WorldWideScience

Sample records for accessing human knowledge

  1. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  2. New ways of scientific publishing and accessing human knowledge inspired by transdisciplinary approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Gebeshuber, I C

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by interdisciplinary work touching biology and microtribology, the authors propose a new, dynamic way of publishing research results, the establishment of a tree of knowledge and the localisation of scientific articles on this tree. 'Technomimetics' is proposed as a new method of knowledge management in science and technology: it shall help find and organise information in an era of over-information. Such ways of presenting and managing research results would be accessible by people with different kinds of backgrounds and levels of education, and allow for full use of the ever- increasing number of scientific and technical publications. This approach would dramatically change and revolutionize the way we are doing science, and contribute to overcoming the three gaps between the world of ideas, inventors, innovators and investors as introduced by Gebeshuber, Gruber and Drack in 2009 for accelerated scientific and technological breakthroughs to improve the human condition. Inspiration for the developme...

  3. Accessing vs Sourcing Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awate, Snehal; Larsen, Marcus M.; Mudambi, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Research and development (R&D) internationalization is on the rise for advanced economy multinationals (AMNEs) as well as emerging economy multinationals (EMNEs). We study EMNE R&D internationalization by comparing it to that by AMNEs in the context of an emerging, knowledge-intensive industry. We...... to get on par with industry leaders. An in-depth comparison of knowledge flows reveals that within AMNEs, headquarters often serves the primary source of knowledge for R&D subsidiaries. In contrast, within EMNEs, headquarters accesses knowledge from R&D subsidiaries in advanced economies for innovation...

  4. Accessing Remote Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    awareness (what remote knowledge is needed?) and source awareness (where does this knowledge reside?) the article explores the relative merits and inherent limitations of pipelines, listening posts, crowdsourcing and trade fairs to acquire knowledge and solutions from geographically and relationally remote...

  5. Learning Task Knowledge from Dialog and Web Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Perera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present KnoWDiaL, an approach for Learning and using task-relevant Knowledge from human-robot Dialog and access to the Web. KnoWDiaL assumes that there is an autonomous agent that performs tasks, as requested by humans through speech. The agent needs to “understand” the request, (i.e., to fully ground the task until it can proceed to plan for and execute it. KnoWDiaL contributes such understanding by using and updating a Knowledge Base, by dialoguing with the user, and by accessing the web. We believe that KnoWDiaL, as we present it, can be applied to general autonomous agents. However, we focus on our work with our autonomous collaborative robot, CoBot, which executes service tasks in a building, moving around and transporting objects between locations. Hence, the knowledge acquired and accessed consists of groundings of language to robot actions, and building locations, persons, and objects. KnoWDiaL handles the interpretation of voice commands, is robust regarding speech recognition errors, and is able to learn commands involving referring expressions in an open domain, (i.e., without requiring a lexicon. We present in detail the multiple components of KnoWDiaL, namely a frame-semantic parser, a probabilistic grounding model, a web-based predicate evaluator, a dialog manager, and the weighted predicate-based Knowledge Base. We illustrate the knowledge access and updates from the dialog and Web access, through detailed and complete examples. We further evaluate the correctness of the predicate instances learned into the Knowledge Base, and show the increase in dialog efficiency as a function of the number of interactions. We have extensively and successfully used KnoWDiaL in CoBot dialoguing and accessing the Web, and extract a few corresponding example sequences from captured videos.

  6. Access to Information About Stuttering and Societal Knowledge of Stuttering

    OpenAIRE

    Gabel, Rodney; Brackenbury, Tim; Irani, Farzan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine societal knowledge of stuttering, access to information sources, and the influence of information sources on knowledge of stuttering. 185 participants from Northwest Ohio were surveyed. Results of the study indicated that the general public varies in their knowledge of stuttering and that majority of participants had not accessed information about stuttering, and the few who had, did so a long time ago. Finally, access to information sources had little...

  7. Knowledge Access Based on the Rough Set Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yan-ling; YANG Bing-ru; CAO Shou-qi

    2005-01-01

    During the procedure of fault diagnosis for large-scale complicated equipment, the existence of redundant and fuzzy information results in the difficulty of knowledge access. Aiming at this characteristic, this paper brought forth the Rough Set (RS) theory to the field of fault diagnosis. By means of the RS theory which is predominant in the way of dealing with fuzzy and uncertain information,knowledge access about fault diagnosis was realized. The foundation ideology of the RS theory was exhausted in detail, an amended RS algorithm was proposed, and the process model of knowledge access based on the amended RS algorithm was researched. Finally, we verified the correctness and the practicability of this method during the procedure of knowledge access.

  8. Open access to scientific knowledge and feudalism knowledge: Is there a connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir M. Moskovkin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of universities and transnational corporations in the circulation of scientific knowledge is considered. If institutions generate, mostly scientific knowledge, trying to facilitate its free circulation, then transnational companies, contrarily, try to remove most significant and cutting-edge scientific knowledge from free circulation and its commercialization and reintroduction into an open, but now commercial, circulation in the TRIPS. However, paradoxical, the open access movement to scientific knowledge, eventually, facilitates feudalism of knowledge. We call this phenomenon the "open access - paradox". Based on the experiments done with Google Scholar and Google Patents, it is shown that universities generates, mostly scientific knowledge (scientific articles, and transnational companies generates, mostly technological knowledge (patents.

  9. Open access to scientific knowledge and feudalism knowledge: Is there a connection?

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir M. Moskovkin

    2011-01-01

    The role of universities and transnational corporations in the circulation of scientific knowledge is considered. If institutions generate, mostly scientific knowledge, trying to facilitate its free circulation, then transnational companies, contrarily, try to remove most significant and cutting-edge scientific knowledge from free circulation and its commercialization and reintroduction into an open, but now commercial, circulation in the TRIPS. However, paradoxical, the open access movement ...

  10. Towards universal access to all knowledge-Internet Archive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAHLE Brewster

    2005-01-01

    Advances in computing and communications mean that we can cost-effectively store every book, sound recording,movie, software package, and public Web page ever created, and provide access to these collections via the Internet to students and adults all over the world. By mostly using existing institutions and funding sources, we can build this as well as compensate authors within the current worldwide library budget. We should take advantage of our new technologies and our open societies to make a Universal Library again, and go the next step and make all knowledge easily available to every man, woman and child around the world.

  11. Human Knowledge Resources and Interorganizational Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K.M. Ibrahim (Mohammed); P.M.A. Ribbers (Piet); B.W.M. Bettonvil

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses how human knowledge resources affect capabilities and subsequently attainment of operational and strategic benefits. We test a conceptual model using data from two qualitative case studies and a quantitative field study. The findings indicate that human knowledge posi

  12. VIALACTEA knowledge base homogenizing access to Milky Way data

    CERN Document Server

    Molinaro, Marco; Bandieramonte, Marilena; Becciani, Ugo; Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano; Costa, Alessandro; Di Giorgio, Anna M; Elia, Davide; Hajnal, Akos; Gabor, Hermann; Kacsuk, Peter; Liu, Scige J; Molinari, Sergio; Riccio, Giuseppe; Schisano, Eugenio; Sciacca, Eva; Smareglia, Riccardo; Vitello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The VIALACTEA project has a work package dedicated to Tools and Infrastructure and, inside it, a task for the Database and Virtual Observatory Infrastructure. This task aims at providing an infrastructure to store all the resources needed by the, more purposely, scientific work packages of the project itself. This infrastructure includes a combination of: storage facilities, relational databases and web services on top of them, and has taken, as a whole, the name of VIALACTEA Knowledge Base (VLKB). This contribution illustrates the current status of this VLKB. It details the set of data resources put together; describes the database that allows data discovery through VO inspired metadata maintenance; illustrates the discovery, cutout and access services built on top of the former two for the users to exploit the data content.

  13. Global forces and local currents in Argentina's science policy crossroads: restricted access or open knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Javier Etchichury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the tensions between two competing approaches to scientific policy in Argentina. The traditional vision favors autonomous research. The neoliberal conception fosters the link between science and markets. In the past few years, a neodevelopmentalist current also tries to stress relevance of scientific research. Finally, the article describes how the Open Access movement has entered the debate. The World Bank intervention and the human rights dimension of the question are discussed in depth. The article introduces the notion of open knowledge as a guiding criterion to design a human-rights based scientific policy.

  14. Open access: a perspective from the humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mandler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys the debates over UK public policy for open access (OA since 2012 from the perspective of scholars in the humanities. It isolates points in Research Council and REF policy that have come under criticism from the humanities community for their basis in science practice, and assesses the progress that has been made in addressing these concerns. Issues considered include ‘gold’ and ‘green’ models of OA, the role of university managers in determining where and what academics can publish, embargo periods and licensing. The author is President of the Royal Historical Society.

  15. Human Resource Development in the Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Lehmann

    . In this line of thinking, the aim is to propose a model for analysing the progress of knowledge improvements in developing countries as an outcome of the management of human, social and organisational capital. In this regard, the paper considers relevant practices and strategies in the context of developing...

  16. Sources of inter-firm heterogeneity in accessing knowledge-creation benefits within technology clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arikan, A.; Knoben, J.

    2014-01-01

    We build on recent literature to highlight the distinction between knowledge-diffusion and knowledge-creation benefits of technology clustering and argue that firms located in technology clusters will have differential access to the latter. To explain the antecedents of such differential access, we

  17. Knowledge unbound selected writings on Open Access, 2002-2011

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peter Suber has been a leading advocate for open access since 2001 and has worked full time on issues of open access since 2003. As a professor of philosophy during the early days of the internet, he realized its power and potential as a medium for scholarship. As he writes now, "it was like an asteroid crash, fundamentally changing the environment, challenging dinosaurs to adapt, and challenging all of us to figure out whether we were dinosaurs." When Suber began putting his writings and course materials online for anyone to use for any purpose, he soon experienced the benefits of that wider exposure. In 2001, he started a newsletter -- the Free Online Scholarship Newsletter, which later became the SPARC Open Access Newsletter -- in which he explored the implications of open access for research and scholarship. This book offers a selection of some of Suber's most significant and influential writings on open access from 2002 to 2010. In these texts, Suber makes the case for open access to research; answers c...

  18. Employees and Creativity: Social Ties and Access to Heterogeneous Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-En; Liu, Chih-Hsing Sam

    2015-01-01

    This study dealt with employee social ties, knowledge heterogeneity contacts, and the generation of creativity. Although prior studies demonstrated a relationship between network position and creativity, inadequate attention has been paid to network ties and heterogeneity knowledge contacts. This study considered the social interaction processes…

  19. What Type of Knowledge Provides Valid Housing Standards Addressing Accessibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    next to domestic appliances or for enabling door closing of those using mobility devices. Therefore, in line with the findings of others, there is a need for a research-based revision of the standards (Steinfeld et al., 2010; Helle et al., 2011). Further, there is a need for a critical review...... with functional limitations and dependence on mobility devices to have access to housing design features as a means to be able to interact with the environment to perform a range of everyday activities in the dwelling. However, in a comprehensive literature review in search of scientific publications......, the environment and the activity. In line with previous research on older people’s use of mobility devices in everyday activities (Löfqvist et al., 2008), it was found that mobility devices formed part of the activity, since the mobility devices were used for transportation of e.g. a cup of coffee that was placed...

  20. Open access and knowledge sharing: reflections on the Pathfinder projects and Open Access Good Practice initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah DeGroff

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article provides a selection of reflections from a number of higher education institutions and their staff about participation in the UK-wide Pathfinder project scheme. These nine projects (comprising 30 institutions form the core of the Jisc-funded Open Access Good Practice initiative. They have produced a wide range of outputs which endorse and encourage best practice when implementing open access across institutions. Each project has a blog where progress and outputs can be tracked. Details are listed at the end of this article.

  1. Open Access and its impact on the Knowledge Society: Latin American Case Studies Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad RAMÍREZ MONTOYA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a changing society, open access may represent an alternative growth and resources to the educational community, from the opportunities given to students, to teachers, researchers and administrators of educational institutions. The aim of this paper is to analyze the opportunities and challenges that gives open access to the educational community, through the presentation of a conceptual vision and practical cases in Latin America, on the issue of open educational resources, repositories, journals and open access policies –from universities and government agencies or financing– and its link to a knowledge society. The findings are presented on three key elements: opportunities, challenges and opportunities open to access the knowledge society.

  2. Towards a Reference Model for Open Access and Knowledge Sharing, Lessons from Systems Research

    CERN Document Server

    Di Maio, Paola

    2011-01-01

    The Open Access Movement has been striving to grant universal unrestricted access to the knowledge and data outputs of publicly funded research. leveraging the real time, virtually cost free publishing opportunities offered by the internet and the web. However, evidence suggests that in the systems engineering domain open access policies are not widely adopted. This paper presents the rationale, methodology and results of an evidence based inquiry that investigates the dichotomy between policy and practice in Open Access (OA) of systems engineering research in the UK, explores entangled dimensions of the problem space from a socio-technical perspective, and issues a set of recommendations, including a reference model outline for knowledge sharing in systems research

  3. Human bocavirus: Current knowledge and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Marcello; Tumolo, Maria Rosaria; Verri, Tiziano; Romano, Alessandro; Serio, Francesca; De Giorgi, Mattia; De Donno, Antonella; Bagordo, Francesco; Zizza, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a parvovirus isolated about a decade ago and found worldwide in both respiratory samples, mainly from early life and children of 6-24 mo of age with acute respiratory infection, and in stool samples, from patients with gastroenteritis. Since then, other viruses related to the first HBoV isolate (HBoV1), namely HBoV2, HBoV3 and HBoV4, have been detected principally in human faeces. HBoVs are small non-enveloped single-stranded DNA viruses of about 5300 nucleotides, consisting of three open reading frames encoding the first two the non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and nuclear phosphoprotein (NP1) and the third the viral capsid proteins 1 and 2 (VP1 and VP2). HBoV pathogenicity remains to be fully clarified mainly due to the lack of animal models for the difficulties in replicating the virus in in vitro cell cultures, and the fact that HBoV infection is frequently accompanied by at least another viral and/or bacterial respiratory and/or gastroenteric pathogen infection. Current diagnostic methods to support HBoV detection include polymerase chain reaction, real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme immunoassay using recombinant VP2 or virus-like particle capsid proteins, although sequence-independent amplification techniques combined with next-generation sequencing platforms promise rapid and simultaneous detection of the pathogens in the future. This review presents the current knowledge on HBoV genotypes with emphasis on taxonomy, phylogenetic relationship and genomic analysis, biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and diagnostic methods. The emerging discussion on HBoVs as true pathogen or innocent bystander is also emphasized.

  4. Liberal Education Reconsidered: Cultivating Humanity in the Knowledge Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunsook

    2014-01-01

    In the knowledge society, there is a conflict between "education for profit" and "education for humanity." Education for profit is needed for students' economic survival and success in the knowledge economy. Education for humanity is needed for their existential lives worthy of human beings. This paper deals with the…

  5. From Information to Knowledge Online Access to Legal Information Methodologies, Trends and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Biasiotti, MA

    2011-01-01

    Access to accurate legal information is of great importance. Certainty of the law, creating the conditions necessary to equality and fairness in a legal system and improving the functioning of democratic institutions, depends upon it. Citizens have a right to information about the laws which govern their conduct and governments have an obligation to enable access to the law by means of all available and practicable tools. This book presents papers delivered at the workshop 'From Information to Knowledge - Online Access to Legal Information', held in Florence, Italy, in May 2011. This workshop

  6. Conscious knowledge of learning: accessing learning strategies in a final year high school biology class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Lindsey; Gunstone, Richard

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative case study investigation of the knowledge and use of learning strategies by 16 students in a final year high school biology class to expand their conscious knowledge of learning. Students were provided with opportunities to engage in purposeful inquiry into the biological, social and ethical aspects of cancer. A constructivist approach was implemented to access prior content and procedural knowledge in various ways. Students were encouraged to develop evaluation of their learning skills independently through activities that promoted metacognition. Those students who planned and monitored their work produced essays of higher quality. The value and difficulties of promoting metacognitive approaches in this context are discussed, as well as the idea that metacognitive processes are difficult to research, because they have to be conscious in order to be identified by the learner, thereby making them accessible to the researcher.

  7. Co-op students' access to shared knowledge in science-rich workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munby, Hugh; Taylor, Jennifer; Chin, Peter; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    Wenger's (1998) concepts community of practice, brokering, and transfer explain the challenges co-operative (co-op) education students face in relating the knowledge learned in school with what they learn while participating as members of a workplace. The research for this paper is set within the contexts of the knowledge economy and increased collaboration in the workplace. The paper draws on several qualitative studies of work-based education to examine the similarities and differences between learning in the workplace and learning in school, with a focus on science education and science-rich workplaces. Barriers to connecting school knowledge and workplace knowledge include the nature of science (its purpose, accountability, and substance), the structure of knowledge in each setting, the form content knowledge takes, the sequence that the curriculum is presented in, and the gatekeeping that occurs when knowledge is accessed. The paper addresses implications for interventions in school and the workplace, with attention to the transition from school to work, and concludes by pointing to profound obstacles to connecting school knowledge with workplace knowledge.

  8. Origins and early development of human body knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  9. CRESST Human Performance Knowledge Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    team processes and team outcomes. Computers in Human Behavior , 15, 463-494. 0 Herl, H. E. (1995). Construct validation of an approach to modeling...system to measure content understanding. Computers in Human Behavior , 15, 315-334. Johnson, R.F. (2001). Statistical measures of marksmanship (ARI...problem-solving. Computers in Human Behavior , 15, 403-418. West, C. D., Pomeroy, J. R., Park, J. K., Gerstenberger, E. A., & Sandoval, J. (2000

  10. Factors influencing access to agricultural knowledge: The case of smallholder rice farmers in the Kilombero district of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulystan P. Mtega

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to agricultural knowledge is important in transforming livelihoods of those relying on agriculture for a living and in enhancing food security. This access to agricultural knowledge is influenced by infrastructure needed for information dissemination. However, information infrastructure is not uniformly distributed within and between countries. It is because of this that some of the farming communities are information rich while others are information poor. In Tanzania, the agricultural sector is characterised by poor research-extension-farmers linkage and inaccessibility of agricultural knowledge at farm levelObjective: The study investigated the factors influencing access to agricultural knowledge among smallholder rice farmers in the Kilombero district of Tanzania. Specifically, the study identified categories of agricultural knowledge needed by farmers, determined how farmers access agricultural knowledge, and assessed the factors limiting the accessibility of agricultural knowledge among rice farmers in the Kilombero district.Method: Quantitative data were collected via semi-structured questionnaires administered face-to-face with rice farmers, community leaders, and agricultural agents in four villages at the Kilombero district of the Morogoro region in Tanzania.Results: The key finding indicates that farmers accessed and used agricultural knowledge in undertaking agricultural activities. It was further revealed that the level of acquisition of agricultural knowledge increased with an increase in age. Farmers needed agricultural knowledge on land preparation, seed selection, and rice planting, while few acquired knowledge on agricultural markets. Among the agricultural knowledge sources used, demonstration plots and agricultural extension agents were found to be used by the majority of the farmers. It was also found that a limited number of demonstration plots, late delivery of information services, a limited number of

  11. User needs in television archive access:Acquiring knowledge necessary for system design

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a methodical approach for generating deep knowledge about users, as a prerequisite for design and construction of digital information access to cultural heritage information objects. We exemplify this methodical approach by reporting on an explorative study of information need characteristics in a television broadcast context. The methodical approach is inspired by naturalistic research, and our main data is nine in-depth interviews conducted with scholars and students wit...

  12. Medical students' knowledge, abilities and access characteristics to the internet at a peruvian university

    OpenAIRE

    Horna, Pedro; Facultad de Medicina Alberto Hurtado, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia; Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina Cayetano Heredia – SOCEMCH; Curioso, Walter; Facultad de Medicina Alberto Hurtado, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia; Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina Cayetano Heredia – SOCEMCH; Guillén, Carlos; Facultad de Medicina Alberto Hurtado, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia; Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina Cayetano Heredia – SOCEMCH; Torres, Carla; Facultad de Medicina Alberto Hurtado, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia; Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina Cayetano Heredia – SOCEMCH; Kawano, Jorge; Facultad de Medicina Alberto Hurtado, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia; Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina Cayetano Heredia – SOCEMCH

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To study the knowledge abilities and access characteristics to the Internet in undergraduate medical students from a Peruvian University. Methods: Development and application of a questionnaire to medical students, report of the results and nested case-control analysis of data to identify variables related to the ability to surf the Internet. Results: The students enter the Internet mainly from home. The most visited websites were those from web mail services and entertainment sit...

  13. Public access to community documents: a fundamental human right?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy W. Davis

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a marked difference between the culture of open government in some Member States, particularly Sweden, and the culture of secrecy in Britain. Recent calls for a uniform interpretation of the law regarding public access to documents held by the Community Institutions seem to suggest that a Swedish-style right of access should be adopted at EU level, on the grounds that public access to government-held information is a fundamental human right. To date, however, it seems that insufficient arguments have been advanced in order to justify this particular claim. Notable constitutional lawyers remain sceptical, as do some Member State governments. Furthermore, in the absence of a convincing philosophical justification for the claim, a situation may be created in which certain people are said to enjoy a fundamental human right, not because they are human beings, but by virtue of their status as citizens or residents of an EU Member State. This appears to be counter-intuitive, if it is accepted that fundamental human rights should be enjoyed by all and should therefore be justified on the basis of universally-shared fundamental values. It therefore seems that further explanation of the importance of public access to documents is required, and further justification of the claim that this is, or should be regarded as, a fundamental human right.

  14. Achieving Access to Knowledge through E-Learning: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A. Bolu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available More and more scholars are turning to the Internet to find scientific information and academic institutions are devoting more and more resources to improving their presence on the web.E-learning programs and open access initiatives allow knowledge of these institutions to spread beyond physical boundaries. The Web can hence be used as a way to attract students, scholars and funding from other places, spreading the prestige of these educational institutions all over the world. This has provoked competition between universities to achieve an advantageous visibility on the Web and to improve their position in search engine results.This paper examines ongoing e-learning effort globally to enhance access to knowledge. In particular the role of University of Nigeria is playing in the promotion of access to knowledge is discussed. In line with their Information and Communication Technology Programme, the University has created an Internet repository of over 20,000 documents such as theses, journals articles and academic publications as well as a vibrant e-learning portal.

  15. Disciplinary knowledge production and interdisciplinary humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz; Stjernfelt, Frederik; Emmeche, Claus

    2016-01-01

    to include the social sciences and humanities research in interdisciplinary collaboration. In European research and innovation initiatives, science, technology and innovation can no longer be seen in isolation from wider cultural, societal and ethical aspects. For instance, the shift to a green sustainable...... economy needs to include combined efforts in developing new technologies and at the same time creating new models of democracy, engagement, and sustainable behaviour, which draw on a range of interdisciplinary competences. Special challenges such as the role reserved for humanities and how to integrate...

  16. EVALUATING HUMAN CAPITAL IN A KNOWLEDGE – BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoil MUSCALU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The widespread enthusiasm for a knowledge-based approach to understanding the nature of a business and the possible basis for sustained competitive advantage have renewed interest in human capital evaluation or measurement. While many attempts have been made to develop methods for measuring intellectual capital, none have been widely adopted in the business world. In the knowledge-based organizations, and generally, in the information society, human capital is recognized as the fundamental factor of overall progress, and experts agree that long-term investment in human capital has strong drive-propagation effects at the individual, organizational, national and global level. In this paper, we consider that a knowledge-based approach can offer new possibilities and answers to illustrate the importance of evaluation the human capital and knowledge assets by consistently generating added value in the business world.

  17. Parametric Grid Information in the DOE Knowledge Base: Data Preparation, Storage and Access.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hipp, J. R.; Young, C. J.; Moore, S. G.; Shepherd, E. R.; Schultz, C. A.; Myers, S. C.

    1999-10-01

    The parametric grid capability of the Knowledge Base provides an efficient, robust way to store and access interpolatable information which is needed to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. To meet both the accuracy and performance requirements of operational monitoring systems, we use a new approach which combines the error estimation of kriging with the speed and robustness of Natural Neighbor Interpolation (NNI). The method involves three basic steps: data preparation (DP), data storage (DS), and data access (DA). The goal of data preparation is to process a set of raw data points to produce a sufficient basis for accurate NNI of value and error estimates in the Data Access step. This basis includes a set of nodes and their connectedness, collectively known as a tessellation, and the corresponding values and errors that map to each node, which we call surfaces. In many cases, the raw data point distribution is not sufficiently dense to guarantee accurate error estimates from the NNI, so the original data set must be densified using a newly developed interpolation technique known as Modified Bayesian Kriging. Once appropriate kriging parameters have been determined by variogram analysis, the optimum basis for NNI is determined in a process we call mesh refinement, which involves iterative kriging, new node insertion, and Delauny triangle smoothing. The process terminates when an NNI basis has been calculated which will fit the kriged values within a specified tolerance. In the data storage step, the tessellations and surfaces are stored in the Knowledge Base, currently in a binary flatfile format but perhaps in the future in a spatially-indexed database. Finally, in the data access step, a client application makes a request for an interpolated value, which triggers a data fetch from the Knowledge Base through the libKBI interface, a walking triangle search for the containing triangle, and finally the NNI interpolation.

  18. Parametric Grid Information in the DOE Knowledge Base: Data Preparation, Storage, and Access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HIPP,JAMES R.; MOORE,SUSAN G.; MYERS,STEPHEN C.; SCHULTZ,CRAIG A.; SHEPHERD,ELLEN; YOUNG,CHRISTOPHER J.

    1999-10-01

    The parametric grid capability of the Knowledge Base provides an efficient, robust way to store and access interpolatable information which is needed to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. To meet both the accuracy and performance requirements of operational monitoring systems, we use a new approach which combines the error estimation of kriging with the speed and robustness of Natural Neighbor Interpolation (NNI). The method involves three basic steps: data preparation (DP), data storage (DS), and data access (DA). The goal of data preparation is to process a set of raw data points to produce a sufficient basis for accurate NNI of value and error estimates in the Data Access step. This basis includes a set of nodes and their connectedness, collectively known as a tessellation, and the corresponding values and errors that map to each node, which we call surfaces. In many cases, the raw data point distribution is not sufficiently dense to guarantee accurate error estimates from the NNI, so the original data set must be densified using a newly developed interpolation technique known as Modified Bayesian Kriging. Once appropriate kriging parameters have been determined by variogram analysis, the optimum basis for NNI is determined in a process they call mesh refinement, which involves iterative kriging, new node insertion, and Delauny triangle smoothing. The process terminates when an NNI basis has been calculated which will fir the kriged values within a specified tolerance. In the data storage step, the tessellations and surfaces are stored in the Knowledge Base, currently in a binary flatfile format but perhaps in the future in a spatially-indexed database. Finally, in the data access step, a client application makes a request for an interpolated value, which triggers a data fetch from the Knowledge Base through the libKBI interface, a walking triangle search for the containing triangle, and finally the NNI interpolation.

  19. BioSYNTHESIS: access to a knowledge network of health sciences databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broering, N C; Hylton, J S; Guttmann, R; Eskridge, D

    1991-04-01

    Users of the IAIMS Knowledge Network at the Georgetown University Medical Center have access to multiple in-house and external databases from a single point of entry through BioSYNTHESIS. The IAIMS project has developed a rich environment of biomedical information resources that represent a medical decision support system for campus physicians and students. The BioSYNTHESIS system is an information navigator that provides transparent access to a Knowledge Network of over a dozen databases. These multiple health sciences databases consist of bibliographic, informational, diagnostic, and research systems which reside on diverse computers such as DEC VAXs, SUN 490, AT&T 3B2s, Macintoshes, IBM PC/PS2s and the AT&T ISN and SYTEK network systems. Ethernet and TCP/IP protocols are used in the network architecture. BioSYNTHESIS also provides network links to the other campus libraries and to external institutions. As additional knowledge resources and technological advances have become available. BioSYNTHESIS has evolved from a two phase to a three phase program. Major components of the system including recent achievements and future plans are described.

  20. Retrospective of Open Access Repositories and Trends in the Socialization of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Irene Adame Rodríguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While searching for information on the Web is an everyday activity, finding free, reliable and quality information is a challenge, hence the interest in sharing part of a research project about repositories. The aim of this documentary research study is to present an overview of open access digital repositories and some trends in the socialization of knowledge produced by institutions of higher education, which in some way already mark a path toward a culture of sharing and reusing scientific, academic and cultural information for the benefit of the academic community and the general public.

  1. Open access to large scale datasets is needed to translate knowledge of cancer heterogeneity into better patient outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Beck

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this guest editorial, Andrew Beck discusses the importance of open access to big data for translating knowledge of cancer heterogeneity into better outcomes for cancer patients.

  2. Knowledge machines digital transformations of the sciences and humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    In Knowledge Machines, Eric Meyer and Ralph Schroeder argue that digital technologies have fundamentally changed research practices in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Meyer and Schroeder show that digital tools and data, used collectively and in distributed mode -- which they term e-research -- have transformed not just the consumption of knowledge but also the production of knowledge. Digital technologies for research are reshaping how knowledge advances in disciplines that range from physics to literary analysis. Meyer and Schroeder map the rise of digital research and offer case studies from many fields, including biomedicine, social science uses of the Web, astronomy, and large-scale textual analysis in the humanities. They consider such topics as the challenges of sharing research data and of big data approaches, disciplinary differences and new forms of interdisciplinary collaboration, the shifting boundaries between researchers and their publics, and the ways that digital tools promote o...

  3. Knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the virtual physiological human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Fluck, Juliane; Furlong, Laura; Fornes, Oriol; Kolárik, Corinna; Hanser, Susanne; Boeker, Martin; Schulz, Stefan; Sanz, Ferran; Klinger, Roman; Mevissen, Theo; Gattermayer, Tobias; Oliva, Baldo; Friedrich, Christoph M

    2008-09-13

    In essence, the virtual physiological human (VPH) is a multiscale representation of human physiology spanning from the molecular level via cellular processes and multicellular organization of tissues to complex organ function. The different scales of the VPH deal with different entities, relationships and processes, and in consequence the models used to describe and simulate biological functions vary significantly. Here, we describe methods and strategies to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities that can be used for modelling the molecular scale of the VPH. Our strategy to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities is based on the combination of information extraction from scientific text and the integration of information from biomolecular databases. We introduce @neuLink, a first prototype of an automatically generated, disease-specific knowledge environment combining biomolecular, chemical, genetic and medical information. Finally, we provide a perspective for the future implementation and use of knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the VPH.

  4. The challenges for human factors in knowledge work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Møller, Niels; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2011-01-01

    in knowledge intensive work to establish productive and satisfying jobs by a case study of our own place of work: a university department. Testimonials from a young associate professor, a first line manager and the department manager lead us to identify some of the major challenges for ergonomics to comply...... with the demands of the knowledge intensive work when KPI’s are central management tools. Especially handling the balance between high motivation and enthusiasm and burn out will be addressed.......The development towards a service and knowledge intensive economy arise new challenges for ergonomics and human factors. Knowledge on work within mass service production exists, but the challenges within knowledge work have still to be addressed. The focus of this paper is on some of the challenges...

  5. Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions: Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret S. (Editor); Johnson, James E. (Editor); Spry, James A. (Editor); Siegel, Bette; Conley, Catharine A.

    2015-01-01

    This report on Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions summarizes the presentations, deliberations and findings of a workshop at NASA Ames Research Center, March 24-26, 2015, which was attended by more than 100 participants representing a diverse mix of science, engineering, technology, and policy areas. The main objective of the three-day workshop was to identify specific knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to make incremental progress towards the development of NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for Planetary Protection during human missions to Mars.

  6. The impact of mobile phones on knowledge access and transfer of small-scale horticultural farmers in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krone, Madlen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the main economic activity in Tanzania and the country´s largest employer, providing livelihood for at least 80 % of the economically active population. Many studies have identified key challenges facing the sector for Africa in general – among these lack of access to knowledge. For agricultural producers, access to knowledge is important for an improved productivity and competitiveness. The fast diffusion of information and communication technologies (ICT such as mobile phones across Africa in the last years has resulted in an improved access and transfer of agricultural knowledge. Studies have shown that rural actors like farmers in remote areas even use mobile phones for their farming business. Based on qualitative interviews in the Mwanza Region in northwestern Tanzania, this study aims to identify and categorise the different types of knowledge which are transferred via mobile phones. Our results show that mobile phones enlarge the ability of farmers to access business-relevant knowledge at an increasing spatial scale. However, the effects of the use depend on the type of knowledge and other factors. The results add to existing studies by deepening the understanding of the benefits of ICT on knowledge access and transfer for the context of rural small-scale framers in Tanzania.

  7. Knowledge exchange:A strategy for open access success at The University of Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; T; PALMER

    2011-01-01

    The University of Hong Kong’s statement on vision now has three themes:1) Research, 2) teaching & learning, and 3) knowledge exchange(KE). KE emphasizes HKU’s desire to interact with its community for a mutual benefit. A new five-year strategic plan(2009-2014) sets out operational priorities and key indicators to enable knowledge exchange at HKU. Chief among these is the establishment of an exchange hub to make HKU researchers and their research products highly visible. The institutional repository of HKU, the HKU Scholars Hub, developed by its University Libraries, has become this KE exchange hub. Now the Hub includes HKU ResearcherPages, featuring the accomplishments of each HKU professoriate staff. HKU’s policy on knowledge exchange and the HKU ResearcherPages have increased the incentive for faculties, departments, and authors to place more items in open access(OA). This paper will discuss what KE is, the benefits it can bring to the university and its reputation, and how it can increase OA deposit.

  8. Modular knowledge systems accelerate human migration in asymmetric random environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Deem, Michael W

    2016-12-01

    Migration is a key mechanism for expansion of communities. In spatially heterogeneous environments, rapidly gaining knowledge about the local environment is key to the evolutionary success of a migrating population. For historical human migration, environmental heterogeneity was naturally asymmetric in the north-south (NS) and east-west (EW) directions. We here consider the human migration process in the Americas, modelled as random, asymmetric, modularly correlated environments. Knowledge about the environments determines the fitness of each individual. We present a phase diagram for asymmetry of migration as a function of carrying capacity and fitness threshold. We find that the speed of migration is proportional to the inverse complement of the spatial environmental gradient, and in particular, we find that NS migration rates are lower than EW migration rates when the environmental gradient is higher in the NS direction. Communication of knowledge between individuals can help to spread beneficial knowledge within the population. The speed of migration increases when communication transmits pieces of knowledge that contribute in a modular way to the fitness of individuals. The results for the dependence of migration rate on asymmetry and modularity are consistent with existing archaeological observations. The results for asymmetry of genetic divergence are consistent with patterns of human gene flow.

  9. Network Based Educational Environment How Libraries and Librarians Become Organizers of Knowledge Access and Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Pettenati, M C; Pettenati, Corrado

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we will highlight some important issues which will influence the redefinition of roles and duties of libraries and librarians in a networked based educational environment. Although librarians will also keep their traditional roles of faculty support services as well as reference service and research assistance, we identify the participation in the instructional design process, the support in the evaluation, development and use of a proper authoring system and the customization of information access, as being the domains where libraries and librarians should mainly involve themselves in the next future and make profit of their expertise in information and knowledge organization in order to properly and effectively support the institutions in the use of Information Technology in education.

  10. Human Disease Insight: An integrated knowledge-based platform for disease-gene-drug information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasleem, Munazzah; Ishrat, Romana; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2016-01-01

    The scope of the Human Disease Insight (HDI) database is not limited to researchers or physicians as it also provides basic information to non-professionals and creates disease awareness, thereby reducing the chances of patient suffering due to ignorance. HDI is a knowledge-based resource providing information on human diseases to both scientists and the general public. Here, our mission is to provide a comprehensive human disease database containing most of the available useful information, with extensive cross-referencing. HDI is a knowledge management system that acts as a central hub to access information about human diseases and associated drugs and genes. In addition, HDI contains well-classified bioinformatics tools with helpful descriptions. These integrated bioinformatics tools enable researchers to annotate disease-specific genes and perform protein analysis, search for biomarkers and identify potential vaccine candidates. Eventually, these tools will facilitate the analysis of disease-associated data. The HDI provides two types of search capabilities and includes provisions for downloading, uploading and searching disease/gene/drug-related information. The logistical design of the HDI allows for regular updating. The database is designed to work best with Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome and is freely accessible at http://humandiseaseinsight.com.

  11. Human-centered design of a distributed knowledge management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkus, Susan; Walji, Muhammad; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A; Malin, Jane T; Turley, James P; Smith, Jack W; Zhang, Jiajie

    2005-02-01

    Many healthcare technology projects fail due to the lack of consideration of human issues, such as workflow, organizational change, and usability, during the design and implementation stages of a project's development process. Even when human issues are considered, the consideration is typically on designing better user interfaces. We argue that human-centered computing goes beyond a better user interface: it should include considerations of users, functions and tasks that are fundamental to human-centered computing. From this perspective, we integrated a previously developed human-centered methodology with a Project Design Lifecycle, and we applied this integration in the design of a complex distributed knowledge management system for the Biomedical Engineer (BME) domain in the Mission Control Center at NASA Johnson Space Center. We analyzed this complex system, identified its problems, generated systems requirements, and provided specifications of a replacement prototype for effective organizational memory and knowledge management. We demonstrated the value provided by our human-centered approach and described the unique properties, structures, and processes discovered using this methodology and how they contributed in the design of the prototype.

  12. Access to pain treatment as a human right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amon Joseph J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost five decades ago, governments around the world adopted the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs which, in addition to addressing the control of illicit narcotics, obligated countries to work towards universal access to the narcotic drugs necessary to alleviate pain and suffering. Yet, despite the existence of inexpensive and effective pain relief medicines, tens of millions of people around the world continue to suffer from moderate to severe pain each year without treatment. Discussion Significant barriers to effective pain treatment include: the failure of many governments to put in place functioning drug supply systems; the failure to enact policies on pain treatment and palliative care; poor training of healthcare workers; the existence of unnecessarily restrictive drug control regulations and practices; fear among healthcare workers of legal sanctions for legitimate medical practice; and the inflated cost of pain treatment. These barriers can be understood not only as a failure to provide essential medicines and relieve suffering but also as human rights abuses. Summary According to international human rights law, countries have to provide pain treatment medications as part of their core obligations under the right to health; failure to take reasonable steps to ensure that people who suffer pain have access to adequate pain treatment may result in the violation of the obligation to protect against cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment.

  13. Semi-automated knowledge discovery: identifying and profiling human trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelmans, Jonas; Elzinga, Paul; Ignatov, Dmitry I.; Kuznetsov, Sergei O.

    2012-11-01

    We propose an iterative and human-centred knowledge discovery methodology based on formal concept analysis. The proposed approach recognizes the important role of the domain expert in mining real-world enterprise applications and makes use of specific domain knowledge, including human intelligence and domain-specific constraints. Our approach was empirically validated at the Amsterdam-Amstelland police to identify suspects and victims of human trafficking in 266,157 suspicious activity reports. Based on guidelines of the Attorney Generals of the Netherlands, we first defined multiple early warning indicators that were used to index the police reports. Using concept lattices, we revealed numerous unknown human trafficking and loverboy suspects. In-depth investigation by the police resulted in a confirmation of their involvement in illegal activities resulting in actual arrestments been made. Our human-centred approach was embedded into operational policing practice and is now successfully used on a daily basis to cope with the vastly growing amount of unstructured information.

  14. Access to human, animal, and environmental journals is still limited for the One Health community*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Carol E.; Alpi, Kristine M.; Pike, Caitlin A.; Whitman, Elisabeth E.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective “One Health” is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and managing the health and well-being of humans, animals, and the environments they share that relies on knowledge from the domains of human health, animal health, and the environmental sciences. The authors' objective was to evaluate the extent of open access (OA) to journal articles in a sample of literature from these domains. We hypothesized that OA to articles in human health or environmental journals was greater than access to animal health literature. Methods A One Health seminar series provided fifteen topics. One librarian translated each topic into a search strategy and searched four databases for articles from 2011 to 2012. Two independent investigators assigned each article to human health, the environment, animal health, all, other, or combined categories. Article and journal-level OA were determined. Each journal was also assigned a subject category and its indexing evaluated. Results Searches retrieved 2,651 unique articles from 1,138 journals; 1,919 (72%) articles came from 406 journals that contributed more than 1 article. Seventy-seven (7%) journals dealt with all 3 One Health domains; the remaining journals represented human health 487 (43%), environment 172 (15%), animal health 141 (12%), and other/combined categories 261 (23%). The proportion of OA journals in animal health (40%) differed significantly from journals categorized as human (28%), environment (28%), and more than 1 category (29%). The proportion of OA for articles by subject categories ranged from 25%–34%; only the difference between human (34%) and environment (25%) was significant. Conclusions OA to human health literature is more comparable to animal health than hypothesized. Environmental journals had less OA than anticipated. PMID:27076796

  15. A Matter of Discipline: Open Access, the Humanities, and Art History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Recent events suggest that open access has gained new momentum in the humanities, but the slow and uneven development of open-access initiatives in humanist fields continues to hinder the consolidation of efforts across the university. Although various studies have traced the general origins of the humanities' reticence to embrace open access, few…

  16. Digital Accessible Knowledge and well-inventoried sites for birds in Mexico: baseline sites for measuring faunistic change

    OpenAIRE

    A. Townsend PETERSON; Adolfo G. Navarro-Sigüenza; Enrique Martínez-Meyer

    2016-01-01

    Background Faunal change is a basic and fundamental element in ecology, biogeography, and conservation biology, yet vanishingly few detailed studies have documented such changes rigorously over decadal time scales. This study responds to that gap in knowledge, providing a detailed analysis of Digital Accessible Knowledge of the birds of Mexico, designed to marshal DAK to identify sites that were sampled and inventoried rigorously prior to the beginning of major global climate change (1980). M...

  17. Open Access to Knowledge Resources in Science and Technology : The Role of Digital Reference Service to Facilitate Accessing Scholarly Information

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The present paper discusses the importance, objectives and major developments in open access initiatives. It further examines the specific use of digital information services including the digital reference service. The paper also highlights the various steps taken in this direction at the Central Library of IIT Madras.

  18. Deconstructing Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Knowledge: Objective and Perceived Knowledge in Males' Intentions to Receive the HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Stephenson, Ellen; Perez, Samara; Lau, Elsa; Rosberger, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recently approved for men. To effectively tailor HPV education efforts toward men, it is important to understand what men know about HPV and how this knowledge relates to their decision to receive the vaccine. This study examines how objective HPV knowledge, objective HPV vaccine knowledge,…

  19. The Mouse Genome Database: integration of and access to knowledge about the laboratory mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2014-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD) (http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the community model organism database resource for the laboratory mouse, a premier animal model for the study of genetic and genomic systems relevant to human biology and disease. MGD maintains a comprehensive catalog of genes, functional RNAs and other genome features as well as heritable phenotypes and quantitative trait loci. The genome feature catalog is generated by the integration of computational and manual genome annotations generated by NCBI, Ensembl and Vega/HAVANA. MGD curates and maintains the comprehensive listing of functional annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology, and MGD curates and integrates comprehensive phenotype annotations including associations of mouse models with human diseases. Recent improvements include integration of the latest mouse genome build (GRCm38), improved access to comparative and functional annotations for mouse genes with expanded representation of comparative vertebrate genomes and new loads of phenotype data from high-throughput phenotyping projects. All MGD resources are freely available to the research community.

  20. Assessing the Unseen: Using Music and Literature to Access and Develop First Graders' Knowledge of Sound Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Susan; Kelley, Sybil S.

    2016-01-01

    Most young children love a good song and dance, an enticing story, and gorgeous illustrations. How could this staple of the early childhood classroom--music and literature--access children's ideas about physical science? How can young children communicate their knowledge of unseen science concepts that are not easily represented in pictures? These…

  1. Human Capital and Knowledge Emergence. Induced Effects of the Global Crisis on Human capital and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Buta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the global crisis context crossed by organizations and countries in the past six years we assist also at conflicting measures in which regards knowledge, innovation and human capital; for example, countries such as England and France have reduced their costs for education, while Germany and other countries (Australia, Austria, Canada and Norway maintained the same allocations for education. What will be the effects of such measures on human capital in the near future? What are the best human resources policies in companies in the crisis context? Given that the subject of the research is "knowledge and human capital", in this paper we refer to the induced effects of the crisis on human capital and innovation. We will also identify the key steps that can be taken during crisis, and not only, to stimulate human capital.

  2. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N.; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A.; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A.; Ngogang, Jeanne Y.

    2016-01-01

    Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs. PMID:27508058

  3. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Ngogang, Jeanne Y

    2016-01-01

    Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs.

  4. HINT-KB: The human interactome knowledge base

    KAUST Repository

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.

    2012-01-01

    Proteins and their interactions are considered to play a significant role in many cellular processes. The identification of Protein-Protein interactions (PPIs) in human is an open research area. Many Databases, which contain information about experimentally and computationally detected human PPIs as well as their corresponding annotation data, have been developed. However, these databases contain many false positive interactions, are partial and only a few of them incorporate data from various sources. To overcome these limitations, we have developed HINT-KB (http://150.140.142.24:84/Default.aspx) which is a knowledge base that integrates data from various sources, provides a user-friendly interface for their retrieval, estimates a set of features of interest and computes a confidence score for every candidate protein interaction using a modern computational hybrid methodology. © 2012 IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

  5. Linking person perception and person knowledge in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Inez M; Downing, Paul E; Ramsey, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Neuroscience research has examined separately how we detect human agents on the basis of their face and body (person perception) and how we reason about their thoughts, traits or intentions (person knowledge). Neuroanatomically distinct networks have been associated with person perception and person knowledge, but it remains unknown how multiple features of a person (e.g. thin and kind) are linked to form a holistic identity representation. In this fMRI experiment, we investigated the hypothesis that when encountering another person specialised person perception circuits would be functionally coupled with circuits involved in person knowledge. In a factorial design, we paired bodies or names with trait-based or neutral statements, and independent localiser scans identified body-selective and mentalising networks. When observing a body paired with a trait-implying statement, functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that body-selective patches in bilateral fusiform gyri were functionally coupled with nodes of the mentalising network. We demonstrate that when forming a representation of a person circuits for representing another person's physical appearance are linked to circuits that are engaged when reasoning about trait-based character. These data support the view that a 'who' system for social cognition involves communication between perceptual and inferential mechanisms when forming a representation of another's identity.

  6. Access to justice: evaluating law, health and human rights programmes in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Gruskin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Kenya, human rights violations have a marked impact on the health of people living with HIV. Integrating legal literacy and legal services into healthcare appears to be an effective strategy to empower vulnerable groups and address underlying determinants of health. Methods: We carried out an evaluation to collect evidence about the impact of legal empowerment programmes on health and human rights. The evaluation focused on Open Society Foundation-supported legal integration activities at four sites: the Academic Model of Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH facility, where the Legal Aid Centre of Eldoret (LACE operates, in Eldoret; Kenyatta National Hospital's Gender-based Violence Recovery Centre, which hosts the COVAW legal integration program; and Christian Health Association of Kenya (CHAK facilities in Mombasa and Naivasha. In consultation with the organizations implementing the programs, we designed a conceptual logic model grounded in human rights principles, identified relevant indicators and then coded structure, process and outcome indicators for the rights-related principles they reflect. The evaluation included a resource assessment questionnaire, a review of program records and routine data, and semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with clients and service providers. Data were collected in May–August 2010 and April–June 2011. Results: Clients showed a notable increase in practical knowledge and awareness about how to access legal aid and claim their rights, as well as an enhanced ability to communicate with healthcare providers and to improve their access to healthcare and justice. In turn, providers became more adept at identifying human rights violations and other legal difficulties, which enabled them to give clients basic information about their rights, refer them to legal aid and assist them in accessing needed support. Methodological challenges in evaluating such activities point to

  7. Access to electronic health knowledge in five countries in Africa: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honorati Masanja

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to medical literature in developing countries is helped by open access publishing and initiatives to allow free access to subscription only journals. The effectiveness of these initiatives in Africa has not been assessed. This study describes awareness, reported use and factors influencing use of on-line medical literature via free access initiatives. Methods Descriptive study in four teaching hospitals in Cameroon, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda plus one externally funded research institution in The Gambia. Survey with postgraduate doctors and research scientists to determine Internet access patterns, reported awareness of on-line medical information and free access initiatives; semi structured interviews with a sub-sample of survey participants to explore factors influencing use. Results In the four African teaching hospitals, 70% of the 305 postgraduate doctors reported textbooks as their main source of information; 66% had used the Internet for health information in the last week. In two hospitals, Internet cafés were the main Internet access point. For researchers at the externally-funded research institution, electronic resources were their main source, and almost all had used the Internet in the last week. Across all 333 respondents, 90% had heard of PubMed, 78% of BMJ on line, 49% the Cochrane Library, 47% HINARI, and 19% BioMedCentral. HINARI use correlates with accessing the Internet on computers located in institutions. Qualitative data suggested there are difficulties logging into HINARI and that sometimes it is librarians that limit access to passwords. Conclusion Text books remain an important resource for postgraduate doctors in training. Internet use is common, but awareness of free-access initiatives is limited. HINARI and other initiatives could be more effective with strong institutional endorsement and management to promote and ensure access.

  8. Web Accessibility Knowledge and Skills for Non-Web Library Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Why do librarians and library staff other than Web librarians and developers need to know about accessibility? Web services staff do not--or should not--operate in isolation from the rest of the library staff. It is important to consider what areas of online accessibility are applicable to other areas of library work and to colleagues' regular job…

  9. Efficacy of Video-Assisted Instruction on Knowledge and Performance of Dental Students in Access Cavity Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Naseri, Mandana; Shantiaee, Yazdan; Rasekhi, Javid; Zadsirjan, Saeede; Mojtahed Bidabadi, Maryam; Khayat, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The conventional method of teaching endodontics has some drawbacks. Due to the small size of the oral cavity, students cannot closely observe the clinical procedure. Use of new teaching modalities such as the intraoral camera may obviate this problem. This study assessed the effect of video-assisted clinical instruction in dentistry (VACID) on dental student’s knowledge and performance in access cavity preparation during endodontic treatment. Methods and Materials: In this inter...

