WorldWideScience

Sample records for accessing human knowledge

  1. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  2. New ways of scientific publishing and accessing human knowledge inspired by transdisciplinary approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Gebeshuber, I C

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by interdisciplinary work touching biology and microtribology, the authors propose a new, dynamic way of publishing research results, the establishment of a tree of knowledge and the localisation of scientific articles on this tree. 'Technomimetics' is proposed as a new method of knowledge management in science and technology: it shall help find and organise information in an era of over-information. Such ways of presenting and managing research results would be accessible by people with different kinds of backgrounds and levels of education, and allow for full use of the ever- increasing number of scientific and technical publications. This approach would dramatically change and revolutionize the way we are doing science, and contribute to overcoming the three gaps between the world of ideas, inventors, innovators and investors as introduced by Gebeshuber, Gruber and Drack in 2009 for accelerated scientific and technological breakthroughs to improve the human condition. Inspiration for the developme...

  3. Accessing Remote Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    awareness (what remote knowledge is needed?) and source awareness (where does this knowledge reside?) the article explores the relative merits and inherent limitations of pipelines, listening posts, crowdsourcing and trade fairs to acquire knowledge and solutions from geographically and relationally remote...

  4. Learning Task Knowledge from Dialog and Web Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Perera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present KnoWDiaL, an approach for Learning and using task-relevant Knowledge from human-robot Dialog and access to the Web. KnoWDiaL assumes that there is an autonomous agent that performs tasks, as requested by humans through speech. The agent needs to “understand” the request, (i.e., to fully ground the task until it can proceed to plan for and execute it. KnoWDiaL contributes such understanding by using and updating a Knowledge Base, by dialoguing with the user, and by accessing the web. We believe that KnoWDiaL, as we present it, can be applied to general autonomous agents. However, we focus on our work with our autonomous collaborative robot, CoBot, which executes service tasks in a building, moving around and transporting objects between locations. Hence, the knowledge acquired and accessed consists of groundings of language to robot actions, and building locations, persons, and objects. KnoWDiaL handles the interpretation of voice commands, is robust regarding speech recognition errors, and is able to learn commands involving referring expressions in an open domain, (i.e., without requiring a lexicon. We present in detail the multiple components of KnoWDiaL, namely a frame-semantic parser, a probabilistic grounding model, a web-based predicate evaluator, a dialog manager, and the weighted predicate-based Knowledge Base. We illustrate the knowledge access and updates from the dialog and Web access, through detailed and complete examples. We further evaluate the correctness of the predicate instances learned into the Knowledge Base, and show the increase in dialog efficiency as a function of the number of interactions. We have extensively and successfully used KnoWDiaL in CoBot dialoguing and accessing the Web, and extract a few corresponding example sequences from captured videos.

  5. Knowledge Access Based on the Rough Set Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yan-ling; YANG Bing-ru; CAO Shou-qi

    2005-01-01

    During the procedure of fault diagnosis for large-scale complicated equipment, the existence of redundant and fuzzy information results in the difficulty of knowledge access. Aiming at this characteristic, this paper brought forth the Rough Set (RS) theory to the field of fault diagnosis. By means of the RS theory which is predominant in the way of dealing with fuzzy and uncertain information,knowledge access about fault diagnosis was realized. The foundation ideology of the RS theory was exhausted in detail, an amended RS algorithm was proposed, and the process model of knowledge access based on the amended RS algorithm was researched. Finally, we verified the correctness and the practicability of this method during the procedure of knowledge access.

  6. Regional Productivity and Accessibility to Knowledge and Dense Markets

    OpenAIRE

    KARLSSON Charlie; Pettersson, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Accessibility to knowledge and local service markets can be assumed to explain regional growth performance. The role of regional supply of services and educated labour with respect to regional development are stressed by many researchers. In this paper we make an empirical analysis using panel data for Swedish municipalities. The purpose is to analyse the relationship between regional productivity measures as gross regional product per square kilometre and accessibility to educated labour. We...

  7. Open access to scientific knowledge and feudalism knowledge: Is there a connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir M. Moskovkin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of universities and transnational corporations in the circulation of scientific knowledge is considered. If institutions generate, mostly scientific knowledge, trying to facilitate its free circulation, then transnational companies, contrarily, try to remove most significant and cutting-edge scientific knowledge from free circulation and its commercialization and reintroduction into an open, but now commercial, circulation in the TRIPS. However, paradoxical, the open access movement to scientific knowledge, eventually, facilitates feudalism of knowledge. We call this phenomenon the "open access - paradox". Based on the experiments done with Google Scholar and Google Patents, it is shown that universities generates, mostly scientific knowledge (scientific articles, and transnational companies generates, mostly technological knowledge (patents.

  8. Ontology-Based Federated Data Access to Human Studies Information

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Ida; Carini, Simona; Tu, Samson W.; Detwiler, Landon T; Brinkley, James; Mollah, Shamim A.; Burke, Karl; Lehmann, Harold P.; Chakraborty, Swati; Wittkowski, Knut M.; Pollock, Brad H.; Johnson, Thomas M.; Huser, Vojtech

    2012-01-01

    Human studies are one of the most valuable sources of knowledge in biomedical research, but data about their design and results are currently widely dispersed in siloed systems. Federation of these data is needed to facilitate large-scale data analysis to realize the goals of evidence-based medicine. The Human Studies Database project has developed an informatics infrastructure for federated query of human studies databases, using a generalizable approach to ontology-based data access. Our ap...

  9. Access to Knowledge and High School Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Linda S.; Murphy, Joseph F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examine access to knowledge in public secondary education to determine if students who concentrate in vocational education programs are being systematically denied valuable instructional resources and outcomes. Emphasis is placed on the possibility that vocational education is being used to perpetuate social class distinctions. (CH)

  10. Knowledge management: implications for human service organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Michael J; Claassen, Jennette; Vu, Catherine M; Mizrahi, Paola

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge management has recently taken a more prominent role in the management of organizations as worker knowledge and intellectual capital are recognized as critical to organizational success. This analysis explores the literature of knowledge management including the individual level of tacit and explicit knowledge, the networks and social interactions utilized by workers to create and share new knowledge, and the multiple organizational and managerial factors associated with effective knowledge management systems. Based on the role of organizational culture, structure, leadership, and reward systems, six strategies are identified to assist human service organizations with implementing new knowledge management systems. PMID:19064454

  11. Human Knowledge Resources and Interorganizational Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K.M. Ibrahim (Mohammed); P.M.A. Ribbers (Piet); B.W.M. Bettonvil

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses how human knowledge resources affect capabilities and subsequently attainment of operational and strategic benefits. We test a conceptual model using data from two qualitative case studies and a quantitative field study. The findings indicate that human knowledge posi

  12. Towards universal access to all knowledge-Internet Archive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAHLE Brewster

    2005-01-01

    Advances in computing and communications mean that we can cost-effectively store every book, sound recording,movie, software package, and public Web page ever created, and provide access to these collections via the Internet to students and adults all over the world. By mostly using existing institutions and funding sources, we can build this as well as compensate authors within the current worldwide library budget. We should take advantage of our new technologies and our open societies to make a Universal Library again, and go the next step and make all knowledge easily available to every man, woman and child around the world.

  13. VIALACTEA knowledge base homogenizing access to Milky Way data

    CERN Document Server

    Molinaro, Marco; Bandieramonte, Marilena; Becciani, Ugo; Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano; Costa, Alessandro; Di Giorgio, Anna M; Elia, Davide; Hajnal, Akos; Gabor, Hermann; Kacsuk, Peter; Liu, Scige J; Molinari, Sergio; Riccio, Giuseppe; Schisano, Eugenio; Sciacca, Eva; Smareglia, Riccardo; Vitello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The VIALACTEA project has a work package dedicated to Tools and Infrastructure and, inside it, a task for the Database and Virtual Observatory Infrastructure. This task aims at providing an infrastructure to store all the resources needed by the, more purposely, scientific work packages of the project itself. This infrastructure includes a combination of: storage facilities, relational databases and web services on top of them, and has taken, as a whole, the name of VIALACTEA Knowledge Base (VLKB). This contribution illustrates the current status of this VLKB. It details the set of data resources put together; describes the database that allows data discovery through VO inspired metadata maintenance; illustrates the discovery, cutout and access services built on top of the former two for the users to exploit the data content.

  14. What Type of Knowledge Provides Valid Housing Standards Addressing Accessibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    , i.e. that they are valid. In this respect, validity refers to a general usage of the term, addressing how well-funded knowledge is and how accurately it corresponds to the real world (Encyclopedia Britannica Online, 2007). That is, validity means that the standards are defined to allow people...... with functional limitations and dependence on mobility devices to have access to housing design features as a means to be able to interact with the environment to perform a range of everyday activities in the dwelling. However, in a comprehensive literature review in search of scientific publications....../procedings.aspx Paquet, V. & Feathers, D. (2004). An anthropometric study of manual and powered wheelchair users. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics. 33:191–204. Preiser, W.F.E., & Ostroff, E. (2001). Universal Design Handbook. McGraw-Hill. USA. Ringaert, L., Rapson, D., Qui, J., Cooper, J...

  15. Feminist knowledge and human security

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, T-D.

    2009-01-01

    The essay proposes to re-orient feminist debates on epistemology towards the care-security nexus as a pathway that can plausibly provide an integral understanding of a human-centred and eco-minded security. Seeing "gender" in binary terms tends to produce an understanding of "care" as "female" and "security" as "male". Care, when free from the constraints of gender as a binary construct, can play an important role in revealing the depth of ethical-political concerns and help expand the unders...

  16. "The architecture of access to scientific knowledge: just how badly we have messed this up"

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    In this talk, Professor Lessig will review the evolution of access to scientific scholarship, and evaluate the success of this system of access against a background norm of universal access.While copyright battles involving artists has gotten most of the public's attention, the real battle should be over access to knowledge, not culture. That battle we are losing.

  17. Human Capital in the Knowledge Based Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ion PETRESCU

    2010-01-01

    All over the world, the problem of human capital acknowledge, it’s ways and means of shaping in order to improve it’s creative potential, tends to occupy a suitable place in the ensemble of all the organization’s management science and practice concerns. This study aims that, according to the theoretical ang pragmatical aquisitions, to present conceptual boundries about the human capital involvement in the knowledge based management. It starts with presenting the relations ballance and philos...

  18. Ontology-based federated data access to human studies information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Ida; Carini, Simona; Tu, Samson W; Detwiler, Landon T; Brinkley, James; Mollah, Shamim A; Burke, Karl; Lehmann, Harold P; Chakraborty, Swati; Wittkowski, Knut M; Pollock, Brad H; Johnson, Thomas M; Huser, Vojtech

    2012-01-01

    Human studies are one of the most valuable sources of knowledge in biomedical research, but data about their design and results are currently widely dispersed in siloed systems. Federation of these data is needed to facilitate large-scale data analysis to realize the goals of evidence-based medicine. The Human Studies Database project has developed an informatics infrastructure for federated query of human studies databases, using a generalizable approach to ontology-based data access. Our approach has three main components. First, the Ontology of Clinical Research (OCRe) provides the reference semantics. Second, a data model, automatically derived from OCRe into XSD, maintains semantic synchrony of the underlying representations while facilitating data acquisition using common XML technologies. Finally, the Query Integrator issues queries distributed over the data, OCRe, and other ontologies such as SNOMED in BioPortal. We report on a demonstration of this infrastructure on data acquired from institutional systems and from ClinicalTrials.gov. PMID:23304360

  19. Sources of inter-firm heterogeneity in accessing knowledge-creation benefits within technology clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arikan, A.; Knoben, J.

    2014-01-01

    We build on recent literature to highlight the distinction between knowledge-diffusion and knowledge-creation benefits of technology clustering and argue that firms located in technology clusters will have differential access to the latter. To explain the antecedents of such differential access, we

  20. Knowledge unbound selected writings on Open Access, 2002-2011

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peter Suber has been a leading advocate for open access since 2001 and has worked full time on issues of open access since 2003. As a professor of philosophy during the early days of the internet, he realized its power and potential as a medium for scholarship. As he writes now, "it was like an asteroid crash, fundamentally changing the environment, challenging dinosaurs to adapt, and challenging all of us to figure out whether we were dinosaurs." When Suber began putting his writings and course materials online for anyone to use for any purpose, he soon experienced the benefits of that wider exposure. In 2001, he started a newsletter -- the Free Online Scholarship Newsletter, which later became the SPARC Open Access Newsletter -- in which he explored the implications of open access for research and scholarship. This book offers a selection of some of Suber's most significant and influential writings on open access from 2002 to 2010. In these texts, Suber makes the case for open access to research; answers c...

  1. Employees and Creativity: Social Ties and Access to Heterogeneous Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-En; Liu, Chih-Hsing Sam

    2015-01-01

    This study dealt with employee social ties, knowledge heterogeneity contacts, and the generation of creativity. Although prior studies demonstrated a relationship between network position and creativity, inadequate attention has been paid to network ties and heterogeneity knowledge contacts. This study considered the social interaction processes…

  2. Geography matters: Mapping human development and digital access

    OpenAIRE

    Birdsall, Stephanie; Birdsall, William

    2005-01-01

    Policy circles have long made the assumption that information and communications technologies promote human development. In mapping the Human Development Index (HDI) against the Digital Access Index (DAI) we explore the statistical and spatial relationship between human development and digital access. The results suggest information and communications technologies may not play as strong a role in promoting human development as is usually asserted and that public policies might need to be cent...

  3. Human bocavirus: Current knowledge and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Marcello; Tumolo, Maria Rosaria; Verri, Tiziano; Romano, Alessandro; Serio, Francesca; De Giorgi, Mattia; De Donno, Antonella; Bagordo, Francesco; Zizza, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a parvovirus isolated about a decade ago and found worldwide in both respiratory samples, mainly from early life and children of 6-24 mo of age with acute respiratory infection, and in stool samples, from patients with gastroenteritis. Since then, other viruses related to the first HBoV isolate (HBoV1), namely HBoV2, HBoV3 and HBoV4, have been detected principally in human faeces. HBoVs are small non-enveloped single-stranded DNA viruses of about 5300 nucleotides, consisting of three open reading frames encoding the first two the non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and nuclear phosphoprotein (NP1) and the third the viral capsid proteins 1 and 2 (VP1 and VP2). HBoV pathogenicity remains to be fully clarified mainly due to the lack of animal models for the difficulties in replicating the virus in in vitro cell cultures, and the fact that HBoV infection is frequently accompanied by at least another viral and/or bacterial respiratory and/or gastroenteric pathogen infection. Current diagnostic methods to support HBoV detection include polymerase chain reaction, real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme immunoassay using recombinant VP2 or virus-like particle capsid proteins, although sequence-independent amplification techniques combined with next-generation sequencing platforms promise rapid and simultaneous detection of the pathogens in the future. This review presents the current knowledge on HBoV genotypes with emphasis on taxonomy, phylogenetic relationship and genomic analysis, biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and diagnostic methods. The emerging discussion on HBoVs as true pathogen or innocent bystander is also emphasized.

  4. Liberal Education Reconsidered: Cultivating Humanity in the Knowledge Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunsook

    2014-01-01

    In the knowledge society, there is a conflict between "education for profit" and "education for humanity." Education for profit is needed for students' economic survival and success in the knowledge economy. Education for humanity is needed for their existential lives worthy of human beings. This paper deals with the…

  5. Open Access and its impact on the Knowledge Society: Latin American Case Studies Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad RAMÍREZ MONTOYA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a changing society, open access may represent an alternative growth and resources to the educational community, from the opportunities given to students, to teachers, researchers and administrators of educational institutions. The aim of this paper is to analyze the opportunities and challenges that gives open access to the educational community, through the presentation of a conceptual vision and practical cases in Latin America, on the issue of open educational resources, repositories, journals and open access policies –from universities and government agencies or financing– and its link to a knowledge society. The findings are presented on three key elements: opportunities, challenges and opportunities open to access the knowledge society.

  6. Towards a Reference Model for Open Access and Knowledge Sharing, Lessons from Systems Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Maio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Open Access Movement has been striving to grant universal unrestricted access to the knowledge and data outputs of publicly funded research. leveraging the real time, virtually cost free publishing opportunities offered by the internet and the web. However, evidence suggests that in the systems engineering domain open access policies are largely ignored. This paper presents the rationale, methodology and results of an evidence based inquiry that investigates the dichotomy between policy and practice in Open Access (OA of systems engineering research in the UK, explores entangled dimensions of the problem space from a socio-technical perspective, and issues a set of recommendations, including a reference model outline for knowledge sharing in systems research.

  7. Towards a Reference Model for Open Access and Knowledge Sharing, Lessons from Systems Research

    CERN Document Server

    Di Maio, Paola

    2011-01-01

    The Open Access Movement has been striving to grant universal unrestricted access to the knowledge and data outputs of publicly funded research. leveraging the real time, virtually cost free publishing opportunities offered by the internet and the web. However, evidence suggests that in the systems engineering domain open access policies are not widely adopted. This paper presents the rationale, methodology and results of an evidence based inquiry that investigates the dichotomy between policy and practice in Open Access (OA) of systems engineering research in the UK, explores entangled dimensions of the problem space from a socio-technical perspective, and issues a set of recommendations, including a reference model outline for knowledge sharing in systems research

  8. Knowledge-Based Multiple Access Protocol in Broadband Wireless ATM Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Dittmann, Lars

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a knowledge-based multiple access protocol for the extension of wireline ATM to wireless networks. The objective is to enable effecient transmission of all kinds of ATM traffic in the wireless channel with guaranteed QoS.The proposed protocol utilixes knowledge of the main...... characteristics of the traffic for allocating bandwidth effeciently to CBR, VBR and ABR/UBR connections by a compromise of assignment, contetion, reservation and polling access techniques. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol can achieve a very high channel utilization of 90 % while providing...

  9. Human Knowledge and a Commonsensical Measure of Human Capital: A Proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    Existing literature demonstrates clearly that knowledge is the sum of common knowledge and uncommon knowledge. Common knowledge is mostly inherited and it may or may not have scientific bases. Uncommon knowledge is mainly a product of the motions of science and technology. Scientific and technological motions depend on human capital, so that world knowledge is human capital by implication. From here analysis is not so unusual as the concept of human capital is not new. Through out history pe...

  10. From Information to Knowledge Online Access to Legal Information Methodologies, Trends and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Biasiotti, MA

    2011-01-01

    Access to accurate legal information is of great importance. Certainty of the law, creating the conditions necessary to equality and fairness in a legal system and improving the functioning of democratic institutions, depends upon it. Citizens have a right to information about the laws which govern their conduct and governments have an obligation to enable access to the law by means of all available and practicable tools. This book presents papers delivered at the workshop 'From Information to Knowledge - Online Access to Legal Information', held in Florence, Italy, in May 2011. This workshop

  11. Ontology management in a service-oriented architecture: Architecture of an knowledge base access service

    OpenAIRE

    Moßgraber, Jürgen; Rospocher, M.

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of information systems integrate semantic data stores for managing ontologies. To access these knowledge bases most of the available implementations provide application programming interfaces (APIs). The implementations of these APIs normally do not support any kind of network protocol or service interface. This works fine as long as a monolithic system is developed. If the need arises to integrate such a knowledge base into a service-oriented architecture a different app...

  12. Human Rights and Access to Information and Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnenna Ifeanyi-Ajufo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The world is going through a profound change where advances in Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs have tied nation states into an increasingly complex web of development, thus prompting the extreme importance of access to ICTs. Article 27 of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (UDHR provides that ‘everyone has the right to participate, enjoy and share in scientific advancement and its benefits’. Though, billions of people the world over are presently excluded from access to ICTs necessitating the submission yet those who lack access to ICTs are extremely marginalised from present day development. This article critically weighs the immense importance of ICTs to everyday living and global development, the relationship between access to ICTs, law and human rights and recommends the adoption of a human rights-based approach towards bridging the ICTs or digital divide.

  13. Human Resources Management in the Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is increasingly claimed to be a key critical resource and source of competitive advantage in the modern global economy, especially with the rise of the service economy, the growth in the number of 'knowledge workers', the increasingly rapid flow of global information, and the growing recognition of the importance of intellectual capital and intellectual property rights. Knowledge, with its intangible aspects, is becoming a defining characteristic of economic activities, as opposed to tangibles such as goods, services or production processes. The rise of the knowledge economy has seen a proliferation of information and communication technologies, coupled with greater organizational complexity, the growth of virtual and global organizations and rapid change. This in turn requires drastic change within HRM to respond to changing demands of the knowledge economy.

  14. Accessing world knowledge: Evidence from N400 and reaction time priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chwilla, D.J.; Kolk, H.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    How fast are we in accessing world knowledge? In two experiments, we tested for priming for word triplets that described a conceptual script (e.g., DIRECTOR-BRIBE-DISMISSAL) but were not associatively related and did not share a category relationship. Event-Related Brain Potentials were used to trac

  15. The challenges for human factors in knowledge work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Møller, Niels; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2011-01-01

    The development towards a service and knowledge intensive economy arise new challenges for ergonomics and human factors. Knowledge on work within mass service production exists, but the challenges within knowledge work have still to be addressed. The focus of this paper is on some of the challenges...... with the demands of the knowledge intensive work when KPI’s are central management tools. Especially handling the balance between high motivation and enthusiasm and burn out will be addressed....

  16. Co-op students' access to shared knowledge in science-rich workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munby, Hugh; Taylor, Jennifer; Chin, Peter; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    Wenger's (1998) concepts community of practice, brokering, and transfer explain the challenges co-operative (co-op) education students face in relating the knowledge learned in school with what they learn while participating as members of a workplace. The research for this paper is set within the contexts of the knowledge economy and increased collaboration in the workplace. The paper draws on several qualitative studies of work-based education to examine the similarities and differences between learning in the workplace and learning in school, with a focus on science education and science-rich workplaces. Barriers to connecting school knowledge and workplace knowledge include the nature of science (its purpose, accountability, and substance), the structure of knowledge in each setting, the form content knowledge takes, the sequence that the curriculum is presented in, and the gatekeeping that occurs when knowledge is accessed. The paper addresses implications for interventions in school and the workplace, with attention to the transition from school to work, and concludes by pointing to profound obstacles to connecting school knowledge with workplace knowledge.

  17. Human Resource Development in the Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Lehmann

    This paper addresses the crucial call for upgrading to more value-added production in developing country firms in the light of increased global competition and suggests that such upgrading demands a shift in focus from investment in technology to investment in people, knowledge and learning. In t...

  18. Public access to community documents: a fundamental human right?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy W. Davis

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a marked difference between the culture of open government in some Member States, particularly Sweden, and the culture of secrecy in Britain. Recent calls for a uniform interpretation of the law regarding public access to documents held by the Community Institutions seem to suggest that a Swedish-style right of access should be adopted at EU level, on the grounds that public access to government-held information is a fundamental human right. To date, however, it seems that insufficient arguments have been advanced in order to justify this particular claim. Notable constitutional lawyers remain sceptical, as do some Member State governments. Furthermore, in the absence of a convincing philosophical justification for the claim, a situation may be created in which certain people are said to enjoy a fundamental human right, not because they are human beings, but by virtue of their status as citizens or residents of an EU Member State. This appears to be counter-intuitive, if it is accepted that fundamental human rights should be enjoyed by all and should therefore be justified on the basis of universally-shared fundamental values. It therefore seems that further explanation of the importance of public access to documents is required, and further justification of the claim that this is, or should be regarded as, a fundamental human right.

  19. Factors influencing access to agricultural knowledge: The case of smallholder rice farmers in the Kilombero district of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulystan P. Mtega

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to agricultural knowledge is important in transforming livelihoods of those relying on agriculture for a living and in enhancing food security. This access to agricultural knowledge is influenced by infrastructure needed for information dissemination. However, information infrastructure is not uniformly distributed within and between countries. It is because of this that some of the farming communities are information rich while others are information poor. In Tanzania, the agricultural sector is characterised by poor research-extension-farmers linkage and inaccessibility of agricultural knowledge at farm levelObjective: The study investigated the factors influencing access to agricultural knowledge among smallholder rice farmers in the Kilombero district of Tanzania. Specifically, the study identified categories of agricultural knowledge needed by farmers, determined how farmers access agricultural knowledge, and assessed the factors limiting the accessibility of agricultural knowledge among rice farmers in the Kilombero district.Method: Quantitative data were collected via semi-structured questionnaires administered face-to-face with rice farmers, community leaders, and agricultural agents in four villages at the Kilombero district of the Morogoro region in Tanzania.Results: The key finding indicates that farmers accessed and used agricultural knowledge in undertaking agricultural activities. It was further revealed that the level of acquisition of agricultural knowledge increased with an increase in age. Farmers needed agricultural knowledge on land preparation, seed selection, and rice planting, while few acquired knowledge on agricultural markets. Among the agricultural knowledge sources used, demonstration plots and agricultural extension agents were found to be used by the majority of the farmers. It was also found that a limited number of demonstration plots, late delivery of information services, a limited number of

  20. MANAGEMENT APPROACH TO BUILD A COMPETITIVE HUMAN CAPITAL KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Nikolaychuk

    2012-01-01

    ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????????????????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????????? ??????. ?????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????. The analysis of the directions of the formation mechanism of competitiveness management of humancapital in the origin and development of the knowledge economy. The conditions for effective public policy inthe field of human capital managem...

  1. Development of Human Factors Ontology for Business Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Philippart; Waldemar Karwowski

    2011-01-01

    Employee knowledge and cognitive skills are key assets to achieving business success, yet are often mismanaged. By promoting the human-centered design approach, the discipline of human factors and ergonomics (HF/E) can significantly contribute to optimizing business processes through effective management of employee knowledge. However, a comprehensive methodology is needed to help organizations integrate the HF/E principles across various business processes. This paper introduces a novel meth...

  2. Developing accessible cyberinfrastructure-enabled knowledge communities in the national disability community: theory, practice, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhill, William N; Cogburn, Derrick L; Samant, Deepti; Addom, Benjamin Kwasi; Blanck, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Since publication of the Atkins Commission report in 2003, the national scientific community has placed significant emphasis on developing cyberinfrastructure-enabled knowledge communities, which are designed to facilitate enhanced efficiency and collaboration in geographically distributed networks of researchers. This article suggests that the new cyberinfrastructure movement may not fully benefit those participants with disabilities, unless closer attention is paid to legal mandates and universal design principles. Many technology-enhanced learning communities provide geographically distributed collaboration opportunities that expand the inclusion of diverse peoples and help close the digital divide. However, to date, most collaboratory efforts have not emphasized the need for access among people with disabilities nor meeting minimum standards for technological accessibility. To address these concerns, this article reports on two pilot collaboratory studies that explore the role advanced information, communication, and collaboration technologies play in enhancing geographically distributed collaboration among specific research and applied networks within the national disability community. Universal design principles inform the design of the collaboratory and its use and our efforts to ensure access for all. Data for this article come from Web-based surveys, interviews, observations, computer logs, and detailed, mixed-methods accessibility testing. Emerging results suggest that with deliberate and systematic efforts, cyberinfrastructure can be more accessible and generate benefits among persons with disabilities. The authors provide lessons learned and recommendations for future research, policy, law, and practice. PMID:18939656

  3. Human aspects of the management of drug discovery knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2005-01-01

    A well-defined strategy for knowledge management is a key success factor of any knowledge-intensive industry. This applies particularly well to pharmaceutical drug discovery, which is one of the most knowledge-intensive processes. The subject has only rarely been studied in the context of pharmaceutical firms and we can only extrapolate a limited number of findings from other industries. Here, we look at five key human aspects of knowledge management (social networks and communities of practice, the roles of professional knowledge managers, the behaviors and processes of knowledge workers, management strategies and tactics and the role of the external work environment) and how they apply to the drug discovery process.: PMID:24981937

  4. BioSYNTHESIS: access to a knowledge network of health sciences databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broering, N C; Hylton, J S; Guttmann, R; Eskridge, D

    1991-04-01

    Users of the IAIMS Knowledge Network at the Georgetown University Medical Center have access to multiple in-house and external databases from a single point of entry through BioSYNTHESIS. The IAIMS project has developed a rich environment of biomedical information resources that represent a medical decision support system for campus physicians and students. The BioSYNTHESIS system is an information navigator that provides transparent access to a Knowledge Network of over a dozen databases. These multiple health sciences databases consist of bibliographic, informational, diagnostic, and research systems which reside on diverse computers such as DEC VAXs, SUN 490, AT&T 3B2s, Macintoshes, IBM PC/PS2s and the AT&T ISN and SYTEK network systems. Ethernet and TCP/IP protocols are used in the network architecture. BioSYNTHESIS also provides network links to the other campus libraries and to external institutions. As additional knowledge resources and technological advances have become available. BioSYNTHESIS has evolved from a two phase to a three phase program. Major components of the system including recent achievements and future plans are described.

  5. Knowledge machines digital transformations of the sciences and humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    In Knowledge Machines, Eric Meyer and Ralph Schroeder argue that digital technologies have fundamentally changed research practices in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Meyer and Schroeder show that digital tools and data, used collectively and in distributed mode -- which they term e-research -- have transformed not just the consumption of knowledge but also the production of knowledge. Digital technologies for research are reshaping how knowledge advances in disciplines that range from physics to literary analysis. Meyer and Schroeder map the rise of digital research and offer case studies from many fields, including biomedicine, social science uses of the Web, astronomy, and large-scale textual analysis in the humanities. They consider such topics as the challenges of sharing research data and of big data approaches, disciplinary differences and new forms of interdisciplinary collaboration, the shifting boundaries between researchers and their publics, and the ways that digital tools promote o...

  6. Measuring Athletic Facility Managers’ Knowledge Of Access And The Americans With Disabilities Act: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua R. Pate

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this exploratory research was measuring facility managers’ knowledge of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA, and it may assist in decreasing the gap in knowledge between facility managers and the needs of people with physical disabilities. An existing survey examining ADA knowledge was slightly modified and used for this study. Four athletic facility managers from universities in a large Bowl Championship Series conference participated in the study. Results provided a preliminary sketch of who athletic facility manages may be, and how athletic facility managers may be educating themselves and others about accessibility. This exploratory study shows that facility managers may be knowledgeable of specific ADA requirements but may not have a firm grasp on more general issues patrons with physical disabilities face and that have often been the point of contention in the courts such as parking, entranceways, seating, and sightlines. Additionally, athletic facility managers may not be seeking to expand their education on ADA-related matters or educate others on the topics, which could be a missed opportunity to position themselves as a topic expert in the field of ADA compliance for athletic facilities.

  7. Open access to large scale datasets is needed to translate knowledge of cancer heterogeneity into better patient outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Beck

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this guest editorial, Andrew Beck discusses the importance of open access to big data for translating knowledge of cancer heterogeneity into better outcomes for cancer patients.

  8. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Records: Maintaining Access to the Knowledge - 13122

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) is an integral part of DOE's strategy to ensure that legacy liabilities of former nuclear weapons production sites are properly managed following the completion of environmental cleanup activities. In the area of environmental legacy management, records management is crucial to the protection of health, environmental, and legal interests of the Department and the public. LM is responsible for maintaining long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) records in performance of its mission. Maintaining access to the knowledge contained in these record collections is one of LM's primary responsibilities. To fulfill this responsibility, LM established a consolidated records management facility, the LM Business Center (LMBC), to house physical media records and electronic records. A new electronic record keeping system (ERKS) was needed to replace an obsolete system while helping to ensure LM is able to meet ongoing responsibilities to maintain access to knowledge and control the life cycle management of records. (authors)

  9. Accessing world knowledge: evidence from N400 and reaction time priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwilla, Dorothee J; Kolk, Herman H J

    2005-12-01

    How fast are we in accessing world knowledge? In two experiments, we tested for priming for word triplets that described a conceptual script (e.g., DIRECTOR-BRIBE-DISMISSAL) but were not associatively related and did not share a category relationship. Event-related brain potentials were used to track the time course at which script information becomes available. In Experiment 1, in which participants made lexical decisions, we found a facilitation for script-related relative to unrelated triplets, as indicated by (i) a decrease in both reaction time and errors, and (ii) an N400-like priming effect. In Experiment 2, we further explored the locus of script priming by increasing the contribution of meaning integration processes. The participants' task was to indicate whether the three words presented a plausible scenario. Again, an N400 script priming effect was obtained. Directing attention to script relations was effective in enhancing the N400 effect. The time course of the N400 effect was similar to that of the standard N400 effect to semantic relations. The present results show that script priming can be obtained in the visual modality, and that script information is immediately accessed and integrated with context. This supports the view that script information forms a central aspect of word meaning. The RT and N400 script priming effects reported in this article are problematic for most current semantic priming models, like spreading activation models, expectancy models, and task-specific semantic matching/integration models. They support a view in which there is no clear cutoff point between semantic knowledge and world knowledge. PMID:16202570

  10. Knowledge exchange:A strategy for open access success at The University of Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; T; PALMER

    2011-01-01

    The University of Hong Kong’s statement on vision now has three themes:1) Research, 2) teaching & learning, and 3) knowledge exchange(KE). KE emphasizes HKU’s desire to interact with its community for a mutual benefit. A new five-year strategic plan(2009-2014) sets out operational priorities and key indicators to enable knowledge exchange at HKU. Chief among these is the establishment of an exchange hub to make HKU researchers and their research products highly visible. The institutional repository of HKU, the HKU Scholars Hub, developed by its University Libraries, has become this KE exchange hub. Now the Hub includes HKU ResearcherPages, featuring the accomplishments of each HKU professoriate staff. HKU’s policy on knowledge exchange and the HKU ResearcherPages have increased the incentive for faculties, departments, and authors to place more items in open access(OA). This paper will discuss what KE is, the benefits it can bring to the university and its reputation, and how it can increase OA deposit.

  11. Open Access to scientific knowledge: a methodological model for scientific information and knowledge management at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa)

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Fernando César Lima; Bertin, Patrícia Rocha Bello; Pereira, Fernando do Amaral

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a methodological model for the establishment of Open Access to scientific information at Embrapa, as a strategy for scientific information and knowledge management. The model consists of elements that speed up scientific communication processes and allow for the research output management. The aim is to provide the necessary mechanisms to capture, store, organize, preserve and widely disseminate the scientific knowledge produced by Embrapa and by the scientific community i...

  12. The focal account: Indirect lie detection need not access unconscious, implicit knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Chris N H; Richardson, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    People are poor lie detectors, but accuracy can be improved by making the judgment indirectly. In a typical demonstration, participants are not told that the experiment is about deception at all. Instead, they judge whether the speaker appears, say, tense or not. Surprisingly, these indirect judgments better reflect the speaker's veracity. A common explanation is that participants have an implicit awareness of deceptive behavior, even when they cannot explicitly identify it. We propose an alternative explanation. Attending to a range of behaviors, as explicit raters do, can lead to conflict: A speaker may be thinking hard (indicating deception) but not tense (indicating honesty). In 2 experiments, we show that the judgment (and in turn the correct classification rate) is the result of attending to a single behavior, as indirect raters are instructed to do. Indirect lie detection does not access implicit knowledge, but simply focuses the perceiver on more useful cues.

  13. The focal account: Indirect lie detection need not access unconscious, implicit knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Chris N H; Richardson, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    People are poor lie detectors, but accuracy can be improved by making the judgment indirectly. In a typical demonstration, participants are not told that the experiment is about deception at all. Instead, they judge whether the speaker appears, say, tense or not. Surprisingly, these indirect judgments better reflect the speaker's veracity. A common explanation is that participants have an implicit awareness of deceptive behavior, even when they cannot explicitly identify it. We propose an alternative explanation. Attending to a range of behaviors, as explicit raters do, can lead to conflict: A speaker may be thinking hard (indicating deception) but not tense (indicating honesty). In 2 experiments, we show that the judgment (and in turn the correct classification rate) is the result of attending to a single behavior, as indirect raters are instructed to do. Indirect lie detection does not access implicit knowledge, but simply focuses the perceiver on more useful cues. PMID:26301728

  14. Network Based Educational Environment How Libraries and Librarians Become Organizers of Knowledge Access and Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Pettenati, M C; Pettenati, Corrado

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we will highlight some important issues which will influence the redefinition of roles and duties of libraries and librarians in a networked based educational environment. Although librarians will also keep their traditional roles of faculty support services as well as reference service and research assistance, we identify the participation in the instructional design process, the support in the evaluation, development and use of a proper authoring system and the customization of information access, as being the domains where libraries and librarians should mainly involve themselves in the next future and make profit of their expertise in information and knowledge organization in order to properly and effectively support the institutions in the use of Information Technology in education.

  15. Human Disease Insight: An integrated knowledge-based platform for disease-gene-drug information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasleem, Munazzah; Ishrat, Romana; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2016-01-01

    The scope of the Human Disease Insight (HDI) database is not limited to researchers or physicians as it also provides basic information to non-professionals and creates disease awareness, thereby reducing the chances of patient suffering due to ignorance. HDI is a knowledge-based resource providing information on human diseases to both scientists and the general public. Here, our mission is to provide a comprehensive human disease database containing most of the available useful information, with extensive cross-referencing. HDI is a knowledge management system that acts as a central hub to access information about human diseases and associated drugs and genes. In addition, HDI contains well-classified bioinformatics tools with helpful descriptions. These integrated bioinformatics tools enable researchers to annotate disease-specific genes and perform protein analysis, search for biomarkers and identify potential vaccine candidates. Eventually, these tools will facilitate the analysis of disease-associated data. The HDI provides two types of search capabilities and includes provisions for downloading, uploading and searching disease/gene/drug-related information. The logistical design of the HDI allows for regular updating. The database is designed to work best with Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome and is freely accessible at http://humandiseaseinsight.com.

  16. Human-centered design of a distributed knowledge management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkus, Susan; Walji, Muhammad; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A; Malin, Jane T; Turley, James P; Smith, Jack W; Zhang, Jiajie

    2005-02-01

    Many healthcare technology projects fail due to the lack of consideration of human issues, such as workflow, organizational change, and usability, during the design and implementation stages of a project's development process. Even when human issues are considered, the consideration is typically on designing better user interfaces. We argue that human-centered computing goes beyond a better user interface: it should include considerations of users, functions and tasks that are fundamental to human-centered computing. From this perspective, we integrated a previously developed human-centered methodology with a Project Design Lifecycle, and we applied this integration in the design of a complex distributed knowledge management system for the Biomedical Engineer (BME) domain in the Mission Control Center at NASA Johnson Space Center. We analyzed this complex system, identified its problems, generated systems requirements, and provided specifications of a replacement prototype for effective organizational memory and knowledge management. We demonstrated the value provided by our human-centered approach and described the unique properties, structures, and processes discovered using this methodology and how they contributed in the design of the prototype. PMID:15694881

  17. Access to human, animal, and environmental journals is still limited for the One Health community*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Carol E.; Alpi, Kristine M.; Pike, Caitlin A.; Whitman, Elisabeth E.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective “One Health” is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and managing the health and well-being of humans, animals, and the environments they share that relies on knowledge from the domains of human health, animal health, and the environmental sciences. The authors' objective was to evaluate the extent of open access (OA) to journal articles in a sample of literature from these domains. We hypothesized that OA to articles in human health or environmental journals was greater than access to animal health literature. Methods A One Health seminar series provided fifteen topics. One librarian translated each topic into a search strategy and searched four databases for articles from 2011 to 2012. Two independent investigators assigned each article to human health, the environment, animal health, all, other, or combined categories. Article and journal-level OA were determined. Each journal was also assigned a subject category and its indexing evaluated. Results Searches retrieved 2,651 unique articles from 1,138 journals; 1,919 (72%) articles came from 406 journals that contributed more than 1 article. Seventy-seven (7%) journals dealt with all 3 One Health domains; the remaining journals represented human health 487 (43%), environment 172 (15%), animal health 141 (12%), and other/combined categories 261 (23%). The proportion of OA journals in animal health (40%) differed significantly from journals categorized as human (28%), environment (28%), and more than 1 category (29%). The proportion of OA for articles by subject categories ranged from 25%–34%; only the difference between human (34%) and environment (25%) was significant. Conclusions OA to human health literature is more comparable to animal health than hypothesized. Environmental journals had less OA than anticipated. PMID:27076796

  18. Semi-automated knowledge discovery: identifying and profiling human trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelmans, Jonas; Elzinga, Paul; Ignatov, Dmitry I.; Kuznetsov, Sergei O.

    2012-11-01

    We propose an iterative and human-centred knowledge discovery methodology based on formal concept analysis. The proposed approach recognizes the important role of the domain expert in mining real-world enterprise applications and makes use of specific domain knowledge, including human intelligence and domain-specific constraints. Our approach was empirically validated at the Amsterdam-Amstelland police to identify suspects and victims of human trafficking in 266,157 suspicious activity reports. Based on guidelines of the Attorney Generals of the Netherlands, we first defined multiple early warning indicators that were used to index the police reports. Using concept lattices, we revealed numerous unknown human trafficking and loverboy suspects. In-depth investigation by the police resulted in a confirmation of their involvement in illegal activities resulting in actual arrestments been made. Our human-centred approach was embedded into operational policing practice and is now successfully used on a daily basis to cope with the vastly growing amount of unstructured information.

  19. A Matter of Discipline: Open Access, the Humanities, and Art History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Recent events suggest that open access has gained new momentum in the humanities, but the slow and uneven development of open-access initiatives in humanist fields continues to hinder the consolidation of efforts across the university. Although various studies have traced the general origins of the humanities' reticence to embrace open access, few…

  20. HUMAN CAPITAL THEORY AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. IMPLICATIONS IN DEVELEOPMENT OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Buta

    2015-01-01

    In terms of the organization, the human capital theory and human resource management raises a number of issues, namely: human capital issues (they relate to attracting, maintaining, developing and rewarding human resources in order to create and maintain a skilled, dedicated and motivated personnel); issues related to the structural capital (with reference to the size and development of organizational structures that stimulate the processes of creating, capturing and sizing of knowledge); iss...

  1. Deconstructing Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Knowledge: Objective and Perceived Knowledge in Males' Intentions to Receive the HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Stephenson, Ellen; Perez, Samara; Lau, Elsa; Rosberger, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recently approved for men. To effectively tailor HPV education efforts toward men, it is important to understand what men know about HPV and how this knowledge relates to their decision to receive the vaccine. This study examines how objective HPV knowledge, objective HPV vaccine knowledge,…

  2. Open Access to Knowledge Resources in Science and Technology : The Role of Digital Reference Service to Facilitate Accessing Scholarly Information

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Harish

    2005-01-01

    The present paper discusses the importance, objectives and major developments in open access initiatives. It further examines the specific use of digital information services including the digital reference service. The paper also highlights the various steps taken in this direction at the Central Library of IIT Madras.

  3. The Mouse Genome Database: integration of and access to knowledge about the laboratory mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2014-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD) (http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the community model organism database resource for the laboratory mouse, a premier animal model for the study of genetic and genomic systems relevant to human biology and disease. MGD maintains a comprehensive catalog of genes, functional RNAs and other genome features as well as heritable phenotypes and quantitative trait loci. The genome feature catalog is generated by the integration of computational and manual genome annotations generated by NCBI, Ensembl and Vega/HAVANA. MGD curates and maintains the comprehensive listing of functional annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology, and MGD curates and integrates comprehensive phenotype annotations including associations of mouse models with human diseases. Recent improvements include integration of the latest mouse genome build (GRCm38), improved access to comparative and functional annotations for mouse genes with expanded representation of comparative vertebrate genomes and new loads of phenotype data from high-throughput phenotyping projects. All MGD resources are freely available to the research community.

  4. Organizing conceptual knowledge in humans with a gridlike code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Alexandra O; O'Reilly, Jill X; Behrens, Timothy E J

    2016-06-17

    It has been hypothesized that the brain organizes concepts into a mental map, allowing conceptual relationships to be navigated in a manner similar to that of space. Grid cells use a hexagonally symmetric code to organize spatial representations and are the likely source of a precise hexagonal symmetry in the functional magnetic resonance imaging signal. Humans navigating conceptual two-dimensional knowledge showed the same hexagonal signal in a set of brain regions markedly similar to those activated during spatial navigation. This gridlike signal is consistent across sessions acquired within an hour and more than a week apart. Our findings suggest that global relational codes may be used to organize nonspatial conceptual representations and that these codes may have a hexagonal gridlike pattern when conceptual knowledge is laid out in two continuous dimensions. PMID:27313047

  5. Human Capital and Knowledge Emergence. Induced Effects of the Global Crisis on Human capital and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Buta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the global crisis context crossed by organizations and countries in the past six years we assist also at conflicting measures in which regards knowledge, innovation and human capital; for example, countries such as England and France have reduced their costs for education, while Germany and other countries (Australia, Austria, Canada and Norway maintained the same allocations for education. What will be the effects of such measures on human capital in the near future? What are the best human resources policies in companies in the crisis context? Given that the subject of the research is "knowledge and human capital", in this paper we refer to the induced effects of the crisis on human capital and innovation. We will also identify the key steps that can be taken during crisis, and not only, to stimulate human capital.

  6. HINT-KB: The human interactome knowledge base

    KAUST Repository

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.

    2012-01-01

    Proteins and their interactions are considered to play a significant role in many cellular processes. The identification of Protein-Protein interactions (PPIs) in human is an open research area. Many Databases, which contain information about experimentally and computationally detected human PPIs as well as their corresponding annotation data, have been developed. However, these databases contain many false positive interactions, are partial and only a few of them incorporate data from various sources. To overcome these limitations, we have developed HINT-KB (http://150.140.142.24:84/Default.aspx) which is a knowledge base that integrates data from various sources, provides a user-friendly interface for their retrieval, estimates a set of features of interest and computes a confidence score for every candidate protein interaction using a modern computational hybrid methodology. © 2012 IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

  7. Access to justice: evaluating law, health and human rights programmes in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Gruskin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Kenya, human rights violations have a marked impact on the health of people living with HIV. Integrating legal literacy and legal services into healthcare appears to be an effective strategy to empower vulnerable groups and address underlying determinants of health. Methods: We carried out an evaluation to collect evidence about the impact of legal empowerment programmes on health and human rights. The evaluation focused on Open Society Foundation-supported legal integration activities at four sites: the Academic Model of Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH facility, where the Legal Aid Centre of Eldoret (LACE operates, in Eldoret; Kenyatta National Hospital's Gender-based Violence Recovery Centre, which hosts the COVAW legal integration program; and Christian Health Association of Kenya (CHAK facilities in Mombasa and Naivasha. In consultation with the organizations implementing the programs, we designed a conceptual logic model grounded in human rights principles, identified relevant indicators and then coded structure, process and outcome indicators for the rights-related principles they reflect. The evaluation included a resource assessment questionnaire, a review of program records and routine data, and semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with clients and service providers. Data were collected in May–August 2010 and April–June 2011. Results: Clients showed a notable increase in practical knowledge and awareness about how to access legal aid and claim their rights, as well as an enhanced ability to communicate with healthcare providers and to improve their access to healthcare and justice. In turn, providers became more adept at identifying human rights violations and other legal difficulties, which enabled them to give clients basic information about their rights, refer them to legal aid and assist them in accessing needed support. Methodological challenges in evaluating such activities point to

  8. The Challenges of Human Resources Management Practice in a Knowledge Based Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Antohi Ionut

    2013-01-01

    Human resources represent an important asset for modern organizations especially in the context of knowledge based economy. The main competitive advantage is represented by knowledge possessed by the employee of an organization. Human resources management practice needs a different approach meant to attract develop and fully use such knowledge. This paper aims to analyse the growing impact of knowledge over human resources management practice. Mainly we discuss the manner in which the human r...

