti, Cristian; Proksch, Roger; Fritz, Monika; Walters, Deron A.; Almqvist, Nils; Zaremba, Charlotte M.; Belcher, Angela M.; Smith, Bettye L.; Stucky, Galen D.; Morse, Daniel E.; Hansma, Paul K.

    1997-01-01

    We present experimental support for a model of abalone nacre growth that is based on mineral bridges between successive aragonite tablets rather than on heteroepitaxial nucleation. Interlamellar sheets of organic polymers delineate the aragonite tablets but allow the tablets to grow mineral bridges through pores in the sheets. Atomic force microscope images of interlamellar organic sheets from flat pearls made by Haliotis rufescens (red abalone; marine gastropod mollusk) reveal a fibrous core...

  16. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  17. Intense fracturation induced by mineral growth in porous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, F.; Noiriel, C.; Gratier, J.-P.; Doan, M.-L.

    2009-04-01

    When minerals precipitate in the pores of a rock, they may exert a force that depends on the supersaturation of the fluid; this is the so-called force of crystallization. This process happens in a wide range of geological systems, e.g. vein formation in deep crust, frost heave in soils, and salt damage in cultural heritage monuments. Sometimes, the force of crystallization is so large that it leads to a permanent damage and fracturation of the porous medium. Here, we have studied this process experimentally and imaged in 3D how an intense fracture pattern may emerge from purely chemical processes. Core samples of limestone (22% porosity) and sandstones (19% porosity) were left for one month in contact with an aqueous solution saturated with sodium chloride in an autoclave, at 40°C, under a normal stress in the range 0.2-0.3 MPa. The fluid was allowed to rise in the core samples by capillary forces, up to a height where evaporation occurred. The samples were left in a rubber jacket with the same height as the capillary fringe, allowing therefore an accurate control of the region of water evaporation and salt precipitation. The uniaxial deformation of the samples was measured using high resolution displacement sensors. After the experiments we have imaged the samples in three dimensions, using laboratory computed X-ray tomography, allowing therefore imaging the intensity and localization of the damage, as well as the regions of salt precipitation. During the initial fluid capillary rise, the deformation measurements indicate a small shortening of the samples (~5 micrometers), and then an increase of the samples' height (50-100 micrometers) during salt precipitation. Two kinds of damage could be observed in tomography. Firstly, small rock fragments were pealed from the sample surface. Secondly, and more interestingly, a radial fracture network developed, by nucleation of microcracks at the interface where evaporation occurred, and propagation to the free surface. Two

  18. Growth hormone therapy and bone mineral density in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalov, Vladimir K; Van, Phillip L; Baron, Jeffrey; Reynolds, James C; Bondy, Carolyn A

    2004-10-01

    In a previous report, preliminary data showed a significant reduction in cortical bone mineral density (BMD) in women with Turner syndrome that had been treated with GH compared with women with Turner syndrome that had not been treated. To clarify this point, we have investigated the effects of GH treatment at multiple sites in this case-control, cross-sectional study. There were 23 women per group, who were similar in age, height, body mass index, estrogen use, and ethnic makeup. Median age (range) at start and duration of GH treatment was 9 (3-17) and 5 (2-9) yr, respectively. GH-treated women had a slightly greater ( approximately 8%, P = 0.03) width of the radial shaft, but otherwise there were no significant differences between groups in bone dimensions or BMD at the distal radius, lumbar spine, or femoral neck. Furthermore, regression analysis in a linear model including independent variables of age, age at diagnosis, body mass index, presence of spontaneous puberty, and GH use confirmed that GH use did not contribute to variation in BMD.

  19. Growth and bone mineralization in small-for-gestational-age preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Shigetaka; Itabashi, Kazuo; Umeda, You; Inoue, Makoto; Nishioka, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    Preterm infants are at risk for metabolic bone disease and suboptimal growth. This study examined the hypothesis that, apart from prematurity, intrauterine growth status (expressed as gestational age-specific birthweight standard deviation score) influences bone mineralization and body composition in early infancy. In this retrospective study, the groups consisted of preterm small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants (n = 18; SGA group) and preterm appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants (n = 24; AGA group). Postnatal bone mineralization was measured at term-adjusted age (postmenstrual age, 37-42 weeks). Bone mineral content (BMC) and body composition were determined on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the whole body. BMC and lean mass were significantly lower in the SGA group than in the AGA group at term-adjusted age (37-42 weeks postmenstrual age). Stepwise regression analysis identified weight at examination as the most significant factor, accounting for 51% of the variance in BMC. Bodyweight at term-adjusted age, rather than intrauterine growth, may affect postnatal bone mineralization in preterm low-birthweight infants. Therefore, promoting an increase in body size might increase postnatal bone mineralization in preterm SGA infants. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. The gompertz function can coherently describe microbial mineralization of growth-sustaining pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Anders R; Binning, Philip J; Aamand, Jens; Badawi, Nora; Rosenbom, Annette E

    2013-08-01

    Mineralization of (14)C-labeled tracers is a common way of studying the environmental fate of xenobiotics, but it can be difficult to extract relevant kinetic parameters from such experiments since complex kinetic functions or several kinetic functions may be needed to adequately describe large data sets. In this study, we suggest using a two-parameter, sigmoid Gompertz function for parametrizing mineralization curves. The function was applied to a data set of 252 normalized mineralization curves that represented the potential for degradation of the herbicide MCPA in three horizons of an agricultural soil. The Gompertz function fitted most of the normalized curves, and trends in the data set could be visualized by a scatter plot of the two Gompertz parameters (rate constant and time delay). For agricultural topsoil, we also tested the effect of the MCPA concentration on the mineralization kinetics. Reduced initial concentrations lead to shortened lag-phases, probably due to reduced need for bacterial growth. The effect of substrate concentration could be predicted by simply changing the time delay of the Gompertz curves. This delay could to some extent also simulate concentration effects for 2,4-D mineralization in agricultural soil and aquifer sediment and 2,6-dichlorobenzamide mineralization in single-species, mineral medium.

  1. Net mineral requirements for growth of Saanen goat kids in early life are similar among genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, A N; Härter, C J; Souza, S F; Oliveira, D; Boaventura Neto, O; Biagioli, B; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2017-02-01

    The current mineral requirements for growing goat kids are based on sheep and cattle studies without differentiating between the stages of development or gender. The aims of this study were to determine the net requirements for growth of Ca, P, Mg, Na and K of Saanen goat kids during the initial stages of growth and to analyse the effect of gender on the net requirements for growth of these macrominerals. Eighteen female, 19 intact male and 10 castrated male Saanen goat kids were studied. The kids were selected applying a completely randomized design and slaughtered when their body weight (BW) reached approximately 5, 10 and 15 kg to determine the mineral requirements for growth at these stages. The net mineral requirements for growth were similar among genders. The goat kids had slightly increased net requirements of Ca, P and Mg for growth with increasing BW from 5 to 15 kg. The net requirements for growth of Ca, P, Mg, Na and K ranged from 9.61 to 9.67 g/kg of BW gain, 7.14 to 7.56 g/kg of BW gain, 0.34 to 0.37 g/kg of BW gain, 1.26 to 1.13 g/kg of BW gain, 1.88 to 1.82 g/kg of BW gain as the animals grew from 5 to 15 kg respectively. In conclusion, when formulating diets for Saanen goat kids in early growth stage mineral levels do not need to adjusted based on gender. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23: a Bridge Between Bone Minerals and Renal Volume Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humalda, Jelmer Kor

    2016-01-01

    The work in this thesis addresses the interaction between the phosphate-regulating hormone Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF-23) as key player in bone-mineral homeostasis and renal volume handling, mainly in the context of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). First, we elaborate on the ro

  3. Crystallization of accessory phases in magmas by local saturation adjacent to phenocrysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Accessory minerals commonly occur attached to or included in the major crystalline phases of felsic and some intermediate igneous rocks. Apatite is particularly common as inclusions, but Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite, zircon, monazite, chevkinite and xenotime are also known from silicic rocks. Accessories may nucleate near the host crystal/ liquid interface as a result of local saturation owing to formation of a differentiated chemical boundary layer in which accessory mineral solubility would be lower than in the surrounding liquid. Differentiation of this boundary layer would be greatest adjacent to ferromagnesian phenocrysts, especially Fe-Ti oxides; it is with oxides that accessories are most commonly associated in rocks. A boundary layer may develop if the crystal grows more rapidly than diffusion can transport incorporated and rejected elements to and from the phenocryst. Diffusion must dominate over convection as a mode of mass transfer near the advancing crystal/liquid interface in order for a boundary layer to exist. Accumulation of essential structural constituent elements of accessory minerals owing to their slow diffusion in evolved silicate melt also may force local saturation, but this is not a process that applies to all cases. Local saturation is an attractive mechanism for enhancing fractionation during crystallization differentiation. If accessory minerals attached to or included in phenocrysts formed because of local saturation, their host phenocrysts must have grown rapidly when accessories nucleated in comparison to lifetimes of magma reservoirs. Some inconsistencies remain in a local saturation origin for accessory phases that cannot be evaluated without additional information. ?? 1989.

  4. Microbial colonization and growth on metal sulfides and other mineral surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, D.; Sundquist, A. R.; Lawrence, J.; Doyle, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    To determine whether a bacterial film forms on sulfur minerals in situ, various sulfur containing and other minerals were incubated in Penitencia Creek. The rate of cell growth and attachment within the surface microenvironment of mineral surfaces was also determined. To determine whether surfaces enriched with soluble sulfur substrates (cysteine, glutathione, thioglycolate, sulfite, and thiosulfate) increased the rate of growth or attachment of natural communities, membrane enrichments were incubated. These rates were determined as described by Caldwell et al. (1981, 1983). The growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, a heterotrophic sulfur oxidizer, was studied in batch cell suspensions and in continuous culture. In batch culture the cells were oxygen limited (growth rate 0.33 per hour under oxygen limitations and 0.52 per hour when vigorously aerated). Growth within the film was glucose limited. Several behavioral phenomena were observed for cells growing within the hydrodynamic boundary layer. Despite a flow of 10 cm per second in the environment, the bacteria were able to move freely in both directions within the hydrodynamic boundary layer.

  5. Mineral requirements for growth and maintenance of F1 Boer × Saanen male kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, I A M A; Härter, C J; Pereira Filho, J M; Sobrinho, A G da Silva; Resende, K T

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the net requirements of minerals for the growth and maintenance of intact male F1 Boer × Saanen goat kids in the initial phase of growth. The following 2 experiments were performed: Exp. 1 was performed to determine the net growth requirements for Ca, P, Mg, Na, and K by F1 Boer × Saanen goat kids from 5 to 25 kg of BW and Exp. 2 was performed to determine the maintenance requirements of F1 Boer × Saanen goats from 15 to 25 kg BW. In Exp. 1, 32 intact male goat kids were distributed in a completely randomized design and mineral body composition was fit to an allometric equation in the form of a nonlinear model. To determine the mineral requirements for maintenance in Exp. 2, 21 intact male goat kids were distributed in a randomized block design, where the goat kids were subjected to 3 levels of feed restriction (0, 30, and 60% feed restriction). At the onset of Exp. 2, 7 goat kids were harvested and used to estimate the initial body composition (15 kg BW). Initial body composition was used to calculate the retention of minerals. The maintenance requirements were estimated by regressions obtained from the retention of minerals in the empty body and the intake of the mineral. The concentration of Ca, P, Na, and K in the empty BW decreased by 11, 13, 26, and 23% with the increase in BW from 5 to 25 kg (P requirements of Ca, P, Mg, Na, and K for weight gain decreased by 27.5, 27.8, 4.25, 43.2, and 39.7%, respectively, with the increase in BW from 5 to 25 kg (P requirements (g/kg of ADG) decreased from 9.7 to 7.0 for Ca, 6.5 to 4.7 for P, 0.38 to 0.36 for Mg, 0.88 to 0.50 for Na, and 1.9 to 1.2 for K when BW increased from 5 to 25 kg. The daily net requirements for maintenance per kilogram of BW were 38 mg of Ca, 42 mg of P, 1.6 mg of Mg, 5.0 mg of Na, and 19 mg of K. These results for the nutritional requirements of minerals may help to formulate more balanced diets for F1 Boer × Saanen goat kids in the initial growth

  6. Nutrition and growth of potted gerbera according to mineral and organic fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielly Torres Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the growing market of gerbera, it is necessary to develop studies that maximize its production, especially using organic fertilizer. In order to assess the nutrition and growth of potted gerbera conducted with mineral and organic fertilization, an experiment in a greenhouse was done, located at Western Paraná State University, Brazil. The experimental design was made in randomized blocks, with four replications and five treatments. The treatments were defined according to the source of fertilization, mineral (NPK or organic. The organic fertilization were obtained by diluting in water four organic compost of poultry slaughter waste, obtained from in the composting process, in order to adjust electrical conductivity. The solution of the compost was used as organic fertigation, making the organic treatments. The liquid organic fertilizer, as well as irrigation of mineral treatment, was performed manually once a day. At the end of vegetative and reproductive periods, the levels of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe were quantified in the plant tissue. At the same time, biometric parameters were assessed (number of leaves, plant diameter, leaf area, dry matter of aerial parts, number of heads, inflorescence dry matter, stem height, head diameter and diameter stem. The liquid organic fertilizers, obtained by composting procession of poultry slaughter waste, can be used as alternative source for potted gerbera nutrition, since they provide better or higher culture growth than the mineral fertilizer.

  7. Evaluation of chitooligosaccharide application on mineral accumulation and plant growth in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Philippe G; Pintado, Manuela E; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2014-02-01

    Chitooligosaccharides (COS) - water soluble derivatives from chitin, are an interesting group of molecules for several biological applications, for they can enter plant cells and bind negatively charged molecules. Several studies reported an enhanced plant growth and higher crop yield due to chitosan application in soil grown plants, but no studies have looked on the effect of COS application on plant mineral nutrient dynamics in hydroponically grown plants. In this study, Phaseolus vulgaris was grown in hydroponic culture and the effect of three different concentrations of COS on plant growth and mineral accumulation was assessed. There were significant changes in mineral allocations for Mo, B, Zn, P, Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Na, Al and K among treatments. Plant morphology was severely affected in high doses of COS, as well as lignin concentration in the stem and the leaves, but not in the roots. Chlorophyll A, B and carotenoid concentrations did not change significantly among treatments, suggesting that even at higher concentrations, COS application did not affect photosynthetic pigment accumulation. Plants grown at high COS levels had shorter shoots and roots, suggesting that COS can be phytotoxic to the plant. The present study is the first detailed report on the effect of COS application on mineral nutrition in plants, and opens the door for future studies that aim at utilizing COS in biofortification or phytoremediation programs.

  8. Accessory Proteins at ERES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkenberg, Rafael David

    proteins. Together these components co‐operate in cargo‐selection as well as forming, loading and releasing budding vesicles from specific regions on the membrane surface of the ER. Coat components furthermore convey vesicle targeting towards the Golgi. However, not much is known about the mechanisms...... that regulate the COPII assembly at the vesicle bud site. This thesis provides the first regulatory mechanism of COPII assembly in relation to ER‐membrane lipid‐signal recognition by the accessory protein p125A (Sec23IP). The aim of the project was to characterize p125A function by dissecting two main domains...... in the protein; a putative lipid‐associating domain termed the DDHD domain that is defined by the four amino acid motif that gives the domain its name; and a ubiquitously found domain termed Sterile α‐motif (SAM), which is mostly associated with oligomerization and polymerization. We first show, that the DDHD...

  9. In vitro studies of calcium mixed minerals growth in different growth faces and semiconductor laser induced suppression of nuclei strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Kanchana; P Sundaramoorthi

    2008-12-01

    Kidney stone consists of various organic, inorganic and semi organic compounds. Mineral oxalate monohydrate and di-hydrate are the main organic constituents of kidney stones. However, mechanisms leading to the formation of mineral oxalate kidney stones are not clearly understood. The effect of some urinary stone constituents such as ammonium oxalate, calcium citrate, proteins and trace elements were reported by us. The calcium magnesium hydrogen phosphate (CaMHP) crystals were grown in SMS gel medium which provides the necessary kidney stimuli growth medium. The growth processes were done by single diffusion method for different physical and chemical parameters. The pH range in which HPO$^{2-}_{4}$ ions dominates were considered which in turn is necessary for the growth of CaMHP crystals. In the present study, calcium magnesium hydrogen phosphate (CaMHP) crystals are grown in three different growth faces to attain the total nucleation reduction. As an extension of this research, many characterization studies have been carried out like XRD, FTIR, TGA, SEM and etching and the results are reported.

  10. Effect of diurnal temperature alternations on plant growth and mineral composition in cucumber, melon and watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inthichack, Phommy; Nishimura, Yasuyo; Fukumoto, Yasufumi

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated plant growth and mineral composition in three cucurbit crops of cucumber, melon and watermelon grown under four constant day and night temperatures (DIF) of 25/15, 22.5/17.5, 17.5/22.5 and 15/25 degrees C. As expected, the growth and development of the three cucurbits were strongly temperature dependent. Plant height and relative chlorophyll content of the three crops decreased linearly along with decreases in day temperature. Leaf and stem dry weight decreased significantly under negative DIFs and the lowest value was in DIF plot 15/25 degrees C. However, the negative DIF of 15/25 degrees C resulted in increased content of all mineral nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Cu) in both the leaf and stem of the three cucurbit crops. The data suggest that a negative DIF as low as 15/25 degrees C may be beneficial to greenhouse-grown cucurbit crop producers, by controlling vegetative growth that facilitates crop management, with no negative effect on or enhancement of the uptake rates of mineral nutrients which are required to determine yield and fruit quality at the production stage. Effective utilization of diurnal temperature alternations is one strategy that can be used to reduce energy consumption in greenhouses.

  11. Chitosan hydrogels enriched with polyphenols: Antibacterial activity, cell adhesion and growth and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lišková, Jana; Douglas, Timothy E L; Beranová, Jana; Skwarczyńska, Agata; Božič, Mojca; Samal, Sangram Keshari; Modrzejewska, Zofia; Gorgieva, Selestina; Kokol, Vanja; Bačáková, Lucie

    2015-09-20

    Injectable hydrogels for bone regeneration consisting of chitosan, sodium beta-glycerophosphate (Na-β-GP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were enriched with the polyphenols phloroglucinol (PG) and gallic acid (GA) and characterized physicochemically and biologically with respect to properties relevant for applications in bone regeneration, namely gelation kinetics, mineralizability, antioxidant properties, antibacterial activity, cytocompatibility and ability to support adhesion and growth of human osteoblast-like MG63 cells. Enrichment with PG and GA had no negative effect on gelation kinetics and mineralizability. PG and GA both enhanced antioxidant activity of unmineralized hydrogels. Mineralization reduced antioxidant activity of hydrogels containing GA. Hydrogels containing GA, PG and without polyphenols reduced colony forming ability of Escherichia coli after 1h, 3h and 6h incubation and slowed E. coli growth in liquid culture for 150min. Hydrogels containing GA were cytotoxic and supported cell growth more poorly than polyphenol-free hydrogels. PG had no negative effect on cell adhesion and growth.

  12. Growth Responses of Plantago major L. ssp. pleiosperma (Pilger) to Changes in Mineral Supply : Evidence for Regulation by Cytokinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, D

    1988-07-01

    Plants of an inbred line of Plantago major ssp. pleiosperma were subjected to an alteration in mineral supply. Observed responses of growth rate and shoot to root ratio are thought to be induced by changes in endogenous cytokinin concentration and not by mineral concentration in plant tissue.

  13. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  14. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  15. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  16. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  17. Characterization and in vitro biological evaluation of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide nanocomposites synthesized biomimetically on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cen; Kong, Xiangdong [Bio-X Center, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhang, Sheng-Min [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lee, In-Seop, E-mail: inseop@yonsei.ac.kr [Bio-X Center, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Institute of Natural Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mineral/OGP nanocomposite layers were synthesized biomimetically on Ti substrates. • Incorporated OGP affected the morphology and ultimate structure of mineral. • Incorporated OGP improved the MSCs adhesion, proliferation, and ALP activity. - Abstract: Nanocomposite layers of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) were synthesized on calcium phosphate coated titanium substrates by immersing in calcium-phosphate buffer solution containing OGP. Peptide incorporated mineral was characterized by determining quantity loaded, effects on mineral morphology and structure. Also, the biological activity was investigated by cell adhesion, proliferation assay, and measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay revealed that OGP was successfully incorporated with mineral and the amount was increased with immersion time. Incorporated OGP changed the mineral morphology from sharp plate-like shape to more rounded one, and the octacalcium phosphate structure of the mineral was gradually transformed into apatite. With confocal microscopy to examine the incorporation of fluorescently labeled peptide, OGP was evenly distributed throughout mineral layers. Mineral/OGP nanocomposites promoted cell adhesion and proliferation, and also increased ALP activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Results presented here indicated that the mineral/OGP nanocomposites formed on titanium substrates had the potential for applications in dental implants.

  18. Initial growth of Schizolobium parahybae in Brazilian Cerrado soil under liming and mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademilson Coneglian

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT High prices and the scarcity of hardwoods require the use of alternative wood sources, such as the Guapuruvu (Schizolobium parahybae, an arboreal species native to the Atlantic Forest, which has fast growth and high market potential. However, there is no information on its cultivation in the Brazilian Cerrado. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the contribution of mineral fertilization and liming in a Cerrado soil on the initial growth of Schizolobium parahybae. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, with 4 treatments (Cerrado soil; soil + liming; soil + fertilizer; and soil + fertilizer + liming and 15 replicates. The following variables were analyzed: plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, total, shoot, leaf, root and stem dry matter, and root/shoot ratio. The obtained data were subjected to the analysis of variance, Tukey test and regression analysis. During the initial growth, Schizolobium parahybae can be cultivated in a Brazilian Cerrado soil only under mineral fertilization, with no need for soil liming.

  19. A strong effect of growth medium and organ type on the identification of QTLs for phytate and mineral concentrations in three Arabidopsis thaliana RIL populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghandilyan, A.; Ilk, N.; Hanhart, C.J.; Mbengue, M.; Barboza, L.; Schat, H.; Koornneef, M.; El-Lithy, M.E.M.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Reymond, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of mineral accumulation in plants is genetically complex, with several genetic loci involved in the control of one mineral and loci affecting the accumulation of different minerals. To investigate the role of growth medium and organ type on the genetics of mineral accumulation, two ex

  20. A strong effect of growth medium and organ type on the identification of QTLs for phytate and mineral concentrations in three Arabidopsis thaliana RIL populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghandilyan, A.; Ilk, N.; Hanhart, C.J.; Mbengue, M.; Barboza, L.; Schat, H.; Koornneef, M.; El-Lithy, M.E.M.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Reymond, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of mineral accumulation in plants is genetically complex, with several genetic loci involved in the control of one mineral and loci affecting the accumulation of different minerals. To investigate the role of growth medium and organ type on the genetics of mineral accumulation, two

  1. Clinical study evaluating bone mineral mass in the radius during skeletal growth. Single photon absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagino, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Using 125-I single photon absorptiometry, bone mineral measurements were performed on 206 healthy Japanese children (2 to 19 years of age). Bone mineral content (BMC), bone width (BW) and BMC/BW values were determined for the radius at distal 1/6 site (metaphysis) and distal 1/3 site (diaphysis). BMC/BW values at both sites correlated well with body height and weight. Bone mass in the diaphysis (distal 1/3 site) increased linearly during the 2-19 years of skeletal growth, but bone mass in the metaphysis (1/6 site) increased steeply during the pubertal period. In children receiving glucocorticoid therapy, bone mass was reduced in proportion to the duration of drug administration. In children under anticonvulsant therapy, the yearly increse in bone mass was significantly low especially in those patients with poor physical activity levels. Bone mineral decrease in the radius occurred in the children with hypopituitalism, hypothyroidism (cretinism), hyperthyroidism and Turner's syndrome.

  2. The effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D on growth and bone mineralization in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    ). Hormones (eicosanoids) from n-6 PUFA induce fat cell differentiation and an intake high in n-3 PUFA relative to n-6 PUFA is hypothesized to inhibit differentiation and hypertrophy of adipose cells and subsequently the risk for obesity. Identification of dietary components with effects on fat tissue growth...... early in life is essential for preventive steps against development of overweight and obesity. Vitamin D promotes bone mineralization and growth through regulation of the calcium homeostasis, and via activation of vitamin D receptors on bone and cartilage forming cells. However vitamin D insufficiency...... exposure from 281 mothers was expressed as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and n-6/n-3 PUFA-ratio. In 222 of the children, we registered BMI from 2-7 years and age and BMI at adiposity rebound, parameters predictive of adiposity risk. In 207of the children, we furthermore measured body fat percentage by dual...

  3. Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

    2011-04-01

    Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2  μm  h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger (∼100  nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature.

  4. Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

    2011-07-01

    Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2 {micro}m h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger ({approx}100 nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature.

  5. Pleistocene melting and rapid exhumation of the Nanga Parbat massif, Pakistan: Age and P- T conditions of accessory mineral growth in migmatite and leucogranite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J. L.; Waters, D. J.; Searle, M. P.; Bowring, S. A.

    2009-11-01

    Rapid Pleistocene exhumation of the core of the Nanga Parbat massif (northwestern Himalayan syntaxis) is inferred by combining U-Pb dates from monazite, xenotime, and zircon from migmatitic rocks and a leucogranite dike with pressure estimates that are closely linked to dated events in the melting and crystallization history. Exhumation rates of ˜ 11-13 mm/a were calculated from (i) migmatitic rocks that were produced at ˜ 1.7 Ma and 5.0 kbar by dehydration melting of biotite on decompression and (ii) veins with garnet and cordierite that crystallized at ˜ 1.0 Ma and 3.5 kbar. Tourmaline-bearing leucogranitic dikes separated from the source and ascended to crystallize near their solidus at ˜ 0.7 Ma. Modeling of Th/U in the leucogranite magma based on Th/U and U-Pb data from monazite, xenotime, and zircon shows a decrease from 1.1 to 0.2 over a span of 0.15 Ma. The implied acceleration of exhumation at ˜ 1.7 Ma may be linked to mid-crust flow as the evolving thermal structure of the Neogene metamorphism encountered the biotite dehydration-melting reaction. The rapid exhumation may have resulted from significant lowering of the effective viscosity of mid-crustal rocks, leading to vertical channel flow into the core of the Nanga Parbat massif along bounding shear zones.

  6. Characterization and in vitro biological evaluation of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide nanocomposites synthesized biomimetically on titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cen; Kong, Xiangdong; Zhang, Sheng-Min; Lee, In-Seop

    2015-04-01

    Nanocomposite layers of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) were synthesized on calcium phosphate coated titanium substrates by immersing in calcium-phosphate buffer solution containing OGP. Peptide incorporated mineral was characterized by determining quantity loaded, effects on mineral morphology and structure. Also, the biological activity was investigated by cell adhesion, proliferation assay, and measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay revealed that OGP was successfully incorporated with mineral and the amount was increased with immersion time. Incorporated OGP changed the mineral morphology from sharp plate-like shape to more rounded one, and the octacalcium phosphate structure of the mineral was gradually transformed into apatite. With confocal microscopy to examine the incorporation of fluorescently labeled peptide, OGP was evenly distributed throughout mineral layers. Mineral/OGP nanocomposites promoted cell adhesion and proliferation, and also increased ALP activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Results presented here indicated that the mineral/OGP nanocomposites formed on titanium substrates had the potential for applications in dental implants.

  7. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  8. Basic fibroblast growth factor-loaded, mineralized biopolymer-nanofiber scaffold improves adhesion and proliferation of rat mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Jung-Ju; Kim, Hae-Won

    2014-02-01

    Nanofibrous matrices are attractive scaffolding platforms for tissue regeneration. Modification of the nanofiber surface, particularly with biological proteins, improves cellular interactions. Here, we loaded basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) onto mineralized nanofibers and investigated the effect on adhesion and proliferation of rat mesenchymal stem cells. bFGF loading was significantly higher on the mineralized nanofiber than on the non-mineralized one. Release of bFGF from the mineralized nanofibers was continuous over 2 weeks. Cells cultured on the bFGF-loaded nanofiber attached and proliferated in significantly higher numbers than those on the bFGF-free nanofiber. bFGF-receptor inhibition study confirmed the biological role played by the loaded bFGF. This study details the advantages of the mineralized nanofiber surface for the loading and delivery bFGF, and thus the bFGF-loaded nanofiber scaffold may be useful for tissue repair and regeneration.

  9. Mineral dust exposure in young Indian adults: an effect on lung growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D A; McAlpine, G; Semple, S; Cowie, H; Seaton, A

    2008-05-01

    Long-term occupational exposure to mineral dusts including quartz is known to cause pneumoconiosis but little is known about the effects of such exposure during the period of lung development in childhood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects on young people of exposure to mineral dusts. We carried out a cross-sectional study of a group of 81 Indian stone crushers (average age 21) and a control group of 72 nearby slum dwellers (average age 21) in order to assess dust exposures, respiratory symptoms and lung function. Stone crushers' corrected 8-hour time weighted average concentrations of total inhalable dust, respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica were 143 mg/m(3), 39.7 mg/m(3) and 2.29 mg/m(3) respectively, which are 14, 10 and 23 times the UK workplace exposure limits, respectively. Both groups also had high exposures to outdoor and general domestic particulate matter. Compared to controls, stone crushers had significantly more symptoms, lower levels of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory time (FET) and higher levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1))/FVC ratio and mid-expiratory flow rate (MEF). There were no differences in FEV(1) levels. Symptoms and lung function were not associated with time lived on site or time spent in job. A selection of chest radiographs showed no silicosis by International Labour Office (ILO) criteria. Individuals exposed to mixed mineral dust in childhood and early adult life had excess symptoms and reduced vital capacity without airflow obstruction compared with control subjects. We interpret this as evidence of stunting of lung growth caused by exposure to respirable dust.

  10. Nanoscale Phase Stability Reversal During the Nucleation and Growth of Titanium Oxide Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummmer, D. R.; Heaney, P. J.; Kubicki, J. D.; Kent, P. R.; Post, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    Fine-grained titanium oxide minerals are important in soils, where they affect a variety of geochemical processes. They are also industrially important as catalysts, pigments, food additives, and dielectrics. Recent research has indicated an apparent reversal of thermodynamic stability between TiO2 phases at the nanoscale thought to be caused by an increased contribution of surface energy to the total free energy. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments in which titanium oxides crystallize from aqueous TiCl4 solutions confirm that anatase, a metastable phase, is always the first phase to nucleate under our range of initial conditions. Rutile peaks are observed only minutes after the first appearance of anatase, after which anatase abundance slowly decreases while rutile continues to form. Whole pattern refinement of diffraction data reveals that lattice constants of both phases increase throughout the crystallization process. In addition, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and kinetic modeling indicate that anatase does not undergo a solid-state transformation to the rutile structure as once thought. Instead, anatase appears to re-dissolve and then feed the growth of already nucleated rutile nanocrystals. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to model 1, 2, and 3 nm particles of both mineral phases. The total surface energies calculated from these models did yield lower values for anatase than for rutile by 8-13 kJ/mol depending on particle size, indicating that surface free energy is sufficient to account for stability reversal. However, these whole-particle surface energies were much higher than the sum of energies of each particle's constituent crystallographic surfaces. We attribute the excess energy to defects associated with the edges and corners of nanoparticles, which are not present on a 2-D periodic surface. This previously unreported edge and corner energy may play a dominant role in the stability reversal

  11. The occurrence of rare minerals on decayed medieval Scottish building stone colonized by biological growths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones, M. S.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available During the course of a study of biodeterioration at Hermitage Castle in the Scottish Borders various rare minerals: monohydrocalcite, nesquehonite and dypingite were found in association with the biological growths. Monohydrocalcite was found particularly in association with a green alga "Trentepohlia aurea". A brief review of previous publications concerning these minerals is given and the theory put forward with regard to the possible origin of the monohydrocalcite as a biogenic by product.

    En el transcurso de un estudio sobre el biodeterioro existente en el 'Hermitage Castle', localizado en los 'Scottish Borders' (frontera entre Escocia e Inglaterra, se detectó la presencia de monohidrocalcita, nesquehonita y dipingita, minerales considerados como poco frecuentes, asociados con la colonización biológica presente, especialmente en el caso de la monohidrocalcita y el alga verde Trentepohlia áurea. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión bibliográfica sobre estos minerales así como la teoría del posible origen biogénico de la monohidrocalcita.

  12. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual... Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A manual operating table and accessories and a manual operating chair...

  13. EFFECT OF USING NUTRITION MINERALS AND GROWTH SUBSTANCE ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ORANGE FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried to investigate the characterization of orange fruits under using applications of nutrition minerals and one application of growth substance on physical properties of orange fruits at private farm in wadi el-netron, ELbehari governorate, Egypt during winter 2011to predict maturity stage of orange fruits . The physical properties including aspect ratio(AR, Area of flat surface(Af, Area of transverse surface (At, Arithmetic diameter (Da, Density (ρ, Geometric diameter (Dg, surface area (Sa, sphericity, Volume (V and weight and the results revealed that, the high increasing percentage of orange fruits were considered as follows 9.24, 17.08, 22.65, 9.70, 27.16, 9.70, 20.45, 6.38, 24.07 and 28.84 %

  14. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A wheelchair accessory is a device intended for medical purposes that is...

  15. Growth hormone - insulin-like growth factor-I axis and bone mineral density in adults with thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bone disease and short stature are frequent clinical features of patients with beta-thalassaemia major. Dysfunction of the GH-IGF-1 axis has been described in many thalassemics children and adolescents with short stature and reduced growth velocity. Assessment of the GH-IGF-1 axis in short adults with TM after attainment of final height may be required to select those who are candidates for replacement therapy and to prevent the development of bone disease. The aim of our study was to investigate GH secretion in adult thalassemic patients in relation to their bone mineral density (BMD and serum ferritin concentrations. Materials and Methods: We performed clonidine stimulation test in 30 thalassemic patients (18 males, 12 females with a mean age of 31.5± 7.2 years. The cut-off level for GH response was set at 7ug/l, according to the literature. Serum ferritin, IGF-I, liver enzymes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and type 1 Collagen Carboxy Telopeptide (CCT1 were also determined. Results: We diagnosed GH deficiency (GHD in 12 patients (40% and IGF-I deficiency (IGF-I SDS <-2 was diagnosed in 20 patients (67%. Adult patients with TM had significantly decreased IGF-I concentrations and bone mineral density (BMD at the femur neck and lumbar spine compared to normal controls. Thalassemic patients with GHD and IGF-I deficiency had significantly lower BMD T score at the lumbar spine compared to patients with normal GH and IGF-I levels. Thalassemic patients had higher serum CCT1 concentrations compared to normal controls. Peak GH levels were correlated significantly with IGF- I concentrations and IGF-I levels were correlated significantly with the height SDS (HtSDS of thalassemic patients. Neither GH peak nor IGF-I concentrations were correlated to serum ferritin concentrations. Conclusions: We conclude that GH status should be tested in adult thalassemic patients especially those with short stature and/or decreased BMD. Clonidine test appears

  16. Growth Performance, Mineral Digestibility, and Blood Characteristics of Ostriches Receiving Drinking Water Supplemented with Varying Levels of Chelated Trace Mineral Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfori, Hossein; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Hajkhodadadi, Iman; Nazaran, Mohammad Hassan; Hafizi, Maryam

    2017-08-11

    The effects of water supplementation of chelated trace minerals (CTM, which is named Bonzaplex designed with chelate compounds technology) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals, and some blood metabolites, TM, and antioxidant enzyme values in African ostriches were investigated from 8 to 12 months of age. A total of 20 8-month-old ostriches (five birds in five replicate pens) was randomly allocated into one of the following four treatments: (1) control (basal diet + tap water), (2) low CTM (basal diet +100 mg/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), (3) medium CTM (basal diet +1 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), and (4) high CTM (basal diet +2 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water). Compared with control, medium CTM improved (P density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and higher copper levels compared to those of the control treatment. Supplementation of higher amounts of CTM (medium and high CTM) also increased the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (P density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, iron, magnesium, and glutathione peroxidase values. In conclusion, supplementation of CTM at the level of 1 g/bird/day to the drinking water can be recommended for improving growth performance, mineral absorption, and antioxidant status of ostriches fed diets containing the recommended levels of inorganic TM.

  17. Building iPhone OS Accessories

    CERN Document Server

    Maskrey, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a serious, in-depth look at Apple's External Accessory Framework and the iPhone Accessories API. You'll learn how to create new, integrated solutions that combine iPhone apps with dedicated hardware. The iPhone OS Accessories API expands the opportunities for innovative iPhone developers, allowing you to control and monitor external devices, whether you've built them yourself or obtained them from a third party. What you'll learn * Develop accessories and apps for the iPhone and iPod touch. * Use Apple's External Accessory Framework to create hardware/software interaction. *

  18. SALT ACCLIMATION OF TRITICUM-AESTIVUM BY CHOLINE CHLORIDE - PLANT-GROWTH, MINERAL-CONTENT, AND CELL-PERMEABILITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSOUR, MM; STADELMANN, EJ; LEESTADELMANN, OY

    1993-01-01

    Seedlings of a salt sensitive line of Triticum aestivum were grown in Hoagland solution supplemented with 100 mM NaCl following a pretreatment with choline chloride (ChCl). Changes in growth, mineral content of roots and shoots, and passive permeability of the cell membrane were measured. Relative g

  19. Bone Mineral Density, Growth, and Thyroid Function in Long-Term Survivors of Pediatric Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treated with Chemotherapy Only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. van Beek; M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink; F.G. Hakvoort-Cammel; C. van den Bos; H.J.H. van der Pal; E.P. Krenning; Y.B. de Rijke; R. Pieters; S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term side effects of treatment for childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma with chemotherapy only on growth, bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and thyroid function. Procedure: A total of 88 patients (56 male, 32 female; 17.6-42.6 yr), tr

  20. Modeling of Phenoxy Acid Herbicide Mineralization and Growth of Microbial Degraders in 15 Soils Monitored by Quantitative Real-Time PCR of the Functional tfdA Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jacob; Prestat, Emmanuel; David, Maude M.

    2012-01-01

    continents. The mineralization patterns were fitted by zero/linear or exponential growth forms of the three-half-order models and by logarithmic (log), first-order, or zero-order kinetic models. Prior and subsequent to the mineralization event, tfdA genes were quantified using real-time PCR to estimate...... growth-linked kinetic models. A clear trend was observed that the mineralization rates of the three PAs occurred in the order 2,4-D > MCPA > MCPP, and a correlation was observed between rapid mineralization and soils exposed to PA previously. Finally, for 2,4-D mineralization, all seven mineralization...... patterns which were best fitted by the exponential model yielded a higher tfdA gene potential after mineralization had occurred than the three mineralization patterns best fitted by the Lin model....

  1. Accumulation of biomass and mineral elements with calendar time by corn: application of the expanded growth model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen R Overman

    Full Text Available The expanded growth model is developed to describe accumulation of plant biomass (Mg ha(-1 and mineral elements (kg ha(-1 in with calendar time (wk. Accumulation of plant biomass with calendar time occurs as a result of photosynthesis for green land-based plants. A corresponding accumulation of mineral elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium occurs from the soil through plant roots. In this analysis, the expanded growth model is tested against high quality, published data on corn (Zea mays L. growth. Data from a field study in South Carolina was used to evaluate the application of the model, where the planting time of April 2 in the field study maximized the capture of solar energy for biomass production. The growth model predicts a simple linear relationship between biomass yield and the growth quantifier, which is confirmed with the data. The growth quantifier incorporates the unit processes of distribution of solar energy which drives biomass accumulation by photosynthesis, partitioning of biomass between light-gathering and structural components of the plants, and an aging function. A hyperbolic relationship between plant nutrient uptake and biomass yield is assumed, and is confirmed for the mineral elements nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K. It is concluded that the rate limiting process in the system is biomass accumulation by photosynthesis and that nutrient accumulation occurs in virtual equilibrium with biomass accumulation.

  2. Locally vascularized pelvic accessory spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, F; Frantellizzi, V; Drudi, Francesco M; Maghella, F; Liberatore, M

    2016-01-01

    Polysplenism and accessory spleen are congenital, usually asymptomatic anomalies. A rare case of polysplenism with ectopic spleen in pelvis of a 67-year-old, Caucasian female is reported here. A transvaginal ultrasound found a soft well-defined homogeneous and vascularized mass in the left pelvis. Patient underwent MRI evaluation and contrast-CT abdominal scan: images with parenchymal aspect, similar to spleen were obtained. Abdominal scintigraphy with 99mTc-albumin nanocolloid was performed and pelvic region was studied with planar scans and SPECT. The results showed the presence of an uptake area of the radiopharmaceutical in the pelvis, while the spleen was normally visualized. These findings confirmed the presence of an accessory spleen with an artery originated from the aorta and a vein that joined with the superior mesenteric vein. To our knowledge, in the literature, there is just only one case of a true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen in the pelvis.

  3. Geochemical and textural characterization of phosphate accessory phases in the vein assemblage and metasomatically altered Llallagua tin porphyry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betkowski, Wladyslaw B.; Rakovan, John; Harlov, Daniel E.

    2017-03-01

    Petrographic and geochemical characterization of phosphate accessory minerals represents a powerful tool in understanding the mineralization and metasomatic history of one of the world's biggest tin deposits, the Siglo XX mine, Salvadora stock, Llallagua, Bolivia. The Llallagua tin deposit lies in a hydrothermally altered porphyry stock that is part of the subduction-related Bolivian tin belt. Despite numerous studies, there is still a debate over the timing and characteristics of mineralization history of the deposit. Primary igneous fluorapatite and monazite (for the first time) were recognized in the altered porphyry. The igneous monazite is enriched in Th, unlike the hydrothermal monazite that is recognized for its low Th concentration. Fluorapatite, monazite, and xenotime also coexist with cassiterite within the hydrothermal vein assemblage. Fluorapatite and xenotime are essentially pristine. Monazite, however, shows various degrees of alteration in the form of regenerative mineral replacement (RMR). This exemplifies differential reactivity and selective mineral replacement/alteration of three accessory phosphate minerals, that are all important geochemical tracers of magmatic and hydrothermal processes, and which can all be used as geochronometers. Mineral textures and composition in the altered porphyry and vein assemblages have been evaluated. Monazite-xenotime geothermometry indicates monazite crystallization beginning around 550 °C. Monazite continues to grow as temperatures gradually decrease to about 300 °C, when most of cassiterite precipitation occurred in the samples studied. The primary mechanism of phosphate alteration has been identified as a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation process, which led to REE exchange in the igneous fluorapatite and hydrothermal monazite. In Type I local alteration, La and Pr-Nd show continuity across the pre- and post- alteration concentric zones indicating that they were not affected by alteration. This is an

  4. Geochemical and textural characterization of phosphate accessory phases in the vein assemblage and metasomatically altered Llallagua tin porphyry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betkowski, Wladyslaw B.; Rakovan, John; Harlov, Daniel E.

    2017-09-01

    Petrographic and geochemical characterization of phosphate accessory minerals represents a powerful tool in understanding the mineralization and metasomatic history of one of the world's biggest tin deposits, the Siglo XX mine, Salvadora stock, Llallagua, Bolivia. The Llallagua tin deposit lies in a hydrothermally altered porphyry stock that is part of the subduction-related Bolivian tin belt. Despite numerous studies, there is still a debate over the timing and characteristics of mineralization history of the deposit. Primary igneous fluorapatite and monazite (for the first time) were recognized in the altered porphyry. The igneous monazite is enriched in Th, unlike the hydrothermal monazite that is recognized for its low Th concentration. Fluorapatite, monazite, and xenotime also coexist with cassiterite within the hydrothermal vein assemblage. Fluorapatite and xenotime are essentially pristine. Monazite, however, shows various degrees of alteration in the form of regenerative mineral replacement (RMR). This exemplifies differential reactivity and selective mineral replacement/alteration of three accessory phosphate minerals, that are all important geochemical tracers of magmatic and hydrothermal processes, and which can all be used as geochronometers. Mineral textures and composition in the altered porphyry and vein assemblages have been evaluated. Monazite-xenotime geothermometry indicates monazite crystallization beginning around 550 °C. Monazite continues to grow as temperatures gradually decrease to about 300 °C, when most of cassiterite precipitation occurred in the samples studied. The primary mechanism of phosphate alteration has been identified as a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation process, which led to REE exchange in the igneous fluorapatite and hydrothermal monazite. In Type I local alteration, La and Pr-Nd show continuity across the pre- and post- alteration concentric zones indicating that they were not affected by alteration. This is an

  5. Accumulation of biomass and mineral elements with calendar time by cotton: application of the expanded growth model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen R Overman

    Full Text Available Accumulation of plant biomass (Mg ha(-1 with calendar time (wk occurs as a result of photosynthesis for green land-based plants. A corresponding accumulation of mineral elements (kg ha(-1 such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium occurs from the soil through plant roots. Field data from literature for the warm-season annual cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. are used in this analysis. The expanded growth model is used to describe accumulation of biomass and mineral elements with calendar time. The growth model predicts a simple linear relationship between biomass yield and the growth quantifier, which is confirmed with the data. The growth quantifier incorporates the unit processes of distribution of solar energy which drives biomass accumulation by photosynthesis, partitioning of biomass between light-gathering and structural components of the plants, and an aging function. A hyperbolic relationship between plant nutrient uptake and biomass yield is assumed, and is confirmed for the mineral elements nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. It is concluded that the rate limiting process in the system is biomass accumulation by photosynthesis and that nutrient accumulation occurs in virtual equilibrium with biomass accumulation. The expanded growth model describes field data from California and Alabama rather well. Furthermore, all model parameters were common for the two sites with the exception of the yield factor A which accounts for differences in soil types, environmental conditions, fertilizer levels, and plant population.

  6. ADUBAÇÃO MINERAL E ORGÂNICA DA ABÓBORA HÍBRIDA: CRESCIMENTO MINERAL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZER OF THE HYBRID SQUASH: GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Américo Cardoso

    2007-09-01

    fertilizing treatments were tested plus a control (no treatment. In the fertilizing treatments, defined by a diagonal section of a complete factorial, rates of 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 t/ha (dry basis of organic compost, associated with rates of 0.772, 0.579, 0.386, 0.193 and 0 t/ha of NPK (4-14-8, respectively, were applied with four replications in a randomized blocks design. The mineral and organic compost association increased the knots number in the main branch, the overall branches length and the dry matters of the aerial part, reproduction part and fruits. At 105 days after sowing, the highest dry matter percentage in the fruit, and the smallest vegetative growth, were obtained when the mineral fertilizer was replaced by the organic compost. On this day, the reproductive part dry matter reached a maximum of 1,997 g/ plant with 6,914 kg/ha of organic compost and 327 kg/ha of NPK.

    KEY-WORDS: Hybrid squash; organic compost; mineral Fertilizer; growth.

  7. Aluminum-Tolerant Pisolithus Ectomycorrhizas Confer Increased Growth, Mineral Nutrition, and Metal Tolerance to Eucalyptus in Acidic Mine Spoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Egerton-Warburton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM may increase the tolerance of their host plants to Al toxicity by immobilizing Al in fungal tissues and/or improving plant mineral nutrition. Although these benefits have been demonstrated in in vitro (pure culture or short-term nutrient solution (hydroponic experiments, fewer studies have examined these benefits in the field. This study examined the growth, mineral nutrition, and Al levels in two Eucalyptus species inoculated with three Pisolithus ecotypes that varied in Al tolerance (in vitro and grown in mine spoil in the greenhouse and field. All three ecotypes of Pisolithus improved Eucalyptus growth and increased host plant tolerance to Al in comparison to noninoculated plants. However, large variations in plant growth and mineral nutrition were detected among the Pisolithus-inoculated plants; these differences were largely explained by the functional properties of the Pisolithus inoculum. Seedlings inoculated with the most Al-tolerant Pisolithus inoculum showed significantly higher levels of N, P, Ca, Mg, and K and lower levels of Al than seedlings inoculated with Al-sensitive ecotypes of Pisolithus. These findings indicate an agreement between the fungal tolerance to Al in vitro and performance in symbiosis, indicating that both ECM-mediated mineral nutrient acquisition and Al accumulation are important in increasing the host plant Al tolerance.

  8. Serum fibroblast growth factor 23, serum iron and bone mineral density in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Erik A; Liu, Ziyue; McQueen, Amie K; Acton, Dena; Acton, Anthony; Padgett, Leah R; Peacock, Munro; Econs, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) circulates as active protein and inactive fragments. Low iron status increases FGF23 gene expression, and iron deficiency is common. We hypothesized that in healthy premenopausal women, serum iron influences C-terminal and intact FGF23 concentrations, and that iron and FGF23 associate with bone mineral density (BMD). Serum iron, iron binding capacity, percent iron saturation, phosphorus, and other biochemistries were measured in stored fasting samples from healthy premenopausal white (n=1898) and black women (n=994), age 20-55years. Serum C-terminal and intact FGF23 were measured in a subset (1631 white and 296 black women). BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femur neck. Serum phosphorus, calcium, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were lower in white women than black women (piron (piron. C-terminal FGF23 correlated inversely with iron (white women r=-0.134, piron iron predicted changes in C-terminal FGF23. Spine BMD correlated with iron negatively (r=-0.076, piron negatively (r=-0.119, piron did not relate to intact FGF23, but was inversely related to C-terminal FGF23. Intact FGF23 correlated with serum phosphorus. In weight-adjusted models, BMD was not related to intact FGF23, C-terminal FGF23 or iron. The influence of iron on FGF23 gene expression is not important in determining bone density in healthy premenopausal women.

  9. Corrosion of copper and authigenic sulfide mineral growth in hydrothermal bentonite experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporuscio, F. A.; Palaich, S. E. M.; Cheshire, M. C.; Jové Colón, C. F.

    2017-03-01

    The focus of this experimental work is to characterize interaction of bentonite with possible used-fuel waste container materials. Experiments were performed up to 300 °C at 150-160 bars for five to six weeks. Bentonite was saturated with a 1900 ppm K-Ca-Na-Cl-bearing water with Cu-foils. Copper rapidly degrades into chalcocite (CuS2) and minor covellite (CuS) in the presence of H2S. Chalcocite growth and corrosion pit depths were measured for four different experimental runs yielding corrosion rates between 8.8 and 116 μm/yr depending on duration of experiment, brine composition, and clay type (bentonite vs. Opalinus Clay). Results of this research show that although pit-corrosion is demonstrated on Cu substrates, experiments show that the reactions that ensue, and the formation of minerals that develop, are extraordinarily slow. This supports the use of Cu in nuclide-containment systems as a possible engineered barrier system material.

  10. Evaluation of the effects of pharmacological zinc oxide and phosphorus source on weaned piglet growth performance, plasma minerals and mineral digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, C L; Wilcock, P; Magowan, E

    2015-07-01

    Crossbred pigs (n=720; average age=28±3 days and weight=9.5±0.3 kg) were used in a 20-day trial in order to determine the influence of phosphorus (P) source and various doses of pharmacological zinc (Zn) on growth performance, plasma minerals and mineral digestibility. Pigs (five intact males and five females per pen) were randomly allotted to treatments in a 3×3 factorial arrangement with three sources of dietary P (4.5 g/kg digestible P, 4.5 g/kg digestible P plus 2500 phytase units (FTU)/kg, or 5.5 g/kg digestible P) and three dietary levels of supplemental Zn (0, 1750 or 3500 mg/kg) from ZnO (82% Zn) with eight pens per treatment. Diets were formulated to exceed all nutrient requirements, including calcium (Ca), P and Zn from day 0 to 20. Zn supplementation increased (quadratic PPigs fed 4.5 g/kg digestible P without or with 2500 FTU/kg phytase gained more per day (quadratic Psupplemental Zn. However, pigs fed 5.5 g/kg digestible P gained more per day (linear Psupplemental Zn. Plasma Zn and Zn digestibility increased (linear Psupplementation increased from 0 to 3500 mg/kg, irrespective of P source. However, Ca, P, sodium (Na), potassium (K) and copper (Cu) digestibility were reduced (Psupplementation increased, and this was mitigated or exacerbated by the supplementation of 5.5 g/kg digestible P or phytase. In conclusion, increasing the dietary inclusion of pharmacological Zn may impact growth performance in young pigs through the interaction with minerals such as Ca, P, Na and K. Pharmacological Zn may reduce Na or K digestibility and indirectly reduce water secretion into the lumen, resulting in an increase in faecal dry matter as pharmacological Zn supplementation in the diet increased.