  10. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  11. Open access: academic publishing and its implications for knowledge equity in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheka, Duncan Mwangangi; Nderitu, Joseph; Mutonga, Daniel; Otiti, Mary Iwaret; Siegel, Karen; Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll

    2014-04-09

    Traditional, subscription-based scientific publishing has its limitations: often, articles are inaccessible to the majority of researchers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where journal subscriptions or one-time access fees are cost-prohibitive. Open access (OA) publishing, in which journals provide online access to articles free of charge, breaks this barrier and allows unrestricted access to scientific and scholarly information to researchers all over the globe. At the same time, one major limitation to OA is a high publishing cost that is placed on authors. Following recent developments to OA publishing policies in the UK and even LMICs, this article highlights the current status and future challenges of OA in Africa. We place particular emphasis on Kenya, where multidisciplinary efforts to improve access have been established. We note that these efforts in Kenya can be further strengthened and potentially replicated in other African countries, with the goal of elevating the visibility of African research and improving access for African researchers to global research, and, ultimately, bring social and economic benefits to the region. We (1) offer recommendations for overcoming the challenges of implementing OA in Africa and (2) call for urgent action by African governments to follow the suit of high-income countries like the UK and Australia, mandating OA for publicly-funded research in their region and supporting future research into how OA might bring social and economic benefits to Africa.

  12. Open-Access Textbooks and Financial Sustainability: A Case Study on Flat World Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hilton III

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many college students and their families are concerned about the high costs of textbooks. A company called Flat World Knowledge both gives away and sells open-source textbooks in a way it believes to be financially sustainable. This article reports on the financial sustainability of the Flat World Knowledge open-source textbook model after one year of operation.

  13. Knowledge Management, Human Resource Management, and Higher Education: A Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peggy D.; Brewer, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written on the importance of knowledge management, the challenges facing organizations, and the important human resource management activities involved in assuring the acquisition and transfer of knowledge. Higher business education plays an important role in preparing students to assume the knowledge management and human resource…

  14. The Potential of ICT for a New Educational Paradigm: Toward Generalizing Access to Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebbi, Turid

    2011-01-01

    This article both analyzes and synthesizes eleven articles from four volumes (eight issues) of the journal "Distances et Savoirs" published between 2003 and 2008. The authors of these articles present their research on several topics related to learners, learning, and tutoring in distance education while also working on innovation and access to…

  15. Knowledge-Based Multiple Access Protocol in Broadband Wireless ATM Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Dittmann, Lars

    1999-01-01

    characteristics of the traffic for allocating bandwidth effeciently to CBR, VBR and ABR/UBR connections by a compromise of assignment, contetion, reservation and polling access techniques. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol can achieve a very high channel utilization of 90 % while providing...... guaranteed QoS requirements to a variety of ATM applications....

  16. Psychological Basis of the Relationship Between the Rorschach Texture Response and Adult Attachment: The Mediational Role of the Accessibility of Tactile Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Kazunori; Ogawa, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    This study clarifies the psychological basis for the linkage between adult attachment and the texture response on the Rorschach by examining the mediational role of the accessibility of tactile knowledge. Japanese undergraduate students (n = 35) completed the Rorschach Inkblot Method, the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale for General Objects (Nakao & Kato, 2004) and a lexical decision task designed to measure the accessibility of tactile knowledge. A mediation analysis revealed that the accessibility of tactile knowledge partially mediates the association between attachment anxiety and the texture response. These results suggest that our hypothetical model focusing on the response process provides a possible explanation of the relationship between the texture response and adult attachment.

  17. Unspoken knowledge: implicit learning of structured human dance movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opacic, Tajana; Stevens, Catherine; Tillmann, Barbara

    2009-11-01

    The sequencing of dance movements may be thought of as a grammar. We investigate implicit learning of regularities that govern sequences of unfamiliar, discrete dance movements. It was hypothesized that observers without prior experience with contemporary dance would be able to learn regularities that underpin structured human movement. Thirty-one adults were assigned to either an exposure or a control group. Exposure consisted of 22 grammatical 3-, 4-, and 5-movement sequences presented twice in random order; sequence duration ranged from 9 to 19 s. In a test phase, exposure and control groups identified previously unseen sequences as grammatical or ungrammatical, and rated confidence of judgment. The exposure group selected significantly more new grammatical sequences in the test phase than the control group. In addition, for the exposure group, the zero correlation criterion, wherein no relation between confidence and accuracy indicates unconscious knowledge, was satisfied. Through exposure, novice observers can learn a grammar that governs the sequencing of dance movements. This has implications for implicit learning of long sequences, working memory, and the development of expectations through exposure to contemporary dance.

  18. Efficacy of Video-Assisted Instruction on Knowledge and Performance of Dental Students in Access Cavity Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mandana; Shantiaee, Yazdan; Rasekhi, Javid; Zadsirjan, Saeede; Mojtahed Bidabadi, Maryam; Khayat, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The conventional method of teaching endodontics has some drawbacks. Due to the small size of the oral cavity, students cannot closely observe the clinical procedure. Use of new teaching modalities such as the intraoral camera may obviate this problem. This study assessed the effect of video-assisted clinical instruction in dentistry (VACID) on dental student’s knowledge and performance in access cavity preparation during endodontic treatment. Methods and Materials: In this interventional study, twenty six undergraduate students were equally divided into two groups and received instructions on access cavity preparation via conventional demonstration (CD) or VACID using intraoral camera plus conventional demonstration. Students’ knowledge was assessed before and after the demonstration. The scores obtained by students were compared between the two groups. Data were analyzed using the Mann Whitney U test. Results: No significant difference was found between the two groups in knowledge and performance scores of students about pulp chamber removal, under-extension, over-extension, gouging, perforation or finding the main and extra canals. However, use of intraoral camera significantly reduced the number of student visits to instructors for problem solving (P=0.001). Conclusion: VACID is an effective educational method and as efficient as conventional demonstration in endodontics; as a result it can be used in combination with conventional teaching. PMID:27790265

  19. Human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in relation to access to medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hunt, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Although access to medicines is a vital feature of the right to the highest attainable standard of health ("right to health"), almost two billion people lack access to essential medicines, leading to immense avoidable suffering. While the human rights responsibility to provide access to medicines lies mainly with States, pharmaceutical companies also have human rights responsibilities in relation to access to medicines. This article provides an introduction to these responsibilities. It briefly outlines the new UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and places the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in this context. The authors draw from the work of the first UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, in particular the Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in Relation to Access to Medicines that he presented to the UN General Assembly in 2008, and his UN report on GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). While the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights are general human rights standards applicable to all business entities, the Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies consider the specific human rights responsibilities of one sector (pharmaceutical companies) in relation to one area of activity (access to medicines). The article signals the human rights responsibilities of all pharmaceutical companies, with particular attention to patent-holding pharmaceutical companies. Adopting a right-to-health "lens," the article discusses GSK and accountability. The authors argue that human rights should shape pharmaceutical companies' policies, and provide standards in relation to which pharmaceutical companies could, and should, be held accountable. They conclude that it is now crucial to devise independent, accessible, transparent, and effective mechanisms to monitor pharmaceutical companies and hold them publicly accountable for their human rights responsibilities.

  20. Localized Knowledge based System for Human Disease Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adane Nega Tarekegn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available —Knowledge based system can be designed to solve complex medical problems. It incorporates the expert‟s knowledge that has been coded into facts, rules, heuristics and procedures. Incorporation of local languages with the knowledge based system allows endusers communicate with the system in a simpler and easier way. In this study a localized knowledge based system is developed for TB disease diagnosis using Ethiopian national language. To develop the localized knowledge based system, tacit knowledge is acquired from domain experts using interviewing techniques and explicit knowledge is captured from documented sources using relevant documents analysis method. Then the acquired knowledge is modeled using decision tree structure that represents concepts and procedures involved in diagnosis of disease. Production rules are used to represent domain knowledge. The localized knowledge based system is developed using SWI Prolog version 6.4.1 programming language. Prolog supports natural language processing feature to localize the system. As a result, the system is implemented using Amharic language (the national language of Ethiopia user interface. With Localization, users at remote areas and users who are not good in foreign languages are benefited enormously. The system is tested and evaluated to ensure that whether the performance of the system is accurate and the system is usable by physicians and patients. The average performance of the localized knowledge based system has registered 81.5%.

  1. Epistemology – the Theory of Knowledge or Knowing? Appreciating Gregory Bateson’s Contribution to the Cartography of Human Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzislaw Wasik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at a confrontation of two approaches to epistemology in order to answer the question posed in its title whether the theory of knowledge should focus on static or dynamic aspects of human cognition. In the first part, the author presents a metascientific understanding of epistemology defined in his own works as an ordered set of investigative perspectives, which practicing researchers have at their disposal when they are interested to attain a specific state of knowledge, or to support their beliefs about the nature of investigative domains with regard to the existence forms and accessibility of investigated objects. And, in the second, the subject matter of a more detailed presentation constitutes a psychophysiological approach to epistemology pertaining to the human organism preoccupied with sensorial and mental activities as a cognizing subject who aims at achieving a certain kind of information about reality. Common for both approaches to epistemology is the attainment of experiential knowledge. However, when the metascientific epistemology refers to a dispositional-perspectivistic state of knowledge acquired in cognition, the attention of the psychophysiological epistemology is paid to cognitive-constructivists activities of human organisms as subject acquiring their knowledge through personal experiences.

  2. Reviews and Practice of College Students Regarding Access to Scientific Knowledge: A Case Study in Two Spanish Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Sáez López

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the concepts, attitudes, and practices of 327 pedagogy students from two major Spanish universities related to the process of finding academic information utilizing open access. A training program has been developed through an innovation project (PIMCD to address the problem of the lack of university training designed to enable students to access reliable sources of scientific knowledge. A mixed questionnaire with a pretest-posttest design, applying a descriptive analysis, a factor analysis, and a Wilcoxon test was administered to students. The results show that it is essential to provide information and training to encourage university students to learn how to find and manage rigorous and reliable sources of information. While searching for academic information, Spanish students tend to focus on the use of Google and, to a lesser extent, Google Scholar. Although there are no significant limitations of access to Spanish language articles, students’ attitudes remain very positive towards the concept of open access. In short, in accordance with the study results, the promotion of educational activities relating to the search for and selection of information and the use of reliable and rigorous academic content is highly recommended in the university context.

  3. Massive Access Control Aided by Knowledge-Extraction for Co-Existing Periodic and Random Services over Wireless Clinical Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qinghe; Zhao, Weidong; Li, Weimin; Zhang, Xuelin; Sun, Bo; Song, Houbing; Ren, Pinyi; Sun, Li; Wang, Yichen

    2016-07-01

    The prosperity of e-health is boosted by fast development of medical devices with wireless communications capability such as wearable devices, tiny sensors, monitoring equipments, etc., which are randomly distributed in clinic environments. The drastically-increasing population of such devices imposes new challenges on the limited wireless resources. To relieve this problem, key knowledge needs to be extracted from massive connection attempts dispersed in the air towards efficient access control. In this paper, a hybrid periodic-random massive access (HPRMA) scheme for wireless clinical networks employing ultra-narrow band (UNB) techniques is proposed. In particular, the proposed scheme towards accommodating a large population of devices include the following new features. On one hand, it can dynamically adjust the resource allocated for coexisting periodic and random services based on the traffic load learned from signal collision status. On the other hand, the resource allocation within periodic services is thoroughly designed to simultaneously align with the timing requests of differentiated services. Abundant simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed HPRMA scheme over baseline schemes including time-division multiple access (TDMA) and random access approach, in terms of channel utilization efficiency, packet drop ratio, etc., for the support of massive devices' services.

  4. Mothers' human papilloma virus knowledge and willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezenwa BN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Beatrice N Ezenwa,1 Mobolanle R Balogun,2 Ifeoma P Okafor2 1Department of Pediatrics, 68 Nigerian Army Reference Hospital, Lagos State, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents and young women and has been implicated as a cause of the majority of cases of cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer in women in Nigeria. HPV is preventable with the use of HPV vaccines. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess mothers' HPV knowledge and their willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This study was a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in July, 2012 in Shomolu Local Government Area (LGA of Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling method was employed to select the 290 respondents who participated in the study. Structured, pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was analyzed with Epi-Info™ version 7. Results: The study revealed low awareness of HPV (27.9% and HPV vaccines (19.7% among the mothers that participated. There was a high awareness for cervical cancer but little knowledge of its link to HPV. Awareness and utilization of HPV vaccines increased with increasing educational level (P<0.05. There was a high willingness and intention among the mothers to vaccinate their girls (88.9% and to recommend the vaccine to others (91.0%. Accessibility and affordability of the HPV vaccines were found to be possible barriers to future utilization of the vaccines. Conclusion: Despite low knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccines, mothers were willing to vaccinate their daughters. We recommend improving mothers' knowledge by education and the possible inclusion of the vaccine in the national immunization

  5. The Encyclopedia of Life v2: Providing Global Access to Knowledge About Life on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Cynthia S; Wilson, Nathan; Leary, Patrick; Schulz, Katja S; Lans, Kristen; Walley, Lisa; Hammock, Jennifer A; Goddard, Anthony; Rice, Jeremy; Studer, Marie; Holmes, Jeffrey T G; Corrigan, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, http://eol.org) aims to provide unprecedented global access to a broad range of information about life on Earth. It currently contains 3.5 million distinct pages for taxa and provides content for 1.3 million of those pages. The content is primarily contributed by EOL content partners (providers) that have a more limited geographic, taxonomic or topical scope. EOL aggregates these data and automatically integrates them based on associated scientific names and other classification information. EOL also provides interfaces for curation and direct content addition. All materials in EOL are either in the public domain or licensed under a Creative Commons license. In addition to the web interface, EOL is also accessible through an Application Programming Interface. In this paper, we review recent developments added for Version 2 of the web site and subsequent releases through Version 2.2, which have made EOL more engaging, personal, accessible and internationalizable. We outline the core features and technical architecture of the system. We summarize milestones achieved so far by EOL to present results of the current system implementation and establish benchmarks upon which to judge future improvements. We have shown that it is possible to successfully integrate large amounts of descriptive biodiversity data from diverse sources into a robust, standards-based, dynamic, and scalable infrastructure. Increasing global participation and the emergence of EOL-powered applications demonstrate that EOL is becoming a significant resource for anyone interested in biological diversity.

  6. Access to health care for undocumented migrants from a human rights perspective:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Dan; Toebes, Brigit; Hjern, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Undocumented migrants' access to health care varies across Europe, and entitlements on national levels are often at odds with the rights stated in international human rights law. The aim of this study is to address undocumented migrants' access to health care in Denmark, Sweden, and the Netherlands...

  7. An Investigation of Graduate Student Knowledge and Usage of Open-Access Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Regina M.

    2016-01-01

    Graduate students lament the need to achieve the proficiency necessary to competently search multiple databases for their research assignments, regularly eschewing these sources in favor of Google Scholar or some other search engine. The author conducted an anonymous survey investigating graduate student knowledge or awareness of the open-access…

  8. Accessing stored knowledge of familiar people from faces, names and voices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, John Richard

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings from neuropsychology and experimental psychology appear incompatible with the claim that feelings of familiarity about known people require activation of amodal person identity nodes. Evidence suggests that there are modality-specific effects after the point at which faces, names and voices have been found familiar. It therefore appears that activation of distinct modality-specific face, name and voice processing systems can signal that a known person is familiar. There is no convincing evidence, however, of modular effects on the way that information about familiar people is represented in semantic memory. Instead, semantic information about people appears to be stored separately from other forms of knowledge such as knowledge of objects. Anatomical evidence suggests that amodal person-specific semantic knowledge is stored in the right anterior temporal lobe where it has close connections with modality specific recognition systems. Failures to retrieve names in proper name anomia may be caused by impairments to the links between semantic knowledge in the right anterior temporal lobe and lexical representations in the left temporal pole.

  9. Developing Accessible Cyberinfrastructure-Enabled Knowledge Communities in the National Disability Community: Theory, Practice, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhill, William N.; Cogburn, Derrick L.; Samant, Deepti

    2008-01-01

    Since publication of the Atkins Commission report 2003, the national scientific community has placed significant emphasis on developing cyberinfrastructure-enabled knowledge communities, which are designed to facilitate enhanced efficiency and collaboration in geographically distributed networks of researchers. This article suggests that the new…

  10. Genome-wide genetic interaction analysis of glaucoma using expert knowledge derived from human phenotype networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ting; Darabos, Christian; Cricco, Maria E; Kong, Emily; Moore, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    The large volume of GWAS data poses great computational challenges for analyzing genetic interactions associated with common human diseases. We propose a computational framework for characterizing epistatic interactions among large sets of genetic attributes in GWAS data. We build the human phenotype network (HPN) and focus around a disease of interest. In this study, we use the GLAUGEN glaucoma GWAS dataset and apply the HPN as a biological knowledge-based filter to prioritize genetic variants. Then, we use the statistical epistasis network (SEN) to identify a significant connected network of pairwise epistatic interactions among the prioritized SNPs. These clearly highlight the complex genetic basis of glaucoma. Furthermore, we identify key SNPs by quantifying structural network characteristics. Through functional annotation of these key SNPs using Biofilter, a software accessing multiple publicly available human genetic data sources, we find supporting biomedical evidences linking glaucoma to an array of genetic diseases, proving our concept. We conclude by suggesting hypotheses for a better understanding of the disease.

  11. DOCUMENTING OF THE PROCESS OF ACCUMULATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTELLECTUAL HUMAN CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yermolenko V. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of documenting of process of accumulation of knowledge and development of the intellectual human capital is considered in this article. The purpose of the article is the research of theoretical approaches of documenting of process of accumulation of knowledge, development of the intellectual human capital and the analysis of domestic public corporations on documenting of process of accumulation of knowledge. The solution of research tasks in article is proposed: the analysis of the contents of theories of development of the human capital in the conditions of economy of knowledge is carried out; domestic practice of public corporations on documenting of process of accumulation of knowledge is studied; features of documenting of knowledge as maintenance of development of the human capital are marked out. The particular emphasis in the article is placed on disclosure of such problems, as: methodological and theoretical aspects of development of the intellectual human capital; formation of mechanisms and ways of documenting of knowledge in the conditions of knowledge economy; formation of corporate institutes of formation and the development of the intellectual human capital, realizing reproduction of the intellectual capital and engineering of knowledge; formation of organizational innovations and dumping of old organizational routines. Documenting of knowledge is presented as maintenance of development of the human capital, the project of introduction of knowledge management and its documentary maintenance in corporations, and also ways of network documenting of knowledge of the human capital in the process of joint design activity is offered. Development of a special control system and its organizational and methodical providing which will allow to increase efficiency of work with documents during projects of development of the intellectual human capital is necessary for management of the documentary massif of knowledge of the

  12. Multiple choice exams of medical knowledge with open books and web access? A validity study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind; Knudsen, Ulla Breth;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Open book tests have been suggested to lower test anxiety and promote deeper learning strategies. In the Aarhus University medical program, ¼ of the curriculum assess students’ medical knowledge with ‘open book, open web’ (OBOW) multiple choice examinations. We found little existing...... evidence about the validity of OBOW multiple choice exams of medical knowledge. Based on modern validity theory, we find the most problematic validity assumptions in this setting to be related to ‘extrapolation’ and ‘decision’, i.e.: to the assumptions that: 1) the test tasks require the competencies...... developed in the course, and 2) there are no skill-irrelevant sources of variability (e.g. information seeking skills) which bias the interpretation of test scores as measures of level of subject expertise), and 3) students with no/very low levels of subject expertise will not pass this test and progress...

  13. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India.

  14. Cyberscience and the Knowledge-Based Economy. Open Access and Trade Publishing: From Contradiction to Compatibility with Non-Exclusive Copyright Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Open source, open content and open access are set to fundamentally alter the conditions of knowledge production and distribution. Open source, open content and open access are also the most tangible result of the shift towards e-science and digital networking. Yet, widespread misperceptions exist about the impact of this shift on knowledge…

  15. Access to healthcare services as a human right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, N

    2010-12-01

    The existence of a right to healthcare or, at least, access to healthcare services, is a right that exists in terms of the Bill of Rights in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. This article explores the scope and ambit of the right and its meaning within the context of both of constitutional directives, the duties imposed upon the State to progressively realise the right for its citizens and the practical implications of the right with reference to existing healthcare infrastructure in the Republic of South Africa.

  16. Considerations on private human access to space from an institutional point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufenbach, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    Private human access to space as discussed in this article addresses two market segments: suborbital flight and crew flights to Low Earth Orbit. The role of entrepreneurs, the technical complexity, the customers, the market conditions as well as the time to market in these two segments differ significantly. Space agencies take currently a very different approach towards private human access to space in both segments. Analysing the outcome of broader inter-agency deliberations on the future of human spaceflight and exploration, performed e.g. in the framework of the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, enables to derive some common general views on this topic. Various documents developed by inter-agency working groups recognise the general strategic importance for enabling private human access to space for ensuring a sustainable future of human spaceflight, although the specific definition of private human access and approaches vary. ESA has performed some reflections on this subject throughout the last 5 years. While it gained through these reflections a good understanding on the opportunities and implications resulting from the development of capabilities and markets for Private Human Access, limited concrete activities have been initiated in relation to this topic as of today.

  17. Semi-Automatically Extracting FAQs to Improve Accessibility of Software Development Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Henß, Stefan; Mezini, Mira

    2012-01-01

    Frequently asked questions (FAQs) are a popular way to document software development knowledge. As creating such documents is expensive, this paper presents an approach for automatically extracting FAQs from sources of software development discussion, such as mailing lists and Internet forums, by combining techniques of text mining and natural language processing. We apply the approach to popular mailing lists and carry out a survey among software developers to show that it is able to extract high-quality FAQs that may be further improved by experts.

  18. Implications of Human Pattern Processing for the Design of Artificial Knowledge Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Roth, Barbara

    This paper presents evidence that four design principles commonly embodied in artificial knowledge systems are inconsistent with human cognitive capabilities. Because these principles are widely accepted as characteristics of human knowledge processing, common theoretical properties related to cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence which…

  19. Accessing local knowledge to identify where species of conservation concern occur in a tropical forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanaba, Michael; Sheil, Douglas; Basuki, Imam; Liswanti, Nining

    2013-08-01

    Conventional biodiversity surveys play an important role in ensuring good conservation friendly management in tropical forest regions but are demanding in terms of expertise, time, and budget. Can local people help? Here, we illustrate how local knowledge can support low cost conservation surveys. We worked in the Malinau watershed, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, an area currently at risk of extensive forest loss. We selected eight species of regional conservation interest: rafflesia (Rafflesia spp.), black orchid (Coelogyne pandurata), sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), tarsier (Tarsius bancanus), slow loris (Nycticebus coucang), proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus), clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi/N. nebulosa), and orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus). We asked 52 informants in seven villages if, where and when they had observed these species. We used maps, based on both geo-referenced and sketched features, to record these observations. Verification concerns and related issues are discussed. Evaluations suggest our local information is reliable. Our study took 6 weeks and cost about USD 5000. Extensive expert based field surveys across the same region would cost one or two orders of magnitude more. The records extend the known distribution for sun bear, tarsier, slow loris, and clouded leopard. Reports of rafflesia, proboscis monkey, and orang-utan are of immediate conservation significance. While quality concerns should never be abandoned, we conclude that local people can help expand our knowledge of large areas in an effective, reliable, and low cost manner and thus contribute to improved management.

  20. Consumers’ perception and knowledge of food safety: results of questionnaires accessible on IZSalimenTO website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaranta Traversa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present survey was undertaken to investigate consumers’ knowledge of the main foodborne agents and dietary regimen during pregnancy. Data were collected using monthly questionnaires available on IZSalimenTO website between March 2013 and January 2014. Hepatitis A virus questionnaire: 20 respondents (77% recognized berries as foodstuff linked to the outbreak of hepatitis A. The majority correctly indicated as precautionary advice to boil berries before consumption. Botulism questionnaire: 29 respondents (62% indicated pesto as food involved in botulism alert in July 2013. The risk of infant botulism in infant less than 1 year old due to honey consumption is known by 24 respondents (51%. Main foodborne disease questionnaire: the risk of infection by Salmonella after the consumption of foods made with raw eggs is known by the majority (94%; N=17 as well as the treatments to be applied in order to make fresh fish safe from parasites (76%. Pregnancy questionnaire: 20 respondents (74% believed that washing vegetables and fruits with sodium bicarbonate or chlorate solution is able to inactivate Toxoplasma; only 4 (15% reported both raw meat and vegetables washed with sodium bicarbonate as food at risk. Results indicate that all consumers should be trained on behaviour and dietary regimen to be adopted in pregnancy and in infant <1 year old. The website may be considered as a useful tool to assess consumers’ knowledge: both the news section and the contents published may be a source of information and education for consumers on food safety.

  1. Human transporter database: comprehensive knowledge and discovery tools in the human transporter genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Y Ye

    Full Text Available Transporters are essential in homeostatic exchange of endogenous and exogenous substances at the systematic, organic, cellular, and subcellular levels. Gene mutations of transporters are often related to pharmacogenetics traits. Recent developments in high throughput technologies on genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics allow in depth studies of transporter genes in normal cellular processes and diverse disease conditions. The flood of high throughput data have resulted in urgent need for an updated knowledgebase with curated, organized, and annotated human transporters in an easily accessible way. Using a pipeline with the combination of automated keywords query, sequence similarity search and manual curation on transporters, we collected 1,555 human non-redundant transporter genes to develop the Human Transporter Database (HTD (http://htd.cbi.pku.edu.cn. Based on the extensive annotations, global properties of the transporter genes were illustrated, such as expression patterns and polymorphisms in relationships with their ligands. We noted that the human transporters were enriched in many fundamental biological processes such as oxidative phosphorylation and cardiac muscle contraction, and significantly associated with Mendelian and complex diseases such as epilepsy and sudden infant death syndrome. Overall, HTD provides a well-organized interface to facilitate research communities to search detailed molecular and genetic information of transporters for development of personalized medicine.

  2. Human transporter database: comprehensive knowledge and discovery tools in the human transporter genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Adam Y; Liu, Qing-Rong; Li, Chuan-Yun; Zhao, Min; Qu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Transporters are essential in homeostatic exchange of endogenous and exogenous substances at the systematic, organic, cellular, and subcellular levels. Gene mutations of transporters are often related to pharmacogenetics traits. Recent developments in high throughput technologies on genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics allow in depth studies of transporter genes in normal cellular processes and diverse disease conditions. The flood of high throughput data have resulted in urgent need for an updated knowledgebase with curated, organized, and annotated human transporters in an easily accessible way. Using a pipeline with the combination of automated keywords query, sequence similarity search and manual curation on transporters, we collected 1,555 human non-redundant transporter genes to develop the Human Transporter Database (HTD) (http://htd.cbi.pku.edu.cn). Based on the extensive annotations, global properties of the transporter genes were illustrated, such as expression patterns and polymorphisms in relationships with their ligands. We noted that the human transporters were enriched in many fundamental biological processes such as oxidative phosphorylation and cardiac muscle contraction, and significantly associated with Mendelian and complex diseases such as epilepsy and sudden infant death syndrome. Overall, HTD provides a well-organized interface to facilitate research communities to search detailed molecular and genetic information of transporters for development of personalized medicine.

  3. Gene Wiki Reviews-Raising the quality and accessibility of information about the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsueng, Ginger; Good, Benjamin M; Ping, Peipei; Golemis, Erica; Hanukoglu, Israel; van Wijnen, Andre J; Su, Andrew I

    2016-11-01

    Wikipedia and other openly available resources are increasingly becoming commonly used sources of information not just among the lay public but even in academic circles including undergraduate students and postgraduate trainees. To enhance the quality of the Wikipedia articles, in 2013, we initiated the Gene Wiki Reviews on genes and proteins as a series of invited reviews that stipulated editing the corresponding Wikipedia article(s) that would be also subject to peer-review. Thus, while the review article serves as an authoritative snapshot of the field, the "living article" can continue to evolve with the crowdsourcing model of Wikipedia. After publication of over 50 articles, we surveyed the authors to assess the impact of the project. The author survey results revealed that the Gene Wiki project is achieving its major objectives to increase the involvement of scientists in authoring Wikipedia articles and to enhance the quantity and quality of the information about genes and their protein products. Thus, the dual publication model introduced in the Gene Wiki Reviews series represents a valuable innovation in scientific publishing and biomedical knowledge management. We invite experts on specific genes to contact the editors to take part in this project to enhance the quality and accessibility of information about the human genome.

  4. Making Gazes Explicit: Facilitating Epistemic Access in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Kathy; Hunma, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of curriculum design in the Humanities and Social Sciences, and more specifically the challenge of designing foundation courses for first-generation or "disadvantaged" learners. Located in the social realist school of the sociology of education studies that builds on the legacy of Basil Bernstein, we…

  5. Human Right and Internet Access : A philosophical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    As of December 2014, there are three billion Internet users worldwide, of which 649 million are Chinese. This number will grow in the years to come. This technology, of course, possesses immense significance in our everyday life. What is currently new in international human rights practice is the tr

  6. Employing human rights frameworks to realize access to an HIV cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mason Meier

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The scale of the HIV pandemic – and the stigma, discrimination and violence that surrounded its sudden emergence – catalyzed a public health response that expanded human rights in principle and practice. In the absence of effective treatment, human rights activists initially sought to protect individuals at high risk of HIV infection. With advances in antiretroviral therapy, activists expanded their efforts under international law, advocating under the human right to health for individual access to treatment. Discussion: As a clinical cure comes within reach, human rights obligations will continue to play a key role in political and programmatic decision-making. Building upon the evolving development and implementation of the human right to health in the global response to HIV, we outline a human rights research agenda to prepare for HIV cure access, investigating the role of human rights law in framing 1 resource allocation, 2 international obligations, 3 intellectual property and 4 freedom from coercion. Conclusions: The right to health is widely recognized as central to governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental responses to the pandemic and critical both to addressing vulnerability to infection and to ensuring universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. While the advent of an HIV cure will raise new obligations for policymakers in implementing the right to health, the resolution of past debates surrounding HIV prevention and treatment may inform claims for universal access.

  7. Addressing the concerns of rural communities about access to plants and knowledge in a sui generis legislation in Cameroon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marcelin Tonye Mahop

    2004-12-01

    This article assesses the traditional systems of accessing and using plant genetic resources as well as the benefit sharing and systems of sanctioning infringement in the context of biodiversity related activities in specific areas in the Northwest province of Cameroon. The article also addresses the type research and development activities using plant genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in the context of Cameroon, the current laws regulating such activities and the extent to which these activities and laws affect and/or protect the customary biodiversity rights of rural communities. The article uses these assessments to suggest the context under which a sui generis legislation for the protection of the biodiversity rights of rural communities can be established in Cameroon.

  8. Traditional Knowledge in the Time of Neo-Liberalism: Access and Benefit-Sharing Regimes in India and Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Barpujari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In a neoliberal world, traditional knowledge (TK of biodiversity possessed by Indigenous and Local Communities (ILCs in the global South has become a valuable "commodity" or "bio-resource," necessitating the setting up of harmonized ground rules (international and national in the form of an access and benefitsharing regime to facilitate its exchange in the world market. Despite criticisms that a regime with a neo-liberal orientation is antithetical to the normative ethos of ILCs, it could also offer a chance for developing countries and ILCs to generate revenue for socioeconomic development—to which they are gradually becoming open, but only under fair and equitable terms. Based on this context, this article proposes to look into the legal and policy frameworks and institutional regimes governing access and benefit sharing of TK associated with biological resources in two countries of South Asia: India and Bhutan. The article seeks to examine how such regimes are reconciling the imperatives of a neo-liberal economy with providing a just and equitable framework for ILCs and TK holders, which is truly participatory and not top-down.

  9. Reconstructing Sessions from Data Discovery and Access Logs to Build a Semantic Knowledge Base for Improving Data Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyao Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Big geospatial data are archived and made available through online web discovery and access. However, finding the right data for scientific research and application development is still a challenge. This paper aims to improve the data discovery by mining the user knowledge from log files. Specifically, user web session reconstruction is focused upon in this paper as a critical step for extracting usage patterns. However, reconstructing user sessions from raw web logs has always been difficult, as a session identifier tends to be missing in most data portals. To address this problem, we propose two session identification methods, including time-clustering-based and time-referrer-based methods. We also present the workflow of session reconstruction and discuss the approach of selecting appropriate thresholds for relevant steps in the workflow. The proposed session identification methods and workflow are proven to be able to extract data access patterns for further pattern analyses of user behavior and improvement of data discovery for more relevancy data ranking, suggestion, and navigation.

  10. Book review: Pragmatic humanism: on the nature and value of sociological knowledge by Marcus Morgan

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In Pragmatic Humanism: On the Nature and Value of Sociological Knowledge, Marcus Morgan positions sociology not as a science of society, but as a discipline of humanity. Rather than resurrect a problematic, classical conception of humanism, Morgan instead engages with past and contemporary critiques of humanist thought to position humanism as a pragmatic approach to sociology that draws on human action as a tool for progressive social change. Adam Carter heartily recommends this invigorating ...

  11. Digital Accessible Knowledge and well-inventoried sites for birds in Mexico: baseline sites for measuring faunistic change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Townsend Peterson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Faunal change is a basic and fundamental element in ecology, biogeography, and conservation biology, yet vanishingly few detailed studies have documented such changes rigorously over decadal time scales. This study responds to that gap in knowledge, providing a detailed analysis of Digital Accessible Knowledge of the birds of Mexico, designed to marshal DAK to identify sites that were sampled and inventoried rigorously prior to the beginning of major global climate change (1980. Methods We accumulated DAK records for Mexican birds from all relevant online biodiversity data portals. After extensive cleaning steps, we calculated completeness indices for each 0.05° pixel across the country; we also detected ‘hotspots’ of sampling, and calculated completeness indices for these broader areas as well. Sites were designated as well-sampled if they had completeness indices above 80% and >200 associated DAK records. Results We identified 100 individual pixels and 20 broader ‘hotspots’ of sampling that were demonstrably well-inventoried prior to 1980. These sites are catalogued and documented to promote and enable resurvey efforts that can document events of avifaunal change (and non-change across the country on decadal time scales. Conclusions Development of repeated surveys for many sites across Mexico, and particularly for sites for which historical surveys document their avifaunas prior to major climate change processes, would pay rich rewards in information about distributional dynamics of Mexican birds.

  12. Human Instruments: Accessible Musical Instruments for People with Varied Physical Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matossian, Vahakn; Gehlhaar, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    There are few ways in which persons, who do not have the use of their hands or arms, are able make music or control complex computer systems. Music as an expressive output is key to the full development of the human mind. Human Instruments is dedicated to the development and production of accessible musical instruments playable at a professional level, as well as computer control interfaces. We are currently user-testing three new, uniquely accessible devices, for their effectiveness in expressive music creation. Preliminary results are compelling.

  13. Knowledge-based personalized search engine for the Web-based Human Musculoskeletal System Resources (HMSR) in biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Tien Tuan; Hoang, Tuan Nha; Ta, Xuan Hien; Tho, Marie Christine Ho Ba

    2013-02-01

    Human musculoskeletal system resources of the human body are valuable for the learning and medical purposes. Internet-based information from conventional search engines such as Google or Yahoo cannot response to the need of useful, accurate, reliable and good-quality human musculoskeletal resources related to medical processes, pathological knowledge and practical expertise. In this present work, an advanced knowledge-based personalized search engine was developed. Our search engine was based on a client-server multi-layer multi-agent architecture and the principle of semantic web services to acquire dynamically accurate and reliable HMSR information by a semantic processing and visualization approach. A security-enhanced mechanism was applied to protect the medical information. A multi-agent crawler was implemented to develop a content-based database of HMSR information. A new semantic-based PageRank score with related mathematical formulas were also defined and implemented. As the results, semantic web service descriptions were presented in OWL, WSDL and OWL-S formats. Operational scenarios with related web-based interfaces for personal computers and mobile devices were presented and analyzed. Functional comparison between our knowledge-based search engine, a conventional search engine and a semantic search engine showed the originality and the robustness of our knowledge-based personalized search engine. In fact, our knowledge-based personalized search engine allows different users such as orthopedic patient and experts or healthcare system managers or medical students to access remotely into useful, accurate, reliable and good-quality HMSR information for their learning and medical purposes.

  14. Knowledge assessment of Cienfuegos´ health workers on human toxocariasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina S. Jiménez Suárez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human toxocariasis is one of the most worldwide extended zoonosis. It mainly affects children and it is not always well known by medical staff. Objective: To assess knowledge of Cienfuegos´s health workers on human toxocariasis. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was developed from May to September 2005 and a survey was applied to a total sample of 51 doctors through a randomized, stratified sampling. In addition to consider professional category, years of experience and knowledge on zoonosis, we analyzed different aspects the form the variable general knowledge on human toxocariasis. Findings: We could develop a knowledge assessment on toxocariasis in Cienfuegos´ doctors. These findings were compared with surveys in other countries. There is not history of this kind of research in Cuba. Conclusions: Cienfuegos´ doctors knowledge on toxocariasis diagnosis, transmission, and prevention and not satisfactory except for clinic and treatment.

  15. Knowledge-Intensive Entrepreneurship and the Impact of Human Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Neergaard, Helle; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address selected aspects of human capital in association with the entrepreneurial process in technology-based new ventures. Until recently, research investigating the founding of new businesses has mainly focused on the personal characteristics of entrepreneurs, bu...... of a newly founded venture. Furthermore, the dimensions of human capital, experience and previous employment, seem to be essential in building the networks that help secure both the early as well as a continuous pool of finance for the ventures....

  16. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Informational Behaviors of College Students in Regard to the Human Papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…

  17. Men's Perceptions and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, Tara S.; Weaver, Bethany A.; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors assessed young men's knowledge and perceptions of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to identify factors that predict intention to make positive behavioral changes. Male university students aged 18 to 25 years completed a self-report instrument to assess knowledge and perceptions of genital HPV infection. If diagnosed with…

  18. Knowledge of Acute Human Immnuodeficiency Virus Infection among Gay and Bisexual Male College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, Benjamin; Chan, Philip A.; Operario, Don

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in at-risk college men who have sex with men (MSM), focusing on knowledge about acute HIV infection (AHI). Participants and Methods: A one-time anonymous survey was administered to college students attending a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  19. Unspoken Knowledge: Implicit Learning of Structured Human Dance Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opacic, Tajana; Stevens, Catherine; Tillmann, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The sequencing of dance movements may be thought of as a grammar. We investigate implicit learning of regularities that govern sequences of unfamiliar, discrete dance movements. It was hypothesized that observers without prior experience with contemporary dance would be able to learn regularities that underpin structured human movement. Thirty-one…

  20. Impact of human resources' knowledge and skills on SMEs' in Medan City, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sembiring, Rasmulia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research article was to explore the influence of knowledge and skills of human resource on the performance of culinary Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Medan City, Indonesia. Using quantitative research design, data were collected from 120 culinary SMEs located in Medan City. Multiple regression, t-test and f-ratio were used to estimate the significant effect of human knowledge and skills partially or not, whereas F test was applied to test whether the effect will be...

  1. The shaping of social perception by stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Emily S; Ramsey, Richard; Liepelt, Roman; Prinz, Wolfgang; de C Hamilton, Antonia F

    2016-01-19

    Although robots are becoming an ever-growing presence in society, we do not hold the same expectations for robots as we do for humans, nor do we treat them the same. As such, the ability to recognize cues to human animacy is fundamental for guiding social interactions. We review literature that demonstrates cortical networks associated with person perception, action observation and mentalizing are sensitive to human animacy information. In addition, we show that most prior research has explored stimulus properties of artificial agents (humanness of appearance or motion), with less investigation into knowledge cues (whether an agent is believed to have human or artificial origins). Therefore, currently little is known about the relationship between stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy in terms of cognitive and brain mechanisms. Using fMRI, an elaborate belief manipulation, and human and robot avatars, we found that knowledge cues to human animacy modulate engagement of person perception and mentalizing networks, while stimulus cues to human animacy had less impact on social brain networks. These findings demonstrate that self-other similarities are not only grounded in physical features but are also shaped by prior knowledge. More broadly, as artificial agents fulfil increasingly social roles, a challenge for roboticists will be to manage the impact of pre-conceived beliefs while optimizing human-like design.

  2. Stabilizing knowledge through standards - A perspective for the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Romary, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    It is usual to consider that standards generate mixed feelings among scientists. They are often seen as not really reflecting the state of the art in a given domain and a hindrance to scientific creativity. Still, scientists should theoretically be at the best place to bring their expertise into standard developments, being even more neutral on issues that may typically be related to competing industrial interests. Even if it could be thought of as even more complex to think about developping standards in the humanities, we will show how this can be made feasible through the experience gained both within the Text Encoding Initiative consortium and the International Organisation for Standardisation. By taking the specific case of lexical resources, we will try to show how this brings about new ideas for designing future research infrastructures in the human and social sciences.

  3. Drawing on student knowledge in human anatomy and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Tara Nicole

    Prior to instruction, students may have developed alternative conceptions about the mechanics behind human physiology. To help students re-shape these ideas into correct reasoning, the faulty characteristics reinforcing the alternative conceptions need to made explicit. This study used student-generated drawings to expose alternative conceptions Human Anatomy and Physiology students had prior to instruction on neuron physiology. Specifically, we investigated how students thought about neuron communication across a synapse (n=355) and how neuron activity can be modified (n=311). When asked to depict basic communication between two neurons, at least 80% of students demonstrated incorrect ideas about synaptic transmission. When targeting spatial and temporal summation, only eleven students (3.5%) were able to accurately depict at least one form of summation. In response to both drawing questions, student drawings revealed multiple alternative conceptions that resulted in a deeper analysis and characterization of the wide variation of student ideas.

  4. Human security and access to water, sanitation, and hygiene: exploring the drivers and nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Obani; J. Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Water security challenges are mostly covered in the literature on the food and energy nexus. This chapter however adopts a broader conception of water security in relation to lack of access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), and argues that the human rights approach could be instrumental in a

  5. Retaking Responsibility for How We Communicate. A Review of Open Access and the Humanities: Contexts, Controversies and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Baker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of the Budapest Open Access Initiative statement in 2002, Open Access has grown from an ideal to a reality. Open Access and the Humanities explores scholarly practices, communications, and cultures in light of this change and argues that humanists can and should retake responsibility for how they chose to publish.

  6. Classifying a Person's Degree of Accessibility From Natural Body Language During Social Human-Robot Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Derek; Jiang, Chuan; Nejat, Goldie

    2017-02-01

    For social robots to be successfully integrated and accepted within society, they need to be able to interpret human social cues that are displayed through natural modes of communication. In particular, a key challenge in the design of social robots is developing the robot's ability to recognize a person's affective states (emotions, moods, and attitudes) in order to respond appropriately during social human-robot interactions (HRIs). In this paper, we present and discuss social HRI experiments we have conducted to investigate the development of an accessibility-aware social robot able to autonomously determine a person's degree of accessibility (rapport, openness) toward the robot based on the person's natural static body language. In particular, we present two one-on-one HRI experiments to: 1) determine the performance of our automated system in being able to recognize and classify a person's accessibility levels and 2) investigate how people interact with an accessibility-aware robot which determines its own behaviors based on a person's speech and accessibility levels.

  7. Using a knowledge elicitation method to specify the business model of a human factors organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Ven, J. van de; Hoffman, R.R.; Moon, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Concept Mapping was used to structure knowledge elicitation interviews with a group of human factors specialists whose goal was to describe the business model of their Department. This novel use of cognitive task analysis to describe the business model of a human factors organization resulted in a n

  8. The Human Genome Project: Information access, management, and regulation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.D.; Micikas, L.B.

    1996-08-31

    The Human Genome Project is a large, internationally coordinated effort in biological research directed at creating a detailed map of human DNA. This report describes the access of information, management, and regulation of the project. The project led to the development of an instructional module titled The Human Genome Project: Biology, Computers, and Privacy, designed for use in high school biology classes. The module consists of print materials and both Macintosh and Windows versions of related computer software-Appendix A contains a copy of the print materials and discs containing the two versions of the software.

  9. HUMAN CAPITAL’S IMPACT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ROMANIAN KNOWLEDGE BASED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burja Camelia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To meet the desiderata expressed by the implementation of knowledge-based economy, companies must reconsider development strategies and must facilitate the shift from a management largely based on resource consumption to knowledge-based management. In this view, the importance of the human factor increases, becoming a precious resource that creates value and competitiveness. This paper shows the interaction between company performance and human capital, exemplifying this aspect through a case study based on a regression model in Romanian software companies. The obtained results show the strong connection between company performance, expressed by net income, and the quality of the human capital, synthesized by labour productivity.

  10. The lawful uses of knowledge from the Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grad, F.P.

    1994-04-15

    Part I of this study deals with the right to know or not to know personal genetic information, and examines available legal protections of the right of privacy and the adverse effect of the disclosure of genetic information both on employment and insurance interests and on self esteem and protection of personal integrity. The study examines the rationale for the legal protection of privacy as the protection of a public interest. It examines the very limited protections currently available for privacy interests, including genetic privacy interests, and concludes that there is a need for broader, more far-reaching legal protections. The second part of the study is based on the assumption that as major a project as the Human Genome Project, spending billions of dollars on science which is health related, will indeed be applied for preventive and therapeutic public health purposes, as it has been in the past. It also addresses the recurring fear that public health initiatives in the genetic area must evolve a new eugenic agenda, that we must not repeat the miserable discriminatory experiences of the past.

  11. Access to state-held information as a fundamental right under the European Convention on Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hins, W.; Voorhoof, D.

    2007-01-01

    Access to state-held information essential in a democratic society - Traditional reluctance of the European Court of Human Rights to apply Article 10 European Convention on Human Rights in access to information cases - Positive obligations and new perspectives: initiatives within the Council of Euro

  12. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor MJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estimate of 100–370 million people infected worldwide has been proposed; however, inaccuracy of diagnosis, unreliability of prevalence mapping, and the fact that strongyloidiasis remains a neglected disease suggest that the higher figure of more than 300 million cases is likely to be a more accurate estimate. The complexity of Strongyloides life cycle means that laboratory cultures cannot be maintained outside of a host. This currently limits the range of laboratory-based research, which is vital to controlling Strongyloides through environmental alteration or treatment. Successful clinical treatment with antihelminthic drugs has meant that controlling Strongyloides through environmental control, rather than clinical intervention, has been largely overlooked. These control measures may encompass alteration of the soil environment through physical means, such as desiccation or removal of nutrients, or through chemical or biological agents. Repeated antihelminthic treatment of individuals with recurrent strongyloidiasis has not been observed to result in the selection of resistant strains; however, this has not been explicitly demonstrated, and relying on such assumptions in the long-term may prove to be shortsighted. It is ultimately naive to assume that continued administration of antihelminthics will be without any negative long-term effects. In Australia, strongyloidiasis primarily affects Indigenous communities, including communities from arid central Australia. This

  13. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Tambo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs.

  14. The Construction and Globalization of the Knowledge Base in Inter-human Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between the "knowledge base" and the "globalization" of communication systems is discussed from the perspective of communication theory. I argue that inter-human communication takes place at two levels. At the first level information is exchanged and provided with meaning and at the second level meaning can reflexively be communicated. Human language can be considered as the evolutionary achievement which enables us to use these two channels of communication simultaneously. Providing meaning from the perspective of hindsight is a recursive operation: a meaning that makes a difference can be considered as knowledge. If the production of knowledge is socially organized, the perspective of hindsight can further be codified. This adds globalization to the historically stabilized patterns of communications. Globalization can be expected to transform the communications in an evolutionary mode. However, the self-organization of a knowledge-based society remains an expectation with the status of a hy...

  15. Generalization of category knowledge and dimensional categorization in humans (Homo sapiens) and nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Johnston, Jennifer J R; Roeder, Jessica L; Boomer, Joseph; Ashby, F Gregory; Church, Barbara A

    2015-10-01

    A theoretical framework within neuroscience distinguishes humans' implicit and explicit systems for category learning. We used a perceptual-categorization paradigm to ask whether nonhumans share elements of these systems. Participants learned categories that foster implicit or explicit categorization in humans, because they had a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. Then humans and macaques generalized their category knowledge to new, untested regions of the stimulus space. II generalization was impaired, suggesting that II category learning is conditioned and constrained by stimulus generalization to its original, trained stimulus contexts. RB generalization was nearly seamless, suggesting that RB category knowledge in humans and monkeys has properties that grant it some independence from the original, trained stimulus contexts. These findings raise the questions of (a) how closely macaques' dimensional categorization verges on humans' explicit/declarative categorization, and (b) how far macaques' dimensional categorization has advanced beyond that in other vertebrate species.

  16. Linking Human Resource Management and Knowledge Management via Commitment to Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuimet Karin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the development of the human resource management (HRM, organisational (safety culture and knowledge management literature through developing the linkage and relationship among them. The article suggests that the HRM concepts and frameworks could play an important role in the safety knowledge exchange within the organisation. The research method includes exploratory case studies, interviews and evaluation questionnaires in order to clarify how HRM practices are adopted for safety management systems.

  17. Strategies for transforming human service organizations into learning organizations: knowledge management and the transfer of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    This analysis describes the nature of a learning organization, defines the boundaries of evidence-informed practice, identifies the elements of knowledge management, and specifies the elements of the transfer of learning. A set of principles are presented to guide managers in transforming human service organizations into learning organizations along with a set of implementation strategies that can inform participants of the values and benefits of knowledge management. This analysis features concepts and principles adapted and synthesized from research in diverse fields, such as evidence-based health care and the for-profit sector related to learning organizations, knowledge management, and the transfer of learning.

  18. A virtual curtain for the detection of humans and access control

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics has become a popular field for the development of techniques that aim at recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In particular, many solutions dedicated to access control integrate biometric features like fingerprinting or face recognition. This paper describes a new method designed to interpret what happens when crossing an invisible vertical plane, called virtual curtain hereafter, at the footstep of a door frame. It relies on the use...

  19. Cultivating Humanity or Educating the Human? Two Options for Education in the Knowledge Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the idea of the "knowledge society" came into circulation, there have been discussions about what the term empirically "might" mean and normatively "should" mean. In the literature we can find a rather wide spectrum, ranging from a "utilitarian" interpretation of the knowledge society as a…

  20. Posture-Dependent Human 3He Lung Imaging in an Open Access MRI System: Initial Results

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, L L; Li, C -H; Rosen, M S; Patz, S; Walsworth, R L

    2007-01-01

    The human lung and its functions are extremely sensitive to orientation and posture, and debate continues as to the role of gravity and the surrounding anatomy in determining lung function and heterogeneity of perfusion and ventilation. However, study of these effects is difficult. The conventional high-field magnets used for most hyperpolarized 3He MRI of the human lung, and most other common radiological imaging modalities including PET and CT, restrict subjects to lying horizontally, minimizing most gravitational effects. In this paper, we briefly review the motivation for posture-dependent studies of human lung function, and present initial imaging results of human lungs in the supine and vertical body orientations using inhaled hyperpolarized 3He gas and an open-access MRI instrument. The open geometry of this MRI system features a "walk-in" capability that permits subjects to be imaged in vertical and horizontal positions, and potentially allows for complete rotation of the orientation of the imaging su...