  9. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Ngogang, Jeanne Y

    2016-01-01

    Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs. PMID:27508058

  10. Access to health care for undocumented migrants from a human rights perspective:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Dan; Toebes, Brigit; Hjern, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    Undocumented migrants' access to health care varies across Europe, and entitlements on national levels are often at odds with the rights stated in international human rights law. The aim of this study is to address undocumented migrants' access to health care in Denmark, Sweden, and the Netherlands...... from a human rights perspective....

  11. Access to electronic health knowledge in five countries in Africa: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honorati Masanja

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to medical literature in developing countries is helped by open access publishing and initiatives to allow free access to subscription only journals. The effectiveness of these initiatives in Africa has not been assessed. This study describes awareness, reported use and factors influencing use of on-line medical literature via free access initiatives. Methods Descriptive study in four teaching hospitals in Cameroon, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda plus one externally funded research institution in The Gambia. Survey with postgraduate doctors and research scientists to determine Internet access patterns, reported awareness of on-line medical information and free access initiatives; semi structured interviews with a sub-sample of survey participants to explore factors influencing use. Results In the four African teaching hospitals, 70% of the 305 postgraduate doctors reported textbooks as their main source of information; 66% had used the Internet for health information in the last week. In two hospitals, Internet cafés were the main Internet access point. For researchers at the externally-funded research institution, electronic resources were their main source, and almost all had used the Internet in the last week. Across all 333 respondents, 90% had heard of PubMed, 78% of BMJ on line, 49% the Cochrane Library, 47% HINARI, and 19% BioMedCentral. HINARI use correlates with accessing the Internet on computers located in institutions. Qualitative data suggested there are difficulties logging into HINARI and that sometimes it is librarians that limit access to passwords. Conclusion Text books remain an important resource for postgraduate doctors in training. Internet use is common, but awareness of free-access initiatives is limited. HINARI and other initiatives could be more effective with strong institutional endorsement and management to promote and ensure access.

  12. Web Accessibility Knowledge and Skills for Non-Web Library Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Why do librarians and library staff other than Web librarians and developers need to know about accessibility? Web services staff do not--or should not--operate in isolation from the rest of the library staff. It is important to consider what areas of online accessibility are applicable to other areas of library work and to colleagues' regular job…

  13. Human Capital and Knowledge Emergence. Induced Effects of the Global Crisis on Human capital and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Buta

    2014-01-01

    In the global crisis context crossed by organizations and countries in the past six years we assist also at conflicting measures in which regards knowledge, innovation and human capital; for example, countries such as England and France have reduced their costs for education, while Germany and other countries (Australia, Austria, Canada and Norway) maintained the same allocations for education. What will be the effects of such measures on human capital in the near future? What are the best hu...

  14. Human Resource Management & Knowledge-Based Management -- A study of HR practices in performance-related knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Keke

    2007-01-01

    Human resource management has increasingly become to a significant part of organizational management. The existing literatures related to Strategic HRM currently are closely referred to the resource-based view of the firm to explain and analyze the correlation between human capital and the sustention of competitive advantage. In view of resource-based development under the competitive dynamic environment, the economy has changed from the product-based to mainly knowledge-based. Knowledge-rela...

  15. On the Design of an Architecture for Partitioned Knowledge Management in Autonomic Multimedia Access and Aggregation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latré, Steven; Verstichel, Stijn; de Vleeschauwer, Bart; de Turck, Filip; Demeester, Piet

    The recent emergence of multimedia services, such as Network Based Personal Video Recording and Broadcast TV over traditional DSL based access networks, has introduced stringent Quality of Experience (QoE) requirements. It is generally assumed that the wide variety of services and user profiles introduces the need for a per-user or per-subscriber QoE management. Such a complex QoE management requires real-time knowledge about the managed services, which is available amongst the different nodes in the network. However, even for managing a few services, a relatively large amount of, constantly updated, knowledge is needed. Propagating all the knowledge to all nodes is therefore not feasible. As not all knowledge is relevant to all nodes, it is important to perform an intelligent knowledge distribution and management. In this position paper, we introduce the concept of a cognitive model that describes the knowledge requirements of each node. Based on the information stated in this cognitive model, we discuss how filter queries, that typically describe what needs to be queried from other nodes, can be automatically generated leading to an efficient partitioning of the knowledge through the distributed nodes.

  16. Critiquing Human Judgment Using Knowledge-Acquisition Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Barry G.

    1990-01-01

    Automated knowledge-acquisition systems have focused on embedding a cognitive model of a key knowledge worker in their software that allows the system to acquire a knowledge base by interviewing domain experts just as the knowledge worker would. Two sets of research questions arise: (1) What theories, strategies, and approaches will let the modeling process be facilitated; accelerated; and, possibly, automated? If automated knowledge-acquisition systems reduce the bottleneck associated with a...

  17. 77 FR 18247 - Request for Comments on Issues of Privacy and Access With Regard to Human Genome Sequence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Request for Comments on Issues of Privacy and Access With Regard to Human Genome Sequence... availability of large-scale human genome sequence data, with regard to privacy and data access and the... is examining issues of privacy and access as pertains to large-scale human genome sequence...

  18. Open-Access Textbooks and Financial Sustainability: A Case Study on Flat World Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John, III; Wiley, David

    2011-01-01

    Many college students and their families are concerned about the high costs of textbooks. A company called Flat World Knowledge both gives away and sells open-source textbooks in a way it believes to be financially sustainable. This article reports on the financial sustainability of the Flat World Knowledge open-source textbook model after one…

  19. Knowledge Management, Human Resource Management, and Higher Education: A Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peggy D.; Brewer, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written on the importance of knowledge management, the challenges facing organizations, and the important human resource management activities involved in assuring the acquisition and transfer of knowledge. Higher business education plays an important role in preparing students to assume the knowledge management and human resource…

  20. Visual categorization: accessing abstraction in non-human primates.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre-Thorpe, Michèle

    2003-01-01

    Evolution might have set the basic foundations for abstract mental representation long ago. Because of language, mental abilities would have reached different degrees of sophistication in mammals and in humans but would be, essentially, of the same nature. Thus, humans and animals might rely on the same basic mechanisms that could be masked in humans by the use of sophisticated strategies. In this paper, monkey and human abilities are compared in a variety of perceptual tasks including visual...

  1. Rethinking Development as Knowledge: Implications for Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee Reed, Ananya

    2000-01-01

    The idea that knowledge is critical for development is neither new nor controversial, yet its full implications cannot be assessed unless we clarify at least two sets of issues: (a) how exactly knowledge is conceptualised or, what constitutes knowledge; and (b) the conditions under which such knowledge is produced, evaluated and ‘exchanged' or ‘transferred'. This paper will attempt to provide some tentative answers to these two questions, with the ultimate objective of identifying the conditi...

  2. Human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in relation to access to medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hunt, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Although access to medicines is a vital feature of the right to the highest attainable standard of health ("right to health"), almost two billion people lack access to essential medicines, leading to immense avoidable suffering. While the human rights responsibility to provide access to medicines lies mainly with States, pharmaceutical companies also have human rights responsibilities in relation to access to medicines. This article provides an introduction to these responsibilities. It briefly outlines the new UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and places the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in this context. The authors draw from the work of the first UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, in particular the Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in Relation to Access to Medicines that he presented to the UN General Assembly in 2008, and his UN report on GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). While the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights are general human rights standards applicable to all business entities, the Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies consider the specific human rights responsibilities of one sector (pharmaceutical companies) in relation to one area of activity (access to medicines). The article signals the human rights responsibilities of all pharmaceutical companies, with particular attention to patent-holding pharmaceutical companies. Adopting a right-to-health "lens," the article discusses GSK and accountability. The authors argue that human rights should shape pharmaceutical companies' policies, and provide standards in relation to which pharmaceutical companies could, and should, be held accountable. They conclude that it is now crucial to devise independent, accessible, transparent, and effective mechanisms to monitor pharmaceutical companies and hold them publicly accountable for their human rights responsibilities. PMID:22789042

  3. Human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in relation to access to medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hunt, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Although access to medicines is a vital feature of the right to the highest attainable standard of health ("right to health"), almost two billion people lack access to essential medicines, leading to immense avoidable suffering. While the human rights responsibility to provide access to medicines lies mainly with States, pharmaceutical companies also have human rights responsibilities in relation to access to medicines. This article provides an introduction to these responsibilities. It briefly outlines the new UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and places the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in this context. The authors draw from the work of the first UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, in particular the Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in Relation to Access to Medicines that he presented to the UN General Assembly in 2008, and his UN report on GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). While the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights are general human rights standards applicable to all business entities, the Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies consider the specific human rights responsibilities of one sector (pharmaceutical companies) in relation to one area of activity (access to medicines). The article signals the human rights responsibilities of all pharmaceutical companies, with particular attention to patent-holding pharmaceutical companies. Adopting a right-to-health "lens," the article discusses GSK and accountability. The authors argue that human rights should shape pharmaceutical companies' policies, and provide standards in relation to which pharmaceutical companies could, and should, be held accountable. They conclude that it is now crucial to devise independent, accessible, transparent, and effective mechanisms to monitor pharmaceutical companies and hold them publicly accountable for their human rights responsibilities.

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about human papillomavirus in educated adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Reyes Elkin Mauricio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: cervical cancer (CC is the second most frequent cancer in women in theworld, South America and Colombia. It represents the fourth cause of death by cancerin the world, the third cause in South America and the first cause in Colombia. The interesanprincipalrisk factor is the persistent infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV. TheCC can be prevented and the patient can be treated if it is detected early.Objective: to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices about HumanPapillomavirus (HPV in adolescent students of secondary.Methods: an analytical, observational and cross sectional study was performed withthe application of a survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP, to studentsof secondary of two schools of the city of Cartagena, Colombia, between July andDecember of 2011.Results: 10.8% of the polled adolescents replied that they knew the condilomatosis,infectious disease of sexual transmission caused by HPV and 20,1% have knowledgeabout the connection between cervical cancer and HPV infection.Conclusion: there is low knowledge about HPV infection and its association with CC,just like good attitudes with respect to the use of prevention methods of HPV infectionand early detection methods of CC and inadequate practices, mainly in the vaccinationprogramming against HPV. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:275-281RESUMEN:frecuente en mujeres en el mundo, América Latina y Colombia. Representa la cuartacausa de muerte por cáncer en el mundo, la tercera en America del Sur y la primera enColombia. El factor de riesgo principal es la infección persistente con el Virus del PapilomaHumano (VPH. El CACU puede prevenirse y curarse si se detecta tempranamente.Objetivo: establecer conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas acerca del VPH enadolescentes estudiantes de secundaria.Metodología: estudio observacional analítico de corte transversal realizado con laaplicación de una encuesta de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP, a

  5. Initial funding for high-quality open access journals in the humanities and social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Reckling, Falk; Scherag, Eva

    2012-01-01

    In coordination with the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science and Research (BMWF), the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) launched an initiative to provide initial funding for innovative open access journals in the humanities and social sciences. The initiative targeted media owners operating in Austria and enabled them to submit funding applications for the establishment of new open access journals and for conversion from classic subscription models to open access.

  6. Localized Knowledge based System for Human Disease Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adane Nega Tarekegn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available —Knowledge based system can be designed to solve complex medical problems. It incorporates the expert‟s knowledge that has been coded into facts, rules, heuristics and procedures. Incorporation of local languages with the knowledge based system allows endusers communicate with the system in a simpler and easier way. In this study a localized knowledge based system is developed for TB disease diagnosis using Ethiopian national language. To develop the localized knowledge based system, tacit knowledge is acquired from domain experts using interviewing techniques and explicit knowledge is captured from documented sources using relevant documents analysis method. Then the acquired knowledge is modeled using decision tree structure that represents concepts and procedures involved in diagnosis of disease. Production rules are used to represent domain knowledge. The localized knowledge based system is developed using SWI Prolog version 6.4.1 programming language. Prolog supports natural language processing feature to localize the system. As a result, the system is implemented using Amharic language (the national language of Ethiopia user interface. With Localization, users at remote areas and users who are not good in foreign languages are benefited enormously. The system is tested and evaluated to ensure that whether the performance of the system is accurate and the system is usable by physicians and patients. The average performance of the localized knowledge based system has registered 81.5%.

  7. Internationalizing the Right to Know: Conceptualizations of Access to Information in Human Rights Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Cheryl Ann

    2009-01-01

    Currently there exists a global movement promoting institutional transparency and freedom of information legislation. Conceptualizing access to government-held information as a human right is one of the latest developments in this global trend promoting access to information. The purpose of this dissertation is to identify and analyze the various…

  8. Access to pain treatment as a human right

    OpenAIRE

    Amon Joseph J; Schleifer Rebecca; Lohman Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Almost five decades ago, governments around the world adopted the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs which, in addition to addressing the control of illicit narcotics, obligated countries to work towards universal access to the narcotic drugs necessary to alleviate pain and suffering. Yet, despite the existence of inexpensive and effective pain relief medicines, tens of millions of people around the world continue to suffer from moderate to severe pain each year with...

  9. Massive Access Control Aided by Knowledge-Extraction for Co-Existing Periodic and Random Services over Wireless Clinical Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qinghe; Zhao, Weidong; Li, Weimin; Zhang, Xuelin; Sun, Bo; Song, Houbing; Ren, Pinyi; Sun, Li; Wang, Yichen

    2016-07-01

    The prosperity of e-health is boosted by fast development of medical devices with wireless communications capability such as wearable devices, tiny sensors, monitoring equipments, etc., which are randomly distributed in clinic environments. The drastically-increasing population of such devices imposes new challenges on the limited wireless resources. To relieve this problem, key knowledge needs to be extracted from massive connection attempts dispersed in the air towards efficient access control. In this paper, a hybrid periodic-random massive access (HPRMA) scheme for wireless clinical networks employing ultra-narrow band (UNB) techniques is proposed. In particular, the proposed scheme towards accommodating a large population of devices include the following new features. On one hand, it can dynamically adjust the resource allocated for coexisting periodic and random services based on the traffic load learned from signal collision status. On the other hand, the resource allocation within periodic services is thoroughly designed to simultaneously align with the timing requests of differentiated services. Abundant simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed HPRMA scheme over baseline schemes including time-division multiple access (TDMA) and random access approach, in terms of channel utilization efficiency, packet drop ratio, etc., for the support of massive devices' services. PMID:27240842

  10. Romania's human resources in the European Union accession context

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Ionescu

    2006-01-01

    Human resources have always been mobile, and nowadays more than ever, this quality is essential. The migration of Romania’s human resources is, no more at its beginings. But if people want to work outside Romania’s borders, should know how to do it, legaly and professionally

  11. The impact of accuracy motivation on interpretation, comparison, and correction processes: accuracy x knowledge accessibility effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapel, D A; Koomen, W; Zeelenberg, M

    1998-04-01

    Four studies provide evidence for the notion that there may be boundaries to the extent to which accuracy motivation may help perceivers to escape the influence of fortuitously activated information. Specifically, although accuracy motivations may eliminate assimilative accessibility effects, they are less likely to eliminate contrastive accessibility effects. It was found that the occurrence of different types of contrast effects (comparison and correction) was not significantly affected by participants' accuracy motivations. Furthermore, it was found that the mechanisms instigated by accuracy motivations differ from those ignited by correction instructions: Accuracy motivations attenuate assimilation effects because perceivers add target interpretations to the one suggested by primed information. Conversely, it was found that correction instructions yield contrast and prompt respondents to remove the priming event's influence from their reaction to the target. PMID:9569650

  12. Knowledge Representation for Robots through Human-Robot Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Bastianelli, Emanuele; Bloisi, Domenico; Capobianco, Roberto; Gemignani, Guglielmo; Iocchi, Luca; Nardi, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    The representation of the knowledge needed by a robot to perform complex tasks is restricted by the limitations of perception. One possible way of overcoming this situation and designing "knowledgeable" robots is to rely on the interaction with the user. We propose a multi-modal interaction framework that allows to effectively acquire knowledge about the environment where the robot operates. In particular, in this paper we present a rich representation framework that can be automatically buil...

  13. Intellectual Property and Global Health: From Corporate Social Responsibility to the Access to Knowledge Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, C.A.; Belt, van den, H.

    2013-01-01

    Any system for the protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs) has three main kinds of distributive effects. It will determine or influence: (a) the types of objects that will be developed and for which IPRs will be sought; (b) the differential access various people will have to these objects; and (c) the distribution of the IPRs themselves among various actors. What this means to the area of pharmaceutical research is that many urgently needed medicines will not be developed at all, th...

  14. The Encyclopedia of Life v2: Providing Global Access to Knowledge About Life on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Cynthia S; Wilson, Nathan; Leary, Patrick; Schulz, Katja S; Lans, Kristen; Walley, Lisa; Hammock, Jennifer A; Goddard, Anthony; Rice, Jeremy; Studer, Marie; Holmes, Jeffrey T G; Corrigan, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, http://eol.org) aims to provide unprecedented global access to a broad range of information about life on Earth. It currently contains 3.5 million distinct pages for taxa and provides content for 1.3 million of those pages. The content is primarily contributed by EOL content partners (providers) that have a more limited geographic, taxonomic or topical scope. EOL aggregates these data and automatically integrates them based on associated scientific names and other classification information. EOL also provides interfaces for curation and direct content addition. All materials in EOL are either in the public domain or licensed under a Creative Commons license. In addition to the web interface, EOL is also accessible through an Application Programming Interface. In this paper, we review recent developments added for Version 2 of the web site and subsequent releases through Version 2.2, which have made EOL more engaging, personal, accessible and internationalizable. We outline the core features and technical architecture of the system. We summarize milestones achieved so far by EOL to present results of the current system implementation and establish benchmarks upon which to judge future improvements. We have shown that it is possible to successfully integrate large amounts of descriptive biodiversity data from diverse sources into a robust, standards-based, dynamic, and scalable infrastructure. Increasing global participation and the emergence of EOL-powered applications demonstrate that EOL is becoming a significant resource for anyone interested in biological diversity.

  15. Multiple choice exams of medical knowledge with open books and web access? A validity study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind; Knudsen, Ulla Breth;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Open book tests have been suggested to lower test anxiety and promote deeper learning strategies. In the Aarhus University medical program, ¼ of the curriculum assess students’ medical knowledge with ‘open book, open web’ (OBOW) multiple choice examinations. We found little existing...

  16. The Knowledge Management Information Landscape — Awareness, Access, Use and Value of Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Denise A. D. Bedford

    2015-01-01

    Information landscape is a critical component of professional and scholarly disciplines. Established disciplines have a managed information foundation covering primary, secondary and tertiary sources, targeted search capabilities, discipline-specific knowledge organisation tools and services, and quality controlled review processes. The information landscapes of emerging disciplines may be more chaotic and unsettled, and present challenges for professionals. This research considers the inform...

  17. An Investigation of Graduate Student Knowledge and Usage of Open-Access Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Regina M.

    2016-01-01

    Graduate students lament the need to achieve the proficiency necessary to competently search multiple databases for their research assignments, regularly eschewing these sources in favor of Google Scholar or some other search engine. The author conducted an anonymous survey investigating graduate student knowledge or awareness of the open-access…

  18. Each-One-Teach-One Mobile Networks: An Innovative Strategy for Knowledge Access in Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    The changing landscape of learning is helping Asian countries to emerge as technology-driven knowledge-based societies. The success of these societies depends on promoting the acquisition of key competences and broadening opportunities for innovative and more flexible forms of learning for every citizen. Considering that in Asia almost everyone…

  19. Accessing stored knowledge of familiar people from faces, names and voices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, John Richard

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings from neuropsychology and experimental psychology appear incompatible with the claim that feelings of familiarity about known people require activation of amodal person identity nodes. Evidence suggests that there are modality-specific effects after the point at which faces, names and voices have been found familiar. It therefore appears that activation of distinct modality-specific face, name and voice processing systems can signal that a known person is familiar. There is no convincing evidence, however, of modular effects on the way that information about familiar people is represented in semantic memory. Instead, semantic information about people appears to be stored separately from other forms of knowledge such as knowledge of objects. Anatomical evidence suggests that amodal person-specific semantic knowledge is stored in the right anterior temporal lobe where it has close connections with modality specific recognition systems. Failures to retrieve names in proper name anomia may be caused by impairments to the links between semantic knowledge in the right anterior temporal lobe and lexical representations in the left temporal pole.

  20. DOCUMENTING OF THE PROCESS OF ACCUMULATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTELLECTUAL HUMAN CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yermolenko V. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of documenting of process of accumulation of knowledge and development of the intellectual human capital is considered in this article. The purpose of the article is the research of theoretical approaches of documenting of process of accumulation of knowledge, development of the intellectual human capital and the analysis of domestic public corporations on documenting of process of accumulation of knowledge. The solution of research tasks in article is proposed: the analysis of the contents of theories of development of the human capital in the conditions of economy of knowledge is carried out; domestic practice of public corporations on documenting of process of accumulation of knowledge is studied; features of documenting of knowledge as maintenance of development of the human capital are marked out. The particular emphasis in the article is placed on disclosure of such problems, as: methodological and theoretical aspects of development of the intellectual human capital; formation of mechanisms and ways of documenting of knowledge in the conditions of knowledge economy; formation of corporate institutes of formation and the development of the intellectual human capital, realizing reproduction of the intellectual capital and engineering of knowledge; formation of organizational innovations and dumping of old organizational routines. Documenting of knowledge is presented as maintenance of development of the human capital, the project of introduction of knowledge management and its documentary maintenance in corporations, and also ways of network documenting of knowledge of the human capital in the process of joint design activity is offered. Development of a special control system and its organizational and methodical providing which will allow to increase efficiency of work with documents during projects of development of the intellectual human capital is necessary for management of the documentary massif of knowledge of the

  1. Virtual knowledge : Experimenting in the humanities and the social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Paul; Beaulieu, Anne; Scharnhorst, Andrea; Wyatt, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Today we are witnessing dramatic changes in the way scientific and scholarly knowledge is created, codified, and communicated. This transformation is connected to the use of digital technologies and the virtualization of knowledge. In this book, scholars from a range of disciplines consider just wha

  2. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India.

  3. Considerations on private human access to space from an institutional point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufenbach, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    Private human access to space as discussed in this article addresses two market segments: suborbital flight and crew flights to Low Earth Orbit. The role of entrepreneurs, the technical complexity, the customers, the market conditions as well as the time to market in these two segments differ significantly. Space agencies take currently a very different approach towards private human access to space in both segments. Analysing the outcome of broader inter-agency deliberations on the future of human spaceflight and exploration, performed e.g. in the framework of the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, enables to derive some common general views on this topic. Various documents developed by inter-agency working groups recognise the general strategic importance for enabling private human access to space for ensuring a sustainable future of human spaceflight, although the specific definition of private human access and approaches vary. ESA has performed some reflections on this subject throughout the last 5 years. While it gained through these reflections a good understanding on the opportunities and implications resulting from the development of capabilities and markets for Private Human Access, limited concrete activities have been initiated in relation to this topic as of today.

  4. Scientific knowledge unchained: verso una policy dell’università italiana sull’Open Access

    OpenAIRE

    Caso, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Lo scopo di questo scritto è mettere in luce quel che il diritto formale può fare a favore dell’Open Access (OA). La tesi di fondo è che il diritto formale - la legge, i regolamenti, i contratti - può rappresentare un formidabile ausilio all’affermazione del principio dell’accesso aperto, ma che il definitivo successo dell’OA risiede in un radicale cambiamento delle norme informali che presidiano le prassi dell’editoria scientifica. Un tale mutamento dipende dalle dinamiche di potere nell...

  5. Developing technology intelligence strategy to access knowledge of innovation clusters. : The case of KODAK in Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Rani Jeanne; Mortara, Letizia; Thomson, Ruth; Minshall, Tim

    2010-01-01

    International audience Current times are characterised by a knowledge-based economy and fast technological change. In this difficult environment, companies compete to maintain a relevant position through innovation. In response to these challenges, many companies are currently adopting an open approach to innovation, pursuing innovation by combining internal and external resources. Technology intelligence (TI) activities support the implementation of open innovation with the systematic cap...

  6. Accessing Local Knowledge to Identify Where Species of Conservation Concern Occur in a Tropical Forest Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanaba, Michael; Sheil, Douglas; Basuki, Imam; Liswanti, Nining

    2013-01-01

    Conventional biodiversity surveys play an important role in ensuring good conservation friendly management in tropical forest regions but are demanding in terms of expertise, time, and budget. Can local people help? Here, we illustrate how local knowledge can support low cost conservation surveys. We worked in the Malinau watershed, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, an area currently at risk of extensive forest loss. We selected eight species of regional conservation interest: rafflesia (Rafflesia ...

  7. Role of marine bioprospecting contracts in developing access and benefit sharing mechanism for marine traditional knowledge holders in the pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Bhatia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable growth of bio-based industry has led to a rapid increase in the bioprospecting activities. The marine biomes are a rich reservoir of unique life systems making them an attractive target for bioprospecting for identification and development of potential drug molecules for human therapeutics. Many of the drug molecules such as ara-c, trabecetidin and eribulin have been discovered from marine organisms. It is noteworthy that indigenous communities have developed, preserved as well as evolved the marine traditional knowledge from one generation to next. Pharmaceutical companies utilize marine life based traditional knowledge developed by the communities at various stages of drug development, unfortunately, many a times without having a mechanism of access and benefit sharing in place. One such example is the marine bioprospecting Fiji contract that illustrates the role played by Fijian community and the lacuna in access and benefit sharing mechanisms. The present study is an attempt to explore the mechanism of fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from use of marine bioresources with the local communities as marine traditional knowledge holders in marine areas. It briefly describes the various international conventions and protocols that emphasize on the development of fair and equitable benefit sharing mechanisms. The study proposes marine bioprospecting contracts that are based on mutually agreed terms among the key stakeholders (the State with the genetic resources, traditional knowledge holders and marine bioprospectors. Marine bioprospecting contracts eventually will need to be customized as per the legislation of a country because of territorial nature of law. Also, the marine bioprospecting contracts will differ from other bioprospecting contracts due to various unique parameters associated with the activity such as economics of deep sea explorations (expensive processes of exploration and sample extraction

  8. Human Right and Internet Access : A philosophical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    As of December 2014, there are three billion Internet users worldwide, of which 649 million are Chinese. This number will grow in the years to come. This technology, of course, possesses immense significance in our everyday life. What is currently new in international human rights practice is the tr

  9. Semi-Automatically Extracting FAQs to Improve Accessibility of Software Development Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Henß, Stefan; Mezini, Mira

    2012-01-01

    Frequently asked questions (FAQs) are a popular way to document software development knowledge. As creating such documents is expensive, this paper presents an approach for automatically extracting FAQs from sources of software development discussion, such as mailing lists and Internet forums, by combining techniques of text mining and natural language processing. We apply the approach to popular mailing lists and carry out a survey among software developers to show that it is able to extract high-quality FAQs that may be further improved by experts.

  10. Gene Wiki Reviews-Raising the quality and accessibility of information about the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsueng, Ginger; Good, Benjamin M; Ping, Peipei; Golemis, Erica; Hanukoglu, Israel; van Wijnen, Andre J; Su, Andrew I

    2016-11-01

    Wikipedia and other openly available resources are increasingly becoming commonly used sources of information not just among the lay public but even in academic circles including undergraduate students and postgraduate trainees. To enhance the quality of the Wikipedia articles, in 2013, we initiated the Gene Wiki Reviews on genes and proteins as a series of invited reviews that stipulated editing the corresponding Wikipedia article(s) that would be also subject to peer-review. Thus, while the review article serves as an authoritative snapshot of the field, the "living article" can continue to evolve with the crowdsourcing model of Wikipedia. After publication of over 50 articles, we surveyed the authors to assess the impact of the project. The author survey results revealed that the Gene Wiki project is achieving its major objectives to increase the involvement of scientists in authoring Wikipedia articles and to enhance the quantity and quality of the information about genes and their protein products. Thus, the dual publication model introduced in the Gene Wiki Reviews series represents a valuable innovation in scientific publishing and biomedical knowledge management. We invite experts on specific genes to contact the editors to take part in this project to enhance the quality and accessibility of information about the human genome.

  11. Human transporter database: comprehensive knowledge and discovery tools in the human transporter genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Y Ye

    Full Text Available Transporters are essential in homeostatic exchange of endogenous and exogenous substances at the systematic, organic, cellular, and subcellular levels. Gene mutations of transporters are often related to pharmacogenetics traits. Recent developments in high throughput technologies on genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics allow in depth studies of transporter genes in normal cellular processes and diverse disease conditions. The flood of high throughput data have resulted in urgent need for an updated knowledgebase with curated, organized, and annotated human transporters in an easily accessible way. Using a pipeline with the combination of automated keywords query, sequence similarity search and manual curation on transporters, we collected 1,555 human non-redundant transporter genes to develop the Human Transporter Database (HTD (http://htd.cbi.pku.edu.cn. Based on the extensive annotations, global properties of the transporter genes were illustrated, such as expression patterns and polymorphisms in relationships with their ligands. We noted that the human transporters were enriched in many fundamental biological processes such as oxidative phosphorylation and cardiac muscle contraction, and significantly associated with Mendelian and complex diseases such as epilepsy and sudden infant death syndrome. Overall, HTD provides a well-organized interface to facilitate research communities to search detailed molecular and genetic information of transporters for development of personalized medicine.

  12. Human transporter database: comprehensive knowledge and discovery tools in the human transporter genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Adam Y; Liu, Qing-Rong; Li, Chuan-Yun; Zhao, Min; Qu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Transporters are essential in homeostatic exchange of endogenous and exogenous substances at the systematic, organic, cellular, and subcellular levels. Gene mutations of transporters are often related to pharmacogenetics traits. Recent developments in high throughput technologies on genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics allow in depth studies of transporter genes in normal cellular processes and diverse disease conditions. The flood of high throughput data have resulted in urgent need for an updated knowledgebase with curated, organized, and annotated human transporters in an easily accessible way. Using a pipeline with the combination of automated keywords query, sequence similarity search and manual curation on transporters, we collected 1,555 human non-redundant transporter genes to develop the Human Transporter Database (HTD) (http://htd.cbi.pku.edu.cn). Based on the extensive annotations, global properties of the transporter genes were illustrated, such as expression patterns and polymorphisms in relationships with their ligands. We noted that the human transporters were enriched in many fundamental biological processes such as oxidative phosphorylation and cardiac muscle contraction, and significantly associated with Mendelian and complex diseases such as epilepsy and sudden infant death syndrome. Overall, HTD provides a well-organized interface to facilitate research communities to search detailed molecular and genetic information of transporters for development of personalized medicine.

  13. Knowledge-base for the new human reliability analysis method, A Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the knowledge base for the application of the new human reliability analysis (HRA) method, a ''A Technique for Human Error Analysis'' (ATHEANA). Since application of ATHEANA requires the identification of previously unmodeled human failure events, especially errors of commission, and associated error-forcing contexts (i.e., combinations of plant conditions and performance shaping factors), this knowledge base is an essential aid for the HRA analyst

  14. Consumers’ perception and knowledge of food safety: results of questionnaires accessible on IZSalimenTO website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaranta Traversa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present survey was undertaken to investigate consumers’ knowledge of the main foodborne agents and dietary regimen during pregnancy. Data were collected using monthly questionnaires available on IZSalimenTO website between March 2013 and January 2014. Hepatitis A virus questionnaire: 20 respondents (77% recognized berries as foodstuff linked to the outbreak of hepatitis A. The majority correctly indicated as precautionary advice to boil berries before consumption. Botulism questionnaire: 29 respondents (62% indicated pesto as food involved in botulism alert in July 2013. The risk of infant botulism in infant less than 1 year old due to honey consumption is known by 24 respondents (51%. Main foodborne disease questionnaire: the risk of infection by Salmonella after the consumption of foods made with raw eggs is known by the majority (94%; N=17 as well as the treatments to be applied in order to make fresh fish safe from parasites (76%. Pregnancy questionnaire: 20 respondents (74% believed that washing vegetables and fruits with sodium bicarbonate or chlorate solution is able to inactivate Toxoplasma; only 4 (15% reported both raw meat and vegetables washed with sodium bicarbonate as food at risk. Results indicate that all consumers should be trained on behaviour and dietary regimen to be adopted in pregnancy and in infant <1 year old. The website may be considered as a useful tool to assess consumers’ knowledge: both the news section and the contents published may be a source of information and education for consumers on food safety.

  15. Accessing Local Knowledge to Identify Where Species of Conservation Concern Occur in a Tropical Forest Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanaba, Michael; Sheil, Douglas; Basuki, Imam; Liswanti, Nining

    2013-08-01

    Conventional biodiversity surveys play an important role in ensuring good conservation friendly management in tropical forest regions but are demanding in terms of expertise, time, and budget. Can local people help? Here, we illustrate how local knowledge can support low cost conservation surveys. We worked in the Malinau watershed, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, an area currently at risk of extensive forest loss. We selected eight species of regional conservation interest: rafflesia ( Rafflesia spp.), black orchid ( Coelogyne pandurata), sun bear ( Helarctos malayanus), tarsier ( Tarsius bancanus), slow loris ( Nycticebus coucang), proboscis monkey ( Nasalis larvatus), clouded leopard ( Neofelis diardi/N. nebulosa), and orang-utan ( Pongo pygmaeus). We asked 52 informants in seven villages if, where and when they had observed these species. We used maps, based on both geo-referenced and sketched features, to record these observations. Verification concerns and related issues are discussed. Evaluations suggest our local information is reliable. Our study took 6 weeks and cost about USD 5000. Extensive expert based field surveys across the same region would cost one or two orders of magnitude more. The records extend the known distribution for sun bear, tarsier, slow loris, and clouded leopard. Reports of rafflesia, proboscis monkey, and orang-utan are of immediate conservation significance. While quality concerns should never be abandoned, we conclude that local people can help expand our knowledge of large areas in an effective, reliable, and low cost manner and thus contribute to improved management.

  16. Employing human rights frameworks to realize access to an HIV cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mason Meier

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The scale of the HIV pandemic – and the stigma, discrimination and violence that surrounded its sudden emergence – catalyzed a public health response that expanded human rights in principle and practice. In the absence of effective treatment, human rights activists initially sought to protect individuals at high risk of HIV infection. With advances in antiretroviral therapy, activists expanded their efforts under international law, advocating under the human right to health for individual access to treatment. Discussion: As a clinical cure comes within reach, human rights obligations will continue to play a key role in political and programmatic decision-making. Building upon the evolving development and implementation of the human right to health in the global response to HIV, we outline a human rights research agenda to prepare for HIV cure access, investigating the role of human rights law in framing 1 resource allocation, 2 international obligations, 3 intellectual property and 4 freedom from coercion. Conclusions: The right to health is widely recognized as central to governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental responses to the pandemic and critical both to addressing vulnerability to infection and to ensuring universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. While the advent of an HIV cure will raise new obligations for policymakers in implementing the right to health, the resolution of past debates surrounding HIV prevention and treatment may inform claims for universal access.

  17. Household electricity access, availability and human well-being: Evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the 2011 Census of India, over 31% of India's 1.2 billion people lived in nearly 8000 towns and cities; the remaining 830 million people lived in over 638,000 villages. About 55% of rural households and 93% of urban households had access to electricity. The 2005 Indian Human Development Survey showed that on average, electricity availability (hours of supply per day) in rural and urban households were 14 and 19 h, respectively (Desai et al., 2007). Using nationally representative data from Indian Human Development Survey, this study estimated the impact of electricity access and availability on two attributes of human well-being, viz. education and health attainment. It found a significant positive relationship between electricity availability and well-being in rural and urban households. Electricity accessibility, revealed a significant positive relationship only for rural households. The paper concludes with implications for electricity policy and infrastructure choices. - Graphical abstract: Impact of electricity security on the attributes of human well-being. - Highlights: • Nexus between well-being, and electricity access and availability is quantified. • Electricity access is positively associated with well-being in rural but not urban. • Electricity availability negatively associates with morbidity and absenteeism. • Electricity security as human well-being enabler seeks nuanced policy attention. • Decentralized rapidly deployable modular technologies and microgrids are advocated

  18. TRANSFORMING HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    ANA-MARIA GRIGORE

    2011-01-01

    Paradoxically, in this era of microprocessors, of top technologies, of equipments “independent” of man’s skills and attention, the human resource regains the hegemony among the economic variables of the organization. Human resources traditionally added value to organizations because of what they did or because of their experience. In the new economy, however, many employees add value because of what they know. The management of the human resources has to be torn apart from its bureaucratic pa...

  19. Knowledge-based support for design and operational use of human-machine interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities for knowledge support of different human user classes, namely operators, operational engineers and designers of human-machine interfaces, are discussed. Several human-machine interface functionalities are briefly explained. The paper deals with such questions as which type of knowledge is needed for design and operation, how to represent it, where to get it from, how to process it, and how to consider and use it. The relationships between design and operational use are thereby emphasised. (author)

  20. Human embryonic stem cell research, justice, and the problem of unequal biological access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moller Mark S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2003, Ruth Faden and eighteen other colleagues argued that a "problem of unequal biological access" is likely to arise in access to therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. They showed that unless deliberate steps are taken in the United States to ensure that the human embryonic stem cell lines available to researchers mirrors the genetic diversity of the general population, white Americans will likely receive the benefits of these therapies to the relative exclusion of minority ethnic groups. Over the past five years the problem of unequal biological access has not received much attention from politicians, bioethicists and even many researchers in the United States, in spite of the widely held belief in the country that there is an obligation to prevent and correct ethnic disparities in access to medical care. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the problem of unequal biological access and of the need to do more than is currently being done to ensure that ethnic disparities in access to human embryonic stem cell-based therapies do not arise. Specifically, this paper explains why the problem of unequal biological access will likely arise in the United States in such a way that white Americans will disproportionately receive most of the benefits of the therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. It also argues for why there is an obligation to prevent these ethnic disparities in access from happening and outlines four steps that need to be taken towards meeting this obligation.

  1. Knowledge Management Integration into Strategic Human Capital Management Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leadership model philosophies: • Knowledge is fundamental – share it; • We are in the refueling outage business; • Cost effective does not necessarily mean cheap; • Working efficiently and event free; • Make conscious, informed decisions; • Excellence in Operational Focus; • Operations Leads the Station; • End of Licenses and Beyond 60; • Our Leadership Model - Our future

  2. Addressing the concerns of rural communities about access to plants and knowledge in a sui generis legislation in Cameroon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marcelin Tonye Mahop

    2004-12-01

    This article assesses the traditional systems of accessing and using plant genetic resources as well as the benefit sharing and systems of sanctioning infringement in the context of biodiversity related activities in specific areas in the Northwest province of Cameroon. The article also addresses the type research and development activities using plant genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in the context of Cameroon, the current laws regulating such activities and the extent to which these activities and laws affect and/or protect the customary biodiversity rights of rural communities. The article uses these assessments to suggest the context under which a sui generis legislation for the protection of the biodiversity rights of rural communities can be established in Cameroon.

  3. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...

  4. Human Instruments: Accessible Musical Instruments for People with Varied Physical Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matossian, Vahakn; Gehlhaar, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    There are few ways in which persons, who do not have the use of their hands or arms, are able make music or control complex computer systems. Music as an expressive output is key to the full development of the human mind. Human Instruments is dedicated to the development and production of accessible musical instruments playable at a professional level, as well as computer control interfaces. We are currently user-testing three new, uniquely accessible devices, for their effectiveness in expressive music creation. Preliminary results are compelling.

  5. Reconstructing Sessions from Data Discovery and Access Logs to Build a Semantic Knowledge Base for Improving Data Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyao Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Big geospatial data are archived and made available through online web discovery and access. However, finding the right data for scientific research and application development is still a challenge. This paper aims to improve the data discovery by mining the user knowledge from log files. Specifically, user web session reconstruction is focused upon in this paper as a critical step for extracting usage patterns. However, reconstructing user sessions from raw web logs has always been difficult, as a session identifier tends to be missing in most data portals. To address this problem, we propose two session identification methods, including time-clustering-based and time-referrer-based methods. We also present the workflow of session reconstruction and discuss the approach of selecting appropriate thresholds for relevant steps in the workflow. The proposed session identification methods and workflow are proven to be able to extract data access patterns for further pattern analyses of user behavior and improvement of data discovery for more relevancy data ranking, suggestion, and navigation.

  6. Generation of human and structural capital: lessons from knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Agndal, Henrik; Nilsson, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    Interorganizational and social relationships can be seen as part of the intellectual capital of a firm. Existing frameworks of intellectual capital, however, fail to address how relationships should be managed to generate more intellectual capital. Drawing on the interaction approach and the fields of intellectual capital and knowledge management, this paper develops a framework for managing relationships. The framework is illustrated with a case study. It is also noted that firms can improve...

  7. Capital-centric versus knowledge-centric paradigms of human resource management: A historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris W. Callaghan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Central to understanding the contemporary state of the human resource management (HRM field is knowledge of its history, and the underlying rationales as to why it has changed over time. This research attempts to identify one such important ‘rationale’.Research purpose: This article relates certain changes in HRM over time to the argument that there has been a shift from an industrial paradigm (on which many human resource [HR] systems, practices and theoretical frameworks are still based to a knowledge paradigm (of knowledge work, in which employee knowledge and skills offer compound advantages that are not substitutable which explains a great deal of the variance in changes of the field over time.Motivation for the study: It is argued that in order for the field to move forward, it may needto bring to the surface certain assumptions and differentiate between theoretical frameworkswhen dealing with knowledge work versus non-knowledge work.Research design, approach and method: This article offers a perspective of HR theory development over time. It is a conceptual/perspectives article and is not qualitative nor quantitative in nature. Further research will be able to test the ideas presented here.Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resources managers need to differentiate between knowledge and non-knowledge work. The latter is associated with increased heterogeneity and complexity, and differences in power relationships, as knowledge work shifts power away from capital into the hands of skilled knowledge labour.

  8. Using Specification and Description Language (SDL) for capturing and reusing human experts' knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional knowledge engineering techniques for acquiring experts' knowledge can not produce quality knowledge due to improper knowledge documentation and informal knowledge acquisition method. We propose a new method for knowledge documentation and acquisition using Specification and Description Language (SDL). SDL is used to describe both the target system and the reasoning process. The main idea is to follow deterministic problem solving behavior of human experts and document it. Then knowledge can be extracted by comparing documents of the successive steps. This knowledge is recorded and reused in similar or novel cases. We present an implementation of this method in a tool for software design. The implemented system consists of a SDL CASE tool and an expert system for applying the design knowledge. This system serves as an experimental platform for the study of human design by simulating the design at the lowest level. However, we have found that by acquiring enough domain knowledge, this system can simulate general problem solving of human experts. (author)

  9. Knowledge-based personalized search engine for the Web-based Human Musculoskeletal System Resources (HMSR) in biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Tien Tuan; Hoang, Tuan Nha; Ta, Xuan Hien; Tho, Marie Christine Ho Ba

    2013-02-01

    Human musculoskeletal system resources of the human body are valuable for the learning and medical purposes. Internet-based information from conventional search engines such as Google or Yahoo cannot response to the need of useful, accurate, reliable and good-quality human musculoskeletal resources related to medical processes, pathological knowledge and practical expertise. In this present work, an advanced knowledge-based personalized search engine was developed. Our search engine was based on a client-server multi-layer multi-agent architecture and the principle of semantic web services to acquire dynamically accurate and reliable HMSR information by a semantic processing and visualization approach. A security-enhanced mechanism was applied to protect the medical information. A multi-agent crawler was implemented to develop a content-based database of HMSR information. A new semantic-based PageRank score with related mathematical formulas were also defined and implemented. As the results, semantic web service descriptions were presented in OWL, WSDL and OWL-S formats. Operational scenarios with related web-based interfaces for personal computers and mobile devices were presented and analyzed. Functional comparison between our knowledge-based search engine, a conventional search engine and a semantic search engine showed the originality and the robustness of our knowledge-based personalized search engine. In fact, our knowledge-based personalized search engine allows different users such as orthopedic patient and experts or healthcare system managers or medical students to access remotely into useful, accurate, reliable and good-quality HMSR information for their learning and medical purposes.

  10. Human engineering considerations in designing a computerized controlled access security system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a human engineering effort in the design of a major security system upgrade at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This upgrade was to be accomplished by replacing obsolete and difficult-to-man (i.e., multiple operator task actions required) security equipment and systems with a new, automated, computer-based access control system. The initial task was to assist the electronic and mechanical engineering staff in designing a computerized security access system too functionally and ergonomically accommodate 100% of the Laboratory user population. The new computerized access system was intended to control entry into sensitive exclusion areas by requiring personnel to use an entry booth-based system and/or a remote access control panel system. The primary user interface with the system was through a control panel containing a magnetic card reader, function buttons, LCD display, and push-button keypad

  11. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Informational Behaviors of College Students in Regard to the Human Papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…

  12. Knowledge of Acute Human Immnuodeficiency Virus Infection among Gay and Bisexual Male College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, Benjamin; Chan, Philip A.; Operario, Don

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in at-risk college men who have sex with men (MSM), focusing on knowledge about acute HIV infection (AHI). Participants and Methods: A one-time anonymous survey was administered to college students attending a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  13. The shaping of social perception by stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Emily S; Ramsey, Richard; Liepelt, Roman; Prinz, Wolfgang; de C Hamilton, Antonia F

    2016-01-19

    Although robots are becoming an ever-growing presence in society, we do not hold the same expectations for robots as we do for humans, nor do we treat them the same. As such, the ability to recognize cues to human animacy is fundamental for guiding social interactions. We review literature that demonstrates cortical networks associated with person perception, action observation and mentalizing are sensitive to human animacy information. In addition, we show that most prior research has explored stimulus properties of artificial agents (humanness of appearance or motion), with less investigation into knowledge cues (whether an agent is believed to have human or artificial origins). Therefore, currently little is known about the relationship between stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy in terms of cognitive and brain mechanisms. Using fMRI, an elaborate belief manipulation, and human and robot avatars, we found that knowledge cues to human animacy modulate engagement of person perception and mentalizing networks, while stimulus cues to human animacy had less impact on social brain networks. These findings demonstrate that self-other similarities are not only grounded in physical features but are also shaped by prior knowledge. More broadly, as artificial agents fulfil increasingly social roles, a challenge for roboticists will be to manage the impact of pre-conceived beliefs while optimizing human-like design. PMID:26644594

  14. The shaping of social perception by stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Emily S; Ramsey, Richard; Liepelt, Roman; Prinz, Wolfgang; de C Hamilton, Antonia F

    2016-01-19

    Although robots are becoming an ever-growing presence in society, we do not hold the same expectations for robots as we do for humans, nor do we treat them the same. As such, the ability to recognize cues to human animacy is fundamental for guiding social interactions. We review literature that demonstrates cortical networks associated with person perception, action observation and mentalizing are sensitive to human animacy information. In addition, we show that most prior research has explored stimulus properties of artificial agents (humanness of appearance or motion), with less investigation into knowledge cues (whether an agent is believed to have human or artificial origins). Therefore, currently little is known about the relationship between stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy in terms of cognitive and brain mechanisms. Using fMRI, an elaborate belief manipulation, and human and robot avatars, we found that knowledge cues to human animacy modulate engagement of person perception and mentalizing networks, while stimulus cues to human animacy had less impact on social brain networks. These findings demonstrate that self-other similarities are not only grounded in physical features but are also shaped by prior knowledge. More broadly, as artificial agents fulfil increasingly social roles, a challenge for roboticists will be to manage the impact of pre-conceived beliefs while optimizing human-like design.