  11. Influence of a microbial phytase and zinc oxide on young pig growth performance and serum minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, C L; Srinongkote, S; Wilcock, P

    2013-01-01

    Crossbred pigs (n=288; average age=21±3 d and BW=7.1±0.2 kg) were used in a 42-d trial to determine the influence of a microbial phytase and various doses of ZnO on growth performance and serum minerals. Pigs (6 castrated males or females/pen) were randomly allotted to treatments in a 2×3 factorial arrangement with 2 dietary levels of a microbial phytase (0 or 2,500 phytase units/kg) and 3 dietary levels of supplemental ZnO [0, 1750, or 3,500 mg/kg ZnO (72% Zn)] with 4 pens of castrated males and 4 pens of females per treatment. Diets were formulated to exceed all nutrient requirements, including Ca and P from d 0 to 21 (phase 1) and d 22 to 42 (phase 2). Growth performance, serum Zn, and serum P were not influenced (P>0.05) by a ZnO×phytase interaction during phase 1, phase 2, or overall (d 0 to 42). Phytase increased (P=0.01) ADFI and improved (P=0.02) ADG in phase 1 and improved (P=0.01) overall ADG, regardless of the level of ZnO supplemented. Zinc oxide supplementation linearly reduced (P=0.05) ADG, and ZnO at 3,500 mg/kg reduced (quadratic, P=0.04) G:F in pigs (phase 2). During phase 1, phytase increased serum Ca, but only in the absence of ZnO supplementation, which resulted in a ZnO×phytase interaction (P=0.02). Serum Zn was increased (linear, Psupplementation increased in the diet (phase 1). In phase 2, serum Ca was reduced (linear, P=0.04) and serum Zn was increased (linear, P=0.02) as ZnO supplementation increased in the diet. Phytase supplementation increased (P=0.009) serum Zn and increased (P=0.003) serum P (phase 1). There was no influence of phytase supplementation on serum minerals in phase 2. In summary, supplemental ZnO reduced growth performance in this experiment. Phytase supplementation improved ADG in Ca- and P-adequate diets regardless of the level of ZnO supplemented, which may be attributed to the reduction of phytate as an antinutrient. In addition, through phytate hydrolysis, phytase reduced phytate-Zn interactions and increased

  12. Modeling of Phenoxy Acid Herbicide Mineralization and Growth of Microbial Degraders in 15 Soils Monitored by Quantitative Real-Time PCR of the Functional tfdA Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bælum, Jacob; Prestat, Emmanuel; David, Maude M.; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    Mineralization potentials, rates, and kinetics of the three phenoxy acid (PA) herbicides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), and 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (MCPP), were investigated and compared in 15 soils collected from five continents. The mineralization patterns were fitted by zero/linear or exponential growth forms of the three-half-order models and by logarithmic (log), first-order, or zero-order kinetic models. Prior and subsequent to the mineralization event, tfdA genes were quantified using real-time PCR to estimate the genetic potential for degrading PA in the soils. In 25 of the 45 mineralization scenarios, ∼60% mineralization was observed within 118 days. Elevated concentrations of tfdA in the range 1 × 105 to 5 × 107 gene copies g−1 of soil were observed in soils where mineralization could be described by using growth-linked kinetic models. A clear trend was observed that the mineralization rates of the three PAs occurred in the order 2,4-D > MCPA > MCPP, and a correlation was observed between rapid mineralization and soils exposed to PA previously. Finally, for 2,4-D mineralization, all seven mineralization patterns which were best fitted by the exponential model yielded a higher tfdA gene potential after mineralization had occurred than the three mineralization patterns best fitted by the Lin model. PMID:22635998

  13. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power

  14. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Crescimento e nutrição mineral de capim-camalote Growth and mineral nutrition of "camalote grass"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bianco

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Rottboelia exaltata é considerada uma das 12 piores espécies daninhas que infestam a cultura da cana-de-açúcar, pois geralmente não permite o fechamento das entrelinhas da cana quando se encontra em densidades maiores que 10 plantas por m². Com o objetivo de estudar a produção de massa seca, a distribuição e o acúmulo de macronutrientes em plantas de capim-camalote, foi conduzido o presente trabalho em condições de casa de vegetação. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos preenchidos com areia de rio lavada e peneirada, sendo irrigadas diariamente com solução nutritiva completa de Hoagland & Arnon a 50% da concentração original. A primeira avaliação foi realizada aos 21 dias após a emergência (DAE, e as seguintes, em intervalos de 14 dias. Foi determinada a biomassa seca das diferentes partes da planta. O material foi moído e analisado quanto aos teores de macronutrientes. Os resultados indicaram que a planta apresentou crescimento durante toda a fase experimental. O maior acúmulo ocorreu aos 133 DAE, quando a planta acumulou 87,18 gramas de massa seca. Aos 133 DAE, cerca de 34,60% da biomassa seca estava alocada nas raízes, 40,29% nos colmos + bainhas, 15,13% nas folhas e 8,35% nas inflorescências. O acúmulo total dos macronutrientes foi crescente ao longo do ciclo de desenvolvimento da planta. Até 77 DAE, uma planta de capim-camalote acumula 7,14 gramas de massa seca; 132,2 mg de K; 81,5 mg de N; 32,3 mg de Ca; 18,8 mg de P; 18,6 mg de Mg; e 10,1 mg de S.Rottboelia exaltata is considered one of the twelve worst weeds infesting sugarcane, because, in general, it does not allow suitable crop growth between sugarcane rows at weed density above 10/m². Dry matter production, distribution and macro-nutrient accumulation in R. exaltata were studied under greenhouse conditions. The plants were grown in pots filled with washed and sieved river sand, irrigated daily with Hoagland & Arnon complete nutrient solution at 50% of

  16. Effect of mineral nutrients on cell growth and self-flocculation of Tolypothrix tenuis for the production of a biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P G; Silva, H J

    2007-02-01

    The influence of mineral nutrients on the growth and self-flocculation of Tolypothrix tenuis was studied. The identification of possible limiting nutrients in the culture medium was performed by the biomass elemental composition approach. A factorial experimental design was used in order to estimate the contribution of macronutrients and micronutrients, as well as their interactions. Iron was identified to be limiting in the culture medium. The micronutrients influenced mainly cellular growth without effects on self-flocculation. Conversely, the self-flocculation capacity of the biomass increased at higher concentrations of macronutrients. The optimization of mineral nutrition of T. tenuis allowed a 73% increase in the final biomass level and 3.5 times higher flocculation rates.

  17. Strategies for inhibiting function of HIV-1 accessory proteins: a necessary route to AIDS therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, S N; Frasson, I; Palù, G

    2009-01-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) genome encodes three major structural proteins common to all retroviruses (Gag, Pol and Env), two regulatory proteins (Tat and Rev) that are essential for viral replication, and four accessory proteins (Nef, Vif, Vpu, Vpr). While accessory proteins were initially reported to be unnecessary for viral growth, their importance as virulence factors is now being more and more appreciated: they can dramatically alter the course and severity of viral infection, replication and disease progression. None of the HIV accessory proteins display enzymatic activity: they rather act altering cellular pathways via multiple protein-protein interactions with a number of host cell factors. All currently approved anti-HIV drugs target pol and env encoded proteins. Therefore, widening the molecular targets of HIV therapy by additionally targeting accessory proteins may expand treatment options, resulting in high impact effective new therapy. In this review we present the state of the art of compounds that target HIV accessory proteins. Most of the research has focused on the inhibition of specific accessory proteins/host cell partner interactions. Promising compounds have been found within different classes of molecules: small natural and synthetic molecules, peptides and proteins, oligonucleotides, in particular those used as RNA interference (RNAi) tools. With the assortment of compounds available, especially against Nef and Vif functions, the demonstration of the clinical efficacy of the new anti-HIV-1 drugs targeting accessory proteins is next challenge.

  18. A case report: accessory right renal artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patasi B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations in the origin of the arteries in the abdominal area are very common. The arteries that show frequent variations include the celiac trunk, renal and gonadal arteries. During a routine dissection of a male cadaver, one main and one inferior accessory renal artery were found in the abdominal region. We discovered that the inferior accessory renal artery that originated from the right anterolateral aspect of abdominal aorta was running into the lower pole of the right kidney. The origin of the main right renal artery and the inferior accessory right renal artery were 19.8 mm and 53 mm below the superior mesenteric artery, respectively. The inferior accessory right renal artery ran directly into the inferior pole of the right kidney, in the area where the accessory right renal vein was leaving the right kidney. These anatomical variations and anomalies are important to know before any therapeutic or diagnostic procedures are performed in the abdominal area.

  19. The accessory fallopian tube: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum R Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rare anatomical variation in the form of accessory fallopian tube on right side. The duplication of fallopian tube was observed in a 34-year-old female during routine undergraduate dissection in our department. Fallopian tube is the part of uterus that carries the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. Accessory fallopian tube is the congenital anomaly attached to the ampullary part of main tube. This accessory tube is common site of pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, cystic swelling and torsion. The ovum released by the ovary may also be captured by the blind accessory tube leading to infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Hence, all patients of infertility or pelvic inflammatory disease should be screened to rule out the presence of accessory fallopian tube and if encountered should be removed.

  20. The effects of maternal iron deficiency on infant fibroblast growth factor-23 and mineral metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, V S; Prentice, A; Darboe, M K; Prentice, A M; Moore, S E

    2016-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), a phosphate(Phos)-regulating hormone, is abnormally elevated in hypophosphataemic syndromes and an elevated FGF23 is a predictor of mortality in kidney disease. Recent findings suggest iron deficiency as a potential mediator of FGF23 expression and murine studies have shown in utero effects of maternal iron deficiency on offspring FGF23 and phosphate metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the impact of maternal iron status on infant FGF23 and mineral metabolites over the first 2years of life. Infants born to mothers with normal (NIn=25,) and low (LIn=25) iron status during pregnancy, from a mother-infant trial (ISRCTN49285450) in rural Gambia, West Africa, had blood and plasma samples analysed at 12, 24, 52, 78 and 104weeks (wk) of age. Circulating intact-FGF23 (I-FGF23), Phos, total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and haemoglobin (Hb) decreased and estimated glomerular filtration rate increased over time [all P≤0.0001)]. C-terminal-FGF23 (C-FGF23) and TALP were significantly higher in LI compared with NI, from 52wk for C-FGF23 [Beta coefficient (SE) 18.1 (0.04) %, P=0.04] and from 24wk for TALP [44.7 (29.6) U/L, P=0.04]. Infant Hb was the strongest negative predictor of C-FGF23 concentration [-21% (4%) RU/mL, P≤0.0001], Phos was the strongest positive predictor of I-FGF23 [32.0(3.9) pg/mL, P≤0.0001] and I-FGF23 did not predict C-FGF23 over time [-0.5% (0.5%), P=0.3]. In conclusion, this study suggests that poor maternal iron status is associated with a higher infant C-FGF23 and TALP but similar I-FGF23 concentrations in infants and young children. These findings further highlight the likely public health importance of preventing iron deficiency during pregnancy. Whether or not children who are born to iron deficient mothers have persistently high concentrations of these metabolites and are more likely to be at risk of impaired bone development and pre-disposed to rickets requires further research.

  1. Epifascial accessory palmaris longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiengo, Cesare; Macchi, Veronica; Stecco, Carla; Bassetto, Franco; De Caro, Raffaele

    2006-09-01

    In hand reconstructive surgery the palmaris longus muscle is one of the most utilized donor site for tendon reconstruction procedures. However, its anatomic position is variable and anatomic variations may be responsible for median nerve compression. We report the case of a 40-year-old, right-handed woman, who presented with numbness and paresthesias in the palm and in the flexor aspect of the first, second, and third fingers of her right hand for the preceding 5 months, coinciding with increase of office work (typing). The clinical examination and radiological investigations (ultrasound and magnetic resonance) revealed a subcutaneous mass (15 mm x 2.3 mm x 6 cm), with a lenticular shape and definite edges at the level of the volar aspect of the distal third of the forearm. The fine-needle aspiration biopsy revealed the presence of striated muscle fibers. During surgery, a muscle belly was found in the epifascial plane. This muscle originated from subcutaneous septa in the middle forearm and inserted on to the superficial palmar aponeurosis with fine short tendon fibers. Exposure of the antebrachial fascia did not reveal any area of weakness or muscle herniation. The palmaris longus tendon, flexor digitorum superficialis tendons, and flexor carpi radialis tendon showed usual topography under the antebrachial fascia. The accessory muscle was excised and histology revealed unremarkable striated muscle fibers, limited by a thin connective sheath. The presence of an accessory palmaris longus (APL) located in the epifascial plane could be ascribed to an unusual migration of myoblasts during the morphogenesis. Although extremely rare, APL is worth bearing in mind as a possible cause of median nerve compression and etiology of a volar mass in the distal forearm.

  2. Effect of Mineral Dusts on the Growth of Silicate Bacteria S35

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Qunwei; DONG Faqin; DENG Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    In order to compare the chemical compositions and physical properities of dusts on silicate bacteria S35, the chemical compositions of six kinds of mineral dusts have been analyzed and the changes of pH value, glucose (GLU), electrolyte and Mn, Si, Fe before and after the dusts reacted with silicate bacteria S35 have been measured. The SEM analysis has been used to study the bacterial form and interface action status in the course of reaction between dusts and bacteria. The results show that these mineral dusts have different effects on experiment bacteria. Therefore, it is concluded that the effect of mineral dusts on silicate bacteria has correlation with the chemical compositions and physical properities of dusts.

  3. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi Inoculation on Growth and Up take of Mineral Nutrition in Ipomoea Aquatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Halder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A green house experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation on plant growth and uptake of mineral nutrition in Ipomoea aquatica considering the objective of using environmental friendly biofertilizer instead of chemical fertilizer. A common leafy vegetable plant Ipomoea aquatica was grown with mycorrhiza and without mycorrhiza for 42 days. After harvest the plants were analyzed for mineral nutrition concentration. Plant fresh weight, dry weight, macronutrient (P, K, Mg, Na, micronutrient (Fe, Mn, Zn concentration was higher in arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculated plant than non-mycorrhiza inoculated plant. For sustainable agriculture, introducing biofertilizer by using arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation would be one of the most efficient techniques for replacing chemical fertilizer to meet the nutrient deficiency in nutrient deficient soils of Bangladesh.

  4. Mineral fertilization and organic fertilization on chrysanthemun growth / Adubação mineral e orgânica no desenvolvimento de crisântemo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Bueno Demétrio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluated organic products in comparison with mineral fertilization in the growth of chrysanthemum crop. The experimental design was randomized blocks with seven treatments and nine replications. The treatments were T1 (100% of commercial substratum - CS+ mineral fertilization - AM1; T2 (100% of CS + AM2; T3 (100% of CS + AM3; T4 (100% of CS + AM4; T5 (70% of CS + 30% bovine manure; T6 (70% of CS + 30% of sheep manure; T7 (70% of CS + 30% poultry manure. The mineral fertilization was carried through fertigation with AM1 = (calcium nitrate 0,2g L-1, ammonium sulphate 0,4 g L-1, potassium nitrate 0,2 g L-1, magnesium sulphate 0,3 g L-1and mono ammonium 0,05 phosphate g L-1, in the dosage of 50 ml for pot, AM2 = ULTRAFLOR® (12% N, 6% P2O5, 12% K2O, applying 0,8g pot -1, monthly, AM3= Nutriverde® = 13% N, 13% P2O5, 15% K2O, 1% Here, 4% S, 1% Mg, 0.05% B, 0.005% Co, 0.05% Cu, 0.2% Faith, 0.005% Me, 0.1% Zn, applying 2,6 g L-1 (100 m L pot -1, fortnightly and AM4 =Ouro Verde® = 15% N, 15% P2O5, 20% K2O, applying 2,0 g pot -1, fortnightly. It was evaluated the number of secondary stems, plant height, stem diameter and the inflorescences diameter, leaf number and inflorescences number and aerial fresh mass weight. The formulated mineral fertilization (T1 or manure of bovine (T5 or poultry (T7 is recommended. Among the commercial products the Nutriverde® is suggested to be used.O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a utilização de produtos orgânicos em comparação com adubação mineral no desenvolvimento do crisântemo. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, composto por 7 tratamentos, 9 repetições: T1 (100% de substrato comercial-SC+ adubação mineral-AM1; T2 (100% SC + AM2; T3 (100% SC + AM3; T4 (100% SC + AM4; T5 (70% SC + 30% esterco bovino; T6 (70% SC + 30% de esterco de ovinos; T7 (70% SC + 30% esterco de aves. A adubação mineral foi realizada na forma de fertirrigação com AM1 = (nitrato de cálcio 0,2g L

  5. Genetic analysis of the effect of zinc deficiency on Arabidopsis growth and mineral concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghandilyan, A.; Kutman, U.B.; Kutman, B.Y.; Cakmak, I.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Zinc deficiency is a common micronutrient deficiency in plants growing in many different regions of the world and is associated with disturbances in uptake and accumulation of mineral nutrients. Despite many published data on physiological factors affecting ion accumulation in Zn deficient plan

  6. Effects of inoculation with organic-phosphorus-mineralizing bacteria on soybean (Glycine max) growth and indigenous bacterial community diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Yang; Duan, Man-Li

    2017-05-01

    Three different organic-phosphorus-mineralizing bacteria (OPMB) strains were inoculated to soil planted with soybean (Glycine max), and their effects on soybean growth and indigenous bacterial community diversity were investigated. Inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens Z4-1 and Brevibacillus agri L7-1 increased organic phosphorus degradation by 22% and 30%, respectively, compared with the control at the mature stage. Strains P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 significantly improved the soil alkaline phosphatase activity, average well color development, and the soybean root activity. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 could persist in the soil at relative abundances of 2.0%-6.4% throughout soybean growth. Thus, P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 could potentially be used in organic-phosphorus-mineralizing biofertilizers. OPMB inoculation altered the genetic structure of the soil bacterial communities but had no apparent influence on the carbon source utilization profiles of the soil bacterial communities. Principal components analysis showed that the changes in the carbon source utilization profiles of bacterial community depended mainly on the plant growth stages rather than inoculation with OPMB. The results help to understand the evolution of the soil bacterial community after OPMB inoculation.

  7. Understanding the role of clay minerals in the chromium(VI) bioremoval by Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCTCC AB93066 under growth condition: microscopic, spectroscopic and kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chunxi; Wu, Pingxiao; Li, Yuewu; Ruan, Bo; Li, Liping; Tran, Lytuong; Zhu, Nengwu; Dang, Zhi

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory batch experiments were conducted to investigate the role of clay minerals, e.g., kaolinite and vermiculite, in microbial Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas aeruginosa under growth condition in glucose-amended mediums as a method for treating Cr(VI)-contaminated subsurface environment such as soil. Our results indicated that glucose could acted as an essential electron donor, and clay minerals significantly enhanced microbial Cr(VI) reduction rates by improving the consumption rate of glucose and stimulating the growth and propagation of P. aeruginosa. Cr(VI) bioreduction by both free cells and clay minerals-amended cells followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model, with the latter one fitting better. The mass balance analyses and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis found that Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) and the adsorption of total chromium on clay minerals-bacteria complex was small, implying that Cr(VI) bioremoval was not mainly due to the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto cells or clay minerals or clay minerals-cells complex but mainly due to the Cr(VI) reduction capacity of P. aeruginosa under the experimental conditions studied (e.g., pH 7). Atomic force microscopy revealed that the addition of clay minerals (e.g. vermiculite) decreased the surface roughness of Cr(VI)-laden cells and changed the cell morphology and dimension. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that organic matters such as aliphatic species and/or proteins played an important role in the combination of cells and clay minerals. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the attachment of cells on the surface of clay minerals, indicating that clay minerals could provide a microenvironment to protect cells from Cr(VI) toxicity and serve as growth-supporting materials. These findings manifested the underlying influence of clay minerals on microbial reduction of Cr(VI) and gave an understanding of the interaction between pollutants, the environment and the biota.

  8. Replacement of mineral fertilizers with anaerobically digested pig slurry in paddy fields: assessment of plant growth and grain quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Wang, Minyan; Cao, Yucheng; Liang, Peng; Wu, Shengchun; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Christie, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Rice cultivation requires large quantities of irrigation water and mineral fertilizers. This provides an opportunity for the recycling of the plant nutrients in anaerobically digested pig slurry, large amounts of which are generated in Chinese pig farms. Hence, to promote the sustainable development of livestock and poultry breeding and rice production, a micro-plot field experiment was carried out to assess whether or not slurry can replace mineral fertilizers in rice paddy production in terms of plant tillering, grain quality, and yields. The results indicate that the total N content of the slurry can serve as an alternative source of N when compared to the control (450 kg ha(-1) commercial compound fertilizer (N/P2O5/K2O = 15:15:15) as basal fertilizer, 300 kg ha(-1) urea (N% = 46), and 150 kg ha(-1) commercial compound fertilizer as top-dressed fertilizer). No negative effects on plant growth or grain yield were observed, although there may be a potential risk due to an increase in grain Cu concentration. The amylose content and gel consistency of the rice grains were enhanced significantly by the use of slurry as a basal fertilizer, but the grain protein and total amino acid contents decreased. The results suggest that anaerobically digested pig slurry can replace mineral fertilizers in rice production when applied as a basal dressing together with urea and commercial compound fertilizer as top-dressed fertilizers.

  9. Soil acidity, and the growth, biomass partitioning and leaf mineral composition of honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelbeck, R R; Riha, S J

    1988-12-01

    Honeylocust seedlings (Gleditsia triacanthos L.) were grown in cylinders containing soil adjusted to pH 4, 5 or 6, and harvested every 10 days for 40 days for dry weight and leaf mineral analysis. Total weight of plants grown at pH 4 was less than that of plants grown at pH 5 or 6. Root weight accounted for a greater proportion of total weight in plants grown at pH 4 than in plants grown at pH 5 or 6. Root growth as a function of total plant growth was higher in plants grown at pH 4 than in plants grown at pH 5 or 6, whereas leaf growth as a function of total plant growth was less in plants grown at pH 4 than in plants grown at pH 5 or 6. However, the relationships between root biomass and root length and between leaf biomass and leaf area were the same in all treatments. An analysis of total leaf concentrations of Ca, P, K, Mg, Mn and Al indicated that Al accumulation in leaves was significantly related to a decrease in plant growth at pH 5. A leaf tissue aluminum concentration of 35 microg g(-1) was associated with toxicity symptoms and a 25% reduction in total plant weight.

  10. [Spinal accessory nerve and lymphatic neck dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsolle, V; Michelet, V; Majoufre, C; Caix, P; Siberchicot, F; Pinsolle, J

    1997-09-01

    Radical neck dissection was the golden standard of treatment for cervical nodes in head and neck tumors. From the seventies, the preservation of the spinal accessory nerve has become increasingly popular in order to improve the functional result of the neck dissections. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of functional disability associated with each type of neck dissection and the value of anatomical references for dissection of the spinal accessory nerve. One hundred twenty seven patients were evaluated 1 month and 1 year after radical, functional or supraomohyoid neck dissection with a questionnaire and a physical examination. Anatomical measurements of the spinal accessory nerve were performed in 20 patients. We found considerable or severe shoulder dysfunction in 7%, 34% and 51% respectively of patients in whom supraomohyoid, functional and radical neck dissections were performed. Furthermore 49% of patients having undergone a radical neck dissection had little or no symptoms. Sacrifice of the spinal accessory nerve in radical neck dissection may lead to shoulder dysfunction. A functional disability may also be associated, although in a less extent, with any neck dissection in which the spinal accessory nerve is dissected and placed in traction. There is a large variation in the degree of functional disability and pain in patients with similar neck dissections. The course of the spinal accessory nerve in the neck makes it particularly vulnerable to injury during the dissection near the sternocleidomastoid muscle and in the posterior cervical triangle.

  11. Mineralization of Organically Bound Nitrogen in Soil as Influenced by Plant Growth and Fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1982-01-01

    was lower and the total uptake by four harvests of clover was similar to that of rye-grass. There was no indication that fertilization with KNO3 accelerated the mineralization of the organically bound labelled N. The observed apparent ‘priming effect’ of the fertilizer on the uptake of labelled N...... of labelled N. The uptake of labelled N in the first harvest of clover which was not fertilized but inoculated with Rhizobium was similar to that of the fully fertilized rye-grass indicating that the biological fixation of N had the same effect as addition of N-fertilizer. N uptake in the following harvests...

  12. Bone mineral density of tibae and femura of broiler breeders: growth, development and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICL Almeida Paz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow-up the physiological variations in the development of the bone tissue, associating them with the egg production curve. This study was carried out in the facilities of the Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia of the UNESP, Botucatu, Brazil. Twenty-three families of Ross broiler breeders were used, each family consisting of 13 females and 1 male, distributed in 23 pens of 5.0m² each. The management was that recommended by the genetic company manual (Agroceres Ross, 2003, with daily feeding until 6th week of age; and birds were fed according to a 5:2 schedule (5 days fed, 2 days of fasting between 7 and 17 weeks of age, returning to daily feeding starting at 18 weeks of age. Birds did not receive afternoon calcium supplementation. On the fourth week of rearing, 84 females were removed for bone analyses of the right tibia and femur, using optical densitometry in radiographic images technique. These analyses were sequentially carried out in 4, 8, 12, 15, 20, 24, 30, 35, 42, 47, and 52 week-old birds. The egg production curve of the birds was followed-up and associated to bone mineral density results. For bone mineral density evaluation (BMD birds were divided by weight categories as light, intermediate, or heavy within each data age. BMD values of the tibias were not influenced by weight range, but by the age at collection. On the other hand, interactions were found among femur BMD values and weight and age categories. There was no correlation between eggshell quality and femur BMD. A negative correlation (-0.15 was observed between tibia BMD and eggshell percentage. It was possible to conclude that the egg production has little influence on bone mineral density of the birds probably because there was no need of bone mineral mobilization during the production period, since the observed egg production was below that observed under commercial conditions.

  13. Water exchange rate in RAS and dietary inclusion of micro-minerals influence growth, body composition and mineral metabolism in common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.; Kaushik, S.J.; Geurden, I.; Stouten, T.; Fontagné-dicharry, S.; Veron, V.; Mariojouls, C.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Recirculation aquaculture systems (RASs) operated at low water exchange rates are known to accumulate minerals in the water. This study examined the dietary mineral requirement and metabolism in common carp reared in RAS of contrasting water exchange rates. Two independent RAS (water exchange rates,

  14. Water exchange rate in RAS and dietary inclusion of micro-minerals influence growth, body composition and mineral metabolism in common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.; Kaushik, S.J.; Geurden, I.; Stouten, T.; Fontagné-dicharry, S.; Veron, V.; Mariojouls, C.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Recirculation aquaculture systems (RASs) operated at low water exchange rates are known to accumulate minerals in the water. This study examined the dietary mineral requirement and metabolism in common carp reared in RAS of contrasting water exchange rates. Two independent RAS (water exchange rates,

  15. Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase and forearm bone mineral content in young adults with GH deficiency of childhood onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, S A; Sørensen, S;

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that growth hormone (GH)-deficient adults have a markedly decreased bone mineral content compared to healthy adults. However, there are conflicting results regarding the effects of GH treatment on bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Therefore, we evaluated...... the effect of GH treatment on a marker of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase), hepatic excretory function and distal forearm bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Growth hormone was administered subcutaneously in 21 adults (13 males and 8 females) with GH deficiency of childhood onset for 4...

  16. Effect of dietary trace mineral supplementation and a multi-element trace mineral injection on shipping response and growth performance of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genther, O N; Hansen, S L

    2014-06-01

    To examine the effect of trace mineral (TM) status and TM injection on growth performance and carcass characteristics in beef cattle, 40 steers were used in a growing and finishing study. Steers were stratified by weight (323 ± 14.8 kg) and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments for an 84-d depletion period: 1) a corn silage-based diet supplemented with Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn to meet or exceed NRC recommendations (CON), or 2) CON diet without supplemental Cu, Mn, Se, or Zn but supplemented with 300 mg Fe and 5 mg Mo/kg diet DM as dietary TM antagonists (DEF) to induce mild deficiencies. To mimic shipping stress, steers were shipped for 20 h on d 88 and were received back on d 89. On d 91 an equal number of steers from both dietary treatments were injected with sterilized saline (SAL) or Multimin 90 (MM; containing 15, 60, 10, and 5 mg/mL of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se, respectively) at a dose of 1 mL/68 kg BW. Steers were fed a common finishing diet supplemented with 10 mg Cu, 20 mg Mn, 0.1 mg Se, and 30 mg Zn/kg diet DM for the 90-d repletion period. Steers were harvested 91 d postinjection and carcass data were collected. During the depletion period, diet did not affect BW, ADG, DMI, or G:F (P > 0.20). During the shipping period (defined as the time between 2-d consecutive weights on d 83 and 84 and d 90 and 91), DEF steers tended to lose more weight per day than CON steers (P = 0.06) and had lesser DMI (P = 0.03), suggesting that response to shipping stress may be modulated by TM status. During the repletion period, ADG of DEF + MM steers was greater (P = 0.03) compared with DEF + SAL and was not different (P = 0.92) among CON + MM and CON + SAL steers. There was no effect of diet or injection on HCW or dressing percentage (P > 0.20). Within the CON group, TM injection decreased yield grade (P = 0.03) but did not affect yield grade of DEF steers (P > 0.20). Steers given TM injection had a larger rib eye area (P = 0.04) regardless of previous diet. Interestingly, both diet and

  17. Polymer-Coated Urea Delays Growth and Accumulation of Key Nutrients in Aerobic Rice but Does Not Affect Grain Mineral Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry J. Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced efficiency nitrogen (N fertilizers (EEFs may improve crop recovery of fertilizer-N, but there is evidence that some EEFs cause a lag in crop growth compared to growth with standard urea. Biomass and mineral nutrient accumulation was investigated in rice fertilized with urea, urea-3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP and polymer-coated urea (PCU to determine whether any delays in biomass production alter the accumulation patterns, and subsequent grain concentrations, of key mineral nutrients. Plant growth and mineral accumulation and partitioning to grains did not differ significantly between plants fertilized with urea or urea-DMPP. In contrast, biomass accumulation and the accumulation of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and manganese were delayed during the early growth phase of plants fertilized with PCU. However, plants in the PCU treatment ultimately compensated for this by increasing growth and nutrient uptake during the latter vegetative stages so that no differences in biomass or nutrient accumulation generally existed among N fertilizer treatments at anthesis. Delayed biomass accumulation in rice fertilized with PCU does not appear to reduce the total accumulation of mineral nutrients, nor to have any impact on grain mineral nutrition when biomass and grain yields are equal to those of rice grown with urea or urea-DMPP.

  18. Deducing growth mechanisms for minerals from the shapes of crystal size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, D.D.; Drits, V.A.; Srodon, J.

    1998-01-01

    Crystal size distributions (CSDs) of natural and synthetic samples are observed to have several distinct and different shapes. We have simulated these CSDs using three simple equations: the Law of Proportionate Effect (LPE), a mass balance equation, and equations for Ostwald ripening. The following crystal growth mechanisms are simulated using these equations and their modifications: (1) continuous nucleation and growth in an open system, during which crystals nucleate at either a constant, decaying, or accelerating nucleation rate, and then grow according to the LPE; (2) surface-controlled growth in an open system, during which crystals grow with an essentially unlimited supply of nutrients according to the LPE; (3) supply-controlled growth in an open system, during which crystals grow with a specified, limited supply of nutrients according to the LPE; (4) supply- or surface-controlled Ostwald ripening in a closed system, during which the relative rate of crystal dissolution and growth is controlled by differences in specific surface area and by diffusion rate; and (5) supply-controlled random ripening in a closed system, during which the rate of crystal dissolution and growth is random with respect to specific surface area. Each of these mechanisms affects the shapes of CSDs. For example, mechanism (1) above with a constant nucleation rate yields asymptotically-shaped CSDs for which the variance of the natural logarithms of the crystal sizes (??2) increases exponentially with the mean of the natural logarithms of the sizes (??). Mechanism (2) yields lognormally-shaped CSDs, for which ??2 increases linearly with ??, whereas mechanisms (3) and (5) do not change the shapes of CSDs, with ??2 remaining constant with increasing ??. During supply-controlled Ostwald ripening (4), initial lognormally-shaped CSDs become more symmetric, with ??2 decreasing with increasing ??. Thus, crystal growth mechanisms often can be deduced by noting trends in ?? versus ??2 of CSDs for

  19. EFFECTS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF PURPLETOP VERVAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a rising demand for salt-tolerant species for landscaping. Purpletop vervain is an excellent landscape plant for gardens and parks, with fragrant lavender to rose-purple flowers. However, little is known concerning the effect of sodium chloride on morphological characteristics, flowering and mineral uptake of purpletop vervain. In this study, carried out in 2013–2014, the plants of purpletop vervain were grown in pots in an unheated plastic tunnel. The plants were watered with 200 mM NaCl solution four times, every seven days. Salinity-exposed plants were characterized by slightly reduced plant height, weight of the aboveground part and visual score. Salt stress caused also an increase in leaf content sodium, chlorine and manganese. Salinity had no effect on earliness of flowering and content in leaves of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc and iron. Purpletop vervain seems to be plant species able to tolerate salt stress under controlled conditions.

  20. Nutrient and mineral composition during shoot growth in seven species of Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa bamboo consumed by giant panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, A L; Knott, K K; Vance, C K; Falcone, J F; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C; Willard, S; Kouba, A J

    2015-12-01

    During the annual period of bamboo shoot growth in spring, free-ranging giant pandas feed almost exclusively on the shoots while ignoring the leaves and full- height culm. Little is known about the nutritional changes that occur during bamboo shoot growth, if nutritional changes differ among species, or how these changes might influence forage selection. Our objective was to examine the nutrient and mineral composition during three phases of shoot growth (180 cm) for seven species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) aurea, P. aureosulcata, P. bissetii, P. glauca, P. nuda, P. rubromarginata, Pseudosasa japonica) fed to captive giant pandas at the Memphis Zoo. Total dietary fiber content of bamboo shoots increased (p 180 cm, while crude protein, fat and ash exhibited significant declines (p < 0.05). Phyllostachys nuda had the overall greatest (p = 0.007) crude protein (21% DM) and fat (4% DM) content, and lowest overall total fibre (61% DM) content compared to the other species examined. In contrast, Pseudosasa japonica had the overall lowest crude protein and fat, and relatively higher fibre content (9%, 3% and 74% respectively). Concentrations of Zn and Fe were highest in shoots <60 cm (10-50 μg/g DM) and decreased (p < 0.05) during growth in all species examined. Concentrations of Ca, Cu, Mn, Na and K varied among species and were largely unaffected by growth stage. Due to their higher concentrations of nutrients and lower fibre content in comparison to culm and leaf, bamboo shoots should be a major component of captive giant panda diets when available. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. The Research of Growth Capability Intensification and Lipolytic Activity of Fat Splitting Microbial Cultures by Influence of Natural Mineral Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Kolotova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 23 bacterial strains with lipase activity were separated from the waste water of the meat-processing enterprises and Volgograd water-handling facilities aeration tank. There were studied their morphological, cultural and biochemical properties and their animal and vegetable fat splitting ability. Comparative analysis of fat splitting ability has been carried out for searched strains and devices of enzyme activity increasing and growing process intensity of searched microorganisms were investigated. Mineral nature ingredients – the lake Elton brine, the bischofite, the Dead Sea salt – were added in the culture mediums for increasing of biomass accumulation. It has been investigated that addition of the brine into the culture medium in 5 % concentration increases the growth rate of producer lipase on 293 % in comparison with growth of the control medium without the brine. Addition of 0,25 % the Dead Sea salt concentration intensifies the growth on 317 % in comparison with the control medium. Laboratory simulation of fat waste water purification process has been realized with one of separated activity bacterial strains and it has been showed that addition of the 0,5 % bishofite into the fermenter stimulates lipase activity of the searched microorganisms.

  2. EFFECT OF SODIUM SELENITE AND VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTATION ON GROWTH AND SERUM MINERALS PROFILE OF PIGS (SUS DOMESTICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Biswal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effect of sodium selenite and vitamin E supplementation on growth and serum minerals, twenty male large white Yorkshire pigs of similar age (2-3 months and body weight (14.96 ± 0.68 kg average were randomly divided into four equal groups. Group I served as control (without any supplementation, whereas animals in groups II and III were supplemented with 0.3 mg selenium kg-1 DM as sodium selenite, 100 mg of vitamin E as DL-α-tocopheryl acetate, respectively. Piglets in group IV were supplemented with both 0.3 ppm Se as sodium selenite and 100 mg of vitamin E as DL-α-tocopheryl acetate. This experimental feeding lasted for 120 days, during which fortnightly bodyweight changes were recorded. Blood samples were collected at day 0 and day 120. There was significant (P0.05 among the four groups. The results suggest that supplementation of 0.3 ppm Se as sodium selenite and 100 mg of vitamin E may enhance the serum Se concentration without affecting body weight gain and other serum minerals of pigs.

  3. Super High Dosing with a Novel Buttiauxella Phytase Continuously Improves Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Mineral Status of Weaned Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhikai; Li, Qingyun; Tian, Qiyu; Zhao, Panfeng; Xu, Xiao; Yu, Shukun; Piao, Xiangshu

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a novel Buttiauxella phytase to pigs fed P-deficient, corn-soybean meal diets. One hundred and twenty crossbred piglets (9.53 ± 0.84 kg) were allocated to one of five treatments which consisted of four low P diets (0.61 % Ca and 0.46 % total P) supplemented with 0, 500, 1,000, or 20,000 FTU/kg phytase as well as a positive control diet (0.77 % Ca and 0.62 % total P). Each treatment had six replicated pens with four pigs per pen. Pigs were fed the experimental diets for 28 days. Phytase supplementation linearly improved (P phytase (20,000 FTU/kg) further increased (P phytase inclusion group, as well as ATTD of Ca and P. Metacarpal bone characteristics and several trace mineral concentration in bone, plasma, or organ tissues were linearly (P phytase. Super high dosing with phytase (20,000 FTU/kg) supplementation improved (P phytase supplementation (500 or 1,000 FTU/kg). In conclusion, supplementation of 500 FTU of Buttiauxella phytase/kg and above effectively hydrolyzed phytate in a low-P corn-soybean diet for pigs. In addition, a super high dosing with phytase (20,000 FTU/kg) improved macro- or micro mineral availability and growth performance.

  4. Initial growth and yield structure of selected cultivars of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. cultivated on mineral soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwonek Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of cranberry cultivation on mineral soils and to assess the influence of vegetative biomass development, generative growth and yield components on the yielding of three cranberry cultivars originating in the USA (Stevens, Pilgrim and Ben Lear at two locations in Poland. The key biometrical traits involved in yield formation were taken into account, and the soil and plant chemical conditions were evaluated. All of the measured biometrical characteristics were strongly influenced by the location and the year of cultivation, and varietal differences were also noted. The most important determinants that explained yield variation were: the number of uprights per square meter, floral induction and berry set. However, the participation of each component in yield variation was strongly affected by the location, age of plantation and to a minor extent by the cultivar. The study confirmed the possibility of cranberry cultivation on mineral soils with a low pH. The biggest average yield of the three years was collected from cv. Stevens as cultivated on sandy soil in contrast to the same cultivar grown on sandy loam soil. In the case of sandy loam soil after acidification, cv. Pilgrim appeared to be a relatively better yielding cultivar.

  5. Modeling the effects of mineral nutrition for improving growth and development of micropropagated red raspberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro propagation is important for rapid multiplication of a wide range of nursery crops, including red raspberries. The genetic variation of the many red raspberry cultivars makes it difficult to use one growth medium for all. Although some cultivars grow well on Murashige and Skoog (1962) mediu...

  6. The Gompertz Function Can Coherently Describe Microbial Mineralization of Growth-Sustaining Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anders R.; Binning, Philip John; Aamand, Jens

    2013-01-01

    kinetics. Reduced initial concentrations lead to shortened lag-phases, probably due to reduced need for bacterial growth. The effect of substrate concentration could be predicted by simply changing the time delay of the Gompertz curves. This delay could to some extent also simulate concentration effects...

  7. Cast functional accessories for heat treatment furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drotlew

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study gives examples of the cast functional accessories operating in furnaces for the heat treatment of metals and alloys. The describeddesign solutions of castings and their respective assemblies are used for charge preparation and handling. They were put in systematicorder depending on furnace design and the technological purpose of heat treatment. Basic grades of austenitic cast steel, used for castings of this type, were enumerated, and examples of general guidelines formulated for their use were stated. The functional accessories described in this study were designed and made by the Foundry Research Laboratory of West Pomeranian University of Technology.

  8. A revised mineral nutrient supplement increases biomass and growth rate in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropat, Janette; Hong-Hermesdorf, Anne; Casero, David; Ent, Petr; Castruita, Madeli; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Malasarn, Davin

    2011-01-01

    Summary Interest in exploiting algae as a biofuel source and the role of inorganic nutrient deficiency in inducing triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation in cells necessitates a strategy to efficiently formulate species-specific culture media that can easily be manipulated. Using the reference organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we tested the hypothesis that modeling trace element supplements after the cellular ionome would result in optimized cell growth. We determined the trace metal content of several commonly used Chlamydomonas strains in various culture conditions and developed a revised trace element solution to parallel these measurements. Comparison of cells growing in the revised supplement versus a traditional trace element solution revealed faster growth rates and higher maximum cell densities with the revised recipe. RNA-seq analysis of cultures growing in the traditional versus revised medium suggest that the variation in transcriptomes was smaller than that found between different wild-type strains grown in traditional Hutner’s supplement. Visual observation did not reveal defects in cell motility or mating efficiency in the new supplement. Ni2+-inducible expression from the CYC6 promoter remained a useful tool, albeit with an increased requirement for Ni2+ because of the introduction of an EDTA buffer system in the revised medium. Other advantages include more facile preparation of trace element stock solutions, a reduction in total chemical use, a more consistent batch-to-batch formulation, and long-term stability (tested up to 5 years). Under the new growth regime, we analyzed cells growing under different macro- and micronutrient-deficiencies. TAG accumulation in N deficiency is comparable in the new medium. Fe and Zn deficiency also induced TAG accumulation, as suggested by Nile Red staining. This approach can be used to efficiently optimize culture conditions for other algal species to improve growth and to assay cell physiology. PMID:21309872

  9. Optimization of plant mineral nutrition under growth-limiting conditions in a lunar greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaets, I.; Voznyuk, T.; Kovalchuk, M.; Rogutskyy, I.; Lukashov, D.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Mashkovska, S.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.

    It may be assumed that the first plants in a lunar base will play a main role in forming a protosoil of acceptable fertility needed for purposively growing second generation plants like wheat, rice, tulips, etc. The residues of the first-generation plants could be composted and transformed by microorganisms into a soil-like substrate within a loop of regenerative life support system. The lunar regolith may be used as a substrate for plant growth at the very beginning of a mission to reduce its cost. The use of microbial communities for priming plants will allow one to facilitate adaption to stressful conditions and to support the plant development under growth limiting conditions. Well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing three cultivars to colonize French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, a substrate of low bioavailability, analogous to a lunar rock. The consortium was composed of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and the bacterium Paenibacillus sp. IMBG156 which stimulated seed germination, better plant development, and finally, the flowering of inoculated tagetes. In contrast, control plants grew poorly in the anorthosite and practically did not survive until flowering. Analysis of bacterial community composition showed that all species colonized plant roots, however, the rate of colonization depended on the allelopatic characteristics of marigold varieties. Bacteria of consortium were able to liberate some elements (Ca, Fe, Mn, Si, Ni, Cu, Zn) from substrate anorthosite. Plant colonization by mixed culture of bacterial strains resulted in the increase of accumulation of K, Mg, Mn by the plant and in the lowering of the level of toxic metal accumulation. It was assumed that a rationally assembled consortium of bacterial strains promoted germination of marygold seeds and supported the plant development under growth limiting conditions by means of bioleaching plant essential nutritional elements and by protecting the plant against

  10. A revised mineral nutrient supplement increases biomass and growth rate in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropat, Janette; Hong-Hermesdorf, Anne; Casero, David; Ent, Petr; Castruita, Madeli; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Malasarn, Davin

    2011-06-01

    Interest in exploiting algae as a biofuel source and the role of inorganic nutrient deficiency in inducing triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation in cells necessitates a strategy to efficiently formulate species-specific culture media that can easily be manipulated. Using the reference organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we tested the hypothesis that modeling trace element supplements after the cellular ionome would result in optimized cell growth. We determined the trace metal content of several commonly used Chlamydomonas strains in various culture conditions and developed a revised trace element solution to parallel these measurements. Comparison of cells growing in the revised supplement versus a traditional trace element solution revealed faster growth rates and higher maximum cell densities with the revised recipe. RNA-seq analysis of cultures growing in the traditional versus revised medium suggest that the variation in transcriptomes was smaller than that found between different wild-type strains grown in traditional Hutner's supplement. Visual observation did not reveal defects in cell motility or mating efficiency in the new supplement. Ni²⁺-inducible expression from the CYC6 promoter remained a useful tool, albeit with an increased requirement for Ni²⁺ because of the introduction of an EDTA buffer system in the revised medium. Other advantages include more facile preparation of trace element stock solutions, a reduction in total chemical use, a more consistent batch-to-batch formulation and long-term stability (tested up to 5 years). Under the new growth regime, we analyzed cells growing under different macro- and micronutrient deficiencies. TAG accumulation in N deficiency is comparable in the new medium. Fe and Zn deficiency also induced TAG accumulation, as suggested by Nile Red staining. This approach can be used to efficiently optimize culture conditions for other algal species to improve growth and to assay cell physiology. © 2011 The Authors

  11. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae on growth and mineral nutrition of greenhouse propagated fruit trees from diverse geographic provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guissou, T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi are known to promote plant growth by enhancing mineral uptake in nutrient deficient soils. These beneficial effects on plant growth may vary considerably between cultivars of a given species and between plant species originating from different locations. Objectives. The present experiment evaluated the response of three Sahelian fruit trees: néré (Parkia biglobosa [Jacq.] G.Don, tamarind (Tamarindus indica L., and jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam., originating from five different geographic provenances, to mycorrhizal colonization, evaluate their respective mycorrhizal dependency (MD and analyze their leaf and stem mineral composition. Method. Trees were cultivated in a nursery on pre-sterilized soil substrate low in available P (2.18 μg·g-1 with or without inoculum of Glomus aggregatum (Schenck & Smith emend. Koske. The experiment was arranged in a factorial design for each fruit tree species separately: 5 provenances x 2 AM treatments (inoculated and non-inoculated [control] with 10 replicates per treatment. Plants were harvested six months after inoculation and different parameters were measured. Results. Overall, the results showed significant provenance variations in the plant response to mycorrhizal inoculation. Néré mycorrhizal plants, from two seed sources, tamarind and jujube plants from one seed source had significant higher dry weight and shoot height than those from other provenances. Jujube plants from 3 out of the 5 provenances showed significant higher MD. It then appears that seed provenance happened to be determinant even though AM-root colonization levels (80-90% do not vary much from one provenance to another. In all cases, the fruit trees benefited from AM fungi with increased N, P and K mineral uptake in aerial parts. In particular P uptake was proportional to MD concentration in AM-jujube plants. Conclusions. These results demonstrate the importance of

  12. [Accessory symptomatology and therapy of Gilles de la Tourette's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkova, M; Terziev, D

    1987-01-01

    Eight patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome were examined. They had typical multiple tics and accessory disturbances--impulsive and reactive symptoms. The authors described the classification of accessory symptoms and the therapeutic approaches.

  13. Growth, Development, and Mineral Nutrient Accumulation and Distribution in Tulip from Planting through Postanthesis Shoot Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl E. Niedziela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tulips were grown under field conditions from mid-November through early-June. Plants were harvested and dissected into eight organs on twenty-one dates. These parts were dried, weighed, and analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. A transition (as determined by curve join points from a linear to a steep negative cubic response occurred prior to shoot emergence for N (82 days after planting (DAP, at shoot emergence for K (93 DAP and Ca (94 DAP, and after shoot emergence for Mg (102 DAP and dry matter (118 DAP. A transition from a linear to a steeper linear response occurred at shoot emergence for P (93 DAP. Growth, organ development, and nutrient accumulation occurred continuously from planting to maturity (188 DAP, except for K which did not accumulate during the initial linear phase. Since the increase in accumulation of all five nutrients preceded the dry matter accumulation, these nutrients could be used as predictors in growth models. Practical implications from this study include the importance of maintaining soil Ca levels through liming and applying the N, P, and Mg as split applications with smaller rates at planting and larger rates at emergence. The entire K application may be applied at emergence.

  14. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Supply on Spinach(Spinacia oleracea L.) Growth and SoilMineral N Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Effects of conventional and optimized water and nitrogen managements on spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)growth and soil mineral N (Nmin) residues were compared in an open field experiment in which water balance method and N recommendation with the KNS-system were included. It was shown that the conventional water treatment (seasonal irrigated amount: 175 mm) reduced spinach growth compared to the water balance treatments (seasonal irrigated amount: 80 and 85 mm) at the same N supply level due to N loss through leaching caused by excessive water supply. Although 309 kg N ha-1 was applied in the conventional N treatment, compared to 82 and 66 kg N ha-1 in the optimum N treatments, no significant difference in crop yield was investigated between the N treatments with the same irrigation practice. N uptake in spinach and soil residual Nmin contents were also significantly affected by the irrigation practices. The conventional water supply not only decreased water use efficiency, but also resulted in excessive NO-3-N being leached below the root zone. In order to meet the same target value of N requirement for the next crop, cauliflower, based on the KNS-system, at least extra 50 kg N ha-1 was needed in the conventional water treatments in comparison to the water balance treatment.

  15. Nanoparticulate mineralized collagen scaffolds induce in vivo bone regeneration independent of progenitor cell loading or exogenous growth factor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoyan; Tu, Victor; Bischoff, David; Weisgerber, Daniel W; Lewis, Michael S; Yamaguchi, Dean T; Miller, Timothy A; Harley, Brendan A C; Lee, Justine C

    2016-05-01

    Current strategies for skeletal regeneration often require co-delivery of scaffold technologies, growth factors, and cellular material. However, isolation and expansion of stem cells can be time consuming, costly, and requires an additional procedure for harvest. Further, the introduction of supraphysiologic doses of growth factors may result in untoward clinical side effects, warranting pursuit of alternative methods for stimulating osteogenesis. In this work, we describe a nanoparticulate mineralized collagen glycosaminoglycan scaffold that induces healing of critical-sized rabbit cranial defects without addition of expanded stem cells or exogenous growth factors. We demonstrate that the mechanism of osteogenic induction corresponds to an increase in canonical BMP receptor signalling secondary to autogenous production of BMP-2 and -9 early and BMP-4 later during differentiation. Thus, nanoparticulate mineralized collagen glycosaminoglycan scaffolds may provide a novel growth factor-free and ex vivo progenitor cell culture-free implantable method for bone regeneration.

  16. The effect of water structure and solute hydration on the kinetics of mineral growth and dissolution (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Putnis, C. V.; Putnis, A.

    2012-04-01

    Classical crystal growth theory relates growth and dissolution rates to the degree of supersaturation. However, the solution composition may also affect the growth rate of carbonate minerals, via the Ca2+ to CO32- concentration ratio (e.g. Perdikouri et al., 2009; Stack and Grantham, 2010), ionic strength (e.g. Ruiz-Agudo et al. 2010) or the presence of organic matter (Hoch et al., 2000). For this reason, the influence of these parameters on the kinetics of mineral growth and dissolution has generated a considerable amount of research in the last decade. In particular, effects of both inorganic and organic impurities on mineral growth and dissolution have been frequently reported in the literature. Commonly, water in contact with rock forming minerals, contains significant and variable amounts of ions in solution. The effect of such ions on dissolution and growth rates has been traditionally ascribed to changes in solubility. However, experimental studies performed on different minerals have shown that the dependence of growth or dissolution rates on ionic strength is complex, and that the effect of ionic strength is not independent of the ionic species producing it. Here, we report investigations aimed at addressing the basic hypothesis that mineral growth and dissolution is governed by complex interactions between solvent structure, surface hydration and the ion solvation environment induced by the presence of electrolytes. It is proposed that any factor affecting ion solvation should alter growth and dissolution rates. These results have opened the possibility of a new understanding of very diverse phenomena in geochemistry and demonstrate the need for the inclusion of this "hydration effect" in the development of predictive models that describe crystal growth and dissolution in complex systems, such as those found in nature. Furthermore, we can hypothesise that ion-assisted dehydration of trace and minor element ions could occur in biological systems, thus

  17. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered device...

  19. PIONEER POLAR STRUCTURES. SPECIFICATIONS FOR JAMESWAY SHELTER ACCESSORIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accessories were developed for the Jamesway in order to provide a suitable, light weight, quick-erecting shelter for use as quarters, messing, galley...wall extension kit; special entry kits; an improved electrical distribution system; and special utility accessories. Specifications for the Jamesway shelter accessories are included.

  20. HRCT evaluation of the accessory fissures of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, Altan E-mail: ayildiz@mersin.edu.tr; Goelpinar, Fulya; Calikoglu, Mukadder; Duce, Meltem Nass; Oezer, Caner; Apaydin, F. Demir

    2004-03-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to classify the accessory fissures of the lung and to assess their frequency by using high-resolution CT. Methods and patients: HRCT scans of 115 patients were prospectively reviewed. 1 mm thin sections were obtained at 10 mm intervals with a scan time of 1.9 s. The fissure and its relationship to the segmental bronchovascular structures were then evaluated on transverse sections. Results: Forty-four accessory fissures were detected in 35 of 115 patients. The most common accessory fissure was the inferior accessory fissure (12%). The second most common accessory fissure was the left minor fissure (8%). The right superior accessory fissure (5%), the accessory fissure between the medial and lateral segments of the right middle lobe (5%), and the accessory fissure between the superior and inferior segments of the lingula (5%) were seen in equal frequencies. Also, intersegmental accessory fissures, namely the fissure between the anterobasal and laterobasal of both the right (1%) and the left (2%) lower lobes were detected. We found only one subsegmental accessory fissure. Discussion and conclusion: The inferior accessory fissure and the left minor fissure were the most common accessory fissures in our study.