  1. Management of Indigenous Knowledge as a Catalyst towards Improved Information Accessibility to Local Communities: A Literature R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyoro Abiodun Olaide

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the existing literature on how the management of indigenous knowledge could lead to its effective utilization. Indigenous knowledge is different from other types of knowledge. It could be an important tool to ensure the sustainability of societal development of local communities.

  2. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  3. LINKING HUMAN RESOURCES STRATEGY WITH KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY TO DRIVE MEASURABLE RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia‐Maria\tBORDEIANU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the human resources are seen as a very valuable asset to achieve long-term performance. Today we understand that every employee is required to learn throughout life, so to acquire new knowledge, to process such knowledge and possibly disseminate expertise with other members of the organization. The theory on human resources in various organizations has changed over time; recommendations have become more numerous, but there is no consensus on the subject. In other words, the permanent change which defines the competitive environment of business remains a type of constant when analysing the efficiency of human resources within companies; inter-individual relations (formal and informal and the values to which each employee relates remains crucial for any theoretical construction in this area. Principles and strategies applied by organizations yesterday could prove their inefficiency today; human resource strategies in organizations today should include a separate subcomponent, we believe, i.e. knowledge management (KM strategy. This is because the competitive advantage obtained or maintained by the company depends today, in large proportion, on the type, quality and value of knowledge possessed by the organization. Therefore, organizational strategy and thus the strategy of acquisition, developing and rewarding of human resources (HR should take into account this reality from the global environment. Moreover, in the current knowledge-driven economy, organizations must know how to develop and implement knowledge-based strategies to drive measurable business results. The goal of this paper is to describe a potential relation between the overall company strategy, HR strategy and KM strategy.

  4. Access to essential maternal health interventions and human rights violations among vulnerable communities in eastern Burma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke C Mullany

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health indicators are poor and human rights violations are widespread in eastern Burma. Reproductive and maternal health indicators have not been measured in this setting but are necessary as part of an evaluation of a multi-ethnic pilot project exploring strategies to increase access to essential maternal health interventions. The goal of this study is to estimate coverage of maternal health services prior to this project and associations between exposure to human rights violations and access to such services. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Selected communities in the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions of eastern Burma that were accessible to community-based organizations operating from Thailand were surveyed to estimate coverage of reproductive, maternal, and family planning services, and to assess exposure to household-level human rights violations within the pilot-project target population. Two-stage cluster sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15-45 y documented access to essential antenatal care interventions, skilled attendance at birth, postnatal care, and family planning services. Mid-upper arm circumference, hemoglobin by color scale, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia by rapid diagnostic dipstick were measured. Exposure to human rights violations in the prior 12 mo was recorded. Between September 2006 and January 2007, 2,914 surveys were conducted. Eighty-eight percent of women reported a home delivery for their last pregnancy (within previous 5 y. Skilled attendance at birth (5.1%, any (39.3% or > or = 4 (16.7% antenatal visits, use of an insecticide-treated bed net (21.6%, and receipt of iron supplements (11.8% were low. At the time of the survey, more than 60% of women had hemoglobin level estimates < or = 11.0 g/dl and 7.2% were Pf positive. Unmet need for contraceptives exceeded 60%. Violations of rights were widely reported: 32.1% of Karenni households reported forced labor and 10% of Karen

  5. HPVdb: a data mining system for knowledge discovery in human papillomavirus with applications in T cell immunology and vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Riemer, Angelika B; Keskin, Derin B; Chitkushev, Lou; Reinherz, Ellis L; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causes of many cancers, including cervical, anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal. To facilitate diagnosis, prognosis and characterization of these cancers, it is necessary to make full use of the immunological data on HPV available through publications, technical reports and databases. These data vary in granularity, quality and complexity. The extraction of knowledge from the vast amount of immunological data using data mining techniques remains a challenging task. To support integration of data and knowledge in virology and vaccinology, we developed a framework called KB-builder to streamline the development and deployment of web-accessible immunological knowledge systems. The framework consists of seven major functional modules, each facilitating a specific aspect of the knowledgebase construction process. Using KB-builder, we constructed the Human Papillomavirus T cell Antigen Database (HPVdb). It contains 2781 curated antigen entries of antigenic proteins derived from 18 genotypes of high-risk HPV and 18 genotypes of low-risk HPV. The HPVdb also catalogs 191 verified T cell epitopes and 45 verified human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligands. Primary amino acid sequences of HPV antigens were collected and annotated from the UniProtKB. T cell epitopes and HLA ligands were collected from data mining of scientific literature and databases. The data were subject to extensive quality control (redundancy elimination, error detection and vocabulary consolidation). A set of computational tools for an in-depth analysis, such as sequence comparison using BLAST search, multiple alignments of antigens, classification of HPV types based on cancer risk, T cell epitope/HLA ligand visualization, T cell epitope/HLA ligand conservation analysis and sequence variability analysis, has been integrated within the HPVdb. Predicted Class I and Class II HLA binding peptides for 15 common HLA alleles are included in this database as

  6. Information about Human Sexuality: Sources, Satisfaction, and Perceived Knowledge among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Scott Edward; Siebert, Darcy Clay; Chonody, Jill; Killian, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how 333 undergraduate and graduate students attending a large university in the southeastern USA learned about sex, their satisfaction with how they learned about sex, and their self-perceived knowledge before and after taking a human sexuality course. An anonymous, voluntary survey was administered to students in the first and…

  7. Dichotomous Identification Keys: A Ladder to Higher Order Knowledge about the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgo, Andrej

    2006-01-01

    We tried to enrich teaching human anatomy in high school biology lessons. Students construct dichotomous identification keys to the cells, tissues, organs, or body parts. By doing this, students have achieved higher-order cognitive levels of knowledge because construction of such keys is based on analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Students found…

  8. Human papillomavirus and anorectal carcinoma knowledge in men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Christopher W; Eden, Candace

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a precursor to the development of anorectal carcinoma. Studies have indicated that men who have sex with men (MSM) have significantly higher rates of HPV and HIV than their heterosexual counterparts and are at greater risk for anorectal carcinoma. This article presents findings from a descriptive study to assess knowledge of HPV, anorectal carcinoma, and anorectal screening in a sample of MSM in Orlando, FL. The 89 participants demonstrated knowledge deficits. The average score on knowledge items was only 38% correct. Of the 49 participants who had heard of anal Papanicolau (Pap) smears, only 5 (10.2%) discussed screening with a physician, while 8 (16.3%) had discussed it with a nurse, and 16 (32.7%) with another health care professional. Findings support the need for community outreach efforts to promote knowledge and the need for discussion with providers regarding HPV and anorectal carcinoma in this vulnerable population.

  9. Health, healthcare access, and use of traditional versus modern medicine in remote Peruvian Amazon communities: a descriptive study of knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom

    2015-04-01

    There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manatí and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this setting, poverty and gender inequality were prevalent, and healthcare access was limited by long distances to the health post and long waiting times. There was a high burden of reported pain (mainly head and musculoskeletal) and chronic non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension (19%). Nearly all participants felt that they did not completely understand their diagnosed illnesses and wanted to know more. Participants preferred modern over traditional medicine, predominantly because of mistrust or lack of belief in traditional medicine. Our findings provide novel evidence concerning transitional health beliefs, hidden pain, and chronic non-communicable disease prevalence in marginalized communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Healthcare provision was limited by a breach between health education, knowledge, and access. Additional participatory research with similar rural populations is required to inform regional healthcare policy and decision-making.

  10. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT UNTUK CUSTOMER SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianna Sugandi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is a success key in every field aspects. Along with the development in the world nowadays, where globalization is a challenge in every Indonesian human resource to face global competition. In this case, education has important part as media in developing qualified human resources and also as the place where they can be educated in their field. In the development of information technology, it came new systems in several fields including what educational field known as e-learning. Knowledge management (KM is one implementation of e-learning. There is a concept that gathers all knowledge aspects in easily accessed file or document, and also in hardly accessed as knowledge and experience.Keywords: knowledge management, human resource, education

  11. The Role of Human Resource Management Practice Mediated by Knowledge Management (Study on companies from ICT sector, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Klacmer Calopa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates theories and findings of the role of human resources management (HRM in the process of knowledge management (KM in the information and communication technologies (ICT sector in Croatia.In order to succeed, companies must prevent the loss of knowledge. Therefore, they must recognize the importance of human resources as the main factor of business. Only knowledge management enables knowledge sharing.Furthermore, applications of information technology (IT in the field of HRM can prevent the loss of knowledge and arise the transfer of knowledge among employees.For the purpose of this paper, a survey regarding human resource and knowledge management in IT companies is conducted in order to analyze the structure of HR and the importance of knowledge sharing in an organization.

  12. Innovations in Measuring Peer Conflict Resolution Knowledge in Children with LI: Exploring the Accessibility of a Visual Analogue Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wenonah N.; Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary study explored peer conflict resolution knowledge in children with and without language impairment (LI). Specifically, it evaluated the utility of a visual analogue scale (VAS) for measuring nuances in such knowledge. Children aged 9-12 years, 26 with typically developing language (TLD) and 6 with LI, completed a training protocol…

  13. Accessing word meaning: Semantic word knowledge and reading comprehension in Dutch monolingual and bilingual fifth-graders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Word knowledge is one of the key elements in reading comprehension and by extension in school success. At the same time, it is not quite clear which components of lexical knowledge play a role in reading. Is it enough to recognize the words we read? Do we need an in-depth understanding of their mean

  14. Omissions in managing knowledge in innovation processes or how to handle knowledge, humans and tasks : A semio-cognitive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cijsouw, R. S.; Jorna, R. J.; Rakhorst, G.; Verkerke, G. J.; Charrel, PJ; Galarreta, D

    2007-01-01

    In organizations, innovation is a long-lasting process that is difficult to manage. Innovation is characterized by the use of new (combinations of) knowledge. Innovation, as knowledge creation, is also an activity of individuals. However, neither the individual nor knowledge is studied as appropriat

  15. Survey of knowledge and perception on the access to evidence-based practice and clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowther Caroline A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based practice (EBP can provide appropriate care for women and their babies; however implementation of EBP requires health professionals to have access to knowledge, the ability to interpret health care information and then strategies to apply care. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge of evidence-based practice, information seeking practices, perceptions and potential enablers and barriers to clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia. Methods Questionnaires about IT access for health information and evidence-based practice were administered during August to December 2005 to health care professionals working at the nine hospitals participating in the South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing countries (SEA-ORCHID project in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and The Philippines. Results The survey was completed by 660 staff from six health professional groups. Overall, easy IT access for health care information was available to 46% of participants. However, over a fifth reported no IT access was available and over half of nurses and midwives never used IT health information. Evidence-based practice had been heard of by 58% but the majority did not understand the concept. The most frequent sites accessed were Google and PubMed. The Cochrane Library had been heard of by 47% of whom 51% had access although the majority did not use it or used it less than monthly. Only 27% had heard of the WHO Reproductive Health Library and 35% had been involved in a clinical practice change and were able to identify enablers and barriers to change. Only a third of participants had been actively involved in practice change with wide variation between the countries. Willingness to participate in professional development workshops on evidence-based practice was high. Conclusion This survey has identified the need to improve IT access to health care

  16. Review of Cold war social science: Knowledge production, liberal democracy, and human nature, and Working knowledge: Making the human sciences from Parsons to Kuhn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature by Mark Solovey and Hamilton Cravens (2012) and Working Knowledge: Making the Human Sciences From Parsons to Kuhn by Joel Isaac (see record 2012-13212-000). Taken together, these two important books make intriguing statements about the way to write the histories of fields like psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics in the Anglo American world during the 20th century. To date, histories of these fields have drawn on a number of fairly well-established punctuation marks to assist in periodization: the shift from interwar institutionalism in economics to postwar neoclassicism, with its physics-like emphasis on mathematical theory-building; the transition from the regnant prewar behaviorism through a postwar "cognitive revolution" in American psychology; and the move in fields like sociology and anthropology away from positivism and the pursuit of what has sometimes been called "grand theory" in the early postwar era toward a period defined by intellectual and political fragmentation, the reemergence of interpretive approaches and a reaction to the scientistic pretensions of the earlier period. These books, by contrast, provide perspectives orthogonal to such existing narrative frameworks by adopting cross-cutting lenses like the "Cold War" and the working practices of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. As a result, they do much to indicate the value of casting a historiographical net beyond individual disciplines, or even beyond the "social sciences" or the "human sciences" sensu stricto, in the search for deeper patterns of historical development in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. LncRNAWiki: harnessing community knowledge in collaborative curation of human long non-coding RNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, L.

    2014-11-15

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) perform a diversity of functions in numerous important biological processes and are implicated in many human diseases. In this report we present lncRNAWiki (http://lncrna.big.ac.cn), a wiki-based platform that is open-content and publicly editable and aimed at community-based curation and collection of information on human lncRNAs. Current related databases are dependent primarily on curation by experts, making it laborious to annotate the exponentially accumulated information on lncRNAs, which inevitably requires collective efforts in community-based curation of lncRNAs. Unlike existing databases, lncRNAWiki features comprehensive integration of information on human lncRNAs obtained from multiple different resources and allows not only existing lncRNAs to be edited, updated and curated by different users but also the addition of newly identified lncRNAs by any user. It harnesses community collective knowledge in collecting, editing and annotating human lncRNAs and rewards community-curated efforts by providing explicit authorship based on quantified contributions. LncRNAWiki relies on the underling knowledge of scientific community for collective and collaborative curation of human lncRNAs and thus has the potential to serve as an up-to-date and comprehensive knowledgebase for human lncRNAs.

  18. Digital Conservation and Access: Saving Humanity's History in the Petabyte Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ashley

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We are at a unique point in history, the cusp of a Digital Dark Age, where cultural heritage professionals must work to care for the physical past while assuring that there will be a digital Rosetta Stone for future generations. This contribution describes the state-of-the-field in digital preservation and access, and is a call to action for individuals and institutions alike to work beyond our comfort zones and competitive boundaries in order to help define a sustainable digital future. Defined as an “hourglass of participation”, I describe a method where knowledge producers, curators and consumers interact and actively work to make content born-archival and long-term viable, semantically managed and ready for reuse and public dissemination

  19. Accessing key steps of human tumor progression in vivo by using an avian embryo model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Martin; Javerzat, Sophie; Gilges, Delphine; Meyre, Aurélie; de Lafarge, Benjamin; Eichmann, Anne; Bikfalvi, Andreas

    2005-02-01

    Experimental in vivo tumor models are essential for comprehending the dynamic process of human cancer progression, identifying therapeutic targets, and evaluating antitumor drugs. However, current rodent models are limited by high costs, long experimental duration, variability, restricted accessibility to the tumor, and major ethical concerns. To avoid these shortcomings, we investigated whether tumor growth on the chick chorio-allantoic membrane after human glioblastoma cell grafting would replicate characteristics of the human disease. Avascular tumors consistently formed within 2 days, then progressed through vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-dependent angiogenesis, associated with hemorrhage, necrosis, and peritumoral edema. Blocking of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling pathways by using small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors abrogated tumor development. Gene regulation during the angiogenic switch was analyzed by oligonucleotide microarrays. Defined sample selection for gene profiling permitted identification of regulated genes whose functions are associated mainly with tumor vascularization and growth. Furthermore, expression of known tumor progression genes identified in the screen (IL-6 and cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61) as well as potential regulators (lumican and F-box-only 6) follow similar patterns in patient glioma. The model reliably simulates key features of human glioma growth in a few days and thus could considerably increase the speed and efficacy of research on human tumor progression and preclinical drug screening. angiogenesis | animal model alternatives | glioblastoma

  20. A Human Rights Approach for Access to Clean Drinking Water: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaaneh; McKay; Sims

    1995-01-01

    In northern and central Israel are some 70 villages that are not recognized by the state of Israel. At least half of these villages are not connected to the national drinking water networks and lack sufficient quality and quantity of water. Outbreaks of diseases associated with contaminated water supply have occurred, as well as substantial environmental distress. An outbreak of hepatitis A led to the cooperation of a public health physician, a nurse, an environmental engineer, and a human rights lawyer in successfully taking a case to the International Water Tribunal to get access to safe drinking water for these communities. This case study provides a model for cooperation between proponents and practitioners of health and human rights.

  1. Evaluating Effect of Knowledge Management Strategy on Human Resource Management Performance Using BSC Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mansoori

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research provided a model for evaluating the effect of knowledge management strategy on human resource management performance in higher education institutes and academic libraries. This research was a descriptive survey. According to the research literature and expert opinions, in human resource level, 38 indicators were produced for evaluating KM, then these indicators were classified in 10 total factors in terms of balanced scorecard approach. The results of evaluating knowledge management in Yazd academic libraries showed that, this strategy on customer perspectives, internal processes, learning and growth perspective had a good performance. But in terms of financial and Labor productivity indicators and training programs it did not have a good outcome for Yazd academic libraries.

  2. IMPORTANCE OF THE HUMAN FACTOR IN THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela BRETCU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches the paradigmatic changes of the current economic situation, in the context of post-modernism and its challenges, which reconsiders human society according to new criteria. One of the characteristics of post-modernism is the development of information and communication techniques, which allowed the occurrence of the „knowledge-based society” whose consequence is the effervescence of fast barrier-free knowledge, absolute freedom of debates, equality of opportunities before the virtual space, but also the relativisation of information, the increases of the danger of manipulation, misleading, or even falsification of the truth. New challenges occur thus in social life, and especially in the economic one, where the human factor becomes increasingly important for the evolution of society. In this context, education seems to play the decisive part, but an education focused on real values, where the truth and the ethics prevail before efficiency and performance.  

  3. Fostering students' knowledge and argumentation skills through dilemmas in human genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Anat; Nemet, Flora

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the outcomes of a unit that integrates explicit teaching of general reasoning patterns into the teaching of a specific science content. Specifically, this article examined the teaching of argumentation skills in the context of dilemmas in human genetics. Before instruction only a minority (16.2%) of the students referred to correct, specific biological knowledge in constructing arguments in the context of dilemmas in genetics. Approximately 90% of the students were successful in formulating simple arguments. An assessment that took place following instruction supported the conclusion that integrating explicit teaching of argumentation into the teaching of dilemmas in human genetics enhances performance in both biological knowledge and argumentation. An increase was found in the frequency of students who referred to correct, specific biological knowledge in constructing arguments. Students in the experimental group scored significantly higher than students in the comparison group in a test of genetics knowledge. An increase was also found in the quality of students' argumentation. Students were able to transfer the reasoning abilities taught in the context of genetics to the context of dilemmas taken from everyday life. The effects of metacognitive thinking and of changing students' thinking dispositions by modifying what is considered valuable in the class culture are discussed.

  4. Designing a knowledge management system for distributed activities: a human centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkus, Susan; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A; Zhang, Jiajie

    2003-01-01

    In this study we use the principles of distributed cognition and the methodology of human-centered distributed information design to analyze a complex distributed human-computer system, identify its problems, and generate design requirements and implementation specifications of a replacement prototype for effective organizational memory and knowledge management. We argue that a distributed human-computer information system has unique properties, structures and processes that are best described in the language of distributed cognition. Distributed cognition provides researchers a richer theoretical understanding of human-computer interactions and enables re-searchers to capture the phenomenon that emerges in social interactions as well as the interactions between people and structures in their environment.

  5. The arhitecture of the human resources in management based on knowledge and the impact on reduncing unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Venera Todoruţ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this working paper I proposed to address/aproach issues of relationship and interdependence of human resources and management based on knowledges. I presented during the paper the new type of human resource management and new challenges which are noted in the current economic conjuncture and their influences on human resource management. We have also shown which is the new type of organizational culture and its impact on management based on knowledge. I focused also on the modalities how influence the management of human resources the management based on knowledge materialized in: the organization employee involvement, strong motivation and retention of employees in the firm based on knowledge, connection of management based on knowledges and the human resource management on the firm strategy, development of employees capacity and the intellectual capital, the creation and maintenance of learning practices widely used in business.

  6. Testing the importance of family solidarity, community structure, information access, and social capital in predicting nutrition health knowledge and food choices in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Robert L; Jicha, Karl A; Thompson, Gretchen H

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of family solidarity, community structure, information access, social capital, and socioeconomic status on the extent of nutrition and health knowledge (NHK) among primary household meal planners. In turn, we pose the question: does this knowledge influence dietary decision making? Data are taken from a survey determining socioeconomic impacts of vitamin A fortified peanut butter on Philippine households. Questions on the relationships of nutrition to health were selected to construct a knowledge index on which household respondents could be ranked. We then tested hypotheses regarding what types of individual, family-level, and community structural characteristics would predict performance on this index. The results indicate that the strongest predictors of NHK come from sociological theory related to family solidarity and community centrality, in addition to information accessibility and household income. Our findings also indicate that NHK influences dietary choices with regard to the purchase of a vitamin fortified staple food product, which is essential when addressing nutritional deficiency problems in developing countries.

  7. Biological knowledge-driven analysis of epistasis in human GWAS with application to lipid traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Keinan, Alon; Clark, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    While the importance of epistasis is well established, specific gene-gene interactions have rarely been identified in human genome-wide association studies (GWAS), mainly due to low power associated with such interaction tests. In this chapter, we integrate biological knowledge and human GWAS data to reveal epistatic interactions underlying quantitative lipid traits, which are major risk factors for coronary artery disease. To increase power to detect interactions, we only tested pairs of SNPs filtered by prior biological knowledge, including GWAS results, protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and pathway information. Using published GWAS and 9,713 European Americans (EA) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, we identified an interaction between HMGCR and LIPC affecting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. We then validated this interaction in additional multiethnic cohorts from ARIC, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Both HMGCR and LIPC are involved in the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, and LIPC itself has been marginally associated with HDL-C. Furthermore, no significant interaction was detected using PPI and pathway information, mainly due to the stringent significance level required after correcting for the large number of tests conducted. These results suggest the potential of biological knowledge-driven approaches to detect epistatic interactions in human GWAS, which may hold the key to exploring the role gene-gene interactions play in connecting genotypes and complex phenotypes in future GWAS.

  8. An Approach to "Knowledge,Thinking,Humanities" Reading Teaching%“知识·思维·人文”教学法初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪文新

    2012-01-01

    知识和思维能力体现的是工具特征,而人文素养体现的是对"人"的关怀。教学不仅要关注知识获得和思维训练,还应关注学生发展与人沟通和合作的能力,树立正确的人生观、世界观和价值观,增强社会责任感等人文素养。以提高人文素养为目标,以知识的输入和输出为基础,以思维能力的训练为核心的阅读教学就是"知识.思维.人文"教学法。%Knowledge and thinking skills are embodied as the teaching tool.Humanities are embodied in the form of "Human" care.Teaching should not only concern the access to knowledge and mental training,but also is concerned about the ability of students to develop communication and cooperation;establish a correct outlook on life,world outlook and values;enhance the sense of social responsibility and other humanities.Aim to enhancing the humanities,base on the input and output of knowledge and thinking skills training is used for the core teaching of reading.

  9. United States Human Access to Space, Exploration of the Moon and Preparation for Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    In the past, men like Leonardo da Vinci and Jules Verne imagined the future and envisioned fantastic inventions such as winged flying machines, submarines, and parachutes, and posited human adventures like transoceanic flight and journeys to the Moon. Today, many of their ideas are reality and form the basis for our modern world. While individual visionaries like da Vinci and Verne are remembered for the accuracy of their predictions, today entire nations are involved in the process of envisioning and defining the future development of mankind, both on and beyond the Earth itself. Recently, Russian, European, and Chinese teams have all announced plans for developing their own next generation human space vehicles. The Chinese have announced their intention to conduct human lunar exploration, and have flown three crewed space missions since 2003, including a flight with three crew members to test their extravehicular (spacewalking) capabilities in September 2008. Very soon, the prestige, economic development, scientific discovery, and strategic security advantage historically associated with leadership in space exploration and exploitation may no longer be the undisputed province of the United States. Much like the sponsors of the seafaring explorers of da Vinci's age, we are motivated by the opportunity to obtain new knowledge and new resources for the growth and development of our own civilization. NASA's new Constellation Program, established in 2005, is tasked with maintaining the United States leadership in space, exploring the Moon, creating a sustained human lunar presence, and eventually extending human operations to Mars and beyond. Through 2008, the Constellation Program developed a full set of detailed program requirements and is now completing the preliminary design phase for the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, and the associated infrastructure necessary for humans to explore the Moon. Component testing is well

  10. Multicenter Study of Human Papillomavirus and the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Knowledge and Attitudes among People of African Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Blackman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare knowledge and attitudes of human papillomavirus (HPV and the vaccine between different cultures of African descent. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 555 African-Americans and Afro-Caribbeans residing in the US and the Bahamas (BHM was conducted. Results. General knowledge about HPV and the HPV vaccine differed between the two countries significantly. Bahamian respondents were less likely to have higher numbers of correct knowledge answers when compared to Americans (Adjusted Odds Ratio [Adj. OR] 0.47, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.30–0.75. Older age, regardless of location, was also associated with answering fewer questions correctly (Adj. OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40–0.92. Attitudes related to HPV vaccination were similar between the US and BHM, but nearly 80% of BHM respondents felt that children should not be able to receive the vaccine without parental consent compared to 57% of American respondents. Conclusions. Grave lack of knowledge, safety and cost concerns, and influence of parental restrictions may negatively impact vaccine uptake among African-American and Afro-Caribbean persons. Interventions to increase the vaccine uptake in the Caribbean must include medical provider and parental involvement. Effective strategies for education and increasing vaccine uptake in BHM are crucial for decreasing cervical cancer burden in the Caribbean.

  11. Factors Influencing Access to Integrated Soil Fertility Management Information and Knowledge and Its Uptake among Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwandu, T.; Mtambanengwe, F.; Mapfumo, P.; Mashavave, T. C.; Chikowo, R.; Nezomba, H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study evaluated how farmer acquisition, sharing and use patterns of information and knowledge interact with different socioeconomic factors to influence integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted as part of an evaluation of field-based farmer learning approaches…

  12. The development of human behavior analysis techniques - A study on knowledge representation methods for operator cognitive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Young Tack [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    The main objective of this project is modeling of human operator in a main control room of Nuclear Power Plant. For this purpose, we carried out research on knowledge representation and inference method based on Rasmussen`s decision ladder structure. And we have developed SACOM(Simulation= Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) using G2 shell on Sun workstations. SACOM consists of Operator Model, Interaction Analyzer, Situation Generator. Cognitive model aims to build a more detailed model of human operators in an effective way. SACOM is designed to model knowledge-based behavior of human operators more easily. The followings are main research topics carried out this year. First, in order to model knowledge-based behavior of human operators, more detailed scenarios are constructed. And, knowledge representation and inference methods are developed to support the scenarios. Second, meta knowledge structures are studied to support human operators 4 types of diagnoses. This work includes a study on meta and scheduler knowledge structures for generate-and-test, topographic, decision tree and case-based approaches. Third, domain knowledge structure are improved to support meta knowledge. Especially, domain knowledge structures are developed to model topographic diagnosis model. Fourth, more applicable interaction analyzer and situation generator are designed and implemented. The new version is implemented in G2 on Sun workstations. 35 refs., 49 figs. (author)

  13. Access to a syllabus of human hemoglobin variants (1996) via the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, R C; Chui, D H; Riemer, C R; Miller, W; Carver, M F; Molchanova, T P; Efremov, G D; Huisman, T H

    1998-03-01

    Information on mutations in human hemoglobin is important in many efforts, including understanding the pathophysiology of hemoglobin diseases, developing therapies, elucidating the dynamics of sequence alterations inhuman populations, and dissecting the details of protein structure/function relationships. Currently, information is available on a large number of mutations and variants, but is distributed among thousands of papers. In an effort to organize this voluminous data set, two Syllabi have been prepared compiling succinct information on human hemoglobin abnormalities. In both of these, each entry provides amino acid and/or DNA sequence alterations, hematological and clinical data, methodology used for characterization, ethnic distribution, and functional properties and stability of the hemoglobin, together with appropriate literature references. A Syllabus of Human Hemoglobin Variants (1996) describes 693 abnormal hemoglobins resulting from alterations in the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-globin chains, including special abnormalities such as double mutations, hybrid chains, elongated chains, deletions, and insertions. We have converted this resource to an electronic form that is accessible via the World Wide Web at the Globin Gene Server (http://globin.cse.psu.edu). Hyperlinks are provided from each entry in the tables of variants to the corresponding full description. In addition, a simple query interface allows the user to find all entries containing a designated word or phrase. We are in the process of converting A Syllabus of Thalassemia Mutations (1997) to a similar electronic format.

  14. The impact of Body Worlds on adult visitors' knowledge on human anatomy: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Guilherme R B C; Finn, Gabrielle M

    2016-05-01

    Body Worlds is an anatomical exhibition that shows human remains to the public. It has been considered controversial since it raises ethical tensions and issues. However, organizers and supporters of Body Worlds have claimed the exhibition is intended to promote visitors' understanding over the human body. Despite these claims, no studies were found that support or refute the hypothesis that a visit to Body Worlds increases the public's objective knowledge on human anatomy. Consequently, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of Body Worlds on anatomical knowledge. We constructed and delivered a questionnaire to both a previsit random sample and a postvisit random sample of visitors of Body Worlds' event Facets of Life, in Berlin. The questionnaire was available in both English and German languages and contained (a) basic sociodemographic questions and (b) a valid and reliable anatomy quiz. The quiz consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions that assessed the ability to identify the location of major anatomical structures on the human body. Average scores achieved on the quiz by the postvisit sample (X¯= 9.08, s = 2.48, n = 164) were significantly higher (unpaired t = 3.3957, P = 0.0008) than those achieved by the previsit sample (X¯= 8.11, s = 2.69, n = 167). Our results suggest that a visit to Body Worlds' event Facets of Life may have a beneficial effect in anatomical knowledge. However, further studies with better empirical designs and fewer limitations are needed to confirm our results.

  15. Achieving human and machine accessibility of cited data in scholarly publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Joan; Castro, Eleni; Crosas, Mercè; Dumontier, Michel; Downs, Robert R.; Duerr, Ruth; Haak, Laurel L.; Haendel, Melissa; Herman, Ivan; Hodson, Simon; Hourclé, Joe; Kratz, John Ernest; Lin, Jennifer; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Nurnberger, Amy; Proell, Stefan; Rauber, Andreas; Sacchi, Simone; Smith, Arthur; Taylor, Mike; Clark, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Reproducibility and reusability of research results is an important concern in scientific communication and science policy. A foundational element of reproducibility and reusability is the open and persistently available presentation of research data. However, many common approaches for primary data publication in use today do not achieve sufficient long-term robustness, openness, accessibility or uniformity. Nor do they permit comprehensive exploitation by modern Web technologies. This has led to several authoritative studies recommending uniform direct citation of data archived in persistent repositories. Data are to be considered as first-class scholarly objects, and treated similarly in many ways to cited and archived scientific and scholarly literature. Here we briefly review the most current and widely agreed set of principle-based recommendations for scholarly data citation, the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles (JDDCP). We then present a framework for operationalizing the JDDCP; and a set of initial recommendations on identifier schemes, identifier resolution behavior, required metadata elements, and best practices for realizing programmatic machine actionability of cited data. The main target audience for the common implementation guidelines in this article consists of publishers, scholarly organizations, and persistent data repositories, including technical staff members in these organizations. But ordinary researchers can also benefit from these recommendations. The guidance provided here is intended to help achieve widespread, uniform human and machine accessibility of deposited data, in support of significantly improved verification, validation, reproducibility and re-use of scholarly/scientific data. PMID:26167542

  16. Achieving human and machine accessibility of cited data in scholarly publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Starr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reproducibility and reusability of research results is an important concern in scientific communication and science policy. A foundational element of reproducibility and reusability is the open and persistently available presentation of research data. However, many common approaches for primary data publication in use today do not achieve sufficient long-term robustness, openness, accessibility or uniformity. Nor do they permit comprehensive exploitation by modern Web technologies. This has led to several authoritative studies recommending uniform direct citation of data archived in persistent repositories. Data are to be considered as first-class scholarly objects, and treated similarly in many ways to cited and archived scientific and scholarly literature. Here we briefly review the most current and widely agreed set of principle-based recommendations for scholarly data citation, the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles (JDDCP. We then present a framework for operationalizing the JDDCP; and a set of initial recommendations on identifier schemes, identifier resolution behavior, required metadata elements, and best practices for realizing programmatic machine actionability of cited data. The main target audience for the common implementation guidelines in this article consists of publishers, scholarly organizations, and persistent data repositories, including technical staff members in these organizations. But ordinary researchers can also benefit from these recommendations. The guidance provided here is intended to help achieve widespread, uniform human and machine accessibility of deposited data, in support of significantly improved verification, validation, reproducibility and re-use of scholarly/scientific data.

  17. Innovative Knowledge Management At Disney: Human Capital And Queuing Solutions For Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle F. Cope

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that most activities in which a service is provided require customers to wait in a queue during the experience. One thing that is inherent in waiting lines is the universal dislike for the process. In fact, the feelings and opinions developed in waiting lines influence the customer’s perception of the awaited experience. In this paper, Disney is used as a case study for queuing solutions. In particular, we examine their implementation of Knowledge Management (KM solutions to improve the waiting line process. The use of Disney cast members as human capital combined with the knowledge of customer preferences has made the FASTPASS an innovative solution to enhance queuing in the Disney theme parks. In the past, KM has been thought of as the collection of technological assets and managerial policies that compensate for information failures. In fact, the individual’s need for human interaction provides the richest opportunity for knowledge acquisition. Disney’s ability to capture customers in virtual queues while giving them a pleasurable waiting experience has made them a leader in KM initiatives in the service industry.

  18. Aviation or space policy: New challenges for the insurance sector to private human access to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oijhuizen Galhego Rosa, Ana Cristina

    2013-12-01

    The phenomenon of private human access to space has introduced a new set of problems in the insurance sector. Orbital and suborbital space transportation will surely be unique commercial services for this new market. Discussions are under way regarding space insurance, in order to establish whether this new market ought to be regulated by aviation or space law. Alongside new definitions, infrastructures, legal frameworks and liability insurances, the insurance sector has also been introducing a new approach. In this paper, I aim to analyse some of the possibilities of new premiums, capacities, and policies (under aviation or space insurance rules), as well as the new insurance products related to vehicles, passengers and third party liability. This paper claims that a change toward new insurance regimes is crucial, due to the current stage in development of space tourism and the urgency to adapt insurance rules to support future development in this area.

  19. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dubey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. Results: The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS even in the educated groups. Discussion: There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.

  20. Extraction of the human cerebral ventricular system from MRI: inclusion of anatomical knowledge and clinical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Aamer; Hu, Qingmao; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.

    2004-04-01

    The human cerebral ventricular system is a complex structure that is essential for the well being and changes in which reflect disease. It is clinically imperative that the ventricular system be studied in details. For this reason computer assisted algorithms are essential to be developed. We have developed a novel (patent pending) and robust anatomical knowledge-driven algorithm for automatic extraction of the cerebral ventricular system from MRI. The algorithm is not only unique in its image processing aspect but also incorporates knowledge of neuroanatomy, radiological properties, and variability of the ventricular system. The ventricular system is divided into six 3D regions based on the anatomy and its variability. Within each ventricular region a 2D region of interest (ROI) is defined and is then further subdivided into sub-regions. Various strict conditions that detect and prevent leakage into the extra-ventricular space are specified for each sub-region based on anatomical knowledge. Each ROI is processed to calculate its local statistics, local intensity ranges of cerebrospinal fluid and grey and white matters, set a seed point within the ROI, grow region directionally in 3D, check anti-leakage conditions and correct growing if leakage occurs and connects all unconnected regions grown by relaxing growing conditions. The algorithm was tested qualitatively and quantitatively on normal and pathological MRI cases and worked well. In this paper we discuss in more detail inclusion of anatomical knowledge in the algorithm and usefulness of our approach from clinical perspective.

  1. Assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogy on entrepreneurship knowledge and entrepreneurial human capital asset: A conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidimma Odira Okeke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an effort to propose a conceptual model to measure the impact assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogic. It delineates entrepreneurship education pedagogic into four dimensions and opined specific level for each dimension. Reviewing the entrepreneurship education programme, assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogic evaluates the structure that influence growth mindset development through embedded heuristic strategies, thus, the impact on entrepreneurship knowledge and entrepreneurial capital asset context is proposed. Affirming Fayolle, Gailly, and Lassa-Clerc conceptual affinity that entrepreneurship education share with learning theories and entrepreneurship pedagogical content knowledge were conceptualized to suggest some practical realism guidelines of what insightful philosophy of teaching entrepreneurship need to achieve. With direct synthesis of relevant literature, propositions relating to entrepreneurship pedagogic structure along with the institutional connectedness and associated dimensions of entrepreneurship pedagogic assessment outcome were postulated. Also, the paper proposes the need for further assessment of specific forms of pedagogic impact on entrepreneurial human capital asset.

  2. Controlled human malaria infection trials: How tandems of trust and control construct scientific knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijker, Else M; Sauerwein, Robert W; Bijker, Wiebe E

    2016-02-01

    Controlled human malaria infections are clinical trials in which healthy volunteers are deliberately infected with malaria under controlled conditions. Controlled human malaria infections are complex clinical trials: many different groups and institutions are involved, and several complex technologies are required to function together. This functioning together of technologies, people, and institutions is under special pressure because of potential risks to the volunteers. In this article, the authors use controlled human malaria infections as a strategic research site to study the use of control, the role of trust, and the interactions between trust and control in the construction of scientific knowledge. The authors argue that tandems of trust and control play a central role in the successful execution of clinical trials and the construction of scientific knowledge. More specifically, two aspects of tandems of trust and control will be highlighted: tandems are sites where trust and control coproduce each other, and tandems link the personal, the technical, and the institutional domains. Understanding tandems of trust and control results in setting some agendas for both clinical trial research and science and technology studies.

  3. How Bioethics is Complementing Human Rights in Realizing Health Access for Clinical Trial Participants: The Case of Formative PrEP Access in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jerome

    2015-06-11

    Following the demise of apartheid, human rights in South Africa are now constitutionally enshrined.The right to health in South Africa's Constitution has been credited with transforming the lives of millions of people by triggering programmatic reforms in HIV treatment and the prevention of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV.However, a constitutionally enshrined right to health offers no guarantee that clinical trial participants will enjoy post-trial access to beneficial interventions. Using access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in South Africa as an example, this paper argues that adherence to bioethics norms could realize the right to health for trial participants following the end of a clinical trial.

  4. Integration of preclinical and clinical knowledge to predict intravenous PK in human: bilastine case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozmediano, Valvanera; Ortega, Ignacio; Lukas, John C; Gonzalo, Ana; Rodriguez, Monica; Lucero, Maria Luisa

    2014-03-01

    Modern pharmacometrics can integrate and leverage all prior proprietary and public knowledge. Such methods can be used to scale across species or comparators, perform clinical trial simulation across alternative designs, confirm hypothesis and potentially reduce development burden, time and costs. Crucial yet typically lacking in integration is the pre-clinical stage. Prediction of PK in man, using in vitro and in vivo studies in different animal species, is increasingly well theorized but could still find wider application in drug development. The aim of the present work was to explore methods for bridging pharmacokinetic knowledge from animal species (i.v. and p.o.) and man (p.o.) into i.v. in man using the antihistamine drug bilastine as example. A model, predictive of i.v. PK in man, was developed on data from two pre-clinical species (rat and dog) and p.o. in man bilastine trials performed earlier. In the knowledge application stage, two different approaches were used to predict human plasma concentration after i.v. of bilastine: allometry (several scaling methods) and a semi-physiological method. Both approaches led to successful predictions of key i.v. PK parameters of bilastine in man. The predictive i.v. PK model was validated using later data from a clinical study of i.v. bilastine. Introduction of such knowledge in development permits proper leveraging of all emergent knowledge as well as quantification-based exploration of PK scenario, e.g. in special populations (pediatrics, renal insufficiency, comedication). In addition, the methods permit reduction or elimination and certainly optimization of learning trials, particularly those concerning alternative off-label administration routes.

  5. Young Australian adults with NF1 have poor access to health care, high complication rates, and limited disease knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Emily C; Payne, Jonathan M; Foster, Sheryl L; Clarke, Nigel F; North, Kathryn N

    2013-04-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a multisystem disease associated with a lifelong risk of debilitating and potentially life-limiting complications, however many adults with NF1 have no regular health surveillance. We interviewed and examined 17 young adults with NF1 between the ages of 25 and 33. Most had not been assessed for NF1-related complications within the previous 8 years, including patients with known serious vascular complications, for example, renal artery stenosis. Acute and/or chronic pain, particularly back and plexiform-related pain were common symptoms, and despite a significant impact on quality of life, was untreated in most instances. Symptom and examination-directed imaging revealed serious complications in 41% of the cohort. These included severe spinal cord compression (two cases), a highly SUV avid lesion suggestive of malignancy (one case), and a Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma in a patient without any previous NF1-related complications. Few study participants had a good understanding of NF1, its associated risks and complications, and many had not sought appropriate medical advice as questions or problems arose. NF1-related cognitive deficits in some participants, and the lack of a clear source of expert medical advice for adults with NF1 likely contributed to poor health surveillance and management in this population. Overall, these findings suggest that many Australian adults with NF1 are at risk of serious and life-threatening medical complications, but are not accessing and receiving adequate health care. Access to multidisciplinary adult clinics that specialize in NF1 may address many of the unmet health needs of young adults with NF1.

  6. Access to abortion services: the impact of the European convention on human rights in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brenda

    2011-06-01

    Abortion is unlawful in Ireland except where it is necessary to save the life of the mother. The right to life of the unborn child is safeguarded under Article 40.3.3 degrees of Bunreacht na hEireann (the Irish Constitution). In 2003 the European Convention on Human Rights was incorporated into Irish domestic legislation, subject to the provisions of the Irish Constitution. The aim of this paper is to consider the potential impact of the ECHR on access to abortion services within the State. This paper commences with discussion of the statutory prohibition on abortion and the Constitutional provisions concerning the protection afforded to the unborn child. It will then be necessary to examine the implications for Ireland of recent European Court of Human Rights' decisions, in particular the recent judgment in A, B & C v Ireland, regarding the right to legal abortions given the unique nature of the legal status of the ECHR and its relationship with the Irish Constitution.

  7. Relationship between Fidelity and Dose of Human Patient Simulation, Critical Thinking Skills, and Knowledge in an Associate Degree Nursing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Rosella I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between human patient simulation (HPS), critical thinking skills, and knowledge acquisition after HPS was integrated across the curriculum of an associate degree nursing program to determine if differences existed in critical thinking and knowledge of students based on the fidelity of HPS used and amount of…

  8. Representing Human Expertise by the OWL Web Ontology Language to Support Knowledge Engineering in Decision Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzan, Asia; Wang, Hai; Buckingham, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) often base their knowledge and advice on human expertise. Knowledge representation needs to be in a format that can be easily understood by human users as well as supporting ongoing knowledge engineering, including evolution and consistency of knowledge. This paper reports on the development of an ontology specification for managing knowledge engineering in a CDSS for assessing and managing risks associated with mental-health problems. The Galatean Risk and Safety Tool, GRiST, represents mental-health expertise in the form of a psychological model of classification. The hierarchical structure was directly represented in the machine using an XML document. Functionality of the model and knowledge management were controlled using attributes in the XML nodes, with an accompanying paper manual for specifying how end-user tools should behave when interfacing with the XML. This paper explains the advantages of using the web-ontology language, OWL, as the specification, details some of the issues and problems encountered in translating the psychological model to OWL, and shows how OWL benefits knowledge engineering. The conclusions are that OWL can have an important role in managing complex knowledge domains for systems based on human expertise without impeding the end-users' understanding of the knowledge base. The generic classification model underpinning GRiST makes it applicable to many decision domains and the accompanying OWL specification facilitates its implementation.

  9. A survey to access knowledge and practice among dentists regarding local anesthetic dosage in three cities of Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Singh Kaira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Local anesthetics are the most commonly used drugs in routine dentistry. Although they are considered effective and safe in controlling pain during dental procedures, complications related to their use appear inevitable. Many dentists use these drugs routinely but are unaware of the dose calculations required and the maximum safe and effective dose of the drug. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed to determine the knowledge that general dental practitioners and dental specialists, in three different cities in India, have regarding dose calculations and the maximum-dose required of the most commonly used local anesthetics. A one page survey questionnaire was used in this study and data were analyzed using standard SPSS statistical program version 11, software (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois, USA. Results: The respondents comprised 71.4% general dental practitioners and 28.5% dental specialists, with ages ranging from 26 to 50 years; Nearly 75% of the total respondent was males and 25% females. Nearly 69% of the respondents were unaware of the maximum recommended dose for use on adult, healthy patients and 81% were still confused about the maximum numbers of syringes containing 2% lignocaine with adrenaline that can be given to a patient. A total of 49% of general dental practitioners and specialists do not perform aspiration when injecting local anesthetics, whereas only 38% performed the aspiration in inferior nerve block technique, while only 12% performed aspiration in all types of injection techniques. A high percentage of the dentists (84% who responded are unaware of how to calculate the local anesthetic dose and 31% of them encountered complications during, or after, local anesthetic administration. Conclusion: General practitioners and dental specialists appear to have an inadequate knowledge about local anesthetics maximum-dose and dose calculations; further educational courses are recommended to update them regarding such

  10. [The global and national context regarding the challenges involved in ensuring adequate access to water for human consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas; Câmara Neto, Henrique Fernandes; de Melo, Carlos Henrique; Costa, André Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the challenges involved in ensuring access to water for human consumption taking the international and national context into consideration. Based on the UN declaration that access to safe and clean drinking water is a fundamental human right, vulnerabilities are identified that can consist in restrictions to access to adequate supplies. The distribution of water and the population across the planet, pollution, inadequate policies and management lead to environmental injustice. The iniquity of access to water constitutes the contemporary water crisis. From the 1980s onwards, the transnational water market emerged for private control that occurs at three main levels: surface and underground water sources; bottled water; and public water supply services. The conflicts of the multiple uses of water resources, the market and environmental problems have contributed to rendering the health of the population and ecosystems vulnerable. Adequate public policies are essential to ensure the basic human right to access to safe and clean drinking water.

  11. Human papillomavirus infection: knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among lesbian, gay men, and bisexual in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta P Pelullo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study assess knowledge, attitudes, and behavior towards the human papillomavirus (HPV and the vaccination among a random sample of 1000 lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men. METHODS: A face-to-face interview sought information about: socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about HPV infection, perception of risk towards HPV infection and/or cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, perception of the benefits of a vaccination to prevent cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, sexual behaviors, health-promoting behaviors, and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine. RESULTS: Only 60.6% had heard about the HPV infection and this knowledge was significantly higher in female, in those being a member of a homosexual association, in those having had the first sexual experience at a younger age, in those having received information about the HPV infection from physicians, and in those having no need of information about HPV infection. A higher perceived risk of contracting HPV infection has been observed in those younger, lesbian and gay men, who have heard of HPV infection and knew the risk factors and its related diseases, who have received information about HPV infection from physicians, and who need information about HPV infection. Only 1.7% have undergone HPV immunization and 73.3% professed intent to obtain it in the future. The significant predictors of the willingness to receive this vaccine were belief that the vaccination is useful, perception to be at higher risk of contracting HPV infection, and perception to be at higher risk of developing cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Information and interventions are strongly needed in order to overcome the lack of knowledge about HPV infection and its vaccination. Inclusion of boys in the national vaccination program and initiate a catch-up program for men who have sex with men up to 26 years may reduce their burden of HPV

  12. A decade of human genome project conclusion: Scientific diffusion about our genome knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Fernanda; Góes, Andréa

    2016-05-06

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) was initiated in 1990 and completed in 2003. It aimed to sequence the whole human genome. Although it represented an advance in understanding the human genome and its complexity, many questions remained unanswered. Other projects were launched in order to unravel the mysteries of our genome, including the ENCyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE). This review aims to analyze the evolution of scientific knowledge related to both the HGP and ENCODE projects. Data were retrieved from scientific articles published in 1990-2014, a period comprising the development and the 10 years following the HGP completion. The fact that only 20,000 genes are protein and RNA-coding is one of the most striking HGP results. A new concept about the organization of genome arose. The ENCODE project was initiated in 2003 and targeted to map the functional elements of the human genome. This project revealed that the human genome is pervasively transcribed. Therefore, it was determined that a large part of the non-protein coding regions are functional. Finally, a more sophisticated view of chromatin structure emerged. The mechanistic functioning of the genome has been redrafted, revealing a much more complex picture. Besides, a gene-centric conception of the organism has to be reviewed. A number of criticisms have emerged against the ENCODE project approaches, raising the question of whether non-conserved but biochemically active regions are truly functional. Thus, HGP and ENCODE projects accomplished a great map of the human genome, but the data generated still requires further in depth analysis. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:215-223, 2016.