  15. Web Accessibility and Usability of the Homepages from Academy of Human Resource Development Members' Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoming; Sligar, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Human resource development programs in various institutions communicate with their constituencies including persons with disabilities through websites. Web sites need to be accessible for legal, economic and ethical reasons. We used an automated web usability evaluation tool, aDesigner, to evaluate 205 home pages from the organizations of AHRD…

  16. Human security and access to water, sanitation, and hygiene: exploring the drivers and nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Obani; J. Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Water security challenges are mostly covered in the literature on the food and energy nexus. This chapter however adopts a broader conception of water security in relation to lack of access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), and argues that the human rights approach could be instrumental in a

  17. Guide to open access monograph publishing for arts, humanities and social science researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Ellen; Milloy, Caren; Stone, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This guide has been produced to assist arts, humanities and social sciences (AHSS) researchers in understanding the state of play with regards to open access in the UK and what it means to them as current and future authors of scholarly monographs.

  18. Psychological Basis of the Relationship Between the Rorschach Texture Response and Adult Attachment: The Mediational Role of the Accessibility of Tactile Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Kazunori; Ogawa, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    This study clarifies the psychological basis for the linkage between adult attachment and the texture response on the Rorschach by examining the mediational role of the accessibility of tactile knowledge. Japanese undergraduate students (n = 35) completed the Rorschach Inkblot Method, the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale for General Objects (Nakao & Kato, 2004) and a lexical decision task designed to measure the accessibility of tactile knowledge. A mediation analysis revealed that the accessibility of tactile knowledge partially mediates the association between attachment anxiety and the texture response. These results suggest that our hypothetical model focusing on the response process provides a possible explanation of the relationship between the texture response and adult attachment. PMID:26569020

  19. Stabilizing knowledge through standards - A perspective for the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Romary, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    It is usual to consider that standards generate mixed feelings among scientists. They are often seen as not really reflecting the state of the art in a given domain and a hindrance to scientific creativity. Still, scientists should theoretically be at the best place to bring their expertise into standard developments, being even more neutral on issues that may typically be related to competing industrial interests. Even if it could be thought of as even more complex to think about developping standards in the humanities, we will show how this can be made feasible through the experience gained both within the Text Encoding Initiative consortium and the International Organisation for Standardisation. By taking the specific case of lexical resources, we will try to show how this brings about new ideas for designing future research infrastructures in the human and social sciences.

  20. Knowledge-Intensive Entrepreneurship and the Impact of Human Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Neergaard, Helle; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address selected aspects of human capital in association with the entrepreneurial process in technology-based new ventures. Until recently, research investigating the founding of new businesses has mainly focused on the personal characteristics of entrepreneurs...... of a newly founded venture. Furthermore, the dimensions of human capital, experience and previous employment, seem to be essential in building the networks that help secure both the early as well as a continuous pool of finance for the ventures......., but this trait approach tends to underestimate the extent to which crucial skills may be acquired. The preliminary findings presented in this paper indicate that it is not so much the inherent personality that is instrumental in founding and growing a new venture. Previous employments as well as entrepreneurial...

  1. Setaria digitata in advancing our knowledge of human lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, A N I; Gunawardene, Y I N S; Dassanayake, R S

    2016-03-01

    Setaria digitata is a filarial parasite that causes fatal cerebrospinal nematodiasis in goats, sheep and horses, resulting in substantial economic losses in animal husbandry in the tropics. Due to its close resemblance to Wuchereria bancrofti, this nematode is also frequently used as a model organism to study human lymphatic filariasis. This review highlights numerous insights into the morphological, histological, biochemical, immunological and genetic aspects of S. digitata that have broadened our understanding towards the control and eradication of filarial diseases. PMID:25924635

  2. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estima...

  3. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor MJ; Garrard TA; O'Donahoo FJ; Ross KE

    2014-01-01

    Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estimate o...

  4. Retaking Responsibility for How We Communicate. A Review of Open Access and the Humanities: Contexts, Controversies and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Baker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of the Budapest Open Access Initiative statement in 2002, Open Access has grown from an ideal to a reality. Open Access and the Humanities explores scholarly practices, communications, and cultures in light of this change and argues that humanists can and should retake responsibility for how they chose to publish.

  5. Integrated approach to knowledge acquisition and safety management of complex plants with emphasis on human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an integrated approach to the knowledge acquisition and safety management of complex industrial plants is proposed and outlined. The plant is considered within a man-technology-environment (MTE) system. The knowledge acquisition is aimed at the consequent reliability evaluation of human factor and probabilistic modeling of the plant. Properly structured initial knowledge is updated in life-time of the plant. The data and knowledge concerning the topology of safety related systems and their functions are created in a graphical CAD system and are object oriented. Safety oriented monitoring of the plant includes abnormal situations due to external and internal disturbances, failures of hard/software components and failures of human factor. The operation and safety related evidence is accumulated in special data bases. Data/knowledge bases are designed in such a way to support effectively the reliability and safety management of the plant. (author)

  6. Accessing vs Sourcing Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awate, Snehal; Larsen, Marcus M.; Mudambi, Ram

    2015-01-01

    find that these two are fundamentally different processes. While the internationalization of AMNEs' R&D activities can largely be explained in terms of the twin strategies of competence exploitation and competence creation, EMNE R&D internationalization is rooted in the firms' overall catch up strategy...

  7. The Human Genome Project: Information access, management, and regulation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.D.; Micikas, L.B.

    1996-08-31

    The Human Genome Project is a large, internationally coordinated effort in biological research directed at creating a detailed map of human DNA. This report describes the access of information, management, and regulation of the project. The project led to the development of an instructional module titled The Human Genome Project: Biology, Computers, and Privacy, designed for use in high school biology classes. The module consists of print materials and both Macintosh and Windows versions of related computer software-Appendix A contains a copy of the print materials and discs containing the two versions of the software.

  8. The Social Uses of the Innovation Concept. A Qualitative Approach to the Discursive Logics for the Access to and Use of Information, Communication and Knowledge in Andalusia.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Victoriano, José Manuel; Wulff Barreiro, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    In the semantic architecture of the society of the knowledge the innovation concept is the fundamental brick. It is an adobe that allows to construct very different discourses frequently opposed between them, in what the purpose of its social use concerns. In the present communication we introduce the motivations for the access and use of the information and the knowledge on the part of the different social sectors in the Andalusian society. The analysis of the efforts of the Andalusian admin...

  9. Using a knowledge elicitation method to specify the business model of a human factors organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, Jan Maarten; Ven, van de Josine; Hoffman, Robert R.; Moon, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Concept Mapping was used to structure knowledge elicitation interviews with a group of human factors specialists whose goal was to describe the business model of their Department. This novel use of cognitive task analysis to describe the business model of a human factors organization resulted in a n

  10. HUMAN CAPITAL’S IMPACT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ROMANIAN KNOWLEDGE BASED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burja Camelia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To meet the desiderata expressed by the implementation of knowledge-based economy, companies must reconsider development strategies and must facilitate the shift from a management largely based on resource consumption to knowledge-based management. In this view, the importance of the human factor increases, becoming a precious resource that creates value and competitiveness. This paper shows the interaction between company performance and human capital, exemplifying this aspect through a case study based on a regression model in Romanian software companies. The obtained results show the strong connection between company performance, expressed by net income, and the quality of the human capital, synthesized by labour productivity.

  11. The lawful uses of knowledge from the Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grad, F.P.

    1994-04-15

    Part I of this study deals with the right to know or not to know personal genetic information, and examines available legal protections of the right of privacy and the adverse effect of the disclosure of genetic information both on employment and insurance interests and on self esteem and protection of personal integrity. The study examines the rationale for the legal protection of privacy as the protection of a public interest. It examines the very limited protections currently available for privacy interests, including genetic privacy interests, and concludes that there is a need for broader, more far-reaching legal protections. The second part of the study is based on the assumption that as major a project as the Human Genome Project, spending billions of dollars on science which is health related, will indeed be applied for preventive and therapeutic public health purposes, as it has been in the past. It also addresses the recurring fear that public health initiatives in the genetic area must evolve a new eugenic agenda, that we must not repeat the miserable discriminatory experiences of the past.

  12. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor MJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estimate of 100–370 million people infected worldwide has been proposed; however, inaccuracy of diagnosis, unreliability of prevalence mapping, and the fact that strongyloidiasis remains a neglected disease suggest that the higher figure of more than 300 million cases is likely to be a more accurate estimate. The complexity of Strongyloides life cycle means that laboratory cultures cannot be maintained outside of a host. This currently limits the range of laboratory-based research, which is vital to controlling Strongyloides through environmental alteration or treatment. Successful clinical treatment with antihelminthic drugs has meant that controlling Strongyloides through environmental control, rather than clinical intervention, has been largely overlooked. These control measures may encompass alteration of the soil environment through physical means, such as desiccation or removal of nutrients, or through chemical or biological agents. Repeated antihelminthic treatment of individuals with recurrent strongyloidiasis has not been observed to result in the selection of resistant strains; however, this has not been explicitly demonstrated, and relying on such assumptions in the long-term may prove to be shortsighted. It is ultimately naive to assume that continued administration of antihelminthics will be without any negative long-term effects. In Australia, strongyloidiasis primarily affects Indigenous communities, including communities from arid central Australia. This

  13. The Construction and Globalization of the Knowledge Base in Inter-human Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between the "knowledge base" and the "globalization" of communication systems is discussed from the perspective of communication theory. I argue that inter-human communication takes place at two levels. At the first level information is exchanged and provided with meaning and at the second level meaning can reflexively be communicated. Human language can be considered as the evolutionary achievement which enables us to use these two channels of communication simultaneously. Providing meaning from the perspective of hindsight is a recursive operation: a meaning that makes a difference can be considered as knowledge. If the production of knowledge is socially organized, the perspective of hindsight can further be codified. This adds globalization to the historically stabilized patterns of communications. Globalization can be expected to transform the communications in an evolutionary mode. However, the self-organization of a knowledge-based society remains an expectation with the status of a hy...

  14. Human Lymphoid Translocation Fragile Zones Are Hypomethylated and Have Accessible Chromatin

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhengfei; Lieber, Michael R.; Tsai, Albert G.; Pardo, Carolina E.; Müschen, Markus; Kladde, Michael P.; Hsieh, Chih-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are a hallmark of hematopoietic malignancies. CG motifs within translocation fragile zones (typically 20 to 600 bp in size) are prone to chromosomal translocation in lymphomas. Here we demonstrate that the CG motifs in human translocation fragile zones are hypomethylated relative to the adjacent DNA. Using a methyltransferase footprinting assay on isolated nuclei (in vitro), we find that the chromatin at these fragile zones is accessible. We also examined in vivo ac...

  15. Near-instant automatic access to visually presented words in the human neocortex: neuromagnetic evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Yury Shtyrov; MacGregor, Lucy J

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient processing of external information by the brain is vital to survival in a highly dynamic environment. The key channel humans use to exchange information is language, but the neural underpinnings of its processing are still not fully understood. We investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of neural access to word representations in the brain by scrutinising the brain’s activity elicited in response to psycholinguistically, visually and phonologically matched groups of fami...

  16. Generalization of category knowledge and dimensional categorization in humans (Homo sapiens) and nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Johnston, Jennifer J R; Roeder, Jessica L; Boomer, Joseph; Ashby, F Gregory; Church, Barbara A

    2015-10-01

    A theoretical framework within neuroscience distinguishes humans' implicit and explicit systems for category learning. We used a perceptual-categorization paradigm to ask whether nonhumans share elements of these systems. Participants learned categories that foster implicit or explicit categorization in humans, because they had a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. Then humans and macaques generalized their category knowledge to new, untested regions of the stimulus space. II generalization was impaired, suggesting that II category learning is conditioned and constrained by stimulus generalization to its original, trained stimulus contexts. RB generalization was nearly seamless, suggesting that RB category knowledge in humans and monkeys has properties that grant it some independence from the original, trained stimulus contexts. These findings raise the questions of (a) how closely macaques' dimensional categorization verges on humans' explicit/declarative categorization, and (b) how far macaques' dimensional categorization has advanced beyond that in other vertebrate species. PMID:26167774

  17. Linking Human Resource Management and Knowledge Management via Commitment to Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Kuimet Karin; Järvis Marina; Virovere Anu; Hartšenko Jelena

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to the development of the human resource management (HRM), organisational (safety) culture and knowledge management literature through developing the linkage and relationship among them. The article suggests that the HRM concepts and frameworks could play an important role in the safety knowledge exchange within the organisation. The research method includes exploratory case studies, interviews and evaluation questionnaires in order to clarify how HRM practices are adop...

  18. The effect of human capital and networks on knowledge and innovation in SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Farace; Fernanda Mazzotta

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework to analyze knowledge creation in traditional sectors and empirically test innovation probability and intensity in small and medium firms (SMEs). The underlying hypothesis is that human capital and networks favour ease of learning and promote absorptive capacity and knowledge, which in turn fosters innovation in SMEs in traditional sectors. The empirical evidence is based on an ad hoc survey of a representative sample of 462 manufacturing firms in a province in ...

  19. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Tambo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs.

  20. Posture-Dependent Human 3He Lung Imaging in an Open Access MRI System: Initial Results

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, L L; Li, C -H; Rosen, M S; Patz, S; Walsworth, R L

    2007-01-01

    The human lung and its functions are extremely sensitive to orientation and posture, and debate continues as to the role of gravity and the surrounding anatomy in determining lung function and heterogeneity of perfusion and ventilation. However, study of these effects is difficult. The conventional high-field magnets used for most hyperpolarized 3He MRI of the human lung, and most other common radiological imaging modalities including PET and CT, restrict subjects to lying horizontally, minimizing most gravitational effects. In this paper, we briefly review the motivation for posture-dependent studies of human lung function, and present initial imaging results of human lungs in the supine and vertical body orientations using inhaled hyperpolarized 3He gas and an open-access MRI instrument. The open geometry of this MRI system features a "walk-in" capability that permits subjects to be imaged in vertical and horizontal positions, and potentially allows for complete rotation of the orientation of the imaging su...

  1. Strategies for transforming human service organizations into learning organizations: knowledge management and the transfer of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    This analysis describes the nature of a learning organization, defines the boundaries of evidence-informed practice, identifies the elements of knowledge management, and specifies the elements of the transfer of learning. A set of principles are presented to guide managers in transforming human service organizations into learning organizations along with a set of implementation strategies that can inform participants of the values and benefits of knowledge management. This analysis features concepts and principles adapted and synthesized from research in diverse fields, such as evidence-based health care and the for-profit sector related to learning organizations, knowledge management, and the transfer of learning.

  2. Cultivating Humanity or Educating the Human? Two Options for Education in the Knowledge Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the idea of the "knowledge society" came into circulation, there have been discussions about what the term empirically "might" mean and normatively "should" mean. In the literature we can find a rather wide spectrum, ranging from a "utilitarian" interpretation of the knowledge society as a…

  3. Maximising access to achieve appropriate human antimicrobial use in low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Marc; Røttingen, John-Arne; Gopinathan, Unni; Hamer, Davidson H; Wertheim, Heiman; Basnyat, Buddha; Butler, Christopher; Tomson, Göran; Balasegaram, Manica

    2016-01-01

    Access to quality-assured antimicrobials is regarded as part of the human right to health, yet universal access is often undermined in low-income and middle-income countries. Lack of access to the instruments necessary to make the correct diagnosis and prescribe antimicrobials appropriately, in addition to weak health systems, heightens the challenge faced by prescribers. Evidence-based interventions in community and health-care settings can increase access to appropriately prescribed antimicrobials. The key global enablers of sustainable financing, governance, and leadership will be necessary to achieve access while preventing excess antimicrobial use. PMID:26603919

  4. Access to essential maternal health interventions and human rights violations among vulnerable communities in eastern Burma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke C Mullany

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health indicators are poor and human rights violations are widespread in eastern Burma. Reproductive and maternal health indicators have not been measured in this setting but are necessary as part of an evaluation of a multi-ethnic pilot project exploring strategies to increase access to essential maternal health interventions. The goal of this study is to estimate coverage of maternal health services prior to this project and associations between exposure to human rights violations and access to such services. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Selected communities in the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions of eastern Burma that were accessible to community-based organizations operating from Thailand were surveyed to estimate coverage of reproductive, maternal, and family planning services, and to assess exposure to household-level human rights violations within the pilot-project target population. Two-stage cluster sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15-45 y documented access to essential antenatal care interventions, skilled attendance at birth, postnatal care, and family planning services. Mid-upper arm circumference, hemoglobin by color scale, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia by rapid diagnostic dipstick were measured. Exposure to human rights violations in the prior 12 mo was recorded. Between September 2006 and January 2007, 2,914 surveys were conducted. Eighty-eight percent of women reported a home delivery for their last pregnancy (within previous 5 y. Skilled attendance at birth (5.1%, any (39.3% or > or = 4 (16.7% antenatal visits, use of an insecticide-treated bed net (21.6%, and receipt of iron supplements (11.8% were low. At the time of the survey, more than 60% of women had hemoglobin level estimates < or = 11.0 g/dl and 7.2% were Pf positive. Unmet need for contraceptives exceeded 60%. Violations of rights were widely reported: 32.1% of Karenni households reported forced labor and 10% of Karen

  5. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  6. LINKING HUMAN RESOURCES STRATEGY WITH KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY TO DRIVE MEASURABLE RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia‐Maria\tBORDEIANU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the human resources are seen as a very valuable asset to achieve long-term performance. Today we understand that every employee is required to learn throughout life, so to acquire new knowledge, to process such knowledge and possibly disseminate expertise with other members of the organization. The theory on human resources in various organizations has changed over time; recommendations have become more numerous, but there is no consensus on the subject. In other words, the permanent change which defines the competitive environment of business remains a type of constant when analysing the efficiency of human resources within companies; inter-individual relations (formal and informal and the values to which each employee relates remains crucial for any theoretical construction in this area. Principles and strategies applied by organizations yesterday could prove their inefficiency today; human resource strategies in organizations today should include a separate subcomponent, we believe, i.e. knowledge management (KM strategy. This is because the competitive advantage obtained or maintained by the company depends today, in large proportion, on the type, quality and value of knowledge possessed by the organization. Therefore, organizational strategy and thus the strategy of acquisition, developing and rewarding of human resources (HR should take into account this reality from the global environment. Moreover, in the current knowledge-driven economy, organizations must know how to develop and implement knowledge-based strategies to drive measurable business results. The goal of this paper is to describe a potential relation between the overall company strategy, HR strategy and KM strategy.

  7. Academic and Professional Communities of Discourse: Generating Knowledge on Transnational Human Resource Management

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy J Adler; Susan Bartholomew

    1992-01-01

    Increasing global competition is changing the nature of knowledge needed for international human resource management. This article assesses the publishing trends in international organizational behaviour and human resource management (OB/HRM) and interprets their implications for conducting transnational business. A review of over 28,000 articles in seventy-three academic and professional journals identified three important trends in international OB/HRM: first, the focus has shifted from sin...

  8. Knowledge management: Exploring the relationship between human capital and organisation structure capital

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Halak, A; Al-Karaghouli, W; Ghoneim, A; Koufopoulos, D

    2010-01-01

    Human capital and its impact on the organisation structure capital are of paramount importance in the modern business organisations. This research in progress, which investigates and analyses the role that human capital plays in the determination of the organisation structure capital. The study is based on wide spectrum of current literature, which presents theoretical and practical research on the subject of study. Knowledge Management (KM) is systematic process based on models and technolog...

  9. Knowledge, attitudes, and opinions about human-wildlife conflicts held by community leaders in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Elsner, Regina Marie

    2008-01-01

    Using a mail survey, I questioned 490 representatives of local government (i.e., elected officials, administrative officials, animal control officers, and county Cooperative Extension agents) about their understanding of human-wildlife conflicts in their communities, and their receptivity to participating in co-management partnerships with regulatory agencies. Response rates for the mail survey of these four populations ranged from 25.2% to 75.9%. Knowledge of and perceptions about human-wi...

  10. HPVdb: a data mining system for knowledge discovery in human papillomavirus with applications in T cell immunology and vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Riemer, Angelika B; Keskin, Derin B; Chitkushev, Lou; Reinherz, Ellis L; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causes of many cancers, including cervical, anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal. To facilitate diagnosis, prognosis and characterization of these cancers, it is necessary to make full use of the immunological data on HPV available through publications, technical reports and databases. These data vary in granularity, quality and complexity. The extraction of knowledge from the vast amount of immunological data using data mining techniques remains a challenging task. To support integration of data and knowledge in virology and vaccinology, we developed a framework called KB-builder to streamline the development and deployment of web-accessible immunological knowledge systems. The framework consists of seven major functional modules, each facilitating a specific aspect of the knowledgebase construction process. Using KB-builder, we constructed the Human Papillomavirus T cell Antigen Database (HPVdb). It contains 2781 curated antigen entries of antigenic proteins derived from 18 genotypes of high-risk HPV and 18 genotypes of low-risk HPV. The HPVdb also catalogs 191 verified T cell epitopes and 45 verified human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligands. Primary amino acid sequences of HPV antigens were collected and annotated from the UniProtKB. T cell epitopes and HLA ligands were collected from data mining of scientific literature and databases. The data were subject to extensive quality control (redundancy elimination, error detection and vocabulary consolidation). A set of computational tools for an in-depth analysis, such as sequence comparison using BLAST search, multiple alignments of antigens, classification of HPV types based on cancer risk, T cell epitope/HLA ligand visualization, T cell epitope/HLA ligand conservation analysis and sequence variability analysis, has been integrated within the HPVdb. Predicted Class I and Class II HLA binding peptides for 15 common HLA alleles are included in this database as

  11. ICIS 2008 panel report: open access publishing to nurture the sprouts of knowledge and the future of information systems research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Avital; B-C. Björk; R.J. Boland; K. Crowston; K. Lyytinen; A. Majchrzak

    2009-01-01

    The advent of the Internet and the subsequent adoption of Open Access schemata are changing the nature of the scholarly discourse. In response, we seek to stimulate a debate about the role and desired forms of Open Access publishing in the context of the Information System (IS) discipline. We explor

  12. Beliefs and Knowledge about the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine among Undergraduate Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Theresa; Weinstein, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess male undergraduate students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge and intentions to receive the HPV vaccination. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Method: A sample of 116 male undergraduate students from a university in the Midwestern USA completed a survey questionnaire assessing various aspects…

  13. Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviors: Examining Human Papillomavirus-Related Gender Differences among African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Shalanda A.; Brandt, Heather M.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Annang, Lucy; Tanner, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Given recent approval for administration of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to men, it is important to assess the HPV-related perspectives of men and women. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in HPV knowledge, beliefs, and vaccine acceptance among college students attending 3 historically black…

  14. Human papillomavirus and anorectal carcinoma knowledge in men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Christopher W; Eden, Candace

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a precursor to the development of anorectal carcinoma. Studies have indicated that men who have sex with men (MSM) have significantly higher rates of HPV and HIV than their heterosexual counterparts and are at greater risk for anorectal carcinoma. This article presents findings from a descriptive study to assess knowledge of HPV, anorectal carcinoma, and anorectal screening in a sample of MSM in Orlando, FL. The 89 participants demonstrated knowledge deficits. The average score on knowledge items was only 38% correct. Of the 49 participants who had heard of anal Papanicolau (Pap) smears, only 5 (10.2%) discussed screening with a physician, while 8 (16.3%) had discussed it with a nurse, and 16 (32.7%) with another health care professional. Findings support the need for community outreach efforts to promote knowledge and the need for discussion with providers regarding HPV and anorectal carcinoma in this vulnerable population.

  15. OAPEN-UK: an Open Access Business Model for Scholarly Monographs in the Humanities and Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Milloy, Caren; Stone, Graham; Collins, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the current findings of OAPEN-UK, a UK research project gathering evidence on the social and technological impacts of an open access business model for scholarly monographs in the humanities and social sciences.

  16. A Semantic-Oriented Architecture of a Functional Module for Personalized and Adaptive Access to the Knowledge in a Multimedia Digital Library

    OpenAIRE

    Paneva-Marinova, Desislava

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the principal results of the doctoral thesis “Semantic-oriented Architecture and Models for Personalized and Adaptive Access to the Knowledge in Multimedia Digital Library” by Desislava Ivanova Paneva-Marinova (Institute of Mathematics and Informatics), successfully defended before the Specialised Academic Council for Informatics and Mathematical Modelling on 27 October, 2008. This paper presents dissertation work on semantic-oriented architectures and...

  17. The Role of Human Resource Management Practice Mediated by Knowledge Management (Study on companies from ICT sector, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Klacmer Calopa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates theories and findings of the role of human resources management (HRM in the process of knowledge management (KM in the information and communication technologies (ICT sector in Croatia.In order to succeed, companies must prevent the loss of knowledge. Therefore, they must recognize the importance of human resources as the main factor of business. Only knowledge management enables knowledge sharing.Furthermore, applications of information technology (IT in the field of HRM can prevent the loss of knowledge and arise the transfer of knowledge among employees.For the purpose of this paper, a survey regarding human resource and knowledge management in IT companies is conducted in order to analyze the structure of HR and the importance of knowledge sharing in an organization.

  18. Effects of different accessibility of reinforcement schedules on choice in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Stockhorst, Ursula

    1994-01-01

    Based on the delay-reduction hypothesis, a less profitable schedule should be rejected if its duration exceeds the mean delay to reinforcement. It should be accepted if its duration is shorter than the mean delay. This was tested for humans, using a successive-choice schedule. The accessibility of the less profitable (variable-interval 18 s) schedule was varied by changing the duration (in terms of a fixed interval) of the waiting-time component preceding its presentation. Forty-eight student...

  19. Design and analysis of a biometric access control system using an electronic olfactory device to identify human odour characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The use of an electronic olfactory device, termed an electronic 'nose', was investigated for the detection of unique human odour characteristics. The detection of these unique odours was applied to the field of biometrics for access control, where a human's unique characteristics were used to authenticate a user of an access control system. An electronic odour sensing device was designed and constructed using an array of conducting polymer gas sensors in order to facilitate the regular screen...

  20. Health, healthcare access, and use of traditional versus modern medicine in remote Peruvian Amazon communities: a descriptive study of knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom

    2015-04-01

    There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manatí and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this setting, poverty and gender inequality were prevalent, and healthcare access was limited by long distances to the health post and long waiting times. There was a high burden of reported pain (mainly head and musculoskeletal) and chronic non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension (19%). Nearly all participants felt that they did not completely understand their diagnosed illnesses and wanted to know more. Participants preferred modern over traditional medicine, predominantly because of mistrust or lack of belief in traditional medicine. Our findings provide novel evidence concerning transitional health beliefs, hidden pain, and chronic non-communicable disease prevalence in marginalized communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Healthcare provision was limited by a breach between health education, knowledge, and access. Additional participatory research with similar rural populations is required to inform regional healthcare policy and decision-making.

  1. HTRIdb: an open-access database for experimentally verified human transcriptional regulation interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovolenta Luiz A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The modeling of interactions among transcription factors (TFs and their respective target genes (TGs into transcriptional regulatory networks is important for the complete understanding of regulation of biological processes. In the case of experimentally verified human TF-TG interactions, there is no database at present that explicitly provides such information even though many databases containing human TF-TG interaction data have been available. In an effort to provide researchers with a repository of experimentally verified human TF-TG interactions from which such interactions can be directly extracted, we present here the Human Transcriptional Regulation Interactions database (HTRIdb. Description The HTRIdb is an open-access database that can be searched via a user-friendly web interface and the retrieved TF-TG interactions data and the associated protein-protein interactions can be downloaded or interactively visualized as a network through the web version of the popular Cytoscape visualization tool, the Cytoscape Web. Moreover, users can improve the database quality by uploading their own interactions and indicating inconsistencies in the data. So far, HTRIdb has been populated with 284 TFs that regulate 18302 genes, totaling 51871 TF-TG interactions. HTRIdb is freely available at http://www.lbbc.ibb.unesp.br/htri. Conclusions HTRIdb is a powerful user-friendly tool from which human experimentally validated TF-TG interactions can be easily extracted and used to construct transcriptional regulation interaction networks enabling researchers to decipher the regulation of biological processes.

  2. Digital Conservation and Access: Saving Humanity's History in the Petabyte Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ashley

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We are at a unique point in history, the cusp of a Digital Dark Age, where cultural heritage professionals must work to care for the physical past while assuring that there will be a digital Rosetta Stone for future generations. This contribution describes the state-of-the-field in digital preservation and access, and is a call to action for individuals and institutions alike to work beyond our comfort zones and competitive boundaries in order to help define a sustainable digital future. Defined as an “hourglass of participation”, I describe a method where knowledge producers, curators and consumers interact and actively work to make content born-archival and long-term viable, semantically managed and ready for reuse and public dissemination

  3. Accessing word meaning: Semantic word knowledge and reading comprehension in Dutch monolingual and bilingual fifth-graders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Cremer

    2013-01-01

    Word knowledge is one of the key elements in reading comprehension and by extension in school success. At the same time, it is not quite clear which components of lexical knowledge play a role in reading. Is it enough to recognize the words we read? Do we need an in-depth understanding of their mean

  4. A Human Rights Approach for Access to Clean Drinking Water: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaaneh; McKay; Sims

    1995-01-01

    In northern and central Israel are some 70 villages that are not recognized by the state of Israel. At least half of these villages are not connected to the national drinking water networks and lack sufficient quality and quantity of water. Outbreaks of diseases associated with contaminated water supply have occurred, as well as substantial environmental distress. An outbreak of hepatitis A led to the cooperation of a public health physician, a nurse, an environmental engineer, and a human rights lawyer in successfully taking a case to the International Water Tribunal to get access to safe drinking water for these communities. This case study provides a model for cooperation between proponents and practitioners of health and human rights.

  5. Review of Cold war social science: Knowledge production, liberal democracy, and human nature, and Working knowledge: Making the human sciences from Parsons to Kuhn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature by Mark Solovey and Hamilton Cravens (2012) and Working Knowledge: Making the Human Sciences From Parsons to Kuhn by Joel Isaac (see record 2012-13212-000). Taken together, these two important books make intriguing statements about the way to write the histories of fields like psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics in the Anglo American world during the 20th century. To date, histories of these fields have drawn on a number of fairly well-established punctuation marks to assist in periodization: the shift from interwar institutionalism in economics to postwar neoclassicism, with its physics-like emphasis on mathematical theory-building; the transition from the regnant prewar behaviorism through a postwar "cognitive revolution" in American psychology; and the move in fields like sociology and anthropology away from positivism and the pursuit of what has sometimes been called "grand theory" in the early postwar era toward a period defined by intellectual and political fragmentation, the reemergence of interpretive approaches and a reaction to the scientistic pretensions of the earlier period. These books, by contrast, provide perspectives orthogonal to such existing narrative frameworks by adopting cross-cutting lenses like the "Cold War" and the working practices of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. As a result, they do much to indicate the value of casting a historiographical net beyond individual disciplines, or even beyond the "social sciences" or the "human sciences" sensu stricto, in the search for deeper patterns of historical development in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Review of Cold war social science: Knowledge production, liberal democracy, and human nature, and Working knowledge: Making the human sciences from Parsons to Kuhn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature by Mark Solovey and Hamilton Cravens (2012) and Working Knowledge: Making the Human Sciences From Parsons to Kuhn by Joel Isaac (see record 2012-13212-000). Taken together, these two important books make intriguing statements about the way to write the histories of fields like psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics in the Anglo American world during the 20th century. To date, histories of these fields have drawn on a number of fairly well-established punctuation marks to assist in periodization: the shift from interwar institutionalism in economics to postwar neoclassicism, with its physics-like emphasis on mathematical theory-building; the transition from the regnant prewar behaviorism through a postwar "cognitive revolution" in American psychology; and the move in fields like sociology and anthropology away from positivism and the pursuit of what has sometimes been called "grand theory" in the early postwar era toward a period defined by intellectual and political fragmentation, the reemergence of interpretive approaches and a reaction to the scientistic pretensions of the earlier period. These books, by contrast, provide perspectives orthogonal to such existing narrative frameworks by adopting cross-cutting lenses like the "Cold War" and the working practices of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. As a result, they do much to indicate the value of casting a historiographical net beyond individual disciplines, or even beyond the "social sciences" or the "human sciences" sensu stricto, in the search for deeper patterns of historical development in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24245858

  7. LncRNAWiki: harnessing community knowledge in collaborative curation of human long non-coding RNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, L.

    2014-11-15

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) perform a diversity of functions in numerous important biological processes and are implicated in many human diseases. In this report we present lncRNAWiki (http://lncrna.big.ac.cn), a wiki-based platform that is open-content and publicly editable and aimed at community-based curation and collection of information on human lncRNAs. Current related databases are dependent primarily on curation by experts, making it laborious to annotate the exponentially accumulated information on lncRNAs, which inevitably requires collective efforts in community-based curation of lncRNAs. Unlike existing databases, lncRNAWiki features comprehensive integration of information on human lncRNAs obtained from multiple different resources and allows not only existing lncRNAs to be edited, updated and curated by different users but also the addition of newly identified lncRNAs by any user. It harnesses community collective knowledge in collecting, editing and annotating human lncRNAs and rewards community-curated efforts by providing explicit authorship based on quantified contributions. LncRNAWiki relies on the underling knowledge of scientific community for collective and collaborative curation of human lncRNAs and thus has the potential to serve as an up-to-date and comprehensive knowledgebase for human lncRNAs.

  8. Survey of knowledge and perception on the access to evidence-based practice and clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowther Caroline A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based practice (EBP can provide appropriate care for women and their babies; however implementation of EBP requires health professionals to have access to knowledge, the ability to interpret health care information and then strategies to apply care. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge of evidence-based practice, information seeking practices, perceptions and potential enablers and barriers to clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia. Methods Questionnaires about IT access for health information and evidence-based practice were administered during August to December 2005 to health care professionals working at the nine hospitals participating in the South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing countries (SEA-ORCHID project in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and The Philippines. Results The survey was completed by 660 staff from six health professional groups. Overall, easy IT access for health care information was available to 46% of participants. However, over a fifth reported no IT access was available and over half of nurses and midwives never used IT health information. Evidence-based practice had been heard of by 58% but the majority did not understand the concept. The most frequent sites accessed were Google and PubMed. The Cochrane Library had been heard of by 47% of whom 51% had access although the majority did not use it or used it less than monthly. Only 27% had heard of the WHO Reproductive Health Library and 35% had been involved in a clinical practice change and were able to identify enablers and barriers to change. Only a third of participants had been actively involved in practice change with wide variation between the countries. Willingness to participate in professional development workshops on evidence-based practice was high. Conclusion This survey has identified the need to improve IT access to health care

  9. Knowledge about knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

  10. ”THE ACCESSION OF EU TO THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS” - TECHNICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA-MARIUCA PETRESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available “The continues changing of the European Communities [presently European Union, as resulted from the amendments brought in the last 16 years, and especially via the Treaty of Lisbon] has determinate the changing of the judicial system. The accession of the EU to the Convention will complete the EU system of protecting fundamental rights. The Declaration of Berlin on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the signature of the Treaties of Rome, as it was signed on 25th of March 2007 by all 27 members of European Union, is providing among others the principles and values based on respect of fundamental rights, common traditions of the member states, as well as promoting the variety of languages, cultures and regions within the EU. European Union stresses out again its intention to protect the freedoms of citizens and their civil rights by all possible means, including in front of the courts. The reassessment, via the Treaty of Lisbon, of the role of European Charter of Fundamental Rights and the accession to European Convention of Human Rights highlight the importance that each of them have separately, but as a whole in a complex legal system of the protection of human rights”.

  11. Access to Archived Astronaut Data for Human Research Program Researchers: Update on Progress and Process Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L. R.; Montague, K. A.; Charvat, J. M.; Wear, M. L.; Thomas, D. M.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 2010 NASA directive to make the Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) data archives more accessible by the research and operational communities, demand for astronaut medical data has increased greatly. LSAH and LSDA personnel are working with Human Research Program on many fronts to improve data access and decrease lead time for release of data. Some examples include the following: Feasibility reviews for NASA Research Announcement (NRA) data mining proposals; Improved communication, support for researchers, and process improvements for retrospective Institutional Review Board (IRB) protocols; Supplemental data sharing for flight investigators versus purely retrospective studies; Work with the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) to develop acceptable data sharing and crew consent processes and to organize inter-agency data coordinators to facilitate requests for international crewmember data. Current metrics on data requests crew consenting will be presented, along with limitations on contacting crew to obtain consent. Categories of medical monitoring data available for request will be presented as well as flow diagrams detailing data request processing and approval steps.

  12. Within but without: human rights and access to HIV prevention and treatment for internal migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amon Joseph J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Worldwide, far more people migrate within than across borders, and although internal migrants do not risk a loss of citizenship, they frequently confront significant social, financial and health consequences, as well as a loss of rights. The recent global financial crisis has exacerbated the vulnerability internal migrants face in realizing their rights to health care generally and to antiretroviral therapy in particular. For example, in countries such as China and Russia, internal migrants who lack official residence status are often ineligible to receive public health services and may be increasingly unable to afford private care. In India, internal migrants face substantial logistical, cultural and linguistic barriers to HIV prevention and care, and have difficulty accessing treatment when returning to poorly served rural areas. Resulting interruptions in HIV services may lead to a wide range of negative consequences, including: individual vulnerability to infection and risk of death; an undermining of state efforts to curb the HIV epidemic and provide universal access to treatment; and the emergence of drug-resistant disease strains. International human rights law guarantees individuals lawfully within a territory the right to free movement within the borders of that state. This guarantee, combined with the right to the highest attainable standard of health set out in international human rights treaties, and the fundamental principle of non-discrimination, creates a duty on states to provide a core minimum of health care services to internal migrants on a non-discriminatory basis. Targeted HIV prevention programs and the elimination of restrictive residence-based eligibility criteria for access to health services are necessary to ensure that internal migrants are able to realize their equal rights to HIV prevention and treatment.

  13. Determination of knowledge of Turkish midwifery students about human papilloma virus infection and its vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Rabia Ekti; Sarican, Emine Serap; Turgay, Ayse San; Icke, Sibel; Sari, Dilek; Saydam, Birsen Karaca

    2013-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted agents and its infection is the most established cause of cervical cancer. Midwives play a key position in the implementation of cervical cancer. This descriptive study aimed to determine the level of knowledge concerning HPV and HPV vaccination among 268 midwifery students. Data were collected between November 15 and 30, 2011, through a self-reported questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 20.75 ± 1.60. Among all students, 44.4% had heard of HPV, while 40.4% had heard of HPV vaccinatiob. The relationship between the midwifery student knowledge on HPV and HPV vaccine and their current educational year was significant (p=0.001). In conclusion midwifery students have moderate level of knowledge about HPV and its vaccine and relevant information should be included in their teaching curriculum. PMID:24377604

  14. HUMAN RESOURCES STRATEGIC PRACTICES, INNOVATION PERFORMANCE & KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: PROPOSAL FOR BRAZILIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Gomes Rosa Maruyama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Technology andinnovation development presented new challenges for the twenty-first centurymanager. Besides, aspects of organizational culture and knowledge managementare equally important for corporate success. All the above areas have a growingnumber of studies that seek to deepen the reflections providing a greaterunderstanding of their environmental relationship. Brazilian human resourcemanagement has shown years of late progress, especially due to the prevailingmacroeconomic conditions, with no transformation evidences This current studywith a theoretical-descriptive qualitative approach through literatureanalysis, study the integration model proposed by Chen and Huang (2009. Themediating role of knowledge management to strategic human resource practicesand innovation performance presented by these authors are compared withnational and international literature. The integration conceptual modelproposed to apply in the Brazilian context, consider the three pillarspresented by the Eastern authors, enhanced by cross-checks prospects with axes,approaches or intellectual capital directories, representing the Westernauthors’ contributions. Henceforth, we aim to provide a suitable proposal forthis model in the Brazilian organizational context.

  15. IMPORTANCE OF THE HUMAN FACTOR IN THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela BRETCU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches the paradigmatic changes of the current economic situation, in the context of post-modernism and its challenges, which reconsiders human society according to new criteria. One of the characteristics of post-modernism is the development of information and communication techniques, which allowed the occurrence of the „knowledge-based society” whose consequence is the effervescence of fast barrier-free knowledge, absolute freedom of debates, equality of opportunities before the virtual space, but also the relativisation of information, the increases of the danger of manipulation, misleading, or even falsification of the truth. New challenges occur thus in social life, and especially in the economic one, where the human factor becomes increasingly important for the evolution of society. In this context, education seems to play the decisive part, but an education focused on real values, where the truth and the ethics prevail before efficiency and performance.  

  16. Evaluating Effect of Knowledge Management Strategy on Human Resource Management Performance Using BSC Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mansoori

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research provided a model for evaluating the effect of knowledge management strategy on human resource management performance in higher education institutes and academic libraries. This research was a descriptive survey. According to the research literature and expert opinions, in human resource level, 38 indicators were produced for evaluating KM, then these indicators were classified in 10 total factors in terms of balanced scorecard approach. The results of evaluating knowledge management in Yazd academic libraries showed that, this strategy on customer perspectives, internal processes, learning and growth perspective had a good performance. But in terms of financial and Labor productivity indicators and training programs it did not have a good outcome for Yazd academic libraries.

  17. Designing a knowledge management system for distributed activities: a human centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkus, Susan; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A; Zhang, Jiajie

    2003-01-01

    In this study we use the principles of distributed cognition and the methodology of human-centered distributed information design to analyze a complex distributed human-computer system, identify its problems, and generate design requirements and implementation specifications of a replacement prototype for effective organizational memory and knowledge management. We argue that a distributed human-computer information system has unique properties, structures and processes that are best described in the language of distributed cognition. Distributed cognition provides researchers a richer theoretical understanding of human-computer interactions and enables re-searchers to capture the phenomenon that emerges in social interactions as well as the interactions between people and structures in their environment.

  18. Preparing for Humans at Mars, MPPG Updates to Strategic Knowledge Gaps and Collaboration with Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Wargo, Michael J.; Beaty, David

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Program Planning Group (MPPG) was an agency wide effort, chartered in March 2012 by the NASA Associate Administrator for Science, in collaboration with NASA's Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations, the Chief Scientist, and the Chief Technologist. NASA tasked the MPPG to develop foundations for a program-level architecture for robotic exploration of Mars that is consistent with the President's challenge of sending humans to the Mars system in the decade of the 2030s and responsive to the primary scientific goals of the 2011 NRC Decadal Survey for Planetary Science. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) also sponsored a Precursor measurement Strategy Analysis Group (P-SAG) to revisit prior assessments of required precursor measurements for the human exploration of Mars. This paper will discuss the key results of the MPPG and P-SAG efforts to update and refine our understanding of the Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) required to successfully conduct human Mars missions.

  19. Knowledge about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV and HPV Vaccine at Reproductive Age in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozde Onder

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge and awareness about human papilloma virus (HPV and human papilloma virus (HPV vaccine of women in reproductive age. Material and Methods: The study covered 294 women aged between 15 and 49. A questionnaire was prepared by the researchers based on the literature review. Results: The mean age of the participants was 30.5+/-8.9 years. Only 24.5% had heard about HPV infection and 28.2% had heard HPV vaccine. Of the participants, 188 (63.9% got zero point from the knowledge questions. Conclusion: This study indicates that the women who apply primary care units have low knowledge levels; it is apperent that personal and social education is needed. Paying importance to patient education on HPV and cervical cancer in primary care health politics will increase knowledge and awareness for HPV infection and HPV vaccination. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 517-524

  20. The arhitecture of the human resources in management based on knowledge and the impact on reduncing unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Venera Todoruţ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this working paper I proposed to address/aproach issues of relationship and interdependence of human resources and management based on knowledges. I presented during the paper the new type of human resource management and new challenges which are noted in the current economic conjuncture and their influences on human resource management. We have also shown which is the new type of organizational culture and its impact on management based on knowledge. I focused also on the modalities how influence the management of human resources the management based on knowledge materialized in: the organization employee involvement, strong motivation and retention of employees in the firm based on knowledge, connection of management based on knowledges and the human resource management on the firm strategy, development of employees capacity and the intellectual capital, the creation and maintenance of learning practices widely used in business.

  1. United States Human Access to Space, Exploration of the Moon and Preparation for Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    In the past, men like Leonardo da Vinci and Jules Verne imagined the future and envisioned fantastic inventions such as winged flying machines, submarines, and parachutes, and posited human adventures like transoceanic flight and journeys to the Moon. Today, many of their ideas are reality and form the basis for our modern world. While individual visionaries like da Vinci and Verne are remembered for the accuracy of their predictions, today entire nations are involved in the process of envisioning and defining the future development of mankind, both on and beyond the Earth itself. Recently, Russian, European, and Chinese teams have all announced plans for developing their own next generation human space vehicles. The Chinese have announced their intention to conduct human lunar exploration, and have flown three crewed space missions since 2003, including a flight with three crew members to test their extravehicular (spacewalking) capabilities in September 2008. Very soon, the prestige, economic development, scientific discovery, and strategic security advantage historically associated with leadership in space exploration and exploitation may no longer be the undisputed province of the United States. Much like the sponsors of the seafaring explorers of da Vinci's age, we are motivated by the opportunity to obtain new knowledge and new resources for the growth and development of our own civilization. NASA's new Constellation Program, established in 2005, is tasked with maintaining the United States leadership in space, exploring the Moon, creating a sustained human lunar presence, and eventually extending human operations to Mars and beyond. Through 2008, the Constellation Program developed a full set of detailed program requirements and is now completing the preliminary design phase for the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, and the associated infrastructure necessary for humans to explore the Moon. Component testing is well

  2. An Approach to "Knowledge,Thinking,Humanities" Reading Teaching%“知识·思维·人文”教学法初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪文新

    2012-01-01

    知识和思维能力体现的是工具特征,而人文素养体现的是对"人"的关怀。教学不仅要关注知识获得和思维训练,还应关注学生发展与人沟通和合作的能力,树立正确的人生观、世界观和价值观,增强社会责任感等人文素养。以提高人文素养为目标,以知识的输入和输出为基础,以思维能力的训练为核心的阅读教学就是"知识.思维.人文"教学法。%Knowledge and thinking skills are embodied as the teaching tool.Humanities are embodied in the form of "Human" care.Teaching should not only concern the access to knowledge and mental training,but also is concerned about the ability of students to develop communication and cooperation;establish a correct outlook on life,world outlook and values;enhance the sense of social responsibility and other humanities.Aim to enhancing the humanities,base on the input and output of knowledge and thinking skills training is used for the core teaching of reading.