  1. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices intended...

  2. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental electrosurgical unit and accessories is an AC-powered...

  3. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that is...

  4. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical camera and accessories is a device intended to be...

  6. Produtividade e crescimento da mamoneira em resposta à adubação orgânica e mineral Castor bean yield and growth responses to organic and mineral fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Soares Severino

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da adubação orgânica e mineral sobre o crescimento e a produtividade da mamoneira (Ricinus communis. Avaliaram-se doses de esterco, P, K e micronutrientes, em solo de baixa fertilidade e baixa disponibilidade hídrica. Utilizou-se delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e distribuição fatorial 3x2+4 (três doses de matéria orgânica, presença ou ausência de adubação mineral, com quatro combinações de doses de fertilizantes orgânicos e minerais e micronutrientes. Foram obtidos os seguintes valores de produtividade média: 163,7 kg ha-1, no tratamento sem adubação, e 596,9, 988,1 e 1.172,5 kg ha-1 com adubações orgânica mineral e orgânica + mineral, respectivamente. O P é o nutriente de maior importância para o aumento de produtividade e teor de óleo. A baixa disponibilidade hídrica limita a mineralização e a liberação de nutrientes do material orgânico.The objective of this work was to assess organic and mineral fertilization effects on growth and yield of castor bean (Ricinus communis, applying doses of manure, P, K and micronutrients on a chemically poor soil, under low water supply, in a randomized block design with three replications, and factorial arrangement of 3x2+4 (three manure doses, absence or presence of mineral fertilizer, plus four manure, mineral fertilizer and micronutrients combinations. Values for mean yield were: 163.7 kg ha-1, for treatment without any fertilization, and 596.9, 988.1 and 1,172.5 kg ha-1, for treatments with organic, mineral and organic + mineral, respectively. P is the most important nutrient for increasing yield and oil content. Low water supply limits mineralization and nutrients releasing from organic amendments.

  7. Effect of poultry manure and mineral fertilizer on the growth performance and quality of cucumber fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKOLI PSO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of poultry manure and organic fertilizer (NPK 20:10:10 on the growth and quality of cucumber fruits was studied at the experimental site of the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam campus. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with four levels of treatments consisting of 4tha-1 poultry manure (PM, 900 kgha-1 NPK in a ratio of 20:10:10 (NPK, 2 tha-1 poultry manure + 450 kgha-1 NPK fertilizer (PM + NPK and 0 tha-1 control (CO, where no treatment was applied. Data collected were tested using analysis of variance and significant differences among treatment means were separated using LSD at 0.05 probability level. The results obtained from the study indicated that the numbers of leaves of cucumber increased as weeks after planting (WAP increased. The highest leaves numbers was observed in the plots treated by PM. The order of leaves increases from 2 to 6 weeks were PM > PM+NPK > NPK > CO. The length of fruits, number of fruits, the quality of marketable fruits and weight of fruits increased proportionately in PM treated plots and were significantly (P=0.05 different among the other treatments except for quality of marketable fruits. The highest value of 171.25cm (length of fruits, 10.75 (number of fruits and 2.38kgha- 1 (weight of fruits were obtained in PM treated plots. Based on the results obtained it is evident that poultry manure as organic manure and its mixture (PM + NPK is a good source of soil amendment, since it influenced the growth and yield components of cucumber.

  8. Manipulating the bioactivity of hydroxyapatite nano-rods structured networks: effects on mineral coating morphology and growth kinetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elía, Noelia L; Gravina, A Noel; Ruso, Juan M; Laiuppa, Juan A; Santillán, Graciela E; Messina, Paula V

    2013-11-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite particles have better bioactivity than the coarse crystals. So, they can be utilized for engineered tissue implants with improved efficiency over other materials. The development of materials with specific bioactive characteristics is still under investigation. The surface properties of four hydroxyapatite materials templated by different micelle-polymer structured network are studied. The synergistic interaction of each block copolymer in contact with CTAB rod-like micelles results in crystalline HAp nano-rods of 25-50nm length organized in hierarchical structures with different micro-rough characteristics. It was observed that the material in vitro bioactivity strongly depends on the surface structure while in a minor extent on their Ca/P ratio. So, MIII and MIV materials with Skewness parameter Rsk>2.62 favored the formation on their surfaces of net-like phase with a high growth kinetic constant; while MI and MII (Rsk≤2.62) induced the appearance of spherulitic-like structures and a growth rate 1.75 times inferior. Material biocompatibility was confirmed by interaction with rat calvarial osteoblasts. The different structures growth is attributed to a dissimilar matching of crystal planes in the material and the apatite layer formed. In specific synthesis conditions, a biocompatible material with a Ca/P ratio close to that for the trabecular bone and a morphology that are considered essential for bone-bonding was obtained. The creation of implantable devices with a specific bioactive characteristic may be useful to manipulate the attachment of cells on mineral coating directly affecting the stability and life of the implant. © 2013.

  9. Effect of cadmium on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and metal accumulation of bana grass and vetiver grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingfeng; Gao, Bo; Xia, Hanping

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the differential effects of Cd contamination on the growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and Cd accumulation of bana grass (Pennisetum americanum × Pennisetum purpureum) and vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Bana grass accumulated 48-453 and 25-208 mg kg(-1) in plant roots and shoots, respectively, at 15-100 mg kg(-1) soil Cd concentration, while vetiver grass accumulated 167-396 and 0.13-9.0 mg kg(-1). These results indicated that bana grass was a Cd accumulator while vetiver grass was a Cd excluder. The ratio of root to shoot biomass was significantly increased in vetiver grass, while it was unchanged in bana grass by Cd pollution. This suggests that excluders may allocate more energy to roots than shoots under Cd pollution compared to un-contaminated condition, while accumulators may allocate equal proportions of energy to roots and shoots. For bana grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe and Mn in roots as well as the translocation factors of Zn and K. For vetiver grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe in roots and had no influence on the translocation factors of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mg, K and Ca. Soil Cd pollution showed no significant effect on chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rates in either of the grasses. The water content and leaf transpiration rate were significantly increased by Cd pollution in bana grass, while they were unchanged in vetiver grass. The results indicated that the energy allocation and mineral nutrition characteristics may aid in screening suitable plant species for phytoremediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties and Mineral Composition of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. at Different Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razi Ismail

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to appraise the changes in mineral content and antioxidant attributes of Portulaca oleracea over different growth stages. The antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. The iodine titration method was used to determine the ascorbic acid content (AAC. DPPH scavenging (IC50 capacity ranged from 1.30 ± 0.04 to 1.71 ± 0.04 mg/mL, while the ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant activity (AEAC values were 229.5 ± 7.9 to 319.3 ± 8.7 mg AA/100 g, total phenol content (TPC varied from 174.5 ± 8.5 to 348.5 ± 7.9 mg GAE/100 g. AAC 60.5 ± 2.1 to 86.5 ± 3.9 mg/100 g and FRAP 1.8 ± 0.1 to 4.3 ± 0.1 mg GAE/g. There was good correlation between the results of TPC and AEAC, and between IC50 and FRAP assays (r2 > 0.9. The concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Fe and Zn increased with plant maturity. Calcium (Ca was negatively correlated with sodium (Na and chloride (Cl, but positively correlated with magnesium (Mg, potassium (K, iron (Fe and zinc (Zn. Portulaca olerecea cultivars could be used as a source of minerals and antioxidants, especially for functional food and nutraceutical applications.

  11. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 downregulates dexamethasone-induced tetranectin gene expression during the in vitro mineralization of the human osteoblastic cell line SV-HFO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iba, K; Sawada, N; Chiba, H

    1995-01-01

    treatment as evidenced by Northern blotting. When transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) was added together with dexamethasone to the SV-HFO cell cultures, the mineralization process was markedly suppressed and the expression of tetra nectin and alkaline phosphatase was downregulated in a dose...

  12. Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase and forearm bone mineral content in young adults with GH deficiency of childhood onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, S A; Sørensen, S

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that growth hormone (GH)-deficient adults have a markedly decreased bone mineral content compared to healthy adults. However, there are conflicting results regarding the effects of GH treatment on bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Therefore, we evaluated...... the effect of GH treatment on a marker of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase), hepatic excretory function and distal forearm bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Growth hormone was administered subcutaneously in 21 adults (13 males and 8 females) with GH deficiency of childhood onset for 4...... months in a double-blind, placebo-controlled GH trial, while 13 of the patients then received further GH for an additional 14 months. Serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increased significantly from 100 to 279 micrograms/l and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) from 1930 to 3355 micrograms/l after 4...

  13. How do mineral fertilization and plant growth regulators affect yield and morphology of naked oat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Witkowicz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Oat (Avena sativa var. nuda is of an increasing interest in many parts of the world. This is why plant breeders have developed forms that are morphologically different from the current ones, such as naked, dwarf or with an increased 1000-grain-weight. In three experiments conducted at two sites, the influence of phosphorus (P and potassium (K fertilizers, spray application of urea and spray application of plant growth regulators (PGRs Promalin (gibberellins + cytokinin and Moddus (cimectacarps on the yield and morphological traits of different oat forms were studied. At a better site, only genotype statistically influenced oat grain yield. At a poorer site, apart from genotype there were statistically significant responses to P and K fertilizers and to the application of Moddus (especially in the experiment with a dwarf cultivar. The internode and panicle length were modified mostly by cimectacarps, which shortened specific internodes, but not the panicle. The PGR Promalin had no significant effect on oat stem morphology.

  14. GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION IN SEEDLINGS OF PEQUI SUBJECTED TO NUTRIENT DEPRIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Carlos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813318The establishment of fruit and medicinal native species of Savannah may soften the negative environmental aspect arising from deforestation, and improve their utilization which today is restricted to local populations. However, it depends on a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of these species. It aims to assess the nutritional aspects and effects of nutrients in the absence of development of Caryocar brasiliense Camb. An experiment was conducted in pots, red-yellow Oxisol substrate of low fertility in the greenhouse. 12 treatments were employed under the technique of the missing nutrient in fully randomized block design with eight replicates. The following treatments were applied: complete 1 (C1-fertilized with N, P, K, S, B, Cu, Fe, Zn and lime, complete 2 (C2-fertilized with N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg , B, Cu, Fe, Zn, without lime, omitting treatments complete when each of the relevant nutrients (complete 1, complete 1-K, complete -S, complete 1-P, complete 1 - B, complete 1 - Zn, complete 1 - lime, complete 2-Ca, complete 2 - Mg and control. The plants were harvested and separated into air shoot and root system. Samples were dried at70 ° C, weighed and determined the levels of nutrients in shoot dry matter. According to the results concluded that the omission of Zn, Mg and K do not affect height growth of Caryocar brasiliense seedlings; during the absence of nutrients affect the development of plants in diameter Caryocar brasiliense, the total dry matter is not affected by the omission of nutrients; root / shoot ratio shows that the species is adapted to soils with low pH and low phosphorus levels; Caryocar brasiliense species show low nutritional requirements during formation process of seedlings, although the results may have been masked by the reservations contained in the seeds; nutrient content in pequi shoot dry biomass is low, indicating low nutritional requirements of the species.

  15. The effect of weight bearing on bone mineral density and bone growth in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Young; Choi, Jung Hwa; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Im, Sang Hee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The present study aims to explore the effect of weight bearing exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone growth in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Twelve children with CP of functional level of gross motor functional classification scale (GMFCS) V and 6 healthy children (control group) were included in the study. Participants underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to measure the BMD of the femur and full-length anteroposterior radiography to measure the bone length of the femur and tibia at baseline and after 6 months. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: group A with programmed standing exercises and assisted standing for more than 2 hours a day, more than 5 days a week; and group B with conventional physiotherapy with a standing program for 20 minutes a day, 2 to 3 days a week. Results: A 6-month follow-up showed significantly increased BMD on the femur neck in the control group. Although the changes in BMD were not significant in both groups, group A demonstrated an increased trend of BMD, whereas group B showed a decreased trend. Bone length was significantly increased in all 3 groups at the 6-month follow-up. Although this increase was not significant, the change in bone length was greatest in the control group. The smallest changes were observed in group B. Conclusions: Weight bearing exercise may play an important role in increasing or maintaining BMD in children with CP and is also expected to promote bone growth. Programmed standing may be used as an effective treatment method to increase BMD in children with CP. However, further studies with a larger cohort and longer follow-up period are required to reveal further information on the benefit of weight bearing exercise and to develop a detailed program. PMID:28272197

  16. Effects of phytase on growth and slaughter performance, digestibility and nitrogen and mineral balance in heavy pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Galassi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the effects of phytase (Ronozyme® NP to the diet of fattening pigs. In comparison with a control diet (C which included 0.5% calcium salt (CaHPO4, two diets without CaHPO4 were tested: 150Phy and 300Phy, which contained 150 and 300 mg phytase/kg, respectively. Sixty barrows of about 47 kg body weight (BW each were randomly divided into 3 groups of 20 animals each, every group split into 5 pens. Average daily gain (ADG, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR were registered. The trial was divided into 2 phases: 0 to 68 days (47 to 100 kg BW and 69 to116 days (100 to 140 kg BW. During phase II, 6 pigs/diet were housed in individual metabolic cages for the digestibility-balance trial. Addition of phytase resulted in higher ADG (723, 783 and 772 g/d for C, 150Phy and 300Phy, respectively and improved FCR (2.84, 2.64 and 2.65 in phase I. No differences were registered in phase II, though a better FCR was overall observed. All slaughter parameters and the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD of nutrients – except for calcium (Ca and sodium (Na –, were similar among treatments. Likewise, total nitrogen (N excretion did not differ across treatments. Phosphorous (P excreted for C, 150Phy and 300Phy was 47.1, 53.3 and 52.5% of the PI. Trace-minerals showed similar retentions among diets. Phytase effectively improved growth performance until 100 kg BW at both inclusion levels. Yet, it did not improve growth performance, digestibility, N and P balance in heavier animals.

  17. Electron-microscopic microprobe analysis on the initial stages of mineral formation in the epiphyseal growth plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barckhaus, R H; Krefting, E R; Althoff, J; Quint, P; Höhling, H J

    1981-01-01

    Dry thin sections (300-500 nm thick) of shock-frozen, freeze-dried and embedded epiphyseal growth plates from the proximal tibia of guinea pigs were cut longitudinally from the plate. Dark round bodies (phi less than 0.5 micron) were observed using the scanning transmission mode of the electron microscope initially directly in the vicinity of the chondrocytes. They gradually spread out in the direction of the metaphysis to the center of the longitudinal septum and represent most probably the matrix vesicles. By use of a microscan of 0.25 X 0.25 micron the element-concentrations of these bodies were measured. The measurements started on those bodies that could be clearly recognized and were extended to a length of 30-40 micron in the metaphyseal direction. To obtain approximate quantitative results the registered CaK alpha and PK alpha x-ray counts were directly compared with counts of fully mineralized regions, the Ca and P contents of which are known. Ca as well as p could be detected in the first visible vesicle-like structures (Ca approximately 0.2%, P approximately 0.4%) and increased steeply in the metaphyseal direction, amounting to approximately 6% Ca and 3% P. These results may lead to the conclusion that Pi becomes split from phosphate esters and transformed into the matrix vesicles already in a very early stage of enrichment. Incorporation of Ca may be coupled with this process.

  18. Colonization of Greek olive cultivars' root system by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus: root morphology, growth, and mineral nutrition of olive plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Chatzistathis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rooted leafy cuttings of three Greek olive (Olea europaea L. cultivars (Koroneiki, Kothreiki and Chondrolia Chalkidikis were grown for six months in three soil types, in an experimental greenhouse, in order to investigate: i if their root system was colonized by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF genus and, ii if genotypic differences concerning growth and mineral nutrition of olive plants existed. Gigaspora sp. colonized the root system of the three cultivars studied, while Glomus sp. colonized only the root system of 'Koroneiki'. Furthermore, in most cases root colonization by AMF differed among cultivars and soil types. The maximum root colonization, in all soils, was found in 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis'. In the three soils studied, the ratio shoot dry weight (SDW/ root dry weight (RDW was higher in 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis' than in the other two cultivars. Furthermore, root system morphology of the three olive cultivars was completely different, irrespectively of soil type. Leaf Mn, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg, K and P concentrations, as well as total per plant nutrient content and nutrient use efficiency, differed among cultivars under the same soil conditions. These differences concerning root morphology, SDW/RDW, as well as nutrient uptake and use efficiency, could be possibly ascribed to the differential AMF colonization by Glomus sp. and Gigaspora sp.

  19. Effect of NaCl Salinity on Growth and Mineral Composition of Ziziphus spina-christi (L. Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sohail

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus spina-christi (L. Willd. is a fruit tree species growing wild in arid and semi-arid areas of Asia and Africa where rural populations intensively use its fruits, leaves, bark and wood. However, little is known about the effects of salinity, a widespread problem in these regions, on early growth and mineral composition of this species. This study was conducted under controlled conditions to contribute to filling this gap. Six weeks old seedlings of Z. spina-christi germinated in a full strength Hoagland solution were subjected to 0, 40, 80 and 160 mM NaCl. Compared to the unstressed control salinity levels of 80 and 160 mM reduced plant height, leaf number, leaf chlorophyll, total leaf area and dry matter by > 50%. Salinity levels of 40, 80 and 160 mM enhanced leaf water contents by 14, 16 and 17%, respectively and 160 mM NaCl raised the concentration of Na and Cl ions in leaf tissues 81- and 21-fold. The K/Na ratio, in contrast, was hardly affected by increasing salinity indicating adaptation or tolerance of Z. spina-christi to low or moderate NaCl salinity. These results suggest that Z. spina-christi could be an interesting species for re-vegetation of moderately degraded saline lands.

  20. Height and bone mineral density are associated with naevus count supporting the importance of growth in melanoma susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ribero

    Full Text Available Naevus count is the strongest risk factor for melanoma. Body Mass Index (BMI has been linked to melanoma risk. In this study, we investigate the link between naevus count and height, weight and bone mineral density (BMD in the TwinsUK cohort (N = 2119. In addition we adjusted for leucocyte telomere length (LTL as LTL is linked to both BMD and naevus count. Naevus count was positively associated with height (p = 0.001 but not with weight (p = 0.187 despite adjusting for age and twin relatedness. This suggests that the previously reported melanoma association with BMI may be explained by height alone. Further adjustment for LTL did not affect the significance of the association between height and naevus count so LTL does not fully explain these results. BMD was associated with naevus count at the spine (coeff 18.9, p = 0.01, hip (coeff = 18.9, p = 0.03 and forearm (coeff = 32.7, p = 0.06 despite adjusting for age, twin relatedness, weight, height and LTL. This large study in healthy individuals shows that growth via height, probably in early life, and bone mass are risk factors for melanoma via increased naevus count. The link between these two phenotypes may possibly be explained by telomere biology, differentiation genes from the neural crests but also other yet unknown factors which may influence both bones and melanocytes biology.

  1. The influence of sodium chloride salinity on the growth and mineral nutrition of horsegram, Dolichos biflorus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok S. Nigwekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dolichos biflorus plants were grown in sand culture in the presence of five levels of sodium chloride ranging from 25 to 150 mM. The plant was found to possess a good salt tolerance capacity since a general decline in growth was evident only above NaCI concentration of 75 mM. Salt concentrations above 100 mM reduced the yield in terms of average pod number. The analysis of inorganic constituents revealed marked alterations in the mineral nutrition of the plant under saline conditions. Salt stress caused accumulation of sodium in all plant parts although it was more prenounced in roots and stem. The leaves accumulated large amounts of chlorides under saline conditions. The potassium content in the roots and stem markedly decreased due to salinity. The leaves retained a high potassium level up to 50 mM NaCl treatment. Salt stress caused an increase in the calcium content in leaves and roots. The accumulation of phosphorus and magnesium in different plant parts was favoured by salt stress. A reduction in the manganese content in salt stressed leaves was noticed while higher doses of salinity favoured iron accumulation in different plant parts. A possible involvement of these alterations in the salt tolerance behaviour of the plant is discussed.

  2. Algal Accessory Pigment Detection Using AVIRIS Image-Derived Spectral Radiance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.

    1996-01-01

    Visual and derivative analyses of AVIRIS spectral data can be used to detect algal accessory pigments in aquatic communities. This capability extends the use of remote sensing for the study of aquatic ecosystems by allowing detection of taxonomically significant pigment signatures which yield information about the type of algae present. Such information allows remote sensing-based assessment of aquatic ecosystem health, as in the detection of nuisance blooms of cyanobacteria or toxic blooms of dinoflagellates. Remote sensing of aquatic systems has traditionally focused on quantification of chlorophyll a, a photoreactive (and light-harvesting) pigment which is common to all algae as well as cyanobacteria (bluegreen algae). Due to the ubiquitousness of this pigment within algae, chl a is routinely measured to estimate algal biomass both during ground-truthing and using various airborne or satellite based sensors, including AVIRIS. Within the remote sensing and aquatic sciences communities, ongoing research has been performed to detect algal accessory pigments for assessment of algal population composition. This research is based on the fact that many algal accessory pigments are taxonomically significant, and all are spectrally unique. Aquatic scientists have been refining pigment analysis techniques, primarily high performance liquid chromatography, or HPLC, to detect specific pigments as a time-saving alternative to individual algal cell identifications and counts. Remote sensing scientists are investigating the use of pigment signatures to construct pigment libraries analogous to mineral spectral libraries used in geological remote sensing applications. The accessory pigment approach has been used successfully in remote sensing using data from the Thematic Mapper, low-altitude, multiple channel scanners, field spectroradiometers and the AVIRIS hyperspectral scanner. Due to spectral and spatial resolution capabilities, AVIRIS is the sensor of choice for such

  3. Impact of vitamin and mineral supplement withdrawal and wheat middling inclusion on finishing pig growth performance, fecal mineral concentration, carcass characteristics, and the nutrient content and oxidative stability of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, D T; Rozeboom, D W; Hill, G M; Booren, A M; Link, J E

    2002-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine if supplement withdrawal (omission of dietary vitamin and trace mineral premixes and a two-thirds reduction in dietary inorganic phosphorus) for 28 d preslaughter and the feeding of wheat middlings (dietary concentrations of 5, 15, and 30% from weaning to 16, 16 to 28, and 28 kg to slaughter, respectively) affect growth performance, carcass characteristics, and fecal mineral concentrations ofthe pig, as well as the nutrient content and oxidative stability of the longissimus dorsi muscle. Crossbred pigs (n = 64) were blocked by weight and assigned to one of four dietary treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial design (with or without supplement withdrawal, and with or without wheat middlings). Supplement withdrawal and wheat middling inclusion did not influence average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake, gain/feed, or carcass traits, except for a decrease (P pigs from 28 to 65 kg when fed wheat middlings. Supplement withdrawal decreased (P mineral supplementation, wheat middling inclusion decreased (P Supplement withdrawal decreased (P 0.05) longissimus dorsi Ca, P, Fe, and Zn concentrations. Dietary treatment did not affect either Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase activity in the longissimus dorsi. The results from this study indicate that supplement withdrawal and dietary wheat middling inclusion alter pork nutrient content and fecal mineral concentration, but not the oxidative stability of pork.

  4. Accessory spine of the foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzat, J; Walocha, J; Zawiliński, J

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to provide morphometric analysis of an accessory spine that was found within the lumen of the foramen ovale, as well as to find out whether this structure could mechanically irritate the mandibular nerve. A bifid spine was perceived in the macerated skull of an adult individual. It was located in the anterior part of the left foramen ovale. The overall length of the spine was found to be 1.8 mm. The spine had a homogenous structure, and showed high levels of mineralisation. We conclude that the accessory spine did not compress the mandibular nerve, and that the foramen ovale provided enough space for passage of the nerve. In all likelihood, these structures remained in anatomical accordance without causing any neurological symptoms.

  5. Subdaily growth patterns and organo-mineral nanostructure of the growth layers in the calcitic prisms of the shell of Concholepas concholepas Bruguière, 1789 (Gastropoda, Muricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Nury; Ball, Alexander D; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Dauphin, Yannicke; Denis, Alain; Ortlieb, Luc

    2007-10-01

    Fluorochrome marking of the gastropod Concholepas concholepas has shown that the prismatic units of the shell are built by superimposition of isochronic growth layers of about 2 mum. Fluorescent growth marks make it possible to establish the high periodicity of the cyclic biomineralization process at a standard growth rhythm of about 45 layers a day. Sulphated polysaccharides have been identified within the growth layers by using synchrotron radiation, whereas high resolution mapping enables the banding pattern of the mineral phase to be correlated with the layered distribution of polysaccharides. Atomic force microscopy has shown that the layers are made of nanograins densely packed in an organic component.

  6. Instruments and accessories for neutron scattering research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio [eds.] [Advanced Science Research Center (Tokai Site), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    This report describes neutron scattering instruments and accessories installed by four neutron scattering research groups at the ASRC (Advanced Science Research Center) of the JAERI and the recent topics of neutron scattering research using these instruments. The specifications of nine instruments (HRPD, BIX-I, TAS-1 and PNO in the reactor hall, RESA, BIX-II, TAS-2, LTAS and SANS-J in the guide hall of the JRR-3M) are summarized in this booklet. (author)

  7. Bilateral accessory cleidohyoid in a human cadaver

    OpenAIRE

    Stark ME; Wu B; Bluth BE; Wisco JJ

    2009-01-01

    During routine anatomical dissection of the infrahyoid region, a muscle was found bilaterally originating from the sternal end of clavicle and inserting into the hyoid bone. The muscle coursed parallel and lateral to the sternohyoid muscle. The muscle was found in the presence of an intact omohyoid, thus being classified as an accessory cleidohyoid (cleidohyoideus accessorius) muscle. While other authors have reported the presence of a unilateral cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle, to our know...

  8. Mineral nutrient imbalance, DNA lesion and DNA-protein crosslink involved in growth retardation of Vicia faba L.seedlings exposed to lanthanum ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengrun Wang; Kegui Zhang; Mei He; Chuanjun Jiang; Liumin Tian; Yuan Tian; Xiaorong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Effects of mineral nutrient imbalance,DNA lesion and DNA-protein crosslink on growth of Vicia faba L.seedlings hydroponically cultivated in concentrations of extraneous lanthanum (La) for 20 days were investigated in the present experiment.The results showed that contents of La,Cu or K elements in roots generally changed synchronously with those in leaves,while Ca,Fe,Zn,Mg,Mn or P in the roots altered inversely to those in the leaves.Thus,the extraneous La led to redistribution and imbalance of mineral nutrient elements in the roots and leaves.DNA lesion and DNA-protein crosslink were investigated by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)and sodium dodecyl sulfate/potassium (SDS/K+) precipitation methods,respectively.The results demonstrated that the increasing La induced DNA break and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) in the seedlings.These results suggested that mineral nutrient imbalance,DNA lesion and DNA-protein crosslink were involved in the growth retardation and growth alteration of the seedlings,which may help to understand the mechanisms of rare earth elements (REEs) on plant growth.

  9. Isolated spinal accessory neuropathy and intracisternal schwannomas of the spinal accessory nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Al-Ajmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 40-year-old female patient presenting with isolated left spinal accessory neuropathy that developed insidiously over 6 years. She complained of ill-defined deep neck and shoulder pain. On examination, prominent sternocleidomastoid and trapezoid muscle weakness and atrophy, shoulder instability, and lateral scapular winging were observed. MRI identified a small mass of the cisternal portion of the spinal accessory nerve. Its appearance was typical of schwannoma. Surgical treatment was not offered because of the small tumor size, lack of mass effect and the questionable functional recovery in the presence of muscular atrophy.

  10. Fluorescent minerals - A potential source of UV protection and visible light for the growth of green algae and cyanobacteria in extreme cosmic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omairi, Tareq; Wainwright, Milton

    2015-07-01

    We propose that green algae (Chlorella variabilis and Dunaliella tertiolecta) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus and Nostoc commune) can grow inside fluorescent rock minerals which convert damaging UV light to visible light, thereby allowing these organisms to survive and thrive in UV-rich environments without (or with limited) visible light, which would otherwise be inimical to them. The four microorganisms were incubated inside fluorescent rocks composed of fluorite, calcite and pyrite. The resultant growth was then measured following exposure to UV radiation, with the use of optical density and measurement of chlorophyll concentration. Results show that the microorganisms were shielded from harmful UV in these semi-transparent rocks, while at the same time benefiting from the fact that the minerals converted UV to visible light; this have been shown by a statistically significant increase in their growth, which although lower than when the cells were incubated in sunlight, was significantly higher than in controls incubated in the dark.

  11. Growth performance, diet nutrient digestibility, and bone mineralization in weaned pigs fed pelleted diets containing thermostable phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, J L; Landero, J L; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Cervantes, M; Zijlstra, R T

    2013-02-01

    Traditional supplemental dietary phytase loses activity during steam pelleting. The thermal tolerance and bioefficacy of a phytase product with a thermoprotective coating [coated phytase (C-phytase)] was compared in mash and pelleted diets to a traditional, uncoated phytase (U-phytase) added to a negative control (NC) diet, formulated with reduced dietary Ca and P, and compared with a corn-soybean meal based positive control (POC) diet. Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and third metacarpal bone characteristics were response variables. Weaned pigs (n = 56; 8.20 ± 0.5 kg initial BW; 28 d of age) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 7 diets for 21 d. The diets were 1) POC mash, 2) NC mash, 3) NC pelleted at 90°C, 4) NC mash + 500 U/kg U-phytase, 5) NC mash + 500 U/kg C-phytase, 6) NC + 500 U/kg C-phytase pelleted at 80°C, and 7) NC + 500 U/kg C-phytase pelleted at 90°C. The POC and NC diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and isolysinic. The content of Ca and available P was 1.01 and 0.40% and 0.83 and 0.22% in the POC and NC diets, respectively. Pig BW and feed intake were measured on d 7, 14, and 21, and feces were collected for 2 d. On d 21, pigs were killed and ileal digesta and the third metacarpal bone collected. Pigs fed POC had greater (P pigs fed NC. Pelleting the NC diet did not improve performance, nutrient digestibility, or P use. Adding the U-phytase to NC mash diet increased (P pigs fed NC. Pigs fed C-phytase in NC mash diets had increased (P pigs fed NC but not different than pigs fed U-phytase NC mash diets. Pigs fed pelleted NC diet with C-phytase had a greater (P pigs fed mash NC diet with C-phytase but had similar growth performance, AID of CP and AA, and bone mineralization to pigs fed U-phytase. In conclusion, release and bioefficacy of phytase after pelleting was not affected by the thermal protective coating.

  12. Growth-inhibitory effects of a mineralized extract from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, on Ca2+-sensitive and Ca2+-resistant human colon carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem Aslam, Muhammad; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Hu, Xin; Chakrabarty, Subhas; Varani, James

    2009-01-01

    Proliferation and differentiation were assessed in a series of human colon carcinoma cell lines in response to a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum. The extract contains 12% Ca2+, 1% Mg2+, and detectable amounts of 72 trace elements, but essentially no organic material. The red algae extract was as effective as inorganic Ca2+ alone in suppressing growth and inducing differentiation of colon carcinoma cells that are responsive to a physiological lev...

  13. Effects of Non-phytate Phosphorus and 1a-Hydroxycholecalciferol on Growth Performance, Bone Mineralization, and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Han

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effects of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (NPP and 1a-hydroxycholecalciferol (1a-OH-D3 on the growth performance, bone mineralization, and carcass traits of 1- to 21-day-old broiler chickens. On the day of hatch, 600 male Ross 308 chicks were weighed and randomly assigned to 12 treatments, with five cages of 10 birds each. A 6 × 2 factorial arrangement was applied, consisting of 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35%, 0.40%, or 0.45% NPP and 0 or 5 μg/kg of 1a-OH-D3. The basal diet contained 0.52% calcium (Ca and was not supplemented with vitamin D3. Dietary NPP levels significantly affected growth performance and tibia mineralization (except width of broilers; by contrast, meat yield and organ relative weight were not influenced by NPP. The inclusion of 1a-OH-D3 improved growth performance, tibia mineralization, and carcass and breast yield, whereas it decreased the relative weights of the liver, heart, and kidney. A significant interaction between NPP and 1a-OH-D3 was observed for body weight gain (BWG, feed efficiency (FE, mortality, serum Ca and P levels, tibia breaking-strength, ash weight, and Ca content, as well as breast yield and heart relative weight. These results suggest that broilers fed with 5 μg of 1a-OH-D3 per kg of diet obtain optimal growth performance and tibia mineralization when dietary NPP level was 0.30% and the analyzed Ca to NPP ratio was 1.97.

  14. Reproductive biology in Anophelinae mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae): Fine structure of the female accessory gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghezza Masci, Valentina; Di Luca, Marco; Gambellini, Gabriella; Taddei, Anna Rita; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Guerra, Laura; Mazzini, Massimo; Fausto, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    The morphology and ultrastructure of female accessory reproductive glands of Anopheles maculipennis s.s., Anopheles labranchiae and Anopheles stephensi were investigated by light and electron microscopy. The reproductive system in these species is characterized by two ovaries, two lateral oviducts, a single spermatheca and a single accessory gland. The gland is globular and has a thin duct which empties into the vagina, near the opening of the spermathecal duct. Significant growth of the accessory reproductive gland is observed immediately after blood meal, but not at subsequent digestion steps. At ultrastructural level, the gland consists of functional glandular units belonging to type 3 ectodermal glands. The secretory cells are elongated and goblet shaped, with most of their cytoplasm and large nucleus in the basal part, close to the basement lamella. Finely fibrous electron-transparent material occupies the secretory cavity that is in contact with the end of a short efferent duct (ductule) emerging from the gland duct. The present study is the first detailed description of female accessory gland ultrastructure in Anophelinae and provides insights into the gland's functional role in the reproductive biology of these insects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on reduction of accessory horsepower requirements. Program summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefferts, C.H.

    1977-06-15

    The objective of this program was to define, evaluate and develop automotive accessory systems to minimize engine power consumption and significantly improve fuel economy. All tasks have been completed and the program objectives have been accomplished. Information is presented on each phase of the program which involved: conceptual design to recommended component improvement and accessory drive systems; performance and sizing analyses; detail design and specifications; fabrication, and performance testing; evaluation of integrated hybrid drive, improved accessories; and an advanced air conditioning concept.

  16. Inferring the effects of compositional boundary layers on crystal nucleation, growth textures, and mineral chemistry in natural volcanic tephras through submicron-resolution imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg F. Zellmer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crystal nucleation and growth are first order processes captured in volcanic rocks and record important information about the rates of magmatic processes and chemical evolution of magmas during their ascent and eruption. We have studied glass-rich andesitic tephras from the Central Plateau of the Southern Taupo Volcanic Zone by electron- and ion-microbeam imaging techniques to investigate down to sub-micrometre scale the potential effects of compositional boundary layers (CBLs of melt around crystals on the nucleation and growth of mineral phases and the chemistry of crystal growth zones. We find that CBLs may influence the types of mineral phases nucleating and growing, and growth textures such as the development of swallowtails. The chemistry of the CBLs also has the capacity to trigger intermittent overgrowths of nanometre-scale bands of different phases in rapidly growing crystals, resulting in what we refer to as cryptic phase zoning. The existence of cryptic phase zoning has implications for the interpretation of microprobe compositional data, and the resulting inferences made on the conditions of magmatic evolution. Identification of cryptic phase zoning may in future lead to more accurate thermobarometric estimates and thus geospeedometric constraints. In future, a more quantitative characterization of CBL formation and its effects on crystal nucleation and growth may contribute to a better understanding of melt rheology and magma ascent processes at the onset of explosive volcanic eruptions, and will likely be of benefit to hazard mitigation efforts.

  17. Accessory sperm: a biomonitor of boar sperm fertilization capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardón, Florencia; Evert, Meike; Beyerbach, Martin; Weitze, Karl-Fritz; Waberski, Dagmar

    2005-04-15

    The number of accessory sperm found in the zona pellucida of porcine embryos was correlated to their individual quality and to the embryo quality range found within a single sow. Our goal was to determine whether accessory sperm counts provide semen evaluation with additional, useful information. Accessory sperm count was highest when only normal embryos were found in a given sow and diminished if oocytes or degenerated embryos were present (P<0.01). Within a given sow, normal embryos had higher (P<0.05) accessory sperm counts than degenerated embryos, although not when oocytes were also present. Fertilization capacity of sperm is optimal when only normal embryos are found in a given sow; this capacity is indicated by high accessory sperm counts. A decrease in fertilization capacity is reflected in diminishing accessory sperm counts. The boar had a significant effect (P<0.01) on accessory sperm count, but not on the percentage of normal embryos; this suggests that accessory sperm may be more sensitive indicators of the fertilization capacity of sperm than the percentage of normal embryos. We conclude that accessory sperm count can be used for the detection of compensable defects in sperm and is a valid parameter for assessing sperm fertilization capacity.

  18. ACCESSORY RENAL ARTERYAND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Magotra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Origin of the Testicular Artery variations were found during routine dissection of abdomen of the middle aged cadaver in the Dept of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College Jammu. On the left side there were two renal arteries, One of them was the main Renal artery which was originating from the anterolateral aspect of abdominal aorta and running to the hilum of the kidney in front of the renal vein The other was the Accessory Renal artery which was originating from anterolateral aspect of aorta 5mm above origin of main renal artery and going to the upper pole of the kidney. The origin of accessory renal artery and main renal artery was 4.2 and 9.2mm below the level of origin of superior mesentric artery. The left testicular artery was originating from the accessory renal artery and crossing the renal artery and the renal vein anteriorly before following its usual course in the posterior abdominal wall. Only one renal artery was seen on the right side arising from the anterolateral aspect of aorta. The right testicular artery originated 52mm below the origin of right renal artery and followed its normal course This anomaly is explained by embryological development of both kidneys and gonads from intermediate mesoderm of mesonephric crest. Further the vasculature of kidneys and gonads is derived from lateral mesonephric branches of dorsal aorta .Even though the condition presents as a silent renal anomaly (Undiagnosed throughout life and revealed only on autopsy the surgical implications are noteworthy, which too have been highlighted in this report.

  19. Non‑Azygos Accessory Fissure in Right Upper Lobe Associated with Superior and Inferior Accessory Fissures in Right Lower Lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jose Eluvathingal Muttikkal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessory fissures in the lungs are common congenital variations, usually detected as incidental findings in radiographs or CT scan. Accessory fissures can act as an anatomic barrier to the spread of inflammatory or neoplastic disease, as well as due to the variant anatomy, mimic lesions. It is important to recognize the presence of accessory fissures, as they affect surgical planning of pulmonary lobectomy and segmentectomy. Accessory fissure in the right upper lobe other than due to the anomalous course of azygos vein is very rare. We report a case of non-azygos accessory fissure, between the apical and the anterior segments of right upper lobe, along with superior and inferior accessory fissures in the right lower lobe.

  20. Effects of mineral and vitamin supplementation to pasteurized whole milk diets on growth and health of preruminant Holstein bull calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine whether supplementation of vitamins and trace minerals (VTM), formulated to meet or exceed NRC requirements when added to pasteurized whole milk (PWM), increases challenge resolution and prevents intestinal macromolecular permeability after injection with bacterial lip...

  1. Spinal accessory nerve function following neck dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibordi, F; Baiocco, F; Bascelli, C; Bini, A; Canepa, A

    1988-01-01

    Spinal accessory nerve (SAN) function was evaluated by electromyography (EMG) and muscle testing in 36 patients who underwent neck dissection with SAN preservation. The results emphasized that SAN function was relatively good after conservative neck surgery. Muscle testing findings showed better function than did EMG findings. After surgery the trapezius muscle functioned more efficiently than the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle probably because of the more traumatic surgical handling of both the SCM muscle and its SAN branch. In order to obtain the functional advantages of SAN preservation, the authors suggest that the conservative procedure in radical neck dissection be used whenever warranted by oncologic diagnosis.

  2. HIV-1 accessory proteins: Vpu and Vif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Amy; Strebel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 Vif and Vpu are accessory factors involved in late stages of viral replication. Vif regulates viral infectivity by preventing virion incorporation of APOBEC3G and other members of the family of cytidine deaminases, while Vpu causes degradation of CD4 and promotes virus release by functionally inactivating the host factor BST-2. This chapter described techniques used for the characterization of Vif and Vpu and their functional interaction with host factors. Many of the techniques are, however, applicable to the functional analysis of other viral proteins.

  3. Bilateral accessory cleidohyoid in a human cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark ME

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During routine anatomical dissection of the infrahyoid region, a muscle was found bilaterally originating from the sternal end of clavicle and inserting into the hyoid bone. The muscle coursed parallel and lateral to the sternohyoid muscle. The muscle was found in the presence of an intact omohyoid, thus being classified as an accessory cleidohyoid (cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle. While other authors have reported the presence of a unilateral cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle, to our knowledge this is the first case of a bilateral cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle in the medical literature. Anatomical variations of the infrahyoid muscles may have functional, diagnostic, surgical and pathological implications.

  4. Detection and sequence analysis of accessory gene regulator genes of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ananda Chitra; Jayanthy, C.; Nagarajan, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP) is the major pathogenic species of dogs involved in a wide variety of skin and soft tissue infections. The accessory gene regulator (agr) locus of Staphylococcus aureus has been extensively studied, and it influences the expression of many virulence genes. It encodes a two-component signal transduction system that leads to down-regulation of surface proteins and up-regulation of secreted proteins during in vitro growth of S. aureus. The objecti...

  5. Data set for the proteomic inventory and quantitative analysis of chicken eggshell matrix proteins during the primary events of eggshell mineralization and the active growth phase of calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Marie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chicken eggshell is a biomineral composed of 95% calcite calcium carbonate mineral and of 3.5% organic matrix proteins. The assembly of mineral and its structural organization is controlled by its organic matrix. In a recent study [1], we have used quantitative proteomic, bioinformatic and functional analyses to explore the distribution of 216 eggshell matrix proteins at four key stages of shell mineralization defined as: (1 widespread deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC, (2 ACC transformation into crystalline calcite aggregates, (3 formation of larger calcite crystal units and (4 rapid growth of calcite as columnar structure with preferential crystal orientation. The current article detailed the quantitative analysis performed at the four stages of shell mineralization to determine the proteins which are the most abundant. Additionally, we reported the enriched GO terms and described the presence of 35 antimicrobial proteins equally distributed at all stages to keep the egg free of bacteria and of 81 proteins, the function of which could not be ascribed.

  6. Growth of chamaecyparis lawsoniana nursery trees with different levels of covering and substrate mineral fertilization / Crescimento de mudas de chamaecyparis lawsoniana em diferentes níveis de adubação mineral do substrato e em cobertura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two simultaneous experiments were accomplished in the Nursery of Ornamental Plants of the Federal University of Paraná State with the objective of evaluating the effect of mineral fertilization on the growth of nursery trees of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana planted directly in the field and in individual packings. The experimental design was the completely randomized with five combinations of NPK 4-30-10 + urea, in grams (0 + 0; 30 + 10; 60 + 20; 90 + 30 and 120 + 40 for the field and 0 + 0; 10 + 4; 20 + 8; 30 + 12 and 40 + 16 for the packings and four replications. The growth of the plants was observed during one year and the height of plants and the diameter of the trunks were evaluated each two months. The fertilization in covering in the field did not stimulate the growth of the plants. The substrate fertilization promoted significantly higher growth of plants in height and diameter of trunks in the period from September to May. The trunk diameter was more influenced, demonstrating that the secondary growth of the plant is more stimulated by the fertilization. The plant growth in the field was greater than the plant growth in individual packings.Foram realizados dois experimentos simultâneos no Viveiro de Plantas Ornamentais da Universidade Federal do Paraná com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação mineral sobre o crescimento de mudas de Chamaecyparis lawsoniana plantadas diretamente no campo e em recipientes individuais. Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado com cinco combinações de NPK (4-30-10 mais uréia, em gramas, (0 + 0; 30 + 10; 60 + 20; 90 + 30 e 120 + 40, respectivamente para o campo e 0 + 0; 10 + 4; 20 + 8; 30 + 12 e 40 + 16, respectivamente para os recipientes e quatro repetições. O crescimento das plantas foi observado durante um ano, realizando-se avaliações de altura da muda e diâmetro do tronco a cada dois meses. A adubação em cobertura a campo não estimulou o crescimento das mudas. A aduba

  7. Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenham, Julie

    This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice.

  8. INTERACTION BETWEEN DIETARY MINERAL AND PHYTASE ON BIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF JAPANESE FLOUNDER, Paralichthys olivaceus. PART I. GROWTH, FEED INTAKE, AND WHOLE BODY MINERAL CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of dietary calcium (Ca, inorganic phosphorus (IP, and phytase (P supplementation in marine fish, a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design was arranged to observe the interrelationship between dietary Ca and IP with the presence of dietary phytase. Two levels of dietary Ca at 0% and 0.2% combined with either 0% or 0.25% of dietary IP and either with 0 and 2,000 FTU phytase/kg diet, respectively to formulate eight experimental diets. SPI-based diet was used as basal diet and the sources of Ca, IP, and phytase were similar to those used in the previous experiment. Juvenile Japanese flounder with initial body weight around 0.6 g was fed the test diets. After 30 days of feeding trial, the results showed that both dietary IP and phytase, but not dietary Ca significantly enhanced the growth and feed intake. The highest growth was achieved in fish fed a diet containing the Ca, IP, and phytase supplement among groups. Fish fed diet without the three dietary supplements had the lowest SGR and did not significantly improve by supplementing dietary Ca. Feed intake (FI and was significantly influenced by dietary IP and phytase, not dietary Ca while feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly affected by all dietary treatments. Interaction effect was detected between dietary Ca and IP, between dietary IP and P on FCR. Total phosphorus content in whole body was significantly increased by supplementing all dietary treatments which was highest in fish fed 0.25 IP/0.2 Ca/P. Significant interaction was observed between dietary IP and P on this parameter. Whole body Ca content was significantly improved by either dietary IP or Ca and not dietary P. As conclusion even without inorganic Ca supplement, dietary IP at level of 0.25% or 2,000 FTU phytase/kg diet could enhance growth and FI of fish as well as whole body phosphorus content of juvenile Japanese flounder when diet basal contained organic Ca around 1.2%.

  9. [An accessory muscle and additional variants of the forearm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, G; Zech, M

    1977-01-01

    A report is given on an accessory muscle of the forearm. The muscle originates from the medial epicondyle and the fascia of the forearm and inserts into the pisiform bone and retinaculum. The accessory muscle has a great similarity with the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle.

  10. 21 CFR 884.1175 - Endometrial suction curette and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endometrial suction curette and accessories. 884... Diagnostic Devices § 884.1175 Endometrial suction curette and accessories. (a) Identification. An endometrial suction curette is a device used to remove material from the uterus and from the mucosal lining of the...

  11. High association between accessory soleus muscle and achilles tendonopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, Michael D.; Gordon, Andrew G.; Blebea, Judy S.; Dalinka, Murray K. [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-12-15

    This study investigated the association between accessory soleus muscle and abnormalities of the Achilles tendon. The authors reviewed 15 consecutive cases with a diagnosis of accessory soleus muscle from a computerized database of ankle magnetic resonance (MR) examinations reported between January 1998 and January 2007. On review, two cases were eliminated because of an incorrect initial diagnosis: One patient had a low lying soleus attachment to the Achilles tendon, while the other had a prominent flexor hallucis longus tendon partially obliterating Kager's fat. The remaining 13 cases with accessory soleus muscles were evaluated for Achilles tendon abnormalities. There were 13 cases of accessory soleus muscles in 11 patients; two patients had bilateral accessory soleus muscles (the only study patients with bilateral MR examinations in our sample). There were five male and six female patients ranging from 15 to 81 years of age (mean 48). There were nine cases (69.2%) in which Achilles tendonopathy was associated with accessory soleus muscle, including tendonopathy of each Achilles tendon in the two patients with bilateral accessory muscles. In our small patient population, there was a high association between accessory soleus muscle and Achilles tendonopathy. (orig.)

  12. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. 876... Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. (1) A peritoneal dialysis system and... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After...

  13. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive...

  14. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves, fittings, and accessories. 98.25-40 Section 98... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  15. Brugada syndrome in a patient with accessory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodegas, A I; Arana, J I; Vitoria, Y; Arriandiaga, J R; Barrenetxea, J I

    2002-01-01

    Brugada syndrome in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. We report a 32-year-old man with orthodromic atrioventricular (AV) reciprocating tachycardia using a right posterior accessory pathway. However, his ECG showed ST segment elevation in leads V1 to V3. After successful radiofrequency ablation of his accessory pathway a cardioverter defibrillator was implanted.

  16. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. 884.2740 Section 884.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Monitoring Devices § 884.2740 Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  17. [Occurrence and structure of accessory adrenal glands in Wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabedal, P E; Partenheimer, U

    1983-01-01

    In complete series of histological sections through the entire abdomen of one normal Wistar-rat, one untreated and two bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive Wistar-rats accessory suprarenal glands were found in each case. The detailed findings in the various groups of animals investigated were as follows: (1) In the normal animal 10 accessory suprarenal glands were present. They consisted of tiny aggregates of cortical cells and were surrounded by a thin layer of collageneous fibers. The diameters of the accessory suprarenal complexes were in the order of 0.3 mm. (2) In the untreated, spontaneously hypertensive rat three accessory suprarenal glands were found. However, in contrast to what was seen in the normal rat, these complexes were larger and had diameters of up to 1 mm. Some of these accessory suprarenal glands consisted almost exclusively of small, chromophobe cells, whereas in others a rim of such cells was seen to surround a central core of larger and more acidophile cortical cells. There were few and collapsed capillaries. (3) In the bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive rats three, respectively four, accessory suprarenal glands were found. They were situated in the retroperitoneum and partly within the adipose capsule of the kidney but never in the place of the exstirpated main suprarenal glands. In one case an accessory gland was found within the fibrous capsule of the kidney and seen to compress the renal parenchyma. In the bilaterally adrenalectomized animals the average diameters of the accessory glands were larger than in the other groups reaching values of up to 5 mm. At least in both animals one of the accessory glands had a diameter comparable to that of the normal suprarenal gland of an untreated animal. The capillaries were dilated and their number was increased in comparison to what was seen in the other groups. In certain regions the cortical tissue of the accessory glands had an appearance resembling

  18. Changes in bone mineral density, body composition, and lipid metabolism during growth hormone (GH) treatment in children with GH deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); M.A. Engels (Melanie); G.J.M. Boerma (Geert); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAdults with childhood onset GH deficiency (GHD) have reduced bone mass, increased fat mass, and disorders of lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, body composition, and lipid metabolism in

  19. The scolopidial accessory organ in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Multiple mechanosensory organs form the subgenual organ complex in orthopteroid insects, located in the proximal tibia. In several Ensifera (Orthoptera), a small chordotonal organ, the so-called accessory organ, is the most posterior part of this sensory complex. In order to document the presence of this accessory organ among the Ensifera, the chordotonal sensilla and their innervation in the posterior tibia of two species of Jerusalem crickets (Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus) is described. The sensory structures were stained by axonal tracing. Scolopidial sensilla occur in the posterior subgenual organ and the accessory organ in all leg pairs. The accessory organ contains 10-17 scolopidial sensilla. Both groups of sensilla are commonly spatially separated. However, in few cases neuronal fibres occurred between both organs. The two sensillum groups are considered as separate organs by the general spatial separation and innervation by different nerve branches. A functional role for mechanoreception is considered: since the accessory organ is located closely under the cuticle, sensilla may be suited to detect vibrations transferred over the leg's surface. This study extends the known taxa with an accessory organ, which occurs in several taxa of Ensifera. Comparative neuroanatomy thus suggests that the accessory organ may be conserved at least in Tettigoniidea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  1. Successful treatment of accessory breast cancer with endocrine therapy().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Xi; Guo, Shu-Li; Han, Li-Na

    Accessory breast cancers in males are extremely rare, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. In this paper, an 87-year-old male patient was diagnosed with an accessory breast cancer by means of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and immunohistochemistry based on needle biopsy, and has undergone successful resection and postoperative adjuvant endocrine therapy. He was the oldest male patient with an accessory breast cancer reported in the Chinese Hospital Knowledge Database and PubMed literature from 1975 to 2015.

