WorldWideScience

Sample records for accessing cereal genomics

  1. Characteristics of Genome Editing Mutations in Cereal Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changfu; Bortesi, Luisa; Baysal, Can; Twyman, Richard M; Fischer, Rainer; Capell, Teresa; Schillberg, Stefan; Christou, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Designer nucleases allow the creation of new plant genotypes by introducing precisely-targeted double-strand breaks that are resolved by endogenous repair pathways. The major nuclease technologies are meganucleases, zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Each comprises a promiscuous endonuclease guided by protein-DNA or RNA-DNA interactions. A great deal is known about the principles of designer nucleases but much remains to be learned about their detailed behavioral characteristics in different plant species. The outcome of genome engineering reflects the intrinsic properties of each nuclease and target genome, causing variations in efficiency, accuracy, and mutation structure. In this article, we critically discuss the activities of designer nucleases in different cereals representing a broad range of genome characteristics.

  2. Prospects for advancing defense to cereal rusts through genetical genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballini, Elsa; Lauter, Nick; Wise, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Rusts are one of the most severe threats to cereal crops because new pathogen races emerge regularly, resulting in infestations that lead to large yield losses. In 1999, a new race of stem rust, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt TTKSK or Ug99), was discovered in Uganda. Most of the wheat and barley cultivars grown currently worldwide are susceptible to this new race. Pgt TTKSK has already spread northward into Iran and will likely spread eastward throughout the Indian subcontinent in the near future. This scenario is not unique to stem rust; new races of leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) have also emerged recently. One strategy for countering the persistent adaptability of these pathogens is to stack complete- and partial-resistance genes, which requires significant breeding efforts in order to reduce deleterious effects of linkage drag. These varied resistance combinations are typically more difficult for the pathogen to defeat, since they would be predicted to apply lower selection pressure. Genetical genomics or expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis enables the identification of regulatory loci that control the expression of many to hundreds of genes. Integrated deployment of these technologies coupled with efficient phenotyping offers significant potential to elucidate the regulatory nodes in genetic networks that orchestrate host defense responses. The focus of this review will be to present advances in genetical genomic experimental designs and analysis, particularly as they apply to the prospects for discovering partial disease resistance alleles in cereals.

  3. Comparative population genomics of Fusarium graminearum reveals adaptive divergence among cereal head blight pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we sequenced the genomes of 60 Fusarium graminearum, the major fungal pathogen responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal crops world-wide. To investigate adaptive evolution of FHB pathogens, we performed population-level analyses to characterize genomic structure, signatures...

  4. EFFECTS GENERATED BY THE ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE FIELD OF TRADING CEREAL PRODUCTS

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    Ion DONA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European consumer exigencies, the mechanisms of the Common Agricultural Policy, the European norms and standards, the ecological productions are as many challenges to which the producers, processors, traders and decision makers in the agro food field, and specifically for our research, in the cereals field, must face in order for the Romanian products to be present on an external market, as well as on an internal market that are increasingly competitive.In this paper we have concluded a brief analysis of the cereals market nationally and on a European level, and of the common support policies in this sector, of the common market organizations, as well as of the implications of the accession over the trade of cereal products. Also, we have made several recommendations within this paper targeting the specific sectorial aspects of the cereals sector: in order to fully profit from the possibilities offered by the Common Agricultural Policy instruments and from the demand and prices growth its necessary that Romanian producers organize and make, together, major investments in cereals conditioning and storage systems; the majority of Romanian producers sell the cereals immediately after harvest, when prices are at their lowest level; storage in good conditions of the harvest could allow a substantial increase of profit.