  3. Multicenter Study of Human Papillomavirus and the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Knowledge and Attitudes among People of African Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Blackman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare knowledge and attitudes of human papillomavirus (HPV and the vaccine between different cultures of African descent. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 555 African-Americans and Afro-Caribbeans residing in the US and the Bahamas (BHM was conducted. Results. General knowledge about HPV and the HPV vaccine differed between the two countries significantly. Bahamian respondents were less likely to have higher numbers of correct knowledge answers when compared to Americans (Adjusted Odds Ratio [Adj. OR] 0.47, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.30–0.75. Older age, regardless of location, was also associated with answering fewer questions correctly (Adj. OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40–0.92. Attitudes related to HPV vaccination were similar between the US and BHM, but nearly 80% of BHM respondents felt that children should not be able to receive the vaccine without parental consent compared to 57% of American respondents. Conclusions. Grave lack of knowledge, safety and cost concerns, and influence of parental restrictions may negatively impact vaccine uptake among African-American and Afro-Caribbean persons. Interventions to increase the vaccine uptake in the Caribbean must include medical provider and parental involvement. Effective strategies for education and increasing vaccine uptake in BHM are crucial for decreasing cervical cancer burden in the Caribbean.

  4. The arhitecture of the human resources in management based on knowledge and the impact on reduncing unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Amalia Venera Todoruţ; George Niculescu; Irina Chirtoc

    2011-01-01

    In this working paper I proposed to address/aproach issues of relationship and interdependence of human resources and management based on knowledges. I presented during the paper the new type of human resource management and new challenges which are noted in the current economic conjuncture and their influences on human resource management. We have also shown which is the new type of organizational culture and its impact on management based on knowledge. I focused a...

  5. Near-instant automatic access to visually presented words in the human neocortex: neuromagnetic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyrov, Yury; MacGregor, Lucy J

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient processing of external information by the brain is vital to survival in a highly dynamic environment. The key channel humans use to exchange information is language, but the neural underpinnings of its processing are still not fully understood. We investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of neural access to word representations in the brain by scrutinising the brain's activity elicited in response to psycholinguistically, visually and phonologically matched groups of familiar words and meaningless pseudowords. Stimuli were briefly presented on the visual-field periphery to experimental participants whose attention was occupied with a non-linguistic visual feature-detection task. The neural activation elicited by these unattended orthographic stimuli was recorded using multi-channel whole-head magnetoencephalography, and the timecourse of lexically-specific neuromagnetic responses was assessed in sensor space as well as at the level of cortical sources, estimated using individual MR-based distributed source reconstruction. Our results demonstrate a neocortical signature of automatic near-instant access to word representations in the brain: activity in the perisylvian language network characterised by specific activation enhancement for familiar words, starting as early as ~70 ms after the onset of unattended word stimuli and underpinned by temporal and inferior-frontal cortices. PMID:27217080

  6. Aviation or space policy: New challenges for the insurance sector to private human access to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oijhuizen Galhego Rosa, Ana Cristina

    2013-12-01

    The phenomenon of private human access to space has introduced a new set of problems in the insurance sector. Orbital and suborbital space transportation will surely be unique commercial services for this new market. Discussions are under way regarding space insurance, in order to establish whether this new market ought to be regulated by aviation or space law. Alongside new definitions, infrastructures, legal frameworks and liability insurances, the insurance sector has also been introducing a new approach. In this paper, I aim to analyse some of the possibilities of new premiums, capacities, and policies (under aviation or space insurance rules), as well as the new insurance products related to vehicles, passengers and third party liability. This paper claims that a change toward new insurance regimes is crucial, due to the current stage in development of space tourism and the urgency to adapt insurance rules to support future development in this area.

  7. Factors Influencing Access to Integrated Soil Fertility Management Information and Knowledge and Its Uptake among Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwandu, T.; Mtambanengwe, F.; Mapfumo, P.; Mashavave, T. C.; Chikowo, R.; Nezomba, H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study evaluated how farmer acquisition, sharing and use patterns of information and knowledge interact with different socioeconomic factors to influence integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted as part of an evaluation of field-based farmer learning approaches…

  8. Mind the Gap: Privileging Epistemic Access to Knowledge in the Transition from Leaving Certificate Music to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gwen

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, music at Leaving Certificate level has come under increasing focus in media and higher education discourse as an easy option. In particular, scant attention has been paid to the musical knowledge and skills needed in the transition to higher music education within the Irish context. This paper addresses the perceived gap in…

  9. Innovative Knowledge Management At Disney: Human Capital And Queuing Solutions For Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle F. Cope

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that most activities in which a service is provided require customers to wait in a queue during the experience. One thing that is inherent in waiting lines is the universal dislike for the process. In fact, the feelings and opinions developed in waiting lines influence the customer’s perception of the awaited experience. In this paper, Disney is used as a case study for queuing solutions. In particular, we examine their implementation of Knowledge Management (KM solutions to improve the waiting line process. The use of Disney cast members as human capital combined with the knowledge of customer preferences has made the FASTPASS an innovative solution to enhance queuing in the Disney theme parks. In the past, KM has been thought of as the collection of technological assets and managerial policies that compensate for information failures. In fact, the individual’s need for human interaction provides the richest opportunity for knowledge acquisition. Disney’s ability to capture customers in virtual queues while giving them a pleasurable waiting experience has made them a leader in KM initiatives in the service industry.

  10. Extraction of the human cerebral ventricular system from MRI: inclusion of anatomical knowledge and clinical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Aamer; Hu, Qingmao; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.

    2004-04-01

    The human cerebral ventricular system is a complex structure that is essential for the well being and changes in which reflect disease. It is clinically imperative that the ventricular system be studied in details. For this reason computer assisted algorithms are essential to be developed. We have developed a novel (patent pending) and robust anatomical knowledge-driven algorithm for automatic extraction of the cerebral ventricular system from MRI. The algorithm is not only unique in its image processing aspect but also incorporates knowledge of neuroanatomy, radiological properties, and variability of the ventricular system. The ventricular system is divided into six 3D regions based on the anatomy and its variability. Within each ventricular region a 2D region of interest (ROI) is defined and is then further subdivided into sub-regions. Various strict conditions that detect and prevent leakage into the extra-ventricular space are specified for each sub-region based on anatomical knowledge. Each ROI is processed to calculate its local statistics, local intensity ranges of cerebrospinal fluid and grey and white matters, set a seed point within the ROI, grow region directionally in 3D, check anti-leakage conditions and correct growing if leakage occurs and connects all unconnected regions grown by relaxing growing conditions. The algorithm was tested qualitatively and quantitatively on normal and pathological MRI cases and worked well. In this paper we discuss in more detail inclusion of anatomical knowledge in the algorithm and usefulness of our approach from clinical perspective.

  11. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dubey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. Results: The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS even in the educated groups. Discussion: There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.

  12. How Bioethics is Complementing Human Rights in Realizing Health Access for Clinical Trial Participants: The Case of Formative PrEP Access in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jerome

    2015-06-11

    Following the demise of apartheid, human rights in South Africa are now constitutionally enshrined.The right to health in South Africa's Constitution has been credited with transforming the lives of millions of people by triggering programmatic reforms in HIV treatment and the prevention of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV.However, a constitutionally enshrined right to health offers no guarantee that clinical trial participants will enjoy post-trial access to beneficial interventions. Using access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in South Africa as an example, this paper argues that adherence to bioethics norms could realize the right to health for trial participants following the end of a clinical trial.

  13. Assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogy on entrepreneurship knowledge and entrepreneurial human capital asset: A conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidimma Odira Okeke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an effort to propose a conceptual model to measure the impact assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogic. It delineates entrepreneurship education pedagogic into four dimensions and opined specific level for each dimension. Reviewing the entrepreneurship education programme, assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogic evaluates the structure that influence growth mindset development through embedded heuristic strategies, thus, the impact on entrepreneurship knowledge and entrepreneurial capital asset context is proposed. Affirming Fayolle, Gailly, and Lassa-Clerc conceptual affinity that entrepreneurship education share with learning theories and entrepreneurship pedagogical content knowledge were conceptualized to suggest some practical realism guidelines of what insightful philosophy of teaching entrepreneurship need to achieve. With direct synthesis of relevant literature, propositions relating to entrepreneurship pedagogic structure along with the institutional connectedness and associated dimensions of entrepreneurship pedagogic assessment outcome were postulated. Also, the paper proposes the need for further assessment of specific forms of pedagogic impact on entrepreneurial human capital asset.

  14. Access to abortion services: the impact of the European convention on human rights in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brenda

    2011-06-01

    Abortion is unlawful in Ireland except where it is necessary to save the life of the mother. The right to life of the unborn child is safeguarded under Article 40.3.3 degrees of Bunreacht na hEireann (the Irish Constitution). In 2003 the European Convention on Human Rights was incorporated into Irish domestic legislation, subject to the provisions of the Irish Constitution. The aim of this paper is to consider the potential impact of the ECHR on access to abortion services within the State. This paper commences with discussion of the statutory prohibition on abortion and the Constitutional provisions concerning the protection afforded to the unborn child. It will then be necessary to examine the implications for Ireland of recent European Court of Human Rights' decisions, in particular the recent judgment in A, B & C v Ireland, regarding the right to legal abortions given the unique nature of the legal status of the ECHR and its relationship with the Irish Constitution.

  15. Towards a Digital Philology. Creation, Spread and Apprehension of Knowledge through Digital Scholarly Platforms in Humanities

    OpenAIRE

    Mayeur, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    This contribution aims to present and discuss my thesis project. I plan to study the concrete conditions of production, diffusion and reception of knowledges on digital scholarly platforms in Humanities. This work will especially focus on the four plateforms of the portal OpenEdition: OpenEdition Books, Calenda, Hypothèses and Revues.org. The main problematic is: what are the uses of those platforms, and in what concrete way are they influencing the modes of scientific communication? To s...

  16. International conference on nuclear knowledge management: Strategies, information management and human resource development. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, a number of trends have drawn attention to the need for better management of nuclear knowledge. Depending on region and country, they include an ageing workforce, declining student enrolment figures, the risk of losing nuclear knowledge accumulated in the past, the need for capacity building and transfer of knowledge and recognition of achieving added value through knowledge sharing and networking. The objective of this conference is to reach a clear and common understanding of issues related to nuclear knowledge management for sustaining knowledge and expertise in nuclear science and technology. The conference will provide a forum for professionals and decision makers in the nuclear sector, comprising industry, governments and academia as well as professionals in the knowledge management and information technology sectors; to exchange information and share experience on nuclear knowledge management, comprising strategies, information management and human resource development; to identify lessons learned and to embark on the development of new initiatives and concepts for nuclear knowledge management in IAEA Member States; for the INIS session, to discuss the present status and future developments of INIS. The conference comprised the following topical sessions: Session 1: Nuclear knowledge management - policies and strategies; Managing nuclear information - policies and strategies; Managing nuclear information - case studies; Human resources for the nuclear sector; Networking nuclear education and training. Special sessions were held on: the International Nuclear Information System (INIS); Young Generation in the Nuclear Sector; and 'Innovation and Nuclear Knowledge'

  17. [The global and national context regarding the challenges involved in ensuring adequate access to water for human consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas; Câmara Neto, Henrique Fernandes; de Melo, Carlos Henrique; Costa, André Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the challenges involved in ensuring access to water for human consumption taking the international and national context into consideration. Based on the UN declaration that access to safe and clean drinking water is a fundamental human right, vulnerabilities are identified that can consist in restrictions to access to adequate supplies. The distribution of water and the population across the planet, pollution, inadequate policies and management lead to environmental injustice. The iniquity of access to water constitutes the contemporary water crisis. From the 1980s onwards, the transnational water market emerged for private control that occurs at three main levels: surface and underground water sources; bottled water; and public water supply services. The conflicts of the multiple uses of water resources, the market and environmental problems have contributed to rendering the health of the population and ecosystems vulnerable. Adequate public policies are essential to ensure the basic human right to access to safe and clean drinking water.

  18. Non-human biota dose assessment. Sensitivity analysis and knowledge quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a summary of a programme of work, commissioned within the BIOPROTA collaborative forum, to assess the quantitative and qualitative elements of uncertainty associated with biota dose assessment of potential impacts of long-term releases from geological disposal facilities (GDF). Quantitative and qualitative aspects of uncertainty were determined through sensitivity and knowledge quality assessments, respectively. Both assessments focused on default assessment parameters within the ERICA assessment approach. The sensitivity analysis was conducted within the EIKOS sensitivity analysis software tool and was run in both generic and test case modes. The knowledge quality assessment involved development of a questionnaire around the ERICA assessment approach, which was distributed to a range of experts in the fields of non-human biota dose assessment and radioactive waste disposal assessments. Combined, these assessments enabled critical model features and parameters that are both sensitive (i.e. have a large influence on model output) and of low knowledge quality to be identified for each of the three test cases. The output of this project is intended to provide information on those parameters that may need to be considered in more detail for prospective site-specific biota dose assessments for GDFs. Such information should help users to enhance the quality of their assessments and build greater confidence in the results. (orig.)

  19. Knowledge about simulation and frequency of use in the teaching of the subject Human Morfophisiopatology I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Vigo Cuza

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of simulation can accelerate the learning process and helps to raise standards. Its use must have a logical sequence in the calendar plan of the subject that corresponds to the needs and requirements of the curriculum and analytical programs of the different subjects. Objective: to characterize the knowledge about the simulation and the frequency with which it is used as a resource for teaching Human Morfophisiopatology I National Training Program in Integrative Medicine Community. Methods: Research in theoretical methods were used, allowing the bibliographic review, documentary, and the analysis and synthesis that supports the study. A questionnaire was administered to 85 teachers related to teaching practice of the subject and an interview with five key informants. We characterized the knowledge of teachers on the simulation. Results: Only 63.3% knew the method of simulation and they used 87, 04%. The frequency of use of simulation in teaching of the subject showed that 51.06% of teachers have always used this resource, while only 36.17% use it most of the time. Conclusion: Not all teachers know the simulation is used in teaching or recognize its value in the teaching - learning of the subject Human Morfophisiopatology I.

  20. Prior Knowledge about Objects Determines Neural Color Representation in Human Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, A R E; Fahrenfort, J J; Meuwese, J D I; Scholte, H S; Lamme, V A F

    2016-04-01

    To create subjective experience, our brain must translate physical stimulus input by incorporating prior knowledge and expectations. For example, we perceive color and not wavelength information, and this in part depends on our past experience with colored objects ( Hansen et al. 2006; Mitterer and de Ruiter 2008). Here, we investigated the influence of object knowledge on the neural substrates underlying subjective color vision. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, human subjects viewed a color that lay midway between red and green (ambiguous with respect to its distance from red and green) presented on either typical red (e.g., tomato), typical green (e.g., clover), or semantically meaningless (nonsense) objects. Using decoding techniques, we could predict whether subjects viewed the ambiguous color on typical red or typical green objects based on the neural response of veridical red and green. This shift of neural response for the ambiguous color did not occur for nonsense objects. The modulation of neural responses was observed in visual areas (V3, V4, VO1, lateral occipital complex) involved in color and object processing, as well as frontal areas. This demonstrates that object memory influences wavelength information relatively early in the human visual system to produce subjective color vision. PMID:25323417

  1. A survey to access knowledge and practice among dentists regarding local anesthetic dosage in three cities of Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Singh Kaira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Local anesthetics are the most commonly used drugs in routine dentistry. Although they are considered effective and safe in controlling pain during dental procedures, complications related to their use appear inevitable. Many dentists use these drugs routinely but are unaware of the dose calculations required and the maximum safe and effective dose of the drug. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed to determine the knowledge that general dental practitioners and dental specialists, in three different cities in India, have regarding dose calculations and the maximum-dose required of the most commonly used local anesthetics. A one page survey questionnaire was used in this study and data were analyzed using standard SPSS statistical program version 11, software (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois, USA. Results: The respondents comprised 71.4% general dental practitioners and 28.5% dental specialists, with ages ranging from 26 to 50 years; Nearly 75% of the total respondent was males and 25% females. Nearly 69% of the respondents were unaware of the maximum recommended dose for use on adult, healthy patients and 81% were still confused about the maximum numbers of syringes containing 2% lignocaine with adrenaline that can be given to a patient. A total of 49% of general dental practitioners and specialists do not perform aspiration when injecting local anesthetics, whereas only 38% performed the aspiration in inferior nerve block technique, while only 12% performed aspiration in all types of injection techniques. A high percentage of the dentists (84% who responded are unaware of how to calculate the local anesthetic dose and 31% of them encountered complications during, or after, local anesthetic administration. Conclusion: General practitioners and dental specialists appear to have an inadequate knowledge about local anesthetics maximum-dose and dose calculations; further educational courses are recommended to update them regarding such

  2. A decade of human genome project conclusion: Scientific diffusion about our genome knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Fernanda; Góes, Andréa

    2016-05-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) was initiated in 1990 and completed in 2003. It aimed to sequence the whole human genome. Although it represented an advance in understanding the human genome and its complexity, many questions remained unanswered. Other projects were launched in order to unravel the mysteries of our genome, including the ENCyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE). This review aims to analyze the evolution of scientific knowledge related to both the HGP and ENCODE projects. Data were retrieved from scientific articles published in 1990-2014, a period comprising the development and the 10 years following the HGP completion. The fact that only 20,000 genes are protein and RNA-coding is one of the most striking HGP results. A new concept about the organization of genome arose. The ENCODE project was initiated in 2003 and targeted to map the functional elements of the human genome. This project revealed that the human genome is pervasively transcribed. Therefore, it was determined that a large part of the non-protein coding regions are functional. Finally, a more sophisticated view of chromatin structure emerged. The mechanistic functioning of the genome has been redrafted, revealing a much more complex picture. Besides, a gene-centric conception of the organism has to be reviewed. A number of criticisms have emerged against the ENCODE project approaches, raising the question of whether non-conserved but biochemically active regions are truly functional. Thus, HGP and ENCODE projects accomplished a great map of the human genome, but the data generated still requires further in depth analysis. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:215-223, 2016.

  3. The Hybrid Design: Integrating the Human and Technical Components of Just-In-Time Knowledge Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nabie Y. Conteh

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the right balance of human and technical resources in the design of Just-in-Time knowledge delivery. It also examines and analyzes the case study: “Teltech: The business of Knowledge Management” by Davenport. It further attempts to depict the characteristics of the hybrid. The paper describes how the hybrid can be applied to Just-In-Time knowledge delivery. It also seeks to analyze and explore its interplay with knowledge splits with a view to designing Just-In- Time Knowl...

  4. SymbioGenomesDB: a database for the integration and access to knowledge on host-symbiont relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Vargas-Chávez, Carlos; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic relationships occur naturally throughout the tree of life, either in a commensal, mutualistic or pathogenic manner. The genomes of multiple organisms involved in symbiosis are rapidly being sequenced and becoming available, especially those from the microbial world. Currently, there are numerous databases that offer information on specific organisms or models, but none offer a global understanding on relationships between organisms, their interactions and capabilities within their niche, as well as their role as part of a system, in this case, their role in symbiosis. We have developed the SymbioGenomesDB as a community database resource for laboratories which intend to investigate and use information on the genetics and the genomics of organisms involved in these relationships. The ultimate goal of SymbioGenomesDB is to host and support the growing and vast symbiotic-host relationship information, to uncover the genetic basis of such associations. SymbioGenomesDB maintains a comprehensive organization of information on genomes of symbionts from diverse hosts throughout the Tree of Life, including their sequences, their metadata and their genomic features. This catalog of relationships was generated using computational tools, custom R scripts and manual integration of data available in public literature. As a highly curated and comprehensive systems database, SymbioGenomesDB provides web access to all the information of symbiotic organisms, their features and links to the central database NCBI. Three different tools can be found within the database to explore symbiosis-related organisms, their genes and their genomes. Also, we offer an orthology search for one or multiple genes in one or multiple organisms within symbiotic relationships, and every table, graph and output file is downloadable and easy to parse for further analysis. The robust SymbioGenomesDB will be constantly updated to cope with all the data being generated and included in major

  5. Symbiotic intelligence: Self-organizing knowledge on distributed networks, driven by human interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, N.; Joslyn, C.; Rocha, L.; Smith, S.; Kantor, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Rasmussen, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This work addresses how human societies, and other diverse and distributed systems, solve collective challenges that are not approachable from the level of the individual, and how the Internet will change the way societies and organizations view problem solving. The authors apply the ideas developed in self-organizing systems to understand self-organization in informational systems. The simplest explanation as to why animals (for example, ants, wolves, and humans) are organized into societies is that these societies enhance the survival of the individuals which make up the populations. Individuals contribute to, as well as adapt to, these societies because they make life easier in one way or another, even though they may not always understand the process, either individually or collectively. Despite the lack of understanding of the how of the process, society during its existence as a species has changed significantly, from separate, small hunting tribes to a highly technological, globally integrated society. The authors combine this understanding of societal dynamics with self-organization on the Internet (the Net). The unique capability of the Net is that it combines, in a common medium, the entire human-technological system in both breadth and depth: breadth in the integration of heterogeneous systems of machines, information and people; and depth in the detailed capturing of the entire complexity of human use and creation of information. When the full diversity of societal dynamics is combined with the accuracy of communication on the Net, a phase transition is argued to occur in problem solving capability. Through conceptual examples, an experiment of collective decision making on the Net and a simulation showing the effect of noise and loss on collective decision making, the authors argue that the resulting symbiotic structure of humans and the Net will evolve as an alternative problem solving approach for groups, organizations and society. Self

  6. Human resources needs for universal access to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a time and motion study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hontelez Jan AC

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although access to life-saving treatment for patients infected with HIV in South Africa has improved substantially since 2004, treating all eligible patients (universal access remains elusive. As the prices of antiretroviral drugs have dropped over the past years, availability of human resources may now be the most important barrier to achieving universal access to HIV treatment in Africa. We quantify the number of HIV health workers (HHWs required to be added to the current HIV workforce to achieve universal access to HIV treatment in South Africa, under different eligibility criteria. Methods We performed a time and motion study in three HIV clinics in a rural, primary care-based HIV treatment program in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to estimate the average time per patient visit for doctors, nurses, and counselors. We estimated the additional number of HHWs needed to achieve universal access to HIV treatment within one year. Results For universal access to HIV treatment for all patients with a CD4 cell count of ≤350 cells/μl, an additional 2,200 nurses, 3,800 counselors, and 300 doctors would be required, at additional annual salary cost of 929 million South African rand (ZAR, equivalent to US$ 141 million. For universal treatment (‘treatment as prevention’, an additional 6,000 nurses, 11,000 counselors, and 800 doctors would be required, at an additional annual salary cost of ZAR 2.6 billion (US$ 400 million. Conclusions Universal access to HIV treatment for patients with a CD4 cell count of ≤350 cells/μl in South Africa may be affordable, but the number of HHWs available for HIV treatment will need to be substantially increased. Treatment as prevention strategies will require considerable additional financial and human resources commitments.

  7. OBDA在极限与配合知识库中的应用%Application of ontology-based data access in knowledge base of limits and fits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄星; 钟艳如

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the large workload and resolve the inconsistency of data and ontology in traditional ontology construc-tion,ontology-based data access (OBDA)is introduced into the knowledge base of limits and fits.By means of constructing the OBDA mappings,the data in database is mapped to be the individuals in limits and fits ontology so that the workload of ontology construction is further reduced.Meanwhile,the reusability and shareability of data can be guaranteed as data access through ontology.The feasibility and effectiveness of OBDA in the limits and fits knowledge base is demonstrated by a prac-tical example.%针对传统极限与配合本体知识库构建中工作量过大和数据与本体不一致的问题,将基于本体的数据访问(OBDA)引入极限与配合知识库中,使用 Web本体语言 OWL 2 QL构建极限与配合本体TBox,构建本体与数据库的映射集将数据库中数据映射为极限与配合本体的个体集,使用本体的实时查询访问数据库中数据,在减少本体构建工作量的同时,确保了数据与本体一致且易于共享和重用。工程实例验证了在极限与配合知识库中应用 OBDA的可行性和有效性。

  8. The Role of a Human Factor and Psychological Contract in Managing the Knowledge in Conditions of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rębisz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The modern business world is characterized by dynamic, changing markets and continuous technological advance. This article focuses on an issue related to a definition of the meaning of a man and his location in an organization that works in conditions of globalization. Certainly, the meaning of human as the source of knowledge in the development of organization is not a new subject. Knowledge is intrinsically linked to people and enables them to act. Modern organizations base their theory on the knowledge they can exploit to improve the competence of the employee, his loyalty and commitment to the company which aims at the competitive predominance. The identification of knowledge is necessary for the effective implementation of knowledge management system. Above all, presented theoretical analysis pinpoints mainly on discussing a mans role and psychological contract in managing the knowledge.

  9. The Hybrid Design: Integrating the Human and Technical Components of Just-In-Time Knowledge Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabie Y. Conteh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the right balance of human and technical resources in the design of Just-in-Time knowledge delivery. It also examines and analyzes the case study: “Teltech: The business of Knowledge Management” by Davenport. It further attempts to depict the characteristics of the hybrid. The paper describes how the hybrid can be applied to Just-In-Time knowledge delivery. It also seeks to analyze and explore its interplay with knowledge splits with a view to designing Just-In- Time Knowledge Management. These include: “tacit versus explicit knowledge”, “in-process” versus “after action” documentation, “process-centered versus product-centered approach”, “knowledge versus information” and the “culture of sharing versus hoarding.”

  10. Knowledge Gaps in Rodent Pancreas Biology: Taking Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells into Our Own Hands

    OpenAIRE

    Santosa, Munirah Mohamad; Low, Blaise Su Jun; Pek, Nicole Min Qian; Teo, Adrian Kee Keong

    2016-01-01

    In the field of stem cell biology and diabetes, we and others seek to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells for disease modeling and cell replacement therapy. Traditionally, knowledge gathered from rodents is extended to human pancreas developmental biology research involving human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). While much has been learnt from rodent pancreas biology in the early steps toward Pdx1+ pancreatic progenitors, much less is known about the transition toward Ngn3+ p...

  11. Abnormal access of axial vibrotactile input to deafferented somatosensory cortex in human upper limb amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, J J; Halligan, P W; Marshall, J C; Passingham, R E; Rothwell, J C; Ridding, M C; Marsden, C D; Brooks, D J

    1997-05-01

    input delivered to the axial body surface may gain access to the S1 hand/arm area in some humans who have suffered extensive deafferentation of this area. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that deafferentation of an area of S1 may result in activation of previously dormant inputs from body surfaces represented in immediately adjacent parts of S1. The results also provide evidence that changes in functional connectivity between these adjacent areas of the cortex play a role in the somatotopic reorganization. PMID:9163390

  12. Beyond the Letter of the Law: Accessibility, Universal Design, and Human-Centered Design in Video Tutorials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda S. Clossen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates how Universal and Human-Centered Design approaches can be applied to the process of library video tutorial creation in order to enhance accessibility. A series of questions that creators should consider in order to focus their design process is discussed. These questions break down various physical and cognitive limitations that users encounter, providing a framework for future video creation that is not dependent on specific software. By approaching accommodations more holistically, videos are created with accessibility in mind from their conception. Working toward the ideal of a video tutorial that is accessible to every user leads to the creation of more clearly worded, effective learning objects that are much more inclusive, making instructional concepts available to users of all abilities.

  13. "The Human Condition" as social ontology: Hannah Arendt on society, action and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Hannah Arendt is widely regarded as a political theorist who sought to rescue politics from "society," and political theory from the social sciences. This conventional view has had the effect of distracting attention from many of Arendt's most important insights concerning the constitution of "society" and the significance of the social sciences. In this article, I argue that Hannah Arendt's distinctions between labor, work, and action, as these are discussed in "The Human Condition" and elsewhere, are best understood as a set of claims about the fundamental structures of human societies. Understanding Arendt in this way introduces interesting parallels between Arendt's work and both classical and contemporary sociology. From this I draw a number of conclusions concerning Arendt's conception of "society," and extend these insights into two contemporary debates within contemporary theoretical sociology: the need for a differentiated ontology of the social world, and the changing role that novel forms of knowledge play in contemporary society as major sources of social change and order.

  14. Human resource development programs for knowledge transfer and creation : the case of the Toyota Technical Development Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study was to examine how human resource development (HRD) programs promote the linkage between knowledge transfer and knowledge creation in engineering departments. Design/methodology/approach - This study adopted a case study approach to the Toyota Technical Development Corporation (TTDC), an affiliated company of Toyota Motor Corporation. Data were collected from interviews with managers of the TTDC as well as its internal documents. Findings - Three major find...

  15. Human Mobility and International Knowledge Spillovers: Evidence from High-tech Small and Medium Enterprises in an Emerging Market

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wright, Mike; Filatotchev, Igor; Dai, Ou; Lu, Jiangyong

    2010-01-01

    Using novel survey data, we examine the relationship between returnee entrepreneurs, multinational enterprise (MNE) working experience and firms' innovation performance in high-tech SMEs in China. We adopt an integrated framework which combines the knowledge based view and social capital theory to investigate whether human mobility across national borders and MNE working experience facilitate international knowledge spillovers. We find that firms founded by returnees are more innovative than ...

  16. Access to treatment in developing countries: a global issue of equity and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J

    1998-04-01

    People are highly optimistic about the possibility of recent developments in combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS to effectively treat people with HIV/AIDS, thereby prolonging their survival and improving the quality of life. Access to advanced retroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS in developing countries, however, is rarely discussed as feasible. Many people even believe that access for all to optimum AIDS care is an utopian ideal not worth pursuing. Imaginative, radical steps together with political will could, however, help to broaden access to advanced therapy for people with HIV/AIDS. A global AIDS-related biomedical technology transfer initiative is needed. Such an initiative should foster a partnership between governments, industry, and international organizations based upon a maximalist perspective of the ethics of access to treatment, global equity considerations, and a global perspective upon individual and community rights. Challenges, a global AIDS trade protocol, and political will are discussed.

  17. Beyond the Letter of the Law: Accessibility, Universal Design, and Human-Centered Design in Video Tutorials

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda S. Clossen

    2014-01-01

    This article demonstrates how Universal and Human-Centered Design approaches can be applied to the process of library video tutorial creation in order to enhance accessibility. A series of questions that creators should consider in order to focus their design process is discussed. These questions break down various physical and cognitive limitations that users encounter, providing a framework for future video creation that is not dependent on specific software. By approaching accommodations m...

  18. SAGE Open five years on: lessons learned and future thoughts on open access in humanities and social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Dave

    2016-01-01

    SAGE Open is celebrating its 5th birthday. When SAGE Publishing launched SAGE Open in 2010, the humanities and social sciences were still grappling with how to approach open access (OA). Through its mega-journal, well over 1000 articles have now been published OA, and it is one of SAGE’s most-used journals. Dave Ross looks back at the journal’s growth and lessons learned.

  19. Designing for Web Usability and Accessibility : User-Interface Design Guidelines in Connection with Human-Computer Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Logacheva, Evanfiya

    2016-01-01

    This thesis reports on the user-interface design guidelines for usability and accessibility in their connection to human-computer interaction and their implementation in the web design. The goal is to study the theoretical background of the design rules and apply them in designing a real-world website. The analysis of Jakobson’s communication theory applied in the web design and its implications in the design guidelines of visibility, affordance, feedback, simplicity, structure, consisten...

  20. The Knowledge Society: A Sustainability Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Hamdija Afgan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the knowledge society as a human structured organisation based on contemporary developed knowledge and representing new quality of life support systems. It implies the need for a full understanding of distribution of knowledge, access to information and the capability to transfer information into a knowledge. The understanding of knowledge is the central challenge when defining a knowledge society. From our present perception of knowledge society, it is of interest to emphasize the role of the knowledge society in future development of human society. The life support systems are essential pillars of human society development. In this respect knowledge society represents a new paradigm for future development and it is strongly correlated to sustainable development. For this reason the sustainability paradigm of knowledge society is a potential frame for human society development leading to social cohesion, economic competitiveness and stability, use of resources and economic development, safeguarding biodiversity and the ecosystem.In order to verify the mutual relation between knowledge society and sustainability, we have to introduce the difference between these two terms. The knowledge society is based on the agglomeration of eco-knowledge, env-knowledge and soc-knowledge, it may be evaluated as the complex knowledge of quality of life support systems. We have to introduce metrics which will allow us to present knowledge as the paradigm of the number of indicators for verifying progress made.Sustainability metrics are designed to consolidate measures of economic, environmental and social performance of any system. It can be understood as a pattern for evaluation of the available knowledge about systems and their performance. In particular the decision-making process for the selection of the system under consideration must be based on the available knowledge. The link between knowledge and sustainability makes it possible for

  1. Hepatitis C Virus Treatment Access Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-Coinfected People Who Inject Drugs in Guangzhou, China: Implications for HCV Treatment Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Carissa E.; Wu, Feng; He, Xi; Zhou, Kali; Cheng, Yu; Cai, Weiping; Geng, Elvin; Volberding, Paul; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment access among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected people who inject drugs is poor, despite a high burden of disease in this population. Understanding barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment uptake is critical to the implementation of new direct-acting antivirals. Methods. We conducted in-depth interviews with patients, physicians, and social workers at an HIV treatment facility and methadone maintenance treatment centers in Guangzhou, China to identify barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment. We included patients who were in various stages of HCV treatment and those who were not treated. We used standard qualitative methods and organized data into themes. Results. Interview data from 29 patients, 8 physicians, and 3 social workers were analyzed. Facilitators and barriers were organized according to a modified Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research schematic. Facilitators included patient trust in physicians, hope for a cure, peer networks, and social support. Barriers included ongoing drug use, low HCV disease knowledge, fragmented reimbursement systems, HIV exceptionalism, and stigma. Conclusions. Expanding existing harm reduction programs, HIV treatment programs, and social services may facilitate scale-up of direct-acting antivirals globally. Improving integration of ancillary social and mental health services within existing HIV care systems may facilitate HCV treatment access. PMID:27419150

  2. Hepatitis C Virus Treatment Access Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-Coinfected People Who Inject Drugs in Guangzhou, China: Implications for HCV Treatment Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Carissa E; Wu, Feng; He, Xi; Zhou, Kali; Cheng, Yu; Cai, Weiping; Geng, Elvin; Volberding, Paul; Tucker, Joseph D

    2016-04-01

    Background.  Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment access among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected people who inject drugs is poor, despite a high burden of disease in this population. Understanding barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment uptake is critical to the implementation of new direct-acting antivirals. Methods.  We conducted in-depth interviews with patients, physicians, and social workers at an HIV treatment facility and methadone maintenance treatment centers in Guangzhou, China to identify barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment. We included patients who were in various stages of HCV treatment and those who were not treated. We used standard qualitative methods and organized data into themes. Results.  Interview data from 29 patients, 8 physicians, and 3 social workers were analyzed. Facilitators and barriers were organized according to a modified Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research schematic. Facilitators included patient trust in physicians, hope for a cure, peer networks, and social support. Barriers included ongoing drug use, low HCV disease knowledge, fragmented reimbursement systems, HIV exceptionalism, and stigma. Conclusions.  Expanding existing harm reduction programs, HIV treatment programs, and social services may facilitate scale-up of direct-acting antivirals globally. Improving integration of ancillary social and mental health services within existing HIV care systems may facilitate HCV treatment access. PMID:27419150

  3. Human Services for Low-Income and At-Risk LGBT Populations: The Knowledge Base and Research Needs (Brief)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Burwick; Gary Gates; Scott Baumgartner; Daniel Friend

    2014-01-01

    This brief summarizes the current knowledge base and identifies key areas for future research related to human services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations. It focuses on three types of services funded by the Administration for Children and Families in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: (1) income support and self-sufficiency programs; (2) child welfare programs; and (3) programs for youth, especially services for runaway and homeless youth and sexual...

  4. A human rights view on access to controlled substances for medical purposes under the international drug control framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gispen, Marie Elske C

    2013-11-01

    The world is confronted with a major public health deficit caused by poor access to controlled essential medicines under the international drug control framework. This is affecting millions of patients on a daily basis and resulting in numerous human rights violations. The present review contextualises this deficit from a human rights perspective. Drug control efforts are informed by a twofold objective stemming from the double nature of scheduled substances: free access for medical purposes should be ensured, though non-medical use of substances such as opium should be restricted. The international drug control framework is, in theory, based on this twofold notion, however at the level of interpretation, monitoring, and implementation, a one-sided emphasis is demonstrated. By tracing a parallel between the obligations of states under the international drug control framework and those that derive from human rights law, the review shows that the two systems seem incoherent and conflicting in nature and flags the importance of cross-disciplinary research into drug control and human rights.

  5. A Randomized Intervention Study to Evaluate Whether Electronic Messaging Can Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Completion and Knowledge among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Alice R.; Maddy, LaDonna; Torres, Essie; Goldberg, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate an intervention aimed at increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine completion of the 3-dose series and knowledge. Participants: Two hundred sixty-four male and female US college students 18-26 years old who were receiving HPV vaccine dose 1. Methods: Students were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group.…

  6. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus and Perceived Barriers to Vaccination in a Sample of US Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, James Price; Spear, Margaret E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and perceived barriers to being vaccinated against the virus. Participants: Three hundred ninety-six undergraduate women enrolled at Penn State University in Fall 2008. Methods: A random sample of students were invited to participate in a Web-based survey. Results: Awareness of HPV and…

  7. Computational and human observer image quality evaluation of low dose, knowledge-based CT iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Aims in this study are to (1) develop a computational model observer which reliably tracks the detectability of human observers in low dose computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with knowledge-based iterative reconstruction (IMR™, Philips Healthcare) and filtered back projection (FBP) across a range of independent variables, (2) use the model to evaluate detectability trends across reconstructions and make predictions of human observer detectability, and (3) perform human observer studies based on model predictions to demonstrate applications of the model in CT imaging. Methods: Detectability (d′) was evaluated in phantom studies across a range of conditions. Images were generated using a numerical CT simulator. Trained observers performed 4-alternative forced choice (4-AFC) experiments across dose (1.3, 2.7, 4.0 mGy), pin size (4, 6, 8 mm), contrast (0.3%, 0.5%, 1.0%), and reconstruction (FBP, IMR), at fixed display window. A five-channel Laguerre–Gauss channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) was developed with internal noise added to the decision variable and/or to channel outputs, creating six different internal noise models. Semianalytic internal noise computation was tested against Monte Carlo and used to accelerate internal noise parameter optimization. Model parameters were estimated from all experiments at once using maximum likelihood on the probability correct, PC. Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to compare models of different orders. The best model was selected according to AIC and used to predict detectability in blended FBP-IMR images, analyze trends in IMR detectability improvements, and predict dose savings with IMR. Predicted dose savings were compared against 4-AFC study results using physical CT phantom images. Results: Detection in IMR was greater than FBP in all tested conditions. The CHO with internal noise proportional to channel output standard deviations, Model-k4, showed the best trade-off between fit and

  8. Computational and human observer image quality evaluation of low dose, knowledge-based CT iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eck, Brendan L.; Fahmi, Rachid; Miao, Jun [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Brown, Kevin M.; Zabic, Stanislav; Raihani, Nilgoun [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, Ohio 44143 (United States); Wilson, David L., E-mail: dlw@case.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and Department of Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Aims in this study are to (1) develop a computational model observer which reliably tracks the detectability of human observers in low dose computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with knowledge-based iterative reconstruction (IMR™, Philips Healthcare) and filtered back projection (FBP) across a range of independent variables, (2) use the model to evaluate detectability trends across reconstructions and make predictions of human observer detectability, and (3) perform human observer studies based on model predictions to demonstrate applications of the model in CT imaging. Methods: Detectability (d′) was evaluated in phantom studies across a range of conditions. Images were generated using a numerical CT simulator. Trained observers performed 4-alternative forced choice (4-AFC) experiments across dose (1.3, 2.7, 4.0 mGy), pin size (4, 6, 8 mm), contrast (0.3%, 0.5%, 1.0%), and reconstruction (FBP, IMR), at fixed display window. A five-channel Laguerre–Gauss channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) was developed with internal noise added to the decision variable and/or to channel outputs, creating six different internal noise models. Semianalytic internal noise computation was tested against Monte Carlo and used to accelerate internal noise parameter optimization. Model parameters were estimated from all experiments at once using maximum likelihood on the probability correct, P{sub C}. Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to compare models of different orders. The best model was selected according to AIC and used to predict detectability in blended FBP-IMR images, analyze trends in IMR detectability improvements, and predict dose savings with IMR. Predicted dose savings were compared against 4-AFC study results using physical CT phantom images. Results: Detection in IMR was greater than FBP in all tested conditions. The CHO with internal noise proportional to channel output standard deviations, Model-k4, showed the best trade-off between fit

  9. Research on the best practice of knowledge management in enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achieve management is important for knowledge management in enterprises. Knowledge management is the inevitable choice and development trend for achieve management. Several measures are needed for the implementation of best practices, such as: the reasonable goal, the system for integrity of knowledge resources, access of the best tools and methods, optimization of allocating human resource. At the same time enterprises must analyse the major risks of the project and propose countermeasures. Main reasons are explained in knowledge management of SGIS. (authors)

  10. Harnessing the Risk-Related Data Supply Chain: An Information Architecture Approach to Enriching Human System Research and Operations Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buquo, Lynn E.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2011-01-01

    An Information Architecture facilitates the understanding and, hence, harnessing of the human system risk-related data supply chain which enhances the ability to securely collect, integrate, and share data assets that improve human system research and operations. By mapping the risk-related data flow from raw data to useable information and knowledge (think of it as a data supply chain), the Human Research Program (HRP) and Space Life Science Directorate (SLSD) are building an information architecture plan to leverage their existing, and often shared, IT infrastructure.

  11. Testing knowledge of human gross anatomy in medical school: an applied contextual-learning theory method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, R W; Lehr, R P

    1996-01-01

    The traditional gross anatomy laboratory experience, with modifications in evaluations that we outline later, meets the criteria of contextual-learning theory, expands the repertoire of core objectives we identify for our students, and may increase the likelihood of cognitive permanence of anatomical data. Our subjects included approximately 54 first-year medical students from each of three sequential class years (1996, 1997, 1998). As an alternative to more typical written and practical exams, examinations in a major portion of our gross anatomy program consist of two approximately 30 minute oral expositions by each student to his or her peers and a faculty member. Students demonstrate specific detail on cadaver, x-ray, cross sections, or a model. Clinical applications, spatial relationships, nomenclature, and functions are strongly emphasized. The results of this teaching approach to the utilization of anatomical knowledge in clinical situations requires further assessment: however, new attributes have been afforded our students with implementation of the present program: First, students learn anatomical detail equally well as the students of the more traditional system (based on board exam results). Second, students who completed the program indicate that this approach provides a useful simulation of what is expected later in their training. Third, students gradually gain confidence in verbal presentation, they demonstrate cognitive synthesis of separate conceptual issues, they retain information, and they are quite visibly more enthusiastic about anatomy and its importance in medicine. Our program demonstrates that the learning of applicable human anatomy is facilitated in a contextual-learning environment. Moreover, by learning anatomy in this way, other equally beneficial attributes are afforded the medical student, including, but not limited to, increases in communication skills, confidence in verbal presentation, synthesis of anatomical concepts

  12. The state of human dimensions capacity for natural resource management: needs, knowledge, and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Leong, Kirsten M.; Milley, Brad J.; Clarke, Melinda M.; Teel, Tara L.; Chase, Mark A.; Dietsch, Alia M.

    2013-01-01

    The social sciences have become increasingly important in understanding natural resource management contexts and audiences, and are essential in design and delivery of effective and durable management strategies. Yet many agencies and organizations do not have the necessary resource management. We draw on the textbook definition of HD: how and why people value natural resources, what benefits people seek and derive from those resources, and how people affect and are affected by those resources and their management (Decker, Brown, and Seimer 2001). Clearly articulating how HD information can be used and integrated into natural resource management planning and decision-making is an important challenge faced by the HD field. To address this challenge, we formed a collaborative team to explore the issue of HD capacity-building for natural resource organizations and to advance the HD field. We define HD capacity as activities, efforts, and resources that enhance the ability of HD researchers and practitioners and natural managers and decision-makers to understand and address the social aspects of conservation. Specifically, we sought to examine current barriers to integration of HD into natural resource management, knowledge needed to improve HD capacity, and existing HD tools, resources, and training opportunities. We conducted a needs assessment of HD experts and practitioners, developed a framework for considering HD activities that can contribute both directly and indirectly throughout any phase of an adaptive management cycle, and held a workshop to review preliminary findings and gather additional input through breakout group discussions. This paper provides highlights from our collaborative initiative to help frame and inform future HD capacity-building efforts and natural resource organizations and also provides a list of existing human dimensions tools and resources.

  13. An Urgent Need to Restrict Access to Pesticides Based on Human Lethality

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Andrew H; Eddleston, Michael; Senarathna, Lalith; Mohamed, Fahim; Gawarammana, Indika; Bowe, Steven J.; Manuweera, Gamini; Buckley, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Suicide is a preventable global public health problem. About 1 million people die each year from suicide and many more harm themselves but survive. Although many people who commit suicide have a mental illness, stressful events (economic hardship or relationship difficulties, for example) can sometimes make life seem too painful to bear. Suicide attempts are frequently impulsive and use methods that are conveniently accessible. Strategies to reduce suicide rates in...

  14. Geographies of Access: Mapping the Online Attention to Digital Humanities Articles in Academic Journals

    OpenAIRE

    Priego, E.; Atenas, J.; Havemann, L.

    2014-01-01

    We suggest altmetrics services like the Altmetric Explorer can be an efficient method to obtain bibliographic datasets and track scholarly outputs being mentioned online in the sources curated by these services. Our dataset reflects that outputs with “digital humanities” in their metadata were not published in fully-fledged Open Access journals. The role of SSRN and arXiv as open repositories was found to be relatively significant, but the licensing of the outputs available through them was n...

  15. A human engineering and ergonomic evaluation of the security access panel interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to empirically determine which of several security hardware interface designs produced the highest levels of end-user performance and acceptance. The FESSP Security Alarms and Monitoring Systems program area commissioned the authors study as decision support for upgrading the Argus security system's primary user interface so that Argus equipment will support the new DOE and DoD security access badges. Twenty-two test subjects were repeatedly tested using six remote access panel (RAP) designs. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses one of these interface designs in its security access booths. Along with the RAP B insert-style reader, the authors tested five prototype RAP variants, each with a different style of swipe badge reader, through which a badge is moved or swiped. The authors asked the untrained test subjects to use each RAP while they described how they thought they should respond so that the system would operate correctly in reading the magnetic strip on a security badge. With each RAP variant, subjects were required to make four successful card reads (swipes) in which the card reader correctly read and logged the transaction. After each trial, a subject completed a 10-item interface acceptance evaluation before approaching the next RAP. After interacting with the RAP interfaces (for a total of the six RAP trials), each subject completed a 7-item overview evaluation that compared and ranked the five experimental RAPs, using the original (RAP B) insert style as a standard

  16. Women's knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear and human papillomavirus and its relation to screening in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Melisa; Arrossi, Silvina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate women's knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smears, and human papilloma virus in relation to their cervical cancer screening behavior. This hospital-based study was conducted with a sample of 200 women: 100 women screened in the last three years and 100 non-screened women who attended a hospital located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, between September 2008 and February 2009. Women at the hospital were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relation of women's knowledge about Pap smears to screening behavior, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Of the women who had been screened, 49% compared to 73% of those not screened had inadequate knowledge about Pap smears (P = 0.001), and 47% of screened and 30% of non-screened women reported that they had ever heard about human papilloma virus (P = 0.013). In multivariate analysis, having adequate knowledge about Pap smears (odds ratio: 2.6 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.4-4.8) having health insurance (odds ratio: 2.6 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.1-6.4) and being married (odds ratio: 1.8 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.1-3.4) were the factors related to being screened in the previous three years. Knowledge was related to screening. Comprehensive educational approaches may enhance screening for cervical cancer prevention. PMID:21391162

  17. Level of Knowledge about Human Papillomavirus Infection among Women of Kashan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekooi M.S. BSc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims A few studies concentrate on the level of knowledge of HPV. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of knowledge about HPV, its risk factors, and its relation with cervical cancer in women of Kashan City, Iran. Instrument & Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in January 2015 in the population of the women of Kashan City, Iran, and 200 persons were selected by simple sampling method. The level of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer were measured using a questionnaire with 10 questions about knowledge. The data was analyzed in SPSS 16 software by Chi-square, Exact Fisher and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Findings Most of the participants (152 persons; 76% had “weak, 26 participants (13% had “moderate” and only 22 participants (11% had “strong” level of knowledge about HPV. There were significant differences between the level of knowledge according to educational level (p=0.014 and professional status (p0.05. In all the questions, the most frequent answer was “don’t know”. The participants had some knowledge about “HPV causing cervical cancer” (34.5%, “HPV causing genital warts” (38%, “sexually transmission of HPV” (37.5% and “increased risk of getting HPV by extramarital sexual affairs” (43.5% Conclusion The level of knowledge about HPV, genital warts, and ways of infection transmission and its preventions in women of Kashan City, Iran, is insufficient.