  2. Bone mineralization is regulated by signaling cross talk between molecular factors of local and systemic origin: the role of fibroblast growth factor 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir-Koren, Rony; Livshits, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Body phosphate homeostasis is regulated by a hormonal counter-balanced intestine-bone-kidney axis. The major systemic hormones involved in this axis are parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D, and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). FGF23, produced almost exclusively by the osteocytes, is a phosphaturic hormone that plays a major role in regulation of the bone remodeling process. Remodeling composite components, bone mineralization and resorption cycles create a continuous influx-efflux loop of the inorganic phosphate (Pi) through the skeleton. This "bone Pi loop," which is formed, is controlled by local and systemic factors according to phosphate homeostasis demands. Although FGF23 systemic actions in the kidney, and for the production of PTH and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D are well established, its direct involvement in bone metabolism is currently poorly understood. This review presents the latest available evidence suggesting two aspects of FGF23 bone local activity: (a) Regulation of FGF23 production by both local and systemic factors. The suggested local factors include extracellular levels of Pi and pyrophosphate (PPi), (the Pi/PPi ratio), and another osteocyte-derived protein, sclerostin. In addition, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D, synthesized locally by bone cells, may contribute to regulation of FGF23 production. The systemic control is achieved via PTH and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D endocrine functions. (b) FGF23 acts as a local agent, directly affecting bone mineralization. We support the assumption that under balanced physiological conditions, sclerostin, by para- autocrine signaling, upregulates FGF23 production by the osteocyte. FGF23, in turn, acts as a mineralization inhibitor, by stimulating the generation of the major mineralization antagonist-PPi.

  3. Fluorescent minerals--A potential source of UV protection and visible light for the growth of green algae and cyanobacteria in extreme cosmic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omairi, Tareq; Wainwright, Milton

    2015-07-01

    We propose that green algae (Chlorella variabilis and Dunaliella tertiolecta) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus and Nostoc commune) can grow inside fluorescent rock minerals which convert damaging UV light to visible light, thereby allowing these organisms to survive and thrive in UV-rich environments without (or with limited) visible light, which would otherwise be inimical to them. The four microorganisms were incubated inside fluorescent rocks composed of fluorite, calcite and pyrite. The resultant growth was then measured following exposure to UV radiation, with the use of optical density and measurement of chlorophyll concentration. Results show that the microorganisms were shielded from harmful UV in these semi-transparent rocks, while at the same time benefiting from the fact that the minerals converted UV to visible light; this have been shown by a statistically significant increase in their growth, which although lower than when the cells were incubated in sunlight, was significantly higher than in controls incubated in the dark. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of epidermal leaf mining by the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella) on the growth, physiology, and leaf longevity of quaking aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Diane; DeFoliart, Linda; Doak, Patricia; Schneiderheinze, Jenny

    2008-08-01

    The aspen leaf miner, Phyllocnistis populiella, feeds on the contents of epidermal cells on both top (adaxial) and bottom (abaxial) surfaces of quaking aspen leaves, leaving the photosynthetic tissue of the mesophyll intact. This type of feeding is taxonomically restricted to a small subset of leaf mining insects but can cause widespread plant damage during outbreaks. We studied the effect of epidermal mining on aspen growth and physiology during an outbreak of P. populiella in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Experimental reduction of leaf miner density across two sites and 3 years significantly increased annual aspen growth rates relative to naturally mined controls. Leaf mining damage was negatively related to leaf longevity. Leaves with heavy mining damage abscised 4 weeks earlier, on average, than leaves with minimal mining damage. Mining damage to the top and bottom surfaces of leaves had different effects on physiology. Mining on the top surface of the leaf had no significant effect on photosynthesis or conductance and was unrelated to leaf stable C isotope ratio (delta(13)C). Mining damage to the bottom leaf surface, where stomata are located, had significant negative effects on net photosynthesis and water vapor conductance. Percent bottom mining was positively related to leaf delta(13)C. Taken together, the data suggest that the primary mechanism for the reduction of photosynthesis by epidermal leaf mining by P. populiella is the failure of stomata to open normally on bottom-mined leaves.

  5. On the effect of aqueous Ca on magnesite growth - Insight into trace element inhibition of carbonate mineral precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Ulf-Niklas; Jordan, Guntram; Lindner, Michael; Reul, Alexander; Schott, Jacques; Oelkers, Eric H.

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by the strong effect of aqueous Mg on calcite growth rates, this study used hydrothermal atomic force microscopy (HAFM) and hydrothermal mixed-flow reactor (HMFR) experiments to explore the effect of aqueous Ca on magnesite growth kinetics at 100 °C and pH ∼7.7. Obtuse step velocities on (1 0 4) surfaces during magnesite growth were measured to be 4 ± 3 nm/s at fluid saturation states, equal to the ion activity quotient divided by the equilibrium constant for the magnesite hydrolysis reaction, of 86-117. These rates do not vary systematically with aqueous Ca concentration up to 3 × 10-3 mol/kg. Magnesite growth rates determined by HAFM are found to be negligibly affected by the presence of aqueous Ca at these saturation states and are largely consistent with those previously reported in aqueous Ca-free systems by Saldi et al. (2009) and Gautier et al. (2015). Similarly, magnesite growth rates measured by HMFR exhibit no systematic variation on aqueous Ca concentrations. Rates in this study, however, were extended to higher degrees of fluid supersaturation with respect to magnesite than previous studies. All measured HMFR rates can be accurately described taking account the combined effects of both the spiral growth and two dimensional nucleation/growth mechanisms. Despite the lack of a clear effect of aqueous Ca on magnesite growth rates, Raman spectroscopy confirmed the incorporation of up to 8 mol percent of Ca2+ into the growing magnesite structure.

  6. AcCNET (Accessory Genome Constellation Network): comparative genomics software for accessory genome analysis using bipartite networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Val F; Baquero, Fernando; de la Cruz, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2017-01-15

    AcCNET (Accessory genome Constellation Network) is a Perl application that aims to compare accessory genomes of a large number of genomic units, both at qualitative and quantitative levels. Using the proteomes extracted from the analysed genomes, AcCNET creates a bipartite network compatible with standard network analysis platforms. AcCNET allows merging phylogenetic and functional information about the concerned genomes, thus improving the capability of current methods of network analysis. The AcCNET bipartite network opens a new perspective to explore the pangenome of bacterial species, focusing on the accessory genome behind the idiosyncrasy of a particular strain and/or population.

  7. Design of a marine sediment trap and accessories

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Janakiraman, G.; Fernando, V.; Venkatesan, R.; Rajaraman, V.S.

    The marine sediment trap and the mooring accessories were developed indigenously and were used successfully for the collection of settling sediments in the Arabian Sea The experience gained in using sediment trap and further improvements...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... disk, guard for an abrasive disk, abrasive point, polishing agent strip, and polishing wheel....

  9. ISO and EIGA standards for cryogenic vessels and accessories

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The EIGA/WG 6’s scope is cryogenic vessels and accessories, including their design, material compatibility, operational requirements and periodical inspection. The specific responsibilities include monitoring international standardization (ISO, CEN) and regulations (UN, TPED, PED...

  10. Giant Accessory Right-Sided Suprarenal Spleen in Thalassaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An accessory spleen is defined as ectopic splenic tissue that develops due to failure of fusion of cells during embryonic development as they migrate from the midline to the left upper quadrant. While benign, complications may arise which include trauma, torsion, or infarction of the ectopic tissue. Additionally, patients who have had a splenectomy secondary to treatment for previous pathology such as a haematological malignancy or idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura may experience persistent symptoms due to the accessory splenic tissue. The presence of an accessory spleen is therefore of significant diagnostic and therapeutic importance. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case is the second and largest reported case of a giant right suprarenal accessory spleen and highlights the difficulty in differentiation of these masses from malignant adrenal tumours.

  11. Influence of organic ligands on the crystal growth of magnesite (MgCO3) : Mechanistic aspects and implications for the mineral sequestration of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Q.; Jordan, G.; Bénézeth, P.; Schott, J.

    2010-12-01

    The efficiency of Mg-silicates mineral carbonation processes is limited by the slow dissolution of silicate minerals and subsequent formation of a stable Mg-carbonate phase. It is therefore necessary to enhance the whole process to make it economically and energetically viable. It has recently been suggested that organic ligands, whose ability to significantly enhance the rate of dissolution of silicate minerals is well known, could be used in this purpose (Park et al., 2003). Studies on calcite have shown that most organic ligands have an inhibitory effect on its crystal growth (e.g Reddy & Hoch, 2001). However, their effect has not yet been assessed on Mg-carbonates precipitation, and might be different due to the highly hydrated state of the Mg2+ ion in aqueous solution. We will present results of magnesite crystal growth experiments performed in mixed-flow reactors (MFR) as well as under an Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope (HAFM). Three different types of ligands have been chosen for their different chemical properties and chelating effect: Oxalate, Citrate and EDTA. Experiments have been performed at temperatures between 80 and 120°C, alkaline pH, and dissolved CO2 concentration ~ 0.02 mol/L. Chemical speciation was calculated for all experiments, thus allowing to monitor saturation states and to determine magnesite growth rates as a function of solution chemistry. MFR experiments results show that the addition of variable amounts of Oxalate to the solutions leads to a limited decrease of the precipitation rate (up to ~30% decrease with 10-2 M Oxalate). Nonetheless, another set of experiments, performed at constant Oxalate concentration and changing saturation state, revealed an increase of the kinetic constant of magnesite precipitation. Furthermore, HAFM experiments, performed at constant saturation states with Oxalate, Citrate and EDTA, showed an increase of the kinetic constant of the magnesite step advancement rate, which is positively correlated to

  12. Regulation of skeletal growth and mineral acquisition by the GH/IGF-1 axis: Lessons from mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakar, Shoshana; Isaksson, Olle

    2016-06-01

    The growth hormone (GH) and its downstream mediator, the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), construct a pleotropic axis affecting growth, metabolism, and organ function. Serum levels of GH/IGF-1 rise during pubertal growth and associate with peak bone acquisition, while during aging their levels decline and associate with bone loss. The GH/IGF-1 axis was extensively studied in numerous biological systems including rodent models and cell cultures. Both hormones act in an endocrine and autocrine/paracrine fashion and understanding their distinct and overlapping contributions to skeletal acquisition is still a matter of debate. GH and IGF-1 exert their effects on osteogenic cells via binding to their cognate receptor, leading to activation of an array of genes that mediate cellular differentiation and function. Both hormones interact with other skeletal regulators, such as sex-steroids, thyroid hormone, and parathyroid hormone, to facilitate skeletal growth and metabolism. In this review we summarized several rodent models of the GH/IGF-1 axis and described key experiments that shed new light on the regulation of skeletal growth by the GH/IGF-1 axis.

  13. Effect of recombinant human growth hormone on changes in height, bone mineral density, and body composition over 1-2 years in children with Hurler or Hunter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgreen, Lynda E; Thomas, William; Orchard, Paul J; Whitley, Chester B; Miller, Bradley S

    2014-02-01

    Patients with Hurler or Hunter syndrome typically have moderate to severe growth deficiencies despite therapy with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and/or enzyme replacement therapy. It is unknown whether treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) can improve growth in these children. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of hGH on growth, bone mineral density (BMD), and body composition in children with Hurler or Hunter syndrome enrolled in a longitudinal observational study. The difference in annual change in outcomes between hGH treated and untreated subjects was estimated by longitudinal regression models that adjusted for age, Tanner stage, and sex where appropriate. We report on 23 participants who completed at least 2 annual study visits (10 [43%] treated with hGH): Hurler syndrome (n=13) average age of 9.8 ± 3.1 years (range 5.3-13.6 years; 54% female) and Hunter syndrome (n=10) average age of 12.0 ± 2.7 years (range 7.0-17.0 years; 0% female). As a group, children with Hurler or Hunter syndrome treated with hGH had no difference in annual change in height (growth velocity) compared to those untreated with hGH. Growth velocity in hGH treated individuals ranged from -0.4 to 8.1cm/year and from 0.3 to 6.6 cm/year in the untreated individuals. Among children with Hunter syndrome, 100% (N=4) of those treated but only 50% of those untreated with hGH had an annual increase in height standard deviation score (SDS). Of the individuals treated with hGH, those with GHD had a trend towards higher annualized growth velocity compared to those without GHD (6.5 ± 1.9 cm/year vs. 3.5 ± 2.1cm/year; p=.050). Children treated with hGH had greater annual gains in BMD and lean body mass. In conclusion, although as a group we found no significant difference in growth between individuals treated versus not treated with hGH, individual response was highly variable and we are unable to predict who will respond to treatment. Thus

  14. Review of accessory tragus with highlights of its associated syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Bahar; Khachemoune, Amor

    2014-12-01

    Accessory tragus is a developmental defect involving malformation of part of the external ear. It is a moderately rare congenital condition reported in 1858 by Birkett for the first time. Histological features of accessory tragus include a thin layer of stratum corneum with a rugated epidermis, presence of eccrine glands, and irregular spatial positioning of vellus hair follicles accompanied by sebaceous glands. Accessory tragus is commonly a limited deformity; however, it can be a sign of associated congenital syndromes. It has been shown to be associated with Goldenhar syndrome, Townes-Brocks syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, VACTERL syndrome, and Wolf-Hirschhron syndrome. Surgical excision, the most common form of management of accessory tragus lesions, typically leads to a positive outcome. An extensive search was performed using pubmed.gov, Embase, MedLine, and Googlescholar.com using key words: accessory tragus, congenital malformations of ear, first branchial arch, and embryology. In this paper, we review the clinical and histological presentation, associated syndromes, management, and outcome of accessory tragus.

  15. Geochronology of accessory allanite and monazite in the Barrovian metamorphic sequence of the Central Alps, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Kate R.; Rubatto, Daniela; Hermann, Jörg; Engi, Martin; Amelin, Yuri

    2017-08-01

    The formation of accessory allanite, monazite and rutile in amphibolite-facies rocks across the Barrovian sequence of the Central Alps (Switzerland) was investigated with a combination of petrography and geochemistry and related to the known structural and metamorphic evolution of the Lepontine dome. For each of these minerals a specific approach was adopted for geochronology, taking into account internal zoning and U-Th-Pb systematics. In-situ U-Th-Pb dating of allanite and monazite by ion microprobe revealed systematic trends for the ages of main deformation and temperature in the Lepontine dome. Isotope dilution TIMS dating of rutile returns dates in line with this picture, but is complicated by inheritance of pre-Alpine rutile and possible Pb loss during Alpine metamorphism. Allanite is generally a prograde mineral that is aligned along the main foliation of the samples and found also as inclusions in garnet. Prograde allanite formation is further documented by rutile inclusions with formation temperatures significantly lower than the maximum T recorded by the rock mineral assemblage. Allanite ages vary from 31.3 ± 1.1 Ma in orthogneisses in the East to 31.7 ± 1.1 Ma for a Bündnerschiefer and 28.5 ± 1.3 Ma for a metaquartzite in the central area, to 26.8 ± 1.1 Ma in the western part of the Lepontine dome. These ages are interpreted to date the main deformation events (nappe stacking and isoclinal deformation of the nappe stack), close to peak pressure conditions. The timing of the thermal peak in the Lepontine dome is recorded in monazite that grew at the expense of allanite and after a main episode of garnet growth at temperatures of 620 °C. Monazite in the central area yields an age of 22.0 ± 0.3 Ma, which is indistinguishable from the age of 21.7 ± 0.4 Ma from a metapelite in the western part of the Lepontine dome. In the central area some of the classical kyanite-staurolite-garnet schists directly underlying the metamorphosed Mesozoic sediments

  16. Effects of microcystin-LR, cylindrospermopsin and a microcystin-LR/cylindrospermopsin mixture on growth, oxidative stress and mineral content in lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Marisa; Azevedo, Joana; Pinto, Edgar; Neves, Joana; Campos, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-06-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are documented worldwide as an emerging environmental concern. Recent studies support the hypothesis that microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) produce toxic effects in crop plants. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an important commercial leafy vegetable that supplies essential elements for human nutrition; thus, the study of its sensitivity to MC-LR, CYN and a MC-LR/CYN mixture is of major relevance. This study aimed to assess the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations (1, 10 and 100 µg/L) of MC-LR, CYN and a MC-LR/CYN mixture on growth, antioxidant defense system and mineral content in lettuce plants. In almost all treatments, an increase in root fresh weight was obtained; however, the fresh weight of leaves was significantly decreased in plants exposed to 100 µg/L concentrations of each toxin and the toxin mixture. Overall, GST activity was significantly increased in roots, contrary to GPx activity, which decreased in roots and leaves. The mineral content in lettuce leaves changed due to its exposure to cyanotoxins; in general, the mineral content decreased with MC-LR and increased with CYN, and apparently these effects are time and concentration-dependent. The effects of the MC-LR/CYN mixture were almost always similar to the single cyanotoxins, although MC-LR seems to be more toxic than CYN. Our results suggest that lettuce plants in non-early stages of development are able to cope with lower concentrations of MC-LR, CYN and the MC-LR/CYN mixture; however, higher concentrations (100 µg/L) can affect both lettuce yield and nutritional quality.

  17. Effects of dietary iron levels on growth performance, hematological status, liver mineral concentration, fecal microflora, and diarrhea incidence in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyung; Shinde, Prashant; Choi, Jaeyong; Park, Munsu; Ohh, Seho; Kwon, Ill Kyong; Pak, Son Il; Chae, Byung Jo

    2008-12-01

    An experiment was conducted in weanling pigs (Landrace x Yorkshire x Duroc) to evaluate the effects of dietary iron levels on growth performance, hematological status, liver mineral concentration, fecal microflora, and diarrhea incidence. One hundred and forty-four piglets (initial BW 5.96 +/- 0.93 kg) were randomly allotted to one of the four dietary treatments on the basis of their body weights. The basal diets for each phase (phase 1: days 0 to 14; phase 2: days 15 to 28) were formulated to contain minimal Fe and then supplemented with gradient levels of Fe (0, 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg) from ferrous sulfate. Feces were collected on days 14 and 28 and used for the analysis of microbial count and trace minerals. Eight piglets from each treatment (two piglets per pen) were bled at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days to determine their hematological and plasma Fe status. In addition, two piglets from each pen (eight piglets per treatment) were killed at days 14 and 28 to determine liver mineral concentrations. Pigs fed supplemental 250 ppm Fe showed lowest overall average daily gain (linear, p = 0.036). Diarrhea incidence was linearly increased (p supplemental Fe level. On days 14, coliform population in normal feces was increased (p = 0.036) linearly with supplemental Fe level, and there were higher (p = 0.043) coliform population and lower (p Supplemental Fe linearly (p pigs and also increased (linear and quadratic, p dietary iron levels in piglets improved their hematological status and liver Fe content; however, higher dietary Fe levels might also be associated with the increased diarrhea incidence.

  18. Growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, calciotropic hormones and bone mineral density in young patients with chronic viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Bogdan; Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Niedziołka, Danuta; Borgiel-Marek, Halina; Nowak, Mariusz; Siemińska, Lucyna; Ostrowska, Zofia; Głogowska-Szeląg, Joanna; Piecha, Tomasz; Otremba, Łukasz; Holona, Karol; Kazimierczak, Aleksandra; Wierzbicka-Chmiel, Joanna; Kos-Kudła, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver disease caused by HBV and HCV infections, due to its great prevalence and serious medical consequences, is at the present time a significant clinical problem. An impaired liver function can provoke severe disturbances in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, and consequently in the bone metabolism resulting in hepatic osteodystrophy. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are significant differences in bone mineral density (BMD) and/or circadian levels of hormones connected with bone metabolism and bone turnover markers in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Circadian levels (AUC, area under the curve) of GH, IGF-I, IGFBP-3, osteocalcin (BGLAP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), PTH, 25(OH)D, total calcium and total phosporus were measured in the blood of members of the study group (n = 80). BMD was assessed using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method of the L2-L4 lumbar spine. Data was compared to that of healthy individuals (n = 40). BMD (1.05 g/cm3 vs. 1.20 g/cm3), total calcium concentration (2.20 mmol/L vs. 2.45 mmol/L), total phosphorus concentration (1.06 mmol/L vs. 1.33 mmol/L), IGF-I (AUC 3,982.32 ng/mL vs. 5,167.61 ng/mL), IGFBP-3 (AUC 725.09 ng/L vs. 944.35 ng/L), 25(OH)D (AUC 356.35 ng/mL vs. 767.53 ng/mL) and BGLAP (AUC 161.39 ng/L vs. 298 ng/L) were lower in the study group. GH (AUC 88.3 ng/mL vs. 48.04 ng/mL), iPTH (AUC 1,201.94 pg/mL vs. 711.73 pg/mL) and ICTP (AUC 104.30 μg/L vs. 54.49 μg/L) were higher in patients with hepatitis. Positive correlations were noted between bone mineral density and IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and BGLAP levels. Chronic viral hepatitis causes a decrease in bone mineral density. Impaired liver function disrupts homeostasis of the calcium- vitamin D-parathyroid hormone axis and provokes secondary hyperparathyroidism. Chronic viral hepatitis induces a decrease in the synthesis of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and an increase in GH secretion. Hepatic osteodystrophy is probably caused by both

  19. Growth factors in promoting the mineralization of dental pulp stem cells%生长因子对牙髓干细胞的矿化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕陶红

    2011-01-01

    健康牙髓中含有的具有多向分化、高效增殖和自我更新潜能的牙髓干细胞,在牙髓损伤后牙本质修复再生和牙/骨组织工程中具有至关重要的作用.本文就牙髓干细胞的矿化潜能、生长因子及其在促牙髓干细胞矿化和作用机制方面的研究进展作一综述.%Stem cells in the healthy dental pulp possess multi-lineage differentiation capability, high proliferation rate and self-renewal capability, which are recognized being vital to the dentin regeneration after injuries and tooth/bone tissue engineering. Growth factors are a kind of cell factors that stimulate the growth activities of cells. This review is aimed at elaborating the role and mechanism of growth factors in promoting the mineralization of dental pulp stem cells.

  20. Lower fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in young adults with Crohn disease as a possible secondary compensatory effect on the disturbance of bone and mineral metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Konstantinos A; Orfanidou, Timoklia I; Vlychou, Marianna K; Kapsoritakis, Andreas N; Tsezou, Aspasia; Malizos, Konstantinos N; Potamianos, Spyros P

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is a bone-derived circulating phosphaturic factor that decreases serum concentration of phosphate and vitamin D, suggested to actively participate in a complex renal-gastrointestinal-skeletal axis. Serum FGF-23 concentrations, as well as various other laboratory parameters involved in bone homeostasis, were measured and analyzed with regard to various diseases and patients' characteristics in 44 patients with Crohn disease (CD) and 20 healthy controls (HCs) included in this cross-sectional study. Serum FGF-23 levels were significantly lower in patients with CD (900.42 ± 815.85pg/mL) compared with HC (1410.94 ± 1000.53pg/mL), p = 0.037. Further analyses suggested FGF-23 as a factor independent from various parameters including age (r = -0.218), body mass index (r = -0.115), 25-hydroxy vitamin D (r = 0.126), parathyroid hormone (r = 0.084), and bone mineral density (BMD) of hip and lumbar (r = 0.205 and r = 0.149, respectively). This observation remained even after multivariate analyses, exhibiting that BMD was not affected by FGF-23, although parameters such as age (p = 0.026), cumulative prednisolone dose (p vitamin D levels, showing no impact on BMD determination of young adults with CD. The downregulation of serum FGF-23 levels in CD appears as a secondary compensatory effect on the bone and mineral metabolism induced by chronic intestinal inflammation.

  1. Nuclear fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) isoforms inhibit bone marrow stromal cell mineralization through FGF23/FGFR/MAPK in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liping; Esliger, Alycia; Hurley, Marja M

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is responsible for phosphate wasting and the phenotypic changes observed in human diseases such as X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH). Targeted overexpression of nuclear high-molecular weight fibroblast growth factor 2 isoforms (HMW isoforms) in osteoblasts resulted in a transgenic mouse with phenotypic changes similar to XLH, including increased FGF23, hypophosphatemia, and rickets/osteomalacia. The goal of this study was to assess whether HMW isoforms also reduced mineralized bone formation via phosphate-independent effects in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) by modulating FGF23/FGF receptor (FGFR)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. To determine if decreased bone formation in BMSC cultures from HMW transgenic mice could be rescued by blocking this pathway, an FGF23 neutralizing antibody, the FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU5402 and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor PD98059 were used. FGF23 levels in the conditioned medium of HMW BMSC cultures were dramatically increased compared to BMSC from control (Vector) mice. Mineralized nodule formation was significantly decreased in HMW BMSC cultures compared with control cultures. The decreased nodule formation in HMW cultures was partially rescued by the FGF23 neutralizing antibody, SU5402 and PD98059. mRNA levels for the osteoblast-related genes, osteocalcin, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osterix, and the osteocyte-related gene dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1 (Dmp1) were significantly decreased in HMW cultures compared with control cultures, and the decreases were partially rescued by SU5402 or PD98059 treatment. Matrix-gla-protein (Mgp) mRNA was significantly higher in HMW cultures compared with control cultures, reduced by SU5402, but further increased by PD98059. Our results suggest that phosphate-independent effects of HMW isoforms in vitro may be directly mediated in part via FGF23 and that HMW isoforms signal via

  2. Investigation of the growth and development, essential oil and minerals content in two species of mint in hydroponics and aquaponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ghorbani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponic is the combined culture of fish and plants. This experiment was arranged as a factorial in the framework of completely randomized design with two factors of growing system (aquaponics and hydroponics and plant species (Mentha piperita and Mentha sativa with 3 replications. The results showed that most growth factors of the two species were higher in hydroponics compared to aquaponics. Aerial parts and root fresh and dry mass, leaf area and number of nodes were higher in hydroponics compared to aquaponic culture. SPAD index was influenced by the culture system and its value was higher in hydroponic system. Essential oil content of M. sativa was higher in hydroponics and of Mentha piperita was higher in aquaponics. Lower amount of Mn and Mg in Mentha sativa shoots and N, P, Mg and Mn in Mentha piperita was the probable reason for growth reduction of plants in aquaponics as compared to hydroponics.

  3. Characterization and reconstitution of the nucleational complex responsible for mineral formation by growth plate cartilage matrix vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L N; Genge, B R; Sauer, G R; Wuthier, R E

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that matrix vesicles (MV) have an acid-labile nucleationally active core (ALNAC) essential for mineral formation; current studies were aimed at characterizing and reconstituting ALNAC. SDS-PAGE and FTIR analyses revealed the presence of lipids, proteins and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) in ALNAC. Extraction with chloroform-methanol reduced, but did not destroy MV calcification; treatment with chloroform-methanol-HCl destroyed all activity. This acidic solvent extracted the annexins, (phosphatidylserine (PS)-dependent Ca(2+)-binding proteins), and dissociated PS-Ca(2+)-Pi complexes present in the MV. Attempts to reconstitute ALNAC, centered on the Ca(2+)-PS-Pi complex. Various pure lipids, electrolytes and proteins were combined to form a synthetic nucleationally active complex (SNAC), analyzing the rate of Ca2+ uptake. Inclusion of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or sphingomyelin (SM) with PS, or Mg2+ or Zn2+ with Ca2+, strongly inhibited activity; incorporation of annexin V increased SNAC activity. Thus, approaching from either deconstruction or reconstruction, it appears that ALNAC is composed of ACP complexed with PS and the annexins. Other lipids, proteins and electrolytes modulate its activity. These findings also indicate how ALNAC must be formed in vivo.

  4. Growth trends of beech and Norway spruce in Switzerland: The role of nitrogen deposition, ozone, mineral nutrition and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Rihm, Beat

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the effects of nitrogen deposition, ozone and climate on tree growth is important for planning sustainable forest management also in the future. The complex interplay of all these factors cannot be covered by experiments. Here we use observational data of mature forests for studying associations of various biotic and abiotic factors with tree growth. A 30year time series on basal area increment of Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies Karst. in Switzerland was analyzed to evaluate the development in relation to a variety of predictors. Basal area increment of Fagus sylvatica has clearly decreased during the observation period. For Picea abies no trend was observed. N deposition of more than 26 (beech) or 20-22kgNha(-1)year(-1) (Norway spruce) was negatively related with basal area increment, in beech stronger than in Norway spruce. High N deposition loads and low foliar K concentrations in Fagus were correlated with increased drought sensitivity. High air temperatures in winter were negatively related with basal area increment in Norway spruce in general and in beech at high N:Mg ratio or high N deposition while on an average the relation was positive in beech. Fructification in beech was negatively related to basal area increment. The increase of fructification observed during the last decades contributed thus to the growth decrease. Ozone flux was significantly and negatively correlated with basal area increment both in beech and Norway spruce. The results show clear non-linear effects of N deposition on stem increment of European beech and Norway spruce as well as strong interactions with climate which have contributed to the growth decrease in beech and may get more important in future. The results not only give suggestions for ecological processes but also show the potential of an integral evaluation of observational data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth, Mineral Nutrition and Chlorogenic Acid Content of Lonicera confusa Seedlings Under Field Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI An-Dong; LI Qian; HUANG Jian-Guo; YUAN Ling

    2013-01-01

    Lonicera confusa,a traditional Chinese medicine herb for treating cold,flu,acute fever,and so forth,is often grown artificially in acidic soils and suffers from phosphorus (P) deficiency.A five-year field experiment was carried out to study the colonization rate,growth,nutrition,and chlorogenic acid content of Lonicera confusa seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi,Glomus etunicatum and Glomus intraradices.Before transplanting into a field,both AM-inoculated and uninoculated control plants were cultured in nursery beds.In the plants inoculated with the AM fungi,the colonization rate decreased linearly with time and a greater decrease was observed in the plants inoculated with G.intraradices than with G.etunicatum,while the AM colonization increased from 0% to 12.1% in the uninoculated control plants 5 years after transplanting.Plant height,crown diameter,number of new branches,and flower yield increased significantly by AM inoculation as compared to the uninoculated control.Phosphorus concentrations in leaves and flowers increased,and plant uptake of nutrients,e.g.,nitrogen (N),P,and potassium (K),was also enhanced significantly by AM inoculation.The Lonicera confusa seedlings had a better response to inoculation of G.intraradices than G.etunicatum in both growth and chlorogenic acid content in flowers.In contrast,both plant P uptake and P concentrations in leaves and flowers were similar between two fungal inoculations.The positive responses of Lonicera confusa to AM inoculation in growth,nutrient uptake,flowering,and chlorogenic acid content in flowers suggested that AM inoculation in nursery beds could promote the plant growth and increase chlorogenic acid content in flowers of Lonicera confusa when grown on acidic and P-deficient soils.

  6. Influence of modified transdermal hormone replacement therapy on the concentrations of hormones, growth factors, and bone mineral density in women with osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanosz, Staniaław; Zochowska, Ewa; Safranow, Krzysztof; Sieja, Krzysztof; Stanosz, Małgorzta

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic and therapeutic action of estrogens depends on their type, dosage, form, route of administration, and treatment-free interval during the therapeutic cycle. Hormone therapy is generally subclassified into 2 forms that differ in the type of hormones. In hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), estrogens and progesterone components do not differ in chemical structure and molecular mass from those naturally produced by the female organism. In hormonal supplementary therapy (HST), the estrogen and progestagen components do differ from the natural hormones in structure and mass. The aim of the study was to compare 2 kinds of hormonal therapy in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. These forms of therapy are modified transdermal HRT and orally given HST. The objective of this study was the estimation of sex hormone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), prolactin (PRL), osteocalcin, and procollagen concentration in serum as well as the degree of mineralization of the lumbar spine in women in the early postmenopausal period with osteopenia under different kinds of hormonal therapy. The study was conducted in 75 women with an average age of 52.4 +/- 3.5 years and with primary osteopenia, in the early postmenopausal period, who were randomly assigned to 3 groups depending on the form and route of administration of therapy: Group I (n = 25, control) was receiving placebo in the form of patches. Group II (n = 25) was treated with modified transdermal HRT. This group obtained micronized 17beta-estradiol at increasing-decreasing doses and progesterone in the second phase of the therapeutic cycle. Group III (n = 25) was receiving orally given HST and obtained Cyclo-Menorette (Wyeth, Munster, Germany). The therapeutic cycle in each group lasted 21 days, followed by a 7-day medication-free interval. Estradiol concentration in serum was increased 5-fold and estrone (E(1)) was increased about 11-fold in the group of women receiving orally given HST (P hormone was

  7. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  8. 屠前停用矿物质添加剂对猪生长性能、胴体品质和粪中矿物质排泄量的影响%Effect of Removing the Dietary Mineral Premix on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Fecal Mineral Concentration before Slaughter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼红梅; 武英; 郭建凤; 王诚; 张印; 王怀中

    2009-01-01

    屠前停用日粮中矿物质添加剂不影响猪的生长性能、胴体品质,同时还可降低饲料成本,减少粪中矿物质元素的排泄量,降低对环境的污染,是一安全、环保、节本增效的饲养技术.主要综述了这一技术的研究结果,为该技术应用推广提供参考.%Deleting the dietary mineral premix in late finishing pigs Would not affect growth performance, carcass traits and pork quality, at the same time it can decrease feed cost,fecal mineral content,environmental pollution.Omitting the dietary mineral premix before slaughter was secure, uncontaminated, lower cost and high benefit breeding practice.The article reviewed the effect of removing mineral premix from the diet of pre-slaughter pigs on growth performance, carcass characteristics, mineral metabolism in tissues, and fecal mineral excretion in order to provick a basis for application and popularization.

  9. ACCESSORY FISSURE OF RIGHT LUNG: A REPORT OF TWO CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Behera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Right lung is divided into upper (superior, middle and lower (Inferior lobes by an oblique and a horizontal fissure.Oblique fissure passes spirally from posterior border to inferior border deep into the lung separating the lower lobe from upper and middle lobes. A short horizontal fissure passes horizontally forwards from the oblique fissure at midaxillary line to meet the anterior border at 4th costochondral junction. This separates the upper lobe from the middle lobe. During routine dissection in 2010-11 undergraduate batch, we came across two cases of right lungs where an accessory fissure was extending horizontally backwards from the oblique fissure at mid axillary line towards the vertebral part of medial surface. In the 1st case, this accessory fissure was not meeting the normal horizontal fissure where as in the 2nd case it was meeting. This accessory fissure separates the lower lobe into a superior and an inferior segment. Knowledge of different types of accessory fissures is important because it may mislead the radiological findings, may act as a barrier to spread of infection creating a sharply marginated pneumonia which can wrongly be interpretated as atelectasis or consolidation. Identification of completeness of fissure is important prior to lobectomy, because individuals with incomplete fissures are more prone to develop postoperative air leak. Considering the clinical importance of such anomalies, anatomical knowledge and prior awareness of accessory fissures in the lungs may be important for clinicians and radiologists.

  10. Accessory costs of seed production and the evolution of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Janice M; Westoby, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Accessory costs of reproduction frequently equal or exceed direct investment in offspring, and can limit the evolution of small offspring sizes. Early angiosperms had minimum seed sizes, an order of magnitude smaller than their contemporaries. It has been proposed that changes to reproductive features at the base of the angiosperm clade reduced accessory costs thus removing the fitness disadvantage of small seeds. We measured accessory costs of reproduction in 25 extant gymnosperms and angiosperms, to test whether angiosperms can produce small seeds more economically than gymnosperms. Total accessory costs scaled isometrically to seed mass for angiosperms but less than isometrically for gymnosperms, so that smaller seeds were proportionally more expensive for gymnosperms to produce. In particular, costs of abortions and packaging structures were significantly higher in gymnosperms. Also, the relationship between seed:ovule ratio and seed size was negative in angiosperms but positive in gymnosperms. We argue that the carpel was a key evolutionary innovation reducing accessory costs in angiosperms by allowing sporophytic control of pre- and postzygotic mate selection and timing of resource allocation. The resulting reduction in costs of aborting unfertilized ovules or genetically inferior embryos would have lowered total reproductive costs enabling early angiosperms to evolve small seed sizes and short generation times. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution © 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Accessory bones of the feet: Radiological analysis of frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Vladica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Accessory bones are most commonly found on the feet and they represent an anatomic variant. They occur when there is a failure in the formation of a unique bone from separated centre of ossification. The aim of this study was to establish their frequency and medical significance. Methods. Anteroposterior and lateral foot radiography was performed in 270 patients aged of 20-80 years with a history of trauma (180 and rheumatology disease (90. The presence and distribution of accessory bones was analysed in relation to the total number of patients and their gender. The results are expressed in numeric values and in terms of percentage. Results. Accessory bones were identified in 62 (22.96% patients: 29 (10.74% of them were found in female patients and 33 (12.22% in males. The most common accessory bones were as follows: os tibiale externum 50%, os peroneum 29.03%, ostrigonum 11.29%, os vaselianum 9.68%. Conclusion. Accessory bones found in 23% of patients with trauma and some of rheumatological diseases. Their significance is demonstrated in the differential diagnosis among degenerative diseases, avulsion fractures, muscle and tendon trauma and other types of injuries which can cause painful affection of the foot, as well as in forensic practice.

  12. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  13. Mineral and non-carbon nutrient utilization and recovery during sequential phototrophic-heterotrophic growth of lipid-rich algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohutskyi, Pavlo; Liu, Kexin; Kessler, Ben A; Kula, Thomas; Hong, Yongseok; Bouwer, Edward J; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Allnutt, F C Thomas

    2014-06-01

    A critical factor in implementing microalgal biofuels for mass production is the nutrient requirements. The current study investigated the fate of macro- and micronutrients and their availability in a sequential phototrophic-heterotrophic production process for the lipid rich microalga Auxenochlorella protothecoides. More than 99 % (by weight) of overall process nutrients were supplied during the initial photoautotrophic stage reflecting its significantly larger volume. Under photoautotrophic growth conditions only 9-35 % of supplied Mn, S, Fe, N, Mg, and Cu and less than 5 % of P, Mo, Co, B, Zn, and Ca were consumed by the algae. The rest of these nutrients remain in the spent growth media during the culture concentration-down from an 800 L phototrophic pond to a 5 L heterotrophic fermenter. In contrast, Zn, Mo, Mn, Mg, Ca, and N were exhausted (90-99 % removal) during the first 25 h of the heterotrophic growth stage. The depletion of these key nutrients may have ultimately limited the final biomass density and/or lipid productivity achieved. Approximately 10-20 % of the total supplied S, Mn, Fe, N, and Cu and 5 % of Ca and Zn were assimilated into algal biomass. Several elements including N, P, Mn, B, Cu, Ca, Mg, S, and Fe were released back into the liquid phase by anaerobic digestion (AD) of the residual biomass after lipid extraction. The nutrients recovered from the AD effluent and remaining in the spent medium should be recycled or their initial concentration to the phototrophic stage decreased to enhance process economics and sustainability for future commercialization of algal-derived biofuels.

  14. Growth and mineral composition of nickel-stressed plants under conditions of supplementation with excessive amounts of calcium and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matraszek, Renata; Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of excessive calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) supplement nutrition in spinach Markiza F(1) cv. and sweet corn Zlota Karlowa cv. to alleviate nickel (Ni)-induced phytotoxicity. The following doses of the pollutant Ni were introduced: 0 (control), 40, or 60 mg Ni/kg growth medium. Two levels of calcium (Ca), 270 (basic) and 400 mg/kg (intensive), as well as two levels of iron (Fe), 10 (basic) and 20 mg/kg (intensive), respectively, were used. Intensive nutrition supplementation of Ni-stressed test plants species with Ca or Fe was beneficial as manifested by significantly increased maize shoots and roots biomass, lowered content of Ni in spinach and maize in above-ground parts, and decreased concentration of the pollutant in roots of intensive Ca-supplied maize plants grown in the environment containing 60 mg Ni/kg. Moreover there was significantly elevated Fe content in highly fertilized with iron spinach plants grown in the presence of 60 mg Ni/kg and in shoots of Ni-treated maize plants intensively supplied with Ca or Fe. Generally, high content of Ca or Fe in the growth medium significantly raised the content of free and bound Ca in shoots of Ni-stressed spinach plants. The same phenomenon was found in roots, but only in the presence of 60 mg Ni. Intensive nutrition supplementation of Ni-treated maize plants with Fe or Ca generally did not change the concentration of free Ca in plant organs, but elevated bound Ca levels in roots was observed. Increased bound Ca content was also found in leaves of maize plants intensive supplied with Ca. Thus, intensive Ca or Fe nutrition presents a promising potential for use in the conditions of Ni contamination by increasing plant growth, reducing Ni translocation from roots to shoots and raising the nutritive value of above-ground parts of spinach and maize plants.

  15. Control and Modeling of Plant Growth : A versatile system for mineral nutrient addition and feed-back monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Wiese, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Studying plants under controlled environmental conditions is a key component of current research. This thesis concentrates on the study of plant growth under nutrient-limiting condi-tions. The first objective is the design and construction of a prototype of a system which is able to supply nutrient so-lutions of prescribed time-dependent concentration to labo-ratory plants. The system, once configured via a PC, oper-ates fully automatically without the need for human inter-ference. The hardwa...

  16. In Vitro Propagation Of ‘Gisela 5’ Rootstock As Affected By Mineral Composition Of Media And Plant Growth Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahpour Maliheh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented study was to determine the best mineral composition of media and plant growth regulators in the micropropagation of the ‘Gisela 5’ (Prunus cerasus × P. canescens dwarf sweet cherry rootstock. Nodal explants from young healthy shoots were excised and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium without growth regulators. In vitro raised shoot tips were transferred to three culture media including Murashige and Skoog (MS, Driver and Kuniyuki (DKW and Lloyd and McCown (WPM containing benzyl adenine (BA (0.5, 1 or 2 mg·l−1 in combination with kinetin (Kin at 0 or 0.5 mg·l−1. WPM and DKW media were proving to be the most effective, resulting in a higher percentage of shoot multiplication and shoot number as compared to MS. BA in concentration 2 mg·l−1 resulted in the highest number of microshoots per explant (3.1. For rooting, 0, 0.5, 1 or 2 mg·l−1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA on MS, DKW and WPM media were tested. WPM medium containing 2 mg·l−1 IBA was most effective for rooting (93.7% in comparison to MS (53.1% and DKW (14.0%. Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened and established in pots.

  17. [Surgical treatment strategy for flatfoot related with accessory navicular].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yin-shuan; Gao, Qiu-ming; Zhen, Ping; Tang, Kang-lai

    2015-02-01

    Accessory navicular source flatfoot is one of the foot deformity of clinical common disease,its treatment method is more controversial, differences in clinical efficacy of different surgical methods, according to accessory navicular source flatfoot symptoms of surgical treatment,there is no uniform standard, around a pair of accessory navicular excision how to reconstruct the arch produced a series of operation methods, the clinical curative effect of different operative methods produce also different, how to develop the operation strategy, choose operation method, and after acessory navicular excision whether to rebuild posterior tibial tendon, how to rebuild, the problems such as how to rebuild is the research hotspot and difficulty, looking forward to further research.

  18. Growth, Mineral Deposition, and Physiological Responses of Broiler Chickens Offered Honey in Drinking Water during Hot-Dry Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monsuru Oladimeji Abioja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing broilers were offered either 0 (0H, 10 (10H, 20 mL (20H honey, or 0.5 g vitamin C/litre water (AA during hot-dry season. Honey had no significant (>0.05 effect on feed intake (FI, weight gain (WG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, water intake (WI, survival (SURV, dressed percentage (DRE, breast meat (BRE, gizzard (GIZ, drumstick (DRU, shank (SHA, thigh (THI, tibia volume (VOL, and magnesium (MAG. Effect of honey was significant (0.005. Higher dose of honey lowered PR and HR. Honey significantly (0.05 affected. 20H broilers had higher THY than 0H and 10H groups. In conclusion, honey did not affect growth but might improve broilers’ welfare when offered up to 20H during hot periods.

  19. ACCESSORY LOBE OF RIGHT LUNG: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Manicka Vasuki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations of lungs in the form of Accessory lobe and abnormality in the fissures are important for the surgeons to avoid possible injuries to the neighbouring structures. We report a case of Accessory lobe of right lung between middle and lower lobe in a male cadaver which was found during routine dissection in the Anatomy department, PSG IMS & R. Fissure and lobes of left lung was normal. Anatomical knowledge of such variations are helpful for Cardiothoracic surgeons in lobectomies, surgical resections involving individual segments and for Radiologists for interpreting X – rays,CT & MRI scans.

  20. Aplasia of the parotid glands with accessory parotid tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higley, Meghan J.; Walkiewicz, Thomas W.; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Curran, John G.; Towbin, Richard B. [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Congenital absence of the parotid gland is a rare entity. Absence is most commonly unilateral, and is not associated with accessory glandular tissue. In the majority of reported cases, parotid gland aplasia is seen with craniofacial abnormalities or hypoplasia of other ectodermal structures, particularly the lacrimal glands. We present a 14-year-old male with bilateral parotid gland aplasia detected incidentally on MRI of the brain and then confirmed on neck CT. The studies also revealed accessory parotid tissue superficial to the left masseter muscle. There were no associated craniofacial abnormalities. The lacrimal glands and submandibular glands were normal. (orig.)

  1. Effect of native soil fertility and mineral fertilizer on growth of pine (Pinus nigra seedlings in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lumu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial tree planting in Uganda is constrained by a lack of good quality seedlings due to poor soils used in nurseries. Two experiments were carried out, to evaluate the effects of different soils on the growth of the pine seedlings (experiment 1 and to compare the performance of seedlings provided with different NPK fertilizer formulations and amounts (experiment 2. Soils were collected from four forest reserves: Katugo (K, South Busoga (S, and Mbarara (M and from Mubende forest reserve. Treatments were: 0, 0.5 kg and 1.0 kg levels; NPK fertilizer formulations 25-5-5 (A, 17-17-17 (B and 18-4-14 +TE (C mixed in 1m3 of soil. Composite soil samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Experiments were laid out in a completely randomized block design, but with a factorial treatment structure for experiment 2. Routine nursery management practices were carried out. Seedling heights and diameter were recorded. The results showed that SOM (site 1, total N (site 2 and available P, K, Ca and Mg were below the critical values. Low nutrient concentrations reduced growth, with seedling height highest in Katugo and girth highest in the Mbarara. Experiment two results showed that there were no significant differences in mean heights for fertilizers A and C after a 1˝ months application and B had a significant difference in the mean height and girth. However, fertilizer C girth results were significant with (P-value = 0.021, P-value = 0.001 at 1˝ months and 3 months respectively. After 3 months, fertilizer B had the best mean height and mean girth at level 0.5 kg with (16.75 cm, 0.23 cm respectively, compared with fertilizer C and A with (13.42 cm, 0.175 cm and (12.44 cm, 0.174 cm respectively. From the results, a general NPK fertilizer formulation 17-17-17 is recommended for use at a rate of 0.5 kg m?3 of soil. (Pinus nigra

  2. Toxic Effect of copper on growth, yield, Photosynthetic Pigments and Mineral composition of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *A. Ghani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted with six different concentrations of copper (Cu viz., 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 (ppm to determine the the response of wheat plants grown in earthen pots lined with polythene bags under glass house conditions. The growth attributes like plant height, fresh and dry weight yield, percent dry matter enhanced with increasing Cu concentrations and was maximum at 30 (ppm Cu while the number of tillers was minimum at this level. The grain yield at 30 (ppm. Cu was enhanced by 65.2% from the control. The increase in weight of 1000 grains ranged from 45.95 to 48.49 g in comparison to control (3205 g. Harvest index (% also increased and ranged from 42.49 to 49.50 in different treatments in comparison to control (39.99. Both 1000 grain weight and harvest index were maximum in the plants at 30 (ppm copper. Cu concentrations in leaves, grain and straw enhanced with increasing levels of Cu application. The Fe concentration in leaves was significantly reduced by Cu application and the reduction was 11.5% at 50 (ppm Cu and was not influenced in by Cu application in grain and straw. The Mn concentration was not affected by Cu application in any of the plant part studied. However, Zn concentration decreased significantly at higher levels of Cu (40 and 50 ppm in leaves and remained unaffected in the grain and straw.

  3. Accessory wandering spleen: Report of a case of laparoscopic approach in an asymptomatic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Perin

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: We suggest performing surgery with a laparoscopic approach in patients with accessory wandering spleen, though asymptomatic, because of the risk of serious complications in case of accessory spleen torsion.

  4. Effects of calcium to non-phytate phosphorus ratio and different sources of vitamin D on growth performance and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincheng Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT - A 7 × 2 factorial experiment was designed to test the effects of calcium (Ca to non-phytate phosphorus (NPP ratio (1.14, 1.43, 1.71, 2.00, 2.29, 2.57, and 2.86 and different sources of vitamin D (1α-hydroxycholecalciferol (1α-OH-D3 and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3 on growth performance and bone mineralization in 1- to 42-d-old broiler chickens. On the day of hatch, 700 female Ross 308 broilers were weighed and randomly assigned to 14 treatments with five stainless steel cages of 10 birds each. Dietary Ca levels were 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, and 10.0 g kg−1 and the NPP content was 3.5 g kg−1. The dose of 1α-OH-D3 or 25-OH-D3 was 5 µg kg−1. Diets were not supplemented with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3. Results showed that the Ca to NPP ratio, vitamin D source, and their interaction affected body weight gain (BWG, feed intake (FI, feed efficiency (FE, and carcass and breast yields, as well as tibia weight and length and ash weight in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 d of age. Broilers fed 1α-OH-D3 had higher BWG and FI as well as tibia breaking strength, weight, length, diameter, and ash weight than birds fed 25-OH-D3 at 42 d of age. The Ca to NPP ratio had a quadratic effect on BWG, FI, mortality, as well as tibia breaking strength, weight, length, ash weight, and ash and P contents in 42-d-old broilers. Broiler chickens at 42 d of age obtain optimal growth performance and bone mineralization at the Ca to NPP ratio of 2.32 when 1α-OH-D3 or 25-OH-D3 are used as the vitamin D source.

  5. The effects of glucocorticoid replacement therapy on growth, bone mineral density, and bone turnover markers in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgis, R; Winter, J S

    1997-12-01

    Even with current so called physiologic doses of glucocorticoid replacement therapy, children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) often show relative short stature and delayed bone maturation, an observation that suggests possible long-term effects on bone metabolism of daily transient post-absorptive hypercortisolemia. In 28 patients with 21-hydroxylase or 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency (16 females and 12 males, ages 4.9-22 yr) who had received oral cortisol 10-15 mg/M2/day for 4.7-22 yr, we studied cortisol bioavailability, growth, bone maturation, vertebral bone mineral density, and various markers of bone formation and resorption. Patients were grouped according to mean on-therapy serum 170H-progesterone or progesterone levels as tight control (170HP 40 nmol/L). There was no difference in peak post-absorptive serum cortisol or area under the concentration-time curve, and only three patients had a peak serum cortisol of more than 700 nmol/L. There was no difference in present height Z-score (-0.96; -0.24; -0.6), height Z-score at age 2 yr (-1.5; +0.4; -1.3), or current growth velocity Z-score (-0.1; +1.2; -2.2) between the groups, but bone maturation Z-score was significantly delayed (-1.63) in the tight control group and advanced (+0.8) in the poor control group. Present height was highly correlated (r = 0.8) with height at age 2 yr. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, parathormone, and 25OH-vitamin D levels were all normal. There was no difference between the groups in age-corrected vertebral bone mineral density, and no difference in serum osteocalcin, procollagen peptide, or collagen C-terminal telopeptide, nor in urinary amino-terminal telopeptide. The data suggest that current methods of cortisol replacement do not significantly influence bone formation, resorption or density during childhood and therefore should not contribute to adult osteoporosis. The possibility remains that hypercortisolemia during infancy produces the short

  6. Effect of alendronate on bone mineral density in adult patients with Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshed, Varda; Benbassat, Carlos A; Laron, Zvi

    2006-04-01

    Severe short stature resulting from a deficiency in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a prominent feature of Laron syndrome (LS). Whether patients with LS are osteopenic or not, and whether they need treatment with bisphosphonates, remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the action of alendronate on the IGF-I-deficient bones of adult patients with LS and osteoporosis, as determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry . Seven patients (5 women and 2 men) of mean age 40.8+/-7.6 years and mean bone mass density (BMD) 0.843+/-0.06 g/cm2 (T score -2.9+/-0.5) at the lumbar spine and 0.734+/-0.11 g/cm2 (T score -2.2+/-0.9) at the femoral neck were treated with alendronate 70 mg once/weekly over a 12-month period. Treatment led to an increase of 5.3% in BMD (p=0.038) at the femoral neck. There was a similar trend at the lumbar spine, but the difference was not statistically significant (2.3%, p=0.34). Mean total alkaline phosphatase decreased by 14% from normal range at baseline (p=0.007). Urinary deoxypyridinoline levels, which were elevated at baseline (10+/-2.3 nM/mMcre), showed a nonsignificant change during treatment. Our study suggests that treatment with alendronate may have positive effects in patients with LS and low BMD on dual X-ray absorptiometry.

  7. Prolonged colonization of mice by Vibrio cholerae El Tor O1 depends on accessory toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Verena; Salzman, Nita H; Satchell, Karla J Fullner

    2007-10-01

    Cholera epidemics caused by Vibrio cholerae El Tor O1 strains are typified by a large number of asymptomatic carriers who excrete vibrios but do not develop diarrhea. This carriage state was important for the spread of the seventh cholera pandemic as the bacterium was mobilized geographically, allowing the global dispersion of this less virulent strain. Virulence factors associated with the development of the carriage state have not been previously identified. We have developed an animal model of cholera in adult C57BL/6 mice wherein V. cholerae colonizes the mucus layer and forms microcolonies in the crypts of the distal small bowel. Colonization occurred 1 to 3 h after oral inoculation and peaked at 10 to 12 h, when bacterial loads exceeded the inoculum by 10- to 200-fold, indicating bacterial growth within the small intestine. After a clearance phase, the number of bacteria within the small intestine, but not those in the cecum or colon, stabilized and persisted for at least 72 h. The ability of V. cholerae to prevent clearance and establish this prolonged colonization was associated with the accessory toxins hemolysin, the multifunctional autoprocessing RTX toxin, and hemagglutinin/protease and did not require cholera toxin or toxin-coregulated pili. The defect in colonization attributed to the loss of the accessory toxins may be extracellularly complemented by inoculation of the defective strain with an isogenic colonization-proficient V. cholerae strain. This work thus demonstrates that secreted accessory toxins modify the host environment to enable prolonged colonization of the small intestine in the absence of overt disease symptoms and thereby contribute to disease dissemination via asymptomatic carriers.