  5. Advances in functional genomics for investigating salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in cereals

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    Megan C Shelden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as low water availability and high salinity are major causes of cereal crop yield losses and significantly impact on sustainability. Wheat and barley are two of the most important cereal crops (after maize and rice and are grown in increasingly hostile environments with soil salinity and drought both expected to increase this century, reducing the availability of arable land. Barley and wheat are classified as glycophytes (salt-sensitive, yet they are more salt-tolerant than other cereal crops such as rice and so are good models for studying salt-tolerance in cereals. The exploitation of genetic variation of phenotypic traits through plant breeding could significantly improve growth of cereals in salinity-affected regions, thus leading to improved crop yields. Genetic variation in phenotypic traits for abiotic stress tolerance have been identified in land races and wild germplasm but the molecular basis of these differences is often difficult to determine due to the complex genetic nature of these species. High-throughput functional genomics technologies, such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics and ionomics are powerful tools for investigating the molecular responses of plants to abiotic stress. The advancement of these technologies has allowed for the identification and quantification of transcript /metabolites in specific cell types and/or tissues. Using these new technologies on plants will provide a powerful tool to uncovering genetic traits in more complex species such as wheat and barley and provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of salinity stress tolerance.

  6. Quantitative trait loci and comparative genomics of cereal cell wall composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Samuel P; Hawley, Robin M; Davis, Georgia L; Henrissat, Bernard; Walton, Jonathan D

    2003-05-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting sugar composition of the cell walls of maize (Zea mays) pericarp were mapped as an approach to the identification of genes involved in cereal wall biosynthesis. Mapping was performed using the IBM (B73 x Mo17) recombinant inbred line population. There were statistically significant differences between B73 and Mo17 in content of xylose (Xyl), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal), and glucose. Thirteen QTLs were found, affecting the content of Xyl (two QTLs), Ara (two QTLs), Gal (five QTLs), Glc (two QTLs), Ara + Gal (one QTL), and Xyl + Glc (one QTL). The chromosomal regions corresponding to two of these, affecting Ara + Gal and Ara on maize chromosome 3, could be aligned with a syntenic region on rice (Oryza sativa) chromosome 1, which has been completely sequenced and annotated. The contiguous P1-derived artificial chromosome rice clones covering the QTLs were predicted to encode 117 and 125 proteins, respectively. Two of these genes encode putative glycosyltransferases, displaying similarity to carbohydrate-active enzyme database family GT4 (galactosyltransferases) or to family GT64 (C-terminal domain of animal heparan synthases). The results illustrate the potential of using natural variation, emerging genomic resources, and homeology within the Poaceae to identify candidate genes involved in the essential process of cell wall biosynthesis.

  7. Gene Discovery and Advances in Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L. Gaertn.] Genomics - An Important Nutri-cereal of Future

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    Salej Sood

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid strides in molecular marker technologies followed by genomics, and next generation sequencing advancements in three major crops (rice, maize and wheat of the world have given opportunities for their use in the orphan, but highly valuable future crops, including finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L. Gaertn.]. Finger millet has many special agronomic and nutritional characteristics, which make it an indispensable crop in arid, semi-arid, hilly and tribal areas of India and Africa. The crop has proven its adaptability in harsh conditions and has shown resilience to climate change. The adaptability traits of finger millet have shown the advantage over major cereal grains under stress conditions, revealing it as a storehouse of important genomic resources for crop improvement. Although new technologies for genomic studies are now available, progress in identifying and tapping these important alleles or genes is lacking. RAPDs were the default choice for genetic diversity studies in the crop until the last decade, but the subsequent development of SSRs and comparative genomics paved the way for the marker assisted selection in finger millet. Resistance gene homologues from NBS-LRR region of finger millet for blast and sequence variants for nutritional traits from other cereals have been developed and used invariably. Population structure analysis studies exhibit 2-4 sub-populations in the finger millet gene pool with separate grouping of Indian and exotic genotypes. Recently, the omics technologies have been efficiently applied to understand the nutritional variation, drought tolerance and gene mining. Progress has also occurred with respect to transgenics development. This review presents the current biotechnological advancements along with research gaps and future perspective of genomic research in finger millet.