  13. SymbioGenomesDB: a database for the integration and access to knowledge on host-symbiont relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Vargas-Chávez, Carlos; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic relationships occur naturally throughout the tree of life, either in a commensal, mutualistic or pathogenic manner. The genomes of multiple organisms involved in symbiosis are rapidly being sequenced and becoming available, especially those from the microbial world. Currently, there are numerous databases that offer information on specific organisms or models, but none offer a global understanding on relationships between organisms, their interactions and capabilities within their niche, as well as their role as part of a system, in this case, their role in symbiosis. We have developed the SymbioGenomesDB as a community database resource for laboratories which intend to investigate and use information on the genetics and the genomics of organisms involved in these relationships. The ultimate goal of SymbioGenomesDB is to host and support the growing and vast symbiotic-host relationship information, to uncover the genetic basis of such associations. SymbioGenomesDB maintains a comprehensive organization of information on genomes of symbionts from diverse hosts throughout the Tree of Life, including their sequences, their metadata and their genomic features. This catalog of relationships was generated using computational tools, custom R scripts and manual integration of data available in public literature. As a highly curated and comprehensive systems database, SymbioGenomesDB provides web access to all the information of symbiotic organisms, their features and links to the central database NCBI. Three different tools can be found within the database to explore symbiosis-related organisms, their genes and their genomes. Also, we offer an orthology search for one or multiple genes in one or multiple organisms within symbiotic relationships, and every table, graph and output file is downloadable and easy to parse for further analysis. The robust SymbioGenomesDB will be constantly updated to cope with all the data being generated and included in major

  14. Symbiotic intelligence: Self-organizing knowledge on distributed networks, driven by human interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, N.; Joslyn, C.; Rocha, L.; Smith, S.; Kantor, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Rasmussen, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This work addresses how human societies, and other diverse and distributed systems, solve collective challenges that are not approachable from the level of the individual, and how the Internet will change the way societies and organizations view problem solving. The authors apply the ideas developed in self-organizing systems to understand self-organization in informational systems. The simplest explanation as to why animals (for example, ants, wolves, and humans) are organized into societies is that these societies enhance the survival of the individuals which make up the populations. Individuals contribute to, as well as adapt to, these societies because they make life easier in one way or another, even though they may not always understand the process, either individually or collectively. Despite the lack of understanding of the how of the process, society during its existence as a species has changed significantly, from separate, small hunting tribes to a highly technological, globally integrated society. The authors combine this understanding of societal dynamics with self-organization on the Internet (the Net). The unique capability of the Net is that it combines, in a common medium, the entire human-technological system in both breadth and depth: breadth in the integration of heterogeneous systems of machines, information and people; and depth in the detailed capturing of the entire complexity of human use and creation of information. When the full diversity of societal dynamics is combined with the accuracy of communication on the Net, a phase transition is argued to occur in problem solving capability. Through conceptual examples, an experiment of collective decision making on the Net and a simulation showing the effect of noise and loss on collective decision making, the authors argue that the resulting symbiotic structure of humans and the Net will evolve as an alternative problem solving approach for groups, organizations and society. Self

  15. Multi-Disciplinary Knowledge Synthesis for Human Health Assessment on Earth and in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, G.

    We discuss methodological developments in multi-disciplinary knowledge synthesis (KS) of human health assessment. A theoretical KS framework can provide the rational means for the assimilation of various information bases (general, site-specific etc.) that are relevant to the life system of interest. KS-based techniques produce a realistic representation of the system, provide a rigorous assessment of the uncertainty sources, and generate informative health state predictions across space-time. The underlying epistemic cognition methodology is based on teleologic criteria and stochastic logic principles. The mathematics of KS involves a powerful and versatile spatiotemporal random field model that accounts rigorously for the uncertainty features of the life system and imposes no restriction on the shape of the probability distributions or the form of the predictors. KS theory is instrumental in understanding natural heterogeneities, assessing crucial human exposure correlations and laws of physical change, and explaining toxicokinetic mechanisms and dependencies in a spatiotemporal life system domain. It is hoped that a better understanding of KS fundamentals would generate multi-disciplinary models that are useful for the maintenance of human health on Earth and in Space.

  16. The Role of a Human Factor and Psychological Contract in Managing the Knowledge in Conditions of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rębisz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The modern business world is characterized by dynamic, changing markets and continuous technological advance. This article focuses on an issue related to a definition of the meaning of a man and his location in an organization that works in conditions of globalization. Certainly, the meaning of human as the source of knowledge in the development of organization is not a new subject. Knowledge is intrinsically linked to people and enables them to act. Modern organizations base their theory on the knowledge they can exploit to improve the competence of the employee, his loyalty and commitment to the company which aims at the competitive predominance. The identification of knowledge is necessary for the effective implementation of knowledge management system. Above all, presented theoretical analysis pinpoints mainly on discussing a mans role and psychological contract in managing the knowledge.

  17. The Hybrid Design: Integrating the Human and Technical Components of Just-In-Time Knowledge Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabie Y. Conteh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the right balance of human and technical resources in the design of Just-in-Time knowledge delivery. It also examines and analyzes the case study: “Teltech: The business of Knowledge Management” by Davenport. It further attempts to depict the characteristics of the hybrid. The paper describes how the hybrid can be applied to Just-In-Time knowledge delivery. It also seeks to analyze and explore its interplay with knowledge splits with a view to designing Just-In- Time Knowledge Management. These include: “tacit versus explicit knowledge”, “in-process” versus “after action” documentation, “process-centered versus product-centered approach”, “knowledge versus information” and the “culture of sharing versus hoarding.”

  18. Widespread Chromatin Accessibility at Repetitive Elements Links Stem Cells with Human Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas C. Gomez; Austin J. Hepperla; Raluca Dumitru; Jeremy M. Simon; Fang Fang; Ian J. Davis

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin regulation is critical for differentiation and disease. However, features linking the chromatin environment of stem cells with disease remain largely unknown. We explored chromatin accessibility in embryonic and multipotent stem cells and unexpectedly identified widespread chromatin accessibility at repetitive elements. Integrating genomic and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that these sites of increased accessibility are associated with well-positioned nucleosomes marked by ...

  19. Human resources needs for universal access to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a time and motion study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hontelez Jan AC

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although access to life-saving treatment for patients infected with HIV in South Africa has improved substantially since 2004, treating all eligible patients (universal access remains elusive. As the prices of antiretroviral drugs have dropped over the past years, availability of human resources may now be the most important barrier to achieving universal access to HIV treatment in Africa. We quantify the number of HIV health workers (HHWs required to be added to the current HIV workforce to achieve universal access to HIV treatment in South Africa, under different eligibility criteria. Methods We performed a time and motion study in three HIV clinics in a rural, primary care-based HIV treatment program in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to estimate the average time per patient visit for doctors, nurses, and counselors. We estimated the additional number of HHWs needed to achieve universal access to HIV treatment within one year. Results For universal access to HIV treatment for all patients with a CD4 cell count of ≤350 cells/μl, an additional 2,200 nurses, 3,800 counselors, and 300 doctors would be required, at additional annual salary cost of 929 million South African rand (ZAR, equivalent to US$ 141 million. For universal treatment (‘treatment as prevention’, an additional 6,000 nurses, 11,000 counselors, and 800 doctors would be required, at an additional annual salary cost of ZAR 2.6 billion (US$ 400 million. Conclusions Universal access to HIV treatment for patients with a CD4 cell count of ≤350 cells/μl in South Africa may be affordable, but the number of HHWs available for HIV treatment will need to be substantially increased. Treatment as prevention strategies will require considerable additional financial and human resources commitments.

  20. An Empirical Research on the Correlation between Human Capital and Career Success of Knowledge Workers in Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenchen; Xiao, Hongjun; Yang, Xi

    Human capital plays an important part in employability of knowledge workers, also it is the important intangible assets of company. This paper explores the correlation between human capital and career success of knowledge workers. Based on literature retrieval, we identified measuring tool of career success and modified further; measuring human capital with self-developed scale of high reliability and validity. After exploratory factor analysis, we suggest that human capital contents four dimensions, including education, work experience, learning ability and training; career success contents three dimensions, including perceived internal competitiveness of organization, perceived external competitiveness of organization and career satisfaction. The result of empirical analysis indicates that there is a positive correlation between human capital and career success, and human capital is an excellent predictor of career success beyond demographics variables.

  1. Human Papilloma Virus and HPV vaccine knowledge among Mustafa Kemal University Medical Students

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    Raziye Keskin Kurt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV is regarded as the main cause in the etiology of cervical cancer. The purpose of our study is to assess the knowledge of medical students about HPV vaccine and to evaluate their opinion on this subject.   Material and Method: The study population consisted of 488 medical students. The survey was composed of questions intended   to obtain information about transmission route of HPV, types of HPV, role of HPV in cervical cancer, whether HPV is treatable or not, which types of HPV the HPV vaccine prevents, the age groups HPV vaccine is administered, the opinions on HPV vaccine and sufficiency of public health, whether female students have underwent vaccination and if not what their drawbacks are.   Results: Mean age of the students participating in the study was 21±4 and 58 % of the patients were female. Out of 448 medical students, 60% of them did not know that HPV was a sexually transmitted disease. Only 55% students knew about the association of HPV with cervical cancer and 52% participants stated that HPV vaccine could not be preventive against cervical cancer. None of female students had been immunized and 67% of female students did not consider getting immunized. Among those who did not consider getting immunized, 70% said they had worries about the safety of the vaccine. Conclusion: Our study results revealed that the knowledge of medical students about HPV is satisfactory, however their knowledge about HPV vaccine, immunization status and desire to be immunized were little.

  2. Linking an agency strategic review to increase knowledge management: San Francisco County Human Service Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Led by the agency director, the agency engaged in a Strategic Review, based on a comprehensive assessment of agency performance that identified strategies to improve organizational effectiveness through increased data-informed practice and knowledge management. The Strategic Review gathered information on staff perceptions, perceptions of external stakeholders, changing citywide and neighborhood demographics, policy mandates, and budget and workload issues. The need for the review was based upon multiple, substantial changes not addressed in the 2000 Strategic Plan, including the 2004 merger of the Department of Human Services and the Department of Aging and Adult Services, changes among the executive management team, transitions among key political entities, new policy mandates and changing budget allocations. This case study describes the Strategic Review process and content, summarizing key challenges and lessons related to addressing workload demands, fostering positive staff attitudes, balancing internal and external information needs, and integrating data use and planning processes across the agency.

  3. Limits of responsiveness concerning human-readable knowledge bases: an operational analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pentzaropoulos, G C

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this work is the evaluation of responsiveness when remote users communicate with a human-readable knowledge base (KB). Responsiveness [R(s)] is considered here as a measure of service quality. Method. The preferred method is operational analysis, a variation of classical stochastic theory, which allows for the study of user-system interaction with minimal computational effort. Analysis. The analysis is based on well-known performance metrics, such as service ability, elapsed time, and throughput: from these metrics estimates of R(s) are derived analytically. Results. Critical points indicating congestion are obtained: these are limits on the number of admissible requests and the number of connected users. Also obtained is a sufficient condition for achieving flow balance between the KB host and the request-relaying servers. Conclusions. When R(s) is within normal limits, users should appreciate the benefits from using the services offered by their KB host. When bottlenecks are for...

  4. Knowledge of Greek adolescents on human papilloma virus (HPV) and vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidakis, Dennis; Moustaki, Irini; Zervas, Ioannis; Barbouni, Anastasia; Merakou, Kyriaki; Chrysi, Maria S.; Creatsa, George; Panoskaltsis, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to identify the sexual behavior, attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) focused on human papilloma virus (HPV) in the Greek adolescent population. The participants were 4547 adolescents, a representative sample for Greek territory with a mean age of 17 years. After written permission from Greek ministry of education each student completed a questionnaire with 36 questions. The fields covered were demographic characteristics, sexual life data, and basic knowledge on HPV. In the present study, 43% and 75% of the participants knew about HPV or cervical cancer, while more than 6 out of 10 did not know the association between the 2. More than 60% of the participants could not answer correctly neither about HPV infection and cervical cancer frequency in sexually active women, nor about protection methods against HPV and cervical cancer. This study shows that the low vaccination coverage of the Greek population may be due to lack of information and awareness of the adolescents and their parents. It is our duty to increase our efforts in order to better educate the population and vaccinate the population as early as possible in their reproductive years. PMID:28072683

  5. Human papillomavirus and cancer prevention: gaps in knowledge and prospects for research, policy, and advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Eduardo L; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Broker, Thomas R; Stanley, Margaret A; Chevarie-Davis, Myriam; Isidean, Sandra D; Schiffman, Mark

    2012-11-20

    The recognition that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the central, necessary cause of cervical cancer paved the way to new fronts of prevention via improved screening methods and HPV vaccination. Much has been learned in all fronts, from the molecular basis of our understanding of how HPV causes disease to the health economics of preventive strategies at the individual and population levels. Progress in other areas of cancer control has yet to show the same multi- and trans-disciplinary gains seen in research on HPV-associated malignancies, which is one of the unequivocal success stories in disease prevention. Yet, as an embarrassment of riches, much more research is needed to fill the gaps in knowledge that remain before we are able to reap the benefits from the knowledge translation from all fronts. Public health research on setting-specific implementation of HPV-based preventive strategies and more concerted advocacy to counter barriers facing the adoption of these strategies are likely to yield major dividends in reducing the burden of HPV-associated diseases. This article forms part of a special supplement entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.

  6. Knowledge and attitudes about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda NKONWA INNOCENT H 1,2,3* , MICHAEL J...Human Papilloma virus (HPV) strains 16 and 18. While cervical cancer is widely understood as a fatal disease, knowledge and awareness of cervical...capture assay of self – collected virginal swabs in rural Uganda for detection of human papilloma virus . J Infect Disease, 1999 1999.180; p. 1316.1319. 19

  7. An approach to integrate the human vision psychology and perception knowledge into image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Huang, Xifeng; Ping, Jiang

    2009-07-01

    Image enhancement is very important image preprocessing technology especially when the image is captured in the poor imaging condition or dealing with the high bits image. The benefactor of image enhancement either may be a human observer or a computer vision process performing some kind of higher-level image analysis, such as target detection or scene understanding. One of the main objects of the image enhancement is getting a high dynamic range image and a high contrast degree image for human perception or interpretation. So, it is very necessary to integrate either empirical or statistical human vision psychology and perception knowledge into image enhancement. The human vision psychology and perception claims that humans' perception and response to the intensity fluctuation δu of visual signals are weighted by the background stimulus u, instead of being plainly uniform. There are three main laws: Weber's law, Weber- Fechner's law and Stevens's Law that describe this phenomenon in the psychology and psychophysics. This paper will integrate these three laws of the human vision psychology and perception into a very popular image enhancement algorithm named Adaptive Plateau Equalization (APE). The experiments were done on the high bits star image captured in night scene and the infrared-red image both the static image and the video stream. For the jitter problem in the video stream, this algorithm reduces this problem using the difference between the current frame's plateau value and the previous frame's plateau value to correct the current frame's plateau value. Considering the random noise impacts, the pixel value mapping process is not only depending on the current pixel but the pixels in the window surround the current pixel. The window size is usually 3×3. The process results of this improved algorithms is evaluated by the entropy analysis and visual perception analysis. The experiments' result showed the improved APE algorithms improved the quality of the

  8. Widespread Chromatin Accessibility at Repetitive Elements Links Stem Cells with Human Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C. Gomez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin regulation is critical for differentiation and disease. However, features linking the chromatin environment of stem cells with disease remain largely unknown. We explored chromatin accessibility in embryonic and multipotent stem cells and unexpectedly identified widespread chromatin accessibility at repetitive elements. Integrating genomic and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that these sites of increased accessibility are associated with well-positioned nucleosomes marked by distinct histone modifications. Differentiation is accompanied by chromatin remodeling at repetitive elements associated with altered expression of genes in relevant developmental pathways. Remarkably, we found that the chromatin environment of Ewing sarcoma, a mesenchymally derived tumor, is shared with primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Accessibility at repetitive elements in MSCs offers a permissive environment that is exploited by the critical oncogene responsible for this cancer. Our data demonstrate that stem cells harbor a unique chromatin landscape characterized by accessibility at repetitive elements, a feature associated with differentiation and oncogenesis.

  9. The Knowledge Society: A Sustainability Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Hamdija Afgan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the knowledge society as a human structured organisation based on contemporary developed knowledge and representing new quality of life support systems. It implies the need for a full understanding of distribution of knowledge, access to information and the capability to transfer information into a knowledge. The understanding of knowledge is the central challenge when defining a knowledge society. From our present perception of knowledge society, it is of interest to emphasize the role of the knowledge society in future development of human society. The life support systems are essential pillars of human society development. In this respect knowledge society represents a new paradigm for future development and it is strongly correlated to sustainable development. For this reason the sustainability paradigm of knowledge society is a potential frame for human society development leading to social cohesion, economic competitiveness and stability, use of resources and economic development, safeguarding biodiversity and the ecosystem.In order to verify the mutual relation between knowledge society and sustainability, we have to introduce the difference between these two terms. The knowledge society is based on the agglomeration of eco-knowledge, env-knowledge and soc-knowledge, it may be evaluated as the complex knowledge of quality of life support systems. We have to introduce metrics which will allow us to present knowledge as the paradigm of the number of indicators for verifying progress made.Sustainability metrics are designed to consolidate measures of economic, environmental and social performance of any system. It can be understood as a pattern for evaluation of the available knowledge about systems and their performance. In particular the decision-making process for the selection of the system under consideration must be based on the available knowledge. The link between knowledge and sustainability makes it possible for

  10. Knowledge and attitudes of university students and their mothers regarding the Human Papilloma Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Tsipra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted diseases in both men and women worldwide. Aim: The investigation of the knowledge of university students and their mothers about the HPV, the ways of transmission, prevention and vaccination. Material and Method: The studied population consisted of 605 students from Technological Educational Institute of Athens and 50 mothers which filled two different questionnaires with closed-ended questions. Data was statistically processed with Microsoft Excel and SPSS ver.20. Results: Although, a large percentage (84.5% of the questioned students were sexually active, the majority of them (67.7% had never done the human papilloma virus vaccine and they didn’t intended to do it (87.9%. Although questioned mothers were aware that both girls and boys should be vaccinated against HPV infection (83.7%, only 71.4% of them had vaccinated their children, because of their fear of possible side effects (p0.05. Conclusion: Although students and mothers were aware of the HPV and its prevention, they were not familiar with the safety and the effectiveness of the vaccine, maybe because more students had been informed about the HPV from their family mostly than their gynecologist.

  11. "The Human Condition" as social ontology: Hannah Arendt on society, action and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Hannah Arendt is widely regarded as a political theorist who sought to rescue politics from "society," and political theory from the social sciences. This conventional view has had the effect of distracting attention from many of Arendt's most important insights concerning the constitution of "society" and the significance of the social sciences. In this article, I argue that Hannah Arendt's distinctions between labor, work, and action, as these are discussed in "The Human Condition" and elsewhere, are best understood as a set of claims about the fundamental structures of human societies. Understanding Arendt in this way introduces interesting parallels between Arendt's work and both classical and contemporary sociology. From this I draw a number of conclusions concerning Arendt's conception of "society," and extend these insights into two contemporary debates within contemporary theoretical sociology: the need for a differentiated ontology of the social world, and the changing role that novel forms of knowledge play in contemporary society as major sources of social change and order.

  12. Beyond the Letter of the Law: Accessibility, Universal Design, and Human-Centered Design in Video Tutorials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda S. Clossen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates how Universal and Human-Centered Design approaches can be applied to the process of library video tutorial creation in order to enhance accessibility. A series of questions that creators should consider in order to focus their design process is discussed. These questions break down various physical and cognitive limitations that users encounter, providing a framework for future video creation that is not dependent on specific software. By approaching accommodations more holistically, videos are created with accessibility in mind from their conception. Working toward the ideal of a video tutorial that is accessible to every user leads to the creation of more clearly worded, effective learning objects that are much more inclusive, making instructional concepts available to users of all abilities.

  13. Italian women and HPV prevention. Knowledge, fears, uncertainty on Human Papillomavirus and the relative vaccination: dual research approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta M. Vaccaro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: the main purpose of this study was to identify and describe knowledge, beliefs and atti- tudes towards Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection and HPV vaccination among Italian women aged between 18 and 55. MeTHods: 6 Focus groups, in each of which 8 women took part, held in 6 different locations and a survey on a representative sample of 3 500 Italian women aged between 18 and 55, with oversizing for three regions (Lombardy, Latium, sicily. The survey was conducted by telephone using the caTI (computer assisted Telephone Interview technique, in september 2011, adopting a structured questionnaire. data were codified and statistical analysis was computed using sPss software.
    Results: italian women have only a partial, even superficial, knowledge of pathologies associated with HPV, and also their information on the purpose of prevention activity, in which they choose to partici- pate, is more generic than one might expect. The weakness of the information framework is partly due to the fact that the main source of information is the mass media, mainly the press and television, and to a lesser extent the Internet, and that information is random and fragmented.
    Information about HPV and the possibility of vaccination often overlap, and it is the specific occasion of contact with the asL (local health authority vaccine services, providing information to youngsters that are the target of the free campaign, that is central in gaining access to information about the virus and vaccination, especially for the mothers of adolescent daughters. The vaccine campaign not only plays a key role in providing information about HPV and about the vaccination, but also ends up by influencing the notions and beliefs that Italian women hold about this vaccination.
    Conslusions: only a small portion of the female population, directly involved in the free

  14. Ontological modelling of knowledge management for human-machine integrated design of ultra-precision grinding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haibo; Yin, Yuehong; Chen, Xing

    2016-11-01

    Despite the rapid development of computer science and information technology, an efficient human-machine integrated enterprise information system for designing complex mechatronic products is still not fully accomplished, partly because of the inharmonious communication among collaborators. Therefore, one challenge in human-machine integration is how to establish an appropriate knowledge management (KM) model to support integration and sharing of heterogeneous product knowledge. Aiming at the diversity of design knowledge, this article proposes an ontology-based model to reach an unambiguous and normative representation of knowledge. First, an ontology-based human-machine integrated design framework is described, then corresponding ontologies and sub-ontologies are established according to different purposes and scopes. Second, a similarity calculation-based ontology integration method composed of ontology mapping and ontology merging is introduced. The ontology searching-based knowledge sharing method is then developed. Finally, a case of human-machine integrated design of a large ultra-precision grinding machine is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  15. Access to treatment in developing countries: a global issue of equity and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J

    1998-04-01

    People are highly optimistic about the possibility of recent developments in combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS to effectively treat people with HIV/AIDS, thereby prolonging their survival and improving the quality of life. Access to advanced retroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS in developing countries, however, is rarely discussed as feasible. Many people even believe that access for all to optimum AIDS care is an utopian ideal not worth pursuing. Imaginative, radical steps together with political will could, however, help to broaden access to advanced therapy for people with HIV/AIDS. A global AIDS-related biomedical technology transfer initiative is needed. Such an initiative should foster a partnership between governments, industry, and international organizations based upon a maximalist perspective of the ethics of access to treatment, global equity considerations, and a global perspective upon individual and community rights. Challenges, a global AIDS trade protocol, and political will are discussed.

  16. Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY: impact of an eye health education program on patient knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhodes LA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lindsay A Rhodes,1 Carrie E Huisingh,1 Gerald McGwin Jr,1,2 Stephen T Mennemeyer,3 Mary Bregantini,4 Nita Patel,4 Jinan Saaddine,5 John E Crews,5 Christopher A Girkin,1 Cynthia Owsley11Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, 2Department of Epidemiology, 3Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 4Prevent Blindness, Chicago, IL, USA; 5Vision Health Initiative, Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USAPurpose: To assess the impact of the education program of the Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY telemedicine program on at-risk patients’ knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care as well as to assess patient satisfaction with EQUALITY.Patients and methods: New or existing patients presenting for a comprehensive eye exam (CEE at one of two retail-based primary eye clinics were enrolled based on ≥1 of the following at-risk criteria for glaucoma: African Americans ≥40 years of age, Whites ≥50 years of age, diabetes, family history of glaucoma, and/or preexisting diagnosis of glaucoma. A total of 651 patients were enrolled. A questionnaire was administered prior to the patients’ CEE and prior to the patients receiving any of the evidence-based eye health education program; a follow-up questionnaire was administered 2–4 weeks later by phone. Baseline and follow-up patient responses regarding knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care were compared using McNemar’s test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of patient-level characteristics with improvement in knowledge and attitudes. Overall patient satisfaction was summarized.Results: At follow-up, all patient responses in the knowledge and attitude domains significantly improved from baseline (P≤0.01 for all questions. Those who were unemployed (odds

  17. Hepatitis C Virus Treatment Access Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-Coinfected People Who Inject Drugs in Guangzhou, China: Implications for HCV Treatment Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Carissa E; Wu, Feng; He, Xi; Zhou, Kali; Cheng, Yu; Cai, Weiping; Geng, Elvin; Volberding, Paul; Tucker, Joseph D

    2016-04-01

    Background.  Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment access among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected people who inject drugs is poor, despite a high burden of disease in this population. Understanding barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment uptake is critical to the implementation of new direct-acting antivirals. Methods.  We conducted in-depth interviews with patients, physicians, and social workers at an HIV treatment facility and methadone maintenance treatment centers in Guangzhou, China to identify barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment. We included patients who were in various stages of HCV treatment and those who were not treated. We used standard qualitative methods and organized data into themes. Results.  Interview data from 29 patients, 8 physicians, and 3 social workers were analyzed. Facilitators and barriers were organized according to a modified Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research schematic. Facilitators included patient trust in physicians, hope for a cure, peer networks, and social support. Barriers included ongoing drug use, low HCV disease knowledge, fragmented reimbursement systems, HIV exceptionalism, and stigma. Conclusions.  Expanding existing harm reduction programs, HIV treatment programs, and social services may facilitate scale-up of direct-acting antivirals globally. Improving integration of ancillary social and mental health services within existing HIV care systems may facilitate HCV treatment access.

  18. Hepatitis C Virus Treatment Access Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-Coinfected People Who Inject Drugs in Guangzhou, China: Implications for HCV Treatment Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Carissa E.; Wu, Feng; He, Xi; Zhou, Kali; Cheng, Yu; Cai, Weiping; Geng, Elvin; Volberding, Paul; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment access among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected people who inject drugs is poor, despite a high burden of disease in this population. Understanding barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment uptake is critical to the implementation of new direct-acting antivirals. Methods. We conducted in-depth interviews with patients, physicians, and social workers at an HIV treatment facility and methadone maintenance treatment centers in Guangzhou, China to identify barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment. We included patients who were in various stages of HCV treatment and those who were not treated. We used standard qualitative methods and organized data into themes. Results. Interview data from 29 patients, 8 physicians, and 3 social workers were analyzed. Facilitators and barriers were organized according to a modified Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research schematic. Facilitators included patient trust in physicians, hope for a cure, peer networks, and social support. Barriers included ongoing drug use, low HCV disease knowledge, fragmented reimbursement systems, HIV exceptionalism, and stigma. Conclusions. Expanding existing harm reduction programs, HIV treatment programs, and social services may facilitate scale-up of direct-acting antivirals globally. Improving integration of ancillary social and mental health services within existing HIV care systems may facilitate HCV treatment access. PMID:27419150

  19. Human Services for Low-Income and At-Risk LGBT Populations: The Knowledge Base and Research Needs (Brief)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Burwick; Gary Gates; Scott Baumgartner; Daniel Friend

    2014-01-01

    This brief summarizes the current knowledge base and identifies key areas for future research related to human services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations. It focuses on three types of services funded by the Administration for Children and Families in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: (1) income support and self-sufficiency programs; (2) child welfare programs; and (3) programs for youth, especially services for runaway and homeless youth and sexual...

  20. Gregory Bateson’s Ecology of Mind and the Understanding of Human Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Magdalena Wasik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Departing from the biological notion of ecology that pertains to mutual relationships between organisms and their environments, this paper discusses theoretical foundations of research on the nature of human mind in relation to knowledge, cognition and communication conducted in a broader context of social sciences. It exposes the view, explicitly formulated by Gregory Bateson, that the mind is the way in which ideas are created, or just the systemic device for transmitting information in the world of all living species. In consequence, some crucial points of Bateson’s reasoning are accentuated, such as the recognition of the biological unity of organism and environment, the conviction of the necessity to study the ecology in terms of the economics of energy and material and/or the economy of information, the belief that consciousness distorts information coming to the organism from the inside and outside, which is the cause of its functional disadaptation, and the like. The conception of the ecology of an overall mind, as the sets of ideas, notions or thoughts in the whole world, is presented against the background of theoretical and empirical achievements of botany and zoology, anthropology, ethology and psychiatry, sociology and communication studies in connection with the development of cybernetics, systems theory and information theory.

  1. Human Resource Development for Knowledge-based Society and Challenges of Nagoya University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Takashi

    Innovation in the previous century resulted in development of useful products ranging from automobiles and aircraft to cellular phones. However, the innovation and development of science and technology have changed the society and brought about negative issues. The issues emerged in the previous century remain in the excessive forms in the 21st century. The 21st century is seeing the rise of knowledge-based society, and paradigm shift is now going on. Human resources of university for creation of innovation are being called on to contribute to solving issues. Young people who pass through a doctor program must play a role as an innovator who can promote the paradigm shift. However, the higher education system of the universities in Japan is now required to be changed to dissolve the mismatch on the doctor program with industries, government and students. The discussion in the Business-University Forum of Japan for innovation of education system and a few challenges of the Nagoya University are introduced in this paper.

  2. A Randomized Intervention Study to Evaluate Whether Electronic Messaging Can Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Completion and Knowledge among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Alice R.; Maddy, LaDonna; Torres, Essie; Goldberg, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate an intervention aimed at increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine completion of the 3-dose series and knowledge. Participants: Two hundred sixty-four male and female US college students 18-26 years old who were receiving HPV vaccine dose 1. Methods: Students were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group.…

  3. How to Inform: Comparing Written and Video Education Interventions to Increase Human Papillomavirus Knowledge and Vaccination Intentions in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Lau, Elsa; Perez, Samara; Delisle, Vanessa; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from October 2009 to…

  4. A human rights view on access to controlled substances for medical purposes under the international drug control framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gispen, Marie Elske C

    2013-11-05

    The world is confronted with a major public health deficit caused by poor access to controlled essential medicines under the international drug control framework. This is affecting millions of patients on a daily basis and resulting in numerous human rights violations. The present review contextualises this deficit from a human rights perspective. Drug control efforts are informed by a twofold objective stemming from the double nature of scheduled substances: free access for medical purposes should be ensured, though non-medical use of substances such as opium should be restricted. The international drug control framework is, in theory, based on this twofold notion, however at the level of interpretation, monitoring, and implementation, a one-sided emphasis is demonstrated. By tracing a parallel between the obligations of states under the international drug control framework and those that derive from human rights law, the review shows that the two systems seem incoherent and conflicting in nature and flags the importance of cross-disciplinary research into drug control and human rights.

  5. Simplified data access on human skeletal muscle transcriptome responses to differentiated exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Kristian; Schjerling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    to allow for easy access and interpretation of our data. We provide a simple-to-use spread sheet containing transcriptome data allowing other investigators to easily see how mRNA of their gene(s) of interest behave in skeletal muscle following exercise, both endurance, resistance and non...

  6. Linking departmental priorities to knowledge management: the experiences of Santa Cruz County's Human Services Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Arley

    2012-01-01

    Federal welfare reform, local service collaborations, and the evolution of statewide information systems inspired agency interest in evidence-informed practice and knowledge sharing systems. Four agency leaders, including the Director, Deputy Director, Director of Planning and Evaluation, and Staff Development Program Manager championed the development of a learning organization based on knowledge management throughout the agency. Internal department restructuring helped to strengthen the Planning and Evaluation, Staff Development, and Personnel units, which have become central to supporting knowledge sharing activities. The Four Pillars of Knowledge framework was designed to capture agency directions in relationship to future knowledge management goals. Featuring People, Practice, Technology and Budget, the framework links the agency's services, mission and goals to the process of becoming a learning organization. Built through an iterative process, the framework was created by observing existing activities in each department rather than being designed from the top down. Knowledge management can help the department to fulfill its mission despite reduced resources.

  7. Harnessing the Risk-Related Data Supply Chain: An Information Architecture Approach to Enriching Human System Research and Operations Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buquo, Lynn E.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2011-01-01

    An Information Architecture facilitates the understanding and, hence, harnessing of the human system risk-related data supply chain which enhances the ability to securely collect, integrate, and share data assets that improve human system research and operations. By mapping the risk-related data flow from raw data to useable information and knowledge (think of it as a data supply chain), the Human Research Program (HRP) and Space Life Science Directorate (SLSD) are building an information architecture plan to leverage their existing, and often shared, IT infrastructure.

  8. The state of human dimensions capacity for natural resource management: needs, knowledge, and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Leong, Kirsten M.; Milley, Brad J.; Clarke, Melinda M.; Teel, Tara L.; Chase, Mark A.; Dietsch, Alia M.

    2013-01-01

    The social sciences have become increasingly important in understanding natural resource management contexts and audiences, and are essential in design and delivery of effective and durable management strategies. Yet many agencies and organizations do not have the necessary resource management. We draw on the textbook definition of HD: how and why people value natural resources, what benefits people seek and derive from those resources, and how people affect and are affected by those resources and their management (Decker, Brown, and Seimer 2001). Clearly articulating how HD information can be used and integrated into natural resource management planning and decision-making is an important challenge faced by the HD field. To address this challenge, we formed a collaborative team to explore the issue of HD capacity-building for natural resource organizations and to advance the HD field. We define HD capacity as activities, efforts, and resources that enhance the ability of HD researchers and practitioners and natural managers and decision-makers to understand and address the social aspects of conservation. Specifically, we sought to examine current barriers to integration of HD into natural resource management, knowledge needed to improve HD capacity, and existing HD tools, resources, and training opportunities. We conducted a needs assessment of HD experts and practitioners, developed a framework for considering HD activities that can contribute both directly and indirectly throughout any phase of an adaptive management cycle, and held a workshop to review preliminary findings and gather additional input through breakout group discussions. This paper provides highlights from our collaborative initiative to help frame and inform future HD capacity-building efforts and natural resource organizations and also provides a list of existing human dimensions tools and resources.

  9. Methodology and Results of the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Brent; Mink, Ronald; Adamo, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) have been identified by the current administration as potential destinations for human explorers during the mid-2020s. While the close proximity of these objects' orbits to Earth's orbit creates a risk of highly damaging or catastrophic impacts, it also makes some of these objects particularly accessible to spacecraft departing Earth, and this presents unique opportunities for solar system science and humanity's first ventures beyond cislunar space. Planning such ambitious missions first requires the selection of potentially accessible targets from the growing population of nearly 7,800 NEAs. To accomplish this, NASA is conducting the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). Phase I of the NHATS was executed during September of 2010, and Phase II was completed by early March of 2011. The study is ongoing because previously undetected NEAs are being discovered constantly, which has motivated an effort to automate the analysis algorithms in order to provide continuous monitoring of NEA accessibility. The NHATS analysis process consists of a trajectory filter and a minimum maximum estimated size criterion. The trajectory filter employs the method of embedded trajectory grids to compute all possible ballistic round-trip mission trajectories to every NEA in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Small-Body Database (SBDB) and stores all solutions that satisfy the trajectory filter criteria. An NEA must offer at least one qualifying trajectory solution to pass the trajectory filter. The Phase II NHATS filter criteria were purposely chosen to be highly inclusive, requiring Earth departure date between January 1st, 2015 and December 31st, 2040, total round-trip flight time = 8 days, Earth departure C(sub 3) energy = 30 m. This corresponds to an absolute magnitude H = 30 m. The distributions of osculating heliocentric orbital semi-major axis (a), eccentricity (e), and inclination (i), for those 590 NEAs are

  10. Level of Knowledge about Human Papillomavirus Infection among Women of Kashan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekooi M.S. BSc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims A few studies concentrate on the level of knowledge of HPV. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of knowledge about HPV, its risk factors, and its relation with cervical cancer in women of Kashan City, Iran. Instrument & Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in January 2015 in the population of the women of Kashan City, Iran, and 200 persons were selected by simple sampling method. The level of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer were measured using a questionnaire with 10 questions about knowledge. The data was analyzed in SPSS 16 software by Chi-square, Exact Fisher and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Findings Most of the participants (152 persons; 76% had “weak, 26 participants (13% had “moderate” and only 22 participants (11% had “strong” level of knowledge about HPV. There were significant differences between the level of knowledge according to educational level (p=0.014 and professional status (p0.05. In all the questions, the most frequent answer was “don’t know”. The participants had some knowledge about “HPV causing cervical cancer” (34.5%, “HPV causing genital warts” (38%, “sexually transmission of HPV” (37.5% and “increased risk of getting HPV by extramarital sexual affairs” (43.5% Conclusion The level of knowledge about HPV, genital warts, and ways of infection transmission and its preventions in women of Kashan City, Iran, is insufficient.

  11. Human Papillomavirus (HPV Vaccination and Adolescent Girls' Knowledge and Sexuality in Western Uganda: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kampikaho Turiho

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination on adolescent girls' knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine, perception of sexual risk and intentions for sexual debut. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Ibanda and Mbarara districts. Data was collected using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences computer software. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were conducted with significance level set at p < .05. Results showed that HPV vaccination was associated with being knowledgeable (Crude OR: 5.26, CI: 2.32-11.93; p = 0.000. Vaccination against HPV did not predict perception of sexual risk. Knowledge was low (only 87/385 or 22.6% of vaccinated girls were knowledgeable, but predicted perception of a high sexual risk (Adjusted OR: 3.12, CI: 1.37-3.63; p = 0.008. HPV vaccination, knowledge and perceived sexual risk did not predict sexual behaviour intentions. High parental communication was associated with adolescent attitudes that support postponement of sexual debut in both bivariate and multiple regression analyses. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that HPV vaccination is not likely to encourage adolescent sexual activity. Influence of knowledge on sexual behaviour intentions was not definitively explained. Prospective cohort studies were proposed to address the emerging questions.

  12. Proteasome activator complex PA28 identified as an accessible target in prostate cancer by in vivo selection of human antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, David; Martínez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge; Teesalu, Tambet; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Alvarez-Cienfuegos, Ana; Ximénez-Embún, Pilar; Fernández-Periáñez, Rodrigo; Martín, M. Teresa; Molina-Privado, Irene; Ruppen-Cañás, Isabel; Blanco-Toribio, Ana; Cañamero, Marta; Cuesta, Ángel M.; Compte, Marta; Kremer, Leonor; Bellas, Carmen; Alonso-Camino, Vanesa; Guijarro-Muñoz, Irene; Sanz, Laura; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Alvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Antibody cancer therapies rely on systemically accessible targets and suitable antibodies that exert a functional activity or deliver a payload to the tumor site. Here, we present proof-of-principle of in vivo selection of human antibodies in tumor-bearing mice that identified a tumor-specific antibody able to deliver a payload and unveils the target antigen. By using an ex vivo enrichment process against freshly disaggregated tumors to purge the repertoire, in combination with in vivo biopanning at optimized phage circulation time, we have identified a human domain antibody capable of mediating selective localization of phage to human prostate cancer xenografts. Affinity chromatography followed by mass spectrometry analysis showed that the antibody recognizes the proteasome activator complex PA28. The specificity of soluble antibody was confirmed by demonstrating its binding to the active human PA28αβ complex. Whereas systemically administered control phage was confined in the lumen of blood vessels of both normal tissues and tumors, the selected phage spread from tumor vessels into the perivascular tumor parenchyma. In these areas, the selected phage partially colocalized with PA28 complex. Furthermore, we found that the expression of the α subunit of PA28 [proteasome activator complex subunit 1 (PSME1)] is elevated in primary and metastatic human prostate cancer and used anti-PSME1 antibodies to show that PSME1 is an accessible marker in mouse xenograft tumors. These results support the use of PA28 as a tumor marker and a potential target for therapeutic intervention in prostate cancer. PMID:23918357

  13. Agent based simulation on the process of human flesh search-From perspective of knowledge and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hou; Hu, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Human flesh search as a new net crowed behavior, on the one hand can help us to find some special information, on the other hand may lead to privacy leaking and offending human right. In order to study the mechanism of human flesh search, this paper proposes a simulation model based on agent-based model and complex networks. The computational experiments show some useful results. Discovered information quantity and involved personal ratio are highly correlated, and most of net citizens will take part in the human flesh search or will not take part in the human flesh search. Knowledge quantity does not influence involved personal ratio, but influences whether HFS can find out the target human. When the knowledge concentrates on hub nodes, the discovered information quantity is either perfect or almost zero. Emotion of net citizens influences both discovered information quantity and involved personal ratio. Concretely, when net citizens are calm to face the search topic, it will be hardly to find out the target; But when net citizens are agitated, the target will be found out easily.

  14. Knowledge Development in Internship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the chapter is to shed light on how these challenges and tendencies affect students’´ access to tacit and explicit knowledge and the professions’ knowledge development. To address these challenges, the chapter examines the question: How might periods of internship, offering different...... kinds of access to tacit and explicit knowledge by apprenticeship and reflection, have consequences for both students’ learning and the professions’ knowledge development?...

  15. Comparing humans and nonhuman great apes in the broken cloth problem: Is their knowledge causal or perceptual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiach-Serrano, Anna; Sebastián-Enesco, Carla; Seed, Amanda; Colmenares, Fernando; Call, Josep

    2015-11-01

    When presented with the broken cloth problem, both human children and nonhuman great apes prefer to pull a continuous cloth over a discontinuous cloth in order to obtain a desired object resting on top. This has been interpreted as evidence that they preferentially attend to the functionally relevant cues of the task (e.g., presence or absence of a gap along the cloth). However, there is controversy regarding whether great apes' behavior is underpinned by causal knowledge, involving abstract concepts (e.g., support, connection), or by perceptual knowledge, based on percepts (e.g., contact, continuity). We presented chimpanzees, orangutans, and 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children with two versions of the broken cloth problem. The Real condition, made with paper strips, could be solved based on either perceptual cues or causal knowledge. The Painted condition, which looked very similar, could be solved only by attending to perceptual cues. All groups mastered the Real condition, in line with previous results. Older children (3- and 4-year-olds) performed significantly better in this condition than all other groups, but the performance of apes and children did not differ sharply, with 2-year-olds and apes obtaining similar results. In contrast, only 4-year-olds solved the Painted condition. We propose causal knowledge to explain the general good performance of apes and humans in the Real condition compared with the Painted condition. In addition, we suggest that symbolic knowledge might account for 4-year-olds' performance in the Painted condition. Our findings add to the growing literature supporting the idea that learning from arbitrary cues is not a good explanation for the performance of apes and humans on some kinds of physical task.

  16. Knowledge and perception of human papilloma virus vaccine among the antenatal women in a Nigerian tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy E Agida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a major health problem globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria inclusive. One of the preventive measures is the vaccination of teenagers against oncogenic human papilloma virus. The aim of this study was to find out the level of knowledge mothers possess about these vaccines and their willingness to administer vaccination to their teenage girls. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 255 consecutive women attending antenatal clinic at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja. They were given either a self-administered questionnaire or interviewer-administered questionnaire containing both closed and open-ended questions. Information recorded includes socio-demographic variables, knowledge of cervical cancer, knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccines and acceptance of these vaccines for their adolescent girls. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 26.9 years. Over 90% had at least secondary education. A total of 102 (40% had the knowledge of cancer of the cervix while 153 (60% had never heard about it. Overall, 236 (92.5% of them had no idea about the predisposing factors. The study showed that only 23 (9.0% out of the total respondents had heard about human papilloma virus (HPV infection. In the same vein, 20 (7.8% had knowledge about HPV vaccine. Among the respondents, who had the knowledge of HPV and vaccination, 18.2% and 23.4% of them had secondary and tertiary levels of education respectively. Overall, 160 (62.8% accepted that the vaccines could be administered to their teenage girls. Conclusions: Awareness of cervical cancer, HPV infections, and HPV vaccines is low among antenatal clinic attendees in Gwagwalada, Abuja. However, majority of them would want their girls vaccinated against HPV infections. There is a need for all stakeholders to step up awareness creation for improved HPV vaccination project in

  17. Temporal dynamics of the knowledge-mediated visual disambiguation process in humans: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Tomokazu; Ogata, Katsuya; Kimura, Takahiro; Kume, Yuko; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2015-01-01

    Disambiguation of a noisy visual scene with prior knowledge is an indispensable task of the visual system. To adequately adapt to a dynamically changing visual environment full of noisy visual scenes, the implementation of knowledge-mediated disambiguation in the brain is imperative and essential for proceeding as fast as possible under the limited capacity of visual image processing. However, the temporal profile of the disambiguation process has not yet been fully elucidated in the brain. The present study attempted to determine how quickly knowledge-mediated disambiguation began to proceed along visual areas after the onset of a two-tone ambiguous image using magnetoencephalography with high temporal resolution. Using the predictive coding framework, we focused on activity reduction for the two-tone ambiguous image as an index of the implementation of disambiguation. Source analysis revealed that a significant activity reduction was observed in the lateral occipital area at approximately 120 ms after the onset of the ambiguous image, but not in preceding activity (about 115 ms) in the cuneus when participants perceptually disambiguated the ambiguous image with prior knowledge. These results suggested that knowledge-mediated disambiguation may be implemented as early as approximately 120 ms following an ambiguous visual scene, at least in the lateral occipital area, and provided an insight into the temporal profile of the disambiguation process of a noisy visual scene with prior knowledge.

  18. Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This list of potential mission targets should not be interpreted as a complete list of viable NEAs for an actual human exploration mission. As the NEA orbits are...

  19. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination and Adolescent Girls' Knowledge and Sexuality in Western Uganda: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Muhwezi, Wilson Winston; Okello, Elialilia Sarikiaeli; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Banura, Cecil; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on adolescent girls' knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine, perception of sexual risk and intentions for sexual debut. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Ibanda and Mbarara districts. Data was collected using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences computer software. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were conducted with significance level set at p sexual risk. Knowledge was low (only 87/385 or 22.6% of vaccinated girls were knowledgeable), but predicted perception of a high sexual risk (Adjusted OR: 3.12, CI: 1.37-3.63; p = 0.008). HPV vaccination, knowledge and perceived sexual risk did not predict sexual behaviour intentions. High parental communication was associated with adolescent attitudes that support postponement of sexual debut in both bivariate and multiple regression analyses. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that HPV vaccination is not likely to encourage adolescent sexual activity. Influence of knowledge on sexual behaviour intentions was not definitively explained. Prospective cohort studies were proposed to address the emerging questions.

  20. Maglev Launch: Ultra-low Cost, Ultra-high Volume Access to Space for Cargo and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Rather, John

    2010-01-01

    Despite decades of efforts to reduce rocket launch costs, improvements are marginal. Launch cost to LEO for cargo is ~$10,000 per kg of payload, and to higher orbit and beyond much greater. Human access to the ISS costs $20 million for a single passenger. Unless launch costs are greatly reduced, large scale commercial use and human exploration of the solar system will not occur. A new approach for ultra low cost access to space-Maglev Launch-magnetically accelerates levitated spacecraft to orbital speeds, 8 km/sec or more, in evacuated tunnels on the surface, using Maglev technology like that operating in Japan for high speed passenger transport. The cost of electric energy to reach orbital speed is less than $1 per kilogram of payload. Two Maglev launch systems are described, the Gen-1System for unmanned cargo craft to orbit and Gen-2, for large-scale access of human to space. Magnetically levitated and propelled Gen-1 cargo craft accelerate in a 100 kilometer long evacuated tunnel, entering the atmosphere at the tunnel exit, which is located in high altitude terrain (~5000 meters) through an electrically powered ``MHD Window'' that prevents outside air from flowing into the tunnel. The Gen-1 cargo craft then coasts upwards to space where a small rocket burn, ~0.5 km/sec establishes, the final orbit. The Gen-1 reference design launches a 40 ton, 2 meter diameter spacecraft with 35 tons of payload. At 12 launches per day, a single Gen-1 facility could launch 150,000 tons annually. Using present costs for tunneling, superconductors, cryogenic equipment, materials, etc., the projected construction cost for the Gen-1 facility is 20 billion dollars. Amortization cost, plus Spacecraft and O&M costs, total $43 per kg of payload. For polar orbit launches, sites exist in Alaska, Russia, and China. For equatorial orbit launches, sites exist in the Andes and Africa. With funding, the Gen-1 system could operate by 2020 AD. The Gen-2 system requires more advanced technology

  1. Respecting the right to access to medicines: Implications of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights for the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Suerie

    2013-06-14

    What are the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies with regard to access to medicines? The state-based international human rights framework has long struggled with the issue of the human rights obligations of non-state actors, a question sharpened by economic globalization and the concomitant growing power of private for-profit actors ("business"). In 2011, after a six-year development process, the UN Human Rights Council unanimously endorsed the Guiding Principles advanced by the UN Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and Human Rights, John Ruggie. The Ruggie Principles sought to clarify and differentiate the responsibilities of states and non-state actors-in this case, "business" -with respect to human rights. The framework centered on "three core principles: the state duty to protect against human rights abuses by third parties, including business; the corporate responsibility to respect human rights; and the need for more effective access to remedies." The "Protect, Respect, and Remedy" Framework emerged from a review of many industrial sectors operating from local to global scales, in many regions of the world, and involving multiple stakeholder consultations. However, their implications for the pharmaceutical industry regarding access to medicines remain unclear. This article analyzes the 2008 Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines advanced by then-UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health, Paul Hunt, in light of the Ruggie Principles. It concludes that some guidelines relate directly to the industry's responsibility to respect the right to access to medicines, and form a normative baseline to which firms should be held accountable. It also finds that responsibility for other guidelines may better be ascribed to states than to private actors, based on conceptual and practical considerations. While not discouraging the pharmaceutical industry from making additional

  2. Improving Human-Computer Interaction by Developing Culture-sensitive Applications based on Common Sense Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Anacleto, Junia Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    The advent of Web 3.0, claiming for personalization in interactive systems (Lassila & Hendler, 2007), and the need for systems capable of interacting in a more natural way in the future society flooded with computer systems and devices (Harper et al., 2008) show that great advances in HCI should be done. This chapter presents some contributions of LIA for the future of HCI, defending that using common sense knowledge is a possibility for improving HCI, especially because people assign meaning to their messages based on their common sense and, therefore, the use of this knowledge in developing user interfaces can make them more intuitive to the end-user. Moreover, as common sense knowledge varies from group to group of people, it can be used for developing applications capable of giving different feedback for different target groups, as the applications presented along this chapter illustrate, allowing, in this way, interface personalization taking into account cultural issues. For the purpose of using com...

  3. Knowledge Gaps in Rodent Pancreas Biology: Taking Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells into Our Own Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Munirah Mohamad; Low, Blaise Su Jun; Pek, Nicole Min Qian; Teo, Adrian Kee Keong

    2015-01-01

    In the field of stem cell biology and diabetes, we and others seek to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells for disease modeling and cell replacement therapy. Traditionally, knowledge gathered from rodents is extended to human pancreas developmental biology research involving human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). While much has been learnt from rodent pancreas biology in the early steps toward Pdx1(+) pancreatic progenitors, much less is known about the transition toward Ngn3(+) pancreatic endocrine progenitors. Essentially, the later steps of pancreatic β cell development and maturation remain elusive to date. As a result, the most recent advances in the stem cell and diabetes field have relied upon combinatorial testing of numerous growth factors and chemical compounds in an arbitrary trial-and-error fashion to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells from hPSCs. Although this hit-or-miss approach appears to have made some headway in maturing human pancreatic β cells in vitro, its underlying biology is vaguely understood. Therefore, in this mini-review, we discuss some of these late-stage signaling pathways that are involved in human pancreatic β cell differentiation and highlight our current understanding of their relevance in rodent pancreas biology. Our efforts here unravel several novel signaling pathways that can be further studied to shed light on unexplored aspects of rodent pancreas biology. New investigations into these signaling pathways are expected to advance our knowledge in human pancreas developmental biology and to aid in the translation of stem cell biology in the context of diabetes treatments.