  8. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and allow observation or manipulation of body cavities, hollow organs, and canals. The device consists of various rigid or flexible instruments that are inserted into body spaces and may include an optical system for conveying an image to the user's eye and their accessories may assist in gaining...

  9. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section 884.6120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices §...

  10. Accessory breast on the posterior thigh of a man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camisa, C

    1980-11-01

    An elderly man with a mass that clinically resembles the normal female breast on the posterior portion of his left thigh is presented. We believe this is an unusual case of accessory breast tissue occurring in a location remote from the embryonic mammary line.

  11. ABC transporter architecture and regulatory roles of accessory domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans-Oldehinkel, E; Doeven, MK; Poolman, B

    2006-01-01

    We present an overview of the architecture of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and dissect the systems in core and accessory domains. The ABC transporter core is formed by the transmembrane domains (TMDs) and the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) that constitute the actual translocator. The a

  12. The benefits of using bluetooth accessories with hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pauline; Davis, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the benefits in reported outcomes after providing bluetooth accessories for established hearing aid users. Prospective observational study using validated quantitative outcome measures and detailed patient narrative before and two months after patients were provided with bluetooth accessories. Twelve patients with bilateral NHS hearing aids participated. They had a wide range of ages and hearing loss. After two months, 10 patients reported substantial additional benefit and kept the accessories; two returned them for various reasons. Statistically significant changes were seen in two validated outcome measures: the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile and the International Outcome Inventory - Hearing Aids, but not in the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale. Two notable benefits were reported: some described hearing the emotion and mood in a voice for the first time; others were amazed to report an improved ability to hear film or to hold conversations over the telephone. The provision of bluetooth accessories can give additional reported benefit for some patients - we need better knowledge about who benefits, and whether further support/training to individuals would make a difference.

  13. Validated Competency Task Lists for Apparel and Accessories Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selke-Kern, Barbara E.

    Developed by a project that validated task lists by a variety of teachers and apparel marketing business persons, this guide contains task lists for occupations in the field of apparel and accessories marketing. The guide is organized in three sections. Section 1 includes the following: (1) notes on using the information in the guide; (2) a…

  14. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Biliary catheter and accessories. 876.5010 Section 876.5010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... healing, or for preventing stricture of the bile duct. This generic type of device may include a bile...

  15. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sufficiently low permeability to water that an ultrafiltration controller is not required to prevent excessive... the disposable inserts (Kiil type) (§ 876.5830) or dialyzers of high permeability (§ 876.5860). (3... dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630), or the controlled...

  16. Accessory enzymes from Aspergillus involved in xylan and pectin degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzyme systems from Aspergillus have been the subject of study for many years. Although the main chain cleaving enzymes and their encoding genes have been studied in detail, little information is available about most of the accessory enzymes and their corresponding g

  17. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intended for medical purposes to support, protect, or aid in the use of a cast, orthosis (brace), or prosthesis. Examples of prosthetic and orthotic accessories include the following: A pelvic support band and belt, a cast shoe, a cast bandage, a limb cover, a prosthesis alignment device, a postsurgical pylon,...

  18. Accessory proteins of SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding Xiang; Fung, To Sing; Chong, Kelvin Kian-Long; Shukla, Aditi; Hilgenfeld, Rolf

    2014-09-01

    The huge RNA genome of SARS coronavirus comprises a number of open reading frames that code for a total of eight accessory proteins. Although none of these are essential for virus replication, some appear to have a role in virus pathogenesis. Notably, some SARS-CoV accessory proteins have been shown to modulate the interferon signaling pathways and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The structural information on these proteins is also limited, with only two (p7a and p9b) having their structures determined by X-ray crystallography. This review makes an attempt to summarize the published knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins, with an emphasis on their involvement in virus-host interaction. The accessory proteins of other coronaviruses are also briefly discussed. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses" (see Introduction by Hilgenfeld and Peiris (2013)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolutionary dynamics of the accessory genome of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk C den Bakker

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85-3.14 Mb, encode 2,822-3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II.

  20. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urological table and accessories. 876.4890 Section 876.4890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urological catheter and accessories. 876.5130 Section 876.5130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130...

  2. MINERAL NITROGEN SOURCES (N-NO3- AND N-NH4+ ON GROWTH OF GRÁPIA (Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog. Macbride SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog. Macbride is an important native forest species that has been in extinction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral nitrogen source on growth of grápia seedlings. Five variations in the concentration of N-NO3- and N-NH4+ (5:0, 4:1, 2,5:2,5, 1:4, and 0:5 mM of N were tested in an entirely random statistical design with 16 replicates. The experimental unity consisted of a vessel containing 3,0 kg of a Paleudalf soil and two plants, under glasshouse conditions. From 60 to 150 days after fertilization (DAF, the plant growth and soil pH were monthly analyzed from four replicates randomly taken. Independently of the nitrogen source used, the soil pH decreased, and on 150 DAF the smallest pH variation was 0.33 and the largest one was 0.47 pH units, respectively, on treatments with 5 N-NO3-:0 N-NH4+ and 0 N-NO3-:5 N-NH4+ ratios. The presence of N-NH4+, from 1 to 5 mM, induced necrosis in old leaves and their ulterior abscission. To 150 DAF, in the presence of 5 mM N-NH4+, the plant survival was reduced to 31%. The effect of nitrogen sources on plant growth appeared to be depended on plant age and/or of their transformations in the soil. To 120 DAF, the presence of N-NH4+ from 2,5 to 5 mM reduced the number of stalk nodes, plant height, stem diameter, dry weight of leaves, of stem, of roots, and of the whole plant. However, to 150 DAF, because of the regain on the growth rate, these differences were not observed, with exception of the root/shoot dry weight ratio that was reduced on the exclusive presence of N-NH4+. The suitable N-NO3-:N-NH4+ ratio in the fertilization to grow grápia seedlings, can not exceed, respectively, 4:1.

  3. Accessory veins in nonmaturing autogenous arteriovenous fistulae: analysis of anatomic features and impact on fistula maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, Bjorn I; Grimm, Lars J; Ronald, James; Smith, Tony P; Kim, Charles Y

    2015-01-01

    The appropriate management of nonmaturing arteriovenous (AV) fistulae continues to be a controversial issue. While coil embolization of accessory side-branch veins can be performed to encourage maturation of nonmaturing AV fistulae, the true efficacy and optimal patient population are not well understood. Fistulagrams performed on nonmaturing AV fistulae were retrospectively reviewed in 145 patients (86 males, median age 63 years) for the presence of accessory veins. Fistula and accessory vein measurements were obtained, as were rates of eventual fistula maturation after accessory vein coil embolization. Of 145 nonmaturing fistulae, 49 (34%) had a stenosis without any accessory veins, 76 (52%) had a stenosis and one or more accessory veins, and 20 (14%) had an accessory vein without concurrent stenosis. Eighteen AV fistulae had one or more accessory veins without coexisting stenosis. Nine fistulae had a caliber decrease immediately downstream from the accessory vein. Coil embolization of dominant accessory veins with a caliber decrease immediately downstream (n = 6) resulted in a 100% eventual fistula maturation rate versus 67% for fistulae without this configuration (n = 6, p = 0.15). Accessory vein size was not correlated with maturation rates (p = 0.51). The majority of nonmaturing fistulae with accessory veins had a coexisting stenosis. Higher maturation rates may result with selected anatomic parameters, although additional studies with more robust sample sizes are needed prior to definitive conclusions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Evaluation of Salt Tolerance (NaCl in Tunisian Chili Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. on Growth, Mineral Analysis and Solutes Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhani, Kaouther

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Every year, more and more land becomes non-productive due to salinity which adversely affects the productivity and quality of most crops that is why salinity becomes a concern to be studied more to understand the mechanisms included and select the tolerant genotypes. In this context, this investigation was carried out to study the impact of NaCl on growth, mineral analysis and solutes synthesis in five Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. cultivars: Tebourba (Tb, Somaa (Sm, Korba (Kb, Awald Haffouzz (Aw and Souk jedid (Sj. Thus, an experiment took place under greenhouse at Higher Institute of Agronomy, Chott Meriem, Tunisia and stress was induced during two months in water by NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 g/l. Results showed that increasing salinity stress, for all cultivars, decreases the height and biomass (dry and fresh weight of plant in addition to the relative water content. Also, a decline in K+ and Ca2+ amounts in roots and K+/Na+ ratio was recorded. However, Na+ content in roots and the biosynthesis of soluble sugars and soluble proteins in leaves increased. Awlad Haffouzz and Korba cultivars succefully tolerated highest salinity level by accumulating more K+, Ca2+ in roots and containing the highest concentrations of soluble sugars and soluble protein in their leaves contrary to Souk jedid cultivar, considered as the sensitive cultivar.

  5. The interplay of dietary nutrient specification and varying calcium to total phosphorus ratio on efficacy of a bacterial phytase: 1. Growth performance and tibia mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukosi, O A; Fru-Nji, F

    2014-12-01

    A 14-d experiment was conducted to study the effects of 2 dietary variables on efficacy of a 6-phytase from Citrobacter braakii on broiler growth performance and tibia mineralization. Diets were formulated with or without nutrient matrix values for phytase as negative or positive control (NC or PC, respectively) and with 2 Ca:total P (tP; 2:1 or 2.5:1). The diets were supplemented with 0, 1,000, or 2,000 phytase units (FYT)/kg, thus producing a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Birds and feed were weighed on d 7 and 21, and tibia bones were collected from all the birds on d 21. The main effects of nutrient matrix, Ca:tP, and phytase supplementation were significant (P phytase and matrix × phytase interactions were significant (P phytase increased weight gain (P phytase increased (P Phytase supplementation of diets with 2:1 Ca:tP increased (P phytase supplementation increased (P phytase supplementation (1,000 FYT/kg) was in NC diets with narrow Ca:tP, whereas the best response to higher level of phytase supplementation (2,000 FYT/kg) was achieved in diets in PC diets with wide Ca:tP.

  6. Effect of priming on growth, biochemical parameters and mineral composition of different cultivars of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Fredj Meriem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available At Higher Institute of Agriculture of Chott Mariem, Sousse, Tunisia, this study was conducted to evaluate the interactive effect of salinity and seed priming on coriander. The experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with three replications consisting of four coriander genotypes (Tunisian cv, Algerian cv, Syrian cv and Egyptian cv at two seed conditions (seed priming with 4 g/l NaCl for 12h or no seed priming. Results revealed that seed priming and salinity had significantly (p≤0.05 affected all the parameters under study. On the first hand, salinity stress had adversely affected growth, chlorophyll content, mineral composition (K+ and Ca2+ of coriander in all genotypes. Also, it activated Na+ accumulation and synthesis of proline, soluble sugars and proteins. However, seed priming with NaCl had diminished the negative impact of salt stress in all cultivars and primed plants showed better response to salinity compared to unprimed plants. Maximum values were recorded in tolerant cultivar which is Tunisian one whereas minimum values were noted in sensitive cultivar (Algerian cv.

  7. Plant macro- and micronutrient minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    All plants must obtain a number of inorganic mineral elements from their environment to ensure successful growth and development of both vegetative and reproductive tissues. A total of fourteen mineral nutrients are considered to be essential. Several other elements have been shown to have beneficia...

  8. Effects of Dietary Copper and Zinc Supplementation on Growth Performance, Tissue Mineral Retention, Antioxidant Status, and Fur Quality in Growing-Furring Blue Foxes (Alopex lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Guo, Jungang; Gao, Xiuhua; Yang, Fuhe; Xing, Xiumei

    2015-12-01

    A 4×2 factorial experiment with four supplemental levels of copper (0, 20, 40, or 60 mg copper per kg dry matter) from copper sulfate and two supplemental levels of zinc (40 or 200 mg zinc per kg dry matter) from zinc sulfate was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary copper and zinc supplementation on growth performance, tissue mineral retention, antioxidant status, and fur quality in growing-furring blue foxes. One hundred and twenty healthy 15-week-old male blue foxes were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments with 15 replicates per treatment for a 70-day trial from mid-September to pelting in December. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were increased with copper supplementation in the first 35 days as well as the overall period (Pzinc did not affect body gain (P>0.10) and feed intake (P>0.10) but improved feed conversion (Pzinc throughout the experiment. No copper×zinc interaction was observed for growth performance except that a tendency (P=0.09) was found for feed intake in the first 35 days. Supplementation of copper or zinc improved crude fat digestibility (Pzinc addition (Pzinc was affected only by dietary zinc addition (P0.05). However, the level of copper in the liver was increased with copper supplementation (Pzinc supplementation (P=0.08). Dietary zinc addition tended to increase the activity of alkaline phosphatase (P=0.07). The activities of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and catalase tended to increase by copper (P=0.08) and zinc addition (P=0.05). Moreover, a copper×zinc interaction was observed for catalase in the experiment (Pzinc levels (Pzinc supplementation can improve growth by increasing feed intake and improving fat digestibility. Additionally, copper and zinc can enhance the antioxidant capacity of blue foxes. This study also indicates that additional zinc up to 200 mg/kg did not exert significant adverse effects on the copper metabolism of growing-furring blue foxes.

  9. Comment on "Evaluation of X-ray diffraction methods for determining the crystal growth mechanisms of clay minerals in mudstones, shales and slates," by L. N. Warr and D. R. Peacor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, D.D.; Srodon, J.; Drits, V.A.

    2003-01-01

    A recent paper by Warr and Peacor (2002) suggested that our use of the Bertaut-Warren-Averbach technique (MudMaster computer program) for studying changes in crystallite thickness distributions (CTDs) of clay minerals during diagenesis and very low-grade metamorphism is not reliable because it is dependent on many variables which can not be fully controlled. Furthermore, the authors implied that the measured shapes of CTDs cannot be used with confidence to deduce crystal growth mechanisms and histories for clays, based on our CTD simulation approach (using the Galoper computer program). We disagree with both points, and show that the techniques are powerful, reliable and useful for studying clay mineral alteration in rocks. ?? 2003 Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Ges.

  10. [Surgical treatment of the accessory navicular syndrome with simple excision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Lei-Ting; Li, Cheng; Zhang, Dong; Li, Zhi; Huang, Bo; Zhang, Ting-Jiu; Yu, Ming; Wang, Ping-Xi

    2009-12-01

    To observe and evaluate the clinical effects of surgical treatment for the accessory navicular syndrome with simple excision. From November 2006 to December 2008, 23 patients (twenty-five feet) with accessory navicular syndrome received simple excision of the accessory navicular bone. The chief complains were intermittent pain of feet after running or walking. Physical examination showed local tenderness on palpation in the region of the navicular bone. X-ray or CT showed there was an accessory navicular bone. The present history ranged from 6 months to 12 years. There were 14 males and 9 females. The mean age was 14.6 years, ranging from 8 to 35 years. About 2 cm long incision was made at the tip of the medial prominence of the navicular bone. After partial dissection of the posterior tibial tendon, the accesssory navicular bone was exposed and excisied. The prominence of the tuberosity of the navicular bone was cut and shaved. The posterior tibial tenden was repaired before closing the wound. The foot was immobilized with cast or brace in inversion position and no weight-bearing for 2 weeks. Strenuous jumping or dancing must be avoided in 3 months after surgery. The patients with residual symptoms and signs received physical therapy and an arch support for shoes without flatfoot deformity. The average clinical follow-up during was 12 month (ranged, 3 to 18 months). The excellent results in 21 feet and good in 4 feet (3 feet with mild flat deformity and 1 foot with old sprain injury). The average hospital stay was 5 days and no wound infection occurred. All patients resumed the normal life and study after operation. Surgical treatment of the accessory navicular syndrome with simple excision has the advantages of less invasive to the posterior tibial tenden and the medial longitudinal arch of the foot, shorter time of immobilization of the foot and stay in hospital, small incision and good clinical results. This procedure is one of the best selective treatments for

  11. Comparative Effects of Inulin with Different Polymerization Degrees on Growth Performance, Blood Trace Minerals, and Erythrocyte Indices in Growing-Finishing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samolińska, W; Grela, E R

    2017-03-01

    There are numerous reports of the effect of inulin on the bioavailability of mineral compounds. However, there are no conclusive reports concerning its beneficial impact (or lack thereof) in the case of such essential trace elements as iron, copper, or zinc. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of inulin addition with different degrees of polymerization (DPs) on growth performance in fatteners as well as on blood plasma concentrations of iron, copper, and zinc and selected hematological indices. The experiment was conducted throughout the fattening period (up to a body weight of approximately 115 kg) on 112 weaners with an initial weight of 25.0 ± 0.5 kg divided into 7 groups. The first group served as a control, while the other groups received increasing doses (1, 2, and 3 %) of standard inulin (SI; DPav ≥ 10) or long-chain inulin (LCI, DPav ≥ 23) in complete mixtures. Compared with the control, the supplementation of the mixtures with inulin increased the average daily gains, the final body weight, and the plasma content of trace elements (P inulin with a lower polymerization degree (P inulin polymerization degree, a higher final body weight and increased copper (P inulin addition was found to have modified the analyzed indices, and the optimal supplementation level was estimated at 20  g·kg(-1) diet. Inulin with the higher DP exerted a more pronounced effect on the analyzed properties.

  12. KNOW-BLADE Task-2 report: Aerodynamic accessories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik

    2004-01-01

    of a pulsating jet placed at the leading edge in order to enhance mean lift. The general trend is that increased pulsation frequency is beneficial, in that it reduces the oscillation amplitude and raisesthe mean lift level while lowering the mean drag level. An increased jet exit velocity has a tendency...... the airfoil geometry. In general the 7mm stallstrips placed at P00 and P-02 had the greatest effect on the max lift followed by stall strip P02. Unfortunately, there was not sufficient agreement between the experimental results and the simulations to draw any conclusions of optimum position andgeometry......In the EC project KNOW-BLADE a work package has been defined to investigate the possibility to numerically model aerodynamic accessories in existing Navier-Stokes solvers. Four different aerodynamic accessories have been investigated. Firstly, thepotential of applying active flow control by means...

  13. Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8 th cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. The radiological features have been detailed. The diagnostic dilemma was due to its midline posterior location mimicking a fourth ventricular lesion like medulloblastoma and ependymoma. Total excision is the ideal treatment for these tumors. A brief review of literature with tabulations of the variants has been listed.

  14. Perioperative Identification of an Accessory Fissure of the Right Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Taverne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations of lungs are common in clinical practice; however, they are sometimes overlooked in routine imaging. Surgical anatomy of the lung is complex and many variations are known to occur. A defective pulmonary development gives rise to variations in lobes and fissures. Morphological presentation is of clinical importance and profound knowledge of the organogenesis and functional anatomy is imperative for the interpretation and evaluation of lung pathophysiology and subsequent surgical intervention. However, appreciating them on radiographs and CT scans is difficult and they are therefore often either not identified or completely misinterpreted. As presented in this case report, an accessory fissure separating the superior segment of the right lower lobe from its native lobe was seen perioperatively and could only retrospectively be defined on X-rays and CT scan. It is imperative to keep in mind that accessory fissures can be missed on imaging studies and thus can make the surgical procedure more challenging.

  15. Spinal accessory neuropathy, droopy shoulder, and thoracic outlet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shekhlee, Amer; Katirji, Bashar

    2003-09-01

    Droopy shoulder has been proposed as a cause of thoracic outlet syndrome. Two patients developed manifestations of neurovascular compression upon arm abduction, associated with unilateral droopy shoulder and trapezius muscle weakness caused by iatrogenic spinal accessory neuropathies following cervical lymph node biopsies. The first patient developed a cold, numb hand with complete axillary artery occlusion when his arm was abducted to 90 degrees. The second patient complained of paresthesias in digits 4 and 5 of the right hand, worsened by elevation of the arm, with nerve conduction findings of right lower trunk plexopathy (low ulnar and medial antebrachial cutaneous sensory nerve action potentials). Spinal accessory nerve grafting (in the first patient) coupled with shoulder strengthening physical exercises in both patients resulted in gradual improvement of symptoms in 2 years. These two cases demonstrate that unilateral droopy shoulder secondary to trapezius muscle weakness may cause compression of the thoracic outlet structures.

  16. Headgear Accessories Classification Using an Overhead Depth Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Carlos A.; Marron-Romera, Marta; Mazo, Manuel; Luengo-Sanchez, Sara; Macho-Pedroso, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address the generation of semantic labels describing the headgear accessories carried out by people in a scene under surveillance, only using depth information obtained from a Time-of-Flight (ToF) camera placed in an overhead position. We propose a new method for headgear accessories classification based on the design of a robust processing strategy that includes the estimation of a meaningful feature vector that provides the relevant information about the people’s head and shoulder areas. This paper includes a detailed description of the proposed algorithmic approach, and the results obtained in tests with persons with and without headgear accessories, and with different types of hats and caps. In order to evaluate the proposal, a wide experimental validation has been carried out on a fully labeled database (that has been made available to the scientific community), including a broad variety of people and headgear accessories. For the validation, three different levels of detail have been defined, considering a different number of classes: the first level only includes two classes (hat/cap, and no hat/cap), the second one considers three classes (hat, cap and no hat/cap), and the last one includes the full class set with the five classes (no hat/cap, cap, small size hat, medium size hat, and large size hat). The achieved performance is satisfactory in every case: the average classification rates for the first level reaches 95.25%, for the second one is 92.34%, and for the full class set equals 84.60%. In addition, the online stage processing time is 5.75 ms per frame in a standard PC, thus allowing for real-time operation. PMID:28796177

  17. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  18. High-pressure minerals in shocked meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Naotaka; Miyahara, Masaaki

    2017-09-01

    Heavily shocked meteorites contain various types of high-pressure polymorphs of major minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar, and quartz) and accessory minerals (chromite and Ca phosphate). These high-pressure minerals are micron to submicron sized and occur within and in the vicinity of shock-induced melt veins and melt pockets in chondrites and lunar, howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED), and Martian meteorites. Their occurrence suggests two types of formation mechanisms (1) solid-state high-pressure transformation of the host-rock minerals into monomineralic polycrystalline aggregates, and (2) crystallization of chondritic or monomineralic melts under high pressure. Based on experimentally determined phase relations, their formation pressures are limited to the pressure range up to 25 GPa. Textural, crystallographic, and chemical characteristics of high-pressure minerals provide clues about the impact events of meteorite parent bodies, including their size and mutual collision velocities and about the mineralogy of deep planetary interiors. The aim of this article is to review and summarize the findings on natural high-pressure minerals in shocked meteorites that have been reported over the past 50 years.

  19. A software tool to evaluate crystal types and morphological developments of accessory zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Computer programs for an appropriate visualization of crystal types and morphological developments of accessory zircon are not available hitherto. Usually, typological computations are conducted by using simple calculation tools or spread-sheet programs. In practice, however, high numbers of data sets including information of numerous zircon populations have to be processed and stored. The paper describes the software ZIRCTYP, which is a macro-driven program within the Microsoft Access database management system. It allows the computation of zircon morphologies occurring in specific rock samples and their presentation in typology diagrams. In addition, morphological developments within a given zircon population are presented (1) statistically and (2) graphically as crystal sequences showing initial, intermediate, and final growth stages.

  20. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... fluctuations in activity, illustrated by the example of Vulcano where the high-temperature association appears intermittently. A full survey of the mineral groups and species is given in respect to their importance and appearance in fumarolic associations....

  1. Geographical Analysis of Conflict Minerals Utilizing Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The primary natural occurrence of Nb and Ta is in the complex oxide minerals columbite and... hematite , wodginite or cassiterite) with compositions significantly different from the host columbite–tantalite — all of which are commonly observed...found in some granitic pegmatites, where they are typically concentrated in the primary accessory minerals monazite, xenotime, fergusonite, euxenite

  2. Study on reduction of accessory-horsepower requirements. Third quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-23

    The objective of this study program is to minimize automotive accessory horsepower consumption, and thereby maximize overall vehicle fuel economy, by utilizing continuously variable speed drives or auxiliary power units (APUs) in a standard passenger automobile. As an aid to definitizing accessory performance, load requirements and fuel economy, a baseline vehicle has beeen established. This vehicle is a conventional intermediate size 5- or 6-passenger automobile with a 4.1 to 5.7 liter (250 to 350 cubic inch) displacement, spark ignition engine. Accessories to be considered are the alternator, power steering system, power brakes, air conditioner, cooling fan, water pump and emission control air pump. A program summary of major accomplishments is presented including: accessory drive devices analyses; vehicle computer model fuel economy analyses; improved accessory efficiency analysis; resized engine fuel economy analysis; accessory evaluation matrix completed; drive-systems trade-study completed and the prime concept presented; and variable-speed belt-drive concepts reviewed.

  3. Accessory spleen presenting as acute abdomen: A case report and operative management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Landmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accessory spleens are found in 10–30% of patients and are asymptomatic. Rarely, torsion of an accessory spleen can cause abdominal pain and acute abdomen. We present the case of an 8-year-old girl who arrives to the emergency room with left upper quadrant abdominal pain. CT scan revealed a non-enhancing soft tissue mass and multiple small splenules. Laparoscopy revealed a torsed accessory spleen and malrotation. Accessory spleen is a common congenital anomaly that is frequently asymptomatic. Rarely, an accessory spleen may become torsed around its vascular pedicle resulting in severe abdominal pain. Treatment is surgical resection. Torsion of accessory splenic tissue is a rare cause of acute abdomen in pediatric patients.

  4. A Case Report on Unilateral Accessory Humeral Head of Pronator Teres

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Suman; Sakthivel, Sulochana

    2016-01-01

    The presence of an accessory muscle in the forearm is likely to compress on the neurovascular structures and has clinical implications. We encountered an accessory humeral head of pronator teres during routine dissection of left upper limb in a male cadaver. The accessory head had fleshy origin from medial supracondylar line, medial intermuscular septum and brachialis fascia. It coursed downwards in the cubital region covering brachial artery and median nerve. Further, it narrowed becoming mo...

  5. Total laparoscopic removal of accessory gallbladder: A case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Accessory gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly occurring in 1 in 4000 births, that is not associated with any specific symptoms. Usually this cannot be diagnosed on ultrasonography and hence they are usually not diagnosed preoperatively. Removal of the accessory gallbladder is necessary to avoid recurrence of symptoms. H-type accessory gallbladder is a rare anomaly. Once identified intra-operatively during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the surgery is usually converted to open. By using th...

  6. Accessory Genes Confer a High Replication Rate to Virulent Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Troyer, Ryan M.; Thompson, Jesse; Elder, John H.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats, similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in humans. The FIV accessory protein Vif abrogates the inhibition of infection by cat APOBEC3 restriction factors. FIV also encodes a multifunctional OrfA accessory protein that has characteristics similar to HIV Tat, Vpu, Vpr, and Nef. To examine the role of vif and orfA accessory genes in FIV replication and pathogenicity, we generated chimeras between tw...

  7. Extraperitoneal Pelvic laparoscopic disconnection of accessory urethra from normal urethra in a case of urethral duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Nitin; Aggarwal, Satish Kumar

    2014-04-01

    We report an extraperitoneal pelvic laparoscopic approach to disconnect accessory urethra from normal urethra in complete urethral duplication. First stage consisted of chordee correction, partial excision of the accessory urethra and glansplasty. In the second stage the remaining accessory urethra was disconnected from the normal urethra through a pre-peritoneal minimal access approach to the retropubic space. The remaining distal mucosa was ablated using monopolar cautery.

  8. Extraperitoneal Pelvic laparoscopic disconnection of accessory urethra from normal urethra in a case of urethral duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Pant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an extraperitoneal pelvic laparoscopic approach to disconnect accessory urethra from normal urethra in complete urethral duplication. First stage consisted of chordee correction, partial excision of the accessory urethra and glansplasty. In the second stage the remaining accessory urethra was disconnected from the normal urethra through a pre-peritoneal minimal access approach to the retropubic space. The remaining distal mucosa was ablated using monopolar cautery.

  9. Effect of dietary organic zinc, manganese, copper, and cobalt supplementation on milk production, follicular growth, embryo quality, and tissue mineral concentrations in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbart, K S; Ferreira, R M; Dietsche, A A; Socha, M T; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C; Fricke, P M

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated potential effects of organic trace mineral supplementation on reproductive measures in lactating dairy cows. Cows were blocked by breed and randomly assigned at dry-off to receive inorganic trace mineral supplementation (control; n = 32) or to have a portion of supplemental inorganic Zn, Cu, Mn, and Co replaced with an equivalent amount of the organic forms of these minerals (treatment; n = 31). Trace minerals were provided through control or treatment premixes fed at 100 g·cow(-1)·d(-1). Premixes were fed to dry cows (range = 40 to 72 d before calving) in 1.8 kg·cow(-1)·d(-1) concentrate pellets through a computer feeder to provide 40, 26, 70, and 100% of supplemented Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co, respectively, and to lactating cows (range = 69 to 116 d after calving) in a total mixed ration to provide 22, 14, 40, and 100% of supplemented Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co, respectively. Treatment increased milk production at wk 14 (P = 0.047) postcalving, milk urea N content (P = 0.039), and BW loss from calving to 1 mo postcalving (P = 0.040), and decreased milk fat percentage (P = 0.045) and BCS (P = 0.048). Treatment tended to increase milk production at wk 13 (P = 0.089) postcalving and endometrial tissue concentrations of Fe (P = 0.070), BW at mo 1 (P = 0.056), and milk protein percentage (P = 0.064). Treatment did not affect (P > 0.1) DMI, health events, first-wave follicular dynamics, first cycle luteal measures, embryo quality, liver trace mineral concentrations, or luteal trace mineral concentrations. Cows with a rectal temperature ≥39°C at the time of AI had a smaller percentage of fertilized entities (P 0.1) by treatment. We conclude that replacing a portion of inorganic supplemental trace minerals with an equivalent amount of these organic trace minerals (Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co) increased milk production in mid-lactation, but did not affect postpartum follicular dynamics, embryo quality, or liver and luteal trace mineral concentrations.

  10. Bilateral Tensor Fasciae Suralis Muscles in a Cadaver with Unilateral Accessory Flexor Digitorum Longus Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan S. W. Bale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle variants are routinely encountered in the dissection laboratory and in clinical practice and therefore anatomists and clinicians need to be aware of their existence. Here we describe two different accessory muscles identified while performing educational dissection of a 51-year-old male cadaver. Tensor fasciae suralis, a rare muscle variant, was identified bilaterally and accessory flexor digitorum longus, a more common muscle variant, was present unilaterally. Tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus are clinically relevant muscle variants. To our knowledge, the coexistence of tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus in the same individual has not been reported in either cadaveric or imaging studies.

  11. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student's t test was used to compare the length of Stensen's duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen's duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis.

  12. Chloroquine inhibits accessory cell presentation of soluble natural and synthetic protein antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1984-01-01

    was time- and dose-dependent. A brief treatment solely of the accessory cells with the drug compromised their ability to stimulate primed T cells in a subsequent culture provided the accessory cells were treated with chloroquine before their exposure to the antigen. These results suggest that chloroquine......We have studied the in vitro effect of the lysosomotrophic agent, chloroquine, on the presentation of soluble protein antigens by guinea pig accessory cells. Chloroquine inhibited the capacity of antigen-pulsed accessory cells to stimulate proliferation in appropriately primed T cells. The effect...

  13. Incomplete and accessory fissures of the lung evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heřmanová, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.hermanova2@fnol.cz; Čtvrtlík, Filip, E-mail: filip.ctvrtlik@fnol.cz; Heřman, Miroslav, E-mail: herman@fnol.cz

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to assess incomplete and accessory interlobar fissures using volumetric thin-section high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Materials and methods: Retrospective assessment of HRCT examinations of 250 patients was performed. We assessed the localization, extension, and type of the incompleteness of fissures as well as the presence and localization of accessory fissures. We searched for possible correlation among the localization of interlobar fissures, the presence of incompleteness, and accessory fissures. Results: On the left side, an incomplete oblique fissure was found in 24%. The discontinuity was present in the parahilar region and the area of the incompleteness was most frequently between 21% and 40%. The right oblique fissure was incomplete in 35%, mostly parahilarly, with the most frequent discontinuity below 20%. An incomplete horizontal fissure was found in 74%. Accessory fissures were identified in 16% of patients, with the same frequency on both sides. The most frequent finding was accessory horizontal fissure with 8.0% on the left side, superior accessory fissure (7.2%) and inferior accessory fissure (5.2%) on the right side. No correlation was found among the localization of interlobar fissures, the presence of incompleteness, and accessory fissures. Conclusion: Incomplete and accessory fissures are frequent anatomic variations of interlobar fissures.

  14. GSM accessories now available from the CERN Stores

    CERN Multimedia

    Labo Telecom

    2001-01-01

    As of 1st October you can order and receive GSM accessories from the CERN stores like any other article. The CERN stores also manage GSM telephones but, for technical reasons, only the Labo Telecom shop (Building 31, Room S026) is able to make the standard sales, repairs and exchanges for authorised persons with a CERN subscription. Labo Telecom will thus become a specialist shop, open from 11 a.m. to 12 a.m., and will apply the usual rules and authorisation procedures of the stores. The paper form for requests for GSM subscriptions is being computerized and will be available on EDH in the near future.

  15. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  16. State of Mixing, Shape Factor, Number Size Distribution, and Hygroscopic Growth of the Saharan Anthropogenic and Mineral Dust Aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Kaaden, Nicole; Massling, Andreas; Schladitz, Alexander; Müller, Thomas; Kandler, Konrad; Schütz, Lothar; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Petzold, Andreas; Tesche, Matthias; Leinert, Stefan; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    The Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) was conducted in May and June 2006 in Tinfou, Morocco. A H-TDMA system and a H-DMA-APS system were used to obtain hygroscopic properties of mineral dust particles at 85% RH. Dynamic shape factors of 1.11, 1.19 and 1.25 were determined for the volume equivalent diameters 720, 840 and 960 nm, respectively. During a dust event, the hydrophobic number fraction of 250 and 350 nm particles increased significantly from 30 and 65% to 53 and 75%, respect...

  17. Adubação orgânica, mineral e organomineral e sua influencia no crescimento da helicônia em Garanhuns-PE Organic, mineral and organomineral fertilization and its influence on the growth of heliconia in Garanhuns, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josabete SB Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As helicônias se destacam pela beleza e variedade de formas e cores e estão entre as flores tropicais mais comercializadas no mundo. Foi avaliado o crescimento e o desenvolvimento de Heliconia psittacorum x H. spathocircinata, cv. Golden Torch, quanto à adubação orgânica e mineral. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por quatro dosagens de adubo (testemunha (T1 solo local; esterco de boi (T2; adubo mineral NPK (T3 e esterco de boi + NPK (T4, em dez repetições. Foram avaliados a altura da planta, número de brotações, época do florescimento, número, tamanho e peso das inflorescências. A combinação da adubação mineral (NPK e orgânica (esterco (organomineral afetou significativamente a altura das plantas, apresentando um aumento de mais de 23% quando comparada com o controle aos 330 dias após o plantio. Aos seis meses de cultivo, todas as plantas exibiam um crescimento bastante homogêneo e vigoroso, sem sintomas visuais de deficiência nutricional, evidenciando que a adubação química associada ao esterco bovino (organomineral é a mais recomendada para o cultivo de helicônia cv. Golden Torch. Essa cultivar pode ser bem adaptada às condições de Garanhuns.Heliconia stands out for its beauty and variety of shapes and colors and this plant is among the most traded tropical flowers in the world. We evaluated the growth and development of Heliconia psittacorum x H. spathocircinata cv. Golden Torch, submitted to organic and mineral fertilization. The experiment was carried out in field, in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four doses of fertilizer (control (T1 local soil; cattle manure (T2; mineral fertilizer NPK (T3 and cattle manure + NPK (T4, in ten replications. We evaluated plant height, number of shoots, flowering time, number, size and weight of inflorescences. The combination of mineral fertilizer (NPK and organic

  18. Assessment of chromium content of feedstuffs, their estimated requirement, and effects of dietary chromium supplementation on nutrient utilization, growth performance, and mineral balance in summer-exposed buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Muneendra; Kaur, Harjit; Tyagi, Amrish; Mani, Veena; Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Chandra, Gulab; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the chromium content of different feedstuffs, their estimated requirement, and effect of dietary Cr supplementation on nutrient intake, nutrient utilization, growth performance, and mineral balance in buffalo calves during summer season. Levels of Cr was higher in cultivated fodder, moderate in cakes and cereal grains, while straw, grasses, and non-conventional feeds were poor in Cr content. To test the effect of Cr supplementation in buffalo calves, 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm of inorganic Cr were fed to 24 buffalo calves. Buffalo calves were randomly assigned to four treatments (n = 6) and raised for 120 days. A metabolic trial for a period of 7 days was conducted after 3 months of dietary treatments. Blood samples were collected at fortnight interval for plasma mineral estimation. The results suggested that dietary Cr supplementation in summer did not have any affects (P > 0.05) on feed consumption, growth performance, nitrogen balance, and physiological variables. However, dietary Cr supplementation had significant effect (P 0.05) balance and plasma levels of other trace minerals. The estimated Cr requirement of buffalo calves during summer season was calculated to be 0.044 mg/kg body mass and 10.37 ppm per day. In conclusion, dietary Cr supplementation has regardless effect on feed consumption, mass gain, and nutrient utilization in buffalo calves reared under heat stress conditions. However, supplementation of Cr had positive effect on its balance and plasma concentration without interacting with other trace minerals.

  19. Mineral bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  20. Afghanistans Oil, Gas, and Minerals Industries: $488 Million in U.S. Efforts Show Limited Progress Overall, and Challenges Prevent Further Investment and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    the Kabul area alone. By contrast, the Afghan government reports that only 300 mines are licensed to operate and are paying taxes . Additionally...the Inspector General Act of 1978, as amended; and in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. John F. Sopko Special... business leaders and government officials. In addition to minerals and hydrocarbons development, TFBSO activities included projects to facilitate private

  1. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  2. The accessory coracobrachialis muscle: ultrasound and MR features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauones, Salem [Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM), Department of Radiology, Hopital Saint-Luc, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Moraux, Antoine [Imagerie Medicale Jacquemars Gielee, Lille (France)

    2015-09-15

    To present the prevalence, clinical relevance, and ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of the accessory coracobrachialis (ACB) muscle. We present an US prospective study of the ACB muscle over a 2-year period. Five of the eight patients with suspected ACB on US were subsequently examined by MRI. An ACB muscle was demonstrated by US in eight patients (eight shoulders), including seven females, one male, with mean age 39 years, over 770 (664 patients) consecutive shoulder US examinations referred to our institution yielding a prevalence of 1.04 %. In dynamic US assessment, one case of subcoracoid impingement secondary to a bulky ACB was diagnosed. No thoracic outlet syndrome was encountered in the remaining cases. MRI confirmed the presence of the accessory muscle in five cases. ACB muscle is a rarely reported yet not uncommon anatomic variation of the shoulder musculature encountered only in eight of 664 patients referred for shoulder US study. Its US and MRI appearance is described. One of our patients presented with subcoracoid impingement related to the presence of an ACB. (orig.)

  3. Digital dermatitis of the accessory digits of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso A. Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This report characterizes the digital dermatitis (DD lesions in the accessory digits of dairy cows and presents data on the applied therapy. Fifteen Holstein cattle with DD affecting the accessory digits of the hindlimbs from four dairy farms with previous history of DD were evaluated. Lesions were excised, the wounds were sutured, and a topical application of oxytetracycline powder covered by bandaging was associated with a single parenteral administration of long acting oxytetracycline IM (20mg/kg. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathology and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM. Lesions from all the animals were recuperated 15 days after surgical procedure. Overal, most DD lesions were papillomatous epidermal projections or wartlike verrucous lesions. Histopathologically, samples revealed hyperplasia of epidermis with hyperkeratosis, several mitoses in the stratum basale and elongated rete ridges in the superficial and middle dermis. TEM revealed long, thin spirochete-like bacteria. Morphologic features of lesions and its response to therapy were comparable to those described for DD.

  4. Decontamination of minimally invasive surgical endoscopes and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayliffe, G

    2000-08-01

    (1) Infections following invasive endoscopy are rare and are usually of endogenous origin. Nevertheless, infections do occur due to inadequate cleaning and disinfection and the use of contaminated rinse water and processing equipment. (2) Rigid and flexible operative endoscopes and accessories should be thoroughly cleaned and preferably sterilized using properly validated processes. (3) Heat tolerant operative endoscopes and accessories should be sterilized using a vacuum assisted steam sterilizer. Use autoclavable instrument trays or containers to protect equipment during transit and processing. Small bench top sterilizers without vacuum assisted air removal are unsuitable for packaged and lumened devices. (4) Heat sensitive rigid and flexible endoscopes and accessories should preferably be sterilized using ethylene oxide, low temperature steam and formaldehyde (rigid only) or gas plasma (if appropriate). (5) If there are insufficient instruments or time to sterilize invasive endoscopes, or if no suitable method is available locally, they may be disinfected by immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or a suitable alternative. An immersion time of at least 10 min should be adopted for glutaraldehyde. This is sufficient to inactivate most vegetative bacteria and viruses including HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Longer contact times of 20 min or more may be necessary if a mycobacterial infection is known or suspected. At least 3 h immersion in glutaraldehyde is required to kill spores. (6) Glutaraldehyde is irritant and sensitizing to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Measures must be taken to ensure glutaraldehyde is used in a safe manner, i.e., total containment and/or extraction of harmful vapour and the provision of suitable personal protective equipment, i.e., gloves, apron and eye protection if splashing could occur. Health surveillance of staff is recommended and should include a pre-employment enquiry regarding asthma, skin and mucosal sensitivity problems and

  5. Mineralization of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on the growth and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Musa, N.; Manzoor, M.

    2015-08-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms and organic manure to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form offers a biological rescue system for improving P utilization efficiency in soil-plant systems. Our objective was to examine the P mineralization potential of two soluble P fertilizers (SPF), i.e., single superphosphate (SSP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP), and of insoluble rock phosphate (RP) with and without phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and poultry manure (PM) and their subsequent effect on the growth, yield and P utilization efficiency (PUE) of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). An incubation study was carried out on a loam (slightly alkaline) soil with 12 treatments: T0 - control; T1 - RP; T2 - SSP; T3 - DAP; T4 - PM; T5 - 1/2 RP+1/2 SSP; T6 - 1/2 RP+1/2 DAP; T7 - 1/2 RP+1/2 PM; T8 - RP+PSB; T9 - 1/2 RP+1/2 SSP+PSB; T10 - 1/2 RP+1/2 DAP+PSB; and T11 - 1/2 RP+1/2 PM+PSB. Phosphorus mineralization was measured by analyzing extractable P from the amended soil incubated under controlled conditions at 25 °C for periods of 0, 5, 15, 25, 35 and 60 days. A complementary greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) as a test crop. Growth, yield, P uptake and PUE of the chilli was determined during the study. Results indicated that P mineralization in soil amended with RP was 6.0-11.5 mg kg-1, while both soluble P fertilizers resulted in 68-73 mg P kg-1 at day 0, which decreased by 79-82 % at the end of incubation. The integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in T11 stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25 mg P kg-1 that was maintained at high levels without any loss. Use of PSB decreased soil pH. In the greenhouse experiment, RP alone or RP+PSB did not have a significant impact on plant growth. However, the combined use of RP, PM and PSB in T11 resulted in similar growth, yield and P uptake of chilli as DAP. The PUE of applied P varied from 4 to 29 % and was higher in the treatments that included PSB. We conclude

  6. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  7. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope... Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are...

  8. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical... Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories is a device designed to...

  9. 77 FR 15390 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on... interest issues raised by the ] recommended relief, specifically issuance of a general exclusion order covering handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof that infringe U.S. Trademark...

  10. 48 CFR 52.247-13 - Accessorial Services-Moving Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Moving Contracts. 52.247-13 Section 52.247-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.247-13 Accessorial Services—Moving Contracts. As prescribed in 47.207-5(c), insert a clause... furniture: Accessorial Services—Moving Contracts (APR 1984) (a) Packing and/or crating and padding....

  11. 21 CFR 878.4200 - Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... catheters (including dialysis), and other general surgical catheters. An introduction/drainage catheter... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories... Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. An introduction/drainage catheter is a...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. 878.4400 Section 878.4400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  13. 46 CFR 38.10-1 - Valves, fittings, and accessories-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... valves to close in case of fire. The quick-closing shutoff valves shall be capable of local manual... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves, fittings, and accessories-TB/ALL. 38.10-1... GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-1 Valves, fittings, and accessories—TB...

  14. Myosin VIIA is a marker for the cone accessory outer segment in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodel, Corinne; Niklaus, Stephanie; Heidemann, Martina; Klooster, Jan; Kamermans, M.; Biehlmaier, Oliver; Gesemann, Matthias; Neuhauss, Stephan C F

    2014-01-01

    The accessory outer segment, a cytoplasmic structure running alongside the photoreceptor outer segment, has been described in teleost fishes, excluding the model organism zebrafish. So far, the function of the accessory outer segment is unknown. Here, we describe the ultrastructure of the zebrafish

  15. A peptide from the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). These glands add various substances to the ejaculate. On mating, the ejaculate is transferred to the female, together with the substances from the male accessory glands. The fun

  16. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    -floor hydrothermal processes involving free circulation of seawater through ocean crust as convection. Heat flow, seafloor fracturing, permeability and fluid composition are the parameters governing the type and extent of mineralization. The chimney like... stream_size 23365 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Refresher_Course_Mar_Geol_Geophys_2007_Lecture_Notes_78.pdf.txt stream_source_info Refresher_Course_Mar_Geol_Geophys_2007_Lecture_Notes_78.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8...

  17. Fast Image Retrieval of Textile Industrial Accessory Based on Multi-Feature Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈文忠; 杨杰

    2004-01-01

    A hierarchical retrieval scheme of the accessory image database is proposed based on textile industrial accessory contour feature and region feature. At first smallest enclosed rectangle[1] feature (degree of accessory coordination) is used to filter the image database to decouple the image search scope. After the accessory contour information and region information are extracted, the fusion multi-feature of the centroid distance Fourier descriptor and distance distribution histogram is adopted to finish image retrieval accurately. All the features above are invariable under translation, scaling and rotation. Results from the test on the image database including 1,000 accessory images demonstrate that the method is effective and practical with high accuracy and fast speed.

  18. Successful accessory renal artery denervation in a patient with resistant hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Atas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal sympathetic denervation is safe and effective in patients with resistant hypertension. In all of the studies of renal artery denervation, patients with accessory renal arteries are excluded. So there is not any data regarding renal sympathetic denervation applied to the accessory renal arteries. We present a young female patient with resistant hypertension despite use of five different antihypertensive drugs. The patient had a well developed (diameter >4 mm left renal accessory. We believe that if we omitted the well developed accessory renal artery, we would not have maintained adequate blood pressure control. Thus, we applied radiofrequency ablation to both renal arteries and left accessory artery. Immediately after the procedure, the patient′s blood pressure was reduced to 110/60 mmHg and this effect was continued during the first month of follow-up.

  19. Successful catheter ablation of a left anterior accessory pathway from the non-coronary cusp of the aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Sérgio; Oliveira, Mário; Trigo, Conceição

    2015-08-01

    Left anterior accessory pathways are considered to be rare findings. Catheter ablation of accessory pathways in this location remains a challenging target, and few reports about successful ablation of these accessory pathways are available. We describe our experience regarding a case of a manifest left anterior accessory pathway ablation using radiofrequency energy at the junction of the left coronary cusp with the non-coronary cusp.

  20. 根区温度对水培生菜生长和矿质元素含量的影响%Effects of root zone temperature on the growth and mineral elements content of hydroponically-grown lettuce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李润儒; 朱月林; 高垣美智子; 矢守航; 杨立飞

    2015-01-01

    The plant growth and mineral elements content were studied in hydroponically-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)under five different root zone temperatures.The results showed that with the increase of root zone temperature,the lettuce yield per plant increased first and then decreased,reaching the maximum value at 25 ℃,and the dry matter content was the highest.Effects of root zone temperature on lettuce leaf net photosyn-thetic rate and the content of mineral elements were similar to the yield.Under the treatment of 35 ℃ root zone temperature,the lettuce growth and mineral elements accumulation were significantly inhibited,and the nitrate content decreased significantly.The results indicated that the most suitable root zone temperature was 25 ℃ for the growth and mineral elements absorption of hydroponically-grown lettuce.%在水培条件下,研究了5个根区温度对生菜(Lactuca sativa L.)生长和矿质元素含量的影响。结果表明:随着根区温度的升高,生菜单株产量呈先增加后减少的趋势,在25℃时达到最大值,且干物质含量最高;根区温度对生菜叶片净光合速率和矿质元素含量的影响与对产量的影响相似,即在25℃时达到最大值。35℃根区温度处理下,根叶生长和地上部矿质元素的积累受到严重阻碍,生菜叶片硝酸盐含量显著下降。在5个根区温度处理中,25℃对水培生菜的生长及矿质元素的吸收最为适宜。

  1. Relationship between development of accessory maxillary sinus and chronic sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to investigate whether there is a relationship between development of accessory maxillary osmium (AMO and chronic sinusitis. Material and Methods: A total of 100 patients who had endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS constituted the study group while 100 patients who had septoplasty were taken as the control group. The patients were examined for the presence of AMO using rigid endoscope. Results: The prevalence of AMO was 14% in the rhinosinusitis group and 9% in the control group. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our study revealed that AMO prevalence is significantly higher in patients with CRS when compared with the controls. CRS may enhance perforation of fontanelle and formation of AMO.

  2. Morphology and protein patterns of honey bee drone accessory glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Landim, Carminda da; Dallacqua, Rodrigo Pires

    2005-09-30

    We used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine the morphology of the accessory glands of immature and mature adult males of Apis mellifera L. We also made an electrophoretic analysis of the protein content of the mature gland. The glands of the immature male actively secrete a mucous substance that can be seen in the lumen of the gland of the mature male. This secretion stains with mercury bromophenol blue and with periodic acid-Schiff reaction, which stain glyconjugates. The protein content was higher in the lumen secretion than in the gland wall extracts. The electrophoresis patterns of the wall extracts were different from those of the secretion found in the gland lumen.

  3. Development of Heat-resistant XLPE Cable and Accessories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Murata, Yoshinao; Kishi, Kouji; Katakai, Shoshi

    We have developed heat-resistant XLPE cable and accessories that can be operated at 105°C as the maximum permissible conductor temperature in normal operation. Through this cable system, greater transmission capacity can be achieved using existing cable ducts and without increasing the conductor size of the cable. We have developed heat-resistant XLPE insulation material which has a higher melting point than that of conventional XLPE. The breakdown strength of heat-resistant XLPE cable at 105°C is almost the same as that of conventional XLPE cable at 90°C. The heat deformation of the new cable at 105°C is almost the same as that of conventional XLPE cable at 90°C. Conventional self-pressurized rubber joints can be applied to heat-resistant cable lines with the new waterproof joint compound with low heat resistivity.

  4. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization are decoupled in organo-mineral fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimüller, Carolin; Mueller, Carsten W.; von Lützow, Margit; Kreyling, Olivia; Kölbl, Angelika; Haug, Stephan; Schloter, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2015-04-01

    To improve our comprehension how carbon and nitrogen mineralization are linked in soils, we used a controlled laboratory mineralization approach and compared carbon and nitrogen dynamics in the bulk soil and in soil fractions. Topsoil of a Rendzic Leptosol from a beech forest site near Tuttlingen, Germany, was fractionated into three particle size classes: sand (2000 to 20 µm), silt (20 to 2 µm), and clay (nitrogen mineralization dynamics, and assessed carbon respiration as well as nitrogen mineralization and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen contents. Soil organic matter in the incubated fractions was considered by a subsequent density fractionation. The chemical composition of selected samples was qualitatively evaluated by 13C-NMR spectroscopy. When summing up the mineralization rates of the single fractions, the values for respired carbon equaled the bulk soil, whereas the mathematical recombination of mineral nitrogen in all fractions was significantly less than in bulk soil. Hence, carbon mineralization was not affected by the damage of the aggregated soil structure via fractionation, whereas nitrogen mineralization was reduced. Fractionation increased the surface area providing accessory mineral surfaces, which allowed new binding of especially nitrogen-rich compounds, besides ammonium fixation via cation exchange. Density fractionation revealed that organic matter in the sand fraction contained mainly particulate organic matter present as light material comprising partly decomposed plant remnants. The organic matter in the clay fraction was mostly adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Organic matter in the sand and in the clay fraction was dominated by O/N-alkyl C indicating low recalcitrance, but the C/N ratio of organic matter narrowed with decreasing particle size. These results also imply that the C/N ratio as well as the alkyl C to O/N-alkyl C ratio are not suitable to draw conclusions regarding biological decomposability of plant residues when

  5. Determination of radon concentration in water using RAD7 with RAD H{sub 2}O accessories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, M. F. I. [Science and Engineering Research Centre (SERC), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan Nibong Tebal 14300 Penang (Malaysia); Rabaiee, N. A.; Jaafar, M. S. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    In the last decade, the radon issue has become one of the major problems of radiation protection. Radon exposure occurs when using water for showering, washing dishes, cooking and drinking water. RAD7 and Rad H20 accessories were used in order to measure radon concentration in water sample. In this study, four types of water were concerns which are reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Reverse osmosis (drinking water) and mineral water were bought from the nearest supermarket while tap water and well water were taken from selected areas of Pulau Pinang and Kedah. Total 20 samples were taken with 5 samples for each type of water. The measured radon concentration ranged from 2.9±2.9 to 79.5±17 pCi/L, 2.9±2.9 to 67.8±16 pCi/L, 15.97±7 to 144.25±24 pCi/L and 374.89±37 to 6409.03±130 pCi/L in reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Well water has the highest radon compared to others. It was due to their geological element such as granite. Results for all types of water are presented and compared with maximum contamination limit (MCL) recommended by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) which is 300pCi/L. Reverse osmosis water, mineral water and tap water were fall below MCL. However, well water was exceeded maximum level that was recommended. Thus, these findings were suggested that an action should be taken to reduce radon concentration level in well water as well as reduce a health risk towards the public.