  8. Public Access for Teaching Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2003-01-01

    When the human genome project was conceived, its leaders wanted all researchers to have equal access to the data and associated research tools. Their vision of equal access provides an unprecedented teaching opportunity. Teachers and students have free access to the same databases that researchers are using. Furthermore, the recent movement to…

  9. Public Access for Teaching Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2003-01-01

    When the human genome project was conceived, its leaders wanted all researchers to have equal access to the data and associated research tools. Their vision of equal access provides an unprecedented teaching opportunity. Teachers and students have free access to the same databases that researchers are using. Furthermore, the recent movement to…

  10. Cross-genome map based dissection of a nitrogen use efficiency ortho-metaQTL in bread wheat unravels concerted cereal genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Umar Masood; Abrouk, Michael; Murat, Florent; Pont, Caroline; Foucrier, Séverine; Desmaizieres, Gregory; Confolent, Carole; Rivière, Nathalie; Charmet, Gilles; Paux, Etienne; Murigneux, Alain; Guerreiro, Laurent; Lafarge, Stéphane; Le Gouis, Jacques; Feuillet, Catherine; Salse, Jerome

    2011-03-01

    Monitoring nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in plants is becoming essential to maintain yield while reducing fertilizer usage. Optimized NUE application in major crops is essential for long-term sustainability of agriculture production. Here, we report the precise identification of 11 major chromosomal regions controlling NUE in wheat that co-localise with key developmental genes such as Ppd (photoperiod sensitivity), Vrn (vernalization requirement), Rht (reduced height) and can be considered as robust markers from a molecular breeding perspective. Physical mapping, sequencing, annotation and candidate gene validation of an NUE metaQTL on wheat chromosome 3B allowed us to propose that a glutamate synthase (GoGAT) gene that is conserved structurally and functionally at orthologous positions in rice, sorghum and maize genomes may contribute to NUE in wheat and other cereals. We propose an evolutionary model for the NUE locus in cereals from a common ancestral region, involving species specific shuffling events such as gene deletion, inversion, transposition and the invasion of repetitive elements.

  11. Rapid genome-scale mapping of chromatin accessibility in tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Lars; Bandle, Russell; John, Sam;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The challenge in extracting genome-wide chromatin features from limiting clinical samples poses a significant hurdle in identification of regulatory marks that impact the physiological or pathological state. Current methods that identify nuclease accessible chromatin are reliant...

  12. Open access to sequence: Browsing the Pichia pastoris genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graf Alexandra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first genome sequences of the important yeast protein production host Pichia pastoris have been released into the public domain this spring. In order to provide the scientific community easy and versatile access to the sequence, two web-sites have been installed as a resource for genomic sequence, gene and protein information for P. pastoris: A GBrowse based genome browser was set up at http://www.pichiagenome.org and a genome portal with gene annotation and browsing functionality at http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/webtools/bogas. Both websites are offering information on gene annotation and function, regulation and structure. In addition, a WiKi based platform allows all users to create additional information on genes, proteins, physiology and other items of P. pastoris research, so that the Pichia community can benefit from exchange of knowledge, data and materials.

  13. Rapid genome-scale mapping of chromatin accessibility in tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The challenge in extracting genome-wide chromatin features from limiting clinical samples poses a significant hurdle in identification of regulatory marks that impact the physiological or pathological state. Current methods that identify nuclease accessible chromatin are reliant on large amounts of purified nuclei as starting material. This complicates analysis of trace clinical tissue samples that are often stored frozen. We have developed an alternative nuclease based procedure to bypass nuclear preparation to interrogate nuclease accessible regions in frozen tissue samples. Results Here we introduce a novel technique that specifically identifies Tissue Accessible Chromatin (TACh). The TACh method uses pulverized frozen tissue as starting material and employs one of the two robust endonucleases, Benzonase or Cyansase, which are fully active under a range of stringent conditions such as high levels of detergent and DTT. As a proof of principle we applied TACh to frozen mouse liver tissue. Combined with massive parallel sequencing TACh identifies accessible regions that are associated with euchromatic features and accessibility at transcriptional start sites correlates positively with levels of gene transcription. Accessible chromatin identified by TACh overlaps to a large extend with accessible chromatin identified by DNase I using nuclei purified from freshly isolated liver tissue as starting material. The similarities are most pronounced at highly accessible regions, whereas identification of less accessible regions tends to be more divergence between nucleases. Interestingly, we show that some of the differences between DNase I and Benzonase relate to their intrinsic sequence biases and accordingly accessibility of CpG islands is probed more efficiently using TACh. Conclusion The TACh methodology identifies accessible chromatin derived from frozen tissue samples. We propose that this simple, robust approach can be applied across a broad range of