  18. [The pharmaceutical record in an emergency department: Assessment of its accessibility and its impact on the level of knowledge of the patient's treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh-Duc, A; Painbeni, T; Byzcko, A; Fort, P-A

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of the home medication list may impact therapeutic decisions made in the emergency department (ED). In France, the pharmaceutical record (PR) is a shared professional tool arising from the pharmacists lists of all drugs dispensed during the last 4 months. This PR is included in a microchip equipping a "Vitale" card detained by each beneficiary of health insurance benefits. Since 2011, the law authorises experimentally the consultation of the PR by some hospital doctors such as those working in emergency medicine. The purpose of this work is to assess the accessibility to this PR and to verify the hypothesis that its consultation increases the level of information concerning the treatment of patients admitted in an ED. A prospective, single-center, observational study was conducted during a 15-day period on all patients arriving at the Agen hospital emergency department. Of the 1046 patients enrolled in the study, 828 (79 %) presented a "Vitale" card in which a PR furnished with data was found in 45 % of the cases. The only paper source of information available was provided by the PR (25 %), a medical letter (6 %) or a prescription (3 %). A dual reconciliation between 2 of these sources was possible at a rate of about 4 % each whereas only 3 % of patients showed up with the 3 sources of available information. The consultation of PR by the ED staff is significantly possible. It improves quantitatively the level of information and thus optimizes medication assessment, the initial and critical step of the medical management of patients. PMID:26656599

  19. Human Papillomavirus (HPV Vaccination and Adolescent Girls' Knowledge and Sexuality in Western Uganda: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kampikaho Turiho

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination on adolescent girls' knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine, perception of sexual risk and intentions for sexual debut. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Ibanda and Mbarara districts. Data was collected using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences computer software. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were conducted with significance level set at p < .05. Results showed that HPV vaccination was associated with being knowledgeable (Crude OR: 5.26, CI: 2.32-11.93; p = 0.000. Vaccination against HPV did not predict perception of sexual risk. Knowledge was low (only 87/385 or 22.6% of vaccinated girls were knowledgeable, but predicted perception of a high sexual risk (Adjusted OR: 3.12, CI: 1.37-3.63; p = 0.008. HPV vaccination, knowledge and perceived sexual risk did not predict sexual behaviour intentions. High parental communication was associated with adolescent attitudes that support postponement of sexual debut in both bivariate and multiple regression analyses. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that HPV vaccination is not likely to encourage adolescent sexual activity. Influence of knowledge on sexual behaviour intentions was not definitively explained. Prospective cohort studies were proposed to address the emerging questions.

  20. Accessible Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets whose orbits are in close proximity to Earth's orbit; specifically, they have perihelia less than 1.3 astronomical units. NEOs particularly near Earth asteroids (NEAs) are identified as potential destinations for future human exploration missions. In this presentation I provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the astrodynamical accessibility of NEAs according to NASA's Near Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). I also investigate the extremes of NEA accessibility using case studies and illuminate the fact that a space-based survey for NEOs is essential to expanding the set of known accessible NEAs for future human exploration missions.

  1. Kinome Render: a stand-alone and web-accessible tool to annotate the human protein kinome tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Chartier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Human protein kinases play fundamental roles mediating the majority of signal transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells as well as a multitude of other processes involved in metabolism, cell-cycle regulation, cellular shape, motility, differentiation and apoptosis. The human protein kinome contains 518 members. Most studies that focus on the human kinome require, at some point, the visualization of large amounts of data. The visualization of such data within the framework of a phylogenetic tree may help identify key relationships between different protein kinases in view of their evolutionary distance and the information used to annotate the kinome tree. For example, studies that focus on the promiscuity of kinase inhibitors can benefit from the annotations to depict binding affinities across kinase groups. Images involving the mapping of information into the kinome tree are common. However, producing such figures manually can be a long arduous process prone to errors. To circumvent this issue, we have developed a web-based tool called Kinome Render (KR that produces customized annotations on the human kinome tree. KR allows the creation and automatic overlay of customizable text or shape-based annotations of different sizes and colors on the human kinome tree. The web interface can be accessed at: http://bcb.med.usherbrooke.ca/kinomerender. A stand-alone version is also available and can be run locally.

  2. Near-Earth Asteroids Accessible to Human Exploration with High-Power Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Damon; Strange, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The diverse physical and orbital characteristics of near-Earth asteroids provide progressive stepping stones on a flexible path to Mars. Beginning with cislunar exploration capability, the variety of accessible targets steadily increases as technology is developed for eventual missions to Mars. Noting the potential for solar electric propulsion to dramatically reduce launch mass for Mars exploration, we apply this technology to expand the range of candidate asteroid missions. A robust and efficient exploration program emerges where a potential mission is available once per year (on average) with technology levels that span cis-lunar to Mars-orbital capabilities.

  3. Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This list of potential mission targets should not be interpreted as a complete list of viable NEAs for an actual human exploration mission. As the NEA orbits are...

  4. Human Resources Capacity Building as a Strategy in Strengthening Nuclear Knowledge Sustainability in the Experimental Fuel Element Installation of BATAN-Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strategy in Strengthening Nuclear Knowledge Sustainability: • In order to maintain human resources capacity related to nuclear fuel production technology, a nuclear knowledge preservation program is implemented in the EFEI. • The program includes coaching/training, mentoring and documenting important knowledge. • The program activities are monitored and evaluated quarterly for its improvement in the following year

  5. Research of Access Control Model for Mine Security Knowledge Management System%矿山安全知识管理系统中的访问控制模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊海涛; 蒋承睿; 任宇峰; 贾攀

    2013-01-01

    For safety authorization to proper security knowledge in mine security knowledge management system and reliable changing of authorization according to users′ history access,the reputation-based access control (ReBAC) is proposed,which extends role-based access control (RBAC) with reputation.ReBAC builds 6-tuple permissions firstly.Then,the trust network is constructed by the operational relation between users for calculating direct-reputation and indirect-reputation.After that,ReBAC uses reputation to check if the user can access this security knowledge and give permissions to reliable users.The result shows that ReBAC can provide safety and reliable access control in mine security knowledge management system.%为保证矿山安全知识管理系统中安全知识的安全授权,同时保证授权能够根据用户历史行为进行变更,在基于角色的访问控制模型基础上引入了信誉,提出了基于信誉的访问控制模型.该模型构造了权限六元组,通过用户间的操作关系建立信任网络,然后计算直接信誉和间接信誉,从而来判断用户是否可对知识进行操作进行授权.结果表明,基于信誉的访问控制模型能够对矿山安全知识管理系统中的安全知识实现安全和可靠的访问控制.

  6. Knowledge and perception of human papilloma virus vaccine among the antenatal women in a Nigerian tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy E Agida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a major health problem globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria inclusive. One of the preventive measures is the vaccination of teenagers against oncogenic human papilloma virus. The aim of this study was to find out the level of knowledge mothers possess about these vaccines and their willingness to administer vaccination to their teenage girls. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 255 consecutive women attending antenatal clinic at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja. They were given either a self-administered questionnaire or interviewer-administered questionnaire containing both closed and open-ended questions. Information recorded includes socio-demographic variables, knowledge of cervical cancer, knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccines and acceptance of these vaccines for their adolescent girls. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 26.9 years. Over 90% had at least secondary education. A total of 102 (40% had the knowledge of cancer of the cervix while 153 (60% had never heard about it. Overall, 236 (92.5% of them had no idea about the predisposing factors. The study showed that only 23 (9.0% out of the total respondents had heard about human papilloma virus (HPV infection. In the same vein, 20 (7.8% had knowledge about HPV vaccine. Among the respondents, who had the knowledge of HPV and vaccination, 18.2% and 23.4% of them had secondary and tertiary levels of education respectively. Overall, 160 (62.8% accepted that the vaccines could be administered to their teenage girls. Conclusions: Awareness of cervical cancer, HPV infections, and HPV vaccines is low among antenatal clinic attendees in Gwagwalada, Abuja. However, majority of them would want their girls vaccinated against HPV infections. There is a need for all stakeholders to step up awareness creation for improved HPV vaccination project in

  7. Modeling the Relationship between Human Intelligence, Knowledge Management Practices, and Innovation Performance

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Noordin; Z. A. Karim

    2015-01-01

    Pioneers in knowledge management (KM) have well articulated the relationship between KM and innovation. In addition, there are many theoretical papers as well as empirical studies that examined the positive relationship between KM and innovation. However, these empirical studies analysed the relationship between KM and innovation at management or organisational level. There is a need to study this relationship at the knowledge workers level to see how they actually influence their organisatio...

  8. Knowledge Engineering or Digital Humanities? Territorial Intelligence, a Case in Point

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseaux, Francis; Saurel, Pierre; Petit, Jean

    2014-01-01

    International audience Knowledge Engineering (KE) usually deals with representation and visualization challenges, sometimes socio or bio inspired, collective aspects being quite often taken into account. Nevertheless with knowledge-based Territorial Intelligence, KE is faced with natively situated know-how, distributed hope and network-centered emerging organizations, as far as this domain aims at providing tools to support and develop our local and territorial communities. Furthermore kno...

  9. Temporal dynamics of the knowledge-mediated visual disambiguation process in humans: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Tomokazu; Ogata, Katsuya; Kimura, Takahiro; Kume, Yuko; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2015-01-01

    Disambiguation of a noisy visual scene with prior knowledge is an indispensable task of the visual system. To adequately adapt to a dynamically changing visual environment full of noisy visual scenes, the implementation of knowledge-mediated disambiguation in the brain is imperative and essential for proceeding as fast as possible under the limited capacity of visual image processing. However, the temporal profile of the disambiguation process has not yet been fully elucidated in the brain. The present study attempted to determine how quickly knowledge-mediated disambiguation began to proceed along visual areas after the onset of a two-tone ambiguous image using magnetoencephalography with high temporal resolution. Using the predictive coding framework, we focused on activity reduction for the two-tone ambiguous image as an index of the implementation of disambiguation. Source analysis revealed that a significant activity reduction was observed in the lateral occipital area at approximately 120 ms after the onset of the ambiguous image, but not in preceding activity (about 115 ms) in the cuneus when participants perceptually disambiguated the ambiguous image with prior knowledge. These results suggested that knowledge-mediated disambiguation may be implemented as early as approximately 120 ms following an ambiguous visual scene, at least in the lateral occipital area, and provided an insight into the temporal profile of the disambiguation process of a noisy visual scene with prior knowledge.

  10. IP MANAGER: A MODEL FOR THE KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT AND PROTECTION THROUGHOUT THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES WITHIN THE INNOVATIVE ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    MARCELA IZABELA CIOPA; CRISTIAN SILVIU BANACU; STEFAN BERCU

    2011-01-01

    IP Manager is a model that analyses the importance of the intellectual property from a managerial point of view, especially within the innovative organizations, thus creating the context for the human resources awareness towards the new regulations that come alongside a knowledge-based society. The new vision of the organizations that are active in the education industry regarding the usage of new technologies will catch up very fast within the youngsters, but it won’t limit to them, because ...

  11. Human Papillomavirus and Head and Neck Cancer: Psychosocial Impact in Patients and Knowledge of the Link - A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, R. H.; Waller, J; Marlow, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) currently affects approximately 11 200 people in the UK, with an increasing proportion known to be caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). We undertook a systematic review of studies measuring the psychosocial impact of HPV-related HNC and also studies measuring knowledge about the link between HPV and HNC among different populations. Searches were conducted on MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus and Web of Science, with reference and forward citation searches ...

  12. Human capital development, knowledge spillovers and local growth: Is there a quality effect of university efficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    ZOTTI, Roberto; Barra, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we test whether economic growth depends on human capital development using data disaggregated at territorial level and propose the use of efficiency estimates, measured using a non-parametric technique, as an alternative quality measure of higher education institutions (HEIs). The nature of knowledge spillovers is also taken into account to examine the existence of geographically localized spillovers, from the presence of efficient universities, on local growth. Results show th...

  13. Knowledge transfer activities in social sciences and humanities: Explaining the interactions of research groups with non-academic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Olmos Peñuela, Julia; Castro Martínez, Elena; D'Este Cukierman, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to achieve a better understanding of the processes underlying knowledge transfer (KT) in social sciences and humanities (SSH). The paper addresses: first, the extent of SSH research groups' engagement in KT and the formal KT activities used to interact with non-academic communities; and second, how the characteristics of research groups may influence engagement in various types of KT. The empirical analysis is at research group level using data derived from a quest...

  14. Assessing knowledge of human papillomavirus and collecting data on sexual behavior: computer assisted telephone versus face to face interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Garland Suzanne; Ryall Richard; Croy Samantha; Pitts Marian; Lyons Anthony; Smith Anthony; Wong Mee; Tay Eng

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Education campaigns seeking to raise awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) and promoting HPV vaccination depend on accurate surveys of public awareness and knowledge of HPV and related sexual behavior. However, the most recent population-based studies have relied largely on computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) as opposed to face to face interviews (FTFI). It is currently unknown how these survey modes differ, and in particular whether they attract similar demogr...

  15. Usability and accessibility curricula

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Mora, Sergio; Cachero Castro, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Presentation of existing curricula connected with usability and accessibility at the University of Alicante for the Leonardo da Vinci project "GUI Usability and Accessibility: Exchanging Knowledge and Experiences" (Grenoble, France, 27 November 2012). Presentación del currículo actual relacionado con la usabilidad y la accesibilidad en la Universidad de Alicante para el proyecto Leonardo da Vinci "GUI Usability and Accessibility: Exchanging Knowledge and Experiences" (Grenoble, Francia, 27...

  16. Governing Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai J Foss; Dana B Minbaeva

    2009-01-01

    SHRM increasingly emphasizes HRM practices as means to build strategic knowledge resources such as superior capabilities. While the knowledge-based view increasingly pays attention to micro-foundations, the SHRM field neglects these and emphasizes collective constructs such as “human capital pools,” “HRM architectures”, etc. As a result, causal links between HRM practices, knowledge and organizational performance are black-boxed. We propose a program for research and identify s...

  17. Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge management is an evolving subject area based on two notions: - That knowledge is a fundamental aspect of effective organizational performance; - That specific steps need to be actively taken to promote knowledge creation and use. Two common approaches to knowledge management that are often used in combination include: - Knowledge management focused on the capture of explicit knowledge and sharing this via technology; - Knowledge management focused on managing tacit knowledge without necessarily making it explicit, and creating new knowledge as well as sharing existing knowledge. In the context of human resources development, knowledge management is strongly tied to strategy and is activity oriented. Properly applied knowledge management improves organizational efficiency and productivity through reducing process times, introducing technology to assist finding relevant information and instituting techniques to remedy poor quality outputs. Knowledge management also promotes innovations, which can result from initiatives such as developing social networks for knowledge exchange, providing leadership to encourage risk taking and capturing the lessons learned from past activities. Both of these benefits require openness to change and a drive for continual improvement. Other benefits of knowledge management include improved decision making, retaining organizational memory and organizational learning, as well as improving morale. Knowledge management can be used on its own or in collaboration with other management disciplines and tools to establish an environment that will enable the organization to realize these benefits. Summarizing the effective management of nuclear knowledge includes ensuring the continued availability of qualified personnel. As the nuclear workforce ages and retires, and with support uncertain for university programmes in nuclear science and engineering, this issue has become critical to ensuring safety and security, encouraging innovation

  18. Knowledge Development in Internship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the chapter is to shed light on how these challenges and tendencies affect students’´ access to tacit and explicit knowledge and the professions’ knowledge development. To address these challenges, the chapter examines the question: How might periods of internship, offering different...... kinds of access to tacit and explicit knowledge by apprenticeship and reflection, have consequences for both students’ learning and the professions’ knowledge development?...

  19. A HUMAN RIGHTS-BASED APPROACH TO POVERTY REDUCTION: THE ROLE OF THE RIGHT OF ACCESS TO MEDICINE AS AN ELEMENT OF THE RIGHT OF ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zannelize Strauss

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevention and treatment of infectious diseases remain among the greatest challenges faced by today's developing countries. The World Health Organisation estimates that about one-third of the world's population lacks access to essential medicine, a fact which, according to the United Nations, directly contradicts the fundamental principle of health as a human right. According to the World Summit for Social Development, poor health and illness are factors that contribute to poverty, while the adverse effects of illness ensure that the poor become poorer. A lack of access to health care, amongst other rights, (including access to medicines as an element thereof aggravates poverty. The most important provision in international law relating to the right to health is article 12 of the United Nations International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Article 12(1 of this Covenant provides a broad formulation of the right to health in international law, while article 12(2 prescribes a non-exhaustive list of steps to be taken in pursuit of the highest attainable standard of health. Article 12(2, in particular, illustrates the role that adequate access to medication plays in the right of access to health care. The United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has explicitly included the provision of essential drugs as a component of the right to health care, thereby emphasising the causal link between the lack of access to essential medicines and the non-fulfilment of the right of access to health care. As with all socio-economic rights, the resource implications of the realisation of the right to health has the result that states cannot be expected to immediately comply with its obligations in respect thereof. Instead, article 2(1 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the General Comments of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights place obligations on states to take

  20. Improving Human-Computer Interaction by Developing Culture-sensitive Applications based on Common Sense Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Anacleto, Junia Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    The advent of Web 3.0, claiming for personalization in interactive systems (Lassila & Hendler, 2007), and the need for systems capable of interacting in a more natural way in the future society flooded with computer systems and devices (Harper et al., 2008) show that great advances in HCI should be done. This chapter presents some contributions of LIA for the future of HCI, defending that using common sense knowledge is a possibility for improving HCI, especially because people assign meaning to their messages based on their common sense and, therefore, the use of this knowledge in developing user interfaces can make them more intuitive to the end-user. Moreover, as common sense knowledge varies from group to group of people, it can be used for developing applications capable of giving different feedback for different target groups, as the applications presented along this chapter illustrate, allowing, in this way, interface personalization taking into account cultural issues. For the purpose of using com...

  1. Knowledge gaps in rodent pancreas biology: taking human pluripotent stem cell-derived pancreatic beta cells into our own hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munirah Mohamad Santosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of stem cell biology and diabetes, we and others seek to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells for disease modeling and cell replacement therapy. Traditionally, knowledge gathered from rodents is extended to human pancreas developmental biology research involving human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs. Whilst much has been learnt from rodent pancreas biology in the early steps towards Pdx1+ pancreatic progenitors, much less is known about the transition towards Ngn3+ pancreatic endocrine progenitors. Essentially, the later steps of pancreatic β cell development and maturation remain elusive to date. As a result, the most recent advances in the stem cell and diabetes field have relied upon combinatorial testing of numerous growth factors and chemical compounds in an arbitrary trial-and-error fashion to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells from hPSCs. Although this hit-or-miss approach appears to have made some headway in maturing human pancreatic β cells in vitro, its underlying biology is vaguely understood. Therefore, in this mini-review, we discuss some of these late-stage signaling pathways that are involved in human pancreatic β cell differentiation and highlight our current understanding of their relevance in rodent pancreas biology. Our efforts here unravel several novel signaling pathways that can be further studied to shed light on unexplored aspects of rodent pancreas biology. New investigations into these signaling pathways are expected to advance our knowledge in human pancreas developmental biology and to aid in the translation of stem cell biology in the context of diabetes treatments.

  2. Simplified data access on human skeletal muscle transcriptome responses to differentiated exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Kristian; Schjerling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated exercise-induced global gene expression responses in human skeletal muscle and these have typically focused at one specific mode of exercise and not implemented non-exercise control models. However, interpretation on effects of differentiated exercise necessitate...... and interpret by individuals that are inexperienced with bioinformatics procedures. In a comparative study, we therefore; (1) investigated the human skeletal muscle transcriptome responses to differentiated exercise and non-exercise control intervention, and; (2) set out to develop a straightforward...... direct comparison between essentially different modes of exercise and the ability to identify true exercise effect, necessitate implementation of independent non-exercise control subjects. Furthermore, muscle transcriptome data made available through previous exercise studies can be difficult to extract...

  3. The Impact of Human Gene Patents on Innovation and Access: A Survey of Human Gene Patent Litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Holman, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, an article in the highly influential journal Science reported that roughly 20% of human genes are patented. This figure has been widely cited and at times over-interpreted. For example, a popular science fiction author warns the public that their bodies are “owned” by someone else. A bill was introduced in Congress in 2007 that would essentially seek to ban the patenting of DNA. The bill appears motivated in part by a perception that one-fifth of our genes are owned by somebody e...

  4. Log analysis of human computer interactions regarding Break The Glass accesses to genetic reports

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Patients’ privacy is critical in healthcare but users of Electronic Health Records (EHR) frequently circumvent existing security rules to perform their daily work. Users are so-called the weakest link in security but they are, many times, part of the solution when they are involved in systems’ design. In the healthcare domain, the focus is to treat patients (many times with scarce technological, time and human resources) and not to secure their information. Therefore, security must not interf...

  5. Simplified data access on human skeletal muscle transcriptome responses to differentiated exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Vissing, Kristian; Schjerling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated exercise-induced global gene expression responses in human skeletal muscle and these have typically focused at one specific mode of exercise and not implemented non-exercise control models. However, interpretation on effects of differentiated exercise necessitate direct comparison between essentially different modes of exercise and the ability to identify true exercise effect, necessitate implementation of independent non-exercise control subjects. Furthermore, m...

  6. The shaping of social perception by stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Emily S.; Ramsey, Richard; Liepelt, Roman; Prinz, Wolfgang; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2016-01-01

    Although robots are becoming an ever-growing presence in society, we do not hold the same expectations for robots as we do for humans, nor do we treat them the same. As such, the ability to recognize cues to human animacy is fundamental for guiding social interactions. We review literature that demonstrates cortical networks associated with person perception, action observation and mentalizing are sensitive to human animacy information. In addition, we show that most prior research has explor...

  7. The human capital in the knowledge society. Theoretical and empirical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pelinescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We live today in a changing society based on the globalization and better valorisation of the human capital. The human capital is the central driver force for competitiveness and development of the new technology and patent and a necessary factor for their efficient use in the new society. In order to reach the competitiveness objective, the European Union member countries seek to develop their human capital value by increasing investment in education, science and technology development. Based on the panel econometrics techniques, this paper explores the statistical correlations between human capital components and national competitiveness within the EU economic context.

  8. Hubungan antara Knowledge-Technology-Innovation (KTI, Commitment, Competence, Leadership, Government Policy, Human Capital, dan Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In current tight competitive situation, companies always try to create differentiation anytime to achieve better and sustainable performance. Rapid and unpredictable changes insist the companies should always be innovative, so that aspects of globalization, e-business, technology innovation, creativity, global competition, knowledge creation, diffusion of new technologies and knowledge revolution should be sources of performance and competitiveness improvement. Therefore, tomaintain core competencies and competitive advantage, the companies should develop continuous innovation, technologylearning, and knowledge management. Knowledge-Technology-Innovation (KTI can be a driver for country’s development and growth. Japan, South Korea, and Singapore are the countries that have limited natural and human resources, but able to achieve sustainable economic development. KTI is not only to be practiced at individual and organizational level, but also can be implemented at the community, national, or state level. KTI, therefore, can encourage expected competitive advantage creation and become a decisive factor for a country to achieve stable and sustainable economic growth. This research intends to analyze relationships of KTI, competitive advantage, commitment, leadership, human capital, government policy,and competence. This research used correlational method and literature study approach. The result of this research is a relationship model of each of these aspects that can be used as a framework for further research. The relationships model isas follows: Leadership, competence, and human capital (as independent variables have direct relationship (influence oncompetitive advantage (dependent variable or indirectly (through KTI as an intervening variable; KTI has direct relationship (effect on competitive advantage; Government policy and commitment are moderator variables for relationshipof KTI and competitive advantage.

  9. HUBUNGAN ANTARA KNOWLEDGE-TECHNOLOGY-INNOVATION (KTI, COMMITMENT, COMPETENCE, LEADERSHIP, GOVERNMENT POLICY, HUMAN CAPITAL, DAN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In current tight competitive situation, companies always try to create differentiation anytime to achieve better and sustainable performance. Rapid and unpredictable changes insist the companies should always be innovative, so that aspects of globalization, e-business, technology innovation, creativity, global competition, knowledge creation, diffusion of new technologies and knowledge revolution should be sources of performance and competitiveness improvement. Therefore, to maintain core competencies and competitive advantage, the companies should develop continuous innovation, technology learning, and knowledge management. Knowledge-Technology-Innovation (KTI can be a driver for countrys development and growth. Japan, South Korea, and Singapore are the countries that have limited natural and human resources, but able to achieve sustainable economic development. KTI is not only to be practiced at individual and organizational level, but also can be implemented at the community, national, or state level. KTI, therefore, can encourage expected competitive advantage creation and become a decisive factor for a country to achieve stable and sustainable economic growth. This research intends to analyze relationships of KTI, competitive advantage, commitment, leadership, human capital, government policy, and competence. This research used correlational method and literature study approach. The result of this research is a relationship model of each of these aspects that can be used as a framework for further research. The relationships model is as follows: Leadership, competence, and human capital (as independent variables have direct relationship (influence on competitive advantage (dependent variable or indirectly (through KTI as an intervening variable; KTI has direct relationship (effect on competitive advantage; Government policy and commitment are moderator variables for relationship of KTI and competitive advantage.

  10. [Current modalities and concepts on access and use of biospecimen samples and associated data for research from human biobanks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Roman; Semler, Sebastian Claudius

    2016-03-01

    It is accepted worldwide that biospecimen and data sharing (BDS) play an essential role for the future of medical research to improve diagnostics and prognostics, e.g. by validated biomarkers. BDS is also pivotal to the development of new therapeutic treatments and for the improvement of population health. Human biobanks can generate an added value to this need by providing biospecimens and/or associated data to researchers. An inspection of several examples of epidemiological as well as clinical/disease-oriented biobanks in Germany shows that best practice procedures (BPP) that are internationally agreed on are being installed for biospecimen and/or data access. In general, fair access is aimed at requiring a written application by the requesting scientist, which is then peer-reviewed for scientific and ethical validity by the Biobank. Applied BPP take into account (i) patient education/agreement according to the informed consent model, (ii) privacy protection, (iii) intellectual property rights, the (iv) notification obligation of health-related findings (including incidental findings), the (v) use of material (MTA) and data transfer agreements (DTA) for mutual legal security, the avoidance of conflicts of interests, as well as for cost recovery/fee for service as a basis for sustainability of the biobank. BPP are rooted in the self-regulation efforts of life sciences and are supported by parent ethics committees in Germany. Central biobank registries displaying aggregated information on biospecimens stored and the research foci constitute an important tool to make biobanks that are scattered across the country visible to each other, and, can thus promote access to hitherto unknown biospecimen and data resources. PMID:26809822

  11. Assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogy on entrepreneurship knowledge and entrepreneurial human capital asset: A conceptual model

    OpenAIRE

    Chidimma Odira Okeke; David Gun Fie Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study is an effort to propose a conceptual model to measure the impact assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogic. It delineates entrepreneurship education pedagogic into four dimensions and opined specific level for each dimension. Reviewing the entrepreneurship education programme, assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogic evaluates the structure that influence growth mindset development through embedded heuristic strategies, thus, the impact on entrepreneurship knowledge and entrepreneur...

  12. Prior knowledge about objects determines neural color representation in human visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R.E. Vandenbroucke; J.J. Fahrenfort; J.D.I. Meuwese; H.S. Scholte; V.A.F. Lamme

    2014-01-01

    To create subjective experience, our brain must translate physical stimulus input by incorporating prior knowledge and expectations. For example, we perceive color and not wavelength information, and this in part depends on our past experience with colored objects ( Hansen et al. 2006; Mitterer and

  13. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart Massad, L.; Evans, Charlesnika T.; Weber, Kathleen M.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Hessol, Nancy A.; Wright, Rodney L.; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe changes in knowledge of cervical cancer prevention, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccination among women at high risk for cervical cancer in the first five years after introduction of HPV vaccination. Methods In 2007, 2008–9, and 2011, women in a multicenter U.S. cohort study completed 44-item self-report questionnaires assessing knowledge of cervical cancer prevention, HPV, and HPV vaccination. Results across time were assessed for individuals, and three study enrollment cohorts were compared. Knowledge scores were correlated with demographic variables, measures of education and attention, and medical factors. Associations were assessed in multivariable models. Results In all, 974 women completed three serial questionnaires; most were minority, low income, and current or former smokers. The group included 652 (67%) HIV infected and 322 (33%) uninfected. Summary knowledge scores (possible range 0–24) increased from 2007 (12.8, S.D. 5.8) to 2008–9 (13.9, S.D. 5.3, P < 0.001) and to 2011 (14.3, S.D. 5.2, P < 0.0001 vs 2007 and < 0.04 vs 2008–9). Higher knowledge scores at first and follow-up administration of questionnaires, higher income, and higher education level were associated with improved knowledge score at third administration. Women not previously surveyed had scores similar to those of the longitudinal group at baseline. Conclusion Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding. PMID:25870859

  14. The shaping of social perception by stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cross, E.S.; Ramsey, R.; Liepelt, R.; Prinz, W.G.; Hamilton, A.F.D.C.

    2016-01-01

    Although robots are becoming an ever-growing presence in society, we do not hold the same expectations for robots as we do for humans, nor do we treat them the same. As such, the ability to recognize cues to human animacy is fundamental for guiding social interactions. We review literature that demo

  15. Knowledge Creation and Human Capital for Development: The Role of Graduate Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Jay; Abubakar, Y. A.; Sagagi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Tackling structural and emergent problems in the labour market, valorising skilled human capital (HC) for opportunity creation, economic development and growth, are some of the key drivers for graduate entrepreneurship. This paper aims to examine developments in Africa, focusing on the significance of improving human capital through…

  16. The Analysis of Fiber Sensor of Temperature Field Disturbance by Human Body Part Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Dvorak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of this sensor function is based on polarization maintaining fiber (PMF sensitivity during excitation of both two polarization modes. This excitation is caused by temperature change, when absorbing thermal radiation. This mechanism is used for detection of temperature field disturbance as an indicator. In the case described below, attention was devoted to temperature field disturbance on a part of the human body. Thus this sensor system could be used for protection of some entity. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of PMF to radiating heat, the space configuration and time response.

  17. Orientation-Dependent 3He Lung Imaging in an Open Access, Very-Low-Field Human MRI System

    CERN Document Server

    Mair, R W; Patz, S; Rosen, M S; Ruset, I C; Topulos, G P; Tsai, L L; Butler, J P; Hersman, F W; Walsworth, R L

    2004-01-01

    Orientation-dependent imaging of human lungs is demonstrated using inhaled laser-polarized 3He gas and an open-access very-low-magnetic field (< 5 mT) MRI instrument. This prototype device employs a simple, low-cost electromagnet, with an open geometry that allows variation of the orientation of the imaging subject in a two-dimensional plane. Two-dimensional 3He images were acquired with 2 mm in-plane resolution from a subject in two orientations: lying supine, and sitting in a vertical position with one arm raised. The images show clear differences in lung shape and inhaled 3He gas distribution, consistent with the expected orientation dependence of pulmonary physiology.

  18. Quality of life, socioeconomic profile, knowledge and attitude toward sexuality from the perspectives of individuals living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiry Fernanda Pinto Okuno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to analyze the quality of life of "patients" with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and relate it to their socioeconomic profile, knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality. Method: crosssectional and analytical study with 201 individuals who are 50 years old or older. The Targeted Quality of Life and Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scales were applied during interviews. Multiple Linear Regression was used in data analysis. Results: dimensions of quality of life more strongly compromised were disclosure worries (39.0, sexual function (45.9, and financial worries (55.6. Scores concerning knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality were 31.7 and 14.8, respectively. There was significant correlation between attitudes and the domains of overall function, health worries, medication worries, and HIV mastery. Conclusion: guidance concerning how the disease is transmitted, treated and how it progresses, in addition to providing social and psychological support, could minimize the negative effects of the disease on the quality of life of patients living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

  19. Access to bacteriophage therapy: discouraging experiences from the human cell and tissue legal framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeken, G; Huys, I; De Vos, D; De Coninck, A; Roseeuw, D; Kets, E; Vanderkelen, A; Draye, J P; Rose, T; Jennes, S; Ceulemans, C; Pirnay, J P

    2016-02-01

    Cultures of human epithelial cells (keratinocytes) are used as an additional surgical tool to treat critically burnt patients. Initially, the production environment of keratinocyte grafts was regulated exclusively by national regulations. In 2004, the European Tissues and Cells Directive 2004/23/EC (transposed into Belgian Law) imposed requirements that resulted in increased production costs and no significant increase in quality and/or safety. In 2007, Europe published Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007 on Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products. Overnight, cultured keratinocytes became (arguably) 'Advanced' Therapy Medicinal Products to be produced as human medicinal products. The practical impact of these amendments was (and still is) considerable. A similar development appears imminent in bacteriophage therapy. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that can be used for tackling the problem of bacterial resistance development to antibiotics. Therapeutic natural bacteriophages have been in clinical use for almost 100 years. Regulators today are framing the (re-)introduction of (natural) bacteriophage therapy into 'modern western' medicine as biological medicinal products, also subject to stringent regulatory medicinal products requirements. In this paper, we look back on a century of bacteriophage therapy to make the case that therapeutic natural bacteriophages should not be classified under the medicinal product regulatory frames as they exist today. It is our call to authorities to not repeat the mistake of the past.

  20. Building organizational supports for knowledge sharing in county human service organizations: a cross-case analysis of works-in-progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chris; Austin, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Building on the literature related to evidence-based practice, knowledge management, and learning organizations, this cross-case analysis presents twelve works-in-progress in ten local public human service organizations seeking to develop their own knowledge sharing systems. The data for this cross-case analysis can be found in the various contributions to this Special Issue. The findings feature the developmental aspects of building a learning organization that include knowledge sharing systems featuring transparency, self-assessment, and dissemination and utilization. Implications for practice focus on the structure and processes involved in building knowledge sharing teams inside public human service organizations.

  1. Assessing knowledge of human papillomavirus and collecting data on sexual behavior: computer assisted telephone versus face to face interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garland Suzanne

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education campaigns seeking to raise awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV and promoting HPV vaccination depend on accurate surveys of public awareness and knowledge of HPV and related sexual behavior. However, the most recent population-based studies have relied largely on computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI as opposed to face to face interviews (FTFI. It is currently unknown how these survey modes differ, and in particular whether they attract similar demographics and therefore lead to similar overall findings. Methods A comprehensive survey of HPV awareness and knowledge, including sexual behavior, was conducted among 3,045 Singaporean men and women, half of whom participated via CATI, the other half via FTFI. Results Overall levels of awareness and knowledge of HPV differed between CATI and FTFI, attributable in part to demographic variations between these survey modes. Although disclosure of sexual behavior was greater when using CATI, few differences between survey modes were found in the actual information disclosed. Conclusion Although CATI is a cheaper, faster alternative to FTFI and people appear more willing to provide information about sexual behavior when surveyed using CATI, thorough assessments of HPV awareness and knowledge depend on multiple survey modes.

  2. Integrating Ethno-Ecological and Scientific Knowledge of Termites for Sustainable Termite Management and Human Welfare in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Sekematte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their well-known role as pests, termites also provide essential ecosystem services. In this paper, we undertook a comprehensive review of studies on human–termite interactions and farmers’ indigenous knowledge across Sub-Saharan Africa in an effort to build coherent principles for termite management. The review revealed that local communities have comprehensive indigenous knowledge of termite ecology and taxonomy, and apply various indigenous control practices. Many communities also have elaborate knowledge of the nutritional and medicinal value of termites and mushrooms associated with termite nests. Children and women also widely consume termite mound soil for nutritional or other benefits encouraged by indigenous belief systems. In addition, subsistence farmers use termites as indicators of soil fertility, and use termite mound soil in low-risk farming strategies for crop production. In the past, chemical control of termites has been initiated without empirical data on the termite species, their damage threshold, and the social, ecological, or economic risks and trade-offs of the control. This review has provided new insights into the intimate nature of human–termite interactions in Africa and the risks of chemical control of termites to human welfare and the environment. We recommend that management of termites in future should be built on farmers’ indigenous knowledge and adequate understanding of the ecology of the local termite species.

  3. Integrating Access to Arctic Environmental Change and Human Health Research for the International Polar Year and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, C. L.

    2006-12-01

    Each day, people in the communities of the Arctic face challenges to their health and well-being from changing climatic and environmental conditions and increasing levels of pollution to emerging infectious diseases. For this reason, it is critical that Arctic researchers and residents have access to timely, accurate, and relevant information addressing their unique concerns. To meet this need, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA) have developed the Arctic Health website, www.arctichealth.org. The website provides an easy-to-use one-stop shop for information on the diverse health-related aspects of the Arctic region. It is organized around relevant topics, including climate change and environmental health, traditional healing and telehealth/telemedicine. The Arctic Health website provides links to the most reliable resources available from local, state, and international agencies, universities, and professional organizations. Two major goals of the site are to create a comprehensive, accessible repository for various media and a listing of research projects, past and present that relate to climate change and human health in the Arctic. To increase the site's relevance, the project has established and continues to create collaborations with researchers, communities, and other organizations to supply publications not available elsewhere, including gray literature, streaming video of traditional healers, and oral histories. These collaborations will also help ensure a database with a comprehensive list of research projects being done in the Arctic, from the international to the local level. Finding ways to negotiate the legal, cultural and national concerns of data sharing are a continuing job for the management team. All of this helps to create a system that will eventually track and ensure that data and reports from the research database translate to the publications database. As part of these efforts, the site is

  4. Carotenoids: Actual knowledge on food sources, intakes, stability and bioavailability and their protective role in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiani, Giuseppe; Castón, María Jesús Periago; Catasta, Giovina;

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are one of the major food micronutrients in human diets and the overall objective of this review is to re-examine the role of carotenoids in human nutrition. We have emphasized the attention on the following carotenoids present in food and human tissues: -carotene, -cryptoxanthin......, -carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin; we have reported the major food sources and dietary intake of these compounds. We have tried to summarize positive and negative effects of food processing, storage, cooking on carotenoid content and carotenoid bioavailability. In particular, we have evidenced...... the possibility to improve carotenoids bioavailability in accordance with changes and variations of technology procedures....

  5. The need for nuclear knowledge management and human resources development in the nuclear technology in a least developed country: The Haiti case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As All specialist recognizes it knowledge management refers to issues related to organizational adaptation, survival and competence in the context of a discontinuous environmental change. It concerns also organizational process seeking synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of the technologies of information with the capacity of human beings. Knowledge management in this sense implies not only organizational and technology processes but involves also human resources development. Our intervention in the context of this forum will focus around a planned INIS project that has been submitted to the Agency for the cycle 2005-2006 and the synergistic ties it can develop with a nuclear knowledge management policy for Haiti. Haiti is the sole least developed country of Latin America and the main challenge it faces is that of reducing poverty. The population of Haiti is around 7.900.000 inhabitants; In terms of annual per capita income the estimated indigency line for 1996 was $160 per year and the poverty line was around $ 220; 2/3 of the rural households fell under the indigency line and 20% only of the population exceeded the poverty line. Main causes of this situation are: land erosion, water scarcity, degradation of the environment, lack of the competitiveness of the economy, lack of electricity etc In all these areas the nuclear techniques can contribute to solve the problem of poverty in Haiti by fulfilling the need to sustain the valuable human resources under the dire circumstances of the local economic conditions. By taking account of the recent efforts of the Government to enhance the manpower capabilities there is a real need now to manage the scarce resources so that they can be retained, expanded and eventually multiplied. Under this perspective the Haitian Government is applying a strategy seeking to involve all the sectors concerned by the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques. After 3 years of diffusion of

  6. Innovative Knowledge Management At Disney: Human Capital And Queuing Solutions For Services

    OpenAIRE

    Rachelle F. Cope; Robert F. Cope III; Anna N. Bass; Holly A. Syrdal

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that most activities in which a service is provided require customers to wait in a queue during the experience. One thing that is inherent in waiting lines is the universal dislike for the process. In fact, the feelings and opinions developed in waiting lines influence the customer’s perception of the awaited experience. In this paper, Disney is used as a case study for queuing solutions. In particular, we examine their implementation of Knowledge Management (KM) solutions to...

  7. Knowledge of the Most-at-Risk Populations about Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebadian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study we tried to assess the knowledge of general population (15-45 years, injecting drug users, female sex workers, MSM and male prisoners about HIV prevention in Iran. Approach: Respondents are asked the following set of prompted questions: (a Can we reduce the risk of HIV transmission by having sex with only one uninfected partner who has no other partners? (b Can we reduce the risk of getting HIV by using a condom every time we have sex? (c Can have HIV a healthy-looking person? (d Can a person get HIV by sharing food with someone who is infected? (e Can a person get HIV from mosquito bits? Results: In this study at compared with the resent studies we saw that, the general knowledge on the effect of consistent and correct use of condom as means of HIV prevention has been increased. There is a decrease in the number of the youth that assume sting of a mosquito can transmit HIV. There were no remarkable change in the perception of the thought that HIV is not transmitted through eating and the possibility of people living with HIV are safe. Conclusion: The current meta-analysis indicated that the awareness on the positive effect of condomization on HIV prevention has increased in recent years, but it is still far from being satisfactory and other basic knowledge about HIV has not improved and there is still a substantial gap with the desired figures.

  8. Human Rights and/or Market Logic: Neoliberalism, Difficult Knowledge, and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) has been plagued by controversy since before its construction even began. Outcries regarding perceived oversights in the museum's programming and objections to the cost of construction, curatorial development, and staffing have erupted frequently in local media. Critical analyses of public responses to…

  9. Knowledge grows when shared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbæk, Mikael Karstensen

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge is one of the few commodities that don’t devalue when used. Actually knowledge grows when shared and the free online access to peer-reviewed scientific publications is a potent ingredient the process of sharing. The sharing of knowledge is facilitated by the Open Access Movement. However...... infrastructure for Open Access was launched in Ghent, Belgium. This project and initiative is facilitating the success of the Open Access Pilot in FP7 as presented earlier in this journal. In this brief article I will present some of the most interesting issues that were discussed during the first session...

  10. Can International Human Rights Law Help Restore Access to Justice for Disabled Workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Harwood

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research literature indicates that legislative changes in recent years, including the introduction of tribunal fees, have made it harder for workers in general to enforce their rights under UK employment laws. Drawing on the author’s qualitative study, conducted in 2015 and with information from 265 participants, this paper finds that these legislative changes could be having disproportionate adverse impacts on disabled workers. Of particular note, fees had deterred substantial numbers from submitting discrimination claims; and it appeared that this reluctance to take legal action had in turn emboldened some employers to commit what might have been found to constitute unlawful acts if taken to tribunal. The paper goes onto consider whether these adverse impacts on disabled workers could render fees unlawful under UK and European equality and human rights law and/or could entail violations of rights under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The paper concludes that the intent behind UK laws might (in relation to the lawfulness of fees have been frustrated in the domestic courts and that the impact of any future successes in the domestic courts, or under international law, might be dependent upon public opinion and political expediency. The paper also briefly compares developments in Britain with developments in neighbouring and other comparable jurisdictions.

  11. THE KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Lupsa Dana; Constantin Sanda

    2007-01-01

    For the past years, information and knowledge are replacing capital and energy as the primary wealth-creating assets, generating a new type of economy, and called knowledge based economy (KBE), within knowledge management is the main instrument for the companies to obtain competitive advantage. Given the goal of EU established at Lisbon and the perspective of Romania’s accession to EU, Romanian companies must align their management practices with knowledge management in order to survive on a ...

  12. The role of the University in the context of Inclusive Education Policy: reflections about human resources formation and knowledge production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Glat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present text aims to discuss and present, briefly action lines about the role of University in the promotion of psicossocial and educational development of people with handicap and other special needs. Taking the framework of specialized literature, it brings different questions dealing with human resources formation, specially, teacher formation, and the production of knowledge in the area of Special Education, obtained through research and extension projects, done, preferentially, in partnership with the educational agents that work in the field. It also analyses how these actions may influence the implementation of policies regarding school, labor, and social inclusion of people with handicap and other developmental disorders.

  13. Usability and Acceptance of the Librarian Infobutton Tailoring Environment: An Open Access Online Knowledge Capture, Management, and Configuration Tool for OpenInfobutton

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, Xia; James J Cimino; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Background The Librarian Infobutton Tailoring Environment (LITE) is a Web-based knowledge capture, management, and configuration tool with which users can build profiles used by OpenInfobutton, an open source infobutton manager, to provide electronic health record users with context-relevant links to online knowledge resources. Objective We conducted a multipart evaluation study to explore users’ attitudes and acceptance of LITE and to guide future development. Methods The evaluation consiste...

  14. Imprisoned and imperiled: access to HIV and TB prevention and treatment, and denial of human rights, in Zambian prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todrys Katherine W

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although HIV and tuberculosis (TB prevalence are high in prisons throughout sub-Saharan Africa, little research has been conducted on factors related to prevention, testing and treatment services. Methods To better understand the relationship between prison conditions, the criminal justice system, and HIV and TB in Zambian prisons, we conducted a mixed-method study, including: facility assessments and in-depth interviews with 246 prisoners and 30 prison officers at six Zambian prisons; a review of Zambian legislation and policy governing prisons and the criminal justice system; and 46 key informant interviews with government and non-governmental organization officials and representatives of international agencies and donors. Results The facility assessments, in-depth interviews and key informant interviews found serious barriers to HIV and TB prevention and treatment, and extended pre-trial detention that contributed to overcrowded conditions. Disparities both between prisons and among different categories of prisoners within prisons were noted, with juveniles, women, pre-trial detainees and immigration detainees significantly less likely to access health services. Conclusions Current conditions and the lack of available medical care in Zambia's prisons violate human rights protections and threaten prisoners' health. In order to protect the health of prisoners, prison-based health services, linkages to community-based health care, general prison conditions and failures of the criminal justice system that exacerbate overcrowding must be immediately improved. International donors should work with the Zambian government to support prison and justice system reform and ensure that their provision of funding in such areas as health services respect human rights standards, including non-discrimination. Human rights protections against torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and criminal justice system rights, are

  15. Communication and knowledge sharing in human-robot interaction and learning from demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Nathan; Takayama, Leila; Matarić, Maja

    2010-01-01

    Inexpensive personal robots will soon become available to a large portion of the population. Currently, most consumer robots are relatively simple single-purpose machines or toys. In order to be cost effective and thus widely accepted, robots will need to be able to accomplish a wide range of tasks in diverse conditions. Learning these tasks from demonstrations offers a convenient mechanism to customize and train a robot by transferring task related knowledge from a user to a robot. This avoids the time-consuming and complex process of manual programming. The way in which the user interacts with a robot during a demonstration plays a vital role in terms of how effectively and accurately the user is able to provide a demonstration. Teaching through demonstrations is a social activity, one that requires bidirectional communication between a teacher and a student. The work described in this paper studies how the user's visual observation of the robot and the robot's auditory cues affect the user's ability to teach the robot in a social setting. Results show that auditory cues provide important knowledge about the robot's internal state, while visual observation of a robot can hinder an instructor due to incorrect mental models of the robot and distractions from the robot's movements.