  6. Leaf vegetables for use in integrated hydroponics and aquaculture systems: Effects of root flooding on growth, mineral composition and nutrient uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trang, Ngo Thuy Diem; Schierup, Hans-Henrik; Brix, Hans

    2010-01-01

    In recirculating aquaculture and hydroponics systems, the waste products from fish production are used to produce vegetables or other crops of economic value, and the water is recirculated to the fish tanks. We studied growth, productivity and nutrient uptake of four leaf vegetable species (Lactuca...... sativa, Ipomoea aquatica, Brassica rapa var. chinensis and Brassica rapa var. parachinensis) in a controlled growth experiment with three root flooding treatments (drained, half-flooded and flooded) to assess their preferred hydroponic growth requirements, biomass production and nutrient removal...... capacities. Growth of the two Brassica varieties was clearly best at drained root conditions, while L. sativa and I. aquatica grew best with half-flooded and flooded roots. I. aquatica took up 3 times more N, P and K per plant than L. sativa, and 4 to 6 times more than the two Brassica varieties. At a plant...

  7. Peroneal spastic flatfoot in adolescents with accessory talar facet impingement: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Hisateru; Aoki, Haruhito; Hirano, Takaaki; Akiyama, Yui; Fujiya, Hiroto

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzed imaging, arthroscopic findings, and treatment responses for peroneal spastic flatfoot (PSFF) caused by talocalcaneal impingement at the accessory anterolateral talar facet (AALTF) (accessory talar facet impingement) in 13 adolescents without histories of trauma and tarsal coalition. The AALTF was determined with computed tomography and MRI. Focal abutting bone marrow edema (FABME) on MRI around the AALTF was confirmed. In seven patients who underwent AALTF resection, subtalar arthroscopy was performed. All experienced alleviation PSFF after treatment; reduction in FABME was observed. AALTF resection alone is beneficial for PSFF caused by accessory talar facet impingement when peroneal spasms are restored by an injection of local anesthesia.

  8. Versatile roles of V-ATPases accessory subunit Ac45 in osteoclast formation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Qin

    Full Text Available Vacuolar-type H(+-ATPases (V-ATPases are macromolecular proton pumps that acidify intracellular cargos and deliver protons across the plasma membrane of a variety of specialized cells, including bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Extracellular acidification is crucial for osteoclastic bone resorption, a process that initiates the dissolution of mineralized bone matrix. While the importance of V-ATPases in osteoclastic resorptive function is well-defined, whether V-ATPases facilitate additional aspects of osteoclast function and/or formation remains largely obscure. Here we report that the V-ATPase accessory subunit Ac45 participates in both osteoclast formation and function. Using a siRNA-based approach, we show that targeted suppression of Ac45 impairs intracellular acidification and endocytosis, both are prerequisite for osteoclastic bone resorptive function in vitro. Interestingly, we find that knockdown of Ac45 also attenuates osteoclastogenesis owing to a reduced fusion capacity of osteoclastic precursor cells. Finally, in an effort to gain more detailed insights into the functional role of Ac45 in osteoclasts, we attempted to generate osteoclast-specific Ac45 conditional knockout mice using a Cathepsin K-Cre-LoxP system. Surprisingly, however, insertion of the neomycin cassette in the Ac45-Flox(Neo mice resulted in marked disturbances in CNS development and ensuing embryonic lethality thus precluding functional assessment of Ac45 in osteoclasts and peripheral bone tissues. Based on these unexpected findings we propose that, in addition to its canonical function in V-ATPase-mediated acidification, Ac45 plays versatile roles during osteoclast formation and function.

  9. Influência do manganês no crescimento e na composição mineral de mudas de caramboleira Influence of manganese on growth and mineral composition of seedlings of star fruit tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hernandes

    2010-12-01

    quantities high enough to limit the normal development of plants in general. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of manganese on growth and chemical composition of star fruit tree, as well as the dry mass of plants. The experimental design was a randomized block, consisted of 4 levels of Mn (0, 0.5, 25 and 50 mg Mn L-1, 4 times of collection (30, 60, 90 and 120 days of employment of the levels of Mn and 3 replications, on seedlings conducted in nutrient solution. Biological and nutritional aspects of star fruit seedlings to identify the most appropriate level of Mn and its effects on growth of this fruitful were evaluated. The levels of Mn and times of collection influenced the contents and the accumulation of Mn, as well as the dry mass depending of the organ examined. There was a linear increase in the levels and accumulation of Mn as a function of increasing levels of manganese in all structures. There was an increase in the efficiency of absorption of Mn with increasing levels, however, decrease the efficiency of transport and use of Mn. The biological parameters evaluated showed the highest average in the concentration of 0.5 mg L-1 Mn.

  10. Influência do manganês sobre a nutrição mineral e crescimento da pimenteira do reino (Piper nigrum, L. Effect of manganese on mineral nutrition and growth of black pepper (Piper nigrum, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.C. Veloso

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available A pimenteira do reino (Piper nigrum, L. vem sendo cultivada em sua maior parte em solos com acidez elevada e balia saturação por bases. O manganês em condições de alta acidez pode provocar toxidez às plantas. Visando estudar os efeitos do manganês nessa cultura foi conduzido um experimento com a cultivar Guajarina em solução nutritiva, O manganês foi fornecido nas concentrações de 0; 10; 20; 30; 40 e 50 mg/L. Na ausência do elemento foram observados sintomas de deficiência e redução no crescimento. O excesso de manganês (30 mg/L na solução nutritiva reduziu o desenvolvimento das plantas e a absorção de P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe e ZN. Observaram-se sintomas de toxidez de manganês a partir da concentração de 20 mg/L, caracterizados por cloróse e pontos necróticos nas folhas.Black pepper (Piper nigrum, L. is usually grown in soils of low natural fertility and high acidity. Under such conditions manganese can cause toxicity to plants. An experiment using young plants of the cultivar Guajarina grown in nutrient solution was carried out in order to verify the effects of rates of manganese on this crop. The manganese was supplied at the concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/L. Excess of manganese (30 mg/L in the nutrient solution caused a reduction in growth and in the uptake of P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe and Zn. Toxicity symptoms were chlorosis and necrotic dots in the leaves, when the level of supply was 20 mg/L or higher.

  11. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  12. Rice GTPase OsRacB: Potential Accessory Factor in Plant Salt-stress Signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min LUO; Su-Hai GU; Shu-Hui ZHAO; Fang ZHANG; Nai-Hu WU

    2006-01-01

    As the sole ubiquitous signal small guanosine triphosphate-binding protein in plants, Rop gene plays an important role in plant growth and development. In this study, we focus on the relationship between the novel rice Rop gene OsRacB and plant salt tolerance. Results show that OsRacB transcription is highly accumulated in roots after treatment with salinity, but only slightly accumulated in stems and leaves under the same treatment. Promoter analysis showed that OsRacB promoter is induced by salinity and exogenous salicylic acid, not abscisic acid. To elucidate its physiological function, we generated OsRacB sense and antisense transgenic tobacco and rice. Under proper salinity treatment, sense transgenic plants grew much better than the control. This suggests that overexpression of OsRacB in tobacco and rice can improve plant salt tolerance. But under the same treatment, no difference could be observed between OsRacB antisense plants and the control. The results indicated that OsRacB is only an accessory factor in plant salt tolerance.

  13. Detection and sequence analysis of accessory gene regulator genes of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ananda Chitra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP is the major pathogenic species of dogs involved in a wide variety of skin and soft tissue infections. The accessory gene regulator (agr locus of Staphylococcus aureus has been extensively studied, and it influences the expression of many virulence genes. It encodes a two-component signal transduction system that leads to down-regulation of surface proteins and up-regulation of secreted proteins during in vitro growth of S. aureus. The objective of this study was to detect and sequence analyzing the AgrA, B, and D of SP isolated from canine skin infections. Materials and Methods: In this study, we have isolated and identified SP from canine pyoderma and otitis cases by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and confirmed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Primers for SP agrA and agrBD genes were designed using online primer designing software and BLAST searched for its specificity. Amplification of the agr genes was carried out for 53 isolates of SP by PCR and sequencing of agrA, B, and D were carried out for five isolates and analyzed using DNAstar and Mega5.2 software. Results: A total of 53 (59% SP isolates were obtained from 90 samples. 15 isolates (28% were confirmed to be methicillinresistant SP (MRSP with the detection of the mecA gene. Accessory gene regulator A, B, and D genes were detected in all the SP isolates. Complete nucleotide sequences of the above three genes for five isolates were submitted to GenBank, and their accession numbers are from KJ133557 to KJ133571. AgrA amino acid sequence analysis showed that it is mainly made of alpha-helices and is hydrophilic in nature. AgrB is a transmembrane protein, and AgrD encodes the precursor of the autoinducing peptide (AIP. Sequencing of the agrD gene revealed that the 5 canine SP strains tested could be divided into three Agr specificity groups (RIPTSTGFF, KIPTSTGFF, and RIPISTGFF based on the putative AIP produced by each strain

  14. Growth and wood properties of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) in nursing mixtures established on nitrogen-deficient mineral soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, A.D.; Watson, B.A. [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Forestry

    2000-07-01

    Rate of growth and wood properties of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) were investigated in triplet mixtures with lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Loud.) (Alaskan provenance) and Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr.), established on nitrogen-deficient, iron pan soils. These 'nursing' mixtures were compared with pure stands of Sitka spruce that had been either regularly or periodically fertilized with nitrogen. Japanese larch promoted a growth rate in Sitka spruce greater than that achieved in the lodgepole pine-nursed spruce and equivalent to the two pure spruce treatments over the duration of the experiment (current age 28 yrs). Growth of regularly fertilized pure Sitka spruce was not significantly greater than that of periodically fertilized pure spruce. Alaskan lodgepole pine controlled branch size on the lower part of the spruce stems more effectively than the other treatments, although this may have been a function of tree size. Branch characteristics of Japanese larch-nursed spruce, however, were similar to those of the pure spruce treatments. Japanese larch caused an imbalance in crown development in the spruce, although it is unclear from the present study whether this will have an influence on stem and wood quality by the end of the rotation. Overall, the evidence from this study suggests that Japanese larch is an effective nurse of Sitka spruce on nitrogen-deficient iron pans, maintaining a rate of growth similar to that of pure Sitka spruce periodically fertilized with nitrogen and higher than that observed in spruce nursed by Alaskan lodgepole pine.

  15. Mineralization by inhibitor exclusion: the calcification of collagen with fetuin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Paul A; Toroian, Damon; Lim, Joo Eun

    2009-06-19

    One of our goals is to understand the mechanisms that deposit mineral within collagen fibrils, and as a first step we recently determined the size exclusion characteristics of the fibril. This study revealed that apatite crystals up to 12 unit cells in size can access the water within the fibril, whereas molecules larger than a 40-kDa protein are excluded. Based on these observations, we proposed a novel mechanism for fibril mineralization: that macromolecular inhibitors of apatite growth favor fibril mineralization by selectively inhibiting crystal growth in the solution outside of the fibril. To test this mechanism, we developed a system in which crystal formation is driven by homogeneous nucleation at high calcium phosphate concentration and the only macromolecule in solution is fetuin, a 48-kDa inhibitor of apatite growth. Our experiments with this system demonstrated that fetuin determines the location of mineral growth; in the presence of fetuin mineral grows exclusively within the fibril, whereas in its absence mineral grows in solution outside the fibril. Additional experiments showed that fetuin is also able to localize calcification to the interior of synthetic matrices that have size exclusion characteristics similar to those of collagen and that it does so by selectively inhibiting mineral growth outside of these matrices. We termed this new calcification mechanism "mineralization by inhibitor exclusion," the selective mineralization of a matrix using a macromolecular inhibitor of mineral growth that is excluded from that matrix. Future studies will be needed to evaluate the possible role of this mechanism in bone mineralization.

  16. The Online Marketing Research on the Factors of Competitiveness of Enterprises in the Computer Accessory Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashkina Oksana I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at identifyng the factors of competitiveness of enterprises in the market for computer accessories (on the example of the «ZONA51» store and suggesting certain actions as to creating and strengthening competitive advantages. The main competitors of the enterprise, which offer computer accessories, as well as the basic preferences of consumers in choosing the game-oriented computer accessories, have been explored. The study has found that price and active Internet communications are the main factors in the competitiveness of enterprises in the market for computer accessories. It is also important to use communicative channels such as «word-of-mouth marketing» for specific types of goods. The target audience of the products analyzed is young people, so it is also important to advertise resources near the places of youth gatherings to provide active communications. Further studies should consider the factors of competitiveness of Internet shops with different orientation.

  17. Expression of accessory molecules and cytokines in acute EAE in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laman, J.D.; Meurs, M. van; Schellekens, M.M.; Boer, M. de; Melchers, B.; Massacesi, L.; Lassmann, H.; Claassen, E.; Hart, B.A. 't

    1998-01-01

    Accessory molecules and cytokines are involved in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rodent models, and are potential targets for immunotherapy. Evaluation of such experimental therapies requires appropriate animal models. Therefo

  18. Ultrastructure of the accessory venom gland of the puff-adder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    venom duct and accessory glands were perfused while being stimulated electrically. Total protein .... venom produced for indefinite periods; an outlet (or con- trol) system is necessary as in mammalian salivary glands where there exists an ...

  19. 49 CFR 398.5 - Parts and accessories necessary for safe operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF MIGRANT WORKERS § 398.5 Parts and accessories necessary for safe operation. (a... worker transported. The seats shall be: Securely attached to the vehicle during the course...

  20. 77 FR 46633 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Brakes; Adjustment Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... RIN 2126-AB28 Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Brakes; Adjustment Limits AGENCY... Safety Administration (FMCSA) amends the requirements regarding brake readjustment limits in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs). This rule amends the readjustment limits, clarifies...

  1. Defective Tbx2-dependent patterning of the atrioventricular canal myocardium causes accessory pathway formation in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanhaanen, W.T.J.; Boukens, B.J.D.; Sizarov, A.; Wakker, V.; de Gier- de Vries, C.; van Ginneken, A.C.; Moorman, A.F.M.; Coronel, R.; Christoffels, V.M.

    2011-01-01

    Ventricular preexcitation, a feature of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, is caused by accessory myocardial pathways that bypass the annulus fibrosus. This condition increases the risk of atrioventricular tachycardia and, in the presence of atrial fibrillation, sudden death. The developmental

  2. Manual therapy of the mandibular accessory ligaments for the management of temporomandibular joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Antonino Marco; Caradonna, Carola; Caradonna, Domenico

    2011-02-01

    Temporomandibular joint disorders are characterized by chronic or acute musculoskeletal or myofascial pain with dysfunction of the masticatory system. Treatment modalities include occlusal splints, patient education, activity modification, muscle and joint exercises, myofascial therapy, acupuncture, and manipulative therapy. In the physiology of the temporomandibular joint, accessory ligaments limit the movement of the mandible. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy of accessory ligaments is necessary for good clinical management of temporomandibular joint disorders. Although general principles regarding the anatomy of the ligaments are relatively clear, very little substantiated information on the dimension, orientation, and function of the ligaments has been published, to the authors' knowledge. The authors review the literature concerning the accessory ligaments of the temporomandibular joint and describe treatment options, including manual techniques for mobilizing the accessory ligaments.

  3. One nose, one brain: contribution of the main and accessory olfactory system to chemosensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eMucignat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The accessory olfactory system is present in most tetrapods. It is involved in the perception of chemical stimuli, being implicated also in the detection of pheromone. However, it is sensitive also to some common odorant molecules, which have no clear implication in intraspecific chemical communication. The accessory olfactory system may complement the main olfactory system, and may contribute different perceptual features to the construction of a unitary representation, which merges the different chemosensory qualities. Crosstalk between the main and accessory olfactory systems occurs at different levels of central processing, in brain areas where the inputs from the two systems converge. Interestingly, centrifugal projections from more caudal brain areas are deeply involved in modulating both main and accessory sensory processing. A high degree of interaction between the two systems may be conceived, and partial overlapping appears to occur in many functions. Therefore, the central chemosensory projections merge inputs from different organs to obtain a complex chemosensory picture.

  4. Clinico-embryological perspective of a rare accessory brachial muscle with possible musculocutaneous nerve compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, V; Yadav, Y; Arora, Jyoti; Kumar, H; Suri, R K; Rath, G

    2009-03-01

    Both brachialis and biceps brachii are primary flexors of the arm and elbow from the biomechanical perspective. Numerous reports exist in anatomical literature regarding accessory heads of biceps brachii, although such accessory bellies in relation to brachialis muscle are less frequently elucidated. We report a unilateral case of a rare accessory muscle interposed between the biceps brachii and brachialis, having the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) entrapped between the two. Furthermore, the muscle divided into two slips, upper slip was attached to biceps brachii and the other gained insertion to the brachial fascia. Innervation to this accessory muscle was derived from MCN. The embryological basis for such supernumerary muscle is discussed. Additionally, the case is considered under surgical and clinical perspective, highlighting the importance of familiarity with such variations. Anatomical variations of the brachial musculature may cause diagnostic perplexities while interpreting MRI or CT scans.

  5. An accessory ossification centre in the calcaneus with talonavicular and second metatarsocuneiform coalitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhan, A.U.; Aydin, H.; Aynaci, O. [KTU Farabi Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Trabzon (Turkey); Dinc, H. [KTU Farabi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Trabzon (Turkey)

    1999-04-01

    We present the case of an 11-year-old girl with an accessory ossification centre of the calcaneus with talonavicular and second metatarsocuneiform coalitions, and bilateral os tibiale externum. (orig.) With 3 figs., 4 refs.

  6. Growth and Phosphorus Uptake of Oat (Arena nuda L.) as Affected by Mineral Nitrogen Forms Supplied in Hydroponics and Soil Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Ming-Shou; LI Zhen; WANG Feng-Mei; ZHANG Jian-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Plants show different growth responses to N sources supplied with either NH4+ or NO3-.The uptake of different N sources also affects the rhizosphere pH and therefore the bioavailability of soil phosphorus,particularly in alkaline soils.The plant growth,P uptake,and P availability in the rhizosphere of oat (Arena nuda L.) grown in hydroponics and in soil culture were investigated under supply with sole NH4+-N,sole NO3--N,or a combination.Sole NO3-fed oat plants accumulated more biomass than sole NH4+-fed ones.The highest biomass accumulation was observed when N was supplied with both NH4+-N and NO3--N.Growth of the plant root increased with the proportion of NO3-in the cultural medium.Better root growth and higher root/shoot ratio were consistently observed in NO3--fed plants.However,root vigor was the highest when N was supplied with NO3-+NH4+.NH4+ supply reduced the rhizosphere pH but did not affect P uptake by plants grown in soils with CaHPO4 added as P source.No P deficiency was observed,and plant P concentrations were generally above 2 g kg-1.P uptake was increased when N was supplied partly or solely as NO3--N,similarly as biomass accumulation.The results suggested that oat was an NO3-prcferring plant,and NO3--N was essential for plant growth and the maintenance of root absorption capacity.N supply with NH4+-N did not improve P nutrition,which was most likely due to the absence of P deficiency.

  7. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  8. Growth and Evolution of the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India: Mineral and Whole rock Chemical Evidence for Intracrustal Melting and Magmatic Petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlupet Rangasetty, R.; Chettootty, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) constitutes an important lower crustal segment in the southern Indian granulite terrain. Dominant rock types, except sillimanite bearing gneisses, are classified as sodic and potassic granitoids and a general supracrustal origin is ascribed to these rocks. We present here new results from our studies on mineral and whole rock major- and trace-element and REE systematic of major litho units of the belt. We address the petrogenesis, physical conditions during crystallization and tectonic setting of KKB rocks. Granitoids (gneiss and variants of charnockites) makeup more than 70% of exposed rock types in KKB. They are classified as sodic and potassic groups based on K2O/Na2O ratios. Mineral chemical analysis of granitoids, especially biotites from different groups document igneous parentage and as potential indicator of nature of the magma. Biotites from sodic group are Mg2+-rich (XMg:0.47-0.63), denote calc-alkaline host in contrast to those from potassic groups, which are Fe2+-types with much lower XMg (0.37-0.44) and suggest an alkaline host. Biotites in potassic group are poorer in A12O3 than sodic, indicating evolved nature of the magmatic protolith. Decrease in ΣAl with increasing Fe/(Fe+Mg) values of biotites indicate progressive oxidising condition during magma evolution. Compositional variation of biotite allow us to speculate that the host magmas of sodic charnockites as calc-alkaline, arc-type with features typical of Archaean TTGs and potassic groups as partial melts of meta-igneous lower crust with little mantle contribution. The sodic group has geochemical affinity to Archaean tonalities with low-K, calc-alkaline, metaluminous to peraluminous chemistry. Compositionally contrasting K-rich rocks are essentially of granitic composition. Most oxides in both the groups, with exceptions of K2O and Na2O, show negative correlation with SiO2. The sodic group is enriched in Sr and depleted in Rb and Th. They exhibit geochemical

  9. Accessory brachialis muscle associated with high division of brachial artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamurthy A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available During routine dissection for the undergraduate students in the Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, of a male cadaver aged 73 years, we encountered an additional slip of brachialis muscle taking origin in the flexor compartment of left arm and inserting into the forearm. The origin of the additional muscle belly was from the anteromedial surface of shaft and medial supracondylar ridge of lower end of humerus. The additional muscle slip merged with the tendon of pronator teres before inserting on the lateral surface of the shaft of radius. The median nerve pierced the muscle at a distance of 6 cm from the medial epicondyle of humerus, supplied it and had a routine course later. Associated with the muscular abnormality was the high division of brachial artery into radial and ulnar arteries 17.5 cm from the medial epicondyle. The ulnar artery passed beneath the accessory brachialis muscle along with the median nerve. The role of additional muscles in compression syndrome is a well known phenomenon. The altered anatomy of the blood vessels may make them more vulnerable to trauma and to hemorrhage but at the same time more accessible for cannulation. Medical fraternity including orthopedicians and neurologists need to be aware of such variations when dealing with upper limb injuries or operations around the elbow joint.

  10. Accessory cardiac bronchus: Proposed imaging classification on multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Min; Kim, Young Tong; Han, Jong Kyu; Jou, Sung Shick [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To propose the classification of accessory cardiac bronchus (ACB) based on imaging using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), and evaluate follow-up changes of ACB. This study included 58 patients diagnosed as ACB since 9 years, using MDCT. We analyzed the types, division locations and division directions of ACB, and also evaluated changes on follow-up. We identified two main types of ACB: blind-end (51.7%) and lobule (48.3%). The blind-end ACB was further classified into three subtypes: blunt (70%), pointy (23.3%) and saccular (6.7%). The lobule ACB was also further classified into three subtypes: complete (46.4%), incomplete (28.6%) and rudimentary (25%). Division location to the upper half bronchus intermedius (79.3%) and medial direction (60.3%) were the most common in all patients. The difference in division direction was statistically significant between the blind-end and lobule types (p = 0.019). Peribronchial soft tissue was found in five cases. One calcification case was identified in the lobule type. During follow-up, ACB had disappeared in two cases of the blind-end type and in one case of the rudimentary subtype. The proposed classification of ACB based on imaging, and the follow-up CT, helped us to understand the various imaging features of ACB.

  11. Cummins MD & HD Accessory Hybridization CRADA -Annual Report FY15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deter, Dean D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    There are many areas of MD and HD vehicles that can be improved by new technologies and optimized control strategies. Component optimization and idle reduction need to be addressed, this is best done by a two part approach that includes selecting the best component technology, and/or architecture, and optimized controls that are vehicle focused. While this is a common focus in the light duty industry it has been gaining momentum in the MD and HD market as the market gets more competitive and the regulations become more stringent. When looking into systems optimization and idle reduction technologies, affected vehicle systems must first be considered, and if possible included in the new architecture to get the most benefit out of these new capabilities. Typically, when looking into idle reduction or component optimization for MD/HD, the vehicle s accessories become a prime candidate for electrification or hybridization. While this has already been studied on light duty vehicles (especially on hybrids and electric vehicles) it has not made any head way or market penetration in most MD and HD applications. If hybrids and electric MD and HD vehicles begin to break into the market this would be a necessary step into the ability to make those vehicles successful by allowing for independent, optimized operation separate from the engine.

  12. Dynamic expression pattern of kinesin accessory protein in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ritu Sarpal; Krishanu Ray

    2002-09-01

    We have identified the Drosophila homologue of the non-motor accessory subunit of kinesin-II motor complex. It is homologous to the SpKAP115 of the sea urchin, KAP3A and KAP3B of the mouse, and SMAP protein in humans. In situ hybridization using a DmKAP specific cRNA probe has revealed a dynamic pattern of expression in the developing nervous system. The staining first appears in a subset of cells in the embryonic central nervous system at stage 13 and continues till the first instar larva stage. At the third instar larva stage the staining gets restricted to a few cells in the optic lobe and in the ventral ganglion region. It has also stained a subset of sensory neurons from late stage 13 and till the first instar larva stage. The DmKAP expression pattern in the nervous system corresponds well with that of Klp64D and Klp68D as reported earlier. In addition, we have found that the DmKAP gene is constitutively expressed in the germline cells and in follicle cells during oogenesis. These cells are also stained using an antibody to KLP68D protein, but mRNA in situ hybridization using KLP64D specific probe has not stained these cells. Together these results proved a basis for further analysis of tissue specific function of DmKAP in future.

  13. Guyons canal syndrome due to accessory palmaris longus muscle: aetiological classification: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Ramavath Ashok; Raj, Sakamuri

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Accessory muscles and anatomic variations are well described at the Guyon's canal. Though this case report is similar to variants published in previous reports, it differs from the rest due to rapidity of worsening of symptoms in few months following use of cane. Case presentation We report a case of 69 year old man with ulnar nerve compression at Guyon's canal by accessory palmaris longus arose from distal third palmaris longus and from deep fascia of forearm. The hypertrophied ...

  14. Biosynthesis of Active Bacillus subtilis Urease in the Absence of Known Urease Accessory Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Kyong; Mulrooney, Scott B.; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2005-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis contains urease structural genes but lacks the accessory genes typically required for GTP-dependent incorporation of nickel. Nevertheless, B. subtilis was shown to possess a functional urease, and the recombinant enzyme conferred low levels of nickel-dependent activity to Escherichia coli. Additional investigations of the system lead to the suggestion that B. subtilis may use unidentified accessory proteins for in vivo urease activation.

  15. Centrifugal telencephalic afferent connections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia eMohedanoMoriano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Parallel to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, which in turn project to adjacent areas of the telencephalon, respectively. New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs partially converge in the rostral telencephalon and are non-overlapping at caudal telencephalic levels. Therefore, the basal telencephalon should be reclassified in olfactory, vomeronasal and mixed areas. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virtually all olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures send reciprocal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Further, non-chemosensory recipient structures also projects centrifugally to the olfactory bulbs. These feed-back projections appear to be essential modulating processing of chemosensory information. The present work aims at characterizing centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs arising from olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic areas. This issue has been addressed by using tracer injections in the rat and mouse brain. Tracer injections were delivered into the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as in olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic structures. The results confirm that olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Interestingly, olfactory (e.g., piriform cortex, vomeronasal (e.g., posteromedial cortical amygdala, mixed (e.g., the medial amygdala and non-chemosensory-recipient (e.g., the nucleus of the diagonal band structures project to the main and to the accessory olfactory bulbs thus providing the possibility of simultaneous modulation and interaction of both systems at different stages of chemosensory processing.

  16. Properties of Phase Transition of Traffic Flow on Urban Expressway Systems with Ramps and Accessory Roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅超群; 刘业进

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a cellular automaton model to describe the phase transition of traffic flow on urban expressway systems with on-off-ramps and accessory roads. The lane changing rules are given in detailed, the numerical results show that the main road and the accessory road both produce phase transitions. These phase transitions will omen be influenced by the number of lanes, lane changing, the ramp flow, the input flow rate, and the geometry structure.

  17. Centrifugal telencephalic afferent connections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; de Moya-Pinilla, Miguel; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2012-01-01

    Parallel to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, which in turn project to adjacent areas of the telencephalon, respectively. New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs partially converge in the rostral telencephalon and are non-overlapping at caudal telencephalic levels. Therefore, the basal telencephalon should be reclassified in olfactory, vomeronasal, and mixed areas. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virtually all olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures send reciprocal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Further, non-chemosensory recipient structures also projects centrifugally to the olfactory bulbs. These feed-back projections appear to be essential modulating processing of chemosensory information. The present work aims at characterizing centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs arising from olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic areas. This issue has been addressed by using tracer injections in the rat and mouse brain. Tracer injections were delivered into the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as in olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic structures. The results confirm that olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Interestingly, olfactory (e.g., piriform cortex), vomeronasal (e.g., posteromedial cortical amygdala), mixed (e.g., the anterior medial amygdaloid nucleus), and non-chemosensory-recipient (e.g., the nucleus of the diagonal band) structures project to the main and to the accessory olfactory bulbs thus providing the possibility of simultaneous modulation and interaction of both systems at different stages of chemosensory processing

  18. CT demonstration of accessory nasal turbinates: secondary middle turbinate and bifid inferior turbinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksungur, Erol H. [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Bicakci, Kenan [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Inal, Mehmet [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Akguel, Erol [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Binokay, Figen [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Aydogan, Barlas [Department of ENT, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Oguz, Mahmut [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey)

    1999-09-01

    Normally, there are three pairs of nasal turbinates in the nasal cavity. Coronal computed tomographies of 253 cases of sinusitis were examined for the presence of additional turbinates and bilateral secondary middle turbinates were detected in two cases. Also, we describe another accessory turbinate, 'bifid inferior turbinate', in one of these cases. Existence of these accessory turbinates may occur during embryologic development of lateral nasal wall.

  19. Use-dependent properties of flecainide acetate in accessory atrioventricular pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, J; Helmy, I; Katzung, B; Scheinman, M

    1994-01-01

    Flecainide acetate has been shown to have use-dependent properties. The use-dependent properties of flecainide were evaluated in 20 patients (13 men and 7 women, mean age 32 +/- 11 years) with accessory atrioventricular connections. Twenty to 30 stimulus drive trains were introduced in either the atrium or ventricle at progressively faster rates. The range of cycle lengths over which anterograde and retrograde conduction block occurred in the accessory pathway was assessed in the drug-free state and after oral loading with flecainide acetate. The block cycle length index was defined as the shortest cycle length during which 1:1 conduction was maintained in the accessory pathway minus the longest cycle length during which block in the accessory pathway occurred on the second paced beat. In the drug-free state, the (mean +/- SD) anterograde and retrograde block cycle length indexes were 20 +/- 12 and 20 +/- 9 ms, respectively. After flecainide therapy, the anterograde and retrograde block cycle length indexes increased to 80 +/- 33 and 65 +/- 29 ms, respectively (p = 0.002 compared with the drug-free state). The block cycle length index did not correlate with serum flecainide levels, but did correlate with other electrophysiologic markers of drug effect on accessory pathway conduction. The change in the block cycle length index demonstrates that flecainide has a progressive effect on accessory pathway conduction at more rapid rates, consistent with its in vitro use-dependent properties. This index is an excellent marker of drug efficacy.

  20. Incidence and morphology of accessory heads of flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus (Gantzer's muscles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    JONES, M.; ABRAHAMS, P. H.; SAÑUDO, J. R.; CAMPILLO, M.

    1997-01-01

    In 1813 Gantzer described 2 accessory muscles in the human forearm which bear his name (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Testut, 1884; Le Double, 1897). The more frequent of the 2 accessory muscles or ‘accessorius ad pollicem’ was found to arise from the coronoid process of the ulna, coursing distally to attach into the flexor pollicis longus muscle (flexor pollicis longus accessory head, FPLah). The less frequently observed or ‘accessorius ad flexorem profundum digitorum’ was again found to arise from the coronoid process and course to join into the flexor digitorum profundus (flexor digitorum profundus accessory head, FDPah). Since their initial description, they have been examined in further detail by a number of authors (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Le Double, 1897; Dykes & Anson, 1944; Mangini, 1960; Malhotra et al. 1982; Dellon & McKinnon, 1987; Kida, 1988). These studies, most of them focusing on the FPLah, all show different results of prevalence, origin, insertion, relations and nerve supply. We undertook this study with the aim of providing a more accurate account of the detailed morphology of both accessory muscles because of the above-mentioned inconsistent anatomical descriptions and the lack of information as to important aspects such as vascular supply, morphology (shape and length) and the coexistence of both accessory heads. PMID:9419002

  1. Fibroadenoma of the axillary accessory breast: diagnostic value of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Munehisa; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Takeuchi, Taizo; Tamaki, Takeshi; Oura, Shoji

    2010-10-01

    Accessory breast is synonymous with polymastia or supernumerary breast tissue. An accessory breast without a nipple or areola is rare. We report a case of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast with no nipple or areola in a 41-year-old woman who presented with a right axillary mass associated with five small nodules in the normally situated breast. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the accessory breast surrounding the tumor. We ignored the presence of the component surrounding the mass and made a preoperative diagnosis of an axillary mass of possible metastases from multiple breast cancers or breast cancer of unknown origin associated with multiple breast fibroadenomas. From a retrospective view, based on the histological results, MRI and dynamic MRI demonstrated a tiny component of breast-like tissue surrounding the axillary mass and an enhancement pattern typical of fibroadenoma for the axillary mass. For the later diagnosis of the axillary mass, the interpretation of whether the component of breast tissue surrounding the axillary mass was present is crucial. If the component exists, a tumor that originated from the accessory breast should be foremost in the differential diagnosis. Dynamic MRI appears to contribute to the diagnosis of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast before biopsy or surgical resection.

  2. The scolopidial accessory organs and Nebenorgans in orthopteroid insects: Comparative neuroanatomy, mechanosensory function, and evolutionary origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes

    2017-09-18

    Scolopidial sensilla in insects often form large sensory organs involved in proprioception or exteroception. Here the knowledge on Nebenorgans and accessory organs, two organs consisting of scolopidial sensory cells, is summarised. These organs are present in some insects which are model organisms for the physiology of mechanosensory systems (cockroaches and tettigoniids). Recent comparative studies documented the accessory organ in several taxa of Orthoptera (including tettigoniids, cave crickets, Jerusalem crickets) and the Nebenorgan in related insects (Mantophasmatodea). The accessory organ or Nebenorgan is usually a small organ of 8-15 sensilla located in the posterior leg tibia of all leg pairs. The physiological properties of the accessory organs and Nebenorgans are so far largely unknown. Taking together neuroanatomical and electrophysiological data from disparate taxa, there is considerable evidence that the accessory organ and Nebenorgan are vibrosensitive. They thus complement the larger vibrosensitive subgenual organ in the tibia. This review summarises the comparative studies of these sensory organs, in particular the arguments and criteria for the homology of the accessory organ and Nebenorgan among orthopteroid insects. Different scenarios of repeated evolutionary origins or losses of these sensory organs are discussed. Neuroanatomy allows to distinguish individual sensory organs for analysis of sensory physiology, and to infer scenarios of sensory evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone: correlation with surgical and pathologic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Kyung Tai; Kim, Eun Kyung [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone and to correlate these with the surgical and pathologic findings. The MR images of 17 patients with medial foot pain and surgically proven type II accessory navicular abnormalities were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity in the accessory navicular, synchondrosis and adjacent soft tissue, the presence of synchondrosis widening, and posterior tibial tendon (PTT) pathology on the T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were analyzed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the surgical and pathologic findings. The fat-suppressed T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in the accessory navicular bones and synchondroses in all patients, and in the soft tissue in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients, as well as synchondrosis widening in 3 (17.6%) of the 17 patients. The MR images showed tendon pathology in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients with PTT dysfunction at surgery. The pathologic findings of 16 surgical specimens included areas of osteonecrosis with granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and destruction of the cartilage cap. The MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone are a persistent edema pattern in the accessory navicular bone and within the synchondrosis, indicating osteonecrosis, inflammation and destruction of the cartilage cap. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was clinically evident in most patients.

  4. Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen: Investigative Dilemmas and Role of EUS-Guided FNA for Diagnostic Confirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somashekar G Krishna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Context We submit a case of intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Case report A 33-year-old patient with history of dyspepsia underwent imaging studies suggestive of a neuroendocrine tumor. After referral to our institute, endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA confirmed diagnosis as intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Discussion An accessory spleen may develop from estranged mesenchymal cells due to fusion failure of the splenic anlage. The prevalence of an accessory spleen is 10-30% with 80% of them present at the splenic hilum and 17% in the pancreatic tail. Intrapancreatic accessory spleen is commonly misdiagnosed as a pancreatic tumor. Since, the differential diagnosis includes pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, additional investigation with EUS-FNA should be considered when radiological diagnosis is not definitive. Conclusion For diagnosis of intrapancreatic accessory spleen, radiographic imaging is useful, but lacks specificity without tissue diagnosis. Diagnosis can be safely and reliably established with EUS-FNA, leading to a benign prognosis and avoidance of unnecessary surgical intervention.

  5. Ammonium and nitrate uptake, nitrogen productivity and biomass allocation in interior spruce families with contrasting growth rates and mineral nutrient preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brad D; Hawkins, Barbara J

    2007-06-01

    Four full-sib families of interior spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) x Picea engelmanii Parry ex Engelm.) with contrasting growth rates (two fast-growing and two slow-growing families) were grown aeroponically with either a 2% relative nitrogen addition rate or free access to nitrogen. Fast-growing families showed greater plasticity in allocating biomass to shoots at high nitrogen supply and to roots at low nitrogen supply than slow-growing families. Compared with the slow-growing families, short-term net ammonium uptake rate measured with an ion selective electrode was significantly greater in fast-growing families at high ammonium supply, but not at low supply. Net nitrate uptake showed the same trend, but differences among families were not significant. Results indicate that differences in seedling growth rate are partly a result of physiological differences in net nitrogen uptake efficiency and nitrogen productivity.

  6. Influence of mineralizer agents on the growth of crystalline CeO{sub 2} nanospheres by the microwave-hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deus, R.C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista-Unesp - Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333 Bairro Portal das Colinas, CEP 12516-410 Guaratingueta-SP (Brazil); Cilense, M.; Foschini, C.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista-Unesp - Instituto de Quimica - Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica (LIEC), Rua Professor Francisco Degni s/n, CEP 14800-90 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Ramirez, M.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista-Unesp - Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333 Bairro Portal das Colinas, CEP 12516-410 Guaratingueta-SP (Brazil); Longo, E. [Universidade Estadual Paulista-Unesp - Instituto de Quimica - Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica (LIEC), Rua Professor Francisco Degni s/n, CEP 14800-90 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Simoes, A.Z., E-mail: alezipo@yahoo.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista-Unesp - Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333 Bairro Portal das Colinas, CEP 12516-410 Guaratingueta-SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba-Unifei - Campus Itabira, Rua Sao Paulo, 377 Bairro Amazonas, CEP 35900-37 Itabira, MG (Brazil)

    2013-02-15

    Cystalline ceria (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple and fast microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) under NaOH, KOH, and NH{sub 4}OH mineralizers added to a cerium ammonium nitrate aqueous solution. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed-IR and Raman spectroscopies. Rietveld refinement reveals a cubic structure with a space group Fm3m while infrared data showed few traces of nitrates. Field emission scanning microcopy (FEG-SEM) revealed a homogeneous size distribution of nanometric CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The MAH process in KOH and NaOH showed most effective to dehydrate the adsorbed water and decrease the hydrogen bonding effect leaving a weakly agglomerated powder of hydrated ceria. TEM micrographs of CeO{sub 2} synthesized under MAH conditions reveal particles well-dispersed and homogeneously distributed. The MAH enabled cerium oxide to be synthesized at 100 Degree-Sign C for 8 min.

  7. Effects of high dietary contents of calcium and phosphorus on mineral metabolism and growth of vitamin D-deficient suckling and weaned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S A; Boass, A; Toverud, S U

    1987-07-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that normalization of the plasma calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations by dietary means in vitamin D-deficient rat pups will prevent rickets. From day 6 of pregnancy rats were given a vitamin D-free diet containing 1.6% Ca and 1.4% P (-D 1.6) which normalized plasma Ca during lactation. Pups weaned from these mothers, and continuing on the -D 1.6 diet until 56 days of age, had a mean plasma Ca value of 8.6 +/- 0.2 mg/dl and were not significantly different from pups fed a vitamin D-replete diet with 0.4% Ca and 0.4% P in the following parameters: body weight (mean +/- SE for -D 1.6 rats: 197 +/- 4 g), percent bone ash (53 +/- 0.5), and tibia epiphyseal cartilage width (385 +/- 26 micron). In contrast, pups consuming the vitamin D-free diet with 0.4% Ca and 0.4% P had plasma Ca of 4.9 +/- 0.2 mg/dl, body weight of 156 +/- 4 g, reduced bone ash (45 +/- 0.5%) and abnormally wide epiphyseal cartilage (727 +/- 113 micron). Thus, elevating the plasma Ca level of vitamin D-deficient rat pups by dietary means can normalize body weight, epiphyseal cartilage width and bone mineral content.

  8. Comparative study of the pathogenicity of seabed isolates of Fusarium equiseti and the effect of the composition of the mineral salt medium and temperature on mycelial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmero, D; de Cara, M; Iglesias, C; Gálvez, L; Tello, J C

    2011-07-01

    The pathogenicity of seven strains of Fusarium equiseti isolated from seabed soil was evaluated on different host plants showing pre and post emergence damage. Radial growth of 27 strains was measured on culture media previously adjusted to different osmotic potentials with either KCl or NaCl (-1.50 to -144.54 bars) at 15°, 25° and 35° C. Significant differences and interactive effects were observed in the response of mycelia to osmotic potential and temperature.

  9. Uranium mineralization in the muscovite-rich granites of the Shalatin region, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The younger granitoids of the Shalatin district in the Southeastern Desert of Egypt, are of biotite and two-mica granite compositions. The geochemistry of rare-earth elements ( REE), yttrium, thorium and uranium forms the basis for many important methods to reconstruct igneous petrogenesis. Since the recognition that REE, Y, Th, U-rich accessories may play an important role in controlling the geochemistry of crustal melts, a considerable amount of work has been done in an attempt to understand their effects. However, this effort has been almost exclusively focused on three minerals: zircon, monazite and apatite. Nevertheless, the variety of REE-Th-U-rich accessories in granite rocks are neither limited to these three minerals nor are they always the main REE, Y, Th carriers. The geochemistry of REE, Y, Th and U reflects the behavior of accessories and some key major minerals such as garnet and feldspars, and may therefore give valuable information about the conditions of partial melting, melt segregation and crystallization of granite magmas in different crustal regimes. The geochemistry of U and Th during magmatic differentiation has been studied in many granites from different areas and it has been known that the U and Th contents of granitic rocks generally increase during differentiation, although in some cases they decrease. The Th/U ratio can either increase or decrease, depending on redox conditions, the volatile content or alteration by endogene or supergene solutions. The accessory assemblage of muscovite-rich granites and high-grade rocks is composed of monazite, xenotime, apatite, Th-orthosilicate, secondary U-mineralization and betafite-pyrochlore. REE, Y, Th and U are not suitable for geochemical modeling of granitoids by means of equilibrium-based trace element fractionation equations, but are still useful petrogenetic tools.

  10. Effects of iron-glycine chelate on growth, carcass characteristic, liver mineral concentrations and haematological and biochemical blood parameters in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecień, M; Samolińska, W; Bujanowicz-Haraś, B

    2015-12-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the effect of additive iron-glycine chelate on the production performance, slaughter yield, mineral deposition in the liver and the metabolic blood panel in broiler chickens. A total of 250 one-day-old Ross 308 chicks were allotted into five groups with five replicates of 10 birds each. Diets were supplemented with the organic form iron (Fe-Gly at the rate of 25%, 50% or 100% of the total requirements of the elements) and inorganic Fe (FeSO4 at the rate of 50% or 100%). In the experiment, iron was added to the premix (containing no Fe) in an amount of 40 or 20 mg per kg of basal diet, in groups I and II, in the form of FeSO4 , and in an amount of 40, 20 or 10 mg per kg of basal diet, in groups III, IV and V, in the form of Fe-Gly. The study covering the period from the first to the 42nd day of breeding revealed that the production performance and slaughter yield were not dependent on the form and amount of added Fe. In the experimental groups with the addition of Fe-Gly of 20 or 10 mg/kg, there were no deaths of chickens during the whole fattening period. As a result, introducing an organic form of iron covering 50% and 25% of the birds' requirement increased the effectiveness of chicken fattening (European Efficiency Index) (p < 0.01). An organic Fe compound (40, 20 or 10 mg/kg) added to mixtures contributed to significant changes in the level of biochemical and haematological indicators in blood. The study demonstrated that an addition of Fe-Gly to mixtures for broilers can be fully effective in terms of production and health performance even if the suggested requirement for this element is 50% or 25% covered.

  11. Determinants of pathologic mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Physiologic mineralization is necessary for the formation of skeletal tissues and for their appropriate functions during adulthood. Mineralization has to be controlled and restricted to specific regions. If the mineralization process occurs in regions that normally do not mineralize, there can be severe consequences (pathologic or ectopic mineralization). Recent findings have indicated that physiologic and pathologic mineralization events are initiated by matrix vesicles, membrane-enclosed particles released from the plasma membranes of mineralization-competent cells. The understanding of how these vesicles are released from the plasma membrane and initiate the mineralization process may provide novel therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic mineralization. In addition, other regulators (activators and inhibitors) of physiologic mineralization have been identified and characterized, and there is evidence that the same factors also contribute to the regulation of pathologic mineralization. Finally, programmed cell death (apoptosis) may be a contributor to physiologic mineralization and if occurring after tissue injury may induce pathologic mineralization and mineralization-related differentiation events in the injured and surrounding areas. This review describes how the understanding of mechanisms and factors regulating physiologic mineralization can be used to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic or ectopic mineralization events.

  12. Comparative study of the pathogenicity of seabed isolates of Fusarium equiseti and the effect of the composition of the mineral salt medium and temperature on mycelial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Palmero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenicity of seven strains of Fusarium equiseti isolated from seabed soil was evaluated on different host plants showing pre and post emergence damage. Radial growth of 27 strains was measured on culture media previously adjusted to different osmotic potentials with either KCl or NaCl (-1.50 to - 144.54 bars at 15º, 25º and 35º C. Significant differences and interactive effects were observed in the response of mycelia to osmotic potential and temperature.

  13. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Barodon, an Anionic Alkali Mineral Complex, on Growth Performance, Feed Utilization, Innate Immunity, Goblet Cell and Digestibility in Olive Flounder (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hoon Shin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 15-wk feeding trial was conducted to examine the supplemental effects of Barodon on growth performance, gastrointestinal histology, feed digestibility and innate immunity in olive founder. A basal commercial diet was used as a control and two other diets were prepared by spraying 0.1% or 0.2% of Barodon. Triplicate groups of fish (BW, 145 g were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily. At the end of the feeding trial, fish growth performance was not significantly affected by dietary treatments; however, feed utilization was significantly improved (linear and quadratic, p<0.05 by Barodon supplementation. Significantly higher (p<0.05 survival rates were obtained in fish fed Barodon containing diets. Hepatosomatic index increased significantly in Barodon treated groups. Also, the use of Barodon resulted in significant increase (linear and quadratic, p<0.05 of intestine length and number of goblet cells. Significantly higher (Quadratic, p<0.05 apparent digestibility coefficient of DM was obtained by supplementation of Barodon. Lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities increased quadratically and linearly, respectively, in Barodon treated fish. Also, significantly higher (linear and quadratic, p<0.05 superoxide dismutase activity was found in Barodon fed fish. The findings in this study show that inclusion of Barodon in diets for olive flounder improves feed utilization and digestibility, and positively affects digestive tract histology and innate immunity.

  14. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and copper on growth, accumulation of osmolyte, mineral nutrition and antioxidant enzyme activity of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Latef, Arafat Abdel Hamed

    2011-08-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation on pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Zhongjiao 105) plant growth and on some physiological parameters in response to increasing soil Cu concentrations was studied. Treatments consisted of inoculation or not with Glomus mosseae and the addition of Cu to soil at the concentrations of 0 (control), 2 (low), 4 (medium), and 8 (high) mM CuSO(4). AM fungal inoculation decreased Cu concentrations in plant organs and promoted biomass yields as well as the contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugar, total protein, and the concentrations of P, K, Ca, and Mg. Plants grown in high Cu concentration exhibited a Cu-induced proline accumulation and also an increase in total free amino acid contents; however, both were lower in mycorrhizal pepper. Cu-induced oxidative stress by increasing lipid peroxidation rates and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, and AM symbiosis enhanced these antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased oxidative damage to lipids. In conclusion G. mosseae was able to maintain an efficient symbiosis with pepper plants in contaminated Cu soils, improving plant growth under these conditions, which is likely to be due to reduced Cu accumulation in plant tissues, reduced oxidative stress and damage to lipids, or enhanced antioxidant capacity.

  15. Gender differences in accessory connections location: an Israeli study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birati, Edo Y; Eldar, Michael; Belhassen, Bernard

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that the pathogenesis of accessory connections (AC) formation may have a genetic component. The purpose of the study was to examine whether AC location differs by gender in a large cohort of patients with AC undergoing radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in two Israeli electrophysiology (EP) laboratories. All consecutive patients who underwent RFA of single ACs in Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center between 1992 and 2009 (n = 574) as well as the first consecutive 230 patients who underwent RFA in Sheba Medical Center between 1992 and 2001 were included in this study. The 804 patients in the two centers included 511 males (63.6 %) and 293 (36.4 %) females, mean age 34 + 16 years old. The AC was located in the left free wall, posteroseptal, right free wall, right anteroseptal, and in other areas in 57.8, 22.8, 9.3, 7 and 3.1 % of patients, respectively. The anatomical AC distribution was similar in the two EP laboratories. A right free wall location was more frequent in females (13 %) than in males (7.2 %; p = 0.008). A right anteroseptal location was more frequent in males (8.4 %) than in females (4.4 %) (p = 0.043). The left free wall and posteroseptal locations were similarly encountered in males (58.1 and 23.1 %, respectively) and in females (57.3 and 22.2 %, respectively). In our Israeli population, females more commonly have right free wall ACs and males more commonly have right anteroseptal ACs. These findings support the possible role of a genetic component in the pathogenesis of AC formation.

  16. Effects of Adding Super Dose Phytase to the Phosphorus-deficient Diets of Young Pigs on Growth Performance, Bone Quality, Minerals and Amino Acids Digestibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. Zeng

    2014-02-01

    addition, a super dose of phytase (20,000 FTU/kg hydrolyzed most of the IP6 and consequently further improved mineral use, protein utilization and performance.

  17. Influence of biochar and seaweed extract applications on growth, yield and mineral composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under sandy soil conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaa Badry Mosa Salim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Two pot experiments were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 winter seasons to study the effect of biochar (BC as soil amendments at two rates 2% and 5%, seaweed extract (SWE as foliar applications at 1 and 2 g/l and the combination between BC 2% and SWE treatments on growth, yield attributes and some macro- and micronutrients concentration in roots, leaves and grains of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar Sakha 93. Two samples were taken at 105 and 150 days after sowing. At the first sample date, plant height, leaves number per main tiller, number of tillers/plant, shoot fresh weight, root length, root fresh weight, chlorophyll reading, spikes number per plant, main spike length and N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu concentrations in roots and leaves were determined. At the second sample date (harvesting time, spike weight, number of grains per spike, weight of grains/spike and weight of 100 grains were recorded and nutrients concentrations in grains were determined. Obtained results revealed that, adding biochar, sprayed seaweed extract treatments individually or in combination have stimulating effect on the most of morphological characters and yield components as compared with control plants in both seasons. Generally, using the low level of BC at 2% individually or in combination with SWE treatments has more promotion effect on the most of growth parameters and yield components and achieved the highest concentrations on the most of macro- and micronutrients in roots, leaves and grains as compared with the control in both seasons.