  14. Rapid genome-scale mapping of chromatin accessibility in tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grøntved Lars

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The challenge in extracting genome-wide chromatin features from limiting clinical samples poses a significant hurdle in identification of regulatory marks that impact the physiological or pathological state. Current methods that identify nuclease accessible chromatin are reliant on large amounts of purified nuclei as starting material. This complicates analysis of trace clinical tissue samples that are often stored frozen. We have developed an alternative nuclease based procedure to bypass nuclear preparation to interrogate nuclease accessible regions in frozen tissue samples. Results Here we introduce a novel technique that specifically identifies Tissue Accessible Chromatin (TACh. The TACh method uses pulverized frozen tissue as starting material and employs one of the two robust endonucleases, Benzonase or Cyansase, which are fully active under a range of stringent conditions such as high levels of detergent and DTT. As a proof of principle we applied TACh to frozen mouse liver tissue. Combined with massive parallel sequencing TACh identifies accessible regions that are associated with euchromatic features and accessibility at transcriptional start sites correlates positively with levels of gene transcription. Accessible chromatin identified by TACh overlaps to a large extend with accessible chromatin identified by DNase I using nuclei purified from freshly isolated liver tissue as starting material. The similarities are most pronounced at highly accessible regions, whereas identification of less accessible regions tends to be more divergence between nucleases. Interestingly, we show that some of the differences between DNase I and Benzonase relate to their intrinsic sequence biases and accordingly accessibility of CpG islands is probed more efficiently using TACh. Conclusion The TACh methodology identifies accessible chromatin derived from frozen tissue samples. We propose that this simple, robust approach can be applied

  15. Genome accessibility is widely preserved and locally modulated during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Chris C-S; Morrissey, Christapher S; Udugama, Maheshi; Frank, Christopher L; Keller, Cheryl A; Baek, Songjoon; Giardine, Belinda; Crawford, Gregory E; Sung, Myong-Hee; Hardison, Ross C; Blobel, Gerd A

    2015-02-01

    Mitosis entails global alterations to chromosome structure and nuclear architecture, concomitant with transient silencing of transcription. How cells transmit transcriptional states through mitosis remains incompletely understood. While many nuclear factors dissociate from mitotic chromosomes, the observation that certain nuclear factors and chromatin features remain associated with individual loci during mitosis originated the hypothesis that such mitotically retained molecular signatures could provide transcriptional memory through mitosis. To understand the role of chromatin structure in mitotic memory, we performed the first genome-wide comparison of DNase I sensitivity of chromatin in mitosis and interphase, using a murine erythroblast model. Despite chromosome condensation during mitosis visible by microscopy, the landscape of chromatin accessibility at the macromolecular level is largely unaltered. However, mitotic chromatin accessibility is locally dynamic, with individual loci maintaining none, some, or all of their interphase accessibility. Mitotic reduction in accessibility occurs primarily within narrow, highly DNase hypersensitive sites that frequently coincide with transcription factor binding sites, whereas broader domains of moderate accessibility tend to be more stable. In mitosis, proximal promoters generally maintain their accessibility more strongly, whereas distal regulatory elements tend to lose accessibility. Large domains of DNA hypomethylation mark a subset of promoters that retain accessibility during mitosis and across many cell types in interphase. Erythroid transcription factor GATA1 exerts site-specific changes in interphase accessibility that are most pronounced at distal regulatory elements, but has little influence on mitotic accessibility. We conclude that features of open chromatin are remarkably stable through mitosis, but are modulated at the level of individual genes and regulatory elements.

  16. Restricted access supramolecular solvents for removal of matrix-induced ionization effects in mass spectrometry: Application to the determination of Fusarium toxins in cereals.