  4. A HUMAN RIGHTS-BASED APPROACH TO POVERTY REDUCTION: THE ROLE OF THE RIGHT OF ACCESS TO MEDICINE AS AN ELEMENT OF THE RIGHT OF ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zannelize Strauss

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevention and treatment of infectious diseases remain among the greatest challenges faced by today's developing countries. The World Health Organisation estimates that about one-third of the world's population lacks access to essential medicine, a fact which, according to the United Nations, directly contradicts the fundamental principle of health as a human right. According to the World Summit for Social Development, poor health and illness are factors that contribute to poverty, while the adverse effects of illness ensure that the poor become poorer. A lack of access to health care, amongst other rights, (including access to medicines as an element thereof aggravates poverty. The most important provision in international law relating to the right to health is article 12 of the United Nations International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Article 12(1 of this Covenant provides a broad formulation of the right to health in international law, while article 12(2 prescribes a non-exhaustive list of steps to be taken in pursuit of the highest attainable standard of health. Article 12(2, in particular, illustrates the role that adequate access to medication plays in the right of access to health care. The United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has explicitly included the provision of essential drugs as a component of the right to health care, thereby emphasising the causal link between the lack of access to essential medicines and the non-fulfilment of the right of access to health care. As with all socio-economic rights, the resource implications of the realisation of the right to health has the result that states cannot be expected to immediately comply with its obligations in respect thereof. Instead, article 2(1 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the General Comments of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights place obligations on states to take

  5. Hubungan antara Knowledge-Technology-Innovation (KTI, Commitment, Competence, Leadership, Government Policy, Human Capital, dan Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In current tight competitive situation, companies always try to create differentiation anytime to achieve better and sustainable performance. Rapid and unpredictable changes insist the companies should always be innovative, so that aspects of globalization, e-business, technology innovation, creativity, global competition, knowledge creation, diffusion of new technologies and knowledge revolution should be sources of performance and competitiveness improvement. Therefore, tomaintain core competencies and competitive advantage, the companies should develop continuous innovation, technologylearning, and knowledge management. Knowledge-Technology-Innovation (KTI can be a driver for country’s development and growth. Japan, South Korea, and Singapore are the countries that have limited natural and human resources, but able to achieve sustainable economic development. KTI is not only to be practiced at individual and organizational level, but also can be implemented at the community, national, or state level. KTI, therefore, can encourage expected competitive advantage creation and become a decisive factor for a country to achieve stable and sustainable economic growth. This research intends to analyze relationships of KTI, competitive advantage, commitment, leadership, human capital, government policy,and competence. This research used correlational method and literature study approach. The result of this research is a relationship model of each of these aspects that can be used as a framework for further research. The relationships model isas follows: Leadership, competence, and human capital (as independent variables have direct relationship (influence oncompetitive advantage (dependent variable or indirectly (through KTI as an intervening variable; KTI has direct relationship (effect on competitive advantage; Government policy and commitment are moderator variables for relationshipof KTI and competitive advantage.

  6. HUBUNGAN ANTARA KNOWLEDGE-TECHNOLOGY-INNOVATION (KTI, COMMITMENT, COMPETENCE, LEADERSHIP, GOVERNMENT POLICY, HUMAN CAPITAL, DAN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In current tight competitive situation, companies always try to create differentiation anytime to achieve better and sustainable performance. Rapid and unpredictable changes insist the companies should always be innovative, so that aspects of globalization, e-business, technology innovation, creativity, global competition, knowledge creation, diffusion of new technologies and knowledge revolution should be sources of performance and competitiveness improvement. Therefore, to maintain core competencies and competitive advantage, the companies should develop continuous innovation, technology learning, and knowledge management. Knowledge-Technology-Innovation (KTI can be a driver for countrys development and growth. Japan, South Korea, and Singapore are the countries that have limited natural and human resources, but able to achieve sustainable economic development. KTI is not only to be practiced at individual and organizational level, but also can be implemented at the community, national, or state level. KTI, therefore, can encourage expected competitive advantage creation and become a decisive factor for a country to achieve stable and sustainable economic growth. This research intends to analyze relationships of KTI, competitive advantage, commitment, leadership, human capital, government policy, and competence. This research used correlational method and literature study approach. The result of this research is a relationship model of each of these aspects that can be used as a framework for further research. The relationships model is as follows: Leadership, competence, and human capital (as independent variables have direct relationship (influence on competitive advantage (dependent variable or indirectly (through KTI as an intervening variable; KTI has direct relationship (effect on competitive advantage; Government policy and commitment are moderator variables for relationship of KTI and competitive advantage.

  7. The human capital in the knowledge society. Theoretical and empirical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pelinescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We live today in a changing society based on the globalization and better valorisation of the human capital. The human capital is the central driver force for competitiveness and development of the new technology and patent and a necessary factor for their efficient use in the new society. In order to reach the competitiveness objective, the European Union member countries seek to develop their human capital value by increasing investment in education, science and technology development. Based on the panel econometrics techniques, this paper explores the statistical correlations between human capital components and national competitiveness within the EU economic context.

  8. Open Access: (Social Sciences as Public Good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Mruck

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The need to provide open access to articles published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals is becoming apparent to researchers as well as the non-scientific public as a result of "Budapest Open Access Initiative," the "Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities" and other initiatives. The core question that concerns open access is the following: since scientific information is usually financed by public funding, and therefore a public good, shouldn't the access be free of cost to all interested parties. Currently the open access movement is encountering the movement against the "Digital Divide," and therefore it is not surprising that the demand for open access has extended to a political level as reflected in the "WSIS Declaration of Principles" and the "WSIS Plan of Action." This article begins by providing a brief summary of the historical background of the open access movement and its major aims (Section 2. It then lists examples that explain possible links between the open access movement and the initiatives against the "Digital Divide" (Section 3. Section 4 considers some important barriers responsible for the fact that open access publishing is still not part of the everyday scientific publishing practices. This has various consequences. Selected consequences concerning the recent debate on redistribution processes between "information poor" and "information rich" are summarized in Section 5. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0402141

  9. Emergency Contraception Education for Health and Human Service Professionals: An Evaluation of Knowledge and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarossi, Lisa; Billowitz, Marissa; Breitbart, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers, health educators, and social service providers before and after a training session on emergency contraceptive pills. Design: A survey study using pre-post training measurements. Setting: Two hundred and twenty-three medical, social service, and health education providers in…

  10. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart Massad, L.; Evans, Charlesnika T.; Weber, Kathleen M.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Hessol, Nancy A.; Wright, Rodney L.; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe changes in knowledge of cervical cancer prevention, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccination among women at high risk for cervical cancer in the first five years after introduction of HPV vaccination. Methods In 2007, 2008–9, and 2011, women in a multicenter U.S. cohort study completed 44-item self-report questionnaires assessing knowledge of cervical cancer prevention, HPV, and HPV vaccination. Results across time were assessed for individuals, and three study enrollment cohorts were compared. Knowledge scores were correlated with demographic variables, measures of education and attention, and medical factors. Associations were assessed in multivariable models. Results In all, 974 women completed three serial questionnaires; most were minority, low income, and current or former smokers. The group included 652 (67%) HIV infected and 322 (33%) uninfected. Summary knowledge scores (possible range 0–24) increased from 2007 (12.8, S.D. 5.8) to 2008–9 (13.9, S.D. 5.3, P < 0.001) and to 2011 (14.3, S.D. 5.2, P < 0.0001 vs 2007 and < 0.04 vs 2008–9). Higher knowledge scores at first and follow-up administration of questionnaires, higher income, and higher education level were associated with improved knowledge score at third administration. Women not previously surveyed had scores similar to those of the longitudinal group at baseline. Conclusion Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding. PMID:25870859

  11. Knowledge grows when shared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbæk, Mikael Karstensen

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge is one of the few commodities that don’t devalue when used. Actually knowledge grows when shared and the free online access to peer-reviewed scientific publications is a potent ingredient the process of sharing. The sharing of knowledge is facilitated by the Open Access Movement. However...... infrastructure for Open Access was launched in Ghent, Belgium. This project and initiative is facilitating the success of the Open Access Pilot in FP7 as presented earlier in this journal. In this brief article I will present some of the most interesting issues that were discussed during the first session...

  12. Knowledge Creation and Human Capital for Development: The Role of Graduate Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Jay; Abubakar, Y. A.; Sagagi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Tackling structural and emergent problems in the labour market, valorising skilled human capital (HC) for opportunity creation, economic development and growth, are some of the key drivers for graduate entrepreneurship. This paper aims to examine developments in Africa, focusing on the significance of improving human capital through…

  13. A Lovely Building for Difficult Knowledge: The Architecture of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodtke, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    One only needs to look at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) logo, with its abstract outline of the CMHR building, to see the way in which the museum's architecture has come to stand for the CMHR's immaterial meanings and content. The CMHR's architecture becomes a material intersection of discourses of cosmopolitanism, human rights, and…

  14. An Examination of the Human Factors Attitudes and Knowledge of Surface Warfare Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    result from a single error. This idea is captured by the most widely known model of accident causation of human error—the “Swiss Cheese ” model (Reason...London: Lloyds List Events. Booher, H. (2003). Handbook of human systems integration. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Canadian Transportation

  15. Free Access to Running Wheels Abolishes Hyperphagia in Human Growth Hormone Transgenic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    KOMATSUDA, Mugiko; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obesity is a major health problem, and increased food intake and decreased physical activity are considered as two major factors causing obesity. Previous studies show that voluntary exercise in a running wheel decreases not only body weight but also food intake of rats. We previously produced human growth hormone transgenic (TG) rats, which are characterized by severe hyperphagia and obesity. To gain more insight into the effects on physical activity to food consumption and obesity,...

  16. Building organizational supports for knowledge sharing in county human service organizations: a cross-case analysis of works-in-progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chris; Austin, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Building on the literature related to evidence-based practice, knowledge management, and learning organizations, this cross-case analysis presents twelve works-in-progress in ten local public human service organizations seeking to develop their own knowledge sharing systems. The data for this cross-case analysis can be found in the various contributions to this Special Issue. The findings feature the developmental aspects of building a learning organization that include knowledge sharing systems featuring transparency, self-assessment, and dissemination and utilization. Implications for practice focus on the structure and processes involved in building knowledge sharing teams inside public human service organizations.

  17. Quality of life, socioeconomic profile, knowledge and attitude toward sexuality from the perspectives of individuals living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiry Fernanda Pinto Okuno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to analyze the quality of life of "patients" with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and relate it to their socioeconomic profile, knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality. Method: crosssectional and analytical study with 201 individuals who are 50 years old or older. The Targeted Quality of Life and Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scales were applied during interviews. Multiple Linear Regression was used in data analysis. Results: dimensions of quality of life more strongly compromised were disclosure worries (39.0, sexual function (45.9, and financial worries (55.6. Scores concerning knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality were 31.7 and 14.8, respectively. There was significant correlation between attitudes and the domains of overall function, health worries, medication worries, and HIV mastery. Conclusion: guidance concerning how the disease is transmitted, treated and how it progresses, in addition to providing social and psychological support, could minimize the negative effects of the disease on the quality of life of patients living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

  18. Evaluation of the Effect of a Promotora-led Educational Intervention on Cervical Cancer and Human Papillomavirus Knowledge Among Predominantly Hispanic Primary Care Patients on the US-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molokwu, Jennifer; Penaranda, Eribeth; Flores, Silvia; Shokar, Navkiran K

    2016-12-01

    Despite declining cervical cancer rates, ethnic minorities continue to bear an unequal burden in morbidity and mortality. While access to screening is a major barrier, low levels of knowledge and cultural influences have been found to play a part in underutilization of preventive services. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of a promontora-led educational intervention on cervical cancer and human papillomavirus knowledge in mainly Hispanic females attending a primary care clinic. One hundred ten females were recruited from the waiting room of a busy primary care clinic and invited to attend individual or small group educational sessions. Participants completed knowledge surveys pre- and post-intervention. An overall evaluation of the educational session was also completed. Following the educational intervention, participants showed an improvement in knowledge scores from a mean score of 10.8 (SD 3.43) out of a possible score of 18 to a mean score of 16.0 (SD1.51) (p cervical cancer. An educational intervention delivered by well-trained Promotora/Lay health care worker significantly improves patient's cervical cancer and HPV knowledge and can be a useful tool in patient education in the clinical setting especially with high risk populations.

  19. Carotenoids: Actual knowledge on food sources, intakes, stability and bioavailability and their protective role in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiani, Giuseppe; Castón, María Jesús Periago; Catasta, Giovina

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are one of the major food micronutrients in human diets and the overall objective of this review is to re-examine the role of carotenoids in human nutrition. We have emphasized the attention on the following carotenoids present in food and human tissues: -carotene, -cryptoxanthin......, -carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin; we have reported the major food sources and dietary intake of these compounds. We have tried to summarize positive and negative effects of food processing, storage, cooking on carotenoid content and carotenoid bioavailability. In particular, we have evidenced...... the possibility to improve carotenoids bioavailability in accordance with changes and variations of technology procedures....

  20. Access to bacteriophage therapy: discouraging experiences from the human cell and tissue legal framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeken, G; Huys, I; De Vos, D; De Coninck, A; Roseeuw, D; Kets, E; Vanderkelen, A; Draye, J P; Rose, T; Jennes, S; Ceulemans, C; Pirnay, J P

    2016-02-01

    Cultures of human epithelial cells (keratinocytes) are used as an additional surgical tool to treat critically burnt patients. Initially, the production environment of keratinocyte grafts was regulated exclusively by national regulations. In 2004, the European Tissues and Cells Directive 2004/23/EC (transposed into Belgian Law) imposed requirements that resulted in increased production costs and no significant increase in quality and/or safety. In 2007, Europe published Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007 on Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products. Overnight, cultured keratinocytes became (arguably) 'Advanced' Therapy Medicinal Products to be produced as human medicinal products. The practical impact of these amendments was (and still is) considerable. A similar development appears imminent in bacteriophage therapy. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that can be used for tackling the problem of bacterial resistance development to antibiotics. Therapeutic natural bacteriophages have been in clinical use for almost 100 years. Regulators today are framing the (re-)introduction of (natural) bacteriophage therapy into 'modern western' medicine as biological medicinal products, also subject to stringent regulatory medicinal products requirements. In this paper, we look back on a century of bacteriophage therapy to make the case that therapeutic natural bacteriophages should not be classified under the medicinal product regulatory frames as they exist today. It is our call to authorities to not repeat the mistake of the past.

  1. Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions Workshop Booklet - 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Although NASA's preparations for the Apollo lunar missions had only a limited time to consider issues associated with the protection of the Moon from biological contamination and the quarantine of the astronauts returning to Earth, they learned many valuable lessons (both positive and negative) in the process. As such, those efforts represent the baseline of planetary protection preparations for sending humans to Mars. Neither the post-Apollo experience or the Shuttle and other follow-on missions of either the US or Russian human spaceflight programs could add many additional insights to that baseline. Current mission designers have had the intervening four decades for their consideration, and in that time there has been much learned about human-associated microbes, about Mars, and about humans in space that has helped prepare us for a broad spectrum of considerations regarding potential biological contamination in human Mars missions and how to control it. This paper will review the approaches used in getting this far, and highlight some implications of this history for the future development of planetary protection provisions for human missions to Mars. The role of NASA and ESA's planetary protection offices, and the aegis of COSPAR have been particularly important in the ongoing process.

  2. Human Rights and/or Market Logic: Neoliberalism, Difficult Knowledge, and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) has been plagued by controversy since before its construction even began. Outcries regarding perceived oversights in the museum's programming and objections to the cost of construction, curatorial development, and staffing have erupted frequently in local media. Critical analyses of public responses to…

  3. The Knowledge Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulding, Kenneth E.

    1970-01-01

    Although human knowledge has expanded rapidly, especially during the scientific era, man is far from the limits of knowledge about the human learning process itself. Greatly increased effort in this area of inquiry is required for survival. (JH)

  4. Novel joint TOA/RSSI-based WCE location tracking method without prior knowledge of biological human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takahiro; Anzai, Daisuke; Jianqing Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel joint time of arrival (TOA)/received signal strength indicator (RSSI)-based wireless capsule endoscope (WCE) location tracking method without prior knowledge of biological human tissues. Generally, TOA-based localization can achieve much higher localization accuracy than other radio frequency-based localization techniques, whereas wireless signals transmitted from a WCE pass through various kinds of human body tissues, as a result, the propagation velocity inside a human body should be different from one in free space. Because the variation of propagation velocity is mainly affected by the relative permittivity of human body tissues, instead of pre-measurement for the relative permittivity in advance, we simultaneously estimate not only the WCE location but also the relative permittivity information. For this purpose, this paper first derives the relative permittivity estimation model with measured RSSI information. Then, we pay attention to a particle filter algorithm with the TOA-based localization and the RSSI-based relative permittivity estimation. Our computer simulation results demonstrates that the proposed tracking methods with the particle filter can accomplish an excellent localization accuracy of around 2 mm without prior information of the relative permittivity of the human body tissues.

  5. Digital Scholarship and Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

  6. Can Alice and Bob be random: a study on human playing zero knowledge protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Kulesza, Kamil

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this abstract was initiated by discussions between the author and Giovanni Di Crescenzo in Barcelona in early 2004. It was during Advanced Course on Contemporary Cryptology that Di Crescenzo gave a course on zero knowledge protocols (ZKP), see [1]. After that course we started to play with unorthodox ideas for breaking ZKP, especially one based on graph 3-coloring. It was chosen for investigation because it is being considered as a "benchmark" ZKP, see [2], [3]. At this point we briefly recall such a protocol's description.

  7. The effects of type of knowledge upon human problem solving in a process control task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, N. M.; Rouse, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    The question of what the operator of a dynamic system needs to know was investigated in an experiment using PLANT, a simulation of a generic dynamic production process. Knowledge of PLANT was manipulated via different types of instruction, so that four different groups were created: (1) minimal instructions only; (2) minimal instructions and guidelines for operation (procedures); (3) minimal instructions and dynamic relationships (principles); and (4) minimal instructions, and procedures, and principles. Subjects controlled PLANT in a variety of situations which required maintaining production while also diagnosing familiar and unfamiliar failures. Despite the fact that these manipulations resulted in differences in subjects' Knowledge, as assessed via a written test at the end of the experiment, instructions had no effect upon achievement of the primary goal of production, or upon subjects' ability to diagnose unfamiliar failures. However, those groups receiving procedures controlled the system in a more stable manner. Possible reasons for the failure to find an effect of principles are presented, and the implications of these results for operator training and aiding are discussed.

  8. Communication and knowledge sharing in human-robot interaction and learning from demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Nathan; Takayama, Leila; Matarić, Maja

    2010-01-01

    Inexpensive personal robots will soon become available to a large portion of the population. Currently, most consumer robots are relatively simple single-purpose machines or toys. In order to be cost effective and thus widely accepted, robots will need to be able to accomplish a wide range of tasks in diverse conditions. Learning these tasks from demonstrations offers a convenient mechanism to customize and train a robot by transferring task related knowledge from a user to a robot. This avoids the time-consuming and complex process of manual programming. The way in which the user interacts with a robot during a demonstration plays a vital role in terms of how effectively and accurately the user is able to provide a demonstration. Teaching through demonstrations is a social activity, one that requires bidirectional communication between a teacher and a student. The work described in this paper studies how the user's visual observation of the robot and the robot's auditory cues affect the user's ability to teach the robot in a social setting. Results show that auditory cues provide important knowledge about the robot's internal state, while visual observation of a robot can hinder an instructor due to incorrect mental models of the robot and distractions from the robot's movements.

  9. Knowledge of young Polish women of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Biała

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. HPV infection is the most frequent sexually transmitted disease and a major epidemiological problem in the world. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are responsible for over 70.0% cases of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of young women concerning HPV infection as well as possibilities of cervical cancer prevention. Moreover, the study had to determine which groups of young women especially required educational campaigns. Material and methods. The questionnaire survey was carried out among 126 young Polish women aged 18–35. The results were statistically analyzed. Results. The survey found that 41.3% women had heard about HPV before interview. Nearly 38.5% of women correctly indicated the occurrence of cancer which is associated with HPV infection. About 23.0% of women received a vaccination against HPV, only 19.2% of women correctly identified who should be subjected to vaccination. The best knowledge about cervical cancer and disease prevention was manifested among female university graduates and groups living in urban areas. Those women also more often underwent cytological screening. Conclusions. Educational campaigns should particularly include group of women living in the rural areas and women with primary and secondary education.

  10. Can International Human Rights Law Help Restore Access to Justice for Disabled Workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Harwood

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research literature indicates that legislative changes in recent years, including the introduction of tribunal fees, have made it harder for workers in general to enforce their rights under UK employment laws. Drawing on the author’s qualitative study, conducted in 2015 and with information from 265 participants, this paper finds that these legislative changes could be having disproportionate adverse impacts on disabled workers. Of particular note, fees had deterred substantial numbers from submitting discrimination claims; and it appeared that this reluctance to take legal action had in turn emboldened some employers to commit what might have been found to constitute unlawful acts if taken to tribunal. The paper goes onto consider whether these adverse impacts on disabled workers could render fees unlawful under UK and European equality and human rights law and/or could entail violations of rights under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The paper concludes that the intent behind UK laws might (in relation to the lawfulness of fees have been frustrated in the domestic courts and that the impact of any future successes in the domestic courts, or under international law, might be dependent upon public opinion and political expediency. The paper also briefly compares developments in Britain with developments in neighbouring and other comparable jurisdictions.

  11. School Nurses' Knowledge, Attitudes, Perceptions of Role as Opinion Leader, and Professional Practice Regarding Human Papillomavirus Vaccine for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L.; Goodson, Patricia; Thompson, Bruce; Wilson, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates remain low, we evaluated US school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, and professional practice regarding HPV vaccine, and assessed whether knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of being an opinion leader influenced their professional…

  12. Quality and Knowledge Content in Music Activities in Preschool: The Impact of Human Materiality Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman Nilsson, Marie-Helene; Holmberg, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, pedagogical research has been child centered, where materialities often have been considered as objects and tools. However, in recent posthuman research, attempts have been made to consider human materiality combinations to have impact on pedagogical activities in preschool, but to a large extent music as an issue has been…

  13. Human vs. Computer Diagnosis of Students' Natural Selection Knowledge: Testing the Efficacy of Text Analytic Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Haertig, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Our study examines the efficacy of Computer Assisted Scoring (CAS) of open-response text relative to expert human scoring within the complex domain of evolutionary biology. Specifically, we explored whether CAS can diagnose the explanatory elements (or Key Concepts) that comprise undergraduate students' explanatory models of natural selection with…

  14. Harnessing the Risk-Related Data Supply Chain: An Information Architecture Approach to Enriching Human System Research and Operations Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buquo, Lynn; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) and Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD), not unlike many NASA organizations today, struggle with the inherent inefficiencies caused by dependencies on heterogeneous data systems and silos of data and information spread across decentralized discipline domains. The capture of operational and research-based data/information (both in-flight and ground-based) in disparate IT systems impedes the extent to which that data/information can be efficiently and securely shared, analyzed, and enriched into knowledge that directly and more rapidly supports HRP's research-focused human system risk mitigation efforts and SLSD s operationally oriented risk management efforts. As a result, an integrated effort is underway to more fully understand and document how specific sets of risk-related data/information are generated and used and in what IT systems that data/information currently resides. By mapping the risk-related data flow from raw data to useable information and knowledge (think of it as the data supply chain), HRP and SLSD are building an information architecture plan to leverage their existing, shared IT infrastructure. In addition, it is important to create a centralized structured tool to represent risks including attributes such as likelihood, consequence, contributing factors, and the evidence supporting the information in all these fields. Representing the risks in this way enables reasoning about the risks, e.g. revisiting a risk assessment when a mitigation strategy is unavailable, updating a risk assessment when new information becomes available, etc. Such a system also provides a concise way to communicate the risks both within the organization as well as with collaborators. Understanding and, hence, harnessing the human system risk-related data supply chain enhances both organizations' abilities to securely collect, integrate, and share data assets that improve human system research and operations.

  15. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato genotypes infecting humans--review of current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Romig, Thomas; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variability in the species group Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is well recognised as affecting intermediate host susceptibility and other biological features of the parasites. Molecular methods have allowed discrimination of different genotypes (G1-10 and the 'lion strain'), some of which are now considered separate species. An accumulation of genotypic analyses undertaken on parasite isolates from human cases of cystic echinococcosis provides the basis upon which an assessment is made here of the relative contribution of the different genotypes to human disease. The allocation of samples to G-numbers becomes increasingly difficult, because much more variability than previously recognised exists in the genotypic clusters G1-3 (=E. granulosus sensu stricto) and G6-10 (Echinococcus canadensis). To accommodate the heterogeneous criteria used for genotyping in the literature, we restrict ourselves to differentiate between E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-3), Echinococcus equinus (G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6-7, G8, G10). The genotype G1 is responsible for the great majority of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide (88.44%), has the most cosmopolitan distribution and is often associated with transmission via sheep as intermediate hosts. The closely related genotypes G6 and G7 cause a significant number of human infections (11.07%). The genotype G6 was found to be responsible for 7.34% of infections worldwide. This strain is known from Africa and Asia, where it is transmitted mainly by camels (and goats), and South America, where it appears to be mainly transmitted by goats. The G7 genotype has been responsible for 3.73% of human cases of cystic echinococcosis in eastern European countries, where the parasite is transmitted by pigs. Some of the samples (11) could not be identified with a single specific genotype belonging to E. canadensis (G6/10). Rare cases of human cystic echinococcosis have been identified as having been caused by

  16. Development of knowledge based operation system for making product matching with requirement by human sense; Kansei tekigo seihinseizo wo mezashita chiteki opereshon shisumtemu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Hiroyuki [Nagoya University, Aichi (Japan). Dept. of Biotechnology

    1999-12-16

    Knowledge based operation system was developed in order to apply the human sense to process operation. Since beverages such as coffee, beer and sake, are seriously evaluated by human sense, those sensory evaluations or data on those chemical composition were subjected to this research. Fuzzy neural network (FNN) ro its hierarchical structure (HFNN) was superior tool for modeling of human sense. With respect to the determination of the chemical composition from desired sensory evaluation, an innovative tool, CF-GA, was newly developed. Using these tools, construction of knowledge based operation system for making the product matching with requirement by human sense became promising. (author)

  17. Cervical Cancer Prevention in Malaysia: Knowledge and Attitude of Undergraduate Pharmacy Students Towards Human Papillomavirus Infection, Screening and Vaccination in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Sze Fang, Kelly Num; Lui, Lai Yun

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate knowledge of undergraduate pharmacy students about human papillomavirus infection and their attitude towards its prevention. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 270 undergraduate pharmacy students using a validated questionnaire to assess knowledge about human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer and their attitudes towards human papillomavirus vaccines. Eighty-one percent of the respondents knew that human papillomavirus is a cause of cervical cancer, and 87.8 % knew that this infection is preventable. The gender of the respondents showed the strongest correlations with human papillomavirus knowledge. There were no significant correlations between the ethnic group of the respondents and their human papillomavirus-related knowledge. Higher perceptions of risk were associated with relationship status, and respondents who were in a relationship showed greater interest in vaccinating themselves; relationship status emerged as a unique predictor. The results indicated a moderately high level of knowledge and positive attitude towards human papillomavirus vaccination with few disagreements. The results of this study will help to develop and plan appropriate education campaigns for pharmacy students that aim to reduce human papillomavirus infection and, consequently, the incidence of and mortality caused by cervical cancer in Malaysia.

  18. How concepts are encoded in the human brain: A modality independent, category-based cortical organization of semantic knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handjaras, Giacomo; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Leo, Andrea; Lenci, Alessandro; Cecchetti, Luca; Cosottini, Mirco; Marotta, Giovanna; Pietrini, Pietro

    2016-07-15

    How conceptual knowledge is represented in the human brain remains to be determined. To address the differential role of low-level sensory-based and high-level abstract features in semantic processing, we combined behavioral studies of linguistic production and brain activity measures by functional magnetic resonance imaging in sighted and congenitally blind individuals while they performed a property-generation task with concrete nouns from eight categories, presented through visual and/or auditory modalities. Patterns of neural activity within a large semantic cortical network that comprised parahippocampal, lateral occipital, temporo-parieto-occipital and inferior parietal cortices correlated with linguistic production and were independent both from the modality of stimulus presentation (either visual or auditory) and the (lack of) visual experience. In contrast, selected modality-dependent differences were observed only when the analysis was limited to the individual regions within the semantic cortical network. We conclude that conceptual knowledge in the human brain relies on a distributed, modality-independent cortical representation that integrates the partial category and modality specific information retained at a regional level.

  19. Imprisoned and imperiled: access to HIV and TB prevention and treatment, and denial of human rights, in Zambian prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todrys Katherine W

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although HIV and tuberculosis (TB prevalence are high in prisons throughout sub-Saharan Africa, little research has been conducted on factors related to prevention, testing and treatment services. Methods To better understand the relationship between prison conditions, the criminal justice system, and HIV and TB in Zambian prisons, we conducted a mixed-method study, including: facility assessments and in-depth interviews with 246 prisoners and 30 prison officers at six Zambian prisons; a review of Zambian legislation and policy governing prisons and the criminal justice system; and 46 key informant interviews with government and non-governmental organization officials and representatives of international agencies and donors. Results The facility assessments, in-depth interviews and key informant interviews found serious barriers to HIV and TB prevention and treatment, and extended pre-trial detention that contributed to overcrowded conditions. Disparities both between prisons and among different categories of prisoners within prisons were noted, with juveniles, women, pre-trial detainees and immigration detainees significantly less likely to access health services. Conclusions Current conditions and the lack of available medical care in Zambia's prisons violate human rights protections and threaten prisoners' health. In order to protect the health of prisoners, prison-based health services, linkages to community-based health care, general prison conditions and failures of the criminal justice system that exacerbate overcrowding must be immediately improved. International donors should work with the Zambian government to support prison and justice system reform and ensure that their provision of funding in such areas as health services respect human rights standards, including non-discrimination. Human rights protections against torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and criminal justice system rights, are

  20. The effects of level of knowledge upon human problem solving in a process control task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, N. M.; Rouse, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of knowledge of a system on the performance of the operator has been investigated using PLANT, a generic simulation of a process. Four sets of written instructions representing the what, how, and why of system control were utilized by groups of subjects who controlled PLANT in a variety of familiar and unfamiliar situations. Written test results at the end of the experiments showed that the instructions had no effect on the primary goal of production, but those groups receiving guidelines for operation (the how) controlled the system in a more stable manner. Principles (the why) had no apparent effect on the subjects' performance. There was no difference between groups in diagnosing unfamiliar events.

  1. Quality management as knowledge sharing: experiences of the Napa County Health and Human Services Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Lacking a coordinated effort in utilizing data and tracking program outcomes, one agency developed a Quality Management (QM) division to facilitate and manage more effective data use. To support this process, the agency sought to develop a collective, agency-wide understanding and investment in improving and measuring client outcomes. Similarly, the agency also focused efforts on creating a culture of transparency and accountability, with goals of improving service, increasing agency integrity, meeting regulatory compliance, and engaging in effective risk management. Operationalizing the QM initiative involved developing procedures, systems, and guidelines that would facilitate the generation of reliable and accurate data that could be used to inform program change and decision-making. This case study describes this agency's experience in successfully creating and implementing a QM initiative aimed at engaging in greater knowledge sharing.

  2. 科学信息的开放存取与知识的“公有性”信念%The open access of science information and the communism faith of knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁大尉; 李正风

    2011-01-01

    “公有性”是科学知识生产的重要制度设计。在知识经济时代,知识的“私有性”和“保密性”在新的知识生产结构中获得了一定的合理性。网络数据库等知识出版模式在加速了知识扩散的同时,带来了科学信息的商业垄断,但这种垄断在本质上不同于对知识合理的“保密”行为,也加剧了数字资源中的“数字鸿沟”。开放存取运动即是科学共同体对于科学信息商业垄断的集体抗争,是对科学知识“公有性”精神气质的认识论回归。%Communism is the important institution design of science knowledge production. In the Knowledge Economy times the privacy and secrecy of knowledge have got some rationality in the new knowledge production structure. The new knowledge publication mode, for example network database, has brought commercial monopoly of scientific informaiton along with rapid scientific diffusion. But this kind of monopoly is different from reasonable secrecy behaviour of knowledge in fact. And it has deepened " digital divide" of digital resource. Open Access is the collective fighting to commercial molopoly of scientific information of scientific community. And it is the epistemic return of communism of scientific knowledge.

  3. Latest research results on the effects of nanomaterials on humans and the environment: DaNa - Knowledge Base Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, C.; Kühnel, D.; Richter, V.; Krug, H. F.; Mathes, B.; Steinbach, C.; Nau, K.

    2013-04-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century. The success of this fascinating technology is based on its versatility. It will bring about fundamental changes of basic research as well as of many sectors of industry and also of daily life from electronics to the health care system. However, consumers often miss reliable and understandable information on nanomaterials and all aspects of this versatile technology. A huge body of data on the potential hazards of nanoobjects towards human and environmental health already exists, but is either not easily accessible for a broad audience or presented unprocessable for nonexperts. But risk communication is an essential and thus integral component of risk management. For that purpose, the DaNa-Project aims at filling this gap by collecting and evaluating scientific results in an interdisciplinary approach with scientists from different research areas, such as human and environmental toxicology, biology, physics, chemistry, and sociology. Research findings from the field of human and environmental nanotoxicology are being prepared and presented together with material properties and possible applications for interested laymen and stakeholders. For the evaluation of literature a "Literature Criteria Checklist" has been developed as well as a Standard Operation Procedure template (SOP) based on careful scientific practice.

  4. Bromo volcano area as human-environment system: interaction of volcanic eruption, local knowledge, risk perception and adaptation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Sartohadi, Junun

    2013-04-01

    People in the Bromo area (located within Tengger Caldera) have learn to live with the threat of volcanic hazard since this volcano is categorized as an active volcano in Indonesia. During 2010, the eruption intensity increased yielding heavy ash fall and glowing rock fragments. A significant risk is also presented by mass movement which reaches areas up to 25 km from the crater. As a result of the 2010 eruption, 12 houses were destroyed, 25 houses collapsed and there were severe also effects on agriculture and the livestock sector. This paper focuses on understanding the interaction of Bromo volcanic eruption processes and their social responses. The specific aims are to 1) identify the 2010 eruption of Bromo 2) examine the human-volcano relationship within Bromo area in general, and 3) investigate the local knowledge related to hazard, risk perception and their adaptation strategies in specific. In-depth interviews with 33 informants from four districts nearest to the crater included local people and authorities were carried out. The survey focused on farmers, key persons (dukun), students and teachers in order to understand how people respond to Bromo eruption. The results show that the eruption in 2010 was unusual as it took continued for nine months, the longest period in Bromo history. The type of eruption was phreatomagmatic producing material dominated by ash to fine sand. This kind of sediment typically belongs to Tengger mountain eruptions which had produced vast explosions in the past. Furthermore, two years after the eruption, the interviewed people explained that local knowledge and their experiences with volcanic activity do not influence their risk perception. Dealing with this eruption, people in the Bromo area applied 'lumbung desa' (traditional saving systems) and mutual aid activity for surviving the volcanic eruption. Keywords: Human-environment system, local knowledge, risk perception, adaptation strategies, Bromo Volcano Indonesia

  5. Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heukelbach Jorg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. They may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. In Nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited. Methods In a community-based study, we examined 396 dogs in urban and rural areas of Ilorin (Kwara State, Central Nigeria for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths. In addition, a questionnaire regarding knowledge and practices was applied to pet owners. Results Nine ectoparasite species belonging to four taxa and six intestinal helminth species were identified: fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, Tunga penetrans, mites (Demodex canis, Otodectes sp., Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis, ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes sp., and lice (Trichodectes canis; and Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum, Taenidae and Strongyloides sp. Overall prevalence of ectoparasites was 60.4% and of intestinal helminths 68.4%. The occurrence of C. canis, R. sanguineus, T. canis, Ancylostoma sp. and T. vulpis was most common (prevalence 14.4% to 41.7%. Prevalence patterns in helminths were age-dependent, with T. canis showing a decreasing prevalence with age of host, and a reverse trend in other parasite species. Knowledge regarding zoonoses was very limited and the diseases not considered a major health problem. Treatment with antiparasitic drugs was more frequent in urban areas. Conclusion Parasites of importance for human health were highly prevalent in Nigerian dogs. Interventions should include health education provided to dog owners and the establishment of a program focusing on zoonotic diseases.

  6. Knowledge, Ethics and Choices: Theorizing the Functional Matrix of Literature as a Humanities Discipline

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    One may inaugurate the contemporary post-theory era with thinking beyond the theoretical aspects of literature. Or, in other words, it may facilitate a revision of literary theories in terms of exploring their functionality. But, a complex question involved here is, what may be its implications. How may it affect various disciplines especially the Humanities which are, unlike Sciences, deal with the abstract issues like truth, reality, ethicality, justice and many more like that? With these q...

  7. Recent advances and remaining gaps in our knowledge of associations between gut microbiota and human health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Volker Mai; Peter V Draganov

    2009-01-01

    The complex gut microbial flora harbored by individuals (microbiota) has long been proposed to contribute to intestinal health as well as disease. Pre- and probiotic products aimed at improving health by modifying microbiota composition have already become widely available and acceptance of these products appears to be on the rise. However, although required for the development of effective microbiota based interventions, our basic understanding of microbiota variation on a population level and its dynamics within individuals is still rudimentary. Powerful new parallel sequence technologies combined with other efficient molecular microbiota analysis methods now allow for comprehensive analysis of microbiota composition in large human populations. Recent findings in the field strongly suggest that microbiota contributes to the development of obesity, atopic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal cancers. Through the ongoing National Institutes of Health Roadmap 'Human of the world, a large coordinated effort is currently underway to study how microbiota can impact human health. Translating findings from these studies into effective interventions that can improve health,possibly personalized based on an individuals existing microbiota, will be the task for the next decade(s).

  8. Mapping of suitable zones for manual drilling as a possible solution to increase access to drinking water in Africa through integration of systematized GIS data and local knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussi, Fabio; Alvino, Roberta; Caruba, Massimo; Galimberti, Luca; Marzan, Ignacio; Tarrason y Cerda', David; Sabatini, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    In several African countries water supply is still largely a huge problem. In order to achieve MDG for water supply, UNICEF is promoting manual drilling in Africa. Manual drilling refers to those techniques of drilling boreholes for groundwater exploitation using human or animal power (not mechanized equipment). These techniques are well known in countries with large alluvial deposits (India, Nepal, Bangladesh, etc). They are cheaper than mechanized boreholes, easy to implement as the equipment is locally done, able to provide clean water if correctly applied. But manual drilling is feasible only where suitable hydrogeological conditions are met: - the shallow geological layers are not too hard (soft sediments or rocks having limited resistance) and have good permeability; - the depth where it is possible to find exploitable water is limited (in this study we assumed no deeper than 25 m). For this reason mapping of suitable zone for manual drilling has been the first step in UNICEF program already completed in 15 countries. this paper explains the general methodology for the identification of suitable zones at country level The methodology is based in the integration of different information (maps, reports, database) already existing in each country, together with interview of local technicians with direct experience in various regions and limited direct field data collection. General suitability for manual drilling (although adapted to specific condition in each country) is based on the combination of three main parameters: the geological suitability, the suitability according to water depth and the morphological suitability: - Geological suitability is related to the hardness and permeability of the shallow layers of rock formations. It has been obtained through a GIS procedure of simplification and reclassification of geological maps, estimating hardness and permeability of main rock and overlaying weathered layer on the basis of stratigraphic borehole logs

  9. Patient Knowledge on Malaria Symptoms Is a Key to Promoting Universal Access of Patients to Effective Malaria Treatment in Palawan, the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Emilie Louise Akiko Matsumoto-Takahashi; Pilarita Tongol-Rivera; Villacorte, Elena A; Ray U Angluben; Masamine Jimba; Shigeyuki Kano

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Palawan, where health care facilities are still limited, is one of the most malaria endemic provinces in the Philippines. Since 1999, microscopists (community health workers) have been trained in malaria diagnosis and feasibility of early diagnosis and treatments have been enhanced throughout the province. To accelerate the universal access of malaria patients to diagnostic testing in Palawan, positive health seeking behavior should be encouraged when malaria infection is suspect...

  10. An evaluation of EMBASE within the NHS: findings of the Database Access Project working partnership to extend the knowledge base of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, E; Plaice, C

    1999-09-01

    An earlier article in the Innovations on the Internet Series introduced the Database Access Project (DAPs) at Southmead Health Services NHS Trust, which piloted the introduction and use of EMBASE via the Internet and NHSnet. This follow-up article assesses the results of the Project, and reports on its findings. In particular, it considers the usefulness of EMBASE in terms of coverage and content for different groups of NHS users and aspects of take-up in terms of access arrangements and patterns of usage. It also considers the likely impact on the library and information service in terms of providing training and user support and meeting related demands, for example the acquisition of full-text articles as a result of increased levels of searching. The value of retaining access to EMBASE was recognized by the majority of those who participated in the Project, despite its acknowledged overlap with other databases. The coverage of the database was identified as being relevant by a majority of users; both its expanded European coverage and its coverage of drug-related and mental health literature were identified as important aspects. The project identified a clear preference for remote access to the database, although there was still a need to visit the library for retrieval of full text. Lack of time both for training and for actual database use, and lack of confidence in applying search skills and in appraising research were identified as key challenges to database searching. The authors highlight the special role of information professionals in providing training and support for NHS professionals in the acquisition of search skills and critical appraisal skills in order to encourage effective database use.

  11. Are Clark's Nutcrackers (Nucifraga Columbiana Able to Discriminate Knowledge States of Human Experimenters during an Object-Choice Task?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Clary

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Corvids and primates have been shown to possess similar cognitive adaptations, yet these animals are seldom tested using similar procedures. Object-choice tasks, which have commonly been used to test whether an animal is able to infer the mental state of a human experimenter based on a gestural cue, provide one potential means of testing these animals using a similar paradigm. The current study used an object-choice task to examine whether the corvid, Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana, is able to use a cognitive strategy to discriminate between the knowledge states of two human experimenters. One experimenter was informed, and the other uninformed, as to the location of a food reward hidden inside one of two opaque containers. During the Uninformed Gesture condition, the nutcrackers were given probe tests during which only the person performing as the uninformed experimenter provided a gesture. Thus, the nutcrackers could not use the experimenter's gesture to reliably find the food. During the Gesture Conflict condition, the nutcrackers were presented with a cue conflict. During probe tests, both the informed and the uninformed experimenter gestured to separate containers. Thus, to find the food the nutcrackers had to use the gesture from the informed experimenter and refrain from using the gesture of the uninformed experimenter. Our results showed that when the uninformed experimenter's gesture was presented alone, the birds continued to follow the gesture even though it was not consistently predictive of the food's location. However, when provided with two conflicting gestures, as a group the nutcrackers responded to the gesture of the informed experimenter at above chance levels. These results suggest that the birds had learned that the gesture was informative, perhaps by associative learning, yet when this mechanism was not reliable the nutcrackers were able to use either the human experimenters' presence/absence during the baiting

  12. 荆门市城市居民精神卫生知识掌握及获取途径的调查分析%Investigation and analysis in urban residents' mental health knowledge and access to it

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐玉梅; 王生锋; 王桂华

    2010-01-01

    Objective To probe into urban residents' mental health knowledge awareness in Jingmen city. Methods By means of self-compiled questionnaires, 563 community residents were surveyed about their mental health knowledge and access to it. Results For mental health- care knowledge, community residents scored a total of (42.52±8.79), among which, (15.34±3.25) points for relevant causes,(12.23±4.89) points for corresponding symptoms, and (14.92±4.26) for health behavior. Such aspects would affect a resident's awareness of mental health knowledge as the resident's education background,marriage and chronic diseases. Radio and television (48.3%), newspapers and magazines (41.4%), hospital expert advice (39.8%), and community medical services (36.1% ) were considered the better access to mental health knowledge. Conclusions Residents had considerably inadequate knowledge of mental health. Therefore, a variety of health- care education activities should be carried out to improve residents'mental health knowledge.%目的 了解荆门市城市居民精神卫生保健知识认知现状.方法 自编调查问卷对荆门市563名社区居民进行问卷调查,以了解其精神卫生知识认知状况及获取途径.结果 荆门市社区居民精神卫生保健知识总分为(42.52±8.79)分,其中相关病因(15.34±3.25)分,相应症状(12.23±4.89)分,保健行为(14.92±4.26)分,文化程度、婚姻状况和慢性病是荆门市社区居民精神卫生保健知识认知的影响因素.社区居民认为较好的健康教育途径是广播电视(48.3%)、报刊杂志(41.4%)、医院专家咨询(39.8%)和社区卫生服务机构(36.1%).结论 社区居民精神卫生保健知识认知率较低,应开展多种形式的健康教育,提高社区居民的精神卫生知识.

  13. A Political Decision Disguised as Legal Argument? Opinion 2/13 and European Union Accession to the European Convention on Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2015-01-01

    of Copenhagen, Denmark. In this interview, carried out in June 2015 for the Utrecht Journal of International and European Law, David Thór Björgvinsson outlined his views to Graham Butler on Opinion 2/13 from the Court of Justice of the European Union on the Union’s accession to the European Convention on Human...

  14. On the trails of markers and proxies: the socio-cognitive technologies of human movement, knowledge assemblage, and their relevance to the etiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Turnbull

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria, pigs, rats, pots, plants, words, bones, stones, earrings, diseases, and genetic indicators of all varieties are markers and proxies for the complexity of interweaving trails and stories integral to understanding human movement and knowledge assemblage in Southeast Asia and around the world.Understanding human movement and knowledge assemblage is central to comprehending the genetic basis of disease, especially of a cancer like nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The problem is that the markers and trails, taken in isolation, do not all tell the same story. Human movement and knowledge assemblage are in constant interaction in an adaptive process of co-production with genes, terrain, climate, sea level changes, kinship relations, diet, materials, food and transport technologies, social and cognitive technologies, and knowledge strategies and transmission. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is the outcome of an adaptive process involving physical, social, and genetic components.

  15. Human resource management in post-conflict health systems: review of research and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roome, Edward; Raven, Joanna; Martineau, Tim

    2014-01-01

    In post-conflict settings, severe disruption to health systems invariably leaves populations at high risk of disease and in greater need of health provision than more stable resource-poor countries. The health workforce is often a direct victim of conflict. Effective human resource management (HRM) strategies and policies are critical to addressing the systemic effects of conflict on the health workforce such as flight of human capital, mismatches between skills and service needs, breakdown of pre-service training, and lack of human resource data. This paper reviews published literatures across three functional areas of HRM in post-conflict settings: workforce supply, workforce distribution, and workforce performance. We searched published literatures for articles published in English between 2003 and 2013. The search used context-specific keywords (e.g. post-conflict, reconstruction) in combination with topic-related keywords based on an analytical framework containing the three functional areas of HRM (supply, distribution, and performance) and several corresponding HRM topic areas under these. In addition, the framework includes a number of cross-cutting topics such as leadership and governance, finance, and gender. The literature is growing but still limited. Many publications have focused on health workforce supply issues, including pre-service education and training, pay, and recruitment. Less is known about workforce distribution, especially governance and administrative systems for deployment and incentive policies to redress geographical workforce imbalances. Apart from in-service training, workforce performance is particularly under-researched in the areas of performance-based incentives, management and supervision, work organisation and job design, and performance appraisal. Research is largely on HRM in the early post-conflict period and has relied on secondary data. More primary research is needed across the areas of workforce supply, workforce

  16. Filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for non-human biota. Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.; Gjelsvik, R. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Holm, E. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden)); Roos, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Saxen, R.; Outola, I. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland))

    2009-03-15

    The activities of the GAPRAD project are summarised in this report. The background and rationale to GAPRAD are presented and explained. Most notably this relates to a lack of information on naturally occuring radionuclides in terrestrial and aquatic systems that have direct applicability for use in environmental impact assessments. Results from field activities are presented from the Dovrefjell area in Norway (terrestrial study) and selected lake and brackish water systems in Finland. The data mainly concern activity concentrations of Po-210 in environmental media and selected biota allowing concentration ratios to be derived where appropriate. Furthermore, details in relation to Po-210 uptake and biokinetics in humans based on experimental work conducted within the project are presented. (au)

  17. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  18. [Recent knowledge on the linkage of strain specific genotypes with clinical manifestations of human citomegalovirus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatelli, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Human citomegalovirus (CMV) is a beta-herpesvirus able to establish lifelong persistent infections which usually remain asymptomatic. However, severe diseases may develop in immunocompromised subjects (e.g., AIDS patients and transplant recipients) and if acquired in utero. Circulating CMV clinical strains display genetic polymorphisms in multiple genes, which may be implicated in CMV-induced immunopathogenesis, as well as strain-specific tissue-tropism, viral spread in the host cells and virulence, finally determining the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of CMV disease. Current literature report a number of studies regarding the main CMV polymorphic genes (UL55-gB, UL144, UL73-gN, UL74-gO), their diagnostic and therapeutic impact, their potential clinical relevance as prognostic markers. This paper aims to critically analyse the results of these studies and evaluate the linkage of strain-specific genotypes with clinical manifestations of CMV disease and their perspective implications.

  19. The i5K Initiative: advancing arthropod genomics for knowledge, human health, agriculture, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Insects and their arthropod relatives including mites, spiders, and crustaceans play major roles in the world's terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems. Arthropods compete with humans for food and transmit devastating diseases. They also comprise the most diverse and successful branch of metazoan evolution, with millions of extant species. Here, we describe an international effort to guide arthropod genomic efforts, from species prioritization to methodology and informatics. The 5000 arthropod genomes initiative (i5K) community met formally in 2012 to discuss a roadmap for sequencing and analyzing 5000 high-priority arthropods and is continuing this effort via pilot projects, the development of standard operating procedures, and training of students and career scientists. With university, governmental, and industry support, the i5K Consortium aspires to deliver sequences and analytical tools for each of the arthropod branches and each of the species having beneficial and negative effects on humankind.