  18. On Mineral Retrosynthesis of a Complex Biogenic Scaffold

    OpenAIRE

    Ashit Rao; José L Arias; Helmut Cölfen

    2017-01-01

    Synergistic relations between organic molecules and mineral precursors regulate biogenic mineralization. Given the remarkable material properties of the egg shell as a biogenic ceramic, it serves as an important model to elucidate biomineral growth. With established roles of complex anionic biopolymers and a heterogeneous organic scaffold in egg shell mineralization, the present study explores the regulation over mineralization attained by applying synthetic polymeric counterparts (polyethyle...

  19. The geologic relationships of industrial mineral deposits and asbestos in the western united states

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanGosen, B.S.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, U.S. regulatory agencies have placed emphasis on identifying and regulating asbestos dust exposures in the mining environment, with a particular focus upon industrial mineral deposits in which asbestos occurs as an accessory mineral. Because asbestos minerals form in specific geologic environments, only certain predictable types of industrial mineral deposits can potentially host asbestos mineralization. By applying a basic knowledge of asbestos geology, the costly and time consuming efforts of asbestos monitoring and analyses can be directed towards those mineral deposit types most likely to contain asbestos mineralogy, while saving efforts on the mineral deposits that are unlikely to contain asbestos. While the vast majority of industrial mineral deposits in the Western United States are asbestos-free, there are several types that can, in some instances, host asbestos mineralization, or be closely associated with it. These industrial mineral deposits include a few types of aggregate, dimension, and decorative stone, and some deposits of chromite-nickel, magnesite, nepheline syenite, olivine, rare earth elements, talc, vermiculite, and wollastonite.

  20. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Grusak, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75%) at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  1. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka P Sankaran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75% at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  2. Effect of Cu and Ni on Growth,Mineral Uptake,Photosynthesis and Enzyme Activities of Chlorella vulgaris at different pH Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.K.RAI; NirupamaMALLICK; 等

    1994-01-01

    A pH dependent reduction in growth,pigment,ATP content,O2 evolution,carbon fixation,photosynthetic electron transport system,nutrient uptake(No3- and NH4+) nitrate reductase,and ATPase activities and increase in K+-efflux of Chlorella vulgaris was noticed following supplementation of Cu and Ni to the culture medium.PSⅡ was found to be more sensitive to both pH and metals than PS I.Though.nitrate reductase(NR)was more sensitive to both pH and metals,the ATP ase was however,more sensitive to metals but less sensitive to acidic pH.Acid pH was found to inhibit the nutrinent(NO3-and NH4+) uptake and nitrate reductase in a non-competitive manner.The inhibition produced by the test metals alone was of non-competitive type for NO3- uptake,nitrate reductase and ATPase and competitive for NH4+ uptake.Acidity not only inhibited the metabolic variables directly but also through facilitated uptake of metals and increased membrane permeability.A very low sensitivity of ATPase to acidic pH seems to be responsible for the survival of algae in acid environment.

  3. Combining mobile terrestrial laser scanning geometric and radiometric data to eliminate accessories in circular metro tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kai; Cheng, Xiaojun; Ju, Qiaoqiao

    2016-07-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is a noninvasive technique to monitor surface conditions and morphological characteristics of structures and has been successfully introduced to the regular inspection and maintenance of metro tunnels. To accurately analyze the deformation and structural conditions of a metro tunnel, nonliner points (e.g., outliers and accessories) should be detected and eliminated. Nevertheless, the accessories are attached very closely to the liner and cannot be thoroughly eliminated by three-dimensional (3D) geometric information. This study proposes to separate the liner and accessories by combining TLS geometric and radiometric information. A refitted mobile Faro Focus3D X330 system is used for data collection of a new-built metro tunnel in Hangzhou, China. The results show that the corrected intensity data are an effective physical criterion and a complementary data source to remove accessories that cannot be eliminated by geometric data. After the removal of accessories by geometric and radiometric data, the remaining liner points can accurately reflect the actual structural and deformation conditions of metro tunnels.

  4. Distribution of Neuron Cell Bodies in the Intraspinal Portion of the Spinal Accessory Nerve in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Karl E; Kondrashov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The spinal accessory nerve is often identified as a purely motor nerve innervating the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Although it may contain proprioceptive neurons found in cervical spinal levels C2-C4, limited research has focused on the histology of the spinal accessory nerve. The objective of the present study was to examine the spinal accessory nerve to determine if there are neuronal cell bodies within the spinal accessory nerve in humans. Cervical spinal cords were dissected from eight cadavers that had previously been used for dissection in other body regions. The segmental rootlets were removed to quantify the neuron cell bodies present at each spinal level. Samples were embedded in paraffin; sectioned; stained with hematoxylin and eosin; and examined using a microscope at 4×, 10×, and 40× magnification. Digital photography was used to image the samples. Neuronal cell bodies were found in 100% of the specimens examined, with non-grossly visible ganglia found at spinal levels C1-C4. The C1 spinal level of the spinal accessory nerve had the highest number of neuron cell bodies.

  5. Estresse salino no crescimento inicial e nutrição mineral de gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Steud em solução nutritiva(1 Growth and mineral nutrition of (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Steud seedlings in nutrient solution under saline stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séfora Gil Gomes de Farias

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A salinidade é um dos fatores que mais limitam o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas na região semiárida. A sobrevivência destas em ambientes salinos dependerá de processos adaptativos, que envolvem absorção, transporte e distribuição de íons nos vários órgãos da planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a nutrição mineral de mudas de gliricídia cultivada em diferentes condições de salinidade, realizou-se um experimento em telado de náilon da Unidade Acadêmica de Engenharia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos - PB. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em vasos de Leonard, contendo solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon (50 % da concentração original, com as concentrações de NaCl: 0, 100 200 e 400 mmol L-1. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, com uma planta por vaso. Aos 60 dias após a emergência, as plantas foram colhidas e avaliadas quanto a altura, matéria seca e teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e Na na raiz, no caule e nas folhas. O aumento da salinidade promoveu reduções no crescimento e nos teores de macronutrientes, ocorrendo o inverso nos teores de Na, sobretudo na raiz. A gliricídia mostrou-se sensível à salinidade.Salinity is one of the most limiting factors to plant growth and development. Plant survival in saline environments depends on adaptive processes involving uptake, transport, and distribution of ions in plant organs. To evaluate growth and mineral nutrition of Gliricidia sepium seedlings under saline conditions, an experiment was carried out under nylon-mesh protection, at the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Patos - PB. Seeds were sown in pots containing Hoagland & Arnon nutrient solution with four NaCl levels (0, 100, 200 and 400 mmol L-1, with four replications (1 plant/pot in a completely randomized design. Sixty days after seedling emergence, the plant height and root, stem and

  6. Effects of Chinese mineral strategies on the U.S. minerals industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartan, L.; Menzie, W.D.; Morse, D.E.; Papp, J.F.; Plunkert, P.A.; Tse, P.-K.

    2006-01-01

    For more than two decades now, China has been undergoing rapid economic growth and industrialization. The industrialization and urbanization of the once rural, farming nation is leading to increased consumption of mineral commodities to build infrastructure and to make into consumer goods. This increased consumption has led to higher mineral prices, lower stocks and, in some cases, temporary shortages of minerals. Chinese mineral producers and manufacturers are responding by building capacity, restructuring and modernizing industrial sectors and establishing international network that compete with those of the United States and other nations.

  7. Structure and diversity in mammalian accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisami, E; Bhatnagar, K P

    1998-12-15

    The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) is the first neural integrative center for the olfactory-like vomeronasal sensory system. In this article, we first briefly present an overview of vomeronasal system organization and review the history of the discovery of mammalian AOB. Next, we briefly review the evolution of the vomeronasal system in vertebrates, in particular the reptiles. Following these introductory aspects, the structure of the rodent AOB, as typical of the well-developed mammalian AOB, is presented, detailing laminar organization and cell types as well as aspects of the homology with the main olfactory bulb. Then, the evolutionary origin and diversity of the AOB in mammalian orders and species is discussed, describing structural, phylogenetic, and species-specific variation in the AOB location, shape, and size and morphologic differentiation and development. The AOB is believed to be absent in fishes but present in terrestrial tetrapods including amphibians; among the reptiles AOB is absent in crocodiles, present in turtles, snakes, and some lizards where it may be as large or larger than the main bulb. The AOB is absent in bird and in the aquatic mammals (whales, porpoises, manatees). Among other mammals, AOB is present in the monotremes and marsupials, edentates, and in the majority of the placental mammals like carnivores, herbivores, as well as rodents and lagomorphs. Most bat species do not have an AOB and among those where one is found, it shows marked variation in size and morphologic development. Among insectivores and primates, AOB shows marked variation in occurrence, size, and morphologic development. It is small in shrews and moles, large in hedgehogs and prosimians; AOB continues to persist in New World monkeys but is not found in the adults of the higher primates such as the Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. In many species where AOB is absent in the adult, it often develops in the embryo and fetus but regresses in later stages of

  8. A Critical Role for the GluA1 Accessory Protein, SAP97, in Cocaine Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Samantha L; Ortinski, Pavel I; Friedman, Shayna H; Zhang, Lei; Neve, Rachael L; Kalb, Robert G; Schmidt, Heath D; Pierce, R Christopher

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the transport of GluA1 subunit-containing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) to synapses in subregions of the nucleus accumbens promotes cocaine seeking. Consistent with these findings, the present results show that administration of the CP-AMPAR antagonist, Naspm, into the caudal lateral core or caudal medial shell of the nucleus accumbens attenuated cocaine priming-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Moreover, viral-mediated overexpression of 'pore dead' GluA1 subunits (via herpes simplex virus (HSV) GluA1-Q582E) in the lateral core or medial shell attenuated the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. The overexpression of wild-type GluA1 subunits (via HSV GluA1-WT) in the medial shell, but not the lateral core, enhanced the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. These results indicate that activation of GluA1-containing AMPARs in subregions of the nucleus accumbens reinstates cocaine seeking. SAP97 and 4.1N are proteins involved in GluA1 trafficking to and stabilization in synapses; SAP97-GluA1 interactions also influence dendritic growth. We next examined potential roles of SAP97 and 4.1N in cocaine seeking. Viral-mediated expression of a microRNA that reduces SAP97 protein expression (HSV miSAP97) in the medial accumbens shell attenuated cocaine seeking. In contrast, a virus that overexpressed a dominant-negative form of a 4.1N C-terminal domain (HSV 4.1N-CTD), which prevents endogenous 4.1N binding to GluA1 subunits, had no effect on cocaine seeking. These results indicate that the GluA1 subunit accessory protein SAP97 may represent a novel target for pharmacotherapeutic intervention in the treatment of cocaine craving.

  9. Effects of dietary organic zinc and α-tocopheryl acetate supplements on growth performance, meat quality, tissues minerals, and α-tocopherol deposition in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, R; Bakhshalinejad, R; Hassanabadi, A; Ferket, P

    2016-11-11

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of zinc (Zn) and α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TOA) on broilers performance, meat quality, Zn, selenium (Se), and α-tocopherol (α-TO) tissue depositions. A total of 1,080 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens (mixed-sex) were allocated to nine dietary treatments. Three levels of supplemental Zn (0, 60, and 120 mg/kg of diet) and three levels of α-TOA (0, 150, and 300 mg/kg of diet) were combined as a completely randomized design with 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Chicks were penned in groups of 20 with six pens per treatment. The ADFI, ADG, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality rate, and European production efficiency factor (EPEF) were not affected by dietary treatments. In addition, supplementation of Zn and α-TOA and their interaction did not affect carcass parts yield. Drip loss of the breast and thigh muscles were significantly reduced 1.27 and 1.47% by α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TOA) supplementation, respectively (P TOA or Zn increased deposition of α-TO in liver and the muscles. The Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in the breast and thigh muscles and the liver were diminished by supplementation of α-TOA (P = 0.0001) and there was positive interaction between Zn and α-TOA (P TOA supplementation resulted in a reduction of TBARS values. In conclusion, 300 mg/kg dietary supplementation of α-TOA could improve drip loss, nutritional content, and oxidation stability of muscle without any adverse effect on growth performance of chickens. In addition, 120 mg/kg dietary supplementation of Zn could fortify α-TOA effect to improve oxidation stability of the breast and thigh muscles as well as it resulted to higher muscles Zn enrichment.

  10. Role of minerals in animal health disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available All mineral matter, essential or non-essential, can have a significant influence on production results and the health of animals, if large quantities of them are present in a feed ration. A maximally tolerant content depends on the animal specie and category. Many factors, such as physiological status (growth, lactation, etc., nutritive status, content and ratio of nutritive matter in the ration, duration of exposure, and the biological level of utilization of elements, also affect the maximally tolerant content of mineral matter in feed. The content of certain mineral matter in plant feed significantly depends on the soil factor, as well as the content and level of utilization of mineral matter from the soil. Mn, Se and Mo can be present in plant feed in such quantities as to induce toxicosis. Industrial contaminants, Cd, Pb or F, can contaminate plants, in particular their leaves, in quantities which lead to the appearance of clinical signs of conventional toxicosis. Moreover, natural water can contain large quantities of S, F, Na, Mg, or Fe, and certain mineral matter can get into water through industrial waste. In addition to the above, it is possible to cause unwanted effects through the frequent, but primarily unprofessional use of mineral additives, since it is extremely important, besides meeting the mineral requirements of each individual element, to secure a ratio among the mineral matter themselves as well as with other nutritive matter. Mineral matter present in food are in mutual interference, and these relations can be synergistic or antagonistic. The sufficiency of a large number of mineral matter has a negative effect on the utilization of other matter (conditional and/or border deficiency, while certain elements cause the clinical appearance of toxic effects. The accidental intake of large quantities of certain mineral matter is revealed as clinical signs of acute toxicosis, which is very different from chronic effects caused by

  11. Mineral distributions at the developing tendon enthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G Schwartz

    Full Text Available Tendon attaches to bone across a functionally graded interface, "the enthesis". A gradient of mineral content is believed to play an important role for dissipation of stress concentrations at mature fibrocartilaginous interfaces. Surgical repair of injured tendon to bone often fails, suggesting that the enthesis does not regenerate in a healing setting. Understanding the development and the micro/nano-meter structure of this unique interface may provide novel insights for the improvement of repair strategies. This study monitored the development of transitional tissue at the murine supraspinatus tendon enthesis, which begins postnatally and is completed by postnatal day 28. The micrometer-scale distribution of mineral across the developing enthesis was studied by X-ray micro-computed tomography and Raman microprobe spectroscopy. Analyzed regions were identified and further studied by histomorphometry. The nanometer-scale distribution of mineral and collagen fibrils at the developing interface was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. A zone (∼20 µm exhibiting a gradient in mineral relative to collagen was detected at the leading edge of the hard-soft tissue interface as early as postnatal day 7. Nanocharacterization by TEM suggested that this mineral gradient arose from intrinsic surface roughness on the scale of tens of nanometers at the mineralized front. Microcomputed tomography measurements indicated increases in bone mineral density with time. Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the mineral-to-collagen ratio on the mineralized side of the interface was constant throughout postnatal development. An increase in the carbonate concentration of the apatite mineral phase over time suggested possible matrix remodeling during postnatal development. Comparison of Raman-based observations of localized mineral content with histomorphological features indicated that development of the graded mineralized interface is linked

  12. Mineral distributions at the developing tendon enthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrea G; Pasteris, Jill D; Genin, Guy M; Daulton, Tyrone L; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    Tendon attaches to bone across a functionally graded interface, "the enthesis". A gradient of mineral content is believed to play an important role for dissipation of stress concentrations at mature fibrocartilaginous interfaces. Surgical repair of injured tendon to bone often fails, suggesting that the enthesis does not regenerate in a healing setting. Understanding the development and the micro/nano-meter structure of this unique interface may provide novel insights for the improvement of repair strategies. This study monitored the development of transitional tissue at the murine supraspinatus tendon enthesis, which begins postnatally and is completed by postnatal day 28. The micrometer-scale distribution of mineral across the developing enthesis was studied by X-ray micro-computed tomography and Raman microprobe spectroscopy. Analyzed regions were identified and further studied by histomorphometry. The nanometer-scale distribution of mineral and collagen fibrils at the developing interface was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A zone (∼20 µm) exhibiting a gradient in mineral relative to collagen was detected at the leading edge of the hard-soft tissue interface as early as postnatal day 7. Nanocharacterization by TEM suggested that this mineral gradient arose from intrinsic surface roughness on the scale of tens of nanometers at the mineralized front. Microcomputed tomography measurements indicated increases in bone mineral density with time. Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the mineral-to-collagen ratio on the mineralized side of the interface was constant throughout postnatal development. An increase in the carbonate concentration of the apatite mineral phase over time suggested possible matrix remodeling during postnatal development. Comparison of Raman-based observations of localized mineral content with histomorphological features indicated that development of the graded mineralized interface is linked to endochondral

  13. Typomorphic characteristic features of accessory ilmenite in granitoids of the polyphase Aleisk-Zmeinogorsk complex (N-W Rudny Altai area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoselov K.L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper material is devoted to the research of crystallomorphology, accessory ilmenite expansion, characteristic features of its chemical composition, paragenetic association and conditions for mineral formation in Devonian granitoids of the polyphase Aleisk-Zmeinogorsk complex. Two ilmenite generations formed at various crystallization stages of the magmatic melt have been identified by the morphological features of the ilmenite crystals, chemical composition and paragenesis. Early-magmatic Ilmenite1 singled out at the protocrystallization stage during reduction and weakly-oxidizing environment conditions. It is characterized by the crystalline-faced shapes, low content of the pyrophanite minal and V admixture. Ilmenite 2 singled out at the major crystallization stage of the melt in the conditions of higher oxygen fugacity as the forms of the flattened, xenomorphic grains with the enhanced pyrophanite concentration and Nb admixture.

  14. Mineral resources of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, D.F.; Woodcock, J.T. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    The papers presented cover geological, geochemical technology and geophysics in mineral exploration, mineral resources, mining methods and technology, aspects of beneficiation, pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy, and environmental aspects. 4 of the 14 papers have been abstracted separately.

  15. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  16. Agricultural Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  17. Mineral Resources Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  18. Classical torus conformal block, N=2* twisted superpotential and the accessory parameter of Lame equation

    CERN Document Server

    Piatek, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    In this work the correspondence between the semiclassical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory on the torus and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the N=2* (Omega-deformed) U(2) super-Yang-Mills theory is exploited to propose new formulae for the accessory parameter of the Lame equation. It has been found that the Lame accessory parameter is determined by the classical Liouville action on the one-punctured torus or more concretely by the torus classical block evaluated on the saddle point intermediate classical weight. Moreover, as an implication of the aforementioned correspondence it has been obtained that the accessory parameter is related to the sum of all rescaled column lengths of the so-called "critical" Young diagrams extremizing the instanton "free energy". Finally, it has been pointed out that the sum over the "critical" column lengths can be rewritten in terms of a contour integral in which the integrand is built out of certain special functions.

  19. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand in car accessory market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplying car accessory is one of the most important growing industries in the world. Every year, millions of cars are produced and people need to have the access to necessary car accessory. In this paper, we present an exploration study to detect important factors influencing car accessory market. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 16 questions, distributes it among 200 experts and analyses it using factor analysis. Cronbach alpha and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy are calculated as 0.823 and 0.863, which validate the overall questionnaire. The results indicate that there are three influencing factors including brand capability, brand characteristics and consumers’ believe.

  20. Mineralization by nanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajander, E. Olavi; Bjorklund, Michael; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    1998-07-01

    Nanobacteria are the smallest cell-walled bacteria, only recently discovered in human and cow blood and in commercial cell culture serum. In this study, we identified with energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and chemical analysis that all growth phases of nanobacteria produce biogenic apatite on their cell envelope. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed the mineral as carbonate apatite. Previous models for stone formation have lead to a hypothesis that an elevated pH due to urease and/or alkaline phosphatase activity are important lithogenic factors. Our results indicate that carbonate apatite can be formed without these factors at pH 7.4 at physiological phosphate and calcium concentrations. Due to their specific macromolecules, nanobacteria can produce apatite very efficiency in media mimicking tissue fluids and glomerular filtrate and rapidly mineralizing most of available calcium and phosphate. This can be also monitored by (superscript 85)Sr incorporation and provides a unique model for in vitro studies on calcification. Recently, bacteria have been implicated in the formation of carbonate (hydroxy)fluorapatite in marine sediments. Apatite grains are found so commonly in sedimentary rocks that apatite is omitted in naming the stone. To prove that apatite and other minerals are formed by bacteria would implicate that the bacteria could be observed and their actions followed in stones. We have started to approach this in two ways. Firstly, by the use of sensitive methods for detecting specific bacterial components, like antigens, muramic acid and nucleic acids, that allow for detecting the presence of bacteria and, secondly, by follow-up of volatile bacterial metabolites observed by continuous monitoring with ion mobility spectrometry, IMCELL, working like an artificial, educatable smelling nose. The latter method might allow for remote real time detection of bacterial metabolism, a signature of life, in rocks via fractures of drillholes with or without

  1. Accessory left atrial diverticulae: contractile properties depicted with 64-slice cine-cardiac CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    To assess the contractility of accessory left atrial appendages (LAAs) using multiphasic cardiac CT. We retrospectively analyzed the presence, location, size and contractile properties of accessory LAAs using multiphasic cardiac 64-slice CT in 102 consecutive patients (63 males, 39 females, mean age 57). Multiplanar reformats were used to create image planes in axial oblique, sagittal oblique and coronal oblique planes. For all appendages with an orifice diameter >or= 10 mm, axial and sagittal diameters and appendage volumes were recorded in atrial diastole and systole. Regression analysis was performed to assess which imaging appearances best predicted accessory appendage contractility. Twenty-three (23%) patients demonstrated an accessory LAA, all identified along the anterior LA wall. Dimensions for axial oblique (AOD) and sagittal oblique (SOD) diameters and sagittal oblique length (SOL) were 6.3-19, 3.4-20 and 5-21 mm, respectively. All appendages (>or=10 mm) demonstrated significant contraction during atrial systole (greatest diameter reduction was AOD [3.8 mm, 27%]). Significant correlations were noted between AOD-contraction and AOD (R = 0.57, P < 0.05) and SOD-contraction and AOD, SOD and SOL (R = 0.6, P < 0.05). Mean diverticulum volume in atrial diastole was 468.4 +\\/- 493 mm(3) and in systole was 171.2 +\\/- 122 mm(3), indicating a mean change in volume of 297.2 +\\/- 390 mm(3), P < 0.0001. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed SOL to be the strongest independent predictor of appendage contractility (R(2) = 0.86, P < 0.0001) followed by SOD (R(2) = 0.91, P < 0.0001). Accessory LAAs show significant contractile properties on cardiac CT. Those accessory LAAs with a large sagittal height or depth should be evaluated for contractile properties, and if present should be examined for ectopic activity during electrophysiological studies.

  2. Mineral Supply Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Faced with shortcomings in its mineral supply, it’s imperative for China to balance its desire for reserves with its current economic needs Mineral resources are the corner- stone of materials needed for China’s national economic and social development.The country even counts on its mineral resources to satisfy 90 percent of its energy demands and over 95

  3. Subcutaneous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II/IGF binding protein-2 complex stimulates bone formation and prevents loss of bone mineral density in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Johnstone, Edward W.; Turner, Russell T.; Evans, Glenda L.; John Ballard, F. John; Doran, Patrick M.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and a precursor form of IGF-II are associated with marked increases in bone formation and skeletal mass in patients with hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. In vitro studies indicate that IGF-II in complex with IGFBP-2 has high affinity for bone matrix and is able to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex to increase bone mass in vivo. Osteopenia of the femur was induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy in rats. At the time of surgery, 14-day osmotic minipumps containing vehicle or 2 microg IGF-II+9 microg IGFBP-2/100g body weight/day were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were taken the day of surgery and 14 days later using a PIXImus small animal densitometer. Neurectomy of the right hindlimb resulted in a 9% decrease in right femur BMD (PBone histomorphometry indicated increases in endocortical and cancellous bone formation rates and in trabecular thickness. These results demonstrate that short-term administration of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex can prevent loss of BMD associated with disuse osteoporosis and stimulate bone formation in adult rats. Furthermore, they provide proof of concept for a novel anabolic approach to increasing bone mass in humans with osteoporosis.

  4. Ablation of an atriofascicular accessory pathway with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Proietti, MD, PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old patient with recurrent palpitations and documented left bundle branch block superior axis wide complex tachycardia underwent an electrophysiological study and ablation with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure. The electrophysiological study showed a decremental antegrade conducting atriofascicular pathway. Three-dimensional CARTO-guided mapping of the tricuspid annulus in sinus rhythm was performed, and a distinct signal corresponding to the accessory pathway potential of the atriofascicular pathway was found in the posterolateral region. By using an SR0 sheath and a 4-mm-tip catheter, radiofrequency application was delivered at this point on the annulus and successfully eliminated conduction through the accessory pathway.

  5. Symbiotic bacteria in the accessory submandibular gland of the club-footed bat, Tylonycteris pachypus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandler, B; Toyoshima, K; Phillips, C J

    1995-03-01

    The lumina of the secretory endpieces and, to a lesser extent, of the duct system of the accessory submandibular gland of the club-footed bat, Tylonycteris pachypus, contain numerous rod shaped bacteria. Despite their abundance, these microbes do not evoke an inflammatory response by the glands. The major submandibular gland, as well as the other major salivary glands in these exotic animals contain no bacteria whatsoever. It is concluded that the bacteria in the accessory submandibular gland are symbionts, and that they may play a role in digestion or in the social behavior of their host organisms.

  6. Imaging diagnosis of accessory and cavitated uterine mass, a rare mullerian anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishchint Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessory and Cavitated Uterine Mass (ACUM is a rare form of developmental Mullerian anomaly seen in young females, which presents as chronic recurrent pelvic pain and severe dysmenorrhea. It is an accessory cavity lying within an otherwise normal uterus. It is lined by functional endometrium and surrounded by myometrium-like smooth muscle cells; hence, it bears striking macroscopic and microscopic resemblance to the uterus. Hysterosalpingography (HSG, Ultrasonography (USG, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI form the mainstay of diagnostic imaging. The entity is often under diagnosed; therefore, a high index of suspicion combined with HSG and MRI imaging can help in making an accurate diagnosis.

  7. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy-induced accessory renal artery bleeding in an amyloidosis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy is an important technique for diagnosis of glomerular diseases, and the biopsy-induced life-threatening bleeding rarely happens. Primary systemic amyloidosis is a rare disease which may lead to organ dysfunction including arterial stiffness. The accessory renal artery is a kind of renal vascular variation which goes into the renal parenchyma directly or via the renal hilum. Here we reported a rare case of percutaneous renal biopsy-induced accessory renal artery life-threatening bleeding in a renal amyloidosis patient, and our experience of successful rescue in this patient. Virtual Slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1524207344817819

  8. Accessory lobe of right liver mimicking a pulmonary tumor in an adult male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Junlin, Liao; Zhang, Wei-guo; Chen, Jin-hua; He, Yong; Chen, Jian-ming

    2010-02-01

    We describe a rare case of ectopic liver tissue in the right thoracic cavity. A 39-year-old man with a suspected lung tumor underwent thoracotomy. The intraoperative finding revealed an accessory liver lobe connected to the right lobe of the liver by a small pedicle that pierced the diaphragm. A pathologic evaluation confirmed the specimen to be hepatic tissues. In retrospect, the correct diagnosis of accessory liver could have been achieved using appropriate radiologic investigations if this possibility had been considered. 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lateral facial cleft associated with accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and peripheral facial weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçelik, D; Toplu, G; Türkseven, A; Senses, D A; Yiğit, B

    2014-07-01

    Transverse facial cleft is a very rare malformation. The Tessier no. 7 cleft is a lateral facial cleft which emanates from oral cavity and extends towards the tragus, involving both soft tissue and skeletal components. Here, we present a case having transverse facial cleft, accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and ipsilateral peripheral facial nerve weakness. After surgical repair of the cleft in 2-month of age, improvement of the facial nerve function was detected in 3-year of age. Resection of the accessory mandible was planned in 5-6 years of age.

  10. Ablation of an atriofascicular accessory pathway with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Riccardo; Abadir, Sylvia; Bernier, Martin L.; Essebag, Vidal

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year-old patient with recurrent palpitations and documented left bundle branch block superior axis wide complex tachycardia underwent an electrophysiological study and ablation with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure. The electrophysiological study showed a decremental antegrade conducting atriofascicular pathway. Three-dimensional CARTO-guided mapping of the tricuspid annulus in sinus rhythm was performed, and a distinct signal corresponding to the accessory pathway potential of the atriofascicular pathway was found in the posterolateral region. By using an SR0 sheath and a 4-mm-tip catheter, radiofrequency application was delivered at this point on the annulus and successfully eliminated conduction through the accessory pathway. PMID:26550092

  11. Control of Vertebrate Skeletal Mineralization by Polyphosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, Sidney; Georgiou, John; Henneman, Zachary J.; Wise, Lisa M.; Sukhu, Balram; Hunt, Tanya; Wynnyckyj, Chrystia; Holmyard, Douglas; Bielecki, Ryszard; Grynpas, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which is continually rebuilt, repaired, and resorbed during growth and normal remodeling, is composed of apatite. Nor is the control of bone and calcifying cartilage mineralization well understood, though it is thought to be associated with phosphate-cleaving proteins. Researchers have assumed that skeletal mineralization is also associated with non-crystalline, calcium- and phosphate-containing electron-dense granules that have been detected in vertebrate skeletal tissue prepared under non-aqueous conditions. Again, however, the role of these granules remains poorly understood. Here, we review bone and growth plate mineralization before showing that polymers of phosphate ions (polyphosphates: (PO3−)n) are co-located with mineralizing cartilage and resorbing bone. We propose that the electron-dense granules contain polyphosphates, and explain how these polyphosphates may play an important role in apatite biomineralization. Principal Findings/Methodology The enzymatic formation (condensation) and destruction (hydrolytic degradation) of polyphosphates offers a simple mechanism for enzymatic control of phosphate accumulation and the relative saturation of apatite. Under circumstances in which apatite mineral formation is undesirable, such as within cartilage tissue or during bone resorption, the production of polyphosphates reduces the free orthophosphate (PO43−) concentration while permitting the accumulation of a high total PO43− concentration. Sequestering calcium into amorphous calcium polyphosphate complexes can reduce the concentration of free calcium. The resulting reduction of both free PO43− and free

  12. 75 FR 34180 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithsville...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21363). In the request for reconsideration, the petitioner stated that... Employment and Training Administration Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job... determine that workers of Paris Accessories, Inc., New Smithsville, Pennsylvania, including on-site...

  13. 75 FR 41523 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithville...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... on May 27, 2010. The Notice was published in the Federal Register on June 16, 2010 (75 FR 34180). The... Employment and Training Administration Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithville, PA; Paris Accessories, Inc., Allentown, PA; Amended Certification...

  14. Crescimento, nutrição mineral e nível crítico foliar de P em mudas de umbuzeiro, em função da adubação fosfatada Growth, mineral nutrition and foliar critical level of P in 'umbuzeiro' seedlings, as a function of phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Sílvio Caíres Neves

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento, a nutrição mineral e o nível crítico foliar de P em mudas de umbuzeiro crescidas em vasos contendo amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, em função da adubação fosfatada, foram avaliados neste trabalho. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e seis doses de P (0; 30; 60; 120; 240 e 480 mg dm-3. A adubação fosfatada foi realizada numa única aplicação, antes do transplantio das mudas. Observa-se que a dose de 281 mg dm-3 de P proporcionou a máxima produção de matéria seca das mudas de umbuzeiro, e, mesmo quando bem nutrido em P, o umbuzeiro apresentou maior produção de matéria seca do sistema radicular do que na parte aérea. A faixa crítica de P nas folhas das mudas do umbuzeiro é de 1,52 a 1,91 g kg-1.This work was accomplished in order to evaluate the growth, the mineral nutrition and the foliar critical level of P in 'umbuzeiro' seedlings, grown in pots containing distroferric Red Latosol, in function of phosphorus fertilization. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications and six doses of P (0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 mg dm-3. The phosphorus fertilization was done in just one application, before the transplant of the seedlings. The dose of 281 mg dm-3 of P provided the highest production of dry matter of the 'umbuzeiro' seedlings. Even when well nourished with P, the 'umbuzeiro' accumulated more organic matter in the root than shoot. The level critical of P in the leaves of the umbuzeiro seedlings range from 1.52 to 1.91 g kg-1.

  15. Crescimento, nutrição mineral e nível crítico foliar de K em mudas de umbuzeiro, em função da adubação potássica Growth, mineral nutrition and foliar critical level of K in umbuzeiro seedlings, in function of the potassium fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Sílvio Caires Neves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O umbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. é uma frutífera originária da região nordeste do Brasil e se caracteriza pela alta tolerância à seca. O crescimento, a nutrição mineral e o nível crítico foliar de potássio em mudas de umbuzeiros crescidas num Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, em função de doses de potássio, foram avaliados neste experimento. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e seis doses de potássio (0, 30, 60, 120, 240 e 480 mg dm-3. A adubação potássica foi realizada parceladamente, em quatro aplicações, tendo como fontes o sulfato de potássio e o cloreto de potássio. Enquanto para atingir a máxima produção de folhas a dose de potássio foi de 137 mg dm-3, a máxima produção de raízes só aconteceu na dose de 229 mg dm-3. Os teores foliares de potássio nas mudas do umbuzeiro aumentaram com a adubação potássica. O nível crítico de potássio nas folhas das mudas do umbuzeiro variou de 3,40 a 6,04 g kg-1.The umbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. is original of the Northeast of Brazil and it is characterized by tolerance to the drought. The growth, the mineral nutrition and the foliar critical level of potassium in umbuzeiro seedlings, grown in distroferric Red Latosol, in function of potassium doses, were evaluated in this experiment. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications and six doses of potassium (0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480, mg dm-3. The potassium fertilization was accomplished in four applications, and the used sources were potassium sulfate and the potassium chloride. The highest production of leaves occurred in the dose of 137 mg dm-3 of potassium and the highest production of roots at the dose of 229 mg dm-3 of potassium. The foliar contents of potassium in the umbuzeiro seedlings increased with the potassium fertilization. The critical level of potassium in the leaves of the umbuzeiro seedlings ranged from 3

  16. Chelated minerals for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic minerals have been subject of an increasing number of investigations recently. These compounds can be considered the most significant event regarding commercial forms of minerals targeting animal supplementation in the last decades. Minerals, especially metals, are usually supplemented in poultry feeds using cheap saline sources and have never required a lot of attention in terms of quality. On the other hand, definitions of organic minerals are very broad and frequently lead to confusion when decision-making becomes necessary. Organic minerals include any mineral bound to organic compounds, regardless of the type of existing bond between mineral and organic molecules. Proteins and carbohydrates are the most frequent candidates in organic mineral combinations. Organic fraction size and bond type are not limitations in organic mineral definition; however, essential metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn can form coordinated bonds, which are stable in intestinal lumen. Metals bound to organic ligands by coordinated bonds can dissociate within animal metabolism whereas real covalent bonds cannot. Chelated minerals are molecules that have a metal bound to an organic ligand through coordinated bonds; but many organic minerals are not chelates or are not even bound through coordinated bonds. Utilization of organic minerals is largely dependent on the ligand; therefore, amino acids and other small molecules with facilitated access to the enterocyte are supposed to be better utilized by animals. Organic minerals with ligands presenting long chains may require digestion prior to absorption. After absorption, organic minerals may present physiological effects, which improve specific metabolic responses, such as the immune response. Many studies have demonstrated the benefits of metal-amino acid chelates on animal metabolism, but the detection positive effects on live performance is less consistent.

  17. Current Picture for China’s Mineral Resource Availability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志

    2008-01-01

    Economic growth and structural change has caused China to consume an increasingly immense amount of mineral resources. This article is intended to present a fundamental picture of mineral resource shortages facing China through an in-depth analysis of mineral reserves, demand and supply as well as structure. We believe that China will continue to face a shortage of certain representative minerals resources in the foreseeable future. As a result, China has to rely on imports of such minerals to meet surging domestic demand.

  18. Mineral and inorganic chemical composition of the Pernik coal, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yossifova, Mariana G. [Geological Institute, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl.24, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-11-22

    The mineral and inorganic chemical composition of five types of samples from the Pernik subbituminous coals and their products generated from the Pernik preparation plant were studied. They include feed coal, low-grade coal, high-grade coal, coal slime, and host rock. The mineral matter of the coals contains 44 species that belong mainly to silicates, carbonates, sulphates, sulphides, and oxides/hydroxides, and to a lesser extent, chlorides, biogenic minerals, and organic minerals. The detrital minerals are quartz, kaolinite, micas, feldspars, magnetite, cristobalite, spessartine, and amphibole. The authigenic minerals include various sulphides, silicates, oxihydroxides, sulphates, and carbonates. Several stages and substages of formation were identified during the syngenetic and epigenetic mineral precipitations of these coals. The authigenic minerals show the greatest diversity of mineral species as the epigenetic mineralization (mostly sulphides, carbonates, and sulphates) dominates qualitatively and quantitatively. The epigenetic mineralization was a result of complex processes occurring mostly during the late development of the Pernik basin. These processes indicate intensive tectonic, hydrothermal and volcanic activities accompanied by a change from fresh to marine sedimentation environment. Thermally altered organic matter due to some of the above processes was also identified in the basin. Most of the trace elements in the Pernik coals (Mo, Be, S, Zr, Y, Cl, Ba, Sc, Ga, Ag, V, P, Br, Ni, Co, Pb, Ca, and Ti) show an affinity to OM and phases intimately associated with OM. Some of the trace elements (Sr, Ti, Mn, Ba, Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Cr, Ni, As, Ag, Yb, Sn, Ga, Ge, etc.) are impurities in authigenic and accessory minerals, while other trace elements (La, Ba, Cu, Ce, Sb, Bi, Zn, Pb, Cd, Nd, etc.) occur as discrete phases. Elements such as Sc, Be, Y, Ba, V, Zr, S, Mo, Ti, and Ga exceed Clarke concentrations in all of the coal types studied. It was also found that

  19. 21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5850 Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories. (a) Identification. A nonpowered orthopedic traction...

  20. Pre-excitation pattern associated with accessory pathway related tachycardia: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burazor Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pre-excitation is based on an accessory conduction pathway between the atrium and ventricle. The term Wolff- Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome is used for patients with the pre-excitation/WPW pattern associated with AP-related tachycardia. Case Outline. We present a 52-year-old man with severe palpitation, fatigue, lightheadedness and difficulty breathing. The initial ECG showed tachyarrhythmia with heart rate between 240 and 300/min. He was treated with antiarrhythmics (Digitalis, Verapamil, Lidocaine with no response. Then, the patient was treated with electrical cardioversion and was referred to our Clinic for further evaluation with the diagnosis: “Ventricular tachycardia”. During in-hospital stay, the previously undiagnosed WPW pattern had been seen. Additional diagnostic tests confirmed permanent pre-excitacion pattern (ECG Holter recording, exercises test. The patient was referred to an electrophysiologist for further evaluation. Mapping techniques provided an accurate assessment of the position of the accessory pathway which was left lateral. The elimination of the accessory pathway by radiofrequent catheter ablation is highly effective in termination and elimination of tacchyarrhythmias. Conclusion. Symptomatic, life-threatening arrhythmia, first considered as ventricular tachycardia, reflected atrial fibrillation with ventricular pre-excitation over an accessory pathway in a patient with previously undiagnosed WPW syndrome.

  1. 21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories. 876.5880 Section 876.5880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... storage or freezing container with or without bag or preservatives, pulsatile or nonpulsatile...

  2. A peptide from the male accessory gland in Leptinotarsa decemlineata: Purification, characterization and molecular cloning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.; Koopmanschap, A.B.; Kort, de C.A.D.; Schooneveld, H.

    1997-01-01

    Our interest in the male accessory glands (MAGs) of Leptinotarsa decemlineata was raised recently by our finding that certain cells produce a secretory substance that is recognized by one of our monoclonal antibodies (MAC-18), developed for the immunohistochemical demonstration of peptidergic

  3. Shoulder complaints after neck dissection; is the spinal accessory nerve involved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Dijkstra, P.U.; van der Laan, B.F.; Plukker, J.T.; Roodenburg, J.L.

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relation between shoulder morbidity (pain and range of motion), and the function of the spinal accessory nerve after neck dissection. Identifying dysfunction of the nerve gives insight in the mechanisms of post-operative shoulder complaints. In

  4. Total laparoscopic removal of accessory gallbladder: A case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozacov, Yaniv; Subhas, Gokulakkrishna; Jacobs, Michael; Parikh, Janak

    2015-01-01

    Accessory gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly occurring in 1 in 4000 births, that is not associated with any specific symptoms. Usually this cannot be diagnosed on ultrasonography and hence they are usually not diagnosed preoperatively. Removal of the accessory gallbladder is necessary to avoid recurrence of symptoms. H-type accessory gallbladder is a rare anomaly. Once identified intra-operatively during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the surgery is usually converted to open. By using the main gallbladder for liver traction and doing a dome down technique for the accessory gallbladder, we were able to perform the double cholecystectomy with intra-operative cholangiogram laparoscopically. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in 27-year-old male for biliary colic. Prior imaging with computer tomography-scan and ultrasound did not show a duplicated gallbladder. Intraoperatively after ligation of cystic artery and duct an additional structure was seen on its medial aspect. Intraoperative cholangiogram confirmed the patency of intra-hepatic and extra-hepatic biliary ducts. Subsequent dissection around this structure revealed a second gallbladder with cystic duct (H-type). Pathological analysis confirmed the presence of two gallbladders with features of chronic cholecystitis. It is important to use cholangiogram to identify structural anomalies and avoid complications. PMID:26730286

  5. A peptide from the male accessory gland in Leptinotarsa decemlineata: Purification, characterization and molecular cloning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.; Koopmanschap, A.B.; Kort, de C.A.D.; Schooneveld, H.

    1997-01-01

    Our interest in the male accessory glands (MAGs) of Leptinotarsa decemlineata was raised recently by our finding that certain cells produce a secretory substance that is recognized by one of our monoclonal antibodies (MAC-18), developed for the immunohistochemical demonstration of peptidergic neuron

  6. [Blockade of the pheromonal effects in rat by central deafferentation of the accessory olfactory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Criado, J E

    1979-06-01

    Female rats reared without sex odours from male rats have a five day stral cycle. With exposure to male odour the estral cycle is shortened from five to four days. This pheromonal effect is blocked on deafferenting the vomeronasal system by electrolytically damaging both accessory olfactory bulbs.

  7. [Migration of eight harmful elements from metal accessories that infants may swallow by mistake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isama, Kazuo; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    The International Standard ISO 8124-3:2010 "Safety of toys--Part 3: Migration of certain elements" controls the levels of migrated eight harmful elements (antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and selenium) from infants toys. Moreover, the Japanese Food Sanitation Law controls the levels of migrated lead from metal accessory toys. However, the levels of migrated harmful elements from metal accessories that are not infants toys are not controlled, since they are not covered by the ISO Standard or the Food Sanitation Law. Therefore, we investigated the level of eight harmful elements migrated from metal accessories that infants may swallow by mistake. The extraction test of ISO 8124-3:2010 was executed in 117 products (total 184 specimens), and the concentration of these eight elements was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). As a result, 28 and one products released lead and cadmium beyond the maximum acceptable levels of the ISO standard, respectively. Metal accessories that infants may swallow by mistake should ideally not release harmful elements such as lead and cadmium.

  8. A rare case of hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Isamu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2014-12-01

    We presented a very rare case of hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen in the tail of the pancreas. A previously healthy 45-year-old woman felt left back pain and received CT scan. Multiple splenic masses and a pancreatic mass in the tail were detected. Both the lesions presented gradual and weak enhancement and pooling of the contrast medium until very late phase on dynamic MRI. Since the lesions in the spleen and the pancreas presented the same characteristics on dynamic CT/MRI, ultrasonography, and positron emission tomography using fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose, we suspected these lesions as hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen. We performed distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy, and pathological diagnosis was hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen. We should consider the possibility of splenic tumors arising from the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen when we find similar lesions in the spleen and the tail of the pancreas. Gradual and weak enhancement and pooling of the contrast medium until very late phase may be important findings for diagnosing splenic hemangiomatosis.

  9. 21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and... Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter is a device used to perform female sterilization and...

  10. A method for comparison testing of window accessories: The AMSCO thermal test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lexen, T.C.; Muldary, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    A test facility has been developed for the comparison of the thermal performance of window accessories. The facility is presented as a developmental tool, allowing direct comparison testing of prototypes and new products, under controlled interior and real weather conditions. Nighttime U-value testing is emphasized; testing options and limitations are discussed, along with future plans.

  11. Complications after a Bidirectional Cavopulmonary Anastomosis with Accessory Sources of Pulmonary Blood Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2016-12-01

    Creating an accessory source of pulsatile pulmonary blood flow in a patient with a bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis may have advantages and disadvantages. In relation to the latter, we report the complications seen in a cyanotic congenital heart disease patient who developed a superior vena cava syndrome plus severe swelling of his right hand that evolved satisfactorily after percutaneous and medical treatment.

  12. Crescimento e nutrição mineral de mudas de umbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. submetidas a níveis de salinidade em solução nutritiva Growth and mineral nutrition of umbuzeiro seedlings (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. under salt stress in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Sílvio Caires Neves

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o crescimento e a nutrição mineral de mudas de umbuzeiro em solução nutritiva com diferentes níveis de NaCl, conduziu-se este experimento em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras. Adotou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e seis doses de NaCl (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 mmol L-1. As mudas foram adaptadas na solução de Hoagland a 25%, 33% e 50% da sua força iônica, permanecendo durante 15 dias em cada concentração. Após esse período, conduziram-se as plantas por 60 dias em solução com 100% da força iônica e os tratamentos com NaCl. A troca das soluções foi feita quinzenalmente. O NaCl na solução nutritiva afetou negativamente o crescimento das mudas de umbuzeiro. O umbuzeiro foi classificado como moderadamente tolerante à salinidade quando cultivado em até 31 mmol L-1 de NaCl na solução nutritiva, sendo a compartimentalização nas raízes o possível mecanismo de tolerância à salinidade. A ordem de acumulação dos macronutrientes foi: N > K > Ca > P > S > Mg e N > Ca > K > P > S > Mg, na ausência e com 100 mmol L-1, respectivamente, e a dos micronutrientes, exceto o Cl, foi: Fe > B > Mn > Zn > Cu, independente da concentração de NaCl no meio.To evaluate the growth and the mineral nutrition of umbuzeiro seedlings, under salt stress, an experiment in nutrient solution was conducted, under greenhouse conditions in the Soil Science Department of the Federal University of Lavras, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocs, with four replications and six doses of NaCl (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mmol L-1. The seedlings were adapted in the Hoagland solution to 25, 33 and 50% of ionic forces, staying for fifteen days in each concentration. After this period the seedlings were conduced for 60 days in nutrient solution with 100% of the ionic force and the treatments with NaCl. The change of the solutions was made biweekly

  13. Accessory papillary muscles and papillary muscle hypertrophy are associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jae-Sun; Youn, Jong-Chan; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Park, Junbeom; Park, Jin-Kyu; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Joung, Boyoung; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2015-10-15

    The present study was performed for elucidating the associations between the morphology of the papillary muscles (PMs) and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). We retrospectively reviewed history, laboratory data, electrocardiography, echocardiography, coronary angiography, and cardiac CT/MRI for 190 patients with SCA. The prevalence of accessory PMs and PM hypertrophy in patients with SCA of unknown cause was compared with that in patients with SCA of known causes and 98 age- and sex-matched patients without SCA. An accessory PM was defined as a PM with origins separated from the anterolateral and posteromedial PMs, or a PM that branched into two or three bellies at the base of the anterolateral or posteromedial PM. PM hypertrophy was defined as at least one of the two PMs having a diameter of ≥1.1cm. In 49 patients (age 49.9±15.9years; 38 men) the cause of SCA was unknown, whereas 141 (age 54.2±16.6years; 121 men) had a known cause. The prevalence of accessory PMs was significantly higher in the unknown-cause group than in the known-cause group (24.5% and 7.8%, respectively; p=0.002) or the no-SCA group (7.1%, p=0.003). The same was true for PM hypertrophy (unknown-cause 12.2%, known-cause 2.1%, p=0.010; no SCA group 1.0%, p=0.006). By logistic regression, accessory PM and PM hypertrophy were independently associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause. An accessory PM and PM hypertrophy are associated with SCA of unknown cause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  15. Mechanism of mineral formation in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H C

    1989-03-01

    The mechanism of mineral formation in bone is seen best where active new bone formation is occurring, e.g., in newly forming subperiosteal bone of the embryo, in the growing bone of young animals, and in healing rickets where the calcification process in osteoid is reactivated. A large body of ultrastructural evidence, using conventional and anhydrous methods for tissue preparation, has shown convincingly that extracellular matrix vesicles are present at or near the mineralization front in all of the above, and that these vesicles are the initial site of apatite mineral deposition. Thus bone resembles growth plate cartilage, predentin, and turkey tendon in having calcification initiated by matrix vesicles. Once the calcification cascade is begun, matrix vesicles are no longer needed to support mineralization and are consumed by the advancing mineralization front in which performed crystals serve as nuclei for the formation of new crystals. The rate of crystal proliferation is promoted by the availability of Ca2+, PO4(3-), and the presence of collagen, and retarded by naturally occurring inhibitors of mineralization such as proteoglycans and several noncollagenous calcium-binding proteins of bone including bone-Gla protein (osteocalcin), phosphoproteins, osteonectin, and alpha-2HS-glycoproteins. New electron microscopic immunocytochemical findings in our laboratory suggest that the origin of alkaline phosphatase-positive bone matrix vesicles is polarized to the mineral-facing side of osteoblasts and may be concentrated near the intercellular junctions of human embryonic osteoblasts.

  16. Investigating Consumer Insight by Using Completion Techniques: A Case Study of a Motorcycle Accessory Shop in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With almost 10% of the world’s motorcycles in use in Thailand, this indicates that Thailand is a big market for motorcycle accessories in the world. This qualitative research aims to investigate consumer insight by using completion techniques (sentence completion and story completion. Three respondents were deployed by using accidental sampling. Respondents were recruited to complete questionnaires when they entered the motorcycle accessory shop and were reported as male, currently studying, and at least 12 years old. The research was conducted in a motorcycle accessory shop in Sakon Nakhon province, Thailand. From the results of the story completion tests, all participants agreed to take part in a promotion which gave a 10% discount for membership card holders. They came to the motorcycle accessory shop by the recommendation of friends (positive Word-Of-Mouth. Moreover, consumers are satisfied when a seller can give them information or suggestions on motorcycle accessories as well as providing good after-sales service. When motorcycle accessory shoppers are satisfied with a motorcycle accessory shop, they will return to the shop and hence demonstrate consumer loyalty.

  17. A potential role for tetranectin in mineralization during osteogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Ibaraki, K; Schjørring, P;

    1994-01-01

    cartilage or in the surrounding skeletal muscle. Using an in vitro mineralizing system, we examined osteoblastic cells at different times during their growth and differentiation. Tetranectin mRNA appeared in the cultured osteoblastic cells in parallel with mineralization, in a pattern similar...... osteogenesis. In conclusion, we have established a potential role for tetranectin as a bone matrix protein expressed in time and space coincident with mineralization in vivo and in vitro....

  18. Competition of chemically related antigens for presentation by accessory cells to T cells requires expenditure of metabolic energy by the accessory cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werdelin, O; Buus, S

    1983-01-01

    The immune responsiveness of guinea pigs both to dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine (DNP-PLL) and to the lysine-rich random copolymer of L-glutamic acid and L-lysine (GL) is controlled by the 'poly-L-lysine gene'. We have previously demonstrated that accessory cells of responder strains can be made...... incapable of presenting DNP-PLL to responsive T cells in assays for proliferation, by in vitro exposure of the cells to GL before and during their exposure to DNP-PLL. We demonstrate here that the presence of anti-Ia antibody in the cultures does not interfere with the apparent competition of the two...

  19. Mineral metabolism in isolated mouse long bones: Opposite effects of microgravity on mineralization and resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, Jean Paul; Vanloon, Jack J. W. A.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment using isolated skeletal tissues under microgravity, is reported. Fetal mouse long bones (metatarsals) were cultured for 4 days in the Biorack facility of Spacelab during the IML-1 (International Microgravity Laboratory) mission of the Space Shuttle. Overall growth was not affected, however glucose consumption was significantly reduced under microgravity. Mineralization of the diaphysis was also strongly reduced under microgravity as compared to the on-board 1 g group. In contrast, mineral resorption by osteoclasts was signficantly increased. These results indicate that these fetal mouse long bones are a sensitive and useful model to further study the cellular mechanisms involved in the changed mineral metabolism of skeletal tissues under microgravity.

  20. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  1. Mineral commodity summaries 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2017-01-31

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2016 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials.