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    García-Fonseca, Sergio; Rubio, Soledad

    2016-02-01

    Ion suppression/enhancement caused by matrix effects continues being a major concern in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This research explores the ability of a supramolecular solvent (SUPRAS) made up of inverted hexagonal aggregates of oleic acid to behave as a liquid with restricted access properties (SUPRAS-RAM). Fusarium toxins in cereals were extracted with the oleic acid-based SUPRAS-RAM prior to their quantification by LC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-ion trap-MS (LC-ESI-IT-MS) in order to investigate the capability of this solvent to remove or reduce ionization suppression and/or enhancement in the analysis of complex samples by MS. The method involved the vortex-shaking of 300 mg of cereal with 600 μL of the SUPRAS-RAM for 15 min, centrifugation for separation of the supernatant and quantitation by LC-ESI-IT-MS. Macromolecules such as proteins and carbohydrates were excluded from extraction by chemical and physical mechanisms. Extraction of analytes and sample clean-up were thus carried out in a single step. No evaporation of the extracts was needed. Method detection limits for the legislated Fusarium toxins [i.e. deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2)] were 15 μg kg(-1) for DON and ZEA and 8 μg kg(-1) for fumonisins. These values were far below the maximum levels set by the European Commission for these toxins in foodstuffs. The method was successfully applied to the determination of these toxins in wheat and maize harvested in the South of Spain. No contamination of Fusarium toxins was found in samples at detectable levels. Recoveries in spiked samples were in the range 87-105%, with relative standard deviations between 1 and 7%. The use of the oleic acid-based SUPRAS-RAM effectively removed matrix interferences and allowed reliable quantitation of Fusarium toxins in cereals using solvent-based calibration.

  17. Future cereal starch bioengineering: Cereal ancestors encounter gene technology and designer enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Andreas; Jensen, Susanne Langgård; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    2013-01-01

    The importance of cereal starch production worldwide cannot be overrated. However, the qualities and resulting values of existing raw and processed starch do not fully meet future demands for environmentally friendly production of renewable, advanced biomaterials, functional foods and biomedical...... additives. New approaches for starch bioengineering are needed. In this review we discuss cereal starch from a combined universal bioresource point of view. The combination of new biotechniques and clean tech methods can be implemented to replace e.g. chemical modification. The recently released cereal...... genomes and the exploding advancement in whole genome sequencing now paves the road for identifying new genes to be exploited to generate a multitude of completely new starch functionalities directly in the cereal grain converting cereal crops to production plants. Newly released genome data from cereal...

  18. The Proteins API: accessing key integrated protein and genome information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Andrew; Antunes, Ricardo; Alpi, Emanuele; Bursteinas, Borisas; Gonzales, Leonardo; Liu, Wudong; Luo, Jie; Qi, Guoying; Turner, Edd; Martin, Maria

    2017-04-05

    The Proteins API provides searching and programmatic access to protein and associated genomics data such as curated protein sequence positional annotations from UniProtKB, as well as mapped variation and proteomics data from large scale data sources (LSS). Using the coordinates service, researchers are able to retrieve the genomic sequence coordinates for proteins in UniProtKB. This, the LSS genomics and proteomics data for UniProt proteins is programmatically only available through this service. A Swagger UI has been implemented to provide documentation, an interface for users, with little or no programming experience, to 'talk' to the services to quickly and easily formulate queries with the services and obtain dynamically generated source code for popular programming languages, such as Java, Perl, Python and Ruby. Search results are returned as standard JSON, XML or GFF data objects. The Proteins API is a scalable, reliable, fast, easy to use RESTful services that provides a broad protein information resource for users to ask questions based upon their field of expertise and allowing them to gain an integrated overview of protein annotations available to aid their knowledge gain on proteins in biological processes. The Proteins API is available at (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/proteins/api/doc).