  20. Solid knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been...... referred to as ‘silent knowledge’....

  1. Scientific publishing online,and the question of open access. Why such a long delay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Kosmopoulos

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In October of 2003 in Berlin, twenty directors of European research institutes (the CNRS, INSERM, the Max Plank Institute, ratified a Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, in which they committed themselves to supporting all initiatives based on the paradigm of free access on the Internet. In February 2005, the Berlin 3 Conference, held in Southampton, encouraged researchers to publish in journals offering free access. But while this model is being in...

  2. Knowledge, attitudes, and acceptability of a human papilloma virus vaccine among students, parents and teachers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songthap, Archin; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Fungladda, Wijitr; Bussaratid, Valai

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes about human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and the acceptability of HPV vaccine among students, parents and teachers in secondary schools in Bangkok, Thailand. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional study at four public secondary schools in Bangkok. A total of 644 students aged 12-15 years, 664 parents and 304 teachers were recruited into the study. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires. The percentages of students, parents and teachers who were willing to be vaccinated were 26, 49 and 43%, respectively. Forty-one percent of parents wanted their children to be vaccinated. Students, parents and teachers had a moderate knowledge of HPV, cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine with mean scores of 6.91 (SD = 1.75), 6.82 (SD = 1.88), and 6.70 (SD = 1.89), respectively. The attitudes of students, parents, and teachers were fair with scores of 3.46 (SD = 0.41), 3.52 (SD = 0.43), and 3.46 (SD = 0.47) out of 5, respectively. Twenty-nine percent of students and 36% of parents were willing to pay USD 14.3-28.5 per dose for the quadrivalent vaccine; 33% of teachers were willing to pay Thailand. The findings suggest the willingness to pay was relatively low and related to the price, while knowledge and attitudes regarding the importance of the HPV vaccine were fair particularly among parents and teachers. Greater effort may be needed to educate people regarding the cost and benefits of HPV vaccination before it would be more acceptable to parents, teachers and students in Thailand.

  3. Knowledge of human papillomavirus infection and its prevention among adolescents and parents in the greater Milan area, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consolo Silvia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to be widely accepted by users, the implementation of a new health intervention requires them to be adequately informed about its clinical importance, benefits and risks. The aim of this study was to provide data on the knowledge of Italian adolescents and parents concerning human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its prevention in order to allow the development of adequate training programmes. Methods Between 2 May and 15 June 2008, we made a cross-sectional survey of 863 high school students and 2,331 parents of middle and high school students using two anonymously completed questionnaires covering the knowledge of HPV infection and related diseases, and attitudes to vaccinations. The approached schools were a convenience sample of the schools of the greater Milan area, Northern Italy. Results More mothers than fathers were aware that HPV infection could concern their children (58% vs 53%; p = 0.004 and were favourable towards vaccinating their children against HPV (68% vs 65%; p = 0.03; among the students, more females than males were aware that HPV infection could concern themselves (45% vs 26%; p vs 40%; p Conclusions Both students and parents seem to underestimate the likelihood of HPV infection, and this is associated with a lower propensity for vaccination. This is an important indication for future training programmes concerning HPV prevention designed to increase the acceptance of HPV vaccine in families.

  4. Knowledge, attitude and performance of wood painter about harmful effects of solvents and dyes on human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Miri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Solvents, which are widely used in industry, are able to dissolve another substance for creating a solution. Solvents have various effects on human health based on their type and chemical composition. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to investigate the harmful effects of solvents on wood painters in Yazd city. To achieve information, a census questionnaire was prepared and distributed among wood painters. The studied parameters include the mean score of knowledge, attitude, and practice of wood painters about harmful effects of dyes and solvents on body according to age, work experience, education, hours worked per day, and smoking. The data of survey were analyzed by Chi-square test and T-test in SPSS. Results: The average age and work experience of wood painters were 29 and 7.5 years, and the age of 25 years and work experience of 5 years had the highest frequency among them. Analysis of data indicated that 71.8% of people had middle school and lower education level, 68.3% was married, 31.7% was single, and 37.5% was smoking. Average working hours were 8 hours in day. Conclusion: Results show that attitudes had significant correlation with education level and different age groups. None of the studied parameters were not significant correlation with performance. Also, there was significant correlation between knowledge with experience.

  5. Human Library——The Innovation of the Mining and Sharing of Library Tacit Knowledge%Human Library——图书馆隐性知识挖掘和共享的创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋鸾姣

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the origination and development status of Human Library.By analyzing the existing problems of the excavation and sharing of library tacit knowledge,it discusses that Human Library is the realization approach for the innovation of the excavation and sharing of library tacit knowledge from four perspectives,and suggests some trategies to carry out the excavation and sharing of library tacit knowledge by Human Library.%简单介绍Human Library的起源和发展现状。通过分析图书馆隐性知识挖掘和共享的现存问题,从四个方面论述Human Library是实现图书馆隐性知识挖掘和共享创新的途径,提出通过Human Library开展图书馆隐性知识挖掘和共享的策略。

  6. Reviewing the environmental and human health knowledge base of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Aasgeir; Wick, Peter; Koehler, Andreas; Schmid, Kaspar; Som, Claudia

    2007-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered one of the most promising materials in nanotechnology, with attractive properties for many technologic applications. The different synthesis, purification, and postprocessing methods produce CNTs with different physical characteristics, which can be applied in different fields ranging from composite materials, medical applications, and electronics to energy storage. The widespread projected use of CNTs makes it important to understand their potential harmful effects. In this environmental health review we observed a remarkable range of results of some of the toxicology studies. The comparability should be improved by further standardization and introduction of reference materials. However, at present the findings of this review suggest several key points: a) there are different types of CNTs, and therefore they cannot be considered a uniform group of substances; and b) in environmental compartments, CNTs can be bioavailable to organisms. The properties of CNTs suggest a possible accumulation along the food chain and high persistence. In organisms the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity of CNTs depend on the inherent physical and chemical characteristics such as CNT functionalization, coating, length, and agglomeration state that are influenced by the external environmental conditions during CNT production, use, and disposal stages. Characterized exposure scenarios could therefore be useful when conducting toxicologic studies. However, CNTs produce a toxic response upon reaching the lungs in sufficient quantity; this reaction is produced in a time-and dose-dependent manner. The identification of possible risks to human health and environment is a prerequisite for a successful introduction of CNTs in future applications.

  7. Evaluating a Human Rights-Based Advocacy Approach to Expanding Access to Pain Medicines and Palliative Care: Global Advocacy and Case Studies from India, Kenya, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Diederik; Amon, Joseph J

    2015-12-10

    Palliative care has been defined as care that is person-centered and attentive to physical symptoms and psychological, social, and existential distress in patients with severe or life-threatening illness. The identification of access to palliative care and pain treatment as a human rights issue first emerged among palliative care advocates, physicians, and lawyers in the 1990s, with a basis in the right to health and the right to be free from cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. Using a case study approach, we evaluate the results of a human rights-based advocacy approach on access to pain medicine and palliative care in India, Kenya, and Ukraine. In each country, human rights advocacy helped raise awareness of the issue, identify structural barriers to care, define government obligations, and contribute to the reform of laws, policies, and practices impeding the availability of palliative care services. In addition, advocacy efforts stimulated civil society engagement and high-level political leadership that fostered the implementation of human rights-based palliative care programs. Globally, access to palliative care was increasingly recognized by human rights bodies and within global health and drug policy organizations as a government obligation central to the right to health.

  8. Efficacy of constitutional support to enhance access to essential medicines as a human right to health in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, L M

    2012-01-01

    Access to essential medicines is an element of the international agreements on the human right to health. This review summarizes the current situation concerning access to medicines in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) by examining the policies, constitutional provisions and other legal instruments of the Member States. The constitutions of 18 out of 22 EMR countries enshrine health as a human right (8 countries have a duty statement, 5 have a programmatic statement and 5 specify entitlement); only 4 EMR countries do not enshrine health as a human right in a clause in their constitution. More than half the countries (i.e. 12) have an official national medicines policy, 4 have a draft policy and 6 have no national medicines policy. A total of 11 countries operate an essential medicines list. Realization of this right to health necessitates that duty bearers take all necessary legislative measures to respect, protect and fulfil this right.

  9. Contextual Uncertainties, Human Mobility, and Perceived Food Environment: The Uncertain Geographic Context Problem in Food Access Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Kwan, Mei-Po

    2015-09-01

    We examined the uncertainty of the contextual influences on food access through an analytic framework of the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP). We first examined the compounding effects of two kinds of spatiotemporal uncertainties on people's everyday efforts to procure food and then outlined three key dimensions (food access in real time, temporality of the food environment, and perceived nutrition environment) in which research on food access must improve to better represent the contributing environmental influences that operate at the individual level. Guidelines to address the UGCoP in future food access research are provided to account for the multidimensional influences of the food environment on dietary behaviors.

  10. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...... apparatus influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear behavioural foundations, adopts an economizing perspective and examines efficient alignment between knowledge transactions with diverse characteristics and governance structures and mechanisms...

  11. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Infection, Cervical Cancer and Willingness to pay for Cervical Cancer Vaccination among Ethnically Diverse Medical Students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Num, Kelly Sze Fang; Yong, Ng Jin

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical students and determine variation between different cultural groups. A secondary aim was to find out the willingness to pay for cervical cancer vaccination and the relationships between knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papillomavirus vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a private medical university between June 2014 and November 2014 using a convenient sampling method. A total of 305 respondents were recruited and interviewed with standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice towards human papilloma virus and their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination. Knowledge regarding human papilloma virus, human papilloma virus vaccination, cervical cancer screening and cervical cancer risk factors was good. Across the sample, a majority (90%) of the pupils demonstrated a high degree of knowledge about cervical cancer and its vaccination. There were no significant differences between ethnicity and the participants' overall knowledge of HPV infection, Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccination. Some 88% of participants answered that HPV vaccine can prevent cervical cancer, while 81.5% of medical students said they would recommend HPV vaccination to the public although fewer expressed an intention to receive vaccination for themselves.

  12. Progress in the Development of National Knowledge Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹存根; 曾庆田; 张春霞; 郑宇飞; 周肖彬; 丰强泽; 高颖; 顾芳; 司晋新; 眭跃飞; 田雯; 王海涛; 王丽丽

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the recent process in a long-term research project, calledNational Knowledge Infrastructure (or NKI). Initiated in the early 2000, the project aims todevelop a multi-domain shareable knowledge base for knowledge-intensive applications. Todevelop NKI, we have used domain-specific ontologies as a solid basis, and have built morethan 600 ontologies. Using these ontologies and our knowledge acquisition methods, we haveextracted about 1.1 millions of domain assertions. For users to access our NKI knowledge,we have developed a uniform multi-modal human-knowledge interface. We have also imple-mented a knowledge application programming interface for various applications to share theNKI knowledge.

  13. How does your own knowledge influence the perception of another person's action in the human brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Richard; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2012-02-01

    When you see someone reach into a cookie jar, their goal remains obvious even if you know that the last cookie has already been eaten. Thus, it is possible to infer the goal of an action even if you know that the goal cannot be achieved. Previous research has identified distinct brain networks for processing information about object locations, actions and mental-state inferences. However, the relationship between brain networks for action understanding in social contexts remains unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study assesses the role of these networks in understanding another person searching for hidden objects. Participants watched movie clips depicting a toy animal hiding and an actor, who was ignorant of the hiding place, searching in the filled or empty location. When the toy animal hid in the same location repeatedly, the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response was suppressed in occipital, posterior temporal and posterior parietal brain regions, consistent with processing object properties and spatial attention. When the actor searched in the same location repeatedly, the BOLD signal was suppressed in the inferior frontal gyrus, consistent with the observation of hand actions. In contrast, searches towards the filled location compared to the empty location were associated with a greater response in the medial prefrontal cortex and right temporal pole, which are both associated with mental state inference. These findings show that when observing another person search for a hidden object, brain networks for processing information about object properties, actions and mental state inferences work together in a complementary fashion. This supports the hypothesis that brain regions within and beyond the putative human mirror neuron system are involved in action comprehension within social contexts.

  14. Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohardt, Robert; Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.

  15. Human resources needs for universal access to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a time and motion study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hontelez, J.A.C.; Newell, M.L.; Bland, R.M.; Munnelly, K.; Lessells, R.J.; Barnighausen, T.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although access to life-saving treatment for patients infected with HIV patients in South Africa has improved substantially since 2004, treating all eligible patients (universal access) remains elusive. As the prices of antiretroviral drugs have dropped over the past years, ava

  16. Human resources needs for universal access to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: A time and motion study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.C. Hontelez (Jan A.C.); M.L. Newell (Marie Louise); R.M. Bland (Ruth); K. Munnelly (Kristen); R.J. Lessells (Richard ); T. Bärnighausen (Till)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Although access to life-saving treatment for patients infected with HIV in South Africa has improved substantially since 2004, treating all eligible patients (universal access) remains elusive. As the prices of antiretroviral drugs have dropped over the past years, availabili

  17. Equity in human papilloma virus vaccination uptake? : sexual behaviour, knowledge and demographics in a cross-sectional study in (un)vaccinated girls in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollers, Madelief; Lubbers, Karin; Spoelstra, Symen K; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrordus; Daemen, Toos; Westra, Tjalke A; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Nijman, Hans W; de Melker, Hester E; Tami, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is part of a national program equally accessible for all girls invited for vaccination. To assess possible inequalities in vaccine uptake, we investigated differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated girls with regard to vario

  18. Why the Current Insistence on Open Access to Scientific Data? Big Data, Knowledge Production, and the Political Economy of Contemporary Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    The collection and dissemination of data on human and nonhuman organisms has become a central feature of 21st-century biology and has been endorsed by funding agencies in the United States and Europe as crucial to translating biological research into therapeutic and agricultural innovation. Large molecular data sets, often referred to as "big…

  19. The Genexpress IMAGE knowledge base of the human brain transcriptome: a prototype integrated resource for functional and computational genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piétu, G; Mariage-Samson, R; Fayein, N A; Matingou, C; Eveno, E; Houlgatte, R; Decraene, C; Vandenbrouck, Y; Tahi, F; Devignes, M D; Wirkner, U; Ansorge, W; Cox, D; Nagase, T; Nomura, N; Auffray, C

    1999-02-01

    Expression profiles of 5058 human gene transcripts represented by an array of 7451 clones from the first IMAGE Consortium cDNA library from infant brain have been collected by semiquantitative hybridization of the array with complex probes derived by reverse transcription of mRNA from brain and five other human tissues. Twenty-one percent of the clones corresponded to transcripts that could be classified in general categories of low, moderate, or high abundance. These expression profiles were integrated with cDNA clone and sequence clustering and gene mapping information from an upgraded version of the Genexpress Index. For seven gene transcripts found to be transcribed preferentially or specifically in brain, the expression profiles were confirmed by Northern blot analyses of mRNA from eight adult and four fetal tissues, and 15 distinct regions of brain. In four instances, further documentation of the sites of expression was obtained by in situ hybridization of rat-brain tissue sections. A systematic effort was undertaken to further integrate available cytogenetic, genetic, physical, and genic map informations through radiation-hybrid mapping to provide a unique validated map location for each of these genes in relation to the disease map. The resulting Genexpress IMAGE Knowledge Base is illustrated by five examples presented in the printed article with additional data available on a dedicated Web site at the address http://idefix.upr420.vjf.cnrs.fr/EXPR++ +/ welcome.html.

  20. An easily accessible sulfated saccharide mimetic inhibits in vitro human tumor cell adhesion and angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Marano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Oligosaccharides aberrantly expressed on tumor cells influence processes such as cell adhesion and modulation of the cell’s microenvironment resulting in an increased malignancy. Schmidt’s imidate strategy offers an effective method to synthesize libraries of various oligosaccharide mimetics. With the aim to perturb interactions of tumor cells with extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, molecules with 3,4-bis(hydroxymethylfuran as core structure were synthesized and screened in biological assays for their abilities to interfere in cell adhesion and other steps of the metastatic cascade, such as tumor-induced angiogenesis.The most active compound, (4-{[(β-D-galactopyranosyloxy]methyl}furan-3-ylmethyl hydrogen sulfate (GSF, inhibited the activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 as well as migration of the human melanoma cells of the lines WM-115 and WM-266-4 in a two-dimensional migration assay. GSF inhibited completely the adhesion of WM-115 cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM proteins, fibrinogen and fibronectin.In an in vitro angiogenesis assay with human endothelial cells, GSF very effectively inhibited endothelial tubule formation and sprouting of blood vessels, as well as the adhesion of endothelial cells to ECM proteins. GSF was not cytotoxic at biologically active concentrations; neither were 3,4-bis{[(β-D-galactopyranosyloxy]methyl}furan (BGF nor methyl β-D-galactopyranoside nor 3,4-bis(hydroxymethylfuran, which were used as controls, eliciting comparable biological activity. In silico modeling experiments, in which binding of GSF to the extracellular domain of the integrin αvβ3 was determined, revealed specific docking of GSF to the same binding site as the natural peptidic ligands of this integrin. The sulfate in the molecule coordinated with one manganese ion in the binding site.These studies show that this chemically easily accessible molecule GSF, synthesized in three steps from 3,4-bis

  1. Motion-capture-based walking simulation of digital human adapted to laser-scanned 3D as-is environments for accessibility evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsubasa Maruyama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Owing to our rapidly aging society, accessibility evaluation to enhance the ease and safety of access to indoor and outdoor environments for the elderly and disabled is increasing in importance. Accessibility must be assessed not only from the general standard aspect but also in terms of physical and cognitive friendliness for users of different ages, genders, and abilities. Meanwhile, human behavior simulation has been progressing in the areas of crowd behavior analysis and emergency evacuation planning. However, in human behavior simulation, environment models represent only “as-planned” situations. In addition, a pedestrian model cannot generate the detailed articulated movements of various people of different ages and genders in the simulation. Therefore, the final goal of this research was to develop a virtual accessibility evaluation by combining realistic human behavior simulation using a digital human model (DHM with “as-is” environment models. To achieve this goal, we developed an algorithm for generating human-like DHM walking motions, adapting its strides, turning angles, and footprints to laser-scanned 3D as-is environments including slopes and stairs. The DHM motion was generated based only on a motion-capture (MoCap data for flat walking. Our implementation constructed as-is 3D environment models from laser-scanned point clouds of real environments and enabled a DHM to walk autonomously in various environment models. The difference in joint angles between the DHM and MoCap data was evaluated. Demonstrations of our environment modeling and walking simulation in indoor and outdoor environments including corridors, slopes, and stairs are illustrated in this study.

  2. Knowledge and perception of Prevention of Mother to Child services amongst pregnant women accessing antenatal clinic in a Primary Health Care centre in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eme T. Owoaje

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have assessed pregnant women’s perceptions regarding prevention of mother to child of HIV and the available services at the primary health care level in Nigeria.Objective: Assessment of knowledge and perception of antenatal clinic (ANC attendees regarding Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT of HIV at primary health care facilities in south-west Nigeria.Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 400 antenatal attendees in a Primary Health Care centre in Ibadan, Nigeria.Results: Known methods of PMTCT were: use of anti-retroviral treatment (ART during pregnancy (75.0%, ART at birth (65.8% and not breastfeeding (61.8%. Previous HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT was reported by 71%, significantly higher proportions of thosewho were married, in the third trimester of pregnancy or engaged in professional and/or skilled occupations had been tested. Regarding the HCT services provided, 92.2% understood the HIV-related health education provided, 89.7.2% reported that the timing was appropriate, 92.6% assessed the nurses’ approach as acceptable but 34.0% felt the test was forced upon them. Majority (79.6% were aware of non-breastfeeding options of infant feeding, but only 3.5% were aware of exclusive breastfeeding for a stipulated period as an infant feeding option. Nevertheless, the majority of the women found the non-breast feeding option culturally unacceptable.Conclusion: Women in this survey were knowledgeable about the methods of PMTCT, but had negative perceptions regarding certain aspects of the HCT services and the recommended non-breastfeeding infant feeding option. Health workers should provide client friendly services and infant feeding counselling that is based on current WHO recommendations and culturally acceptable.

  3. Knowledge Repository for Fmea Related Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândea, Gabriela Simona; Kifor, Claudiu Vasile; Cândea, Ciprian

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents innovative usage of knowledge system into Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) process using the ontology to represent the knowledge. Knowledge system is built to serve multi-projects work that nowadays are in place in any manufacturing or services provider, and knowledge must be retained and reused at the company level and not only at project level. The system is following the FMEA methodology and the validation of the concept is compliant with the automotive industry standards published by Automotive Industry Action Group, and not only. Collaboration is assured trough web-based GUI that supports multiple users access at any time

  4. Investigating the Knowledge Management Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Vasso; Savva, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) efforts aim at leveraging an organization into a knowledge organization thereby presenting knowledge employees with a very powerful tool; organized valuable knowledge accessible when and where needed in flexible, technologically-enhanced modes. The attainment of this aim, i.e., the transformation into a knowledge…

  5. A qualitative study investigating knowledge and attitudes regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) and the HPV vaccine among parents of immunosuppressed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Holly; Trung, Linda; Mackie, Fiona E; Kennedy, Sean E; Boros, Christina; Marshall, Helen; Tidswell, Jane; Shaw, Peter J; Montgomery, Kay; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2012-11-19

    Barriers influencing the willingness of parents to vaccinate immunocompetent children include a lack of knowledge about human papillomavirus (HPV) and low perception of risk regarding their child's acquisition of HPV infection. However, it cannot be assumed that the facilitators and barriers of HPV vaccination are the same for parents/guardians of children who are immunocompromised, or who have chronic medical conditions. This study aimed to document the knowledge and attitudes of parents/guardians of immunosuppressed children and adolescents towards HPV infection and the vaccine. A study using qualitative methods which incorporated 27 semi-structured interviews was undertaken with parents/guardians of immunosuppressed children vaccinated against HPV at three hospitals in two states of Australia. Thematic analysis revealed that while participants acknowledged that they had heard of HPV, they did not have a strong sense of what it actually was. The level of concern held about their child acquiring an HPV infection (prior to vaccination) ranged from 'not at all' to 'extremely'. Some believed that their child was at increased risk of developing a severe HPV-related illness because of their underlying condition. The participants supported their child receiving the HPV vaccine, as they did not want to take a risk with a disease that may cause their child to return to hospital for treatment. The majority had little apprehension about the use of the HPV vaccine but expressed some concern that potential adverse effects would be more severe for immunosuppressed children. However, they stressed their belief in the safety of the vaccine and their trust in the child's health team. Our study results show that parents of children with impaired immunity would benefit from further information about the safety of the vaccine and about the important role of the vaccine for boys as well as girls.

  6. Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: Three public policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyimo Frida S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, which comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women. In Tanzania, the estimated incidence rate is 30 to 40 per 100,000 women, indicating a high disease burden. Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as currently the most effective approach for cervical cancer control, and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors related to the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 354 women aged 18 to 69 years residing in Moshi Rural District. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select eligible women. A one-hour interview was conducted with each woman in her home. The 17 questions were modified from similar questions used in previous research. Results Less than one quarter (22.6% of the participants had obtained cervical cancer screening. The following characteristics, when examined separately in relation to the uptake of cervical cancer screening service, were significant: husband approval of cervical cancer screening, women's level of education, women's knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention, women's concerns about embarrassment and pain of screening, women's preference for the sex of health provider, and women's awareness of and distance to cervical cancer screening services. When examined simultaneously in a logistic regression, we found that only knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention (OR = 8.90, 95%CI = 2.14-16.03 and distance to the facility which provides cervical cancer screening (OR = 3.98, 95%CI = 0.18-5.10 were significantly associated with screening uptake. Conclusions Based on the study findings, three recommendations are made. First, information about cervical cancer must be presented to women. Second, public education of

  7. Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-11-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands.

  8. Knowledge Development in Internship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the chapter is to shed light on how these challenges and tendencies affect students’´ access to tacit and explicit knowledge and the professions’ knowledge development. To address these challenges, the chapter examines the question: How might periods of internship, offering different...

  9. Human Right in Perspective: Inequalities in Access to Water in a Rural Community of the Brazilian Northeast

    OpenAIRE

    Aleixo, Bernardo; Rezende,Sonaly; Pena,João Luiz; Zapata,Gisela; Léo HELLER

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper aims to contribute to the debate on the increasing inequalities in access to water and the concentration of the deficit among certain population groups. In particular, it seeks a better understanding of the multiple inequalities of access to water that can exist within a community that lacks a water supply system. Data collection took place in the community of Cristais (Ceará) and included the application of 232 questionnaires to all of the community's heads of household b...

  10. A study of knowledge beliefs and attitudes regarding aids and human sexuality among medical college, engineering college and university Undergraduates of gorakhpur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Misra

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: i What is the level of knowledge and altitude of undergraduates about AIDS and human sexuality? ii What arc the preferred modes of obtaining such knowledge?.Objectives: To assess the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of undergraduate students regarding AIDS and human sexuality.Study Design: Self administered questionnaire.Setting and Participants: 1289 undergraduates from B.R.D. Medical College., M. M. M. Engineering College and University of Gorakhpur.                                                                  .Study Variables: Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes regarding AIDS and sexuality.Outcome Variables: Proportion of students having correct knowledge and positive attitudes.Statistical Analysis: By proportions.Result: l.evcl of knowledge about AIDS was generally high. Most of the students obtained knowledge about it through mass media. Few students had misconceptions about transmission of 1IIV infection. Knowledge about sex was obtained mainly from friends (36% and books (31.31%. Most of the students preferred doctors (44.15% and friends (43.66% for asking something about sex. and not their parents (4.37% or teachers (4.61%. 59.13% of boys and 34.49% of girls thought that students of their age had sex.Conclusion and Recommendations: The most peculiar fact in (his study is that students have no reliable means of obtaining correct information about subjects related to sex. Medical profession contributed very little in providing such knowledge. Most of them relied on their friends for such information. So. emphasis is to be given on recommending proper education material for the youth.

  11. Knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Jarošová, Milena

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical part: Basic terms of knowledge management, knowledge worker, knowledge creation and conversion process, prerequisites and benefits of knowledge management. Knowledge management and it's connection to organizational culture and structure, result measurements of knowledge management, learning organization and it's connection to knowledge management. Tacit knowledge management tools -- stories -- types, how to create, practical use, communities, coaching. Value Based Organization. Pr...

  12. Human Library开创图书馆个体隐性知识管理新模式%Human Library Creates a New Mode to Libraries on Personal Tacit Knowledge Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴云珊

    2011-01-01

    针对图书馆个体隐性知识管理问题,引入国外“真人图书馆”理念,从深度会谈、真人书筛选、非正式学习、借阅制度等方面阐述真人图书馆在个体隐性知识转移上的优势,同时结合其在隐性知识价值凸显和创新上的优势,探讨真人图书馆在图书馆个体隐性知识管理中的价值,得出真人图书馆开创图书馆个体隐性知识管理新模式的结论,以期达到推广真人图书馆、创新图书馆知识服务模式、提高图书馆知识服务水平的目的。%According to the problem of personal tacit knowledge management in libraries, the idea of human library is introduced. Through deep conversation, human book selection, informal learning, rules of loan, certain advantages of human library on personal tacit knowledge transition are expounded. By combining with the advantages on transition, value highlighting anti innovation of personal tacit knowledge, the value of human library in personal tacit knowledge management is discussed. In the hope of spreading human library, making innovations in the library knowledge service mode and improving the knowledge service level of library, it is concluded that human library creates a new mode to libraries on personal tacit knowledge management.

  13. Attitudes, Knowledge and Factors Associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Uptake in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Iris L. Y.; Machalek, Dorothy A.; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination targets high-risk HPV16/18 that cause 70% of all cancers of the cervix. In Australia there is a fully-funded, school-based National HPV Vaccination Program which has achieved vaccine initiation rate of 82% among age-eligible females. Improving HPV vaccination rates is important in the prevention of morbidity and mortality associated with HPV-related disease. This study aimed to identify factors and barriers associated with uptake of the HPV vaccine in the Australian Program. Methods Between 2011 and 2014, females aged 18–25 years, living in Victoria, Australia who were offered HPV vaccination between 2007 and 2009 as part of the National HPV Vaccination Program, living in Victoria, Australia were recruited into a a young women’s study examining effectiveness of the Australian National HPV Vaccination Program. Overall, 668 participants completed the recruitment survey, which collected data of participants’ demographics and HPV knowledge. In 2015 these participants were invited to complete an additional supplementary survey on parental demographics and attitudes towards vaccinations. Results In 2015, 417 participants completed the supplementary survey (62% response rate). Overall, 19% of participants were unvaccinated. In multivariate analyses, HPV vaccination was significantly associated with their being born in Australia (pparents being main decision-makers for participants’ HPV vaccination (pparental concern about vaccine safety (43%). Compared with HPV-vaccinated participants, those unvaccinated were significantly more likely to be opposed to all vaccines, including HPV vaccines (p<0.001) and were less likely to consider vaccinating their own children with all vaccines (p = 0.033), including HPV vaccines (p<0.001). Overall, 61% of unvaccinated participants reported that a recommendation from GPs would increase HPV vaccine acceptance. Conclusions Attitudes towards general health, vaccinations in general, as

  14. The human interactome knowledge base (hint-kb): An integrative human protein interaction database enriched with predicted protein–protein interaction scores using a novel hybrid technique

    KAUST Repository

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.

    2013-07-12

    Proteins are the functional components of many cellular processes and the identification of their physical protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is an area of mature academic research. Various databases have been developed containing information about experimentally and computationally detected human PPIs as well as their corresponding annotation data. However, these databases contain many false positive interactions, are partial and only a few of them incorporate data from various sources. To overcome these limitations, we have developed HINT-KB (http://biotools.ceid.upatras.gr/hint-kb/), a knowledge base that integrates data from various sources, provides a user-friendly interface for their retrieval, cal-culatesasetoffeaturesofinterest and computesaconfidence score for every candidate protein interaction. This confidence score is essential for filtering the false positive interactions which are present in existing databases, predicting new protein interactions and measuring the frequency of each true protein interaction. For this reason, a novel machine learning hybrid methodology, called (Evolutionary Kalman Mathematical Modelling—EvoKalMaModel), was used to achieve an accurate and interpretable scoring methodology. The experimental results indicated that the proposed scoring scheme outperforms existing computational methods for the prediction of PPIs.

  15. The Research on"Human Library"and Library's Knowledge Service Strategies%"Human Library"与图书馆知识服务的策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒文刚

    2015-01-01

    "Human Library"作为一种全新的知识服务理念与服务模式,在图书馆知识服务方面具有鲜活、独特的优势.阐述了"Human Library"与图书馆知识服务的概念,提出了"Human Library"与图书馆知识服务的策略,包括加强宣传以提高社会认可、增进共识以促进合作共赢、完善制度以推进规范管理.%"Human Library", being as a new idea and pattern of knowledge service, has fresh and unique advantages in library's knowledge service. This paper expounds the concepts of"human library"and library's knowledge service, and puts forward the strategies for "human library"and library's knowledge service, which include strengthening the propaganda to improve the social acceptance, broadening the mutual understanding to promote the win-win cooperation, and perfecting the system to to promote standard management.

  16. The Prevalence of Different Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Routes and Knowledge about AIDS in Infected People with HIV in Sirjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Behzadpour

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalence of HIV transmission routs in the HIV infected population of Sirjan, and their knowledge about the disease, in order to plan better preventive strategies. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was planned. During a 6-month period in 2010, all of the HIV infected people in Sirjan (old and new cases who had a file at the consultation center for high risk behavior, completed a valid and reliable questionnaire. Results: The definite route of transmission was not clear in any of the patients because they had more than one suspicious route. Injected drug abusers were the most common (88.4% followed by those who got tattoos (79.1%, invasive therapeutic procedures, dentistry, surgery and endoscopy (56.1%, high risk sexual behavior (62.8%, bloodletting (9.3%, injuries in the barbershop (9.3% and blood transfusion (2.3%. Conclusion: All of the HIV infected cases in Sirjan were involved with several high risk behaviors, but the major route of transmission, similar to other parts of the country was injected drug abuse. Educational programs for prevention of AIDS should be followed seriously and special attention should be paid to groups with multiple high risk behaviors.

  17. A Political Decision Disguised as Legal Argument? Opinion 2/13 and European Union Accession to the European Convention on Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2015-01-01

    of Copenhagen, Denmark. In this interview, carried out in June 2015 for the Utrecht Journal of International and European Law, David Thór Björgvinsson outlined his views to Graham Butler on Opinion 2/13 from the Court of Justice of the European Union on the Union’s accession to the European Convention on Human...... Rights, the workings of the European Court of Human Rights, and what the future may have in store for this Court.......David Thór Björgvinsson was a judge of the European Court of Human Rights between 2004 and 2013. During this period, he was involved in many important judgments, including Scoppola v Italy (No. 3), Eweida and others v United Kingdom, and Al-Jedda v the United Kingdom, amongst others, and went...

  18. Knowledge Yearning for Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the restriction of access to knowledge/books in the contemporary digitalized global world, in which the access to knowledge has to be paid for, and wherein definitions of modes of payment control who has or doesn’t have the right to knowledge. The second part of the article deals with the struggle for the freedom of words/knowledge, and actions through which the authors/producers of knowledge and art fight the restrictions not only to the freedom of speech, but also creativity and innovation, which should be the aim of all copyright and intellectual right laws, the contemporary application of which has become its own opposite.

  19. Metacognitive Model of Tacit Knowledge Transfer in Human Library%真人图书馆隐性知识转移的元认知模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培林

    2016-01-01

    To find a solution for“how to transfer tacit knowledge in human library”,this article combines Flavell’ s metacognitive theory with Dr. Dong’s metacognitive ideas to explore the metacognitive model of tacit knowledge transfer in human library and its operating mechanism based on the analysis of metacognitive dimensions of tacit knowledge. The results show that it need to establish a “3+1” metacognition mechanism for tacit knowledge transfer in human library in order to achieve the transfer successfully.%文章针对真人图书馆中隐性知识如何转移,引入Flavell的元认知理论及董奇的元认知观点,在分析隐性知识元认知维度的基础上,探索真人图书馆隐性知识转移的元认知模式,据此提出推动真人图书馆隐性知识转移的运行机制。研究结果显示,要成功实现真人图书馆隐性知识转移,需要建立“3+1”真人图书馆隐性知识转移元认知机制。

  20. The Effects of Learning Organization Culture on the Practices of Human Knowledge-Creation: An Empirical Research Study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to identify the influence of learning organization culture on the practices of organizational knowledge-creation. Actionable knowledge-creation practices are put forward as a variable in preference to the learning process itself because they may be more closely related to the achievement of individual and/or organizational…

  1. Research on Economics and Management%The Relationship Between Organizational Trust and Knowledge Sharing-Roles of Organizational Identification and High Commitment Human Resource Practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宗华; 李燕萍; 郭昱琅; 郑馨怡

    2016-01-01

    From the perspective of self-concept,this study explores the effects of organizational trust on employees'knowledge sharing behavior,and examines the relationship between organizational trust and knowledge sharing based on multiple regression analysis of 288 subordinate-supervisors from 7 companies.The results indicate that organizational trust has significantly positive effect on knowledge sharing and organizational identification;organizational identification has significantly positive effect on knowledge sharing;organizational identification partially plays a mediating role in the relationship between organizational trust and knowledge sharing;high commitment human resource practices(HCHRPs) play a positive moderating role in the relationship between organizational identification and knowledge sharing;and high commitment human resource practices(HCHRPs)also moderate the indirect relationship between organizational trust and knowledge sharing via organizational identification.%本文基于自我概念的视角引入组织信任探讨员工的知识分享行为。以来自7家企业的288份直接主管-下属配对样本,探讨组织信任与知识分享的关系。研究发现,组织信任对知识分享、组织认同有显著正向影响,组织认同对知识分享有显著正向影响,组织认同部分中介组织信任对知识分享的作用;高承诺人力资源实践在组织认同与知识分享的关系中起正向调节作用;高承诺人力资源实践调节组织信任对知识分享影响的间接效应。

  2. Open access, readership, citations: a randomized controlled trial of scientific journal publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip M

    2011-07-01

    Does free access to journal articles result in greater diffusion of scientific knowledge? Using a randomized controlled trial of open access publishing, involving 36 participating journals in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities, we report on the effects of free access on article downloads and citations. Articles placed in the open access condition (n=712) received significantly more downloads and reached a broader audience within the first year, yet were cited no more frequently, nor earlier, than subscription-access control articles (n=2533) within 3 yr. These results may be explained by social stratification, a process that concentrates scientific authors at a small number of elite research universities with excellent access to the scientific literature. The real beneficiaries of open access publishing may not be the research community but communities of practice that consume, but rarely contribute to, the corpus of literature.

  3. Global access to infertility care in developing countries: a case of human rights, equity and social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombelet, W

    2011-01-01

    According to WHO data more than 180 million couples in developing countries suffer from primary or secondary infertility. The social stigma of childlessness still leads to isolation and abandonment in many developing countries. Differences between the developed and developing world are emerging because of the different availability in infertility care and different socio-cultural value surrounding procreation and childlessness. Although reproductive health education and prevention of infertility are number one priorities, the need for accessible diagnostic procedures and new reproductive technologies (ART) is very high. The success and sustainability of ART in resource-poor settings will depend to a large extend on our ability to optimise these techniques in terms of availability, affordability and effectiveness. Accessible infertility treatment can only be successfully introduced in developing countries if socio-cultural and economic prerequisites are fulfilled and governments can be persuaded to support their introduction. We have to liaise with the relevant authorities to discuss the strengthening of infertility services, at the core of which lies the integration of infertility, contraceptive and maternal health services within public health care structures. After a fascinating period of more than 30 years of IVF, only a small part of the world population benefits from these new technologies. Time has come to give equitable access to effective and safe infertility care in resource-poor countries as well.

  4. Awareness and knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection among high-risk men of Hispanic origin attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colón-López Vivian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital Human papilloma virus (HPV is one of the most commonly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infection (STIs in men and women. Knowledge about HPV infection among men is limited. This study aims to determine correlates of adequate knowledge of HPV infection among men who attend an STI clinic in Puerto Rico. Methods A cross-sectional study of 206 men was conducted at an STI clinic in San Juan, PR. Adequate knowledge was defined as a score of at least 70% of correct responses among those men who reported having ever heard of HPV. Variables that achieved statistical significance in the bivariate analysis (p Results Although 52.5% of men reported having heard of HPV infection before the survey, only 29.3% of this sub-group had an adequate knowledge of HPV. Most men did not know that HPV is a risk factor for anal (38.7%, penile (50.0% and oral (72.6% cancer. Factors associated with adequate knowledge of HPV in age-adjusted models were being men who have sex with men (MSM (OR=2.6;95%CI=1.1-6.1, self-report of genital warts (OR=3.2;95%CI=1.3-7.9 and herpes (OR=7.4;95% CI=2.2-25.1. MSM was marginally associated with adequate knowledge (OR=2.3;95% CI=0.9-5.9 and self-report of herpes remained significantly associated (OR=5.0;95%CI=1.3-18.4 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Awareness and knowledge of HPV was very low in this group of men. Interventions to increase knowledge and awareness in this group are necessary to promote preventive practices for HPV-related cancers in high-risk groups.

  5. Challenges in Measuring Teachers' Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauskanger, Janne

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) measures have been widely adopted by researchers. Critics have debated the value of such measures and questioned the type of knowledge that these access. This article reports on a study where the challenges in measuring teachers' knowledge were illuminated through investigating relationships between the…

  6. Access, ethics and piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Lawson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ownership of intellectual property rights for a large proportion of the scholarly record is held by publishers, so a majority of journal articles are behind paywalls and unavailable to most people. As a result some readers are encouraged to use pirate websites such as Sci-Hub to access them, a practice that is alternately regarded as criminal and unethical or as a justified act of civil disobedience. This article considers both the efficacy and ethics of piracy, placing ‘guerrilla open access’ within a longer history of piracy and access to knowledge. By doing so, it is shown that piracy is an inevitable part of the intellectual landscape that can render the current intellectual property regime irrelevant. If we wish to actively construct a true scholarly commons, open access emerges as a contender for moving beyond proprietary forms of commodifying scholarly knowledge towards the creation of an open scholarly communication system that is fit for purpose.

  7. Moving forward on human resources for health: next steps for scaling up toward universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Wilma; McCaffery, James; Quain, Estelle E

    2011-08-01

    In 2008, the Global Health Workforce Alliance commissioned a technical working group to examine the human resources for health implications of scaling up to reach the Millennium Development Goal 6 of universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care, and support by 2010. The analysis and interventions recommended in the working group report, which was launched at the Second Global Forum on Human Resources for Health in Bangkok, Thailand, in January 2011, are based on two research methods: literature reviews covering the period from 2000 to 2008 and a rapid situational analysis produced by teams working in 5 countries (Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Thailand, and Zambia). The authors' intent in this article is to assist the Alliance in maintaining the momentum of the forum and the enthusiasm generated by the working group's report to make a difference at the country level by moving from recommendation to action.

  8. On Granular Knowledge Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge plays a central role in human and artificial intelligence. One of the key characteristics of knowledge is its structured organization. Knowledge can be and should be presented in multiple levels and multiple views to meet people's needs in different levels of granularities and from different perspectives. In this paper, we stand on the view point of granular computing and provide our understanding on multi-level and multi-view of knowledge through granular knowledge structures (GKS). Representation of granular knowledge structures, operations for building granular knowledge structures and how to use them are investigated. As an illustration, we provide some examples through results from an analysis of proceeding papers. Results show that granular knowledge structures could help users get better understanding of the knowledge source from set theoretical, logical and visual point of views. One may consider using them to meet specific needs or solve certain kinds of problems.

  9. The human genome project: Information management, access, and regulation. Technical progress report, 1 April--31 August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.D.; Micikas, L.B.

    1993-09-10

    Efforts are described to prepare educational materials including computer based as well as conventional type teaching materials for training interested high school and elementary students in aspects of Human Genome Project.

  10. Landscape-scale accessibility of livestock to tigers: implications of spatial grain for modeling predation risk to mitigate human-carnivore conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer R B; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Jena, Jyotirmay; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2015-03-01

    Innovative conservation tools are greatly needed to reduce livelihood losses and wildlife declines resulting from human-carnivore conflict. Spatial risk modeling is an emerging method for assessing the spatial patterns of predator-prey interactions, with applications for mitigating carnivore attacks on livestock. Large carnivores that ambush prey attack and kill over small areas, requiring models at fine spatial grains to predict livestock depredation hot spots. To detect the best resolution for predicting where carnivores access livestock, we examined the spatial attributes associated with livestock killed by tigers in Kanha Tiger Reserve, India, using risk models generated at 20, 100, and 200-m spatial grains. We analyzed land-use, human presence, and vegetation structure variables at 138 kill sites and 439 random sites to identify key landscape attributes where livestock were vulnerable to tigers. Land-use and human presence variables contributed strongly to predation risk models, with most variables showing high relative importance (≥0.85) at all spatial grains. The risk of a tiger killing livestock increased near dense forests and near the boundary of the park core zone where human presence is restricted. Risk was nonlinearly related to human infrastructure and open vegetation, with the greatest risk occurring 1.2 km from roads, 1.1 km from villages, and 8.0 km from scrubland. Kill sites were characterized by denser, patchier, and more complex vegetation with lower visibility than random sites. Risk maps revealed high-risk hot spots inside of the core zone boundary and in several patches in the human-dominated buffer zone. Validation against known kills revealed predictive accuracy for only the 20 m model, the resolution best representing the kill stage of hunting for large carnivores that ambush prey, like the tiger. Results demonstrate that risk models developed at fine spatial grains can offer accurate guidance on landscape attributes livestock should

  11. Knowledge capture and the retirement of the director of finance: succession planning in the San Mateo County Human Services Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Concern over the impending retirement of several top-level managers led a county agency to engage in efforts aimed at more efficient succession management. Administrators developed plans to prevent the loss of invaluable knowledge and wisdom accompanying retirement of experienced agency leaders. The agency's Director of Finance (DoF) was one of the first key figures projected to retire, and a succession plan was implemented to transfer his knowledge for use after his departure. The knowledge transfer process involved three stages, including: (1) employing the DoF as teacher, having him develop curricula and conduct trainings; (2) engaging the DoF as mentor, allowing an existing staff member and the DoF's successor to shadow and be coached by the DoF; and (3) developing a knowledge management system that could be used after the DoF departed. This case study describes the knowledge transfer process and experiences shared by the DoF and this agency.

  12. Role of Human Health Care Providers and Medical Treatment Facilities in Military Working Dog Care and Accessibility Difficulties with Military Working Dog Blood Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles Iii, James T

    2016-01-01

    The use of military working dogs (MWDs) in support of military operations has increased dramatically over recent years, as they have proven to be our most reliable deterrent to improvised explosive devices. Healthcare delivery for MWDs in combat presents unique challenges and requires extensive collaboration between veterinarians and human health care providers (HCPs). A successful example is the incorporation of MWD emergency care for nonveterinary HCPs into the Joint Trauma System Clinical Practice Guidelines, which has proven to be a helpful product. Additional challenges that need further solutions include MWDs as patients in human medical treatment facilities (MTFs) and the procurement of appropriate canine blood components in an operational environment. It is often necessary for MWDs to be treated as patients in human MTFs, however, there is no Department of Defense guidance to support this activity. Access to MWD blood products is limited to collection of fresh whole blood in the operational setting. Similar to humans, specific blood component therapy, such as fresh frozen plasma, is often indicated for sick or injured MWDs. Currently there is no formal system in place to deliver any blood products for MWDs or to facilitate collection in theater.

  13. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... reducing complexity and dividing knowledge into to dichotomies or hierarchies, knowledge workers should be enabled to use different strategies for knowledge sharing, -transfer and –creation depending on the task and the nature of the knowledge. However if the ambition is to have a strategy for sharing...

  14. An Evaluation of the Human Domain Concept: Organizing the Knowledge, Influence, and Activity in Population-Centric Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    interdependence is a requirement not just within the military, but also in an “integrated architecture that optimizes capabilities in the [diplomatic...accessed December 5, 2014, http://search.proquest.com/ docview/1429243548. 32 informational, and economic realms] – an architecture that melds these...engineering tail from wagging the sea dog was to control rigidly the activities of naval engineers from the minute they entered the naval service.”105 The

  15. Malaysia's Human Resource Strategies for a Knowledge-Based Economy - Comparing the Influence of Different Labur Market Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15-20 years the Malaysian government has sought to meet the increasing international competition in the labour intensive manufacturing industry by transforming the economy to a more knowledge-based economy. Impotant levers are industrial upgrading policies and partnerships with leadin...

  16. Knowledge, attitude towards human papillomavirus and HPV vaccine among medical students of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswati Tripathy

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Lack of knowledge among medical students can be detrimental to the health of the society. So there is a need to create awareness among the future health educators against various aspects of HPV, cervical cancers and its prevention. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1771-1774

  17. Sexuality and Human Reproduction: A Study of Scientific Knowledge, Behaviours and Beliefs of Portuguese Future Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Luisa; Teixeira, Filomena; Martins, Isabel; Melico-Silvestre, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Sex education in Portugal has become a right and an obligation starting in the first years of school. However, despite being required by legislation, this is not easy to achieve, partly because of weaknesses in the training of teachers, which need to be identified. In this study, data were collected about the knowledge, behaviours and beliefs of…

  18. From Open Access to Open Knowledge Environment:A Study for Digital Collection Development Policy and Practice of University Libraries%从开放获取到开放知识环境——高校图书馆数字馆藏发展政策研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓菲; 张婷; 陈蕾

    2015-01-01

    从环境、政策和评价体系等方面分析开放获取的现状和发展趋势,探讨基于数据的科学研究第四范式对数字馆藏发展政策的影响,提出面向开放知识环境的数字馆藏发展核心政策和保障政策.%The article analyses the open access development status based on the facts of open access resources, government open access policies and open access review systems. It discusses that the forth paradigm of science study has influence over the digital collection development policy. It also proposes the core polices and guaranty policies of the digital collection development policy to open knowledge oriented environment.

  19. Workshop "Italian Universities for Open Access: towards open access for scholarly literature" - Messina, Italy, November 4th-5th, 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Comba, Valentina

    2004-01-01

    This Workshop is the result of a long-term (and successful) effort of a group of Italian librarians and Institutions who are pursuiting the goal of innovation in the Italian e-publishing environment. At the Workshop Rectors and delegates from 31 Universities and the Istituto Italiano di Medicina Sociale signed the Messina Declaration, declaring "to agree to the 'Berlin Declaration on Open Access to knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities' and wishing that this act will represent just the fir...

  20. SCIENCE AND HUMAN KNOWLEDGE AS MODEL CONSTRUCTION A CIÊNCIA E O CONHECIMENTO HUMANO COMO CONSTRUÇÃO DE MODELOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique de Araújo Dutra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I try to argue that both science, as a specific kind of knowledge, and human knowledge in general are activities of constructing models. In the first part, I present my conception according to which scientific models are abstract entities, and that scientific theories may be interpreted as classes of models as abstract replicas of real settings, in which certain laws apply. In the second part, I try to extend that same conception to ordinary human knowledge, particularly to the case of the cognitive activity of classifying objects of experience.Neste artigo, vamos procurar argumentar que tanto a ciência, enquanto um tipo específico de conhecimento, quanto o conhecimento humano em geral são atividades de construção de modelos. Na primeira parte, apresentamos nossa concepção segundo a qual os modelos científicos são entidades abstratas, e as teorias científicas podem ser interpretadas como classes de modelos enquanto réplicas abstratas de situações reais, nas quais valem determinadas leis. Na segunda parte, procuramos estender essa mesma concepção ao conhecimento humano ordinário, em particular, ao caso da atividade cognitiva de classificar os objetos da experiência.