  2. Crescimento e nutrição mineral do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo' cultivado em substrato com zeólita enriquecida com NPK Growth and mineral nutrition of rangpur lime rootstock cultivated in substrate with zeolite enriched with NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de um concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com N, P e K ao substrato de cultivo sobre o crescimento, produção de matéria seca, área foliar, teores e extração de N, P e K e os teores de clorofila do limoeiro 'Cravo'. O porta-enxerto foi cultivado por 93 dias em tubetes de 150 cm³ com substrato orgânico compostado de casca de coco e carvão vegetal (3:1 ao qual se adicionou o concentrado zeolítico. Este foi obtido com a concentração da zeólita natural (Z e enriquecimento desta com KNO3 (ZNK, e também com a acidificação com H3PO4 e mistura com apatita (ZP. Utilizou-se uma mistura de 30%ZNK + 70%ZP nas doses de: 0; 2,5; 5; 10 e 15 g por planta. Os resultados indicaram que o fornecimento de nutrientes através do mineral zeólita adicionado ao substrato orgânico comprovou ser alternativa viável para a obtenção de porta-enxertos no sistema de produção em ambiente protegido. A adição de 6,4 g do concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com NPK aumentou significativamente a produção de matéria seca, área foliar, altura e diâmetro de caule. Este aumento foi de 37,5% em relação à testemunha que não recebeu o concentrado zeolítico. Houve aumentos nos teores e extração de N, P e K com o fornecimento da zeólita enriquecida. As leituras dos teores de clorofila relacionaram-se com os teores de N, indicando ser esta uma alternativa para o diagnóstico do estado nutricional para a cultura.The main objective of this research was to evaluated the growth, dry matter production, leaf area, N, P and K levels and exportation and chlorophyll levels of Rangpur Lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck grown in a substrate with NPK enriched zeolite. Rootstocks were cultivated during 93 days in 150cm³-dibble tubes containing composted organic substrate of cocopeat and vegetal coal (3:1 with zeolite addition. Treatments comprised 4 levels (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 g per plant of a NPK-enriched zeolite

  3. Crescimento e composição mineral da menta em resposta à inoculação com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e adubação fosfatada Growth and mineral composition of mint in response to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation and phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Simone M Freitas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA no crescimento e composição mineral de Mentha arvensis L., cultivada com diferentes doses de fósforo. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação e o delineamento estatístico utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, num fatorial 5x4, sendo cinco tratamentos microbiológicos (controle, Glomus clarum, Glomus etunicatum, Gigaspora margarita e Acaulospora scrobiculata e quatro doses de P (0; 50; 100 e 200 mg kg-1, com quatro repetições. As plantas foram colhidas na fase de floração, aos 65 dias após o plantio. Verificou-se que, na ausência de P, os fungos Glomus clarum e Gigaspora margarita apresentaram maiores percentagens de colonização micorrízica nas raízes e proporcionaram aumentos de 330 e 334% na matéria seca foliar, de 143 e 123% no conteúdo de N, de 224 e 124% no conteúdo de P e de 139 e 142% no conteúdo de K, respectivamente. Os FMA não influenciaram os conteúdos de Ca, Mg, S, Fe e Zn na matéria seca foliar. As doses de P entre 122 e 165 mg kg-1 de solo proporcionaram as maiores produções de matéria seca. Nessas doses, o conteúdo de Mn foi menor quando as plantas foram inoculadas com Glomus clarum, Gigaspora margarita e Glomus etunicatum. A dependência micorrízica da menta variou de acordo com a espécie de fungo e a dose de P utilizada, sendo maior com os fungos Glomus clarum e Gigaspora margarita, na ausência de P.The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF were evaluated on the growth and mineral composition of Mentha arvensis L., grown under different phosphorus levels. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in a factorial scheme 5x4, with five microbiological treatments (control without AMF, Glomus clarum, Glomus etunicatum, Gigaspora margarita and Acaulospora scrobiculata and four P levels (0; 50; 100 and 200 mg kg-1. A randomized block design was used, with four replications. The plants were harvested at flowering, 65 days

  4. Efeito da omissão de macronutrientes e boro no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral de plantas de camucamuzeiro Effect of omission of macronutrient and boron on growth, on symptoms of nutritional deficiency and mineral composition in camucamuzeiro plants (Myrciaria dubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael de Jesus Matos Viégas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da omissão de macronutrientes e do micronutriente boro no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral em plantas de camucamuzeiro, conduziu-se experimento em casa de vegetação, mediante a técnica do elemento faltante. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos, sendo completo (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e micronutrientes e omissão individual de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e B. Os sintomas visuais de deficiências foram, de modo geral, de fácil caracterização para todos os nutrientes. Com exceção do fósforo, as omissões dos demais nutrientes afetaram a produção de matéria seca, quando comparados ao tratamento completo. Com base nos teores em g kg-1, dos macronutrientes, e em mg kg-1, do micronutriente boro nas folhas, infere-se em uma primeira aproximação dos valores adequados (completo, ou seja: 16,9 a 18,2 de N ; 1,2 a 1,9 de P; 5,2 a 6,0 de K; 9,9 a 11,7 de Ca; 1,4 a 3,6 de Mg; 2,4 a 2,8 de S ; 8,4 a 9,5 de B e do deficiente (omissão , 6,5 a 7,9 de N ; =0,9 de P; =1,7 de K ; 5,4 a 6,5 de Ca; =0,7 de Mg; 0,7 a 1,2 de S e 1,1 a 1,9 de BThe effects of omission of macronutrient and boron on growth, on symptoms of nutritional deficiency and mineral composition of plants of "camucamuzeiro" were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, by means of the missing element technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with eight treatments and four repetitions, including complete (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and micronutrients and individual omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and B. The visual symptoms of deficiency were easily characterized for all the nutrients. Excepting for P, dry mass was affected by the omission of all the other nutrients, when compared with the complete treatment. Based on the macronutrient (g kg-1 and on the micronutrient boron (mg kg-1 on leaves contents, a first approach of the

  5. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...... in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  6. Effects of Cadmium on Peanut Growth and Mineral Nutrient Uptake%镉胁迫对花生生长和矿质元素吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽香; 陈虎; 郭峰; 张欣; 范仲学; 万书波

    2013-01-01

    以鲁花14为材料,采用盆栽的方法,设置0.10(CK)、3.24、7.35、8.38、18.80 mg·kg-1 5种土壤镉浓度,研究了土壤镉胁迫对鲁花14生长和籽粒矿质元素吸收的影响.结果表明:随着镉浓度的增加,花生叶和茎的干重,荚果和籽粒重均呈现先增加后降低的趋势,这几个指标值均在镉浓度为3.24 mg· kg-1时达到峰值,而镉浓度达到18.80 rag· kg-1时显著低于对照.花生叶、茎、根和籽粒中的镉含量和镉积累量随镉浓度的增加呈持续上升的趋势,且不同土壤镉浓度间差异极显著.镉胁迫对花生籽粒矿质元素含量的影响不一致,随着镉浓度的增加,P元素呈不断下降的趋势,而K、Mg、Ca、Fe、Zn元素呈现先增加后降低的趋势.%A pot experiment was conducted using Luhua 14 to study the effects of cadmium on growth and mineral nutrient uptake of peanut cultivars.Five different cadmium concentrations were tested[0.10(CK),3.24,7.35,8.38 and 18.80 mg· kg-1 of soil].The results showed that the dry weight of leaves,shoots,legumes and grains from Luhua 14 first rose but dropped afterwards when increasing cadmium concentration.Maximum values were obtained for a soil cadmium concentration of 3.24 mg· kg-1,while minimum values were obtained for a soil cadmium concentration of 18.80 mg· kg-1.Cadmium accumulation in leaves,shoots,roots and grains from Luhua 14 increased proportionally with the cadmium concentration applied in soil.The results also showed that applying cadmium had different effects on the mineral nutrient concentration in grains.Phosphorus concentration was gradually reduced over increased cadmium concentrations,while concentrations of potassium,magnesium,calcium,iron and zinc first rose but dropped afterwards when increasing cadmium concentration.

  7. Developing quality standards for physical properties of mineral wool plugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Berg, van den C.C.; Winkel, van A.

    2014-01-01

    The KIWA certification guidelines for mineral wool products contain standards for slabs and blocks. Propagators would like to introduce quality standards for mineral wool plugs as well. Main concerns were effects of too dense plugs on plant growth, and handling problems with too fluffy or broken

  8. Kinematics of fibrous vein growth: insights from stable isotopes and trace element data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M. P.; Lefticariu, L.; Romanek, C.; Perry, E. C.

    2005-12-01

    Veins are important recorders of thermal, hydrological, structural, and geochemical conditions during deformation. Fibrous or bladed veins are particularly useful, because the mineral fibers are believed to grow continuously or episodically over what may be a significant geologic time period. Thus, individual mineral fibers document the complex, dynamic changes occurring coeval with vein growth and mineral precipitation. Geochemical and structural analyses have been used to constrain the kinematic history of a bed-parallel fibrous calcite vein from the Upper Jurassic La Casita Formation, Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico. The La Casita Formation, correlative with the Smackover Formation of the northern US Gulf Coast, consists of shale and is part of a sedimentary succession that unconformably overlies evaporites of the Minas Viejas Formation. The fibrous vein examined in this study was taken from the backlimb of the frontal fold of the Monterrey salient near Saltillo. Optical petrographic observation reveals that the calcite fibers have blade or tapering lath shapes with widths from 0.1-1.0 mm. Other minerals present in the vein are pyrite, gypsum, bitumen, and iron oxides. High-resolution, closely spaced stable isotope and elemental analyses were carried out along five traverses across the vein width. The d18O values vary in a narrow range, with an average value of +20.8 permil (VSMOW). The d13C values increase systematically along the fibers, from the walls of the vein toward the suture plane. In all five traverses, the d13C increase is relatively constant, with lower values next to the vein wall (+1.2 to +1.6 permil PDB) and higher values along the suture line (+3.6 to +4.1 permil PDB). The vein minerals, fibrous calcite and accessory pyrite, are interpreted to be the products of high temperature reactions between light hydrocarbons and dissolved sulfate, known as thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Reactants such as light hydrocarbons and products such as CO2

  9. Front-loaded linezolid regimens result in increased killing and suppression of the accessory gene regulator system of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Brian T; Brown, Tanya; Parasrampuria, Ridhi; Brazeau, Daniel A; Forrest, Alan; Kelchlin, Pamela A; Holden, Patricia N; Peloquin, Charles A; Hanna, Debra; Bulitta, Jurgen B

    2012-07-01

    Front loading is a strategy used to optimize the pharmacodynamic profile of an antibiotic through the administration of high doses early in therapy for a short duration. Our aims were to evaluate the impact of front loading of linezolid regimens on bacterial killing and suppression of resistance and on RNAIII, the effector molecule of the accessory gene regulator system (encoded by agr) in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Time-killing experiments over 48 h were utilized for linezolid against four strains of MRSA: USA100, USA300, USA400, and ATCC 29213. A hollow-fiber infection model simulated traditional and front-loaded human therapeutic regimens of linezolid versus USA300 at 10(6) CFU/ml over 240 h. Over 48 h in time-kill experiments, linezolid displayed bacteriostatic activity, with reductions of >1 log(10) CFU/ml for all strains. Front-loaded regimens that were administered over 5 days, 1,200 mg every 12 h (q12h) (total, 10 doses) and 2,400 mg q12h (total, 10 doses) followed by 300 mg q12h thereafter, resulted in sustained bactericidal activity, with reductions of the area under the CFU curve of -6.15 and -6.03, respectively, reaching undetectable limits at the 10-day study endpoint. All regimens displayed a reduction in RNAIII relative expression at 24 h and 240 h compared with that of the growth control. Monte Carlo simulations predicted a infections, where early aggressive therapy is necessary.

  10. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2008 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2007 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported reserves and reserve base information carried for years without alteration because no new information is available; historically reported reserves and reserve base reduced by the amount of historical production; and company reported reserves. International minerals availability studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, before 1996, and estimates of identified resources by an international collaborative effort (the International Strategic Minerals

  11. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of

  12. Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) for extreme acidophilic microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Medium for growth of extreme acidophilic microorganisms. This medium does not contain trace elements. When not working on mineral, addition of trace element (TE) solution is necessary, see separate protocol. http://www.nature.com/protocolexchange/protocols/3811

  13. Morphology of accessory genital glands of spotted paca (Agouti paca Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Edson Moreira; Branco, Érika; de Lima, Ana Rita; Leal, Leonardo Martins; Martins, Leandro Luiz; Reis, Ana Carolina Gonçalves; Cruz, Claudinei; Machado, Márcia Rita Fernandes; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-02-01

    The spotted paca is the second largest rodent in Brazil, where it is of great economic interest in impoverished regions in view of its prominence as a low-cost source of protein. Little is known about the morphology of the accessory genital glands of this species. Thus, we studied the position and morphology of the genitals in ten adult male spotted pacas. The animals were divided into two groups, five animals were used for fixing of samples in 10% aqueous formaldehyde for macroscopic studies and the other five animals were designated for microscopic analysis. These were arranged in pairs and had the vesicular, prostate, coagulating and bulbourethral glands identified, being structured as mucous glands, which lead into the pelvic urethra. It was concluded that the accessory genital glands found in the paca are the same as those found in most rodents, showing similar histological aspects.

  14. Endovascular glue embolization of dissecting aneurysm of type-3 accessory middle cerebral artery: A contralateral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Goel, Gaurav; Gupta, Vipul; Narang, Karanjit Singh; Anand, Saurabh; Jha, Ajaya Nand

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are rare with a reported prevalence of 0.5-4.6%. Likewise, anomalous arterial patterns are uncommon in the cerebral circulation. Recognition of these variations and knowledge of vascular territory forms the key to managing pathological conditions associated with these anomalous vessels. Ruptured dissecting aneurysm of type-3 accessory middle cerebral artery (aMCA) has not been reported in the pediatric age group. In addition to type-3 aMCA, the child in this case report had an ipsilateral type-1 aMCA with cortical supply. We describe the patterns of accessory MCA and their vascular territory, state the perplexity involved in deciding the best management strategy, and describe the technical approach we undertook to catheterize this small caliber recurrent artery (type-3 aMCA) originating at an acute angle from the anterior cerebral artery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Posttraumatic torsion of accessory lobe of the liver and the gallbladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplewitz, B.Z.; Manson, D.E. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto, Ont. (Canada); Ein, S.H. [Div. of General Surgery, Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Torsion of an accessory lobe of the liver and of the gallbladder is a rare etiology for acute abdominal pain in children and infants. We report a case of an 8-year-old girl who was admitted with acute epigastric pain and vomiting, after her brother had jumped on her back. Physical examination revealed an afebrile child with a nontender right upper quadrant (RUQ) mass. Color Doppler ultrasound and contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated a heterogeneous, avascular mass with displacement of a thickened-wall gallbladder. A torted, congested accessory lobe of the liver and the gallbladder were resected at laparotomy. Imaging and operative findings are presented and a differential diagnosis is discussed in order to increase awareness of this rare condition. (orig.)

  16. Online monitoring of Accessories for Underground Electrical Installations through Acoustics Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casals-Torrens P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic waves caused by Partial Discharges inside the dielectric materials, can be detected by acoustic emission (AE sensors and analyzed in the time domain. The experimental results presented, show the online detection capability of these sensors in the environment near a cable accessory, such as a splice or terminal. The AE sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference and constitute a detection method non-intrusive and non-destructive, which ensures a galvanic decoupling with respect to electric networks, this technique of partial discharge detection can be applied as a test method for preventive or predictive maintenance (condition-based maintenance to equipments or facilities of medium and high voltage in service and represents an alternative method to electrical detection systems, conventional or not, that continue to rely on the detection of current pulses. This paper presents characterization tests of the sensors AE through comparative tests of partial discharge on accessories for underground power cables.

  17. Outcome review on the percutaneous release of the proximal interphalangeal joint accessory collateral ligaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Cerovac

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The percutaneous release of accessory collateral ligaments was introduced in 1986 as a safe and quick procedure to be attempted before open, more extensive joint release in the treatment of proximal interphalangeal joint flexion contracture. Our study analyzed the long-term results and patient satisfaction following a percutaneous release in 30 joints after a mean follow-up period of 34 months. In one half of cases the preoperative joint flexion deformity was reduced from 78° to 34°. The best results were observed in patients with osteoarthritis and stiff, immobilized joints. In patients with inflammatory arthritides, marked intraoperative correction was maintained rarely, joint contractures recurred early, and patients were unsatisfied. There were no intraoperative complications. Percutaneous release of the accessory collateral ligaments can produce a long lasting correction of the joint contracture, but careful patient selection and strict postoperative rehabilitation are essential for favorable outcome.

  18. Accessory belly of piriformis, as a cause of superior gluteal neurovascular entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimple Bansal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During routine dissection on 50 years old male cadaver, an accessory belly of piriformis was observed. This accessory belly was superior and parallel to the main piriformis muscle. This was associated with emergence of superior gluteal nerve and superior gluteal artery between the two bellies. Piriformis muscle and its relation to sciatic nerve has been suggested as a cause of piriformis syndrome. But interestingly in the present case, superior gluteal nerve was interposed between two bellies that may help the clinicians to establish a rare yet important cause of piriformis syndrome and a rare cause of undiagnosed chronic pain in gluteal region. As superior gluteal artery was also interposed, so this rare variation holds interest to surgeons especially in isolated buttock claudication despite otherwise normal vascular investigations. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 296-298

  19. Sclerotic fibroma (storiform collagenoma)-like stroma in a fibroadenoma of axillary accessory breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Bernal, José Fernando; González-Vela, María Carmen; De Grado, Mauricio; Garijo, María Francisca

    2012-08-01

    Accessory breast tissue is a subcutaneous remnant persisting after normal embryological development of the breast. It occurs most frequently in the axilla. Fibroadenomas in axillary breast tissue are rare. We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who presented a fibroadenoma arising in the accessory breast tissue of the right axillary fossa. The neoplasm showed foci of sclerotic fibroma-like stroma. The patient had no signs of Cowden's syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, a lesion of this kind has not been previously reported. This stromal change suggests an uncommon involutional phase of the fibroadenoma with production of sclerotic and hypocellular collagen. The lesion should be differentiated from extraneural perineuroma, from the changes in fibroadenomas in Cowden's syndrome, from sclerosing lobular hyperplasia (fibroadenomatoid mastopathy) and from pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia.

  20. Castration-induced expression of caspase-1 in epithelia of accessory sex organs in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masao Izawa; Mitunori Kimura; Tomiko Yamada; Makoto Saji

    2001-01-01

    Aim: As an attempt to clarify the molecular basis of castration-induced apoptosis, this study was undertaken to demonstrate the expression of caspase-1 in male accessory sex organs of rats. Methods and results: cDNA of rat caspase-1 was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the ventral prostates. The open reading frame predicts 402 amino acids, which shows more than 91% and 63 % identity to those of mouse and human, respec tively. Northern analyses demonstrated the presence of castration-induced up-regulation of the 1.6 kb transcript in the ventral prostate and the seminal vesicles. Finally, the authors demonstrated the caspase-1 transcripts in the epithelia of these tissues by in situ hybridization analyses. Conclusion: Castration induces the expression of caspase-1 tran scripts in the epithelia of ventral prostate and seminal vesicle. These observations suggest a possible role of caspase-1 in apoptosis in male accessory sex organs.

  1. Expression of an accessory cell phenotype by hairy cells during lymphocyte colony formation in agar culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcet, J P; Gourdin, M F; Testa, U; Andre, C; Jouault, H; Reyes, F

    1983-01-01

    Human T lymphocytes require the cooperation of accessory cells to generate lymphocyte colonies in agar culture under PHA stimulation. Various hairy cell enriched fractions, as well as normal monocytes, have been found to be able to initiate colony formation by normal lymphocytes. Leukemic monocytes from CMML patients were also effective, but not the leukemic lymphocytes from CLL patients. The phenotype expressed by HC in agar colonies was further studied using cell surface and enzymatic markers. We have concluded that HC in agar culture in the presence of both normal T lymphocytes and PHA lose the B phenotype that they express in vivo and function like an accessory cell in contrast to normal or leukemic B lymphocytes.

  2. A New Integrated Onboard Charger and Accessory Power Converter for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is presented for integrating the function of onboard battery charging into the traction drive system and accessory dc-dc converter of a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV). The idea is to utilize the segmented traction drive system of a PEV as the frond converter of the charging circuit and the transformer and high voltage converter of the 14 V accessory dc-dc converter to form a galvanically isolated onboard charger. Moreover, a control method is presented for suppressing the battery current ripple component of twice the grid frequency with the reduced dc bus capacitor in the segmented inverter. The resultant integrated charger has lower cost, weight, and volume than a standalone charger due to a substantially reduced component count. The proposed integrated charger topology was verified by modeling and experimental results on a 5.8 kW charger prototype.

  3. A fast 3D reconstruction system with a low-cost camera accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiwei; Gibson, Graham M; Hay, Rebecca; Bowman, Richard W; Padgett, Miles J; Edgar, Matthew P

    2015-06-09

    Photometric stereo is a three dimensional (3D) imaging technique that uses multiple 2D images, obtained from a fixed camera perspective, with different illumination directions. Compared to other 3D imaging methods such as geometry modeling and 3D-scanning, it comes with a number of advantages, such as having a simple and efficient reconstruction routine. In this work, we describe a low-cost accessory to a commercial digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera system allowing fast reconstruction of 3D objects using photometric stereo. The accessory consists of four white LED lights fixed to the lens of a commercial DSLR camera and a USB programmable controller board to sequentially control the illumination. 3D images are derived for different objects with varying geometric complexity and results are presented, showing a typical height error of <3 mm for a 50 mm sized object.

  4. The Use of Accessory Portals in Bankart Repair With Posterior Extension in the Lateral Decubitus Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Hamamoto, Jason T; Campbell, Kevin J; McCarthy, Mark; Higgins, John D; Verma, Nikhil N

    2016-10-01

    The Bankart lesion, in which the anteroinferior labrum is detached from the glenoid, is the critical anatomic lesion in the majority of patients with anterior glenohumeral instability. Some patients with anterior glenohumeral instability will have Bankart lesions with posterior extension beyond the 6-o'clock position, and achieving anatomic labral repair in these cases can present a technical challenge. In our experience, the lateral decubitus position and use of accessory portals allow superior visualization of the inferior half of the glenohumeral joint for glenoid and labral preparation, anchor placement, and suture management. The use of double-loaded suture anchors at the inferior glenoid provides multiple points of fixation at this challenging location while limiting the number of anchors required. The purpose of this article is to present a simple and reproducible technique for arthroscopic repair of Bankart lesions with posterior extension, emphasizing the use of accessory 5-o'clock trans-subscapularis and 7-o'clock portals.

  5. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentze, Julie Lilith; Møller, Morten Erik; Jørgensen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site...... of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis...... melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises...

  6. Physician accessories: Doctor, what you carry is every patient′s worry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections are on the rise worldwide and many a times they are carried by the health care personnel. Accessories used by physicians and healthcare personnel can be a potential source of nosocomial infection. Materials and Methods: We designed a survey with the aim to investigate the prevalence of microbial flora of accessories such as pens, stethoscopes, cell phones and white coat used by the physicians working in a tertiary care hospital. Observations: It was observed that 66% of the pens, 55% of the stethoscopes, 47.61% of the cell phones and 28.46% of the white coats used by the doctors were colonized with various microorganisms. Staphylococcus spp. was the predominant isolate followed by Escherichia coli. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was also found, which was a matter of concern. Conclusions: Awareness of appropriate hand hygiene is important in order to prevent potential transmission to patients.

  7. Accessory mental foramen: A rare anatomical variation detected by cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; De Faro Valverde, Ludmila; Vidal, Manuela Torres Andion; Crusoe-Rebello, Ieda Margarida [Dept. of Oral Radiology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    The mental foramen is a bilateral opening in the vestibular portion of the mandible through which nerve endings, such as the mental nerve, emerge. In general, the mental foramen is located between the lower premolars. This region is a common area for the placement of dental implants. It is very important to identify anatomical variations in presurgical imaging exams since damage to neurovascular bundles may have a direct influence on treatment success. In the hemimandible, the mental foramen normally appears as a single structure, but there are some rare reports on the presence and number of anatomical variations; these variations may include accessory foramina. The present report describes the presence of accessory mental foramina in the right mandible, as detected by cone-beam computed tomography before dental implant placement.

  8. Preoperative computed tomography and scintigraphy to facilitate the detection of accessory spleen in patients with hematologic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Nobuhiro; Kanematsu, Takashi; Sugimachi, Keizo

    1988-01-01

    Accessory spleens of 1.5 cm in size were preoperatively identified by the combined use of computerized tomography and splenic scintigraphy in two patients with hematologic diseases. After the accessory spleen had been removed from the first patient, who had persistent hereditary spherocytosis and had undergone a splenectomy 15 months before, a postoperative decrease in hyperbilirubinemia was noted. In the other patient who had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, a successful accessory splenectomy was done at the same time as her splenectomy, and was followed by 6 months' complete remission. These events indicate that preoperative investigations using computerized tomography and scintigraphy are indispensable for ruling out an accessory spleen in those patients for whom splenectomy needs to be done in order to alleviate hematologic disorders.

  9. Mineral facilities of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  10. Ablation of a therapy-resistant posteroseptal accessory atrioventricular pathway: going for gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Conor J; Gal, Benjamin; Geelen, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Posteroseptal accessory pathways are sometimes resistant to ablation because of the complex anatomy of this region. Ex-vivo experiments have demonstrated that gold-tip radiofrequency ablation catheters create deeper lesions than conventional platinum-iridium tip catheters. This case of a 62-year-old man with Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome illustrates that the ability to create such lesions can be a very useful option when previous attempts with platinum-iridium tip catheters have failed.

  11. Intermittently “Pre-Excited” ECG after Accessory Pathway Ablation: Unsuccessful Procedure or a Complication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Mikhaylov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old woman with previously unsuccessful posteroseptal pathway ablation using radiofrequency energy presented with intermittently occurring short PR followed by a wide QRS complex, and complaining of palpitations with characteristics different from previous history. During a second electrophysiological procedure no signs of preexcitation were found. Ventricular discharges with fusion with sinus beats were revealed, and catheter ablation of premature contractions originating from the proximity to previous accessory pathway was carried out.

  12. Combination of Hansen Robotic system with cryocatheter in a challenging parahisian accessory pathway ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Rodríguez-Mañero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A perceived distinctive feature of cryoablation is the stability (cryoadherence of the catheter tip during cold temperatures at the desired location, even during tachycardia. We report the case report of a young patient with a parahisian accessory pathway where stability of the ablation catheter was not achieved despite using the cryocatheter with a steerable sheath. Ultimately, stability at the desired location was achieved robotically by means of Hansen system (Hansen Medical, Mountain View, CA, USA.

  13. Accessory phases in Karelian Province sanukitoids (Finland): Towards understanding temporal changes in subduction style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruand, Emilie; Fowler, Mike; Storey, Craig; Heilimo, Esa

    2013-04-01

    The Archean-Proterozoic transition is marked by the appearance of sanukitoids, which have been found on every continent, whose occurrence is believed to be a consequence of the initiation of the so called "Modern Plate Tectonics". Whole rock geochemistry and experimental petrology have suggested that they result from the interaction between a mantle wedge and a metasomatism agent (either oceanic crust melt or sediments). Sanukitoids from the Karelian Province (Finland) have been dated at ~ 2.7 Ga (U-Pb on zircon; Heilimo et al., 2011), and whole rock geochemical data, oxygen and hafnium isotopes in zircons have been interpreted as the result of the interaction between a depleted mantle wedge and a recycled crustal component during a slab-breakoff event at the end stage of the subduction (Heilimo et al., 2010, Heilimo et al., 2012). Geochemistry of accessory phases can give additional information about the petrogenesis and the sources of their host rocks (e.g. Hoskin et al., 2000; Chu et al., 2002). In this contribution, we present new geochemical data on the accessory phases (titanite, apatite, zircon) of the Karelian Province sanukitoids. We demonstrate that trace elements analysis and a detailed petrographic work on these phases give us a direct access to their petrogenesis. These data are compared to new data obtained on "modern" sanukitoids (High Ba-Sr suite, Scotland) and on a BADR suite (Guernsey, Channel Islands) in order to highlight potential geochemical signatures of each. This study will be followed by a systematic analysis of accessory phases in TTG, in order to have a whole record of accessory phases chemistry in plutonic rocks through the crustal evolution.

  14. Undressing "health fashion": an examination of health-cause clothing and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kandi L; Hart, Joy L; Gregg, Jennifer L; LaJoie, A Scott

    2010-09-01

    Today, fashion items such as rubber wristbands in various colors, pink ribbons, and red dresses represent different health-related causes and can be seen frequently across demographic groups. Complete with pithy slogans (e.g., "Go Red for Women"), these items are part of a larger "health fashion" trend--one that involves wearing, using, and displaying health-cause clothing and accessories. In this article, the authors explore recent interest in "health fashion," examining in particular its origins, effectiveness, and implications.

  15. Accessory hepatic lobe simulating a left hemidiaphragmatic tumor. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroiwa, Toshiro; Hirata, Hitoshi; Iwashita, Akinori; Yasumori, Kotaro; Mogami, Hiroshi; Teraoka, Hiroaki (Matsuyama Red Cross Hospital (Japan))

    1984-08-01

    A 72-year-old woman with a 20-year history of neuralgia was confirmed at surgery to have a tumor in the left hemidiaphragmatic region which was connected with the left lobe of the liver. Reassessment of radiological diagnosis after surgery revealed that hepatobiliary scintigraphy and computed tomography using left anterior oblique scanning are useful in differentiating the accessory hepatic lobe of the liver from a tumor and in confirming the diagnosis, respectively.

  16. Prevalence and Pattern of Accessory Teeth (Hyperdontia in Permanent Dentition of Iranian Orthodontic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Amini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of hyperdontia pattern/prevalence can be useful in early diagnosis and prevention by general practitioners, pediatric dentists, and orthodontists. Since the previous results regarding the pattern of hyperdontia (supernumerary teeth are controversial, this study aimed to assess this subject among Iranian orthodontic patients.All approved panoramic radiographs of 3374 orthodontic patients (aged 10 to 20 years old who had visited orthodontic departments of all Tehran dentistry universities and 10 private clinics during the years 1999-2009 were investigated to establish the prevalence/pattern of hyperdontia in permanent dentition (excluding third molars. The data were analyzed using a chi-square, a chi-square goodness-of-fit, and a Fisher exact test (α=0.05.Of the patients, 2012 were female and 1362 were male. The prevalence of hyperdontia was 0.72% (14 females [0.69% of females], 10 males [0.73% of males], female-to-male ratio=1:1.055. The difference between the genders was not significant (P = 0.896. No double or multiple supernumeraries were found. The most common accessory teeth were mesiodens (58.3%, maxillary laterals (25%, and maxillary premolars (16.7%. Hyperdontia was significantly more common (P=0.000 in maxilla (there was only one mandibular accessory tooth. It was more frequent in the anterior segment (P=0.000. However the occurrence was not significantly different between bimaxillary right and left quadrants (P=0.6.Hyperdontia was more common in premaxilla, and the most common accessory tooth was mesiodens. Unlike earlier studies, no bilateral accessory teeth were found. Also no gender dimorphism was discerned.

  17. Accessory subunits are integral for assembly and function of human mitochondrial complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, David A; Surgenor, Elliot E; Formosa, Luke E; Reljic, Boris; Frazier, Ann E; Dibley, Marris G; Osellame, Laura D; Stait, Tegan; Beilharz, Traude H; Thorburn, David R; Salim, Agus; Ryan, Michael T

    2016-10-06

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the first enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and is composed of 45 subunits in humans, making it one of the largest known multi-subunit membrane protein complexes. Complex I exists in supercomplex forms with respiratory chain complexes III and IV, which are together required for the generation of a transmembrane proton gradient used for the synthesis of ATP. Complex I is also a major source of damaging reactive oxygen species and its dysfunction is associated with mitochondrial disease, Parkinson's disease and ageing. Bacterial and human complex I share 14 core subunits that are essential for enzymatic function; however, the role and necessity of the remaining 31 human accessory subunits is unclear. The incorporation of accessory subunits into the complex increases the cellular energetic cost and has necessitated the involvement of numerous assembly factors for complex I biogenesis. Here we use gene editing to generate human knockout cell lines for each accessory subunit. We show that 25 subunits are strictly required for assembly of a functional complex and 1 subunit is essential for cell viability. Quantitative proteomic analysis of cell lines revealed that loss of each subunit affects the stability of other subunits residing in the same structural module. Analysis of proteomic changes after the loss of specific modules revealed that ATP5SL and DMAC1 are required for assembly of the distal portion of the complex I membrane arm. Our results demonstrate the broad importance of accessory subunits in the structure and function of human complex I. Coupling gene-editing technology with proteomics represents a powerful tool for dissecting large multi-subunit complexes and enables the study of complex dysfunction at a cellular level.

  18. Comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone removed via an arthroscopic-assisted arthrotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla, Alvaro G.; Santschi, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year-old American paint horse gelding was presented for evaluation of a left forelimb lameness grade III/V. Radiographs and computed tomography revealed a comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone involving the entire articulation with the distal radius and the proximal aspect of the articulation with the ulnar carpal bone. Multiple fragments were present in the palmar pouch of the antebrachiocarpal joint. An arthroscopic-assisted open approach was necessary to remove all fracture...

  19. Intermittent rate-dependent retrograde conduction over a concealed atrioventricular accessory pathway: what is the mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rordorf, Roberto; Vicentini, Alessandro; Petracci, Barbara; Landolina, Maurizio

    2009-02-01

    Intermittent retrograde conduction over an accessory pathway (AP) is quite an uncommon phenomenon. We describe the case of a 60-year-old woman with recurrent episodes of palpitations. Atrioventricular re-entry tachycardia was diagnosed at electrophysiological study. Interestingly, retrograde conduction over the AP was detectable only when ventricular pacing was performed at fast rate. Supernormal retrograde conduction over the AP was considered the most likely explanation of this unusual finding.

  20. RFID-enabled real-time manufacturing for automotive part and accessory suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Automotive part and accessory manufacturers (APAMs) at the lower tiers of the automotive vertical have been following leading vehicle assemblers in adopting RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and ubiquitous computing technologies, aiming to alleviate their advanced manufacturing systems. RFID-enabled real-time traceability and visibility facilitate the implementation of advanced strategies such as Just-In-Time (JIT) lean / responsive manufacturing and mass customization (MC). Being typical...

  1. Ablation of an atriofascicular accessory pathway with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure

    OpenAIRE

    PROIETTI, RICCARDO; Abadir, Sylvia; Bernier, Martin L.; Essebag, Vidal

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year-old patient with recurrent palpitations and documented left bundle branch block superior axis wide complex tachycardia underwent an electrophysiological study and ablation with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure. The electrophysiological study showed a decremental antegrade conducting atriofascicular pathway. Three-dimensional CARTO-guided mapping of the tricuspid annulus in sinus rhythm was performed, and a distinct signal corresponding to the accessory pathway potential of the atriofasc...

  2. Prevalence and Pattern of Accessory Teeth (Hyperdontia) in Permanent Dentition of Iranian Orthodontic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Fariborz; Rakhshan, Vahid; Jamalzadeh, Sanaz

    2013-11-01

    Awareness of hyperdontia pattern/prevalence can be useful in early diagnosis and prevention by general practitioners, pediatric dentists, and orthodontists. Since the previous results regarding the pattern of hyperdontia (supernumerary teeth) are controversial, this study aimed to assess this subject among Iranian orthodontic patients. All approved panoramic radiographs of 3374 orthodontic patients (aged 10 to 20 years old) who had visited orthodontic departments of all Tehran dentistry universities and 10 private clinics during the years 1999-2009 were investigated to establish the prevalence/pattern of hyperdontia in permanent dentition (excluding third molars). The data were analyzed using a chi-square, a chi-square goodness-of-fit, and a Fisher exact test (α=0.05). Of the patients, 2012 were female and 1362 were male. The prevalence of hyperdontia was 0.72% (14 females [0.69% of females], 10 males [0.73% of males], female-to-male ratio=1:1.055). The difference between the genders was not significant (P = 0.896). No double or multiple supernumeraries were found. The most common accessory teeth were mesiodens (58.3%), maxillary laterals (25%), and maxillary premolars (16.7%). Hyperdontia was significantly more common (P=0.000) in maxilla (there was only one mandibular accessory tooth). It was more frequent in the anterior segment (P=0.000). However the occurrence was not significantly different between bimaxillary right and left quadrants (P=0.6). Hyperdontia was more common in premaxilla, and the most common accessory tooth was mesiodens. Unlike earlier studies, no bilateral accessory teeth were found. Also no gender dimorphism was discerned.

  3. Potential role of Arabidopsis PHP as an accessory subunit of the PAF1 transcriptional cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunchung; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Oh, Sookyung; van Nocker, Steven

    2011-08-01

    Paf1C is a transcriptional cofactor that has been implicated in various transcription-associated mechanisms spanning initiation, elongation and RNA processing, and is important for multiple aspects of development in Arabidopsis. Our recent studies suggest Arabidopsis Paf1C is crucial for proper regulation of genes within H3K27me3-enriched chromatin, and that a protein named PHP may act as an accessory subunit of Paf1C that promotes this function.

  4. Typology of the arteries in the human scalenus region, with special reference to the accessory ascending cervical artery.

    OpenAIRE

    Su WD; Ohtsuka A; Taguchi T; Murakami T.

    2000-01-01

    The accessory ascending cervical artery (Murakami et al., 1996), which arises from the subclavian artery and ascends between the scalenus anterior and medius muscles, was studied in 87 Japanese adult cadavers (174 sides), with special attention being given to its origin, distribution, and relationship to other arteries at the cervical or scalenus region. In 154 sides (88.5%), the accessory ascending cervical artery was found to originate from the subclavian artery behind the scalenus anterior...

  5. Accessory Breast Cancer Occurring Concurrently with Bilateral Primary Invasive Breast Carcinomas: A Report of Two Cases and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Jin-yan; Yang, Cui-cui; Liu, Fang-Fang; Yang, Yi-Ling; Li, Shuai; Li, Wei-Dong; LI, YA-QING; Lang, Rong-gang; Fan, Yu; Paulos, Estifanos; Zhang, Xin-Min; Fu, Li

    2012-01-01

    The development of accessory breast tissue, which is found anywhere along the milk line, is attributed to the failure of milk line remnants to regress during embryogenesis. Primary tumors may arise from any ectopic breast tissue. Accessory breast cancer occurring concurrently with primary invasive breast cancer is extremely rare. Two such cases were reported in this article. One was a 43-year-old Chinese female who exhibited bilateral breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise sp...

  6. On Mineral Retrosynthesis of a Complex Biogenic Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashit Rao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic relations between organic molecules and mineral precursors regulate biogenic mineralization. Given the remarkable material properties of the egg shell as a biogenic ceramic, it serves as an important model to elucidate biomineral growth. With established roles of complex anionic biopolymers and a heterogeneous organic scaffold in egg shell mineralization, the present study explores the regulation over mineralization attained by applying synthetic polymeric counterparts (polyethylene glycol, poly(acrylic acid, poly(aspartic acid and poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid as additives during remineralization of decalcified eggshell membranes. By applying Mg2+ ions as a co-additive species, mineral retrosynthesis is achieved in a manner that modulates the polymorph and structure of mineral products. Notable features of the mineralization process include distinct local wettability of the biogenic organic scaffold by mineral precursors and mineralization-induced membrane actuation. Overall, the form, structure and polymorph of the mineralization products are synergistically affected by the additive and the content of Mg2+ ions. We also revisit the physicochemical nature of the biomineral scaffold and demonstrate the distinct spatial distribution of anionic biomolecules associated with the scaffold-mineral interface, as well as highlight the hydrogel-like properties of mammillae-associated macromolecules.

  7. The Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Function Is Modulated by HIV-1 Accessory Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Barker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells’ major role in the control of viruses is to eliminate established infected cells. The capacity of NK cells to kill virus-infected cells is dependent on the interactions between ligands on the infected cell and receptors on the NK cell surface. Because of the importance of ligand-receptor interactions in modulating the NK cell cytotoxic response, HIV has developed strategies to regulate various NK cell ligands making the infected cell surprisingly refractory to NK cell lysis. This is perplexing because the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr induces expression of ligands for the NK cell activating receptor, NKG2D. In addition, the accessory protein Nef removes the inhibitory ligands HLA-A and -B. The reason for the ineffective killing by NK cells despite the strong potential to eliminate infected cells is due to HIV-1 Vpu’s ability to down modulate the co-activation ligand, NTB-A, from the cell surface. Down modulation of NTB-A prevents efficient NK cell degranulation. This review will focus on the mechanisms through which the HIV-1 accessory proteins modulate their respective ligands, and its implication for NK cell killing of HIV-infected cells.

  8. Influence of Telecommunication Modality, Internet Transmission Quality, and Accessories on Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantokoudis, Georgios; Koller, Roger; Guignard, Jérémie; Caversaccio, Marco; Kompis, Martin; Senn, Pascal

    2017-04-24

    Telecommunication is limited or even impossible for more than one-thirds of all cochlear implant (CI) users. We sought therefore to study the impact of voice quality on speech perception with voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) under real and adverse network conditions. Telephone speech perception was assessed in 19 CI users (15-69 years, average 42 years), using the German HSM (Hochmair-Schulz-Moser) sentence test comparing Skype and conventional telephone (public switched telephone networks, PSTN) transmission using a personal computer (PC) and a digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) telephone dual device. Five different Internet transmission quality modes and four accessories (PC speakers, headphones, 3.5 mm jack audio cable, and induction loop) were compared. As a secondary outcome, the subjective perceived voice quality was assessed using the mean opinion score (MOS). Speech telephone perception was significantly better (median 91.6%, P 15%) were not superior to conventional telephony. In addition, there were no significant differences between the tested accessories (P>.05) using a PC. Coupling a Skype DECT phone device with an audio cable to the CI, however, resulted in higher speech perception (median 65%) and subjective MOS scores (3.2) than using PSTN (median 7.5%, P<.001). Skype calls significantly improve speech perception for CI users compared with conventional telephony under real network conditions. Listening accessories do not further improve listening experience. Current Skype DECT telephone devices do not fully offer technical advantages in voice quality.

  9. Mineral resources of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compiled and edited by Wright, Nancy A.; Williams, Paul L.

    1974-01-01

    Although the existence of mineral deposits in Antarctica is highly probable, the chances of finding them are quite small. Minerals have been found there in great variety but only as occurrences. Manganese nodules, water (as ice), geothermal energy, coal, petroleum, and natural gas are potential resources that could perhaps be exploited in the future. On the basis of known mineral occurrences in Antarctica and relationships between geologic provinces of Antarctica and those of neighboring Gondwana continents, the best discovery probability for a base-metal deposit in any part of Antarctica is in the Andean orogen; it is estimated to be 0.075 (75 chances in 1,000).

  10. “S”-curve Model of GDP Growth Rates:China’s Demand Trend for Mineral Resources in the Background of Slowdown GDP Growth Rates%GDP增速的“S”形演变轨迹--增速放缓背景下的中国矿产资源需求趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安建; 代涛; 刘固望

    2016-01-01

    000~12 000 $. Their GDP growth rates were between 2%~5% during the peak period, and then showed a steady slow down and were stable between 1%~3%. It is pointed out that the decline in GDP growth since the middle stage of the industrialization is due to the growth slowdown of the added value of the secondary industry and the rapid decline of its contribution to the GDP, and it is the result of industrial restructuring and upgrading. The authors emphasize that the slowdown trend of China's GDP growth in recent years is consistent with the “S”-curve of the developed countries at the same stage of development, and is the result of industrial restructuring in the background of demand slowdown of commodity at the middle stage of industrialization. It is pointed out that the growth rate of China’s major mineral resources will decline in the background of slowdown GDP growth rates, but the quantity of resources consumption will continue to increase for 5~8 years and maintain a high level of consumption per capita.

  11. Nutrição mineral, crescimento e teor de óleo essencial da menta em solução nutritiva sob diferentes concentrações de fósforo e épocas de coleta Mineral nutrition, growth and essential oil content of mint in nutrient solution under different phosphorus concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Rodrigues

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de concentrações de P e épocas de coleta sobre o crescimento, nutrição mineral e teor de óleo essencial da menta (Mentha piperita L.. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, em esquema fatorial 2x5, sendo 2 épocas de coleta (65 e 95 dias de cultivo (DC e 5 concentrações de P na solução nutritiva (6; 12; 18; 24 e 30 mg L-1, com 4 repetições. Foi determinada a massa seca de folhas (MSF, caules (MSC, raízes (MSR e total (MST e as relações folha:caule (F:C e parte aérea:raiz (PA:R. Também, foi determinado o teor de óleo essencial em folhas frescas. Os níveis críticos foliares e acúmulo de nutrientes na parte aérea da menta foram estimados por meio da análise química das folhas e caules. As concentrações de P na solução influenciaram o crescimento e a produção de óleo essencial pela menta. Na coleta realizada aos 65 DC, apenas a MSF foi influenciada pelo P, não se observando efeito sobre os teores de óleo essencial. Aos 95 DC, o aumento da concentração de P promoveu aumentos significativos na massa seca das partes e do total da menta e, também, nos teores de óleo essencial, sendo o teor máximo (2,192 dag kg-1 obtido com 19,50 mg L-1 de P. As maiores concentrações de P avaliadas (24 e 30 mg L-1, promoveram aumentos na produção de matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea da menta, mas, reduziram os teores de óleo essencial, devido ao efeito de diluição, não significando, portanto, ganhos de produção de óleo por planta. Os teores foliares dos nutrientes associados ao teor máximo de óleo aos 95 DC foram em g kg-1: N=37,2; =3,9; K=21,2; Ca=9,3; Mg=3,8; S=3,0; e, em mg kg-1: B=35; Cu=8; Fe=323; Mn=145 e Zn=22. A exigência nutricional aos 95 DC relacionada ao teor máximo de óleo essencial seguiu a seqüência: N>K>Ca>P>Mg>S>Fe>Mn>B>Zn>Cu.The effect of P concentrations and harvest period upon the growth, mineral nutrition and essential oil

  12. A method for enriching myeloid (CFU-GM) and erythroid (BFU-E) progenitor cells from human cord blood by accessory cell depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, L A; Ma, D D

    1992-10-01

    Human cord blood provides a convenient alternative to bone marrow as a rich source of hemopoietic progenitor cells. This study reports a simple means for enriching a cord blood progenitor cell population by accessory cell depletion. Two methods of monocyte depletion were tested. A Cytodex 3 microcarrier system using collagen coated dextran beads was compared to the more commonly used method of plastic plate adhesion. The method of plastic plate adhesion gave a significantly higher cell recovery. T cell depletion using a recently characterized rat monoclonal antibody which fixes human complement was also investigated. A combined method of monocyte depletion by plate adhesion and T cell depletion resulted in the removal of > 96% of monocytes and > 98% of T cells. This led to a significant enrichment of myeloid (CFU-GM) and erythroid (BFU-E) colony growth. Such enriched progenitor cell populations provide a useful starting population for any study on hemopoiesis.

  13. The Global Flows of Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogich, Donald G.; Matos, Grecia R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary review of the trends in worldwide metals and industrial minerals production and consumption based on newly developed global metals and minerals Material Flow Accounts (MFA). The MFA developed encompass data on extraction and consumption for 25 metal and mineral commodities, on a country-by-country and year-by-year basis, for the period 1970 to 2004. The data-base, jointly developed by the authors, resides with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as individual commodity Excel workbooks and within a Filemaker data management system for use in analysis. Numerous national MFA have been developed to provide information on the industrial metabolism of individual countries. These MFA include material flows associated with the four commodity categories of goods that are inputs to a country's economy, agriculture, forestry, metals and minerals, and nonrenewable organic material. In some cases, the material flows associated with the creation and maintenance of the built infrastructure (such as houses, buildings, roads, airports, dams, and so forth) were also examined. The creation of global metals and industrial minerals flows is viewed as a first step in the creation of comprehensive global MFA documenting the historical and current flows of all of the four categories of physical goods that support world economies. Metals and minerals represent a major category of nonrenewable resources that humans extract from and return to the natural ecosystem. As human populations and economies have increased, metals and industrial minerals use has increased concomitantly. This dramatic growth in metals and minerals use has serious implications for both the availability of future resources and the health of the environment, which is affected by the outputs associated with their use. This paper provides an overview of a number of the trends observed by examining the database and suggests areas for future study.

  14. [Synthetic mineral fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillat, M A

    1999-03-27

    The group of man-made mineral fibres includes slagwool, glasswool, rockwool, glass filaments and microfibres, as well as refractory ceramic fibres. The toxicity of mineral fibres is determined by several factors such as the diameter (ceramic fibres. A slightly elevated standard mortality ratio for lung cancer has been documented in large cohorts of workers (USA, Europe and Canada) exposed to man-made mineral fibres, especially in the early technological phase. It is not possible to determine from these data whether the risk of lung cancer is due to the man-made mineral fibres themselves, in particular due to the lack of data on smoking habits. No increased risk of mesothelioma has been demonstrated in these cohorts. Epidemiological data are insufficient at this time concerning neoplastic diseases in refractory ceramic fibres.

  15. Minerals in environmental technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuiling, R.D. [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (Netherlands). Faculty of Earth Sciences

    2000-07-01

    Minerals play a key role in the environment; this role is often not well understood, because the emphasis of most environmentalists is on air, water, or the composition of solid wastes as a whole, without paying attention to their mineralogical composition. Several minerals can serve as effective and cheap adsorbents for many toxic chemicals. Several minerals can be used as a cheap substitute for expensive chemicals in environmental technologies. Environmental technologies that produce an economically interesting mineral will have an edge over competing technologies. Most of the problems, overreaction, panicky and expensive measures with regard to exposure from quartz and asbestos stem from a poor understanding of natural levels of common contaminants, a disregard for mineralogy, and a lack of insight into natural processes in general.

  16. sequenceMiner algorithm

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  17. Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minerals your body needs. But if you're skipping meals, dieting, or if you're concerned that ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Healthy Breakfast Planner Nutrition & Fitness Center Vitamin D Figuring Out ...

  18. Crescimento e produção de cúrcuma (Curcuma longa L. em função de adubação mineral e densidade de plantio Growth and production of turmeric as a result of mineral fertilizer and planting density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natan Fontoura da Silva

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o crescimento e a produção de cúrcuma em função de adubação mineral e população de plantas em dois experimentos na Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia (GO. No primeiro, realizado de janeiro a agosto/98, estudaram-se, numa matriz baconiana, doses de uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio (0; 40; 80; 120; 160 e 200 kg/ha de N; 0; 50; 100; 150; 250 e 400 kg/ha de P2O5 e 0; 40; 80; 120; 200; 280 kg/ha de K2O, densidades de plantio (55.556; 41.667 e 33.333 plantas/ha, no espaçamento de 0,60 m entre linhas e 71.428; 47.619 e 35.714 plantas/ha no espaçamento de 0,70 m entre linhas e parcelamentos da adubação nitrogenada [toda no plantio, 1/2 no plantio e 1/2 aos três meses após o plantio (AP, 1/3 no plantio, 1/3 aos dois meses e 1/3 aos quatro meses AP, 1/4 no plantio, 1/4 a um mês e meio, 1/4 aos 3 meses e 1/4 aos quatro meses e meio AP. No segundo experimento, realizado de dezembro/99 a setembro/00, estudaram-se, num fatorial de 2 x 4, dois espaçamentos entre linhas (0,60 e 0,80 m e seis espaçamentos entre plantas na linha (0,05; 0,10; 0,15; 0,20; 0,30 e 0,40 m. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A produtividade de rizomas frescos aumentou, em função do N, de 12.130 kg/ha, com a dose zero, até o máximo de 16.124 kg/ha, com a dose de 130 kg/ha; e em função do P, de 12.799 kg/ha, com a dose zero, até o máximo de 15.763 kg/ha com a dose de 177 kg/ha de P2O5. O K e o parcelamento de N não influenciaram a altura das plantas e a produção de rizomas. A produtividade decresceu de 25 t/ha, obtida com o espaçamento de 5 cm entre plantas, para 18 t/ha com o espaçamento de 40 cm. Os ganhos de produtividade obtidos em espaçamentos menores que 10 cm não superaram as diferenças de gastos de rizomas para os respectivos plantios.Turmeric growth and production as a result of mineral fertilizer and planting density were evaluated through two experiments carried out at

  19. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  20. Mineral profile of Spanish commercial baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Marqués, Alba; González-Masó, Anna; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Commercial baby foods are an important part of the daily intake of babies from 6 to 12 months. The mineral profile of commercial baby foods in Spain was determined to establish levels of essential and non-essential elements, and their contribution to adequate intake (AI) and estimated average requirement (EAR). Thirty-five jars of commercial foods containing meat, fish, vegetables and fruit were obtained from the Spanish market and the mineral composition determined for 14 elements. In general, the baby foods analysed were sufficient for an adequate mineral intake, but contributions to AI and EAR for iron, zinc and calcium were very low (5-20%, 10-60% and 10-70%, respectively). This deficiency could be associated with growth problems or diseases in adulthood, and fortification of commercial products is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.