  19. The accessible chromatin landscape of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Robert E; Rynes, Eric; Humbert, Richard; Vierstra, Jeff; Maurano, Matthew T; Haugen, Eric; Sheffield, Nathan C; Stergachis, Andrew B; Wang, Hao; Vernot, Benjamin; Garg, Kavita; John, Sam; Sandstrom, Richard; Bates, Daniel; Boatman, Lisa; Canfield, Theresa K; Diegel, Morgan; Dunn, Douglas; Ebersol, Abigail K; Frum, Tristan; Giste, Erika; Johnson, Audra K; Johnson, Ericka M; Kutyavin, Tanya; Lajoie, Bryan; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Lee, Kristen; London, Darin; Lotakis, Dimitra; Neph, Shane; Neri, Fidencio; Nguyen, Eric D; Qu, Hongzhu; Reynolds, Alex P; Roach, Vaughn; Safi, Alexias; Sanchez, Minerva E; Sanyal, Amartya; Shafer, Anthony; Simon, Jeremy M; Song, Lingyun; Vong, Shinny; Weaver, Molly; Yan, Yongqi; Zhang, Zhancheng; Zhang, Zhuzhu; Lenhard, Boris; Tewari, Muneesh; Dorschner, Michael O; Hansen, R Scott; Navas, Patrick A; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Iyer, Vishwanath R; Lieb, Jason D; Sunyaev, Shamil R; Akey, Joshua M; Sabo, Peter J; Kaul, Rajinder; Furey, Terrence S; Dekker, Job; Crawford, Gregory E; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A

    2012-09-06

    DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) are markers of regulatory DNA and have underpinned the discovery of all classes of cis-regulatory elements including enhancers, promoters, insulators, silencers and locus control regions. Here we present the first extensive map of human DHSs identified through genome-wide profiling in 125 diverse cell and tissue types. We identify ∼2.9 million DHSs that encompass virtually all known experimentally validated cis-regulatory sequences and expose a vast trove of novel elements, most with highly cell-selective regulation. Annotating these elements using ENCODE data reveals novel relationships between chromatin accessibility, transcription, DNA methylation and regulatory factor occupancy patterns. We connect ∼580,000 distal DHSs with their target promoters, revealing systematic pairing of different classes of distal DHSs and specific promoter types. Patterning of chromatin accessibility at many regulatory regions is organized with dozens to hundreds of co-activated elements, and the transcellular DNase I sensitivity pattern at a given region can predict cell-type-specific functional behaviours. The DHS landscape shows signatures of recent functional evolutionary constraint. However, the DHS compartment in pluripotent and immortalized cells exhibits higher mutation rates than that in highly differentiated cells, exposing an unexpected link between chromatin accessibility, proliferative potential and patterns of human variation.

  20. Genomics and Public Health Research: Can the State Allow Access to Genomic Databases?

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    M Stanton Jean

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Because many diseases are multifactorial disorders,the scientific progress in genomics and genetics should be taken into consideration in public health research. In this context, genomic databases will constitute an important source of information. Consequently, it is important to identify and characterize the State's role and authority on matters related to public health,in order to verify whether it has access to such databases while engaging in public health genomic research. We first consider the evolution of the concept of public health, as well as its core functions, using a comparative approach (e.g. WHO, PAHO, CDC and the Canadian province of Quebec. Following an analysis of relevant Quebec legislation, the precautionary principle is examined as a possible avenue to justify State access to and use of genomic databases for research purposes. Finally, we consider the Influenza pandemic plans developed by WHO, Canada, and Quebec,as examples of key tools framing public health decision-making process.We observed that State powers in public health, are not,in Quebec,well adapted to the expansion of genomics research.We propose that the scope of the concept of research in public health should be clear and include the following characteristics:a commitment to the health and well-being of the population and to their determinants; the inclusion of both applied research and basic research; and, an appropriate model of governance (authorization, follow-up,consent, etc..We also suggest that the strategic approach version of the precautionary principle could guide collective choices in these matters.

  1. The need to redefine genomic data sharing: A focus on data accessibility

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    Tempest A. van Schaik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DNAdigest's mission is to investigate and address the issues hindering efficient and ethical genomic data sharing in the human genomics research community. We conducted contextual interviews with human genomics researchers in clinical, academic or industrial R&D settings about their experience with accessing and sharing human genomic data. The qualitative interviews were followed by an online survey which provided quantitative support for our findings. Here we present the generalised workflow for accessing human genomic data through both public and restricted-access repositories and discuss reported points of frustration and their possible improvements. We discuss how data discoverability and accessibility are lacking in current mechanisms and how these are the prerequisites for adoption of best practices in the research community. We summarise current initiatives related to genomic data discovery and present a new data discovery platform available at http://nucleobase.co.uk.