  16. The effects of type of knowledge upon human problem solving in a process control task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, N. M.; Rouse, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    The question of what the operator of a dynamic system needs to know was investigated in an experiment using PLANT, a simulation of a generic dynamic production process. Knowledge of PLANT was manipulated via different types of instruction, so that four different groups were created: (1) minimal instructions only; (2) minimal instructions and guidelines for operation (procedures); (3) minimal instructions and dynamic relationships (principles); and (4) minimal instructions, and procedures, and principles. Subjects controlled PLANT in a variety of situations which required maintaining production while also diagnosing familiar and unfamiliar failures. Despite the fact that these manipulations resulted in differences in subjects' Knowledge, as assessed via a written test at the end of the experiment, instructions had no effect upon achievement of the primary goal of production, or upon subjects' ability to diagnose unfamiliar failures. However, those groups receiving procedures controlled the system in a more stable manner. Possible reasons for the failure to find an effect of principles are presented, and the implications of these results for operator training and aiding are discussed.

  17. Knowledge of young Polish women of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Biała

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. HPV infection is the most frequent sexually transmitted disease and a major epidemiological problem in the world. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are responsible for over 70.0% cases of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of young women concerning HPV infection as well as possibilities of cervical cancer prevention. Moreover, the study had to determine which groups of young women especially required educational campaigns. Material and methods. The questionnaire survey was carried out among 126 young Polish women aged 18–35. The results were statistically analyzed. Results. The survey found that 41.3% women had heard about HPV before interview. Nearly 38.5% of women correctly indicated the occurrence of cancer which is associated with HPV infection. About 23.0% of women received a vaccination against HPV, only 19.2% of women correctly identified who should be subjected to vaccination. The best knowledge about cervical cancer and disease prevention was manifested among female university graduates and groups living in urban areas. Those women also more often underwent cytological screening. Conclusions. Educational campaigns should particularly include group of women living in the rural areas and women with primary and secondary education.

  18. Human vs. Computer Diagnosis of Students' Natural Selection Knowledge: Testing the Efficacy of Text Analytic Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Haertig, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Our study examines the efficacy of Computer Assisted Scoring (CAS) of open-response text relative to expert human scoring within the complex domain of evolutionary biology. Specifically, we explored whether CAS can diagnose the explanatory elements (or Key Concepts) that comprise undergraduate students' explanatory models of natural selection with…

  19. Clearing the Highest Hurdle: Human-Based Case Studies Broaden Students' Knowledge of Core Evolutionary Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Alexander J.

    2009-01-01

    An anonymous survey instrument was used for a ten year study to gauge college student attitudes toward evolution. Results indicate that students are most likely to accept evolution as a historical process for change in physical features of non-human organisms. They are less likely to accept evolution as an ongoing process that shapes all traits…

  20. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato genotypes infecting humans--review of current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Romig, Thomas; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variability in the species group Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is well recognised as affecting intermediate host susceptibility and other biological features of the parasites. Molecular methods have allowed discrimination of different genotypes (G1-10 and the 'lion strain'), some of which are now considered separate species. An accumulation of genotypic analyses undertaken on parasite isolates from human cases of cystic echinococcosis provides the basis upon which an assessment is made here of the relative contribution of the different genotypes to human disease. The allocation of samples to G-numbers becomes increasingly difficult, because much more variability than previously recognised exists in the genotypic clusters G1-3 (=E. granulosus sensu stricto) and G6-10 (Echinococcus canadensis). To accommodate the heterogeneous criteria used for genotyping in the literature, we restrict ourselves to differentiate between E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-3), Echinococcus equinus (G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6-7, G8, G10). The genotype G1 is responsible for the great majority of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide (88.44%), has the most cosmopolitan distribution and is often associated with transmission via sheep as intermediate hosts. The closely related genotypes G6 and G7 cause a significant number of human infections (11.07%). The genotype G6 was found to be responsible for 7.34% of infections worldwide. This strain is known from Africa and Asia, where it is transmitted mainly by camels (and goats), and South America, where it appears to be mainly transmitted by goats. The G7 genotype has been responsible for 3.73% of human cases of cystic echinococcosis in eastern European countries, where the parasite is transmitted by pigs. Some of the samples (11) could not be identified with a single specific genotype belonging to E. canadensis (G6/10). Rare cases of human cystic echinococcosis have been identified as having been caused by

  1. Harnessing the Risk-Related Data Supply Chain: An Information Architecture Approach to Enriching Human System Research and Operations Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buquo, Lynn; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) and Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD), not unlike many NASA organizations today, struggle with the inherent inefficiencies caused by dependencies on heterogeneous data systems and silos of data and information spread across decentralized discipline domains. The capture of operational and research-based data/information (both in-flight and ground-based) in disparate IT systems impedes the extent to which that data/information can be efficiently and securely shared, analyzed, and enriched into knowledge that directly and more rapidly supports HRP's research-focused human system risk mitigation efforts and SLSD s operationally oriented risk management efforts. As a result, an integrated effort is underway to more fully understand and document how specific sets of risk-related data/information are generated and used and in what IT systems that data/information currently resides. By mapping the risk-related data flow from raw data to useable information and knowledge (think of it as the data supply chain), HRP and SLSD are building an information architecture plan to leverage their existing, shared IT infrastructure. In addition, it is important to create a centralized structured tool to represent risks including attributes such as likelihood, consequence, contributing factors, and the evidence supporting the information in all these fields. Representing the risks in this way enables reasoning about the risks, e.g. revisiting a risk assessment when a mitigation strategy is unavailable, updating a risk assessment when new information becomes available, etc. Such a system also provides a concise way to communicate the risks both within the organization as well as with collaborators. Understanding and, hence, harnessing the human system risk-related data supply chain enhances both organizations' abilities to securely collect, integrate, and share data assets that improve human system research and operations.

  2. The International Conference on Human Resources Development Strategies in the Knowledge-Based Society [Proceedings] (Seoul, South Korea, August 29, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korea Research Inst. for Vocational Education and Training, Seoul.

    This document contains the following seven papers, all in both English and Korean, from a conference on human resources development and school-to-work transitions in the knowledge-based society: "The U.S. Experience as a Knowledge-based Economy in Transition and Its Impact on Industrial and Employment Structures" (Eric Im); "Changes in the…

  3. School Nurses' Knowledge, Attitudes, Perceptions of Role as Opinion Leader, and Professional Practice Regarding Human Papillomavirus Vaccine for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L.; Goodson, Patricia; Thompson, Bruce; Wilson, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates remain low, we evaluated US school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, and professional practice regarding HPV vaccine, and assessed whether knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of being an opinion leader influenced their professional…

  4. How concepts are encoded in the human brain: A modality independent, category-based cortical organization of semantic knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handjaras, Giacomo; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Leo, Andrea; Lenci, Alessandro; Cecchetti, Luca; Cosottini, Mirco; Marotta, Giovanna; Pietrini, Pietro

    2016-07-15

    How conceptual knowledge is represented in the human brain remains to be determined. To address the differential role of low-level sensory-based and high-level abstract features in semantic processing, we combined behavioral studies of linguistic production and brain activity measures by functional magnetic resonance imaging in sighted and congenitally blind individuals while they performed a property-generation task with concrete nouns from eight categories, presented through visual and/or auditory modalities. Patterns of neural activity within a large semantic cortical network that comprised parahippocampal, lateral occipital, temporo-parieto-occipital and inferior parietal cortices correlated with linguistic production and were independent both from the modality of stimulus presentation (either visual or auditory) and the (lack of) visual experience. In contrast, selected modality-dependent differences were observed only when the analysis was limited to the individual regions within the semantic cortical network. We conclude that conceptual knowledge in the human brain relies on a distributed, modality-independent cortical representation that integrates the partial category and modality specific information retained at a regional level.

  5. How concepts are encoded in the human brain: A modality independent, category-based cortical organization of semantic knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handjaras, Giacomo; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Leo, Andrea; Lenci, Alessandro; Cecchetti, Luca; Cosottini, Mirco; Marotta, Giovanna; Pietrini, Pietro

    2016-07-15

    How conceptual knowledge is represented in the human brain remains to be determined. To address the differential role of low-level sensory-based and high-level abstract features in semantic processing, we combined behavioral studies of linguistic production and brain activity measures by functional magnetic resonance imaging in sighted and congenitally blind individuals while they performed a property-generation task with concrete nouns from eight categories, presented through visual and/or auditory modalities. Patterns of neural activity within a large semantic cortical network that comprised parahippocampal, lateral occipital, temporo-parieto-occipital and inferior parietal cortices correlated with linguistic production and were independent both from the modality of stimulus presentation (either visual or auditory) and the (lack of) visual experience. In contrast, selected modality-dependent differences were observed only when the analysis was limited to the individual regions within the semantic cortical network. We conclude that conceptual knowledge in the human brain relies on a distributed, modality-independent cortical representation that integrates the partial category and modality specific information retained at a regional level. PMID:27132545

  6. Teachers' knowledge sharing: a study on the influence of work engagement, occupational self-efficacy and Human Resources Management on knowledge sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.; Runhaar, P.; Konermann, J.; Sanders, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge sharing is one of the professionalizetion processes and is an important factor in the competition between organizations and for innovation processes to sustain. In this study the central theme is the way knowledge sharing is affected by occupational self-efficacy (OSE), work engagement and

  7. The effects of level of knowledge upon human problem solving in a process control task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, N. M.; Rouse, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of knowledge of a system on the performance of the operator has been investigated using PLANT, a generic simulation of a process. Four sets of written instructions representing the what, how, and why of system control were utilized by groups of subjects who controlled PLANT in a variety of familiar and unfamiliar situations. Written test results at the end of the experiments showed that the instructions had no effect on the primary goal of production, but those groups receiving guidelines for operation (the how) controlled the system in a more stable manner. Principles (the why) had no apparent effect on the subjects' performance. There was no difference between groups in diagnosing unfamiliar events.

  8. Bromo volcano area as human-environment system: interaction of volcanic eruption, local knowledge, risk perception and adaptation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Sartohadi, Junun

    2013-04-01

    People in the Bromo area (located within Tengger Caldera) have learn to live with the threat of volcanic hazard since this volcano is categorized as an active volcano in Indonesia. During 2010, the eruption intensity increased yielding heavy ash fall and glowing rock fragments. A significant risk is also presented by mass movement which reaches areas up to 25 km from the crater. As a result of the 2010 eruption, 12 houses were destroyed, 25 houses collapsed and there were severe also effects on agriculture and the livestock sector. This paper focuses on understanding the interaction of Bromo volcanic eruption processes and their social responses. The specific aims are to 1) identify the 2010 eruption of Bromo 2) examine the human-volcano relationship within Bromo area in general, and 3) investigate the local knowledge related to hazard, risk perception and their adaptation strategies in specific. In-depth interviews with 33 informants from four districts nearest to the crater included local people and authorities were carried out. The survey focused on farmers, key persons (dukun), students and teachers in order to understand how people respond to Bromo eruption. The results show that the eruption in 2010 was unusual as it took continued for nine months, the longest period in Bromo history. The type of eruption was phreatomagmatic producing material dominated by ash to fine sand. This kind of sediment typically belongs to Tengger mountain eruptions which had produced vast explosions in the past. Furthermore, two years after the eruption, the interviewed people explained that local knowledge and their experiences with volcanic activity do not influence their risk perception. Dealing with this eruption, people in the Bromo area applied 'lumbung desa' (traditional saving systems) and mutual aid activity for surviving the volcanic eruption. Keywords: Human-environment system, local knowledge, risk perception, adaptation strategies, Bromo Volcano Indonesia

  9. Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heukelbach Jorg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. They may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. In Nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited. Methods In a community-based study, we examined 396 dogs in urban and rural areas of Ilorin (Kwara State, Central Nigeria for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths. In addition, a questionnaire regarding knowledge and practices was applied to pet owners. Results Nine ectoparasite species belonging to four taxa and six intestinal helminth species were identified: fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, Tunga penetrans, mites (Demodex canis, Otodectes sp., Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis, ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes sp., and lice (Trichodectes canis; and Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum, Taenidae and Strongyloides sp. Overall prevalence of ectoparasites was 60.4% and of intestinal helminths 68.4%. The occurrence of C. canis, R. sanguineus, T. canis, Ancylostoma sp. and T. vulpis was most common (prevalence 14.4% to 41.7%. Prevalence patterns in helminths were age-dependent, with T. canis showing a decreasing prevalence with age of host, and a reverse trend in other parasite species. Knowledge regarding zoonoses was very limited and the diseases not considered a major health problem. Treatment with antiparasitic drugs was more frequent in urban areas. Conclusion Parasites of importance for human health were highly prevalent in Nigerian dogs. Interventions should include health education provided to dog owners and the establishment of a program focusing on zoonotic diseases.

  10. Latest research results on the effects of nanomaterials on humans and the environment: DaNa - Knowledge Base Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, C.; Kühnel, D.; Richter, V.; Krug, H. F.; Mathes, B.; Steinbach, C.; Nau, K.

    2013-04-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century. The success of this fascinating technology is based on its versatility. It will bring about fundamental changes of basic research as well as of many sectors of industry and also of daily life from electronics to the health care system. However, consumers often miss reliable and understandable information on nanomaterials and all aspects of this versatile technology. A huge body of data on the potential hazards of nanoobjects towards human and environmental health already exists, but is either not easily accessible for a broad audience or presented unprocessable for nonexperts. But risk communication is an essential and thus integral component of risk management. For that purpose, the DaNa-Project aims at filling this gap by collecting and evaluating scientific results in an interdisciplinary approach with scientists from different research areas, such as human and environmental toxicology, biology, physics, chemistry, and sociology. Research findings from the field of human and environmental nanotoxicology are being prepared and presented together with material properties and possible applications for interested laymen and stakeholders. For the evaluation of literature a "Literature Criteria Checklist" has been developed as well as a Standard Operation Procedure template (SOP) based on careful scientific practice.

  11. Latest research results on the effects of nanomaterials on humans and the environment: DaNa – Knowledge Base Nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century. The success of this fascinating technology is based on its versatility. It will bring about fundamental changes of basic research as well as of many sectors of industry and also of daily life from electronics to the health care system. However, consumers often miss reliable and understandable information on nanomaterials and all aspects of this versatile technology. A huge body of data on the potential hazards of nanoobjects towards human and environmental health already exists, but is either not easily accessible for a broad audience or presented unprocessable for nonexperts. But risk communication is an essential and thus integral component of risk management. For that purpose, the DaNa-Project aims at filling this gap by collecting and evaluating scientific results in an interdisciplinary approach with scientists from different research areas, such as human and environmental toxicology, biology, physics, chemistry, and sociology. Research findings from the field of human and environmental nanotoxicology are being prepared and presented together with material properties and possible applications for interested laymen and stakeholders. For the evaluation of literature a 'Literature Criteria Checklist' has been developed as well as a Standard Operation Procedure template (SOP) based on careful scientific practice.

  12. When does quality improvement count as research? Human subject protection and theories of knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    LYNN, J

    2004-01-01

    

 The publication of insights from a quality improvement project recently precipitated a ruling by the lead federal regulatory agency that regulations providing protection for human subjects of research should apply. The required research review process did not match the rapid changes, small samples, limited documentation, clinician management, and type of information commonly used in quality improvement. Yet quality improvement can risk harm to patients, so some review might be in order. Th...

  13. A knowledge based approach to matching human neurodegenerative disease and animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Martone, Maryann E.; Mungall, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases present a wide and complex range of biological and clinical features. Animal models are key to translational research, yet typically only exhibit a subset of disease features rather than being precise replicas of the disease. Consequently, connecting animal to human conditions using direct data-mining strategies has proven challenging, particularly for diseases of the nervous system, with its complicated anatomy and physiology. To address this challenge we have expl...

  14. Recent advances and remaining gaps in our knowledge of associations between gut microbiota and human health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Volker Mai; Peter V Draganov

    2009-01-01

    The complex gut microbial flora harbored by individuals (microbiota) has long been proposed to contribute to intestinal health as well as disease. Pre- and probiotic products aimed at improving health by modifying microbiota composition have already become widely available and acceptance of these products appears to be on the rise. However, although required for the development of effective microbiota based interventions, our basic understanding of microbiota variation on a population level and its dynamics within individuals is still rudimentary. Powerful new parallel sequence technologies combined with other efficient molecular microbiota analysis methods now allow for comprehensive analysis of microbiota composition in large human populations. Recent findings in the field strongly suggest that microbiota contributes to the development of obesity, atopic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal cancers. Through the ongoing National Institutes of Health Roadmap 'Human of the world, a large coordinated effort is currently underway to study how microbiota can impact human health. Translating findings from these studies into effective interventions that can improve health,possibly personalized based on an individuals existing microbiota, will be the task for the next decade(s).

  15. Recent advances and remaining gaps in our knowledge of associations between gut microbiota and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Volker; Draganov, Peter V

    2009-01-01

    The complex gut microbial flora harbored by individuals (microbiota) has long been proposed to contribute to intestinal health as well as disease. Pre- and probiotic products aimed at improving health by modifying microbiota composition have already become widely available and acceptance of these products appears to be on the rise. However, although required for the development of effective microbiota based interventions, our basic understanding of microbiota variation on a population level and its dynamics within individuals is still rudimentary. Powerful new parallel sequence technologies combined with other efficient molecular microbiota analysis methods now allow for comprehensive analysis of microbiota composition in large human populations. Recent findings in the field strongly suggest that microbiota contributes to the development of obesity, atopic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal cancers. Through the ongoing National Institutes of Health Roadmap 'Human Microbiome Project' and similar projects in other parts of the world, a large coordinated effort is currently underway to study how microbiota can impact human health. Translating findings from these studies into effective interventions that can improve health, possibly personalized based on an individuals existing microbiota, will be the task for the next decade(s). PMID:19115471

  16. 科学信息的开放存取与知识的“公有性”信念%The open access of science information and the communism faith of knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁大尉; 李正风

    2011-01-01

    “公有性”是科学知识生产的重要制度设计。在知识经济时代,知识的“私有性”和“保密性”在新的知识生产结构中获得了一定的合理性。网络数据库等知识出版模式在加速了知识扩散的同时,带来了科学信息的商业垄断,但这种垄断在本质上不同于对知识合理的“保密”行为,也加剧了数字资源中的“数字鸿沟”。开放存取运动即是科学共同体对于科学信息商业垄断的集体抗争,是对科学知识“公有性”精神气质的认识论回归。%Communism is the important institution design of science knowledge production. In the Knowledge Economy times the privacy and secrecy of knowledge have got some rationality in the new knowledge production structure. The new knowledge publication mode, for example network database, has brought commercial monopoly of scientific informaiton along with rapid scientific diffusion. But this kind of monopoly is different from reasonable secrecy behaviour of knowledge in fact. And it has deepened " digital divide" of digital resource. Open Access is the collective fighting to commercial molopoly of scientific information of scientific community. And it is the epistemic return of communism of scientific knowledge.

  17. Mapping of suitable zones for manual drilling as a possible solution to increase access to drinking water in Africa through integration of systematized GIS data and local knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussi, Fabio; Alvino, Roberta; Caruba, Massimo; Galimberti, Luca; Marzan, Ignacio; Tarrason y Cerda', David; Sabatini, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    In several African countries water supply is still largely a huge problem. In order to achieve MDG for water supply, UNICEF is promoting manual drilling in Africa. Manual drilling refers to those techniques of drilling boreholes for groundwater exploitation using human or animal power (not mechanized equipment). These techniques are well known in countries with large alluvial deposits (India, Nepal, Bangladesh, etc). They are cheaper than mechanized boreholes, easy to implement as the equipment is locally done, able to provide clean water if correctly applied. But manual drilling is feasible only where suitable hydrogeological conditions are met: - the shallow geological layers are not too hard (soft sediments or rocks having limited resistance) and have good permeability; - the depth where it is possible to find exploitable water is limited (in this study we assumed no deeper than 25 m). For this reason mapping of suitable zone for manual drilling has been the first step in UNICEF program already completed in 15 countries. this paper explains the general methodology for the identification of suitable zones at country level The methodology is based in the integration of different information (maps, reports, database) already existing in each country, together with interview of local technicians with direct experience in various regions and limited direct field data collection. General suitability for manual drilling (although adapted to specific condition in each country) is based on the combination of three main parameters: the geological suitability, the suitability according to water depth and the morphological suitability: - Geological suitability is related to the hardness and permeability of the shallow layers of rock formations. It has been obtained through a GIS procedure of simplification and reclassification of geological maps, estimating hardness and permeability of main rock and overlaying weathered layer on the basis of stratigraphic borehole logs

  18. On the trails of markers and proxies: the socio-cognitive technologies of human movement, knowledge assemblage, and their relevance to the etiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Turnbull

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria, pigs, rats, pots, plants, words, bones, stones, earrings, diseases, and genetic indicators of all varieties are markers and proxies for the complexity of interweaving trails and stories integral to understanding human movement and knowledge assemblage in Southeast Asia and around the world.Understanding human movement and knowledge assemblage is central to comprehending the genetic basis of disease, especially of a cancer like nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The problem is that the markers and trails, taken in isolation, do not all tell the same story. Human movement and knowledge assemblage are in constant interaction in an adaptive process of co-production with genes, terrain, climate, sea level changes, kinship relations, diet, materials, food and transport technologies, social and cognitive technologies, and knowledge strategies and transmission. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is the outcome of an adaptive process involving physical, social, and genetic components.

  19. Human resource management in post-conflict health systems: review of research and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roome, Edward; Raven, Joanna; Martineau, Tim

    2014-01-01

    In post-conflict settings, severe disruption to health systems invariably leaves populations at high risk of disease and in greater need of health provision than more stable resource-poor countries. The health workforce is often a direct victim of conflict. Effective human resource management (HRM) strategies and policies are critical to addressing the systemic effects of conflict on the health workforce such as flight of human capital, mismatches between skills and service needs, breakdown of pre-service training, and lack of human resource data. This paper reviews published literatures across three functional areas of HRM in post-conflict settings: workforce supply, workforce distribution, and workforce performance. We searched published literatures for articles published in English between 2003 and 2013. The search used context-specific keywords (e.g. post-conflict, reconstruction) in combination with topic-related keywords based on an analytical framework containing the three functional areas of HRM (supply, distribution, and performance) and several corresponding HRM topic areas under these. In addition, the framework includes a number of cross-cutting topics such as leadership and governance, finance, and gender. The literature is growing but still limited. Many publications have focused on health workforce supply issues, including pre-service education and training, pay, and recruitment. Less is known about workforce distribution, especially governance and administrative systems for deployment and incentive policies to redress geographical workforce imbalances. Apart from in-service training, workforce performance is particularly under-researched in the areas of performance-based incentives, management and supervision, work organisation and job design, and performance appraisal. Research is largely on HRM in the early post-conflict period and has relied on secondary data. More primary research is needed across the areas of workforce supply, workforce

  20. Human resource management in post-conflict health systems: review of research and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roome, Edward; Raven, Joanna; Martineau, Tim

    2014-01-01

    In post-conflict settings, severe disruption to health systems invariably leaves populations at high risk of disease and in greater need of health provision than more stable resource-poor countries. The health workforce is often a direct victim of conflict. Effective human resource management (HRM) strategies and policies are critical to addressing the systemic effects of conflict on the health workforce such as flight of human capital, mismatches between skills and service needs, breakdown of pre-service training, and lack of human resource data. This paper reviews published literatures across three functional areas of HRM in post-conflict settings: workforce supply, workforce distribution, and workforce performance. We searched published literatures for articles published in English between 2003 and 2013. The search used context-specific keywords (e.g. post-conflict, reconstruction) in combination with topic-related keywords based on an analytical framework containing the three functional areas of HRM (supply, distribution, and performance) and several corresponding HRM topic areas under these. In addition, the framework includes a number of cross-cutting topics such as leadership and governance, finance, and gender. The literature is growing but still limited. Many publications have focused on health workforce supply issues, including pre-service education and training, pay, and recruitment. Less is known about workforce distribution, especially governance and administrative systems for deployment and incentive policies to redress geographical workforce imbalances. Apart from in-service training, workforce performance is particularly under-researched in the areas of performance-based incentives, management and supervision, work organisation and job design, and performance appraisal. Research is largely on HRM in the early post-conflict period and has relied on secondary data. More primary research is needed across the areas of workforce supply, workforce

  1. Training and certification in dialysis access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John; Dolmatch, Bart; Gallichio, Michael; Gallieni, Maurizio; Slakey, Douglas; Vesely, Tom; Davidson, Ingemar

    2014-10-01

    Decreasing and eliminating the gaps in knowledge, skills, and effective communication are the mainstays for a successful dialysis access training program curriculum and at the core of the human factors training philosophy. Many of these skills can be learned in the simulation environment. Education and training will reduce gaps in knowledge and technical skills, before exposing patients to procedure-related risk. For dialysis access, a reliable workplace environment depends upon a culture where safety and accountability are balanced to recognize the human contribution to success or failure in the complex care of patients with end-stage renal disease. Rigorous testing and certification adds value to the participants and validates the training program. PMID:25362979

  2. 荆门市城市居民精神卫生知识掌握及获取途径的调查分析%Investigation and analysis in urban residents' mental health knowledge and access to it

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐玉梅; 王生锋; 王桂华

    2010-01-01

    Objective To probe into urban residents' mental health knowledge awareness in Jingmen city. Methods By means of self-compiled questionnaires, 563 community residents were surveyed about their mental health knowledge and access to it. Results For mental health- care knowledge, community residents scored a total of (42.52±8.79), among which, (15.34±3.25) points for relevant causes,(12.23±4.89) points for corresponding symptoms, and (14.92±4.26) for health behavior. Such aspects would affect a resident's awareness of mental health knowledge as the resident's education background,marriage and chronic diseases. Radio and television (48.3%), newspapers and magazines (41.4%), hospital expert advice (39.8%), and community medical services (36.1% ) were considered the better access to mental health knowledge. Conclusions Residents had considerably inadequate knowledge of mental health. Therefore, a variety of health- care education activities should be carried out to improve residents'mental health knowledge.%目的 了解荆门市城市居民精神卫生保健知识认知现状.方法 自编调查问卷对荆门市563名社区居民进行问卷调查,以了解其精神卫生知识认知状况及获取途径.结果 荆门市社区居民精神卫生保健知识总分为(42.52±8.79)分,其中相关病因(15.34±3.25)分,相应症状(12.23±4.89)分,保健行为(14.92±4.26)分,文化程度、婚姻状况和慢性病是荆门市社区居民精神卫生保健知识认知的影响因素.社区居民认为较好的健康教育途径是广播电视(48.3%)、报刊杂志(41.4%)、医院专家咨询(39.8%)和社区卫生服务机构(36.1%).结论 社区居民精神卫生保健知识认知率较低,应开展多种形式的健康教育,提高社区居民的精神卫生知识.

  3. The i5K Initiative: advancing arthropod genomics for knowledge, human health, agriculture, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Insects and their arthropod relatives including mites, spiders, and crustaceans play major roles in the world's terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems. Arthropods compete with humans for food and transmit devastating diseases. They also comprise the most diverse and successful branch of metazoan evolution, with millions of extant species. Here, we describe an international effort to guide arthropod genomic efforts, from species prioritization to methodology and informatics. The 5000 arthropod genomes initiative (i5K) community met formally in 2012 to discuss a roadmap for sequencing and analyzing 5000 high-priority arthropods and is continuing this effort via pilot projects, the development of standard operating procedures, and training of students and career scientists. With university, governmental, and industry support, the i5K Consortium aspires to deliver sequences and analytical tools for each of the arthropod branches and each of the species having beneficial and negative effects on humankind. PMID:23940263

  4. Filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for non-human biota. Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.; Gjelsvik, R. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Holm, E. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden)); Roos, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Saxen, R.; Outola, I. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland))

    2009-03-15

    The activities of the GAPRAD project are summarised in this report. The background and rationale to GAPRAD are presented and explained. Most notably this relates to a lack of information on naturally occuring radionuclides in terrestrial and aquatic systems that have direct applicability for use in environmental impact assessments. Results from field activities are presented from the Dovrefjell area in Norway (terrestrial study) and selected lake and brackish water systems in Finland. The data mainly concern activity concentrations of Po-210 in environmental media and selected biota allowing concentration ratios to be derived where appropriate. Furthermore, details in relation to Po-210 uptake and biokinetics in humans based on experimental work conducted within the project are presented. (au)

  5. Filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for non-human biota. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the GAPRAD project are summarised in this report. The background and rationale to GAPRAD are presented and explained. Most notably this relates to a lack of information on naturally occuring radionuclides in terrestrial and aquatic systems that have direct applicability for use in environmental impact assessments. Results from field activities are presented from the Dovrefjell area in Norway (terrestrial study) and selected lake and brackish water systems in Finland. The data mainly concern activity concentrations of Po-210 in environmental media and selected biota allowing concentration ratios to be derived where appropriate. Furthermore, details in relation to Po-210 uptake and biokinetics in humans based on experimental work conducted within the project are presented. (au)

  6. Evaluating a Human Rights-Based Advocacy Approach to Expanding Access to Pain Medicines and Palliative Care: Global Advocacy and Case Studies from India, Kenya, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Diederik; Amon, Joseph J

    2015-12-10

    Palliative care has been defined as care that is person-centered and attentive to physical symptoms and psychological, social, and existential distress in patients with severe or life-threatening illness. The identification of access to palliative care and pain treatment as a human rights issue first emerged among palliative care advocates, physicians, and lawyers in the 1990s, with a basis in the right to health and the right to be free from cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. Using a case study approach, we evaluate the results of a human rights-based advocacy approach on access to pain medicine and palliative care in India, Kenya, and Ukraine. In each country, human rights advocacy helped raise awareness of the issue, identify structural barriers to care, define government obligations, and contribute to the reform of laws, policies, and practices impeding the availability of palliative care services. In addition, advocacy efforts stimulated civil society engagement and high-level political leadership that fostered the implementation of human rights-based palliative care programs. Globally, access to palliative care was increasingly recognized by human rights bodies and within global health and drug policy organizations as a government obligation central to the right to health.

  7. Evaluating a Human Rights-Based Advocacy Approach to Expanding Access to Pain Medicines and Palliative Care: Global Advocacy and Case Studies from India, Kenya, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Diederik; Amon, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Palliative care has been defined as care that is person-centered and attentive to physical symptoms and psychological, social, and existential distress in patients with severe or life-threatening illness. The identification of access to palliative care and pain treatment as a human rights issue first emerged among palliative care advocates, physicians, and lawyers in the 1990s, with a basis in the right to health and the right to be free from cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. Using a case study approach, we evaluate the results of a human rights-based advocacy approach on access to pain medicine and palliative care in India, Kenya, and Ukraine. In each country, human rights advocacy helped raise awareness of the issue, identify structural barriers to care, define government obligations, and contribute to the reform of laws, policies, and practices impeding the availability of palliative care services. In addition, advocacy efforts stimulated civil society engagement and high-level political leadership that fostered the implementation of human rights-based palliative care programs. Globally, access to palliative care was increasingly recognized by human rights bodies and within global health and drug policy organizations as a government obligation central to the right to health. PMID:26766856

  8. On the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and the EU accession to the European Convention on Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora CIUCĂ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available After a short presentation of the Charter of Fundamental Rights and its features, the paper is focused on the European Union‟s accession to the European Convention of Human Rights. As part of the Treaty of Lisbon implementation, this process is not an easy one. The author intends to identify and raise questions on this process, and to emphasise some technical and procedural difficulties, by comparing the two main European human rights systems. Europe has to face many changes and challenges: the recent entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, the “new status” of the Charter of fundamental rights (as a legally binding instrument and the beginning of the process of EU‟s accession to the European Convention of Human Rights. This paper is intended to point out some aspects of this new era of the European construction.

  9. Preservation of knowledge: general principals, methodology and application in nuclear industry. Working material. Report prepared within the framework of the Programmes: C.3. Nuclear Knowledge Management and A.2. Improving Quality Assurance, Technical Infrastructure and Human Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an immediate need to preserve existing knowledge in nuclear science and technology for peaceful applications for future generations, as it represents a valuable human capital asset. The development of an exciting vision for nuclear technology is prerequisite for attracting young scientists and professionals to seek careers in nuclear science and technology. Irrespective of current national energy policies, the need to maintain or even enhance the nuclear knowledge base and national capability will persist. In this way, the knowledge base will be available to meet requirements for evolving policy development. A number of IAEA advisory committees and technical meetings stressed the importance of preserving and further enhancing nuclear science and technology for socio-economic development. For nuclear science and technology to contribute to sustainable development requires knowledge and capacity on three levels: (a) basic nuclear science, (b) technology, (c) engineering and operation. There was unanimous consensus that IAEA has an obligation to lead activities towards preservation and enhancement of nuclear knowledge by complementing, and as appropriate supplementing, activities by governments, industry, academia and international organizations. International co-operation is of vital importance. Unless action is taken now, invaluable assets in critical nuclear knowledge and capacity will soon be lost. The IAEA is developing guidance documents on nuclear knowledge management including knowledge preservation and knowledge transfer in nuclear sector. This activity would assist nuclear organizations in MS to effectively apply this guidance, and to assist them in benchmarking their practices against those of other industry organizations. The present Working Material provides general principals for knowledge preservation in nuclear sector, which could be applied in different nuclear organization and in particular in Nuclear Power Plants

  10. Knowledge, attitude and performance of wood painter about harmful effects of solvents and dyes on human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Miri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Solvents, which are widely used in industry, are able to dissolve another substance for creating a solution. Solvents have various effects on human health based on their type and chemical composition. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to investigate the harmful effects of solvents on wood painters in Yazd city. To achieve information, a census questionnaire was prepared and distributed among wood painters. The studied parameters include the mean score of knowledge, attitude, and practice of wood painters about harmful effects of dyes and solvents on body according to age, work experience, education, hours worked per day, and smoking. The data of survey were analyzed by Chi-square test and T-test in SPSS. Results: The average age and work experience of wood painters were 29 and 7.5 years, and the age of 25 years and work experience of 5 years had the highest frequency among them. Analysis of data indicated that 71.8% of people had middle school and lower education level, 68.3% was married, 31.7% was single, and 37.5% was smoking. Average working hours were 8 hours in day. Conclusion: Results show that attitudes had significant correlation with education level and different age groups. None of the studied parameters were not significant correlation with performance. Also, there was significant correlation between knowledge with experience.

  11. A community effort towards a knowledge-base and mathematical model of the human pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium LT2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Sook-Il

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic reconstructions (MRs are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium is a human pathogen, causes various diseases and its increasing antibiotic resistance poses a public health problem. Results Here, we describe a community-driven effort, in which more than 20 experts in S. Typhimurium biology and systems biology collaborated to reconcile and expand the S. Typhimurium BiGG knowledge-base. The consensus MR was obtained starting from two independently developed MRs for S. Typhimurium. Key results of this reconstruction jamboree include i development and implementation of a community-based workflow for MR annotation and reconciliation; ii incorporation of thermodynamic information; and iii use of the consensus MR to identify potential multi-target drug therapy approaches. Conclusion Taken together, with the growing number of parallel MRs a structured, community-driven approach will be necessary to maximize quality while increasing adoption of MRs in experimental design and interpretation.

  12. Knowledge of human papillomavirus infection and its prevention among adolescents and parents in the greater Milan area, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consolo Silvia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to be widely accepted by users, the implementation of a new health intervention requires them to be adequately informed about its clinical importance, benefits and risks. The aim of this study was to provide data on the knowledge of Italian adolescents and parents concerning human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its prevention in order to allow the development of adequate training programmes. Methods Between 2 May and 15 June 2008, we made a cross-sectional survey of 863 high school students and 2,331 parents of middle and high school students using two anonymously completed questionnaires covering the knowledge of HPV infection and related diseases, and attitudes to vaccinations. The approached schools were a convenience sample of the schools of the greater Milan area, Northern Italy. Results More mothers than fathers were aware that HPV infection could concern their children (58% vs 53%; p = 0.004 and were favourable towards vaccinating their children against HPV (68% vs 65%; p = 0.03; among the students, more females than males were aware that HPV infection could concern themselves (45% vs 26%; p vs 40%; p Conclusions Both students and parents seem to underestimate the likelihood of HPV infection, and this is associated with a lower propensity for vaccination. This is an important indication for future training programmes concerning HPV prevention designed to increase the acceptance of HPV vaccine in families.

  13. Erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser–assisted access osteotomy for maxillary sinus elevation: a human and animal cadaver study

    OpenAIRE

    Stübinger, S; Nuss, Katja M; Sebesteny, T; Saldamli, B; Sader, R; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usability of a variable square pulse (VSP) erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser for a lateral access osteotomy to the maxillary sinus in the course of a sinus elevation procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In six formalin-fixed human heads and six fresh sheep heads, a VSP Er:YAG laser was used to perform a bilateral maxillary access osteotomy. For the osteotomies, the Er:YAG laser was applied with a pulse energy of 1000 mJ, a pulse duration of 300 mu...

  14. Solid knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been...... referred to as ‘silent knowledge’....

  15. How does your own knowledge influence the perception of another person's action in the human brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Richard; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2012-02-01

    When you see someone reach into a cookie jar, their goal remains obvious even if you know that the last cookie has already been eaten. Thus, it is possible to infer the goal of an action even if you know that the goal cannot be achieved. Previous research has identified distinct brain networks for processing information about object locations, actions and mental-state inferences. However, the relationship between brain networks for action understanding in social contexts remains unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study assesses the role of these networks in understanding another person searching for hidden objects. Participants watched movie clips depicting a toy animal hiding and an actor, who was ignorant of the hiding place, searching in the filled or empty location. When the toy animal hid in the same location repeatedly, the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response was suppressed in occipital, posterior temporal and posterior parietal brain regions, consistent with processing object properties and spatial attention. When the actor searched in the same location repeatedly, the BOLD signal was suppressed in the inferior frontal gyrus, consistent with the observation of hand actions. In contrast, searches towards the filled location compared to the empty location were associated with a greater response in the medial prefrontal cortex and right temporal pole, which are both associated with mental state inference. These findings show that when observing another person search for a hidden object, brain networks for processing information about object properties, actions and mental state inferences work together in a complementary fashion. This supports the hypothesis that brain regions within and beyond the putative human mirror neuron system are involved in action comprehension within social contexts.

  16. Human resources needs for universal access to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: A time and motion study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.C. Hontelez (Jan A.C.); M.L. Newell (Marie Louise); R.M. Bland (Ruth); K. Munnelly (Kristen); R.J. Lessells (Richard ); T. Bärnighausen (Till)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Although access to life-saving treatment for patients infected with HIV in South Africa has improved substantially since 2004, treating all eligible patients (universal access) remains elusive. As the prices of antiretroviral drugs have dropped over the past years, availabili

  17. Human resources needs for universal access to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a time and motion study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hontelez, J.A.C.; Newell, M.L.; Bland, R.M.; Munnelly, K.; Lessells, R.J.; Barnighausen, T.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although access to life-saving treatment for patients infected with HIV patients in South Africa has improved substantially since 2004, treating all eligible patients (universal access) remains elusive. As the prices of antiretroviral drugs have dropped over the past years, ava

  18. An easily accessible sulfated saccharide mimetic inhibits in vitro human tumor cell adhesion and angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Marano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Oligosaccharides aberrantly expressed on tumor cells influence processes such as cell adhesion and modulation of the cell’s microenvironment resulting in an increased malignancy. Schmidt’s imidate strategy offers an effective method to synthesize libraries of various oligosaccharide mimetics. With the aim to perturb interactions of tumor cells with extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, molecules with 3,4-bis(hydroxymethylfuran as core structure were synthesized and screened in biological assays for their abilities to interfere in cell adhesion and other steps of the metastatic cascade, such as tumor-induced angiogenesis.The most active compound, (4-{[(β-D-galactopyranosyloxy]methyl}furan-3-ylmethyl hydrogen sulfate (GSF, inhibited the activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 as well as migration of the human melanoma cells of the lines WM-115 and WM-266-4 in a two-dimensional migration assay. GSF inhibited completely the adhesion of WM-115 cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM proteins, fibrinogen and fibronectin.In an in vitro angiogenesis assay with human endothelial cells, GSF very effectively inhibited endothelial tubule formation and sprouting of blood vessels, as well as the adhesion of endothelial cells to ECM proteins. GSF was not cytotoxic at biologically active concentrations; neither were 3,4-bis{[(β-D-galactopyranosyloxy]methyl}furan (BGF nor methyl β-D-galactopyranoside nor 3,4-bis(hydroxymethylfuran, which were used as controls, eliciting comparable biological activity. In silico modeling experiments, in which binding of GSF to the extracellular domain of the integrin αvβ3 was determined, revealed specific docking of GSF to the same binding site as the natural peptidic ligands of this integrin. The sulfate in the molecule coordinated with one manganese ion in the binding site.These studies show that this chemically easily accessible molecule GSF, synthesized in three steps from 3,4-bis

  19. An easily accessible sulfated saccharide mimetic inhibits in vitro human tumor cell adhesion and angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Grazia; Gronewold, Claas; Frank, Martin; Merling, Anette; Kliem, Christian; Sauer, Sandra; Wiessler, Manfred; Frei, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Summary Oligosaccharides aberrantly expressed on tumor cells influence processes such as cell adhesion and modulation of the cell’s microenvironment resulting in an increased malignancy. Schmidt’s imidate strategy offers an effective method to synthesize libraries of various oligosaccharide mimetics. With the aim to perturb interactions of tumor cells with extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, molecules with 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan as core structure were synthesized and screened in biological assays for their abilities to interfere in cell adhesion and other steps of the metastatic cascade, such as tumor-induced angiogenesis. The most active compound, (4-{[(β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan-3-yl)methyl hydrogen sulfate (GSF), inhibited the activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as well as migration of the human melanoma cells of the lines WM-115 and WM-266-4 in a two-dimensional migration assay. GSF inhibited completely the adhesion of WM-115 cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, fibrinogen and fibronectin. In an in vitro angiogenesis assay with human endothelial cells, GSF very effectively inhibited endothelial tubule formation and sprouting of blood vessels, as well as the adhesion of endothelial cells to ECM proteins. GSF was not cytotoxic at biologically active concentrations; neither were 3,4-bis{[(β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan (BGF) nor methyl β-D-galactopyranoside nor 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan, which were used as controls, eliciting comparable biological activity. In silico modeling experiments, in which binding of GSF to the extracellular domain of the integrin αvβ3 was determined, revealed specific docking of GSF to the same binding site as the natural peptidic ligands of this integrin. The sulfate in the molecule coordinated with one manganese ion in the binding site. These studies show that this chemically easily accessible molecule GSF, synthesized in three steps from 3,4-bis

  20. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...... apparatus influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear behavioural foundations, adopts an economizing perspective and examines efficient alignment between knowledge transactions with diverse characteristics and governance structures and mechanisms...

  1. A simple knowledge-based mining method for exploring hidden key molecules in a human biomolecular network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji Shingo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the functional genomics analysis domain, various methodologies are available for interpreting the results produced by high-throughput biological experiments. These methods commonly use a list of genes as an analysis input, and most of them produce a more complicated list of genes or pathways as the results of the analysis. Although there are several network-based methods, which detect key nodes in the network, the results tend to include well-studied, major hub genes. Results To mine the molecules that have biological meaning but to fewer degrees than major hubs, we propose, in this study, a new network-based method for selecting these hidden key molecules based on virtual information flows circulating among the input list of genes. The human biomolecular network was constructed from the Pathway Commons database, and a calculation method based on betweenness centrality was newly developed. We validated the method with the ErbB pathway and applied it to practical cancer research data. We were able to confirm that the output genes, despite having fewer edges than major hubs, have biological meanings that were able to be invoked by the input list of genes. Conclusions The developed method, named NetHiKe (Network-based Hidden Key molecule miner, was able to detect potential key molecules by utilizing the human biomolecular network as a knowledge base. Thus, it is hoped that this method will enhance the progress of biological data analysis in the whole-genome research era.

  2. Progress in the Development of National Knowledge Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹存根; 曾庆田; 张春霞; 郑宇飞; 周肖彬; 丰强泽; 高颖; 顾芳; 司晋新; 眭跃飞; 田雯; 王海涛; 王丽丽

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the recent process in a long-term research project, calledNational Knowledge Infrastructure (or NKI). Initiated in the early 2000, the project aims todevelop a multi-domain shareable knowledge base for knowledge-intensive applications. Todevelop NKI, we have used domain-specific ontologies as a solid basis, and have built morethan 600 ontologies. Using these ontologies and our knowledge acquisition methods, we haveextracted about 1.1 millions of domain assertions. For users to access our NKI knowledge,we have developed a uniform multi-modal human-knowledge interface. We have also imple-mented a knowledge application programming interface for various applications to share theNKI knowledge.