  1. An open source infrastructure for managing knowledge and finding potential collaborators in a domain-specific subset of PubMed, with an example from human genome epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoury Muin J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying relevant research in an ever-growing body of published literature is becoming increasingly difficult. Establishing domain-specific knowledge bases may be a more effective and efficient way to manage and query information within specific biomedical fields. Adopting controlled vocabulary is a critical step toward data integration and interoperability in any information system. We present an open source infrastructure that provides a powerful capacity for managing and mining data within a domain-specific knowledge base. As a practical application of our infrastructure, we presented two applications – Literature Finder and Investigator Browser – as well as a tool set for automating the data curating process for the human genome published literature database. The design of this infrastructure makes the system potentially extensible to other data sources. Results Information retrieval and usability tests demonstrated that the system had high rates of recall and precision, 90% and 93% respectively. The system was easy to learn, easy to use, reasonably speedy and effective. Conclusion The open source system infrastructure presented in this paper provides a novel approach to managing and querying information and knowledge from domain-specific PubMed data. Using the controlled vocabulary UMLS enhanced data integration and interoperability and the extensibility of the system. In addition, by using MVC-based design and Java as a platform-independent programming language, this system provides a potential infrastructure for any domain-specific knowledge base in the biomedical field.

  2. Knowledge of primary health care and career choice at primary health care settings among final year medical students - challenges to human resources for health in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Minh, Hoang Van; Hien, Nguyen Van; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc

    2015-01-01

    There is a shortage of medical doctors in primary health care (PHC) settings in Vietnam. Evidence about the knowledge medical students have about PHC and their career decision-making is important for making policy in human resources for health. The objective of this study was to analyse knowledge and attitudes about PHC among medical students in their final year and their choice to work in PHC after graduation. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 final year general medical students from Hanoi Medical University. Self-administered interviews were conducted. Key variables were knowledge, awareness of the importance of PHC and PHC career choices. Descriptive and analytic statistics were performed. Students had essential knowledge of the concept and elements of PHC and were well aware of its importance. However, only one-third to one half of them valued PHC with regard to their professional development or management opportunities. Less than 1% of students would work at commune or district health facilities after graduation. This study evidences challenges related to increasing the number of medical doctors working in PHC settings. Immediate and effective interventions are needed to make PHC settings more attractive and to encourage medical graduates to start and continue a career in PHC.

  3. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  4. Does Ignorance Matter? The Relative Importance of Civic Knowledge and the Human Tendency to Engage in Motivated Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Dusso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It has long been understood that political knowledge in the U.S. is very low. For those who care about the quality of American democracy, this is a big problem. In attempting to find a solution, many people often blame education. While increasing civic knowledge is a laudatory goal, increased political sophistication does not necessarily turn individuals into good democratic citizens. Research in cognitive and social psychology paints a picture of people as motivated reasoners. Instead of having an open-minded engagement with issues, individuals typically only seek, see, and understand information in a manner that reinforces what they already believe. Here, we examine motivated reasoning and argue that the strongest partisans and the most committed ideologues will be the most susceptible to holding contradictory policy positions with regard to same-sex marriage and religious freedom.

  5. Access to Preventive Health Care for Undocumented Migrants: A Comparative Study of Germany, The Netherlands and Spain from a Human Rights Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Flegar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the preventive health care provisions for nationals and undocumented migrants in Germany, the Netherlands and Spain in light of four indicators derived from the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights’ General Comment 14 (GC 14. These indicators are (i immunization; (ii education and information; (iii regular screening programs; and (iv the promotion of the underlying determinants of health. It aims to answer the question of what preventive health care services for undocumented migrants are provided for in Germany, the Netherlands and Spain and how this should be evaluated from a human rights perspective. The study reveals that the access to preventive health care for undocumented migrants is largely insufficient in all three countries but most extensive in the Netherlands and least extensive in Germany. The paper concludes that a human rights-based approach to health law and policy can help to refine and concretize the individual rights and state obligations for the preventive health care of undocumented migrants. While the human rights framework is still insufficiently clear in some respects, the research concedes the added value of a rights-based approach as an evaluation tool, advocacy framework and moral principle to keep in mind when adopting or evaluating state policies in the health sector.

  6. The UMLS Knowledge Source server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, A T; Razi, A

    1995-01-01

    The UMLS Knowledge Source server is an evolving tool for accessing information stored in the UMLS Knowledge Sources. The system architecture is based on the client-server paradigm wherein remote site users send their requests to a centrally managed server at the U.S. National Library of Medicine. The client programs can run on platforms supporting the TCP/IP communication protocol. Access to the system is provided through a command-line interface and through an Application Programming Interface.

  7. Knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus infection and sexual behavior among drug users: a cross sectional study in Pokhara submetropolitan city, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Sanjeev Raj; Mishra, Shiva Raj

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse is one of the public health problems in Nepal. Only limited research has been done to explore knowledge and sexual behaviors of injection drug users in Nepal. The objective of this research was to explore knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and sexual behavior among drug users in Nepal. More than 90% of participants had heard of HIV. Almost all participants who had heard of HIV knew that HIV is transmitted through unsafe sexual intercourse and through syringe use. In comparison to that, a small percentage of participants knew of infected blood and mother to child as modes of transmission of HIV. Injection drug users were less likely to use condoms during sexual intercourse with their wives. Awareness programs and behavior-change communication to alert drug users to the risks of sharing syringes need to be conducted, in addition to promoting the use of condoms during sexual intercourse with other women as well as with their wives.

  8. Structures of the human Pals1 PDZ domain with and without ligand suggest gated access of Crb to the PDZ peptide-binding groove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Marina E.; Fletcher, Georgina C.; O’Reilly, Nicola; Purkiss, Andrew G.; Thompson, Barry J. [Cancer Research UK, 44 Lincoln’s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3LY (United Kingdom); McDonald, Neil Q., E-mail: neil.mcdonald@cancer.org.uk [Cancer Research UK, 44 Lincoln’s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3LY (United Kingdom); Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    This study characterizes the interaction between the carboxy-terminal (ERLI) motif of the essential polarity protein Crb and the Pals1/Stardust PDZ-domain protein. Structures of human Pals1 PDZ with and without a Crb peptide are described, explaining the highly conserved nature of the ERLI motif and revealing a sterically blocked peptide-binding groove in the absence of ligand. Many components of epithelial polarity protein complexes possess PDZ domains that are required for protein interaction and recruitment to the apical plasma membrane. Apical localization of the Crumbs (Crb) transmembrane protein requires a PDZ-mediated interaction with Pals1 (protein-associated with Lin7, Stardust, MPP5), a member of the p55 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs). This study describes the molecular interaction between the Crb carboxy-terminal motif (ERLI), which is required for Drosophila cell polarity, and the Pals1 PDZ domain using crystallography and fluorescence polarization. Only the last four Crb residues contribute to Pals1 PDZ-domain binding affinity, with specificity contributed by conserved charged interactions. Comparison of the Crb-bound Pals1 PDZ structure with an apo Pals1 structure reveals a key Phe side chain that gates access to the PDZ peptide-binding groove. Removal of this side chain enhances the binding affinity by more than fivefold, suggesting that access of Crb to Pals1 may be regulated by intradomain contacts or by protein–protein interaction.

  9. An integrative lens model approach to bias and accuracy in human inferences: hindsight effects and knowledge updating in personality judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Steffen; Egloff, Boris; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Back, Mitja D

    2012-10-01

    The present article integrates research on the accurate inference of personality traits with process models of hindsight bias (the tendency to exaggerate in hindsight what one had said in foresight). Specifically, the article suggests a new model that integrates assumptions of the lens model on accurate personality judgments and accounts that view hindsight effects as a by-product of knowledge updating. We suggest 3 processes that have the potential to explain the occurrence of hindsight effects in personality judgments: (a) changes in an individual's cue perceptions, (b) changes in the utilization of more valid cues, and (c) changes in the consistency with which cue knowledge is applied. In 2 studies (N1 = 91, N2 = 93), participants were presented with target pictures and were asked to judge each target's levels of the Big Five. Thereafter, they received feedback and had to recall their original judgments. Results show that there were clear hindsight effects for all 5 personality dimensions. Importantly, we found evidence that both the utilization of more valid cues and changes in cue perceptions--but not changes in the consistency with which cue knowledge is applied--account for the hindsight effects. Implications of these results for models explaining hindsight effects, the inference of personality judgments, and the accuracy of these inferences are discussed.

  10. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron

    2004-01-01

    and carriers. By contrast, theexplicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held byindividuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating new knowledge, andthe development of systems (including information systems) to disseminate articulatedknowledge within......This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacitknowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individualsin an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization,and managing key individuals as knowledge creators...... an organization. The relative advantages and disadvantages of bothapproaches to knowledge management are summarized. A synthesis of tacit andknowledge management approaches is recommended to create a hybrid design for theknowledge management practices in a given organization....

  11. Pilot Test of Survey to Assess Dental and Dental Hygiene Student Human Papillomavirus-Related Oropharyngeal Cancer Knowledge, Perceptions, and Clinical Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkoski, Holdunn; Fowler, Brynn; Mooney, Ryan; Pappas, Lisa; Dixon, Barbara L; Pinzon, Lilliam M; Winkler, James; Kepka, Deanna

    2017-01-14

    This was the first study to develop and pilot test an assessment tool for the examination of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) knowledge, perceptions, and clinical practices of oral health students. An interdisciplinary team developed the tool using surveys that examined this topic in other populations. The tool was then pilot tested at two different dental programs. Results from the pilot informed revisions to the final version of the tool. Of the 46 student participants, 18 were first-year dental hygiene and 28 were first-year dental students. The majority of participants were female (N = 29, 63%) and ages 18 to 29 years old (N = 41, 89%). Four scales used in the questionnaire were analyzed for reliability. Of these, the HPV and HPV-OPC knowledge and the HPV vaccination knowledge scales had Cronbach alphas of 0.71 and 0.79, respectively. Questions assessing HPV and the role of dental professionals had a correlation coefficient of 0.71. Questions assessing willingness to administer vaccines in the dental office had a correlation coefficient of 0.85. Assessing oral health students' HPV-OPC knowledge, perceptions, and clinical practices are important for future assessment of possible HPV-OPC cases. Dental professionals may be optimally positioned to provide HPV patient education. The tool developed and pilot tested in this study can help schools assess their students' knowledge and guide their dental curriculum to address deficiencies. Since this topic has not been effectively examined with dental health students, the results could help improve dental education and dental care.

  12. Knowledge Management

    CERN Document Server

    Gerami, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.

  13. Analysing Access Control Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    . Recent events have revealed intimate knowledge of surveillance and control systems on the side of the attacker, making it often impossible to deduce the identity of an inside attacker from logged data. In this work we present an approach that analyses the access control configuration to identify the set......When prosecuting crimes, the main question to answer is often who had a motive and the possibility to commit the crime. When investigating cyber crimes, the question of possibility is often hard to answer, as in a networked system almost any location can be accessed from almost anywhere. The most...... of credentials needed to reach a certain location in a system. This knowledge allows to identify a set of (inside) actors who have the possibility to commit an insider attack at that location. This has immediate applications in analysing log files, but also nontechnical applications such as identifying possible...

  14. Accessing the molecular interactions of phthalates and their primary metabolites with the human pregnane X receptor using in silico profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarath Josh, M K; Pradeep, S; Balan, Aparna K; Sreejith, M N; Benjamin, Sailas

    2016-12-01

    Phthalates are known to cause endocrine disruption in humans and animals. Being lipophilic xenobiotic chemicals, phthalates from the surrounding environments can easily be absorbed into the biological system, thereby causing various health dysfunctions. This molecular docking study evaluates a variety of molecular interactions of 12 commonly used diphthalates and respective monophthalates onto the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR), a xenosensor, which would be beneficial for further in vitro and in vivo studies on hazardous phthalates. Out of 12 diphthalates and their monophthalates tested, diisodecyl phthalate (-9.16 kcal mol(-1) ) showed more affinity toward hPXR whereas diisononyl phthalate (-8.77) and di(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate (-8.56), the predominant plasticizers found in a variety of plastics and allied products, showed comparable binding scores with that of the control ligands such as hyperforine (-9.99) and dexamethasone (-7.36). In addition to the above diphthalates, some of their monophthalates (monoisodecyl phthalate, mono-2-etheylhexyl phthalate, etc.) also established similar interactions with certain crucial amino acids in the LBD, which led to higher G scores. In fact, bisphenol A, a well-studied and proven endocrine disruptor, showed lesser G scores (-6.69) than certain phthalates. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A sequence of 'factishes': the media-metaphorical knowledge dynamics structuring the German press coverage of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doring, Martin

    2005-12-01

    This article deals with the cultural framing of the near sequencing of the human genome and its impact on the media coverage in Germany. It investigates in particular the way in which the weekly journal Die Zeit and the daily newspaper Frankfurter Rundschau reported this media event and its aftermath between June 2000 and June 2001. Both newspapers are quality papers that played an essential role in framing the human genome debate--alongside the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung--which became the most prominent genomic forum. The decoding of the human genome prompted a huge controversy concerning the ethics of human engineering, research on stem cells and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis. The main aim of this article is to show how this controversy was structured by metaphor. The media coverage of the genome generated DNA-factishes--a neologism designating the ambivalence of something as fact (fait) and as a fetish (fetiche)--that mostly propagated images of a new DNA-scienticism or biological determinism. Mediated by cultural experiences, the human genome became a highly artificial and social construct of a 'NatureCulture'.

  16. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co......Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge......-creation strategies. Confronted with the results, the group completely altered their approach to knowledge sharing and let it become knowledge co-creation. The conclusions are, that knowledge is and can only be a diverse and differentiated concept, and that groups are able to embrace this complexity. Thus rather than...

  17. Investigating Acceptance toward Mobile Learning to Assist Individual Knowledge Management: Based on Activity Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Hatala, Marek; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Mobile devices could facilitate human interaction and access to knowledge resources anytime and anywhere. With respect to wide application possibilities of mobile learning, investigating learners' acceptance towards it is an essential issue. Based on activity theory approach, this research explores positive factors for the acceptance of m-learning…

  18. Reconfiguring the Law of Non-Refoulement: Procedural and Substantive Barriers for Those Seeking to Access Surrogate International Human Rights Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. von Sternberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Both geographic and normative constraints restrict access to surrogate international human rights protection for those seeking a haven from serious human rights abuses. Primary among territorial restrictions has been the fall-out from the US Supreme Court’s decision in Sale v. Haitian Council Centers in which the court explicitly ruled that nothing in US statutory law, or in the 1951 Convention on Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, precluded the interdiction of Haitian refugees in international waters and their return to the country of origin without an effective interview on their protection clams. This ruling is in transparent contradiction to the general international law norm of non-refoulement according to modern scholarship and emerging case law. This paper concludes that Sale should be overturned by statute as should related pre-screening practices. A new standard of “jurisdiction” should be adopted which does not depend on territorial access to a signatory state but on whether the state is exercising power in fact. Similar concerns exist with respect to safe third country agreements which often offend the international customary right of the asylum seeker to choose where his or her claim will be filed. This paper argues that the right of choice should be recognized and onward travel and admission to the country of destination allowed. This result is especially called for where return of the alien by the country of first contact raises serious concerns under the law of non-refoulement. Imbalances noted in this paper include those generated by the new terrorism related grounds of inadmissibility in theUnited States and the summary denial of children’s asylum claims flowing from gang violence.Other questions are raised in this paper concerning work authorization and detention of asylum seekers. Access to an employment authorization document for those filing colorable claims should be recognized by statute to render US practice

  19. An Ecological Framework of the Human Virome Provides Classification of Current Knowledge and Identifies Areas of Forthcoming Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technologies have opened the door for the classification of the human virome. While taxonomic classification can be applied to the viruses identified in such studies, this gives no information as to the type of interaction the virus has with the host. As follow-up studies are performed to address these questions, the description of these virus-host interactions would be greatly enriched by applying a standard set of definitions that typify them. This paper describes a framework with which all members of the human virome can be classified based on principles of ecology. The scaffold not only enables categorization of the human virome, but can also inform research aimed at identifying novel virus-host interactions.

  20. inSilicoDb: an R/Bioconductor package for accessing human Affymetrix expert-curated datasets from GEO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminau, Jonatan; Steenhoff, David; Coletta, Alain; Meganck, Stijn; Lazar, Cosmin; de Schaetzen, Virginie; Duque, Robin; Molter, Colin; Bersini, Hugues; Nowé, Ann; Weiss Solís, David Y

    2011-11-15

    Microarray technology has become an integral part of biomedical research and increasing amounts of datasets become available through public repositories. However, re-use of these datasets is severely hindered by unstructured, missing or incorrect biological samples information; as well as the wide variety of preprocessing methods in use. The inSilicoDb R/Bioconductor package is a command-line front-end to the InSilico DB, a web-based database currently containing 86 104 expert-curated human Affymetrix expression profiles compiled from 1937 GEO repository series. The use of this package builds on the Bioconductor project's focus on reproducibility by enabling a clear workflow in which not only analysis, but also the retrieval of verified data is supported.

  1. HUMAN CAPITAL ASSESMENT CASE STUDY: KNOWLEDGE BASED ORGANIZATION VS. TOP 100 ORGANIZATIONS LISTED BY MARKET CAPITALIZATION IN THE LAST THREE MONTHS AT THE BSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA RADNEANTU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over time we can see a considerable increase in intangible elements for organizations. But, unfortunately, there is a long and difficult way until the intangible assets such as human capital will be reflected in the financial statements. This paper presents the conclusions of a comparative study conducted using two samples of companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange - companies to be fit in the category "knowledge-based" and companies in the Top 100 regarding the importance of measurable or quantifiable variables for assessing the human capital and implicitly a company. To increase the relevance of the results obtained in addition to mean and quadratic mean deviation we used Paired-Samples T Test.

  2. Factors associated with pastoral community knowledge and occurrence of mycobacterial infections in Human-Animal Interface areas of Nakasongola and Mubende districts, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biffa Demelash

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are emerging opportunistic pathogens whose role in human and animal disease is increasingly being recognized. Major concerns are their role as opportunistic pathogens in HIV/AIDS infections. The role of open natural water sources as source and livestock/wildlife as reservoirs of infections to man are well documented. This presents a health challenge to the pastoral systems in Africa that rely mostly on open natural water sources to meet livestock and human needs. Recent study in the pastoral areas of Uganda showed infections with same genotypes of NTM in pastoralists and their livestock. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental, animal husbandry and socio-demographic factors associated with occurrence and the pastoral community knowledge of mycobacterial infections at the human-environment-livestock/wildlife interface (HELI areas in pastoral ecosystems of Uganda. Methods Two hundred and fifty three (253 individuals were subjected to a questionnaire survey across the study districts of Nakasongola and Mubende. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Humans sharing of the water sources with wild animals from the forest compared to savannah ecosystem (OR = 3.3, the tribe of herding pastoral community (OR = 7.9, number of rooms present in household (3-5 vs. 1-2 rooms (OR = 3.3 were the socio-demographic factors that influenced the level of knowledge on mycobacterial infections among the pastoral communities. Tribe (OR = 6.4, use of spring vs. stream water for domestic use (OR = 4.5, presence of sediments in household water receptacle (OR = 2.32, non separation of water containers for drinking and domestic use (OR = 2.46, sharing of drinking water sources with wild animals (OR = 2.1, duration of involvement of >5 yrs in cattle keeping (OR = 3.7 and distance of household to animal night shelters (>20 meters (OR = 3

  3. In vitro data combined with human disease data to improve toxicological hazard assessment: the ASAT Knowledge Base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, J; Aarts, Jac; Boorsma, Andre; Caiment, Florian; Soeteman-Hernandez, Lya G.; van der Veen, J; Tsamou, Maria; Russel, Frans G. M.; Groothuis, Genoveva; Stierum, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In line with the Assuring Safety Without Animal Testing (ASAT) principle, risk assessment may ultimately become feasible without the use of animals (Fentem et al., 2004). ASAT assumes that activation of human disease mechanisms in in vitro models can be used for toxicological assessment. Therefore,

  4. Mobilizing Ideas in Knowledge Networks: A Social Network Analysis of the Human Resource Management Community 1990-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Swart, Juani; Naude, Peter; Jiang, Zhizhong; Mouzas, Stefanos

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show the role of social networks in mobilizing how actors both impact and are impacted on by their colleagues. It seeks to compare the human resource management (HRM) academic community with two other comparable communities, and to identify those groups that are seen to work closely together.…

  5. Knowledge Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools are available? What are the main issues?). The book is aimed at students, researchers and practitioners interested in Knowledge Management, Artificial Intelligence, Design Engineering and Web Technologies. During the 1990s, Nick worked at the University of Nottingham on the application of AI techniques to knowledge management and on various knowledge acquisition projects to develop expert systems for military applications. In 1999, he joined Epistemics where he worked on numerous knowledge projects and helped establish knowledge management...

  6. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  7. Accessibility Standards, Illustrated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael A.

    The book sets forth Illinois environmental accessibility standards for disabled persons based on observation and interview data. Photographs, drawings, and detailed floor plans are included in sections dealing with human data (including space requirements for maneuvering wheelchairs, color blindness, incontinence, and severe auditory or visual…

  8. The knowledge levels and opinions of biomedical students regarding the human papillomavirus quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) recombinant vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsau, Kristy; Reutzel, Thomas J; Wang, Sheila; Quiñones, Ana; Nguyen, Patrick; Hasan, Shehrbano; Workman, Gloria

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the knowledge levels and attitudes of all students enrolled in 1 biomedical university regarding the human papillomavirus quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) recombinant vaccine (Gardasil-Merck; the HPV vaccine). A survey of students from all 7 programs at the University was conducted in January 2009. A total of 1120 useable questionnaires were obtained. These programs included pharmacy, osteopathic medicine, physician assistant, physical therapy, occupational therapy, doctor of psychology, and master of biomedical sciences. Mean percentage correct on the HPV vaccine knowledge test was 73. Subjects scored highest on the question that asks whether the vaccine helps prevent cervical cancer (97% correct) and lowest on the one asking whether it helps prevent genital warts (41% correct). Eighty-eight percent thought that patients 18 years and older should be able to receive the HPV vaccine without parental consent. Only about 5% think that the vaccine would cause patients to become sexually active, or that it would cause patients to have unprotected sex. The results suggest that these students have reasonable but limited knowledge of the vaccine. Their positive attitudes suggest that they will likely recommend or provide the vaccine to their patients.

  9. Excluding the poor from accessing biomedical literature: a rights violation that impedes global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamey, Gavin

    2008-01-01

    Most biomedical journals charge readers a hefty access toll to read the full text version of a published research article. These tolls bring enormous profits to the traditional corporate publishing industry, but they make it impossible for most people worldwide--particularly in low and middle income countries--to access the biomedical literature. Traditional publishers also insist on owning the copyright on these articles, making it illegal for readers to freely distribute and photocopy papers, translate them, or create derivative educational works. This article argues that excluding the poor from accessing and freely using the biomedical research literature is harming global public health. Health care workers, for example, are prevented from accessing the information they need to practice effective medicine, while policymakers are prevented from accessing the essential knowledge they require to build better health care systems. The author proposes that the biomedical literature should be considered a global public good, basing his arguments upon longstanding and recent international declarations that enshrine access to scientific and medical knowledge as a human right. He presents an emerging alternative publishing model, called open access, and argues that this model is a more socially responsive and equitable approach to knowledge dissemination.

  10. Knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role...... in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating...... and integrationknowledge, rewarding knowledge workers, etc.) , and derive refutable implications that are novelto the knowledge management field from our discussion....

  11. El humanismo de Eiximenis: saber, ciudad y cortesía = Eiximenis’ Humanism: Knowledge, city and courtesy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad VILANOU TORRANO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an approach to the thought of the Franciscan Francesc Eiximenis (c. 1330-1409, one of the Crown of Aragon’s most distinguished authors. Living during the transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance, his intellectual universe contains elements of both worlds. While from a doctrinal viewpoint, he follows the canons of the Medieval period, from the social viewpoint —by advocating a greater role for the bourgeoisie—, he proposes a precapitalist economy. In a broad sense, from a pedagogic viewpoint, one can define Eiximenis as a humanist concerned with fostering city life, the prominence of active life through cultivation of the mechanical arts, the expansion of knowledge as an effective means for combating ignorance, the development of reading as a tool for improving the governance of cities and the dissemination of courtesy to temper the ills caused by sin, particularly gluttony. Without being a humanist in the strict sense, Eiximenis —author of the encyclopaedic work (Lo Crestià, written at the end of the 14th century in the vernacular tongue so that it could be read by everyone— contributes to laying the foundations of a pedagogic culture that seeks the betterment of society through a series of elements —appreciation of knowledge, praise of work, expansion of courtesy, encouraging reading among women, etc.— which, in general, herald and anticipate the advent of the Renaissance. This would confirm the thesis that argues that the Renaissance is not a break from the Middle Ages but rather it is the outcome of a gradual evolution that is more suggestive of continuity than rupture.

  12. Attitudes, knowledge and risky practices facing with the human inmunodeficiency virus between the university population of Chontales (Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López-Noguero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article a study between the university population of Centro Regional Chontales in Universidad Nacional Autónoma of Nicaragua is presented. The attitudes facing with the HIV are analyzed and the knowledge that the lecturers and students have about this topic, also the risky practices that they usually realize.Method:Only one ad hoc questionnaire was used with questions about sexual orientation, sexual habits and birth control, knowledge about HIV, other sexually transmitted diseases, attitudes, perceptions and risky practices. A proportional stratified sampling was used to select the samples. Descriptive analysis (percentage, correlation analysis (correlation coefficient and contrast of the non-parametric hypothesis bymeans of the correlation coefficient test. Results: Fromthe analysis realized we can deduce that there is still a lack of awareness about the transmission routes of the disease (just the 14,57 % of the students and the 8,43 % of the lecturers knows that the spread is possible by blood transfusion in certain conditions. There are problems by means of attitudes and risky practices (almost the 59 % of the students states that they do not use any type of birth control in their sexual relations also the persistency of social discrimination elements (almost the 42%of the students states that theywould not livewith a person with AIDS or they say that they do not know if they would do it or not due to fear of transmission.Conclusions: It has been considered necessary to develop social and educational initiatives of healthy promotion in this environment, a multisectorial questions approach facing with the HIV, where the social and educational has a prevailing place

  13. Assessment of sex-related behaviours, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men of reproductive age in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel

    2014-12-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are among the major public health challenges in Cameroon. This paper determined the effect of men's sex-related behaviors and HIV knowledge on reported STIs. The data came from the 2012 Cameroon's Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) that were collected from 7191 respondents in 2012. Descriptive and logistic regression methods were used for data analysis. Results showed that majority of the respondents were aware of STIs and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), while 3.96% reported STIs. Also, 49.45% of the men had no wife, while 75.58% and 84.58% noted that condoms and keeping of one partner could be used to prevent HIV transmission, respectively. Wrong impressions that mosquito bites and sharing of food could lead to HIV infection were held by 31.94% and 12.44% of the men, respectively. Among those that reported STIs, 33.33%, 30.18% and 13.33% respectively used condom during sex with most recent partner, second to most recent partner and third to most recent partner, compared to 24.69%, 15.04% and 4.17% among those that did not report STIs. Logistic regression results showed that probability of STI increased significantly (p knowledge that mosquito bites cause HIV and being away for more than one month, while it significantly reduced (p knowledge that having one partner prevents STIs. It was concluded that policy initiatives and programmes to enhance right sexual knowledge and behavior among men would go a long way in reducing STI incidence in Cameroon.

  14. Early infant male circumcision for human immunodeficiency virus prevention: knowledge and attitudes of women attending a rural hospital in Swaziland, Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Prudence; Kliner, Merav; Walley, John

    2014-01-01

    Swaziland has the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world at 26% of the adult population. Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been shown to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV from heterosexual sex by up to 60% and the Government of Swaziland has been promoting adult male circumcision. Infant circumcision commenced in 2013 so it is important to understand the knowledge and views of women as potential mothers, around infant circumcision for medical purposes to inform the development of the service. This study interviewed 14 women of reproductive age attending the outpatient department of Good Shepherd Mission Hospital (GSMH), a rural district hospital, on their knowledge of and attitudes to early infant male circumcision (EIMC). Participants were highly knowledgeable about the health benefits of medical circumcision, although knowledge of the comparative risks and benefits of EIMC to adult circumcision was poor. All participants would have a son circumcised; the preferred age varied from early infancy to adolescence. Complications and pain were the main barriers whilst religious and cultural reasons were mentioned both for and against circumcision. A variety of family members are important in the decision to circumcise a young boy. Acceptability of medical circumcision was high in this study, but concerns about safety, pain, autonomy and cultural factors reduce the acceptability of infant circumcision more specifically. It will be important to provide accurate, culturally sensitive information about infant circumcision to mothers, fathers and grandparents using existing hospital and community services provided at GSMH and throughout Swaziland. Where possible services for MMC should be available to males of all ages so that families and young men may choose the most favourable age for circumcision.

  15. Disease Ontology 2015 update: an expanded and updated database of human diseases for linking biomedical knowledge through disease data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbe, Warren A; Arze, Cesar; Felix, Victor; Mitraka, Elvira; Bolton, Evan; Fu, Gang; Mungall, Christopher J; Binder, Janos X; Malone, James; Vasant, Drashtti; Parkinson, Helen; Schriml, Lynn M

    2015-01-01

    The current version of the Human Disease Ontology (DO) (http://www.disease-ontology.org) database expands the utility of the ontology for the examination and comparison of genetic variation, phenotype, protein, drug and epitope data through the lens of human disease. DO is a biomedical resource of standardized common and rare disease concepts with stable identifiers organized by disease etiology. The content of DO has had 192 revisions since 2012, including the addition of 760 terms. Thirty-two percent of all terms now include definitions. DO has expanded the number and diversity of research communities and community members by 50+ during the past two years. These community members actively submit term requests, coordinate biomedical resource disease representation and provide expert curation guidance. Since the DO 2012 NAR paper, there have been hundreds of term requests and a steady increase in the number of DO listserv members, twitter followers and DO website usage. DO is moving to a multi-editor model utilizing Protégé to curate DO in web ontology language. This will enable closer collaboration with the Human Phenotype Ontology, EBI's Ontology Working Group, Mouse Genome Informatics and the Monarch Initiative among others, and enhance DO's current asserted view and multiple inferred views through reasoning.

  16. Human Library”对图书馆知识服务的意义%Significance of "Human Library" in the knowledge service of libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒文刚; 谭翠

    2015-01-01

    Human Library”将“真人”作为“图书”进行借阅活动,是一种全新的图书馆知识服务理念与服务模式.文章论述了“Human Library”对图书馆知识服务的意义,具体表现在:开创性地实现了用户与“Human Book”的双向交流,创新了图书馆知识服务理念,深化了图书馆知识服务精神,拓展了图书馆知识服务内容,优化了图书馆知识服务方式,强化了图书馆知识服务功能.

  17. The Mobility of Business Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán Bartha

    2010-01-01

    Different aspects of business knowledge’s mobility are analysed in the paper. We define business knowledge as action-related skills, and codified messages that contribute to the effective combination of inputs. In other words business knowledge can be explicit at times, but also may appear as highly implicit. The mobility of the factor is extremely important: if it is found that certain elements of business knowledge are immobile, enterprises may only get access to it if they move to regions ...

  18. Knowledge Harvesting for Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Mustapha, Nesrine; Aufaure, Marie-Aude

    2012-01-01

    International audience; With the growth rate of information volume, information access and knowledge management in enterprises has become challenging. This paper aims at describing the importance of semantic technologies (ontologies) and knowledge extraction techniques for knowledge management, search and capture in e-business processes. We will present the state of the art of ontology learning approaches from textual data and web environment and their integration in enterprise systems to per...

  19. Integrating human factors knowledge into certification: The point of view of the Internatioanal Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurino, Daniel; Galotti, Vincent

    1994-01-01

    It is appropriate here to repeat the analogy described in the introduction to this paper which is that: The consideration of human factors requirements during the design stage of advanced, new technology systems may be seen as resting over a three-legged stool. The first leg, the equipment that a system will utilize to achieve its goals, has traditionally attracted ergonomic considerations associated with equipment design, usually centered around 'knobs and dials.' Lately, this view has expanded to include the so-called other important aspect of Human Factor's study which deals with the cognitive, behaviorial and social processes of the human operators. Study in this area must be furthered. The second leg of the stool, the procedures to operate the equipment, however, has been largely unaddressed. Procedures are not inherent to equipment, but must be developed. The importance of proper human factors consideration in the design of procedures can not be overstated. Lastly, the third leg of the stool, the certification of personnel who will operate the equipment, is very much underway, but far from being complete. The real quest now, however, is to integrate these three legs into an indivisible one. Finally, and most importantly, this workshop and its topic are extremely timely in that we are at the dawn of the most ambitious development ever undertaken in international civil aviation. This would allow us the rather unique opportunity to put theory into practice in the near future by ensuring that the concepts developed and furthered by this workshop and the follow-up are implemented in the design and certification of the ICAO future CNS/ATM systems described earlier in this paper. Now is the time to incorporate human factors requirements during the certification processes of these systems. This might act as a test to the feasibility of these ideas. Such endeavors represent a challenge for the research, engineering, training, operational and regulatory communities

  20. Artisanal knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raven, Diederick

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about the ensuing problem that in general it is nothelpful to talk about non-standard knowledge practices as modeled after our Western ideas of what knowledge is. It negotiates this problem by arguing that artisanal knowledge is an independent and self-contained mode of knowledge and is arranged in three parts. In the first part an outline is given of the key assumptions of the interactionist conception of knowledge that needs to be put in place as an alternative to the basically Kantian mixture of empiricist and rationalist assumptions of the folk model of Western academic thinking about knowledge. In this interactionist conception of knowledgeartisanal knowledge gets center stage. In the second part, the notion of craftknowledge is opened up as much as possible. The third and final part takes upthe question whether craft knowledge is a cultural universal.

  1. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  2. Featured Article: Genotation: Actionable knowledge for the scientific reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahawatte, Panduka; Willis, Ethan; Sakauye, Mark; Jose, Rony; Chen, Hao; Davis, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    We present an article viewer application that allows a scientific reader to easily discover and share knowledge by linking genomics-related concepts to knowledge of disparate biomedical databases. High-throughput data streams generated by technical advancements have contributed to scientific knowledge discovery at an unprecedented rate. Biomedical Informaticists have created a diverse set of databases to store and retrieve the discovered knowledge. The diversity and abundance of such resources present biomedical researchers a challenge with knowledge discovery. These challenges highlight a need for a better informatics solution. We use a text mining algorithm, Genomine, to identify gene symbols from the text of a journal article. The identified symbols are supplemented with information from the GenoDB knowledgebase. Self-updating GenoDB contains information from NCBI Gene, Clinvar, Medgen, dbSNP, KEGG, PharmGKB, Uniprot, and Hugo Gene databases. The journal viewer is a web application accessible via a web browser. The features described herein are accessible on www.genotation.org The Genomine algorithm identifies gene symbols with an accuracy shown by .65 F-Score. GenoDB currently contains information regarding 59,905 gene symbols, 5633 drug-gene relationships, 5981 gene-disease relationships, and 713 pathways. This application provides scientific readers with actionable knowledge related to concepts of a manuscript. The reader will be able to save and share supplements to be visualized in a graphical manner. This provides convenient access to details of complex biological phenomena, enabling biomedical researchers to generate novel hypothesis to further our knowledge in human health. This manuscript presents a novel application that integrates genomic, proteomic, and pharmacogenomic information to supplement content of a biomedical manuscript and enable readers to automatically discover actionable knowledge.

  3. Knowledge-guided robust MRI brain extraction for diverse large-scale neuroimaging studies on humans and non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Nie, Jingxin; Yap, Pew-Thian; Li, Gang; Shi, Feng; Geng, Xiujuan; Guo, Lei; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and robust brain extraction is a critical step in most neuroimaging analysis pipelines. In particular, for the large-scale multi-site neuroimaging studies involving a significant number of subjects with diverse age and diagnostic groups, accurate and robust extraction of the brain automatically and consistently is highly desirable. In this paper, we introduce population-specific probability maps to guide the brain extraction of diverse subject groups, including both healthy and diseased adult human populations, both developing and aging human populations, as well as non-human primates. Specifically, the proposed method combines an atlas-based approach, for coarse skull-stripping, with a deformable-surface-based approach that is guided by local intensity information and population-specific prior information learned from a set of real brain images for more localized refinement. Comprehensive quantitative evaluations were performed on the diverse large-scale populations of ADNI dataset with over 800 subjects (55 ∼ 90 years of age, multi-site, various diagnosis groups), OASIS dataset with over 400 subjects (18 ∼ 96 years of age, wide age range, various diagnosis groups), and NIH pediatrics dataset with 150 subjects (5 ∼ 18 years of age, multi-site, wide age range as a complementary age group to the adult dataset). The results demonstrate that our method consistently yields the best overall results across almost the entire human life span, with only a single set of parameters. To demonstrate its capability to work on non-human primates, the proposed method is further evaluated using a rhesus macaque dataset with 20 subjects. Quantitative comparisons with popularly used state-of-the-art methods, including BET, Two-pass BET, BET-B, BSE, HWA, ROBEX and AFNI, demonstrate that the proposed method performs favorably with superior performance on all testing datasets, indicating its robustness and effectiveness.

  4. Knowledge-guided robust MRI brain extraction for diverse large-scale neuroimaging studies on humans and non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Wang

    Full Text Available Accurate and robust brain extraction is a critical step in most neuroimaging analysis pipelines. In particular, for the large-scale multi-site neuroimaging studies involving a significant number of subjects with diverse age and diagnostic groups, accurate and robust extraction of the brain automatically and consistently is highly desirable. In this paper, we introduce population-specific probability maps to guide the brain extraction of diverse subject groups, including both healthy and diseased adult human populations, both developing and aging human populations, as well as non-human primates. Specifically, the proposed method combines an atlas-based approach, for coarse skull-stripping, with a deformable-surface-based approach that is guided by local intensity information and population-specific prior information learned from a set of real brain images for more localized refinement. Comprehensive quantitative evaluations were performed on the diverse large-scale populations of ADNI dataset with over 800 subjects (55 ∼ 90 years of age, multi-site, various diagnosis groups, OASIS dataset with over 400 subjects (18 ∼ 96 years of age, wide age range, various diagnosis groups, and NIH pediatrics dataset with 150 subjects (5 ∼ 18 years of age, multi-site, wide age range as a complementary age group to the adult dataset. The results demonstrate that our method consistently yields the best overall results across almost the entire human life span, with only a single set of parameters. To demonstrate its capability to work on non-human primates, the proposed method is further evaluated using a rhesus macaque dataset with 20 subjects. Quantitative comparisons with popularly used state-of-the-art methods, including BET, Two-pass BET, BET-B, BSE, HWA, ROBEX and AFNI, demonstrate that the proposed method performs favorably with superior performance on all testing datasets, indicating its robustness and effectiveness.

  5. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  6. HEPNet: A Knowledge Base Model of Human Energy Pool Network for Predicting the Energy Availability Status of an Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Abhishek; Grover, Monendra; Chakraborty, Amlan; Saxena, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    HEPNet is an electronic representation of metabolic reactions occurring within human cellular organization focusing on inflow and outflow of the energy currency ATP, GTP and other energy associated moieties. The backbone of HEPNet consists of primary bio-molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats which ultimately constitute the chief source for the synthesis and obliteration of energy currencies in a cell. A series of biochemical pathways and reactions constituting the catabolism and anabolism of various metabolites are portrayed through cellular compartmentalization. The depicted pathways function synchronously toward an overarching goal of producing ATP and other energy associated moieties to bring into play a variety of cellular functions. HEPNet is manually curated with raw data from experiments and is also connected to KEGG and Reactome databases. This model has been validated by simulating it with physiological states like fasting, starvation, exercise and disease conditions like glycaemia, uremia and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency (DLDD). The results clearly indicate that ATP is the master regulator under different metabolic conditions and physiological states. The results also highlight that energy currencies play a minor role. However, the moiety creatine phosphate has a unique character, since it is a ready-made source of phosphoryl groups for the rapid synthesis of ATP from ADP. HEPNet provides a framework for further expanding the network diverse age groups of both the sexes, followed by the understanding of energetics in more complex metabolic pathways that are related to human disorders.

  7. HEPNet: A Knowledge Base Model of Human Energy Pool Network for Predicting the Energy Availability Status of an Individual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Sengupta

    Full Text Available HEPNet is an electronic representation of metabolic reactions occurring within human cellular organization focusing on inflow and outflow of the energy currency ATP, GTP and other energy associated moieties. The backbone of HEPNet consists of primary bio-molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats which ultimately constitute the chief source for the synthesis and obliteration of energy currencies in a cell. A series of biochemical pathways and reactions constituting the catabolism and anabolism of various metabolites are portrayed through cellular compartmentalization. The depicted pathways function synchronously toward an overarching goal of producing ATP and other energy associated moieties to bring into play a variety of cellular functions. HEPNet is manually curated with raw data from experiments and is also connected to KEGG and Reactome databases. This model has been validated by simulating it with physiological states like fasting, starvation, exercise and disease conditions like glycaemia, uremia and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency (DLDD. The results clearly indicate that ATP is the master regulator under different metabolic conditions and physiological states. The results also highlight that energy currencies play a minor role. However, the moiety creatine phosphate has a unique character, since it is a ready-made source of phosphoryl groups for the rapid synthesis of ATP from ADP. HEPNet provides a framework for further expanding the network diverse age groups of both the sexes, followed by the understanding of energetics in more complex metabolic pathways that are related to human disorders.

  8. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  9. Hemodialysis access - self care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - ...

  10. Categorical phonotactic knowledge filters second language input, but probabilistic phonotactic knowledge can still be acquired

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentz, T.O.; Kager, R.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic phonotactic knowledge facilitates perception, but categorical phonotactic illegality can cause misperceptions, especially of non-native phoneme combinations. If misperceptions induced by first language (L1) knowledge filter second language input, access to second language (L2) probabil

  11. Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  12. MCBS Access to Care PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MCBS 2013 Access to Care public use file (MCBS PUF) provides the first publically available MCBS file for researchers interested in the health, health care use,...

  13. Assuring Access to Affordable Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under the Affordable Care Act, millions of uninsured Americans will gain access to affordable coverage through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and improvements in...

  14. Computer Security Systems Enable Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggen, Gary

    1989-01-01

    A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)

  15. Parents' knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow young males to receive human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Winstons Muhwezi

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008-2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10-23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p = 0.003, believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p = 0.006, thought their son(s couldn't contract HPV (p = 0.010, didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p = 0.002, knew that males could not acquire HPV (p = 0.000 and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p = 0.000. Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital.

  16. Knowledge Work and Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address how instruction influences the creative knowledge work. Based on different perspectives on instructions and the actions followed, this paper reveal how educators, having different competencies of ICT-instructions, influence students’ creative knowledge work......, and students’ knowledge creation....

  17. Knowledge cycle and strategic knowledge within company

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2007-01-01

    In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed an...

  18. Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kiran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study covers the knowledge management (KM in institutions of higher technical education (IHTEs from the perspective of thought leaders and junior academia to identify whether there is a difference of opinion regarding KM strategies, including knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, knowledge dissemination, and KM-based framework for research and curriculum development (CD. Data have been collected through structured questionnaire from 141 respondents covering 30 higher educational institutions in India, including national- and state-level institutions—Designations of the targeted respondents in the IHTEs have been categorized into (a senior academia, that is, professors, heads, and associate professors occupying senior management positions, considered to be the institute overseers and thought leaders of KM and (b junior academia consisting of assistant professors and lecturers who are using and also contributing to the KM system. ANOVA has been used to see whether there is a significant difference of opinion among the two groups of knowledge users. The results of the study highlight a significant difference among the two groups regarding knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, and knowledge dissemination. But, there is a consensus regarding KM-based framework for research and CD.

  19. Knowledge, attitude, and perception of disease among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome: A study from a tertiary care center in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although modification of behavioral practices among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-affected patients is important in decreasing HIV disease transmission, the knowledge, attitude, and perception studies about HIV infection rarely include persons living with HIV/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS. Aims: To assess knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of persons living with HIV/AIDS for the disease and other epidemiological aspects. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and fifty consecutive persons living with HIV/AIDS were enrolled for this questionnaire-based cross-sectional, descriptive study. Results: These 150 patients comprised 93 men and 57 women, aged between 14 and 78 (mean 37.13 years. The majority, 112 (74.67% patients were between 20 and 50 years of age and 116 (77.3% patients were either illiterate or high-school dropouts. Drivers, laborers, and self-employed comprised 69 (74.2% patients among affected males. Only 129 (86% respondents had heard about HIV/AIDS and knew about its heterosexual transmission. Ninety-eight (65.3% respondents were aware of disease transmission from infected blood or needle pricks. Interestingly, 106 (70.7% respondents were aware of the importance of using condom in preventing disease transmission. Television/radio was the most common sources of information for 135 (90% patients. Nearly, 69% respondents disfavored disclosing their disease to friends/colleagues fearing stigmatization. Conclusions: Information, education, and communication activities are imperative to educate persons living with HIV/AIDS about life-long nature of the disease, modes of its transmission, and significance of preventive measures to bridge the gaps in their knowledge. While improvement in individual economic status, education, and health services remains highly desirable, mass media can play a pivotal role in creating awareness among masses.

  20. Collaboration to Unlock Access : Presentations at the LIBER Conference in ST Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick J. Friend

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The opportunities provided by open access to journal literature have generated much interest and discussion. LIBER's approach to this important topic at the St Petersburg Conference was through the theme of collaboration. Each group of stakeholders in scholarly communication, from author through to reader, has an interest in open access. If open access is to be achieved it has to be through collaboration between authors, funding agencies, publishers and librarians working together in the best interests of readers of academic literature. The benefits to individuals and to human society to be gained from open access are described in this quotation from the Budapest Open Access Initiative: "An old tradition and a new technology have converged to make possible an unprecedented public good. The old tradition is the willingness of scientists and scholars to publish the fruits of their research in scholarly journals without payment, for the sake of inquiry and knowledge. The new technology is the internet. The public good they make possible is the world-wide electronic distribution of the peer-reviewed journal literature and completely free and unrestricted access to it by all scientists, scholars, teachers, students, and other curious minds. Removing access barriers to this literature will accelerate research, enrich education, share the learning of the rich with the poor and the poor with the rich, make this literature as useful as it can be, and lay the foundation for uniting humanity in a common intellectual conversation and quest for knowledge." Since calling the meeting which developed the Budapest Open Access Initiative, the Open Society Institute has continued to support discussion and action to implement the two strategies leading to open access identified in Budapest, and the open access session at the LIBER Conference was supported by a grant from OSI.

  1. The major predisposing factors to human papilloma virus (HPV infection among patients with cancer of the cervix and their knowledge of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Lipke

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the main predisposing factors to human papilloma virus (HPV infection among patients with cancer of the cervix as well as establish their knowledge and awareness of the disease, so as to design educational programmes to minimise the future occurrence of the disease.

    Opsomming
    Doel: Die doel van hierdie studie was om die vernaamste predisposionele faktore tot Menslike Papilloma Virus (HPV infeksie te identifiseer by pasiente met kanker van die serviks, insluitende hulle kennis en bewustheid van die siekte, ten einde opvoedkundige programme tot stand te bring en te ontwerp wat die hoe voorkoms van die siekte kan minimiseer. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  2. Why share knowledge? The influence of ICT on the motivation for knowledge sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, P.H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) can enhance knowledge sharing by lowering temporal and spatial barriers between knowledge workers, and improving access to information about knowledge. Looking at ICT for knowledge sharing in this light, however, has limited value, because it ignores wh

  3. Alkmaion's discovery that brain creates mind: a revolution in human knowledge comparable to that of Copernicus and of Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Robert W

    2007-07-13

    Without special examination the brain offers no clue that it is the organ of the mind. From the dawn of time man thus either ignored the problem as to the source of thought, or attributed it to a variety of anatomical structures, usually the heart. The brain held no place in such intuitions, and in most languages it is analogized to bone marrow. Furthermore, nothing in early medical systems claimed any intellectual capacity for the brain; and the Egyptians, so fastidious in care for their afterlife, heedlessly discarded the brain in funerary practice. It was thus a unique event in world history when Alkmaion of Kroton (Alcmaeon, ca. 500 bc), based on anatomical evidence, proposed that the brain was essential for perception. Although no writings of Alkmaion survived, it was probably via a fortuitous linkage that his idea of the mental primacy of the brain was transmitted to, and preserved within, the teachings of the Hippocratic school. Nothing, of course, was secure as to mechanism, two millennia unfolding until the search for mind passed from the ventricles to the cerebral cortex. Nonetheless, Alkmaion was the beginning, and the ensuing understanding that he initiated is still transforming humanity's perception of the natural world, and their place within it.

  4. KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.

  5. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O'Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  6. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50% more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry....

  7. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    2015-01-01

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depends on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50 % more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry...

  8. Human Capital Operation Effect Knowledge-based Enterprise Capabilities Process Analysis%人力资本对知识型企业能力作用的过程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鸿飞; 李鹤; 岳伟伟

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge and intelligence is becoming increasingly evident in the socioeconomic development and enterprise development. The role of human capital in the ability of knowledge-based enterprise are worthy of our study focused. On the basis of the analysis of knowledge-based enterprises' and enterprise capability impli- cations, We divide the human capital operation into four module and constructed out of the basic operation of the human capital operation process, and analyze the human capital in tehran enterprise is on how it is opera- ted, creating the operation process of human capital in knowledge-based enterprise by theoretical analysis. And hope to have some help and inspiration to managers of modern knowledge-based enterprise.%知识、智力在社会经济和企业发展中起到的作用Et益明显,在分析知识型企业及企业能力涵义基础上,将人力资本运营划分四个模块构造人力资本运营的基本运作流程,探讨人力资本运营如何在企业中具体操作和发挥作用,以期对我国知识型企业的发展提供建议。

  9. Disappearing knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nišavić Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the exposition of the basic standpoints of contextualism in relation to invariantistic position, which takes the concept of knowledge in its rigorous and fixed meaning, the text continues to deal with the analysis of the concept of knowledge offered by David Lewis, with a goal to solve common epistemological problems, one of those being the lottery paradox. Accepting fallibilism as the only plausible option regarding the possibility of acquiring knowledge, Lewis claims that, with the postulated rules that allow us to properly eliminate alternative possibilities, it is possible to resolve the previously mentioned paradox. If we want to base knowledge on probability, and not on certainty, and to directly stipulate it with the context in which it is being imposed or expressed, than it is obvious that knowledge will depend on whether the requirements for knowledge are high or low. Thus, in one case it might occur that we have knowledge, and in the other that we do not, even though nothing is changed except the conversational conditions that are already ”in the game”. Such, elusive knowledge, that gets lost, De Rose labels ”now you know it, now you don’t” and considers it to be a direct consequence of Lewis’s analysis. As such, the analysis should not be accepted.

  10. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    , assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words......: Internationalization, knowledge gap, absorptive capacity, learning box....

  11. When Being a Girl Matters Less: Accessibility of Gender-Related Self-Knowledge in Single-Sex and Coeducational Classes and Its Impact on Students' Physics-Related Self-Concept of Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Ursula; Hannover, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Background: Establishing or preserving single-sex schooling has been widely discussed as a way of bringing more girls into the natural sciences. Aims: We test the assumption that the beneficial effects of single-sex education on girls' self-concept of ability in masculine subjects such as physics are due to the lower accessibility of…

  12. Knowledge brokering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the spanning of inter-organizational weak ties and technological boundaries influences knowledge brokering. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on original fieldwork and employs a case study research design, investigating a Danish...... HTSF’s inter-organizational activities. Findings – The findings show how an inter-organizational search that crosses technological boundaries and is based on a network structure of weak ties can imply a reduced risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. Research limitations/implications – By not engaging...... in strong tie collaborations a knowledge brokering organization can reduce the risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. The risks and opportunities of knowledge spill-over furthermore rely on the nature of the technology involved and to what extent technological boundaries are crossed. Practical implications...

  13. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    at different bureaucratic levels and among researchers in university departments and research institutes. Researchers had a range of disciplinary backgrounds, in anthropology, sociology, public health, education and health economy, all bringing different ideas about the construction of knowledge to health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...

  14. Do Open Access Electronic Theses and Dissertations Diminish Publishing Opportunities in the Social Sciences and Humanities? Findings from a 2011 Survey of Academic Publishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marisa L.; Dalton, Joan T.; McMillan, Gail; Read, Max; Seamans, Nancy H.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of higher education institutions worldwide are requiring submission of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) by graduate students and are subsequently providing open access to these works in online repositories. Faculty advisors and graduate students are concerned that such unfettered access to their work could diminish…

  15. Accessing Students' Reasoning for Disengagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deed, Craig

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines what students can tell us about their strategic decision to engage or disengage from learning. A means of accessing student knowledge and experience about teaching and learning is explicated, along with a discussion of student reasoning for making an investment in learning. It is argued that disengagement is a reasoned decision…

  16. Differences in Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Adolescent Girls in Metropolitan Versus Non-metropolitan Areas: Considering the Moderating Roles of Maternal Socioeconomic Status and Health Care Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhubart, Danielle C.; Wallington, Sherrie Flynt

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study is among the first to examine metropolitan status differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation and completion among United States adolescent girls and is unique in its focus on how maternal socioeconomic status and health care access moderate metropolitan status differences in HPV vaccination. Methods Using cross-sectional data from 3573 girls aged 12–17 in the U.S. from the 2008–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we estimate main and interaction effects from binary logistic regression models to identify subgroups of girls for which there are metropolitan versus non-metropolitan differences in HPV vaccination. Results Overall 34 % of girls initiated vaccination, and 19 % completed all three shots. On average, there were no metropolitan status differences in vaccination odds. However, there were important subgroup differences. Among low-income girls and girls whose mothers did not complete high school, those in non-metropolitan areas had significantly higher probability of vaccine initiation than those in metropolitan areas. Among high-income girls and girls whose mothers completed college, those in metropolitan areas had significantly higher odds of vaccine initiation than those in non-metropolitan areas. Moreover, among girls whose mothers experienced a medical cost barrier, non-metropolitan girls were less likely to initiate vaccination compared to metropolitan girls. Conclusions Mothers remain essential targets for public health efforts to increase HPV vaccination and combat cervical cancer. Public health experts who study barriers to HPV vaccination and physicians who come into contact with mothers should be aware of group-specific barriers to vaccination and employ more tailored efforts to increase vaccination. PMID:26511129

  17. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE in the XXI century isevident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. Theauthors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the existence of products of knowledge expression which could be created in acquisition, creation, usage and development of them. The latter phenomenon is interpreted as knowledge expression characteristics: economic and social context, human resources, ICT, innovative business and innovation policy. The reason for this analysis was based on the idea that in spite of the knowledge economy existence in all developed World countries adefinitive, universal list of indicators for mapping and measuring the KBE does not yet exists. Knowledge Expression Assessment Models are presented in the article.

  18. Knowledge Blogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    The rise of social media and web 2.0 technologies over the last few years has impacted many communication functions. One influence is organizational bloggers as knowledge mediators on government agency practices. The ways in which these organizational bloggers in their roles as experts are able...... to change, facilitate, and enable communication about a broad range of specialized knowledge areas, in a more open interactional institutional communication environment than traditional media typically offer, give rise to a set of new implications as regards the mediation of expert knowledge to the target...

  19. Brain-mind dyad, human experience, the consciousness tetrad and lattice of mental operations: and further, the need to integrate knowledge from diverse disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2011-01-01

    Brain, Mind and Consciousness are the research concerns of psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists, cognitive neuroscientists and philosophers. All of them are working in different and important ways to understand the workings of the brain, the mysteries of the mind and to grasp that elusive concept called consciousness. Although they are all justified in forwarding their respective researches, it is also necessary to integrate these diverse appearing understandings and try and get a comprehensive perspective that is, hopefully, more than the sum of their parts. There is also the need to understand what each one is doing, and by the other, to understand each other's basic and fundamental ideological and foundational underpinnings. This must be followed by a comprehensive and critical dialogue between the respective disciplines. Moreover, the concept of mind and consciousness in Indian thought needs careful delineation and critical/evidential enquiry to make it internationally relevant. The brain-mind dyad must be understood, with brain as the structural correlate of the mind, and mind as the functional correlate of the brain. To understand human experience, we need a triad of external environment, internal environment and a consciousness that makes sense of both. We need to evolve a consensus on the definition of consciousness, for which a working definition in the form of a Consciousness Tetrad of Default, Aware, Operational and Evolved Consciousness is presented. It is equally necessary to understand the connection between physical changes in the brain and mental operations, and thereby untangle and comprehend the lattice of mental operations. Interdisciplinary work and knowledge sharing, in an atmosphere of healthy give and take of ideas, and with a view to understand the significance of each other's work, and also to critically evaluate the present corpus of knowledge from these diverse appearing fields, and then carry forward from there in a spirit of

  20. Brain-mind dyad, human experience, the consciousness tetrad and lattice of mental operations: And further, The need to integrate knowledge from diverse disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R Singh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain, Mind and Consciousness are the research concerns of psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists, cognitive neuroscientists and philosophers. All of them are working in different and important ways to understand the workings of the brain, the mysteries of the mind and to grasp that elusive concept called consciousness. Although they are all justified in forwarding their respective researches, it is also necessary to integrate these diverse appearing understandings and try and get a comprehensive perspective that is, hopefully, more than the sum of their parts. There is also the need to understand what each one is doing, and by the other, to understand each other's basic and fundamental ideological and foundational underpinnings. This must be followed by a comprehensive and critical dialogue between the respective disciplines. Moreover, the concept of mind and consciousness in Indian thought needs careful delineation and critical/evidential enquiry to make it internationally relevant. The brain-mind dyad must be understood, with brain as the structural correlate of the mind, and mind as the functional correlate of the brain. To understand human experience, we need a triad of external environment, internal environment and a consciousness that makes sense of both. We need to evolve a consensus on the definition of consciousness, for which a working definition in the form of a Consciousness Tetrad of Default, Aware, Operational and Evolved Consciousness is presented. It is equally necessary to understand the connection between physical changes in the brain and mental operations, and thereby untangle and comprehend the lattice of mental operations. Interdisciplinary work and knowledge sharing, in an atmosphere of healthy give and take of ideas, and with a view to understand the significance of each other's work, and also to critically evaluate the present corpus of knowledge from these diverse appearing fields, and then carry forward from there

  1. Knowledge, attitude, practice and barriers on vaccination against human papillomavirus infection: a cross-sectional study among primary care physicians in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C S Wong

    Full Text Available This study explored the knowledge, attitude, practice and barriers to prescribe human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines among private primary care physicians in Hong Kong. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted by sending letters to doctors who had joined a vaccination program for school girls. From 720 surveys sent, 444 (61.7% completed questionnaires were returned and analyzed. For knowledge, few responded to questions accurately on the prevalence of cervical HPV (27.9% and genital wart infection (13.1% among sexually active young women in Hong Kong, and only 44.4% correctly answered the percentage of cervical cancers caused by HPV. For attitude, most agreed that HPV vaccination should be fully paid by the Government (68.3% as an important public health strategy. Vaccination against HPV was perceived as more important than those for genital herpes (52.2% and Chlamydia (50.1% for adolescent health, and the majority selected adolescents aged 12-14 years as the ideal group for vaccination. Gardasil(® (30.9% and Cervarix(® (28.0% were almost equally preferred. For practice, the factors influencing the choice of vaccine included strength of vaccine protection (61.1%, long-lasting immunity (56.8% and good antibody response (55.6%. The most significant barriers to prescribe HPV vaccines consisted of parental refusal due to safety concerns (48.2%, and their practice of advising vaccination was mostly affected by local Governmental recommendations (78.7%. A substantial proportion of physicians had recommended HPV vaccines for their female clients/patients aged 18-26 years for protection of cervical cancer (83.8% or both cervical cancer and genital warts (85.5%. The knowledge on HPV infection was low among physicians in Hong Kong. Prescription of HPV vaccine was hindered by the perceived parental concerns and was mostly relied on Governmental recommendations. Educational initiatives should be targeted towards both physicians and parents

  2. Placing knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Valentin, Karen; Nielsen, Gritt B.

    Internationalisation of higher education is premised by a seeming paradox: On the one hand, academic knowledge strives to be universal in the sense that it claims to produce generalizable, valid and reliable knowledge that can be used, critiqued, and redeveloped by academics from all over the world......; on the other hand, the rationale for strengthening mobility through internationalisation is based on an imagination of the potentials of particular locations (academic institutions). Intrigued by this tension between universality and particularity in academic knowledge production, this paper presents...... preliminary findings from a project that study internationalisation of higher education as an agent in the interrelated processes of place-making and knowledge-making. The project is based on three case-studies. In this paper, focus is on PhD students’ change of research environment. This is used as a case...

  3. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...

  4. Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald Nielsen, Bo; Nicolajsen, Katrine

    For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model.......For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model....

  5. Vocabulary knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严爽

    2016-01-01

    Knowing a word refers to more than just a matter of knowing its form, meaning, pronunciation and spelling. It also refers to one's knowledge of the relationships the word is involved in, such as its collocations, semantic associations and so on. Words are not isolated entities. This paper focuses on vocabulary knowledge and helps us get an idea of what needs to be learned and the process of English vocabulary learning.

  6. Knowledge Fascism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight......Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight...

  7. Conventionalized knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Mental health nurses routinely hand over clinical knowledge at intershift reports. In the present study, field descriptions from prolonged fieldwork and transcripts of audio recordings of handovers were analysed discursively drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. The analysis iden...... exact clinical situations. Handing over caused a silencing of the least powerful nurses' voices, generated uncertainty, and promoted knowledge about the patients' clinical situation that was not necessarily precise or up-to-date....

  8. Price knowledge during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    accessible at the store exit. These findings enable the authors to reconcile diverging results from past research,showing how consumer price knowledge evolves and suggesting that the vast majority of consumers learn about prices, whether consciously orunconsciously, during grocery shopping. Thus, when......,204 respondents, the authors investigate three price knowledge measures (price recall, price recognition, and dealspotting) demonstrating that these are hierarchically related. Results suggest that reference prices dominate before store visit, but also that episodicprice knowledge, surprisingly, is still......Past research on consumer price knowledge has varied considerably partly due to differences in how and when price knowledge is measured.This paper applies a multi-point, multi-measure approach to reconcile differences in past price knowledge research by examining systematicrelationships between...

  9. BrainFrame: a knowledge visualization system for the neurosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Steven J.; Shaw, Chris D.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience has benefited from an explosion of new experimental techniques; many have only become feasible in the wake of improvements in computing speed and data storage. At the same time, these new computation-intensive techniques have led to a growing gulf between the data and the knowledge extracted from those data. That is, in the neurosciences there is a paucity of effective knowledge management techniques and an accelerating accumulation of experimental data. The purpose of the project described in the present paper is to create a visualization of the knowledge base of the neurosciences. At run-time, this 'BrainFrame' project accesses several web-based ontologies and generates a semantically zoomable representation of any one of many levels of the human nervous system.

  10. Lynx: a database and knowledge extraction engine for integrative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakhe, Dinanath; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Xie, Bingqing; Feng, Bo; Taylor, Andrew; Wang, Sheng; Berrocal, Eduardo; Dave, Utpal; Xu, Jinbo; Börnigen, Daniela; Gilliam, T Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    We have developed Lynx (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu)--a web-based database and a knowledge extraction engine, supporting annotation and analysis of experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses on molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes and disorders of interest. Its underlying knowledge base (LynxKB) integrates various classes of information from >35 public databases and private collections, as well as manually curated data from our group and collaborators. Lynx provides advanced search capabilities and a variety of algorithms for enrichment analysis and network-based gene prioritization to assist the user in extracting meaningful knowledge from LynxKB and experimental data, whereas its service-oriented architecture provides public access to LynxKB and its analytical tools via user-friendly web services and interfaces.

  11. Processing keyword queries under access limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Calì, Andrea; Martinenghi, D.; Torlone, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Web is constituted by data accessible through Web pages, but not readily indexable by search engines, as they are returned in dynamic pages. In this paper we propose a framework for accessing Deep Web sources, represented as relational tables with so-called access limitations, with keyword-based queries. We formalize the notion of optimal answer and propose methods for query processing. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first systematic approach to keyword search in such cont...

  12. Common Knowledge on Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liddell, Torrin M

    2015-01-01

    Common knowledge of intentions is crucial to basic social tasks ranging from cooperative hunting to oligopoly collusion, riots, revolutions, and the evolution of social norms and human culture. Yet little is known about how common knowledge leaves a trace on the dynamics of a social network. Here we show how an individual's network properties---primarily local clustering and betweenness centrality---provide strong signals of the ability to successfully participate in common knowledge tasks. These signals are distinct from those expected when practices are contagious, or when people use less-sophisticated heuristics that do not yield true coordination. This makes it possible to infer decision rules from observation. We also find that tasks that require common knowledge can yield significant inequalities in success, in contrast to the relative equality that results when practices spread by contagion alone.

  13. Knowledge Model: Project Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions...

  14. PRAGMATIC KNOWLEDGE OR NOBLE KNOWLEDGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MANOLESCU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Disputes about the opportunity to introduce competence-based education are increasingly present in terms of educational policies and strategies. Obviously, in the last decade and a half, several countries have introduced competence based education. Although specific knowledge acquisition should be an essential component of student learning, assessing such knowledge in adult life depends largely on the individual purchase of more general concepts and skills. The article discusses pragmatic knowledge and noble knowledge. This is a collective dilemma, to the extent that the education system lives in the tension between the two logics. The two positions or divergent attitudes can coexist as long ast hey do not become extremist. Educational dilemma is especially now a priority.

  15. The `What is a system' reflection interview as a knowledge integration activity for high school students' understanding of complex systems in human biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripto, Jaklin; Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Snapir, Zohar; Amit, Miriam

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the reflection interview as a tool for assessing and facilitating the use of 'systems language' amongst 11th grade students who have recently completed their first year of high school biology. Eighty-three students composed two concept maps in the 10th grade-one at the beginning of the school year and one at its end. The first part of the interview is dedicated to guiding the students through comparing their two concept maps and by means of both explicit and non-explicit teaching. Our study showed that the explicit guidance in comparing the two concept maps was more effective than the non-explicit, eliciting a variety of different, more specific, types of interactions and patterns (e.g. 'hierarchy', 'dynamism', 'homeostasis') in the students' descriptions of the human body system. The reflection interview as a knowledge integration activity was found to be an effective tool for assessing the subjects' conceptual models of 'system complexity', and for identifying those aspects of a system that are most commonly misunderstood.

  16. 2014 Future Earth Young Scientists Conference on Integrated Science and Knowledge Co-Production for Ecosystems and Human Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Shiue

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Effective integration in science and knowledge co-production is a challenge that crosses research boundaries, climate regions, languages and cultures. Early career scientists are crucial in the identification of, and engagement with, obstacles and opportunities in the development of innovative solutions to complex and interconnected problems. On 25–31 May 2014, International Council for Science and International Social Science Council, in collaboration with the International Network of Next-Generation Ecologists and Institute for New Economic Thinking: Young Scholars Initiative, assembled a group of early career researchers with diverse backgrounds and research perspectives to reflect on and debate relevant issues around ecosystems and human wellbeing in the transition towards green economy, funded by the German Research Foundation, at Villa Vigoni, Italy. As a group of young scientists, we have come to a consensus that collaboration and communication among a diverse group of peers from different geographic regions could break down the barriers to multi-disciplinary research designed to solve complex global-scale problems. We also propose to establish a global systematic thinking to monitor global socio-ecological systems and to develop criteria for a “good” anthropocene. Finally, we aim to bridge gaps among research, the media, and education from a governance perspective linking with “sustainable development goals”.

  17. When things don't talk: knowledge and belief in the inter-war humanism of Charles Singer (1876-1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Anna-K

    2005-09-01

    The science historian Charles Singer might seem to have shared with positivists a widely held commitment to observation as the foundation of knowledge. Yet in fact Singer's historiography was peculiarly unconcerned with instruments, models and other artefacts. Such tools might have been expected to present crucial empirical evidence for the historical arguments and ideal material for the didactics which pioneers such as Singer associated with their mission of a 'scientific humanism'. In their hands, physical things did not translate into epistemic things. This was deliberate. Yet while the configuration of science history which would distance it from material objects seems to speak of a shift from the visual to texts, the ocular technologies deployed in Singer's histories rather point to a co-existence of different kinds of visuality in that period's scholarship. As the academic and the museological aspects of science history pulled apart, the visuality of the museum came to be complemented by texts that vitally relied on images. The function of such images was to create proximity with the cognitive desires around whose traffic these histories became paper theatres of knowing. In bypassing material theatres and crafting realities that he understood to be empirically undemonstrable, Singer purposefully developed the story of understanding nature not as entailing obedience to its established results, but instead as embodying an attitude of continuing enquiry.

  18. Factors influencing the establishment of knowledge-intensive ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Neergaard, Helle; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2008-01-01

    , possessing the right mixture of human and social capital is often a prerequisite for accessing the best capital sources as well as sufficient capital. The value of human and social capital, however, depends largely on the industry environment.   Implications: The findings give weight and insight......, a deeper understanding of various mechanisms on which knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship hinges is needed. This paper investigates how the make-up of financial, human and social capital impacts on entrepreneurial action.   Methodology: Based on a longitudinal study using both structured survey and in......-depth interview techniques, this research addresses the role and importance of financial capital, human capital and social capital in the organizational genesis and early growth of entrepreneurial activities.   Findings: Financial capital remains the most critical asset in the entrepreneurial process. However...

  19. Business Process Oriented Knowledge Management System Design (Case Study Development Center of Metrological Human Resources, Ministry of Trade Republic of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wicaksono Febriantoro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to design a business process oriented Knowledge Management System (KMS in government training institutions using knowledge modeling methods and knowledge infrastructure process design of Strohmaier. Lecturer (WI business process is the main case study for this research. The preliminary identification and analysis showed that 7 of 10 business processes have not been fully identified in terms of their knowledge processes. Further analysis showed that in general, all business processes have not been optimized yet to fulfill all the components of knowledge creation to knowledge application. The results of the completed knowledge process design showed that there are 53 stages of the process (there are new additional 19 stages of the process. The new processes are largely on the knowledge transfer and knowledge application that have been defined. In addition, KMS architecture and IT tools as supporting knowledge infrastructure designs are defined. The IT tools are expected to support two knowledge process strategies :the codification strategy with the supporting IT Tools : content management system , information retrieval system, expert locator and the personalization strategy with the supporting IT Tools such as community of practice tool, virtual work space application and discussion group based application.

  20. Knowledge brokering:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    In the recent years a number of studies have explored different inter-organizational search strategies in relation to knowledge brokering and innovation performance. So far there has been very limited research that involves a crossing of both organizational and technological boundaries that also......-organizational search strategy that spans technological boundaries and involves the formation and search among weak ties. The findings show how knowledge brokering is influenced by the make-up of the technology involved, the technological distance between the two parties and why weak ties are less likely to collaborate...... on such an opportunity, than a strong tie would be. Furthermore, a number of organizational enablers for this open inter-organizational search and knowledge brokering strategy are identified. The main arguments point to the role of a general technological competence and the R&D department being the networking department....

  1. Is it time to rethink the expanded-access programs for HIV infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosa, Valerianna; Tebas, Pablo

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of expanded-access programs (EAPs) for antiretroviral therapy has been to allow patients without alternative treatment options to obtain drugs before formal Food and Drug Administration approval. Given the dramatic changes that have occurred in antiretroviral therapeutic approaches during the past 2 decades, we wish to review the history of antiretroviral EAPs and to propose an updated model for expanded access that would achieve maximal patient benefit and add useful knowledge that could guide treatment decisions in patients infected with multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus.

  2. Polonium-210 and other radionuclides in terrestrial, freshwater and brackish environments Results from the NKS project GAPRAD (Filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for non-human biota)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelsvik, R.; Brown, J.; Holm, E.; Roos, P.; Saxen, R.; Outola, I.

    2012-01-15

    The background and rationale to filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for biota are presented. Concentrations of Po-210 and Pb-210 are reported for biota sampled in Dovrefjell, Norway and selected lake and brackish ecosystems in Finland. Furthermore, details in relation to Po-210 uptake and biokinetics in humans based on experimental studies are recounted. (Author)

  3. Knowledge, Democracy, and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mößner, Nicola; Kitcher, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The internet has considerably changed epistemic practices in science as well as in everyday life. Apparently, this technology allows more and more people to get access to a huge amount of information. Some people even claim that the internet leads to a "democratization of knowledge." In the following text, we will analyze this statement.…

  4. Hierarchy of knowledge in GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An intelligent geographic information system (GIS) has to handle various types and huge volumes of geoscience-related knowledge as well as enormous amounts of data and information. More recent attention concentrates on collection,represen-tation,management,and usage of knowledge. This article presents a three-tier hi-erarchy for geoscience knowledge in a GIS. The first tier is for knowledge of data. It includes knowledge of feature objects definition,data structure,data model,and relations among data as well as rules,restrictions,and regulations about data. The second tier is for knowledge of processing. It describes analysis models,data processing procedures,workflows,and conditions. The third tier contains knowl-edge of a GIS for the public sector. This tier provides knowledge to people on how to access this GIS and what the GIS can do. The three-tier hierarchy of knowledge in a GIS provides an understandable and practical category frame to handle geo-science knowledge. One of the advantages of this hierarchy is that it separates system resource consumption into different stages so it can avoid exhausting the system at peak times when the GIS handles a complex,large task.

  5. Knowledge Granularity and Representation of Knowledge: Towards Knowledge Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Mach, Maria A.; Owoc, Mieczyslaw L.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Knowledge granularity, usually identified with the size of knowledge granules, seems to be real challenge for knowledge consumers as well as for knowledge creators. In this paper, relationships between knowledge granularity as a result of different ways of a knowledge representation are considered. The paper deals with the problem of developing knowledge grid in the context of encapsulation of knowledge including different dimensions and measures. The origin of the pro...

  6. Scotland's Knowledge Network: translating knowledge into action to improve quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, A; Graham, S; Rooney, K; Crawford, A

    2012-11-01

    The Knowledge Network (www.knowledge.scot.nhs.uk) is Scotland's online knowledge service for health and social care. It is designed to support practitioners to apply knowledge in frontline delivery of care, helping to translate knowledge into better health-care outcomes through safe, effective, person-centred care. The Knowledge Network helps to combine the worlds of evidence-based practice and quality improvement by providing access to knowledge about the effectiveness of clinical interventions ('know-what') and knowledge about how to implement this knowledge to support individual patients in working health-care environments ('know-how'). An 'evidence and guidance' search enables clinicians to quickly access quality-assured evidence and best practice, while point of care and mobile solutions provide knowledge in actionable formats to embed in clinical workflow. This research-based knowledge is complemented by social networking services and improvement tools which support the capture and exchange of knowledge from experience, facilitating practice change and systems improvement. In these cases, the Knowledge Network supports key components of the knowledge-to-action cycle--acquiring, creating, sharing and disseminating knowledge to improve performance and innovate. It provides a vehicle for implementing the recommendations of the national Knowledge into Action review, which outlines a new national approach to embedding knowledge in frontline practice and systems improvement.

  7. Improving Access to Standardized Fertility Preservation Information for Older Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: Using a User-Centered Approach with Young Adult Patients, Survivors, and Partners to Refine Fertility Knowledge Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Seline; Puri, Natasha; Stephens, Derek; Mitchell, Laura; Giuliani, Meredith; Papadakos, Janet; Gupta, Abha A

    2016-09-27

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients under 40 should be made aware of their fertility risks and preservation options throughout their care. However, discussions on fertility preservation (FP) do not routinely occur. With a dearth of FP resources, oncology providers may lack knowledge around FP. Thus, informational needs can be unmet, leading to anxiety and distress in patients. Provision of pertinent and timely information can help patients cope better with their diagnosis. FP pamphlets were developed for men and women with cancer. A cross-sectional in-house survey, using convenience sampling, evaluated the pamphlets' effectiveness and measured ease of understanding, acceptability, and perceived utility. Patients and partners were also asked to provide recommendations and complete the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) measuring health literacy level. This helps determine if health literacy influences perception of pamphlet effectiveness. All participants (n = 56) reviewed both pamphlets. Fifty-four participants (96 %) found the pamphlet for men useful, while 29 participants (52 %) improved their male fertility knowledge. The pamphlet for women was useful for 52 participants (93 %) and improved knowledge in 35 (63 %) of them. Although the majority of participants had adequate health literacy (98 %), there was insufficient sample diversity to determine if health literacy influenced the pamphlet's effectiveness. Participants indicated preference in receiving verbal (73 %) and written (66 %) information over watching videos or in-class education. They recommended including fertility clinics, financial resources, and statistics in the brochures. These FP pamphlets were concluded as effective in supporting patients in making FP decisions.

  8. National Knowledge Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitroda, Sam

    2007-04-01

    India's National Knowledge Commission (NKC) established by the prime minister is focused on building institutions and infrastructure in Education, Science and Technology, Innovation etc. to meet the challenges of the knowledge economy in the 21st century and increase India's competitive advantage in the global market. India today stands poised to reap the benefits of a rapidly growing economy and a major demographic advantage, with 550 million young people below the age of 25 years, the largest in the world. The NKC is focused on five critical areas of knowledge related to access, concepts, creation, applications and services. This includes a variety of subject areas such as language, translations, libraries, networks, portals, affirmative action, distance learning, intellectual property, Entrepreneurship, application in Agriculture, health, small and medium scale industries, e-governance etc. One of the keys to this effort is to build a national broadband gigabit of networks of 500 nodes to connect universities, Libraries, Laboratories, Hospitals, Agriculture institutions etc. to share resources and collaborate on multidisciplinary activities. This presentation will introduce the NKC, discuss methodology, subject areas, specific recommendation and outline a plan to build knowledge networks and specifics on network architecture, applications, and utilities.

  9. 基于腕势控制的智能轮椅无障碍人机交互系统%Information accessibility human-robot interaction system of intelligent wheelchair based on wrist gesture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 李想; 罗元

    2011-01-01

    Combining with human-computer interaction and intelligent wheelchair, a new type of human-robot interaction system of intelligent wheelchair was designed. It achieves information accessibility human-robot interaction system of intelligent wheelchair based on wrist gesture. The wrist-controller was self-designed and the fuzzy reasoning method was used for Real-time detection of the wrist. By bending the wrist to control the state of the movements of intelligent wheelchair (forward, backward, turn left, turn right), the information accessibility human-robot interaction system based on wrist gesture was implemented. The results of experiments show that the movements of intelligent wheelchair based on wrist gesture is very good.%将人机交互与智能轮椅结合,设计了一种智能轮椅人机交互系统.自行开发了一种腕部控制器,采用模糊推理方法实时检测腕部的弯曲变化,通过腕部的弯曲变化对智能轮椅的运动状态(前进、后退、左转、右转、停止)进行控制,实现了基于腕势控制的智能轮椅无障碍人机交互,实验结果表明基于腕势控制的智能轮椅运动更稳定.

  10. Knowledge Management for Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OveRustungHjelmervik; 王克胜; 袁庆丰; 方明伦

    2004-01-01

    Technology development and implementation on the manufacturing arena has, throughout the years, frustrated employees over the requirement of constantly adjusting to new technologies. The employee's ability to learn is bounded, and thus limited. Looking at a modern production system, it is often a complicated array of technologies that have to be coordinated; or the technologies are coordinating themselves through artificial intelligence. This paper discusses the need for a holistic knowledge management approach to manufacturing,combining in-place technology with process management philosophy, in order for the firm's human resources to create, share, store and apply new knowledge.

  11. The Knowledge Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuge, Hai

    2004-01-01

    The Knowledge Grid is an intelligent and sustainable interconnection environment that enables people and machines to effectively capture, publish, share and manage knowledge resources. It also provides appropriate on-demand services to support scientific research, technological innovation, cooperative teamwork, problem solving, and decision making. It incorporates epistemology and ontology to reflect human cognitive characteristics; exploits social, ecological and economic principles; and adopts techniques and standards developed during work toward the future web. This book presents its methodology, theory, models and applications systematically for the first time.

  12. Sanctioning Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brentjes, Sonja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss stories about rulers and princes of three dynasties - Abbasid, Norman and Timurid – and their narrative representation as prime knowers of the mathematical sciences, geography and history. I argue that they constitute one set of positive forms of sanctioning or contesting knowledge in those societies by prescribing hierarchies of knowledge forms and hierarchies of people and institutions that decide about the veracity of knowledge. I suggest that these stories share their origin and meaning in an environment of legitimizing propaganda for the various rulers and princes. I also claim that the value and position of scientific knowledge in these stories differ, starting from what apparently were personal interests of a ruler and leading to its integration into what was considered necessary for the education of a prince and the cultured behaviour of a ruler. Hence, these stories about knowledge and rulers present images of knowledge that delineate the status of scholars in those three societies and thus define possibilities and set boundaries for learning and practicing scholarly fields.En este artículo se estudian historias sobre gobernantes y príncipes de tres dinastías - ‛abbāsí, normanda y timurí – y su representación narrativa como conocedores de las ciencias matemáticas, la geografía y la historia. Se argumenta que constituyen un conjunto de formas positivas de aprobar o impugnar el conocimiento en esas sociedades, prescribiendo jerarquías de formas de conocimiento y jerarquías de gentes e instituciones que deciden acerca de la veracidad del conocimiento. Se sugiere que esas historias comparten su origen y significado en un contexto de propaganda legitimadora para varios gobernantes y príncipes. También se afirma que el valor y la posición del conocimiento científico en esas historias difieren, empezando por lo que en apariencia eran los intereses personales de un gobernante hasta su integraci

  13. Arsenic bio-accessibility and bioaccumulation in aged pesticide contaminated soils: A multiline investigation to understand environmental risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M S; Reichelt-Brushet, A J; Clark, M W; Farzana, T; Yee, L H

    2017-03-01

    Bio-accessibility and bioavailability of arsenic (As) in historically As-contaminated soils (cattle tick pesticide), and pristine soils were assessed using 3 different approaches. These approaches included human bio-accessibility using an extraction test replicating gastric conditions (in vitro physiologically-based extraction test); an operationally defined bioaccessibility extraction test - 1.0M HCl extraction; and a live organism bioaccumulation test using earthworms. A sequential extraction procedure revealed the soil As-pool that controls bio-accessibility and bioaccumulation of As. Findings show that As is strongly bound to historically contaminated soil with a lower degree of As bio-accessibility (bio-accessibility and bioaccumulation is the greater fraction of As associated with crystalline Fe/Al oxy-hydroxide and residual phases. The high bio-accessibility and bioaccumulation of freshly sorbed As in pristine soils were from the exchangeable and specifically sorbed As fractions. Arsenic bioaccumulation in earthworms correlates strongly with both the human bio-accessible, and the operationally defined bioavailable fractions. Hence, results suggest that indirect As bioavailability measures, such as accumulation by earthworm, can be used as complementary lines of evidence to reinforce site-wide trends in the bio-accessibility using in vitro physiologically-based extractions and/or operationally defined extraction test. Such detailed knowledge is useful for successful reclamation and management of the As contaminated soils.

  14. Role of Knowledge Based Communities in Knowledge Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ion CEPTUREANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new economy, knowledge is an essential component of economic and social systems. The organizational focus has to be on building knowledge-based management, development of human resource and building intellectual capital capabilities. Knowledge-based management is defined, at company level, by economic processes that emphasize creation, selling, buying, learning, storing, developing, sharing and protection of knowledge as a decisive condition for profit and long-term sustainability of the company. Hence, knowledge is, concurently, according to a majoritiy of specialists, raw material, capital, product and an essential input. Knowledge-based communities are one of the main constituent elements of a framework for knowledge based management. These are peer networks consisting of practitioners within an organization, supporting each other to perform better through the exchange and sharing of knowledge. Some large companies have contributed or supported the establishment of numerous communities of practice, some of which may have several thousand members. They operate in different ways, are of different sizes, have different areas of interest and addresses knowledge at different levels of its maturity. This article examines the role of knowledge-based communities from the perspective of knowledge based management, given that the arrangements for organizational learning, creating, sharing, use of knowledge within organizations become more heterogeneous and take forms more difficult to predict by managers and specialists.

  15. Practical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas...... his critical attitude has become superseded. A critical discussion on the heritage from Bacon leads to a focus on the concepts of truth, utility, and goodness. Unification of skills and Bildung, it is stated, should imply the ability to deal explicitly with these concepts and their interrelations....... Furthermore, and still with reference to truth, utility, and goodness, it is claimed that unification of skills and Bildung should include the ability to deal with complexity. A second-order complexity challenges the search for adequacy between; a) the complexity of knowledge-creation; and b) the complexity...

  16. Motivational Issues in Knowledge Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca BOGDAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the place of emotions in modern theories of motivation, and the influence of the knowledge-oriented paradigm on redefining motivation and rethinking ways of rendering work, knowledge work, in particular, more efficient, in a society in which human participation and deployment of intellectual capital become key factors of success, replacing traditional, tangible-focused, factors of production.

  17. Managing Delegation in Access Control Models

    CERN Document Server

    Ghorbel-Talbi, Meriam Ben; Cuppens-Boulahia, Nora; Bouhoula, Adel; 10.1109/ADCOM.2007.105

    2010-01-01

    In the field of access control, delegation is an important aspect that is considered as a part of the administration mechanism. Thus, a complete access control must provide a flexible administration model to manage delegation. Unfortunately, to our best knowledge, there is no complete model for describing all delegation requirements for role-based access control. Therefore, proposed models are often extended to consider new delegation characteristics, which is a complex task to manage and necessitate the redefinition of these models. In this paper we describe a new delegation approach for extended role-based access control models. We show that our approach is flexible and is sufficient to manage all delegation requirements.

  18. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  19. Considering Human Capital Theory in Assessment and Training: Mapping the Gap between Current Skills and the Needs of a Knowledge-Based Economy in Northeast Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihm-Herold, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    In light of the current economic downturn, thousands of Iowans are unemployed and this is the ideal time to build the skills of the workforce to compete in the knowledge-based economy so businesses and entrepreneurs can compete in a global economy. A tool for assessing the skills and knowledge of dislocated workers and students as well as…

  20. Re-valuing Women's Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Yerbury

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Women’s knowledge has often been seen as “a whole set of knowledges that have been disqualified as inadequate to their task or insufficiently elaborated: naive knowledges, located low down on the hierarchy, beneath the required level of cognition or scientificity." (Foucault 1980, p. 82. In this description, scientific knowledges are seen to be hierarchically more important, with traditional knowledges ranged beneath them. In this hierarchy, women’s knowledges are found wanting. The purpose of this paper is to explore the assertion that women’s knowledges are inadequate and to document ways in which they are marginalised. Revaluing women’s knowledge is recognised as one of the most direct methods of changing the way a society works. A vast literature has argued that is a key factor in development and has been shown to lead to poverty alleviation, to the development of active citizens and to the creation of a more open and democratic society. Possibilities for the revaluing of women’s knowledge using information and communication technologies are considered, focussing on the concepts of open access and the information commons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5130/ccs.v5i3.3381

  1. O contexto global e nacional frente aos desafios do acesso adequado à água para consumo humano The global and national context regarding the challenges involved in ensuring adequate access to water for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Giraldo da Silva Augusto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar os desafios do acesso à água para consumo humano, considerando-se o contexto internacional e nacional. A partir da deliberação da ONU de que o acesso à água limpa e segura é um direito fundamental de todo ser humano são identificadas vulnerabilidades que podem se constituir em restrições ao acesso. A distribuição da água e das populações no planeta, a poluição, as políticas e gestões inadequadas produzem injustiça ambiental. A iniquidade de acesso a água constitui-se na crise contemporânea da água. A partir da década de 1980, emerge o mercado transnacional de água pelo controle privado que ocorre em três níveis principais: de mananciais superficiais e subterrâneos; de água engarrafada; e dos serviços públicos de abastecimento. Os conflitos dos usos múltiplos dos recursos hídricos, do mercado e dos problemas ambientais têm contribuído para a vulnerabilização da saúde das populações e dos ecossistemas. São necessárias políticas públicas adequadas ao exercício do direito humano fundamental de acesso a água com qualidade.The scope of this article is to analyze the challenges involved in ensuring access to water for human consumption taking the international and national context into consideration. Based on the UN declaration that access to safe and clean drinking water is a fundamental human right, vulnerabilities are identified that can consist in restrictions to access to adequate supplies. The distribution of water and the population across the planet, pollution, inadequate policies and management lead to environmental injustice. The iniquity of access to water constitutes the contemporary water crisis. From the 1980s onwards, the transnational water market emerged for private control that occurs at three main levels: surface and underground water sources; bottled water; and public water supply services. The conflicts of the multiple uses of water resources, the

  2. Knowledge Retrieval through Virtual Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) manages knowledge retrieval by employees when they need to access documents written by colleagues in geographically distant units. CSC's establishment of virtual communities of practice facilitates the coordination of knowledge, and minimises contextual gaps between senders and…

  3. The quest to make accessibility a corporate article of faith at Microsoft: case study of corporate culture and human resource dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Leonard A; Blanck, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This case study examines efforts by Microsoft Corporation to enhance the diversity of its workforce and improve the accessibility and usability of its products and services for persons with disabilities. The research explores the relation among the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, corporate leadership, attitudes and behaviors towards individuals with disabilities, and dynamics that shape organizational culture at Microsoft. Implications for Microsoft, other employers, researchers, and the disability community are discussed.

  4. Moral knowledge and moral factuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wilburn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2008v7n1p69For naturalistic and non-intuitionistic moral realists, moral knowledge is more problematic than ordinary and scientific factual knowledge. For without special faculties of moral discernment, how could we ever detect moral facts and properties? Physical facts and properties may be accessible to perceptual recognition. But how could moral facts and properties ever be similarly accessible? To address this challenge, we need a meta-ethical account that does two things. First, it must explain how the discernment of moral facts and properties ultimately consists only of the detection of appropriate physical items. Second, it must explain why, despite this fact, moral perception seems so very puzzling. In this paper I endeavor to provide such an account. It is largely because of the relational nature of moral properties, and the corresponding externalistically determined normative content of moral property terms, I argue, that our epistemic access to moral knowledge appears mysterious. The metaphysics of moral factuality does a lot to explain the seeming elusiveness of moral knowledge, and in ways that are surprisingly mundane.

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis among high-risk groups: Understanding the knowledge gap in the Middle East and North Africa Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, Nada M; Rahhal, Nour; Charide, Rana; Kreidieh, Khalil; El-Khatib, Rolla

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify gaps in the existing knowledge on single, dual and triple infections of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region among men who have sex with men (MSMs), female sex workers (FSWs), injecting drug users (IDUs) and prisoners. METHODS: We performed an extensive literature search on articles published on the topic in the 25 countries of the MENA region. PubMed database was used as the main search engine. Case reports, case series, qualitative studies, editorials, commentaries, authors’ replies and animal studies were excluded. Original articles and reviews dealing with the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV and their co-infection were included. Data on population type, sample size, age and markers of infections were extracted from the relevant studies. RESULTS: HIV, HBV and HCV are blood-borne viruses with similar modes of transmission. The categories of people at high risk of acquiring HIV-1, HBV and HCV commonly include: MSMs, FSW and IDUs. It is well established that HIV-positive individuals co-infected with HBV or HCV suffer from liver pathology associated with morbidity and mortality. Moreover, HIV-infected individuals do not respond well to treatment for HBV or HCV and hence are at increased risk of hepatic toxicity. Consequently, co-infection of HIV-positive individuals with HBV and/or HCV is a global health problem of significant magnitude. Our review reveals the paucity of epidemiological data for key populations in many countries of the region. Limited number of studies exists in the MENA region on the status of HIV, HBV and HCV and their co-infections among prisoners, MSMs and FSWs. Evidence support the continued increase of the HIV epidemic among MSMs. In addition to the lack of studies on MSMs and FSWs in the MENA region, our review highlights the lack of data on the practices, characteristics, or the status of HIV infection and viral hepatitis

  6. Global and local knowledge networks in innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    and scale of external knowledge sourcing and the relative importance of different kinds of knowledge sources. The analysis shows that the firms are capable of sourcing knowledge flexibly and in a complex way, and that there is s division of labour between regional, global and national knowledge sources......, of which global sources are considered most important to innovation, while the regional level basically provides a labour market. Firms are able to establish direct links to knowledge sources at all scales, and widely rely on ICT and their access to foreign customers. This questions the proximity...

  7. Hemodialysis access procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007641.htm Hemodialysis access procedures To use the sharing features on ... An access is needed for you to get hemodialysis. The access is where you receive hemodialysis . Using ...

  8. What is the Knowledge Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to establish conceptual delimitations, more concordant to the theoretical acquisitions with regard to the knowledge society. The author considers it opportune to situate in the center of the definition of the concept of knowledge society the problem of prevalence in the typology of resources. Thus, the knowledge society appears as a form of organization in which scientific knowledge predominates, be that informatics as well. The concordances of essence are discovered through the discerning of the functional relationship knowledge society – global society. In the spectrum of meanings specific to this highway of post-postmodernist configuration of the world, the priorities of the project of the second modernity – the paradigmatic matrix of globalization – are approached. In fact, the study argues in favor of refocusing globalization on the humane, on its distinctive values which substantiate and lend sense to the evolutions of the world. Postreferentiality is the rational expression of humanity coming back to itself.

  9. State of the art report on open access publishing of research data in the humanities : D7.1. HaS DARIAH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buddenbohm, Stefan; Cretin, Nathanael; Dijk, E.M.S.; Gaiffe, Bertrand; De Jong, M.A.; Le Tellier-Becquart, Nathalie; Minel, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Publishing research data as open data is not yet common practice for researchers in the arts and humanities, and lags behind other scientific fields, such as the natural sciences. Moreover, even when humanities researchers publish their data in repositories and archives, these data are often hard to

  10. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  11. Knowledge Technology Applications for Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Kent

    2000-01-01

    We investigate how the knowledge in knowledge technology applications for knowledge management can be represented to let the user directly manage the knowledge content of the applications. In paper I we design a representation of diagnosis knowledge that allows the user to add new components and inspect the function of the device. The representation allows an integration of model based knowledge with compiled and heuristic knowledge so that the device and its function can be represented a sui...

  12. Constructing Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Patricia

    2003-02-01

    Schools are expected to lay the foundation upon which knowledge can be built and equip students with the tools necessary to accomplish the construction. The role of the teacher in this building process is crucial to the type of structure the student can build. Whether you call it constructivism, discussion teaching, project-based learning, inquiry learning, or any of the other names given to the instructional strategies being suggested by education researchers, the key is getting students to become active participants in the process. While some students may be able to learn from eloquently delivered lectures and dynamic demonstrations, the majority of students cannot effectively retain and apply ideas communicated in this manner.

  13. KnowEnG: a knowledge engine for genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Saurabh; Song, Jun; Weinshilboum, Richard; Jongeneel, Victor; Han, Jiawei

    2015-11-01

    We describe here the vision, motivations, and research plans of the National Institutes of Health Center for Excellence in Big Data Computing at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. The Center is organized around the construction of "Knowledge Engine for Genomics" (KnowEnG), an E-science framework for genomics where biomedical scientists will have access to powerful methods of data mining, network mining, and machine learning to extract knowledge out of genomics data. The scientist will come to KnowEnG with their own data sets in the form of spreadsheets and ask KnowEnG to analyze those data sets in the light of a massive knowledge base of community data sets called the "Knowledge Network" that will be at the heart of the system. The Center is undertaking discovery projects aimed at testing the utility of KnowEnG for transforming big data to knowledge. These projects span a broad range of biological enquiry, from pharmacogenomics (in collaboration with Mayo Clinic) to transcriptomics of human behavior.

  14. Baseline survey of pregnant women 's knowledge of treat-ment to prevent mother-to-child human immuno-deficien-cy virus transmission in a resource limited setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Onwere; Obioha Okoro; Bright Chigbu; Chuks Kamanu; Christian Aluka; Paul Feyi-Wa-boso

    2008-01-01

    Despite continuing advances in scientific knowledge about treatments to prevent mother-to-child (MTCT)of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV),there is a paucity of data on pregnant women's knowledge of treat-ments to prevent MTCT of HIV in Aba,South Eastern Nigeria.We investigated pregnant women's knowledge of the availability of treatments to prevent MTCT of HIV in the low resourced setting of Aba town in South Eastern Nigeria.A descriptive study involving 100 consecutive and consenting patients at the antenatal clinic of Abia State University Teaching Hospital (ABSUTH),Aba,South Eastern Nigeria over the period 1st November, 2007 to 30th November,2007.Using a structured questionnaire,the respondents'sociodemographic data were obtained as well as their knowledge of the availability of treatments to prevent mother to child HIV transmission in pregnant women and self-reported data on their having ever tested for HIV.Knowledge regarding availability of treatment to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV was good as 95% of the respondents were aware that such treatment was available.Knowledge that treatment is available to help someone infected by HIV to live longer was also good as 96% of the respondents were aware of the availability of such treatment.Seventy one percent of the respondents had ever tested for HIV.The levels of knowledge regarding the availability of treatment to prevent mother to child HIV transmission and to help someone infected with HIV are good.Thus, utilization of anti-retroviral prophylaxis amongst HIV infected pregnant women in this community would be ex-pected to be high if the drugs were available.This will reduce the impact of HIV,especially in children.

  15. JISC Open Access Briefing Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, Alma

    2005-01-01

    What Open Access is. What Open Access is not. How is Open Access provided? Open Access archives or repositories. Open Access journals. Why should authors provide Open Access to their work? Further information and resources

  16. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    Society in general, and geophysicists in particular, are challenged by problems and opportunities in the prospects for an additional three billion people on finite planet Earth by 2050 in a global economy four to six times larger than it is at present. A problem was identified by the Pilot Assessment of Global Ecosystems (PAGE): "If we choose to continue our current patterns of use, we face almost certain decline in the ability of ecosystems to yield their broad spectrum of benefits - from clean water to stable climate, fuel wood to food crops, timber to wildlife habitat." This is the issue of environmental sustainability. Another problem is the widening gap in wealth and health between affluent nations and impoverished countries. Every day each of the more than a billion people in the industrial nations produces goods and services worth nearly 60 dollars to meet their basic needs and "wants." This figure increases by about 85 cents annually. Every day each of the 600 million people in the least developed countries produces goods and services worth about 75 cents to meet their basic needs and limited wants. That number grows by less that a penny a day annually. This is the issue of economic prosperity and equity. By harnessing revolutionary technologies in communications to distribute expanding knowledge in the physical, chemical, and geophysical sciences and exploding knowledge in the biological and health sciences, a new vision for world society is brought within reach in The Knowledge Age. It is a society in which all of the basic human needs and an equitable share of human wants can be met while maintaining healthy, attractive, and biologically productive ecosystems. This society is environmentally sustainable, economically prosperous and equitable, and therefore likely to be politically stable. The time has arrived to fashion a strategy to pursue that vision. A knowledge-based and human-centered strategy will involve the discovery, integration, dissemination

  17. How to avoid risks for patients in minimal-access trials: Avoiding complications in clinical first-in-human studies by example of the ADBEE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar, Cristina; Korell, Matthias; Tchartchian, Garri; Ziegler, Nicole; Senshu, Kazuhisa; Herrmann, Anja; Larbig, Angelika; De Wilde, Rudy Leon

    2016-08-01

    A clinical trial is a prospective study designed to establish the safety and efficacy of investigational devices in humans, in accordance with the strict guidelines of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA; USA) or European Medicines Agency (EMA; Europe). Before a clinical first-in-human study is initiated, preclinical studies of the investigational product are mandatory, and the results should be sufficient to indicate that the investigational device is acceptably safe for the proposed evaluation in human subjects. The present paper describes an experience of clinical trials, highlighting ways of avoiding possible complications in clinical first-in-human studies. For a better approach to our aim, we exemplified a prospective, randomized, single-blind study, ADBEE. The primary objective was to assess the safety of the ADBLOCK system when used as an adjunct to laparoscopic primary removal of myomas in women wishing to improve pregnancy outcomes.

  18. Freeing up access to CERN technology

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    In line with CERN’s principle of maximising the dissemination of knowledge to society, the Knowledge Transfer (KT) Group has launched a new collaborative initiative to share the products of CERN’s scientific and technological labours: Easy Access IP, where IP stands for intellectual property.   CERN has a whole portfolio of dissemination channels designed and implemented by the KT Group, with Easy Access IP being the latest addition. “Inspired by the UK’s Easy Access Innovation initiative, our scheme involves making some of CERN's technologies available royalty-free and through a more agile licensing process,” explains Giovanni Anelli, head of the Group. “This approach seems to be an appropriate model for CERN, where the ultimate goal of technology transfer is not to generate income but to transfer knowledge to external partners.” The new scheme, as the name suggests, is designed to make it easier for industry and othe...

  19. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  20. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a new design concept; sensory accessibility. While acknowledging the importance of sensory experiences in architectural quality, as well as the importance of accommodating user needs the concept combines three equally important factors; architecture, the senses and accessi......This article introduces a new design concept; sensory accessibility. While acknowledging the importance of sensory experiences in architectural quality, as well as the importance of accommodating user needs the concept combines three equally important factors; architecture, the senses...... and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....