  3. Equity in human papilloma virus vaccination uptake? : sexual behaviour, knowledge and demographics in a cross-sectional study in (un)vaccinated girls in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollers, Madelief; Lubbers, Karin; Spoelstra, Symen K; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrordus; Daemen, Toos; Westra, Tjalke A; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Nijman, Hans W; de Melker, Hester E; Tami, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is part of a national program equally accessible for all girls invited for vaccination. To assess possible inequalities in vaccine uptake, we investigated differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated girls with regard to vario

  4. Why the Current Insistence on Open Access to Scientific Data? Big Data, Knowledge Production, and the Political Economy of Contemporary Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    The collection and dissemination of data on human and nonhuman organisms has become a central feature of 21st-century biology and has been endorsed by funding agencies in the United States and Europe as crucial to translating biological research into therapeutic and agricultural innovation. Large molecular data sets, often referred to as "big…

  5. Knowledge Loss Risk Assessment in Education and Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge management is based on the idea that the most valuable resource of some organisation is the knowledge of its people. Organisational performances will depend, among many other things, on how effectively its people can create new knowledge, share knowledge in organisation, and use that knowledge to achieve higher efficiency and the best results. The aim of knowledge management is not necessarily to manage all knowledge, just the knowledge that is most important to the organisation. It is about ensuring that people have the knowledge they need, where and when they need it. Knowledge is derived from information but it is richer and more meaningful than information. In organisational terms, knowledge is generally considered as 'knowing how', or 'applied action'. Organisational knowledge is often classified as explicit and tacit knowledge. Explicit knowledge can be captured and written down in documents or databases. Tacit knowledge is the knowledge that people carry in their heads and can be difficult to access. Tacit knowledge is considered more valuable because it provides context for people, ideas and experiences. Knowledge management is discipline consisting of three components: people, processes and technology. These three components are often compared to the legs of stool- if one is missing, the stool will collapse. However, one component is more important than the others- people. What happens when someone leaves an organisation? Does the organisation feel knowledge loss? According intellectual capital theory organisation will lose not only human capital but also social, structural and relational capital. Determining what happens when these valuable experts leave may help organisation to better understand the impact of knowledge loss and formulate appropriate action in future. Management of knowledge loss is process consisting of three steps: risk assessment, determination of approach for critical knowledge capturing, and monitoring

  6. Clinical evidence continuous medical education: a randomised educational trial of an open access e-learning program for transferring evidence-based information – ICEKUBE (Italian Clinical Evidence Knowledge Utilization Behaviour Evaluation – study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satolli Roberto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to ensure that all physicians have access to valid and reliable evidence on drug effectiveness, the Italian Drug Agency sponsored a free-access e-learning system, based on Clinical Evidence, called ECCE. Doctors have access to an electronic version and related clinical vignettes. Correct answers to the interactive vignettes provide Continuing Medical Education credits. The aims of this trial are to establish whether the e-learning program (ECCE increases physicians' basic knowledge about common clinical scenarios, and whether ECCE is superior to the passive diffusion of information through the printed version of Clinical Evidence. Design All Italian doctors naïve to ECCE will be randomised to three groups. Group one will have access to ECCE for Clinical Evidence chapters and vignettes lot A and will provide control data for Clinical Evidence chapters and vignettes lot B; group two vice versa; group three will receive the concise printed version of Clinical Evidence. There are in fact two designs: a before and after pragmatic trial utilising a two by two incomplete block design (group one versus group two and a classical design (group one and two versus group three. The primary outcome will be the retention of Clinical Evidence contents assessed from the scores for clinical vignettes selected from ECCE at least six months after the intervention. To avoid test-retest effects, we will randomly select vignettes out of lot A and lot B, avoiding repetitions. In order to preserve the comparability of lots, we will select vignettes with similar, optimal psychometric characteristics. Trial registration ISRCTN27453314

  7. Knowledge and perception of Prevention of Mother to Child services amongst pregnant women accessing antenatal clinic in a Primary Health Care centre in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eme T. Owoaje

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have assessed pregnant women’s perceptions regarding prevention of mother to child of HIV and the available services at the primary health care level in Nigeria.Objective: Assessment of knowledge and perception of antenatal clinic (ANC attendees regarding Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT of HIV at primary health care facilities in south-west Nigeria.Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 400 antenatal attendees in a Primary Health Care centre in Ibadan, Nigeria.Results: Known methods of PMTCT were: use of anti-retroviral treatment (ART during pregnancy (75.0%, ART at birth (65.8% and not breastfeeding (61.8%. Previous HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT was reported by 71%, significantly higher proportions of thosewho were married, in the third trimester of pregnancy or engaged in professional and/or skilled occupations had been tested. Regarding the HCT services provided, 92.2% understood the HIV-related health education provided, 89.7.2% reported that the timing was appropriate, 92.6% assessed the nurses’ approach as acceptable but 34.0% felt the test was forced upon them. Majority (79.6% were aware of non-breastfeeding options of infant feeding, but only 3.5% were aware of exclusive breastfeeding for a stipulated period as an infant feeding option. Nevertheless, the majority of the women found the non-breast feeding option culturally unacceptable.Conclusion: Women in this survey were knowledgeable about the methods of PMTCT, but had negative perceptions regarding certain aspects of the HCT services and the recommended non-breastfeeding infant feeding option. Health workers should provide client friendly services and infant feeding counselling that is based on current WHO recommendations and culturally acceptable.

  8. Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: Three public policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyimo Frida S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, which comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women. In Tanzania, the estimated incidence rate is 30 to 40 per 100,000 women, indicating a high disease burden. Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as currently the most effective approach for cervical cancer control, and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors related to the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 354 women aged 18 to 69 years residing in Moshi Rural District. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select eligible women. A one-hour interview was conducted with each woman in her home. The 17 questions were modified from similar questions used in previous research. Results Less than one quarter (22.6% of the participants had obtained cervical cancer screening. The following characteristics, when examined separately in relation to the uptake of cervical cancer screening service, were significant: husband approval of cervical cancer screening, women's level of education, women's knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention, women's concerns about embarrassment and pain of screening, women's preference for the sex of health provider, and women's awareness of and distance to cervical cancer screening services. When examined simultaneously in a logistic regression, we found that only knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention (OR = 8.90, 95%CI = 2.14-16.03 and distance to the facility which provides cervical cancer screening (OR = 3.98, 95%CI = 0.18-5.10 were significantly associated with screening uptake. Conclusions Based on the study findings, three recommendations are made. First, information about cervical cancer must be presented to women. Second, public education of

  9. Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-11-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands.

  10. Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-11-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands. PMID:21767061

  11. Investigating the Knowledge Management Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Vasso; Savva, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) efforts aim at leveraging an organization into a knowledge organization thereby presenting knowledge employees with a very powerful tool; organized valuable knowledge accessible when and where needed in flexible, technologically-enhanced modes. The attainment of this aim, i.e., the transformation into a knowledge…

  12. Knowledge Development in Internship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the chapter is to shed light on how these challenges and tendencies affect students’´ access to tacit and explicit knowledge and the professions’ knowledge development. To address these challenges, the chapter examines the question: How might periods of internship, offering different...

  13. Human Library开创图书馆个体隐性知识管理新模式%Human Library Creates a New Mode to Libraries on Personal Tacit Knowledge Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴云珊

    2011-01-01

    针对图书馆个体隐性知识管理问题,引入国外“真人图书馆”理念,从深度会谈、真人书筛选、非正式学习、借阅制度等方面阐述真人图书馆在个体隐性知识转移上的优势,同时结合其在隐性知识价值凸显和创新上的优势,探讨真人图书馆在图书馆个体隐性知识管理中的价值,得出真人图书馆开创图书馆个体隐性知识管理新模式的结论,以期达到推广真人图书馆、创新图书馆知识服务模式、提高图书馆知识服务水平的目的。%According to the problem of personal tacit knowledge management in libraries, the idea of human library is introduced. Through deep conversation, human book selection, informal learning, rules of loan, certain advantages of human library on personal tacit knowledge transition are expounded. By combining with the advantages on transition, value highlighting anti innovation of personal tacit knowledge, the value of human library in personal tacit knowledge management is discussed. In the hope of spreading human library, making innovations in the library knowledge service mode and improving the knowledge service level of library, it is concluded that human library creates a new mode to libraries on personal tacit knowledge management.

  14. 基于Delphi与Access的人力资源信息管理系统设计%Design of human resources information management system based on Delphi and Access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何娣; 马慧斌; 韩凯旋

    2012-01-01

    伴随科技的飞速发展,许多企业面临着信息化建设,作为企业核心的人力资源,合理的信息化建设对企业的发展至关重要.针对这一问题,提出并设计了基于Delphi与Access的人力资源信息管理系统.以Delphi 7.0和Access 2000作为开发工具,设计的人力资源信息管理系统是一种开发迅速,成本低廉和运行高效的管理系统,与大型企业相比,更适合中小型企业人力资源的信息化建设.%With the rapid development of science and technology, many enterprises are facing the informatization construction. The human resources is the core of an enterprise, whose rational informatization construction is crucial to the development of enterprises. A human resources information management system based on Delphi and Aaccess was put forward and designed in this situation. With Delphi 7, 0 and Access 2000 as development tools, the self-designed information management system of human resources is an easy development, low cost and high-efficient operation system. Especially, it is more suitable for the informatization construction of human resources in small and medium-sized enterprises.

  15. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Radial Glia Recapitulate Developmental Events and Provide Real-Time Access to Cortical Neurons and Astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chian-Yu; Pan, Liuliu; Kessler, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of human cerebral cortex development are limited by difficulties in accessing and manipulating human neural tissue at specific development stages. We have derived human radial glia (hRG), which are responsible for most cerebral cortex neurogenesis, from human pluripotent stem cells. These hRG display the hallmark morphological, cellular, and molecular features of radial glia in vitro. They can be passaged and generate layer-specific subtypes of cortical neurons in a temporal and passage-dependent fashion. In later passages, they adopt a distinct progenitor phenotype that gives rise to cortical astrocytes and GABAergic interneurons. These hRG are also capable of following developmental cues to engraft, differentiate, migrate, and integrate into the embryonic mouse cortex when injected into E14 lateral ventricles. Moreover, hRG-derived cells can be cryopreserved at specific stages and retain their stage-specific phenotypes and competence when revived. Our study demonstrates that cultured hRG maintain a cell-intrinsic clock that regulates the progressive generation of stage-specific neuronal and glial subtypes. It also describes an easily accessible cell source for studying hRG lineage specification and progression and an on-demand supply of specific cortical neuron subtypes and astrocytes. PMID:25834120

  16. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai J. Foss

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize a "knowledge governance approach" as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative apparatus influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear behavioural foundations, adopts an economizing perspective and examines efficient alignment ...

  17. Attitudes, Knowledge and Factors Associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Uptake in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Iris L. Y.; Machalek, Dorothy A.; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination targets high-risk HPV16/18 that cause 70% of all cancers of the cervix. In Australia there is a fully-funded, school-based National HPV Vaccination Program which has achieved vaccine initiation rate of 82% among age-eligible females. Improving HPV vaccination rates is important in the prevention of morbidity and mortality associated with HPV-related disease. This study aimed to identify factors and barriers associated with uptake of the HPV vaccine in the Australian Program. Methods Between 2011 and 2014, females aged 18–25 years, living in Victoria, Australia who were offered HPV vaccination between 2007 and 2009 as part of the National HPV Vaccination Program, living in Victoria, Australia were recruited into a a young women’s study examining effectiveness of the Australian National HPV Vaccination Program. Overall, 668 participants completed the recruitment survey, which collected data of participants’ demographics and HPV knowledge. In 2015 these participants were invited to complete an additional supplementary survey on parental demographics and attitudes towards vaccinations. Results In 2015, 417 participants completed the supplementary survey (62% response rate). Overall, 19% of participants were unvaccinated. In multivariate analyses, HPV vaccination was significantly associated with their being born in Australia (pparents being main decision-makers for participants’ HPV vaccination (pparental concern about vaccine safety (43%). Compared with HPV-vaccinated participants, those unvaccinated were significantly more likely to be opposed to all vaccines, including HPV vaccines (p<0.001) and were less likely to consider vaccinating their own children with all vaccines (p = 0.033), including HPV vaccines (p<0.001). Overall, 61% of unvaccinated participants reported that a recommendation from GPs would increase HPV vaccine acceptance. Conclusions Attitudes towards general health, vaccinations in general, as

  18. The human interactome knowledge base (hint-kb): An integrative human protein interaction database enriched with predicted protein–protein interaction scores using a novel hybrid technique

    KAUST Repository

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.

    2013-07-12

    Proteins are the functional components of many cellular processes and the identification of their physical protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is an area of mature academic research. Various databases have been developed containing information about experimentally and computationally detected human PPIs as well as their corresponding annotation data. However, these databases contain many false positive interactions, are partial and only a few of them incorporate data from various sources. To overcome these limitations, we have developed HINT-KB (http://biotools.ceid.upatras.gr/hint-kb/), a knowledge base that integrates data from various sources, provides a user-friendly interface for their retrieval, cal-culatesasetoffeaturesofinterest and computesaconfidence score for every candidate protein interaction. This confidence score is essential for filtering the false positive interactions which are present in existing databases, predicting new protein interactions and measuring the frequency of each true protein interaction. For this reason, a novel machine learning hybrid methodology, called (Evolutionary Kalman Mathematical Modelling—EvoKalMaModel), was used to achieve an accurate and interpretable scoring methodology. The experimental results indicated that the proposed scoring scheme outperforms existing computational methods for the prediction of PPIs.

  19. A Political Decision Disguised as Legal Argument? Opinion 2/13 and European Union Accession to the European Convention on Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2015-01-01

    of Copenhagen, Denmark. In this interview, carried out in June 2015 for the Utrecht Journal of International and European Law, David Thór Björgvinsson outlined his views to Graham Butler on Opinion 2/13 from the Court of Justice of the European Union on the Union’s accession to the European Convention on Human...... Rights, the workings of the European Court of Human Rights, and what the future may have in store for this Court.......David Thór Björgvinsson was a judge of the European Court of Human Rights between 2004 and 2013. During this period, he was involved in many important judgments, including Scoppola v Italy (No. 3), Eweida and others v United Kingdom, and Al-Jedda v the United Kingdom, amongst others, and went...

  20. The Research on"Human Library"and Library's Knowledge Service Strategies%"Human Library"与图书馆知识服务的策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒文刚

    2015-01-01

    "Human Library"作为一种全新的知识服务理念与服务模式,在图书馆知识服务方面具有鲜活、独特的优势.阐述了"Human Library"与图书馆知识服务的概念,提出了"Human Library"与图书馆知识服务的策略,包括加强宣传以提高社会认可、增进共识以促进合作共赢、完善制度以推进规范管理.%"Human Library", being as a new idea and pattern of knowledge service, has fresh and unique advantages in library's knowledge service. This paper expounds the concepts of"human library"and library's knowledge service, and puts forward the strategies for "human library"and library's knowledge service, which include strengthening the propaganda to improve the social acceptance, broadening the mutual understanding to promote the win-win cooperation, and perfecting the system to to promote standard management.

  1. Knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Jarošová, Milena

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical part: Basic terms of knowledge management, knowledge worker, knowledge creation and conversion process, prerequisites and benefits of knowledge management. Knowledge management and it's connection to organizational culture and structure, result measurements of knowledge management, learning organization and it's connection to knowledge management. Tacit knowledge management tools -- stories -- types, how to create, practical use, communities, coaching. Value Based Organization. Pr...

  2. New Human Resources Management and Direct Investment Inflows Build up the Knowledge-Based Society in the CEE Emerging Countries

    OpenAIRE

    George PLESOIANU; Mihail Vincentiu IVAN

    2010-01-01

    Financial innovation is essential for the economic development and growth. Even more, practice proved that any sustainable economic development requires more than a “receptive” economy to financial inflows inputs. The bitter global competition changed the knowledge into the vital force of the economy. Therefore, in order to survive, companies of different sizes, have to allocate important financial resources in view of obtaining useful knowledge. The importance of knowledge in the new world e...

  3. The Ultimate Stumbling Block? The Common Foreign and Security Policy, and Accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The protection of human rights within Europe diverges between two systems. On the one hand, there are 28 Member States of the European Union; and on the other are 47 states, including 19 other non-EU states that are a party to the Convention. For states that wish to become Member States of the EU......, being a part of the Convention system is a prerequisite, and given this mandatory requirement, it would make practicable sense that the European Union in itself would someday become a party to the Convention. It is beyond doubt that accession of the EU to the Convention would improve protections...... afforded to individuals within the Union under the Convention, and would eliminate some of the inconsistencies where the Convention does not currently apply. The accession of the EU to the Convention would ensure that the EU, in addition to its Member States, oblige and respect the Convention. However...

  4. 厦门市居民健康信息关注程度与获取途径分析%Analysis of public health knowledge access mode and the attention degree in Xiamen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴龙; 田丁; 骆瑾瑜; 刘晓婷; 陈友兰; 杨晓剑

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解厦门市居民最关注的健康知识和获取健康信息的途径,为制订有效可行的健康素养传播方式提供科学依据.方法 采用分层多阶段整群随机抽样的方法,以人户问卷调查的方式,对厦门市4614名15~ 80岁常住居民进行调查.结果 厦门居民最关注的健康知识依次为:饮食卫生(66.3%)、慢性病(53.8%)、传染病(53.6%)、心理疾病(50.8%).居民获取健康知识的主要途径为:电视(75.3%)、报纸(43.2%)、义诊等户外宣传活动(31.2%)、路边宣传栏(29.5%)、电台广播(28.2%).不同年龄组、不同文化程度居民关注的健康知识及对健康信息获取途径的利用不同.结论 不同年龄、文化与职业背景的居民关注不同健康信息,获取信息的途径也不同,应有针对性地制定有效可行的健康信息传播策略.%Objective To understand health related knowledge which the residents wanted to know in Xiamen City and their access to get health information,and provide scientific basis for effective and feasible health literacy measures.Methods By using the method of stratified cluster random sampling,a questionnaire survey was carried out among 4614 residents aged 15-80 years old in Xiamen City.Results Health knowledge which the residents were most concerned about were:food safety (66.3%),chronic disease (53.8%),infectious diseases (53.6%),mental health (50.8%).The main ways of residents to obtain health knowledge information:TV (75.3%),newspapers (43.2%),free consulting and other outdoor activities (31.2%),roadside billboards (29.5%),radio (28.2%).The content and access ways of health knowledge information were different among different education level and different age groups.Conclusion Different age,educational level and occupational background of residents concerned about the different health information and had different access way.Targeted effective health communication strategy should be

  5. The Prevalence of Different Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Routes and Knowledge about AIDS in Infected People with HIV in Sirjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Behzadpour

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalence of HIV transmission routs in the HIV infected population of Sirjan, and their knowledge about the disease, in order to plan better preventive strategies. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was planned. During a 6-month period in 2010, all of the HIV infected people in Sirjan (old and new cases who had a file at the consultation center for high risk behavior, completed a valid and reliable questionnaire. Results: The definite route of transmission was not clear in any of the patients because they had more than one suspicious route. Injected drug abusers were the most common (88.4% followed by those who got tattoos (79.1%, invasive therapeutic procedures, dentistry, surgery and endoscopy (56.1%, high risk sexual behavior (62.8%, bloodletting (9.3%, injuries in the barbershop (9.3% and blood transfusion (2.3%. Conclusion: All of the HIV infected cases in Sirjan were involved with several high risk behaviors, but the major route of transmission, similar to other parts of the country was injected drug abuse. Educational programs for prevention of AIDS should be followed seriously and special attention should be paid to groups with multiple high risk behaviors.

  6. Metacognitive Model of Tacit Knowledge Transfer in Human Library%真人图书馆隐性知识转移的元认知模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培林

    2016-01-01

    To find a solution for“how to transfer tacit knowledge in human library”,this article combines Flavell’ s metacognitive theory with Dr. Dong’s metacognitive ideas to explore the metacognitive model of tacit knowledge transfer in human library and its operating mechanism based on the analysis of metacognitive dimensions of tacit knowledge. The results show that it need to establish a “3+1” metacognition mechanism for tacit knowledge transfer in human library in order to achieve the transfer successfully.%文章针对真人图书馆中隐性知识如何转移,引入Flavell的元认知理论及董奇的元认知观点,在分析隐性知识元认知维度的基础上,探索真人图书馆隐性知识转移的元认知模式,据此提出推动真人图书馆隐性知识转移的运行机制。研究结果显示,要成功实现真人图书馆隐性知识转移,需要建立“3+1”真人图书馆隐性知识转移元认知机制。

  7. HUBUNGAN ANTARA KNOWLEDGE-TECHNOLOGY-INNOVATION (KTI), COMMITMENT, COMPETENCE, LEADERSHIP, GOVERNMENT POLICY, HUMAN CAPITAL, DAN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2014-01-01

    In current tight competitive situation, companies always try to create differentiation anytime to achieve better and sustainable performance. Rapid and unpredictable changes insist the companies should always be innovative, so that aspects of globalization, e-business, technology innovation, creativity, global competition, knowledge creation, diffusion of new technologies and knowledge revolution should be sources of performance and competitiveness improvement. Therefore, to maintain core com...

  8. The Effects of Learning Organization Culture on the Practices of Human Knowledge-Creation: An Empirical Research Study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to identify the influence of learning organization culture on the practices of organizational knowledge-creation. Actionable knowledge-creation practices are put forward as a variable in preference to the learning process itself because they may be more closely related to the achievement of individual and/or organizational…

  9. Global access to infertility care in developing countries: a case of human rights, equity and social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombelet, W

    2011-01-01

    According to WHO data more than 180 million couples in developing countries suffer from primary or secondary infertility. The social stigma of childlessness still leads to isolation and abandonment in many developing countries. Differences between the developed and developing world are emerging because of the different availability in infertility care and different socio-cultural value surrounding procreation and childlessness. Although reproductive health education and prevention of infertility are number one priorities, the need for accessible diagnostic procedures and new reproductive technologies (ART) is very high. The success and sustainability of ART in resource-poor settings will depend to a large extend on our ability to optimise these techniques in terms of availability, affordability and effectiveness. Accessible infertility treatment can only be successfully introduced in developing countries if socio-cultural and economic prerequisites are fulfilled and governments can be persuaded to support their introduction. We have to liaise with the relevant authorities to discuss the strengthening of infertility services, at the core of which lies the integration of infertility, contraceptive and maternal health services within public health care structures. After a fascinating period of more than 30 years of IVF, only a small part of the world population benefits from these new technologies. Time has come to give equitable access to effective and safe infertility care in resource-poor countries as well.

  10. Migrants' access to healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie

    2011-01-01

    There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare...... according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why...... are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were...

  11. Knowledge Yearning for Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the restriction of access to knowledge/books in the contemporary digitalized global world, in which the access to knowledge has to be paid for, and wherein definitions of modes of payment control who has or doesn’t have the right to knowledge. The second part of the article deals with the struggle for the freedom of words/knowledge, and actions through which the authors/producers of knowledge and art fight the restrictions not only to the freedom of speech, but also creativity and innovation, which should be the aim of all copyright and intellectual right laws, the contemporary application of which has become its own opposite.

  12. Awareness and knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection among high-risk men of Hispanic origin attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colón-López Vivian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital Human papilloma virus (HPV is one of the most commonly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infection (STIs in men and women. Knowledge about HPV infection among men is limited. This study aims to determine correlates of adequate knowledge of HPV infection among men who attend an STI clinic in Puerto Rico. Methods A cross-sectional study of 206 men was conducted at an STI clinic in San Juan, PR. Adequate knowledge was defined as a score of at least 70% of correct responses among those men who reported having ever heard of HPV. Variables that achieved statistical significance in the bivariate analysis (p Results Although 52.5% of men reported having heard of HPV infection before the survey, only 29.3% of this sub-group had an adequate knowledge of HPV. Most men did not know that HPV is a risk factor for anal (38.7%, penile (50.0% and oral (72.6% cancer. Factors associated with adequate knowledge of HPV in age-adjusted models were being men who have sex with men (MSM (OR=2.6;95%CI=1.1-6.1, self-report of genital warts (OR=3.2;95%CI=1.3-7.9 and herpes (OR=7.4;95% CI=2.2-25.1. MSM was marginally associated with adequate knowledge (OR=2.3;95% CI=0.9-5.9 and self-report of herpes remained significantly associated (OR=5.0;95%CI=1.3-18.4 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Awareness and knowledge of HPV was very low in this group of men. Interventions to increase knowledge and awareness in this group are necessary to promote preventive practices for HPV-related cancers in high-risk groups.

  13. Funding scientific open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the knowledge divide, more Open Access Journals (OAJ) are needed in all languages and scholarly subject areas that exercise peer-review or editorial quality control. To finance needed costs, it is discussed why and how to sell target specific advertisement by associating ads to given scientific keywords. (author)

  14. The human genome project: Information management, access, and regulation. Technical progress report, 1 April--31 August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.D.; Micikas, L.B.

    1993-09-10

    Efforts are described to prepare educational materials including computer based as well as conventional type teaching materials for training interested high school and elementary students in aspects of Human Genome Project.

  15. Moving forward on human resources for health: next steps for scaling up toward universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Wilma; McCaffery, James; Quain, Estelle E

    2011-08-01

    In 2008, the Global Health Workforce Alliance commissioned a technical working group to examine the human resources for health implications of scaling up to reach the Millennium Development Goal 6 of universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care, and support by 2010. The analysis and interventions recommended in the working group report, which was launched at the Second Global Forum on Human Resources for Health in Bangkok, Thailand, in January 2011, are based on two research methods: literature reviews covering the period from 2000 to 2008 and a rapid situational analysis produced by teams working in 5 countries (Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Thailand, and Zambia). The authors' intent in this article is to assist the Alliance in maintaining the momentum of the forum and the enthusiasm generated by the working group's report to make a difference at the country level by moving from recommendation to action.

  16. Knowledge Management: Usefulness of Knowledge to Organizational Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Roy L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge-usefulness to organizational managers. The determination of the level of usefulness provided organizational managers with a reliable measure of their decision-making. Organizational workers' perceptions of knowledge accessibility, quality of knowledge content, timeliness, and user…

  17. 间接知识及其对人类文明的影响%Indirect Knowledge and its Impact on Human Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司汉武

    2011-01-01

    The direct knowledge is able to directly meet the needs of daily life, or the material life of human beings bring direct utility to improve and enhance the knowledge; not result directly improve the daily lives of utilitarian, but through discovery and problem--solving, process improvements and technology, to improve the material life and other indirect social life of knowledge, both are indirect knowledge. The formation of Indirect knowledge subject to the pure knowledge that people need the type of things subject to research, subject to experimental (empirical) verification and deductive logic, the same subject on the human system to protect freedom of thought. The scientific knowledge as a representative of indirect knowledge and technological advances, are core and foundation of human modern civilization.%直接知识是指能够直接满足人们日常生活需要,或者对人类物质生活的改善和提高带来直接效用的知识;不能带来日常功利生活的直接改善,但能通过发现和解决问题、改进工艺和技术,间接改善物质生活和其他社会生活的知识,都属于间接知识。间接知识的形成,受制于人们纯粹的求知需要,受制于对事物的类型化研究,受制于实验(实证)验证和演绎逻辑思维,同样受制于对人的自由思想的制度保护。作为间接知识代表的科学知识和由以推进的技术进步,是人类现代文明的核心和基础。’

  18. Integrating Ethno-Ecological and Scientific Knowledge of Termites for Sustainable Termite Management and Human Welfare in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin M. Sekematte; Phillip O. Y. Nkunika; Philip Nyeko; Gudeta W. Sileshi; Akinnifesi, Festus K.; Ajayi, Oluyede C.

    2009-01-01

    Despite their well-known role as pests, termites also provide essential ecosystem services. In this paper, we undertook a comprehensive review of studies on human–termite interactions and farmers’ indigenous knowledge across Sub-Saharan Africa in an effort to build coherent principles for termite management. The review revealed that local communities have comprehensive indigenous knowledge of termite ecology and taxonomy, and apply various indigenous control practices. Many commun...

  19. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacit knowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individuals in an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization, and managing key individuals as knowledge creators and carriers. By contrast, the explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating...

  20. Landscape-scale accessibility of livestock to tigers: implications of spatial grain for modeling predation risk to mitigate human-carnivore conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer R B; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Jena, Jyotirmay; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2015-03-01

    Innovative conservation tools are greatly needed to reduce livelihood losses and wildlife declines resulting from human-carnivore conflict. Spatial risk modeling is an emerging method for assessing the spatial patterns of predator-prey interactions, with applications for mitigating carnivore attacks on livestock. Large carnivores that ambush prey attack and kill over small areas, requiring models at fine spatial grains to predict livestock depredation hot spots. To detect the best resolution for predicting where carnivores access livestock, we examined the spatial attributes associated with livestock killed by tigers in Kanha Tiger Reserve, India, using risk models generated at 20, 100, and 200-m spatial grains. We analyzed land-use, human presence, and vegetation structure variables at 138 kill sites and 439 random sites to identify key landscape attributes where livestock were vulnerable to tigers. Land-use and human presence variables contributed strongly to predation risk models, with most variables showing high relative importance (≥0.85) at all spatial grains. The risk of a tiger killing livestock increased near dense forests and near the boundary of the park core zone where human presence is restricted. Risk was nonlinearly related to human infrastructure and open vegetation, with the greatest risk occurring 1.2 km from roads, 1.1 km from villages, and 8.0 km from scrubland. Kill sites were characterized by denser, patchier, and more complex vegetation with lower visibility than random sites. Risk maps revealed high-risk hot spots inside of the core zone boundary and in several patches in the human-dominated buffer zone. Validation against known kills revealed predictive accuracy for only the 20 m model, the resolution best representing the kill stage of hunting for large carnivores that ambush prey, like the tiger. Results demonstrate that risk models developed at fine spatial grains can offer accurate guidance on landscape attributes livestock should

  1. Powerful Knowledge and Geographical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Michael Young has argued that pupils should be given access to "powerful knowledge." This article examines the extent to which his concept of powerful knowledge is applicable to geographical education, in particular to the study of urban geography. It explores the distinction Young makes between everyday and school knowledge, how this…

  2. Role of Human Health Care Providers and Medical Treatment Facilities in Military Working Dog Care and Accessibility Difficulties with Military Working Dog Blood Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles Iii, James T

    2016-01-01

    The use of military working dogs (MWDs) in support of military operations has increased dramatically over recent years, as they have proven to be our most reliable deterrent to improvised explosive devices. Healthcare delivery for MWDs in combat presents unique challenges and requires extensive collaboration between veterinarians and human health care providers (HCPs). A successful example is the incorporation of MWD emergency care for nonveterinary HCPs into the Joint Trauma System Clinical Practice Guidelines, which has proven to be a helpful product. Additional challenges that need further solutions include MWDs as patients in human medical treatment facilities (MTFs) and the procurement of appropriate canine blood components in an operational environment. It is often necessary for MWDs to be treated as patients in human MTFs, however, there is no Department of Defense guidance to support this activity. Access to MWD blood products is limited to collection of fresh whole blood in the operational setting. Similar to humans, specific blood component therapy, such as fresh frozen plasma, is often indicated for sick or injured MWDs. Currently there is no formal system in place to deliver any blood products for MWDs or to facilitate collection in theater.

  3. Knowledge capture and the retirement of the director of finance: succession planning in the San Mateo County Human Services Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Concern over the impending retirement of several top-level managers led a county agency to engage in efforts aimed at more efficient succession management. Administrators developed plans to prevent the loss of invaluable knowledge and wisdom accompanying retirement of experienced agency leaders. The agency's Director of Finance (DoF) was one of the first key figures projected to retire, and a succession plan was implemented to transfer his knowledge for use after his departure. The knowledge transfer process involved three stages, including: (1) employing the DoF as teacher, having him develop curricula and conduct trainings; (2) engaging the DoF as mentor, allowing an existing staff member and the DoF's successor to shadow and be coached by the DoF; and (3) developing a knowledge management system that could be used after the DoF departed. This case study describes the knowledge transfer process and experiences shared by the DoF and this agency.

  4. On Granular Knowledge Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge plays a central role in human and artificial intelligence. One of the key characteristics of knowledge is its structured organization. Knowledge can be and should be presented in multiple levels and multiple views to meet people's needs in different levels of granularities and from different perspectives. In this paper, we stand on the view point of granular computing and provide our understanding on multi-level and multi-view of knowledge through granular knowledge structures (GKS). Representation of granular knowledge structures, operations for building granular knowledge structures and how to use them are investigated. As an illustration, we provide some examples through results from an analysis of proceeding papers. Results show that granular knowledge structures could help users get better understanding of the knowledge source from set theoretical, logical and visual point of views. One may consider using them to meet specific needs or solve certain kinds of problems.

  5. Nuclear knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of nuclear knowledge has emerged as a growing challenge in recent years. The need to preserve and transfer nuclear knowledge is compounded by recent trends such as ageing of the nuclear workforce, declining student numbers in nuclear-related fields, and the threat of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge. Addressing these challenges, the IAEA promotes a 'knowledge management culture' through: - Providing guidance for policy formulation and implementation of nuclear knowledge management; - Strengthening the contribution of nuclear knowledge in solving development problems, based on needs and priorities of Member States; - Pooling, analysing and sharing nuclear information to facilitate knowledge creation and its utilization; - Implementing effective knowledge management systems; - Preserving and maintaining nuclear knowledge; - Securing sustainable human resources for the nuclear sector; and - Enhancing nuclear education and training

  6. Knowledge Management Strategy Adopted by PNRA: A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PNRA’s objectives of the KM strategy: • Identification of critical knowledge domains; • Identification of explicit and tacit knowledge resources; • Conversion of tacit knowledge into explicit; • Preservation of the knowledge capital; • Efficient and simple access

  7. On action- and affectpsychology of human reliability. An access by training simulators for complex man-machine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical part and its topics: errors at the interface between man and machine; reliability analysis for man; the psychological explanation of action reliability of man (intention and control); a paradigma for human reliability (frustration and regression). Empirical part: Control room in a nuclear power plant: Influences on repeated blockages on component care in case of start-up operation; ship bridge: Frustration and regression while steering in a bight. Appendix: analysis of a social interaction.(GL)

  8. Hydroxylation of yohimbine in superacidic media: one-step access to human metabolites 10 and 11-hydroxyyohimbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duflos, A; Redoules, F; Fahy, J; Jacquesy, J C; Jouannetaud, M P

    2001-02-01

    Two major human metabolites of yohimbine (1), 10- and 11-hydroxyyohimbine (2 and 3), were prepared by direct hydroxylation of 1 under superacidic conditions. In this medium, the four positions of the benzene part of yohimbine were hydroxylated and the corresponding monohydroxylated compounds (2-5) were isolated. The structures of 2-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. PMID:11429998

  9. Malaysia's Human Resource Strategies for a Knowledge-Based Economy - Comparing the Influence of Different Labur Market Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15-20 years the Malaysian government has sought to meet the increasing international competition in the labour intensive manufacturing industry by transforming the economy to a more knowledge-based economy. Impotant levers are industrial upgrading policies and partnerships with leading...

  10. Knowledge, attitude towards human papillomavirus and HPV vaccine among medical students of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswati Tripathy

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Lack of knowledge among medical students can be detrimental to the health of the society. So there is a need to create awareness among the future health educators against various aspects of HPV, cervical cancers and its prevention. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1771-1774

  11. Fishers’ local knowledge on impact of climate change and anthropogenic interferences on Hilsa fishery in South Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahan, Israt; Ahsan, Dewan; Farque, Md Hasan

    2016-01-01

    . The study also indicates that the major constraints to adopt with the change situation are low level of human capital and restricted access to the formal credit system. Therefore, incorporation of local knowledge in governmental policy formulation and public support to improve human skill are essential...

  12. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... reducing complexity and dividing knowledge into to dichotomies or hierarchies, knowledge workers should be enabled to use different strategies for knowledge sharing, -transfer and –creation depending on the task and the nature of the knowledge. However if the ambition is to have a strategy for sharing...

  13. Access to Preventive Health Care for Undocumented Migrants: A Comparative Study of Germany, The Netherlands and Spain from a Human Rights Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Flegar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the preventive health care provisions for nationals and undocumented migrants in Germany, the Netherlands and Spain in light of four indicators derived from the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights’ General Comment 14 (GC 14. These indicators are (i immunization; (ii education and information; (iii regular screening programs; and (iv the promotion of the underlying determinants of health. It aims to answer the question of what preventive health care services for undocumented migrants are provided for in Germany, the Netherlands and Spain and how this should be evaluated from a human rights perspective. The study reveals that the access to preventive health care for undocumented migrants is largely insufficient in all three countries but most extensive in the Netherlands and least extensive in Germany. The paper concludes that a human rights-based approach to health law and policy can help to refine and concretize the individual rights and state obligations for the preventive health care of undocumented migrants. While the human rights framework is still insufficiently clear in some respects, the research concedes the added value of a rights-based approach as an evaluation tool, advocacy framework and moral principle to keep in mind when adopting or evaluating state policies in the health sector.

  14. Physical and human dimensions for integrated coastal management: Assessment of coastal changes and resident knowledge base in coastal areas of the Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euan-Avila, Jorge Ivan

    Coastal zones are under severe pressure as a result of multiple human activities. Environmental degradation, coastal ecosystems' importance and resource depletion require alternative policy for long-term sustainable development. This study focuses on physical and human dimensions involved in ecosystem perturbation and management. This research analyzed data collected with remote sensors to determine land cover changes in tropical mangrove wetlands and their spatial relationships with roads and town developments. It also analyzed data of 139 interviews with residents in the area to assess their knowledge base regarding: (i) the use and non-use values of mangrove wetlands, (ii) attitudes in resource use, (iii) awareness of environmental impacts of urban expansion, solid waste disposal in wetlands, and coastal road networks, and (iv) acceptance of regulation. Findings indicated: (i) a significant loss of vegetation and soils, (ii) increasing urban growth and (iii) differences between urban and rural residents regarding the use, knowledge and attitudes towards coastal ecosystems and resources. To receive the future benefits from these ecosystems, specially for those whose daily survival depend upon them requires an integrated management program that accounts for: (i) the size and location of land cover changes in the area, and (ii) the heterogeneity between the urban (Progreso and Prochub) and rural (Chuburna and Chelem) coastal resident knowledge base.

  15. An open source infrastructure for managing knowledge and finding potential collaborators in a domain-specific subset of PubMed, with an example from human genome epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoury Muin J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying relevant research in an ever-growing body of published literature is becoming increasingly difficult. Establishing domain-specific knowledge bases may be a more effective and efficient way to manage and query information within specific biomedical fields. Adopting controlled vocabulary is a critical step toward data integration and interoperability in any information system. We present an open source infrastructure that provides a powerful capacity for managing and mining data within a domain-specific knowledge base. As a practical application of our infrastructure, we presented two applications – Literature Finder and Investigator Browser – as well as a tool set for automating the data curating process for the human genome published literature database. The design of this infrastructure makes the system potentially extensible to other data sources. Results Information retrieval and usability tests demonstrated that the system had high rates of recall and precision, 90% and 93% respectively. The system was easy to learn, easy to use, reasonably speedy and effective. Conclusion The open source system infrastructure presented in this paper provides a novel approach to managing and querying information and knowledge from domain-specific PubMed data. Using the controlled vocabulary UMLS enhanced data integration and interoperability and the extensibility of the system. In addition, by using MVC-based design and Java as a platform-independent programming language, this system provides a potential infrastructure for any domain-specific knowledge base in the biomedical field.

  16. Microeconomics of Knowledge: African Case

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Since the process of globalization era, we can always lived in economics of knowledge. The cicle of economics founded on knowledge are compost by three components: the investment in knowledge; the production and the diffusion of information technology and communication (ITC) and the institutional mechanisms that favor the access to knowledge (Foray, 2004). By fact the economics are divided in Micro and Macroeconomics, this work has as objective to approach theme “Microeconomics of Knowle...

  17. Structures of the human Pals1 PDZ domain with and without ligand suggest gated access of Crb to the PDZ peptide-binding groove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Marina E.; Fletcher, Georgina C.; O’Reilly, Nicola; Purkiss, Andrew G.; Thompson, Barry J. [Cancer Research UK, 44 Lincoln’s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3LY (United Kingdom); McDonald, Neil Q., E-mail: neil.mcdonald@cancer.org.uk [Cancer Research UK, 44 Lincoln’s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3LY (United Kingdom); Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    This study characterizes the interaction between the carboxy-terminal (ERLI) motif of the essential polarity protein Crb and the Pals1/Stardust PDZ-domain protein. Structures of human Pals1 PDZ with and without a Crb peptide are described, explaining the highly conserved nature of the ERLI motif and revealing a sterically blocked peptide-binding groove in the absence of ligand. Many components of epithelial polarity protein complexes possess PDZ domains that are required for protein interaction and recruitment to the apical plasma membrane. Apical localization of the Crumbs (Crb) transmembrane protein requires a PDZ-mediated interaction with Pals1 (protein-associated with Lin7, Stardust, MPP5), a member of the p55 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs). This study describes the molecular interaction between the Crb carboxy-terminal motif (ERLI), which is required for Drosophila cell polarity, and the Pals1 PDZ domain using crystallography and fluorescence polarization. Only the last four Crb residues contribute to Pals1 PDZ-domain binding affinity, with specificity contributed by conserved charged interactions. Comparison of the Crb-bound Pals1 PDZ structure with an apo Pals1 structure reveals a key Phe side chain that gates access to the PDZ peptide-binding groove. Removal of this side chain enhances the binding affinity by more than fivefold, suggesting that access of Crb to Pals1 may be regulated by intradomain contacts or by protein–protein interaction.

  18. Access Denied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  19. From Open Access to Open Knowledge Environment:A Study for Digital Collection Development Policy and Practice of University Libraries%从开放获取到开放知识环境——高校图书馆数字馆藏发展政策研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓菲; 张婷; 陈蕾

    2015-01-01

    从环境、政策和评价体系等方面分析开放获取的现状和发展趋势,探讨基于数据的科学研究第四范式对数字馆藏发展政策的影响,提出面向开放知识环境的数字馆藏发展核心政策和保障政策.%The article analyses the open access development status based on the facts of open access resources, government open access policies and open access review systems. It discusses that the forth paradigm of science study has influence over the digital collection development policy. It also proposes the core polices and guaranty policies of the digital collection development policy to open knowledge oriented environment.

  20. Machine integration into human life:Mankind and Cyborgization

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Muhammad Ali Khan Abstract August 31, 2012 Machine integration into human life: Mankind & Cyborgization Embracing technology and its utilization has always been a certain goal for human beings so it would provide benefits in long run through different ways. However access to such knowledge not only helps mankind to prosper but also reveals its dark side in form of a dilemma. My paper explores the same subject of scientific knowledge as a dilemma to human life while providing its advantage...

  1. Does Ignorance Matter? The Relative Importance of Civic Knowledge and the Human Tendency to Engage in Motivated Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Dusso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It has long been understood that political knowledge in the U.S. is very low. For those who care about the quality of American democracy, this is a big problem. In attempting to find a solution, many people often blame education. While increasing civic knowledge is a laudatory goal, increased political sophistication does not necessarily turn individuals into good democratic citizens. Research in cognitive and social psychology paints a picture of people as motivated reasoners. Instead of having an open-minded engagement with issues, individuals typically only seek, see, and understand information in a manner that reinforces what they already believe. Here, we examine motivated reasoning and argue that the strongest partisans and the most committed ideologues will be the most susceptible to holding contradictory policy positions with regard to same-sex marriage and religious freedom.

  2. Knowledge and attitude of women regarding the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, its relationship to cervical cancer and prevention methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, Farah; Shirvani, Hamidreza Esmaeilnia; Barouti, Esmat; Salehpour, Saghar; Khodakarami, Nahid; Alizadeh, Kamyab

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to determine knowledge and attitude of women to HPV and its association with cervical cancer and prevention methods. In a cross-sectional study, 500 women, aged between 20 and 50 presenting to local health centers in Tehran, were asked about demographic factors and questioned about cervical cancer, HPV, and prevention methods. Responses were tabulated and summarized. Although knowledge of HPV, its relation to cervical cancer and prevention methods among Iranian women is not enough, their attitude towards education in this regards is extremely high. The results reflect the need of advertising and educational programs for public about HPV prevention methods, to reduce the prevalence of this infection and its severe consequences. PMID:22390103

  3. Russian nursing students’ knowledge level and attitudes in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) – a descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    Suominen, Tarja; Laakkonen, Laura; Lioznov, Dmitry; Polukova, Maya; Nikolaenko, Svetlana; Lipiäinen, Liudmila; Välimäki, Maritta; Kylmä, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge of Russian nursing students regarding HIV and Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and their attitudes towards caring for people/patients living with HIV or AIDS (PLWHA - People Living With HIV/AIDS) and their possible homophobic attitudes. The HIV epidemic in Russia is substantial and increasing rapidly. Hence this study provides important new information regarding this phenomenon. Methods The data was collected by que...

  4. Knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Lubojacký, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge management is a way to effectively manage corporate knowledge. Goal of the thesis is to analyze tasks and ways of knowledge management and technological means to support it and test chosen software tools for creation of knowledge base of business terms. First part of the work is dealing with analysis of knowledge management, technics and tools, which are used and technologies for its support. Second part is focused on testing tools for creation of business terms knowledge base for n...

  5. inSilicoDb: an R/Bioconductor package for accessing human Affymetrix expert-curated datasets from GEO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminau, Jonatan; Steenhoff, David; Coletta, Alain; Meganck, Stijn; Lazar, Cosmin; de Schaetzen, Virginie; Duque, Robin; Molter, Colin; Bersini, Hugues; Nowé, Ann; Weiss Solís, David Y

    2011-11-15

    Microarray technology has become an integral part of biomedical research and increasing amounts of datasets become available through public repositories. However, re-use of these datasets is severely hindered by unstructured, missing or incorrect biological samples information; as well as the wide variety of preprocessing methods in use. The inSilicoDb R/Bioconductor package is a command-line front-end to the InSilico DB, a web-based database currently containing 86 104 expert-curated human Affymetrix expression profiles compiled from 1937 GEO repository series. The use of this package builds on the Bioconductor project's focus on reproducibility by enabling a clear workflow in which not only analysis, but also the retrieval of verified data is supported.

  6. Reconfiguring the Law of Non-Refoulement: Procedural and Substantive Barriers for Those Seeking to Access Surrogate International Human Rights Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. von Sternberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Both geographic and normative constraints restrict access to surrogate international human rights protection for those seeking a haven from serious human rights abuses. Primary among territorial restrictions has been the fall-out from the US Supreme Court’s decision in Sale v. Haitian Council Centers in which the court explicitly ruled that nothing in US statutory law, or in the 1951 Convention on Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, precluded the interdiction of Haitian refugees in international waters and their return to the country of origin without an effective interview on their protection clams. This ruling is in transparent contradiction to the general international law norm of non-refoulement according to modern scholarship and emerging case law. This paper concludes that Sale should be overturned by statute as should related pre-screening practices. A new standard of “jurisdiction” should be adopted which does not depend on territorial access to a signatory state but on whether the state is exercising power in fact. Similar concerns exist with respect to safe third country agreements which often offend the international customary right of the asylum seeker to choose where his or her claim will be filed. This paper argues that the right of choice should be recognized and onward travel and admission to the country of destination allowed. This result is especially called for where return of the alien by the country of first contact raises serious concerns under the law of non-refoulement. Imbalances noted in this paper include those generated by the new terrorism related grounds of inadmissibility in theUnited States and the summary denial of children’s asylum claims flowing from gang violence.Other questions are raised in this paper concerning work authorization and detention of asylum seekers. Access to an employment authorization document for those filing colorable claims should be recognized by statute to render US practice

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infections among health care providers in Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a global problem of extraordinary dimensions and has so far resulted in nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Health care providers (HCPs) are considered to play a pivotal role in the provision of preventive and curative services to individuals suffering from HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. Pakistan, which was previously categorised as having a low-prevalence, high-risk HIV epidemic, is now facing a concentrated HIV epidemic among its most at-risk populations such as injecting drug users. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and reported practices relating to HIV/AIDS and STIs among private and public sector health care providers providing clinical services in areas where women sell sex. This was an exploratory quantitative study, where a structured questionnaire was administered in face-to-face interviews with 200 HCPs from the public and private sectors. Knowledge about AIDS and correct diagnosis of STIs were defined as according to the national guidelines of NACP. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed to test associations between predictors and level of knowledge of STIs in each group separately. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to indicate predicting factors for correct management of STIs. Forty-five percent of the HCPs had correct knowledge about the transmission and prevention of HIV, whereas 21% had seen a patient with advanced HIV infection, only two HCPs had been trained to manage such cases and 82% were not aware of syndromic management of STIs. Only 10% could cite the 'correct treatment' of gonorrhoea, syphilis and vaginal discharge. The odds of having the 'correct knowledge' of diagnosing gonorrhoea and syphilis were 2.1 (CI 95%, 1.2-3.8) if the HCP was a female medical doctor working in public sector. Further intensive training is needed to improve the ability of relevant HCPs to correctly diagnose and effectively treat patients

  8. Türk Kütüphaneciliğinin Kişisel, Kurumsal ve Entelektüel Bilgi Birikimini Derleme Çalışmaları ve Elektronik Erişim Olanakları / The Studies in Turkish Librarianship for the Collection of Individual, Institutional and Intellectual Accumulation of Knowledge and the Possibilities of Electronic Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Toplu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of individual, institutional and intellectual knowledge is the most basic and important instrument in the determination of the progress and conditions of any branch of science and/or profession.The librarians who have qualifications and responsibilities in everystage of the process extending from publication to the accession ofknowledge, are at the same time responsible for providing necessaryinstruments and environments. In Turkey librarians started to createeffective instruments and conditions necessary for the accession to the individual, institutional and intellectual accumulation of knowledge. A new project has been set up in 2006 under the leadership of University and Research Librarians’ Association. The objective of this project is to provide accession to the individual, institutional and intellectual accumulation of knowledge in electronic form in the field of librarianship, and therefore,in the same year a new project called “Who is Who in Librarianship in Turkey” has come into being in electronic form. From 2007, onwards “The Directory of Information Centers in Turkey is being prepared in electronic form. In the third stage of the project, the reports, papers, etc. related to librarianship will be also available for accession in electronic form.

  9. Kinds of Knowledge in Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Clayton

    Solving equations in elementary algebra requires knowledge of the permitted operations, and knowledge of what operation to use at a given point in the solution process. While just these kinds of knowledge would be adequate for an ideal solver, human solvers appear to need and use other kinds of knowledge. First, many errors seem to indicate that…

  10. Clinical evidence continuous medical education: a randomised educational trial of an open access e-learning program for transferring evidence-based information – ICEKUBE (Italian Clinical Evidence Knowledge Utilization Behaviour Evaluation) – study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Satolli Roberto; Manfrini Roberto; Clivio Luca; Deligant Christian; Duca Piergiorgio; Compagnoni Anna; Sala Valeria; Cinquini Michela; Moschetti Ivan; Moja Lorenzo; Addis Antonio; Grimshaw Jeremy M; Dri Pietro; Liberati Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In an effort to ensure that all physicians have access to valid and reliable evidence on drug effectiveness, the Italian Drug Agency sponsored a free-access e-learning system, based on Clinical Evidence, called ECCE. Doctors have access to an electronic version and related clinical vignettes. Correct answers to the interactive vignettes provide Continuing Medical Education credits. The aims of this trial are to establish whether the e-learning program (ECCE) increases phys...

  11. An Ecological Framework of the Human Virome Provides Classification of Current Knowledge and Identifies Areas of Forthcoming Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technologies have opened the door for the classification of the human virome. While taxonomic classification can be applied to the viruses identified in such studies, this gives no information as to the type of interaction the virus has with the host. As follow-up studies are performed to address these questions, the description of these virus-host interactions would be greatly enriched by applying a standard set of definitions that typify them. This paper describes a framework with which all members of the human virome can be classified based on principles of ecology. The scaffold not only enables categorization of the human virome, but can also inform research aimed at identifying novel virus-host interactions.

  12. Why Emotional Capital Matters in Education and in Labour? Toward an Optimal Exploitation of Human Capital and Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gendron, Benedicte

    2004-01-01

    Nombre de recherches scientifiques ont mis en évidence l'importance des émotions dans les prises de décisions. Pour autant, cette dimension reste encore peu prise en compte dans les approches économiques. Pour cela, et en référence aux travaux sur l'intelligence émotionnelle, dans cet article nous nous proposons d'étudier l'impact et l'importance du capital émotionnel dans la constitution et l'exploitation optimale du capital humain chez les personnes et sur le Knowledge management dans les e...

  13. Knowledge crash and knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Ermine, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This article, by including the problem of “Knowledge Crash” in the more general framework of “Knowledge Management”, enlarges the concepts of knowledge, generation and knowledge transfer. It proposes a global approach, starting from a strategic analysis of a knowledge capital and ending in the implementation of socio-technical devices for inter-generational knowledge transfer.

  14. Factors associated with pastoral community knowledge and occurrence of mycobacterial infections in Human-Animal Interface areas of Nakasongola and Mubende districts, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biffa Demelash

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are emerging opportunistic pathogens whose role in human and animal disease is increasingly being recognized. Major concerns are their role as opportunistic pathogens in HIV/AIDS infections. The role of open natural water sources as source and livestock/wildlife as reservoirs of infections to man are well documented. This presents a health challenge to the pastoral systems in Africa that rely mostly on open natural water sources to meet livestock and human needs. Recent study in the pastoral areas of Uganda showed infections with same genotypes of NTM in pastoralists and their livestock. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental, animal husbandry and socio-demographic factors associated with occurrence and the pastoral community knowledge of mycobacterial infections at the human-environment-livestock/wildlife interface (HELI areas in pastoral ecosystems of Uganda. Methods Two hundred and fifty three (253 individuals were subjected to a questionnaire survey across the study districts of Nakasongola and Mubende. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Humans sharing of the water sources with wild animals from the forest compared to savannah ecosystem (OR = 3.3, the tribe of herding pastoral community (OR = 7.9, number of rooms present in household (3-5 vs. 1-2 rooms (OR = 3.3 were the socio-demographic factors that influenced the level of knowledge on mycobacterial infections among the pastoral communities. Tribe (OR = 6.4, use of spring vs. stream water for domestic use (OR = 4.5, presence of sediments in household water receptacle (OR = 2.32, non separation of water containers for drinking and domestic use (OR = 2.46, sharing of drinking water sources with wild animals (OR = 2.1, duration of involvement of >5 yrs in cattle keeping (OR = 3.7 and distance of household to animal night shelters (>20 meters (OR = 3

  15. Knowledge scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Baiget, Joan

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge management consist nowadays in a wide range of practices. However there are two basic concepts in the Knowledge literature: Tacit and Explicit knowledge. This article suggests to conceptualize both concepts related to ‘the reality’, and proposes a basic model for acquisition, creation and transmission of knowledge, introducing the ideas of ‘Organic knowledge’ and ‘Inorganic knowledge’.

  16. Knowledge Management

    CERN Document Server

    Gerami, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.

  17. Mobilizing Ideas in Knowledge Networks: A Social Network Analysis of the Human Resource Management Community 1990-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Swart, Juani; Naude, Peter; Jiang, Zhizhong; Mouzas, Stefanos

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show the role of social networks in mobilizing how actors both impact and are impacted on by their colleagues. It seeks to compare the human resource management (HRM) academic community with two other comparable communities, and to identify those groups that are seen to work closely together.…

  18. Human Library”对图书馆知识服务的意义%Significance of "Human Library" in the knowledge service of libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒文刚; 谭翠

    2015-01-01

    Human Library”将“真人”作为“图书”进行借阅活动,是一种全新的图书馆知识服务理念与服务模式.文章论述了“Human Library”对图书馆知识服务的意义,具体表现在:开创性地实现了用户与“Human Book”的双向交流,创新了图书馆知识服务理念,深化了图书馆知识服务精神,拓展了图书馆知识服务内容,优化了图书馆知识服务方式,强化了图书馆知识服务功能.

  19. Attitudes, knowledge and risky practices facing with the human inmunodeficiency virus between the university population of Chontales (Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López-Noguero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article a study between the university population of Centro Regional Chontales in Universidad Nacional Autónoma of Nicaragua is presented. The attitudes facing with the HIV are analyzed and the knowledge that the lecturers and students have about this topic, also the risky practices that they usually realize.Method:Only one ad hoc questionnaire was used with questions about sexual orientation, sexual habits and birth control, knowledge about HIV, other sexually transmitted diseases, attitudes, perceptions and risky practices. A proportional stratified sampling was used to select the samples. Descriptive analysis (percentage, correlation analysis (correlation coefficient and contrast of the non-parametric hypothesis bymeans of the correlation coefficient test. Results: Fromthe analysis realized we can deduce that there is still a lack of awareness about the transmission routes of the disease (just the 14,57 % of the students and the 8,43 % of the lecturers knows that the spread is possible by blood transfusion in certain conditions. There are problems by means of attitudes and risky practices (almost the 59 % of the students states that they do not use any type of birth control in their sexual relations also the persistency of social discrimination elements (almost the 42%of the students states that theywould not livewith a person with AIDS or they say that they do not know if they would do it or not due to fear of transmission.Conclusions: It has been considered necessary to develop social and educational initiatives of healthy promotion in this environment, a multisectorial questions approach facing with the HIV, where the social and educational has a prevailing place

  20. El humanismo de Eiximenis: saber, ciudad y cortesía = Eiximenis’ Humanism: Knowledge, city and courtesy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad VILANOU TORRANO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an approach to the thought of the Franciscan Francesc Eiximenis (c. 1330-1409, one of the Crown of Aragon’s most distinguished authors. Living during the transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance, his intellectual universe contains elements of both worlds. While from a doctrinal viewpoint, he follows the canons of the Medieval period, from the social viewpoint —by advocating a greater role for the bourgeoisie—, he proposes a precapitalist economy. In a broad sense, from a pedagogic viewpoint, one can define Eiximenis as a humanist concerned with fostering city life, the prominence of active life through cultivation of the mechanical arts, the expansion of knowledge as an effective means for combating ignorance, the development of reading as a tool for improving the governance of cities and the dissemination of courtesy to temper the ills caused by sin, particularly gluttony. Without being a humanist in the strict sense, Eiximenis —author of the encyclopaedic work (Lo Crestià, written at the end of the 14th century in the vernacular tongue so that it could be read by everyone— contributes to laying the foundations of a pedagogic culture that seeks the betterment of society through a series of elements —appreciation of knowledge, praise of work, expansion of courtesy, encouraging reading among women, etc.— which, in general, herald and anticipate the advent of the Renaissance. This would confirm the thesis that argues that the Renaissance is not a break from the Middle Ages but rather it is the outcome of a gradual evolution that is more suggestive of continuity than rupture.

  1. Evaluation of fotonovela to increase human papillomavirus vaccine knowledge, attitudes, and intentions in a low-income Hispanic community

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Alvin; Brown, Brandon; Sepulveda, Enedina; Teran-Clayton, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Background It has nearly been a decade since the introduction of the vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV), yet vaccination rates in the United States have remained suboptimal, particularly among Hispanics. Culturally and linguistically relevant health education tools targeting Hispanics are needed to increase the current rate of HPV vaccination. This article evaluates a theory-informed, evidence-guided fotonovela (photographic short story) intervention to improve HPV vaccination knowled...

  2. The Prevalence of Different Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Routes and Knowledge about AIDS in Infected People with HIV in Sirjan

    OpenAIRE

    Mahin Behzadpour; Narges Khanjani

    2012-01-01

    Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalenc...

  3. Disease Ontology 2015 update: an expanded and updated database of human diseases for linking biomedical knowledge through disease data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbe, Warren A; Arze, Cesar; Felix, Victor; Mitraka, Elvira; Bolton, Evan; Fu, Gang; Mungall, Christopher J; Binder, Janos X; Malone, James; Vasant, Drashtti; Parkinson, Helen; Schriml, Lynn M

    2015-01-01

    The current version of the Human Disease Ontology (DO) (http://www.disease-ontology.org) database expands the utility of the ontology for the examination and comparison of genetic variation, phenotype, protein, drug and epitope data through the lens of human disease. DO is a biomedical resource of standardized common and rare disease concepts with stable identifiers organized by disease etiology. The content of DO has had 192 revisions since 2012, including the addition of 760 terms. Thirty-two percent of all terms now include definitions. DO has expanded the number and diversity of research communities and community members by 50+ during the past two years. These community members actively submit term requests, coordinate biomedical resource disease representation and provide expert curation guidance. Since the DO 2012 NAR paper, there have been hundreds of term requests and a steady increase in the number of DO listserv members, twitter followers and DO website usage. DO is moving to a multi-editor model utilizing Protégé to curate DO in web ontology language. This will enable closer collaboration with the Human Phenotype Ontology, EBI's Ontology Working Group, Mouse Genome Informatics and the Monarch Initiative among others, and enhance DO's current asserted view and multiple inferred views through reasoning.

  4. Impact of an educational intervention on women's knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus self-sampling: a randomized controlled trial in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëtan Sossauer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV self-sampling (Self-HPV may be used as a primary cervical cancer screening method in a low resource setting. Our aim was to evaluate whether an educational intervention would improve women's knowledge and confidence in the Self-HPV method. METHOD: Women aged between 25 and 65 years old, eligible for cervical cancer screening, were randomly chosen to receive standard information (control group or standard information followed by educational intervention (interventional group. Standard information included explanations about what the test detects (HPV, the link between HPV and cervical cancer and how to perform HPV self-sampling. The educational intervention consisted of a culturally tailored video about HPV, cervical cancer, Self-HPV and its relevancy as a screening test. All participants completed a questionnaire that assessed sociodemographic data, women's knowledge about cervical cancer and acceptability of Self-HPV. RESULTS: A total of 302 women were enrolled in 4 health care centers in Yaoundé and the surrounding countryside. 301 women (149 in the "control group" and 152 in the "intervention group" completed the full process and were included into the analysis. Participants who received the educational intervention had a significantly higher knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer than the control group (p<0.05, but no significant difference on Self-HPV acceptability and confidence in the method was noticed between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Educational intervention promotes an increase in knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer. Further investigation should be conducted to determine if this intervention can be sustained beyond the short term and influences screening behavior. TRIALS REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN Register ISRCTN78123709.

  5. Early infant male circumcision for human immunodeficiency virus prevention: knowledge and attitudes of women attending a rural hospital in Swaziland, Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Prudence; Kliner, Merav; Walley, John

    2014-01-01

    Swaziland has the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world at 26% of the adult population. Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been shown to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV from heterosexual sex by up to 60% and the Government of Swaziland has been promoting adult male circumcision. Infant circumcision commenced in 2013 so it is important to understand the knowledge and views of women as potential mothers, around infant circumcision for medical purposes to inform the development of the service. This study interviewed 14 women of reproductive age attending the outpatient department of Good Shepherd Mission Hospital (GSMH), a rural district hospital, on their knowledge of and attitudes to early infant male circumcision (EIMC). Participants were highly knowledgeable about the health benefits of medical circumcision, although knowledge of the comparative risks and benefits of EIMC to adult circumcision was poor. All participants would have a son circumcised; the preferred age varied from early infancy to adolescence. Complications and pain were the main barriers whilst religious and cultural reasons were mentioned both for and against circumcision. A variety of family members are important in the decision to circumcise a young boy. Acceptability of medical circumcision was high in this study, but concerns about safety, pain, autonomy and cultural factors reduce the acceptability of infant circumcision more specifically. It will be important to provide accurate, culturally sensitive information about infant circumcision to mothers, fathers and grandparents using existing hospital and community services provided at GSMH and throughout Swaziland. Where possible services for MMC should be available to males of all ages so that families and young men may choose the most favourable age for circumcision.

  6. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  7. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  8. Knowledge-guided robust MRI brain extraction for diverse large-scale neuroimaging studies on humans and non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Wang

    Full Text Available Accurate and robust brain extraction is a critical step in most neuroimaging analysis pipelines. In particular, for the large-scale multi-site neuroimaging studies involving a significant number of subjects with diverse age and diagnostic groups, accurate and robust extraction of the brain automatically and consistently is highly desirable. In this paper, we introduce population-specific probability maps to guide the brain extraction of diverse subject groups, including both healthy and diseased adult human populations, both developing and aging human populations, as well as non-human primates. Specifically, the proposed method combines an atlas-based approach, for coarse skull-stripping, with a deformable-surface-based approach that is guided by local intensity information and population-specific prior information learned from a set of real brain images for more localized refinement. Comprehensive quantitative evaluations were performed on the diverse large-scale populations of ADNI dataset with over 800 subjects (55 ∼ 90 years of age, multi-site, various diagnosis groups, OASIS dataset with over 400 subjects (18 ∼ 96 years of age, wide age range, various diagnosis groups, and NIH pediatrics dataset with 150 subjects (5 ∼ 18 years of age, multi-site, wide age range as a complementary age group to the adult dataset. The results demonstrate that our method consistently yields the best overall results across almost the entire human life span, with only a single set of parameters. To demonstrate its capability to work on non-human primates, the proposed method is further evaluated using a rhesus macaque dataset with 20 subjects. Quantitative comparisons with popularly used state-of-the-art methods, including BET, Two-pass BET, BET-B, BSE, HWA, ROBEX and AFNI, demonstrate that the proposed method performs favorably with superior performance on all testing datasets, indicating its robustness and effectiveness.

  9. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacitknowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individualsin an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization,and managing key individuals as knowledge creators...... an organization. The relative advantages and disadvantages of bothapproaches to knowledge management are summarized. A synthesis of tacit andknowledge management approaches is recommended to create a hybrid design for theknowledge management practices in a given organization....

  10. Knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role...... in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating...... and integrationknowledge, rewarding knowledge workers, etc.) , and derive refutable implications that are novelto the knowledge management field from our discussion....

  11. Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001, SCK-CEN decided to adopt and implement a practical knowledge management approach. Knowledge management activities were identified within the organisation and a co-ordinated approach to knowledge management was applied. Such an approach requires an efficient reuse of recorded knowledge and an effective transfer of the available knowledge. This approach ensures an added value to our research work and guarantees the long-term preservation of the institutional memory. Principle results and future developments regarding knowledge management at SCK-CEN are summarised

  12. Hemodialysis access - self care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  13. Human Mobility and Accident and Emergency (A&E) Department: A contribution to the knowledge of invisible flows

    OpenAIRE

    Bertazzoni, Beatrice; Bertazzoni, Giuliano; Montanari, Armando

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a full report of the results of a feasibility study for a project based on the combination of clinical figures with socio-economic data on human mobility within the metropolitan area of Rome. Acknowledging that Accident and Emergency (A&E) Departments represent privileged observatories of health issues of a given territory, the point of departure of this study is the patient register dataset of the A&E Department of the Policlinico Umberto I for the period 2000-2013. The...

  14. Contribution of carpology and palynology to the knowledge of past vegetal environments, diet, diseases and pharmacopoeia of prehistoric human populations

    OpenAIRE

    Renault-Miskovsky, Josette

    2014-01-01

    Carpology can be defined as the study of fruit and grains and palynology that of shape and meaning of spores and pollen grains. The results of these studies are used for reconstructing not only past vegetal environments but also the diets of prehistoric human populations.The pollen spectra observed in some archeological sediments of Southern France, dated from the Lower and Middle Paleololithic ages, allow to draw up the inventory of food plants which were the assumed diet of our ancestors.Co...

  15. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  16. HEPNet: A Knowledge Base Model of Human Energy Pool Network for Predicting the Energy Availability Status of an Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Abhishek; Grover, Monendra; Chakraborty, Amlan; Saxena, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    HEPNet is an electronic representation of metabolic reactions occurring within human cellular organization focusing on inflow and outflow of the energy currency ATP, GTP and other energy associated moieties. The backbone of HEPNet consists of primary bio-molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats which ultimately constitute the chief source for the synthesis and obliteration of energy currencies in a cell. A series of biochemical pathways and reactions constituting the catabolism and anabolism of various metabolites are portrayed through cellular compartmentalization. The depicted pathways function synchronously toward an overarching goal of producing ATP and other energy associated moieties to bring into play a variety of cellular functions. HEPNet is manually curated with raw data from experiments and is also connected to KEGG and Reactome databases. This model has been validated by simulating it with physiological states like fasting, starvation, exercise and disease conditions like glycaemia, uremia and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency (DLDD). The results clearly indicate that ATP is the master regulator under different metabolic conditions and physiological states. The results also highlight that energy currencies play a minor role. However, the moiety creatine phosphate has a unique character, since it is a ready-made source of phosphoryl groups for the rapid synthesis of ATP from ADP. HEPNet provides a framework for further expanding the network diverse age groups of both the sexes, followed by the understanding of energetics in more complex metabolic pathways that are related to human disorders.

  17. HEPNet: A Knowledge Base Model of Human Energy Pool Network for Predicting the Energy Availability Status of an Individual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Sengupta

    Full Text Available HEPNet is an electronic representation of metabolic reactions occurring within human cellular organization focusing on inflow and outflow of the energy currency ATP, GTP and other energy associated moieties. The backbone of HEPNet consists of primary bio-molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats which ultimately constitute the chief source for the synthesis and obliteration of energy currencies in a cell. A series of biochemical pathways and reactions constituting the catabolism and anabolism of various metabolites are portrayed through cellular compartmentalization. The depicted pathways function synchronously toward an overarching goal of producing ATP and other energy associated moieties to bring into play a variety of cellular functions. HEPNet is manually curated with raw data from experiments and is also connected to KEGG and Reactome databases. This model has been validated by simulating it with physiological states like fasting, starvation, exercise and disease conditions like glycaemia, uremia and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency (DLDD. The results clearly indicate that ATP is the master regulator under different metabolic conditions and physiological states. The results also highlight that energy currencies play a minor role. However, the moiety creatine phosphate has a unique character, since it is a ready-made source of phosphoryl groups for the rapid synthesis of ATP from ADP. HEPNet provides a framework for further expanding the network diverse age groups of both the sexes, followed by the understanding of energetics in more complex metabolic pathways that are related to human disorders.

  18. Artisanal knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raven, Diederick

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about the ensuing problem that in general it is nothelpful to talk about non-standard knowledge practices as modeled after our Western ideas of what knowledge is. It negotiates this problem by arguing that artisanal knowledge is an independent and self-contained mode of knowledge and is arranged in three parts. In the first part an outline is given of the key assumptions of the interactionist conception of knowledge that needs to be put in place as an alternative to the basically Kantian mixture of empiricist and rationalist assumptions of the folk model of Western academic thinking about knowledge. In this interactionist conception of knowledgeartisanal knowledge gets center stage. In the second part, the notion of craftknowledge is opened up as much as possible. The third and final part takes upthe question whether craft knowledge is a cultural universal.

  19. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    of anthropological debates and theories about knowledge. This provides a perspective from which to look critically at ‘evidence’ and identify its multiple meanings and uses in policymaking. The analysis also leads to a refinement of anthropological concepts of knowledge. ‘Evidence’ is purported to be the objective...... and ideologies explicit. Furthermore, in relation to an anthropology of knowledge, sound knowledge also offers a reconsideration of the way anthropologists study knowledge, as it specifies that studying knowledge for anthropologists means studying what people consider as knowledge, in what circumstances......The thesis is about the conceptualisation of knowledge associated with ‘evidence’. In the Danish society, there is a proliferating demand for ‘evidence’, which started as the basis of practices in medicine and has spread into social work, education and most policymaking arenas. The aim...

  20. Featured Article: Genotation: Actionable knowledge for the scientific reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahawatte, Panduka; Willis, Ethan; Sakauye, Mark; Jose, Rony; Chen, Hao; Davis, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    We present an article viewer application that allows a scientific reader to easily discover and share knowledge by linking genomics-related concepts to knowledge of disparate biomedical databases. High-throughput data streams generated by technical advancements have contributed to scientific knowledge discovery at an unprecedented rate. Biomedical Informaticists have created a diverse set of databases to store and retrieve the discovered knowledge. The diversity and abundance of such resources present biomedical researchers a challenge with knowledge discovery. These challenges highlight a need for a better informatics solution. We use a text mining algorithm, Genomine, to identify gene symbols from the text of a journal article. The identified symbols are supplemented with information from the GenoDB knowledgebase. Self-updating GenoDB contains information from NCBI Gene, Clinvar, Medgen, dbSNP, KEGG, PharmGKB, Uniprot, and Hugo Gene databases. The journal viewer is a web application accessible via a web browser. The features described herein are accessible on www.genotation.org The Genomine algorithm identifies gene symbols with an accuracy shown by .65 F-Score. GenoDB currently contains information regarding 59,905 gene symbols, 5633 drug-gene relationships, 5981 gene-disease relationships, and 713 pathways. This application provides scientific readers with actionable knowledge related to concepts of a manuscript. The reader will be able to save and share supplements to be visualized in a graphical manner. This provides convenient access to details of complex biological phenomena, enabling biomedical researchers to generate novel hypothesis to further our knowledge in human health. This manuscript presents a novel application that integrates genomic, proteomic, and pharmacogenomic information to supplement content of a biomedical manuscript and enable readers to automatically discover actionable knowledge. PMID:26900164

  1. Knowledge Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Milton, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools are available? Wha...

  2. Knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Nádvorník, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to describe implementation of the information system that will support knowledge management using KM-Beat-it methodology in Helpdesk department of the Wincor Nixdorf, Ltd. company. Due to lack of knowledge management principles usage this system will support procedures and processes of knowledge management. Setup and implementation of this system was performed using and combining of two methodologies, methodology for knowledge management implementation KM-Beat-...

  3. Computer Security Systems Enable Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggen, Gary

    1989-01-01

    A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)

  4. Assuring Access to Affordable Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under the Affordable Care Act, millions of uninsured Americans will gain access to affordable coverage through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and improvements in...

  5. MCBS Access to Care PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MCBS 2013 Access to Care public use file (MCBS PUF) provides the first publically available MCBS file for researchers interested in the health, health care use,...

  6. Parents' knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow young males to receive human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Winstons Muhwezi

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008-2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10-23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p = 0.003, believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p = 0.006, thought their son(s couldn't contract HPV (p = 0.010, didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p = 0.002, knew that males could not acquire HPV (p = 0.000 and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p = 0.000. Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital.

  7. Personalizing Access to Learning Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dolog, Peter; Simon, Bernd; Nejdl, Wolfgang; Klobucar, Tomaz

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe a Smart Space for Learning™ (SS4L) framework and infrastructure that enables personalized access to distributed heterogeneous knowledge repositories. Helping a learner to choose an appropriate learning resource or activity is a key problem which we address in this framework, enabling personalized access to federated learning repositories with a vast number of learning offers. Our infrastructure includes personalization strategies both at the query and the query re...

  8. Knowledge-Based Object Detection in Laser Scanning Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boochs, F.; Karmacharya, A.; Marbs, A.

    2012-07-01

    Object identification and object processing in 3D point clouds have always posed challenges in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. In practice, this process is highly dependent on human interpretation of the scene represented by the point cloud data, as well as the set of modeling tools available for use. Such modeling algorithms are data-driven and concentrate on specific features of the objects, being accessible to numerical models. We present an approach that brings the human expert knowledge about the scene, the objects inside, and their representation by the data and the behavior of algorithms to the machine. This "understanding" enables the machine to assist human interpretation of the scene inside the point cloud. Furthermore, it allows the machine to understand possibilities and limitations of algorithms and to take this into account within the processing chain. This not only assists the researchers in defining optimal processing steps, but also provides suggestions when certain changes or new details emerge from the point cloud. Our approach benefits from the advancement in knowledge technologies within the Semantic Web framework. This advancement has provided a strong base for applications based on knowledge management. In the article we will present and describe the knowledge technologies used for our approach such as Web Ontology Language (OWL), used for formulating the knowledge base and the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) with 3D processing and topologic built-ins, aiming to combine geometrical analysis of 3D point clouds, and specialists' knowledge of the scene and algorithmic processing.

  9. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  10. Comparison of maintenance worker's human error events occurred at United States and domestic nuclear power plants. The proposal of the classification method with insufficient knowledge and experience and the classification result of its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human errors by maintenance workers in U.S. nuclear power plants were compared with those in Japanese nuclear power plants for the same period in order to identify the characteristics of such errors. As for U.S. events, cases which occurred during 2006 were selected from the Nuclear Information Database of the Institute to Nuclear Safety System while Japanese cases that occurred during the same period, were extracted from the Nuclear Information Archives (NUCIA) owned by JANTI. The most common cause of human errors was insufficient knowledge or experience' accounting for about 40% for U.S. cases and 50% or more of cases in Japan. To break down 'insufficient knowledge', we classified the contents of knowledge into five categories; method', 'nature', 'reason', 'scope' and 'goal', and classified the level of knowledge into four categories: 'known', 'comprehended', 'applied' and analytic'. By using this classification, the patterns of combination of each item of the content and the level of knowledge were compared. In the U.S. cases, errors due to 'insufficient knowledge of nature and insufficient knowledge of method' were prevalent while three other items', 'reason', scope' and 'goal' which involve work conditions among the contents of knowledge rarely occurred. In Japan, errors arising from 'nature not being comprehended' were rather prevalent while other cases were distributed evenly for all categories including the work conditions. For addressing insufficient knowledge or experience', we consider that the following approaches are valid: according to the knowledge level which is required for the work, the reflection of knowledge on the procedure or education materials, training and confirmation of understanding level, virtual practice and instruction of experience should be implemented. As for the knowledge on the work conditions, it is necessary to enter the work conditions in the procedure and education materials while conducting training or education. (author)

  11. Categorical phonotactic knowledge filters second language input, but probabilistic phonotactic knowledge can still be acquired

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentz, T.O.; Kager, R.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic phonotactic knowledge facilitates perception, but categorical phonotactic illegality can cause misperceptions, especially of non-native phoneme combinations. If misperceptions induced by first language (L1) knowledge filter second language input, access to second language (L2) probabil

  12. Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  13. The major predisposing factors to human papilloma virus (HPV infection among patients with cancer of the cervix and their knowledge of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Lipke

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the main predisposing factors to human papilloma virus (HPV infection among patients with cancer of the cervix as well as establish their knowledge and awareness of the disease, so as to design educational programmes to minimise the future occurrence of the disease.

    Opsomming
    Doel: Die doel van hierdie studie was om die vernaamste predisposionele faktore tot Menslike Papilloma Virus (HPV infeksie te identifiseer by pasiente met kanker van die serviks, insluitende hulle kennis en bewustheid van die siekte, ten einde opvoedkundige programme tot stand te bring en te ontwerp wat die hoe voorkoms van die siekte kan minimiseer. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  14. Alkmaion's discovery that brain creates mind: a revolution in human knowledge comparable to that of Copernicus and of Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Robert W

    2007-07-13

    Without special examination the brain offers no clue that it is the organ of the mind. From the dawn of time man thus either ignored the problem as to the source of thought, or attributed it to a variety of anatomical structures, usually the heart. The brain held no place in such intuitions, and in most languages it is analogized to bone marrow. Furthermore, nothing in early medical systems claimed any intellectual capacity for the brain; and the Egyptians, so fastidious in care for their afterlife, heedlessly discarded the brain in funerary practice. It was thus a unique event in world history when Alkmaion of Kroton (Alcmaeon, ca. 500 bc), based on anatomical evidence, proposed that the brain was essential for perception. Although no writings of Alkmaion survived, it was probably via a fortuitous linkage that his idea of the mental primacy of the brain was transmitted to, and preserved within, the teachings of the Hippocratic school. Nothing, of course, was secure as to mechanism, two millennia unfolding until the search for mind passed from the ventricles to the cerebral cortex. Nonetheless, Alkmaion was the beginning, and the ensuing understanding that he initiated is still transforming humanity's perception of the natural world, and their place within it.

  15. Human Leukocyte Antigen Typing Using a Knowledge Base Coupled with a High Throughput Oligonucleotide Probe Array Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eBrusic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigens (HLA are important biomarkers since multiple diseases, drug toxicity, and vaccine responses reveal strong HLA associations. Current clinical HLA typing is an elimination process requiring serial testing. We present an alternative an in situ synthesized DNA-based microarray method that contains hundreds of thousands of probes representing a complete overlapping set covering 1,610 clinically relevant HLA class I alleles accompanied by computational tools for assigning HLA type to 4-digit resolution. Our proof-of-concept experiment included 21 blood samples, 18 cell lines, and multiple controls. The method is accurate, robust, and amenable to automation. Typing errors were restricted to homozygous samples or those with very closely related alleles from the same locus, but readily resolved by targeted DNA sequencing validation of flagged samples. High-throughput HLA typing technologies that are effective, yet inexpensive, can be used to analyze the world’s populations, benefiting both global public health and personalized health care.

  16. Identification and characterization of human dendritic cell subsets in the steady state: a review of our current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Metcalf, Jordan Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are generally categorized as a group of rare antigen presenting cells that are to the crucial development of immune responses to pathogens and also of tolerance to self-antigens. Therefore, having the ability to identify DC in specific tissues and to test their functional abilities in the steady state are scientific gaps needing attention. Research on primary human DC is lacking due to their rarity and the difficulty of obtaining tissue samples. However, recent findings have shown that several different DC subsets exist, and that these subsets vary both by markers expressed and functions depending on their specific microenvironment. After discriminating from other cell types, DC can be split into myeloid and plasmacytoid fractions. While plasmacytoid DC express definite markers, CD123 and BDCA-2, myeloid DC encompass several different subsets with overlapping markers expressed. Such markers include the blood DC antigens BDCA-1 and BDCA-3, along with Langerin, CD1a and CD14. Marker specificity is further reduced when accounting for microenvironmental differences, as observed in the blood, primary lymphoid tissues, skin and lungs. The mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) has been used to measure the strength of antigen presentation by specific DC subsets. Surface markers and MLR require standardization to enable consistent identification of and comparisons between DC subsets. To alleviate these issues, researchers have begun comparing DC subsets at the transcriptional level. This has allowed degrees of relatedness to be determined between DC in different microenvironments, and should be a continued area of focus in years to come. PMID:26956785

  17. Collaboration to Unlock Access : Presentations at the LIBER Conference in ST Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick J. Friend

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The opportunities provided by open access to journal literature have generated much interest and discussion. LIBER's approach to this important topic at the St Petersburg Conference was through the theme of collaboration. Each group of stakeholders in scholarly communication, from author through to reader, has an interest in open access. If open access is to be achieved it has to be through collaboration between authors, funding agencies, publishers and librarians working together in the best interests of readers of academic literature. The benefits to individuals and to human society to be gained from open access are described in this quotation from the Budapest Open Access Initiative: "An old tradition and a new technology have converged to make possible an unprecedented public good. The old tradition is the willingness of scientists and scholars to publish the fruits of their research in scholarly journals without payment, for the sake of inquiry and knowledge. The new technology is the internet. The public good they make possible is the world-wide electronic distribution of the peer-reviewed journal literature and completely free and unrestricted access to it by all scientists, scholars, teachers, students, and other curious minds. Removing access barriers to this literature will accelerate research, enrich education, share the learning of the rich with the poor and the poor with the rich, make this literature as useful as it can be, and lay the foundation for uniting humanity in a common intellectual conversation and quest for knowledge." Since calling the meeting which developed the Budapest Open Access Initiative, the Open Society Institute has continued to support discussion and action to implement the two strategies leading to open access identified in Budapest, and the open access session at the LIBER Conference was supported by a grant from OSI.

  18. Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kiran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study covers the knowledge management (KM in institutions of higher technical education (IHTEs from the perspective of thought leaders and junior academia to identify whether there is a difference of opinion regarding KM strategies, including knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, knowledge dissemination, and KM-based framework for research and curriculum development (CD. Data have been collected through structured questionnaire from 141 respondents covering 30 higher educational institutions in India, including national- and state-level institutions—Designations of the targeted respondents in the IHTEs have been categorized into (a senior academia, that is, professors, heads, and associate professors occupying senior management positions, considered to be the institute overseers and thought leaders of KM and (b junior academia consisting of assistant professors and lecturers who are using and also contributing to the KM system. ANOVA has been used to see whether there is a significant difference of opinion among the two groups of knowledge users. The results of the study highlight a significant difference among the two groups regarding knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, and knowledge dissemination. But, there is a consensus regarding KM-based framework for research and CD.

  19. Research on the Interaction of Knowledge Transfer and Human Resource Management Based on the Process of Knowledge Transfer%基于知识转移过程的知识转移与人力资源管理的相互作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许珊; 范德成; 王韶华

    2013-01-01

    This paper built the model of knowledge transfer and human resource management interaction,based on the process of knowledge transfer.The human resource management,for example,enhancing the recruitment of the knowledge staff,establishing or improving the training system,improving the performance evaluation system as well as strengthening the enterprise culture construction,can improve the efficiency of the knowledge transfer.%基于知识转移的过程构建知识转移与人力资源管理相互作用的模型,认为加强知识型员工的招聘,建立健全培训制度,完善绩效考核体系,强化企业文化建设等,可以提升知识转移的效率.

  20. Human Capital Operation Effect Knowledge-based Enterprise Capabilities Process Analysis%人力资本对知识型企业能力作用的过程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鸿飞; 李鹤; 岳伟伟

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge and intelligence is becoming increasingly evident in the socioeconomic development and enterprise development. The role of human capital in the ability of knowledge-based enterprise are worthy of our study focused. On the basis of the analysis of knowledge-based enterprises' and enterprise capability impli- cations, We divide the human capital operation into four module and constructed out of the basic operation of the human capital operation process, and analyze the human capital in tehran enterprise is on how it is opera- ted, creating the operation process of human capital in knowledge-based enterprise by theoretical analysis. And hope to have some help and inspiration to managers of modern knowledge-based enterprise.%知识、智力在社会经济和企业发展中起到的作用Et益明显,在分析知识型企业及企业能力涵义基础上,将人力资本运营划分四个模块构造人力资本运营的基本运作流程,探讨人力资本运营如何在企业中具体操作和发挥作用,以期对我国知识型企业的发展提供建议。

  1. Why share knowledge? The influence of ICT on the motivation for knowledge sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, P.H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) can enhance knowledge sharing by lowering temporal and spatial barriers between knowledge workers, and improving access to information about knowledge. Looking at ICT for knowledge sharing in this light, however, has limited value, because it ignores wh

  2. Do Open Access Electronic Theses and Dissertations Diminish Publishing Opportunities in the Social Sciences and Humanities? Findings from a 2011 Survey of Academic Publishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marisa L.; Dalton, Joan T.; McMillan, Gail; Read, Max; Seamans, Nancy H.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of higher education institutions worldwide are requiring submission of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) by graduate students and are subsequently providing open access to these works in online repositories. Faculty advisors and graduate students are concerned that such unfettered access to their work could diminish…

  3. Hemodialysis access procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic-dialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-dialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency-dialysis access; Chronic kidney failure-dialysis access; Chronic renal failure-dialysis access

  4. KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.

  5. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    2015-01-01

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depends on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...

  6. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...

  7. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O'Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  8. Ethics of Information Technologies in Knowledge Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2016-01-01

    How should we define the ethics of information technology? It is not a new field of study in the sense that it requires an entirely new ethical thinking. Rather, it is a field where we can try to use our traditional philosophical notions and apply them to this field of computer technology....... This shows how it becomes more and more difficult for governments and organizations to hide information and that information is becoming more and more public. We can also talk about the present development as a technology-driven information revolution in knowledge society. The information overload...... is a result of this revolution that is expressed in the Internet and that changes the relation of human beings to society where human beings need to access information technology and tools in order to be able to live and work in society....

  9. Role of Knowledge Based Communities in Knowledge Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Ion CEPTUREANU; Eduard Gabriel CEPTUREANU

    2015-01-01

    In the new economy, knowledge is an essential component of economic and social systems. The organizational focus has to be on building knowledge-based management, development of human resource and building intellectual capital capabilities. Knowledge-based management is defined, at company level, by economic processes that emphasize creation, selling, buying, learning, storing, developing, sharing and protection of knowledge as a decisive condition for profit and long-term sustainability of t...

  10. Design Knowledge and Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper points out various relationships between DesignKnowledge and Softwar e Engineering. After introduction of human design, the relationships between ind ustrial Software Engineering is discussed, then further details of human design knowledge are revealed with discussions on humanistic aspects of design.

  11. From Information Provision to Knowledge Production:proceedings for the celebration of the 20th anniversary of Information Studies, Faculty of Humanities, University of Oulu, Finland, June 23–25, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Huotari, M.-L. (Maija-Leena); Davenport, E. (Elisabeth)

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The papers in this proceedings of USE-2008. From Information Provision to Knowledge Production conference held to celebrate the 20th anniversary of Information Studies at the Faculty of Humanities, University of Oulu, Finland share a common perspective – the contributors seek to provide a multidisciplinary account of knowledge production in different contexts. The first keynote paper provides a detailed review of the issues facing managers and users of digital infrastructure who m...

  12. When Being a Girl Matters Less: Accessibility of Gender-Related Self-Knowledge in Single-Sex and Coeducational Classes and Its Impact on Students' Physics-Related Self-Concept of Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Ursula; Hannover, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Background: Establishing or preserving single-sex schooling has been widely discussed as a way of bringing more girls into the natural sciences. Aims: We test the assumption that the beneficial effects of single-sex education on girls' self-concept of ability in masculine subjects such as physics are due to the lower accessibility of…

  13. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin...... for external knowledge while higher magnitudes of institutional change decrease it. Our results provide important insights for management on how to adapt search strategies to the institutional context....

  14. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    , assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words......: Internationalization, knowledge gap, absorptive capacity, learning box....

  15. Knowledge brokering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the spanning of inter-organizational weak ties and technological boundaries influences knowledge brokering. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on original fieldwork and employs a case study research design, investigating a Danish...... HTSF’s inter-organizational activities. Findings – The findings show how an inter-organizational search that crosses technological boundaries and is based on a network structure of weak ties can imply a reduced risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. Research limitations/implications – By not engaging...... in strong tie collaborations a knowledge brokering organization can reduce the risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. The risks and opportunities of knowledge spill-over furthermore rely on the nature of the technology involved and to what extent technological boundaries are crossed. Practical implications...

  16. Knowledge transfer - Acquiring implicit knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many organisations have recognised the problem of experts taking home a huge amount of specific knowledge, which they have gathered in their department, when they leave. The successor is capable only of acquiring explicit expertise because implicit experiences are not documented and therefore no more available. That is why we have started this pilot study in order to try to conserve the above mentioned tacit and implicit knowledge and to make it available to other colleagues. Using a semi-standardised interview we elicit tacit knowledge from the expert and summarise it in a report. This interview-guideline forms the basis of in-depth investigation for implicit knowledge. (author)

  17. Personalizing Access to Learning Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Simon, Bernd; Nejdl, Wolfgang;

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe a Smart Space for Learning™ (SS4L) framework and infrastructure that enables personalized access to distributed heterogeneous knowledge repositories. Helping a learner to choose an appropriate learning resource or activity is a key problem which we address in this fra......In this article, we describe a Smart Space for Learning™ (SS4L) framework and infrastructure that enables personalized access to distributed heterogeneous knowledge repositories. Helping a learner to choose an appropriate learning resource or activity is a key problem which we address...... in this framework, enabling personalized access to federated learning repositories with a vast number of learning offers. Our infrastructure includes personalization strategies both at the query and the query results level. Query rewriting is based on learning and language preferences; rule-based and ranking...

  18. Brain-Mind Dyad, Human Experience, the Consciousness Tetrad and Lattice of Mental Operations: And Further, The Need to Integrate Knowledge from Diverse Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2011-01-01

    Brain, Mind and Consciousness are the research concerns of psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists, cognitive neuroscientists and philosophers. All of them are working in different and important ways to understand the workings of the brain, the mysteries of the mind and to grasp that elusive concept called consciousness. Although they are all justified in forwarding their respective researches, it is also necessary to integrate these diverse appearing understandings and try and get a comprehensive perspective that is, hopefully, more than the sum of their parts. There is also the need to understand what each one is doing, and by the other, to understand each other’s basic and fundamental ideological and foundational underpinnings. This must be followed by a comprehensive and critical dialogue between the respective disciplines. Moreover, the concept of mind and consciousness in Indian thought needs careful delineation and critical/evidential enquiry to make it internationally relevant. The brain-mind dyad must be understood, with brain as the structural correlate of the mind, and mind as the functional correlate of the brain. To understand human experience, we need a triad of external environment, internal environment and a consciousness that makes sense of both. We need to evolve a consensus on the definition of consciousness, for which a working definition in the form of a Consciousness Tetrad of Default, Aware, Operational and Evolved Consciousness is presented. It is equally necessary to understand the connection between physical changes in the brain and mental operations, and thereby untangle and comprehend the lattice of mental operations. Interdisciplinary work and knowledge sharing, in an atmosphere of healthy give and take of ideas, and with a view to understand the significance of each other’s work, and also to critically evaluate the present corpus of knowledge from these diverse appearing fields, and then carry forward from there in a spirit of

  19. Brain-mind dyad, human experience, the consciousness tetrad and lattice of mental operations: And further, The need to integrate knowledge from diverse disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R Singh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain, Mind and Consciousness are the research concerns of psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists, cognitive neuroscientists and philosophers. All of them are working in different and important ways to understand the workings of the brain, the mysteries of the mind and to grasp that elusive concept called consciousness. Although they are all justified in forwarding their respective researches, it is also necessary to integrate these diverse appearing understandings and try and get a comprehensive perspective that is, hopefully, more than the sum of their parts. There is also the need to understand what each one is doing, and by the other, to understand each other's basic and fundamental ideological and foundational underpinnings. This must be followed by a comprehensive and critical dialogue between the respective disciplines. Moreover, the concept of mind and consciousness in Indian thought needs careful delineation and critical/evidential enquiry to make it internationally relevant. The brain-mind dyad must be understood, with brain as the structural correlate of the mind, and mind as the functional correlate of the brain. To understand human experience, we need a triad of external environment, internal environment and a consciousness that makes sense of both. We need to evolve a consensus on the definition of consciousness, for which a working definition in the form of a Consciousness Tetrad of Default, Aware, Operational and Evolved Consciousness is presented. It is equally necessary to understand the connection between physical changes in the brain and mental operations, and thereby untangle and comprehend the lattice of mental operations. Interdisciplinary work and knowledge sharing, in an atmosphere of healthy give and take of ideas, and with a view to understand the significance of each other's work, and also to critically evaluate the present corpus of knowledge from these diverse appearing fields, and then carry forward from there

  20. It Ain't the Heat, It's the Humanity: Evidence and Implications of a Knowledge-Based Consensus on Man-Made Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P.; Cook, J.; Nuccitelli, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most worrisome misconceptions among the general public about climate change is a belief that scientists disagree not only about the cause of the present climate change, but also whether or not the planet is currently warming. Recent surveys have demonstrated that an overwhelming consensus exists, both within the scientific literature and among scientists with climate expertise, that the planet is warming and humans are driving this climatic change. This disconnect, or 'consensus gap', between scientific agreement and public belief has significant consequences for public understanding of the reality and cause of climate change, as well as support for potential solutions. Ensuring that the consensus message is not simply broadcast but is also accepted as legitimate by the public appears to be a primary education and communications opportunity. While the existence of a consensus is not itself evidence of a position's truth, according to Miller (2013) scientific consensus can be taken as evidence that a position is true if it is 'knowledge-based', satisfying the conditions of social calibration, apparent consilience of evidence, and social diversity. We demonstrate that the scientific consensus on anthropogenic climate change is knowledge-based, satisfying Miller's criteria. In so doing, we hope to increase confidence in its use as an education and communications tool, and assure the public of its validity. We show the consensus is socially calibrated, based on common evidential standards, ontological schemes, and shared formalism. We establish that consilience of evidence points overwhelmingly to the reality of anthropogenic climate change by examining the evidence from several perspectives. We identify unique fingerprints expected as a result of increased greenhouse forcing, eliminate potential natural drivers of climate change as the cause of the present change, and demonstrate the consistency of the observed climate response with known changes in natural