  2. Accessing the SEED Genome Databases via Web Services API: Tools for Programmers

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    Vonstein Veronika

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SEED integrates many publicly available genome sequences into a single resource. The database contains accurate and up-to-date annotations based on the subsystems concept that leverages clustering between genomes and other clues to accurately and efficiently annotate microbial genomes. The backend is used as the foundation for many genome annotation tools, such as the Rapid Annotation using Subsystems Technology (RAST server for whole genome annotation, the metagenomics RAST server for random community genome annotations, and the annotation clearinghouse for exchanging annotations from different resources. In addition to a web user interface, the SEED also provides Web services based API for programmatic access to the data in the SEED, allowing the development of third-party tools and mash-ups. Results The currently exposed Web services encompass over forty different methods for accessing data related to microbial genome annotations. The Web services provide comprehensive access to the database back end, allowing any programmer access to the most consistent and accurate genome annotations available. The Web services are deployed using a platform independent service-oriented approach that allows the user to choose the most suitable programming platform for their application. Example code demonstrate that Web services can be used to access the SEED using common bioinformatics programming languages such as Perl, Python, and Java. Conclusions We present a novel approach to access the SEED database. Using Web services, a robust API for access to genomics data is provided, without requiring large volume downloads all at once. The API ensures timely access to the most current datasets available, including the new genomes as soon as they come online.

  3. Open versus Controlled-Access Data | Office of Cancer Genomics

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    OCG employs stringent human subjects’ protection and data access policies to protect the privacy and confidentiality of the research participants. Depending on the risk of patient identification, OCG programs data are available to the scientific community in two tiers: open or controlled access. Both types of data can be accessed through its corresponding OCG program-specific data matrix or portal. Open-access Data

  4. ECR Browser: A Tool For Visualizing And Accessing Data From Comparisons Of Multiple Vertebrate Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loots, G G; Ovcharenko, I; Stubbs, L; Nobrega, M A

    2004-01-06

    The increasing number of vertebrate genomes being sequenced in draft or finished form provide a unique opportunity to study and decode the language of DNA sequence through comparative genome alignments. However, novel tools and strategies are required to accommodate this increasing volume of genomic information and to facilitate experimental annotation of genome function. Here we present the ECR Browser, a tool that provides an easy and dynamic access to whole genome alignments of human, mouse, rat and fish sequences. This web-based tool (http://ecrbrowser.dcode.org) provides the starting point for discovery of novel genes, identification of distant gene regulatory elements and prediction of transcription factor binding sites. The genome alignment portal of the ECR Browser also permits fast and automated alignment of any user-submitted sequence to the genome of choice. The interconnection of the ECR browser with other DNA sequence analysis tools creates a unique portal for studying and exploring vertebrate genomes.

  5. The Role of Genome Accessibility in Transcription Factor Binding in Bacteria.

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    Antonio L C Gomes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ChIP-seq enables genome-scale identification of regulatory regions that govern gene expression. However, the biological insights generated from ChIP-seq analysis have been limited to predictions of binding sites and cooperative interactions. Furthermore, ChIP-seq data often poorly correlate with in vitro measurements or predicted motifs, highlighting that binding affinity alone is insufficient to explain transcription factor (TF-binding in vivo. One possibility is that binding sites are not equally accessible across the genome. A more comprehensive biophysical representation of TF-binding is required to improve our ability to understand, predict, and alter gene expression. Here, we show that genome accessibility is a key parameter that impacts TF-binding in bacteria. We developed a thermodynamic model that parameterizes ChIP-seq coverage in terms of genome accessibility and binding affinity. The role of genome accessibility is validated using a large-scale ChIP-seq dataset of the M. tuberculosis regulatory network. We find that accounting for genome accessibility led to a model that explains 63% of the ChIP-seq profile variance, while a model based in motif score alone explains only 35% of the variance. Moreover, our framework enables de novo ChIP-seq peak prediction and is useful for inferring TF-binding peaks in new experimental conditions by reducing the need for additional experiments. We observe that the genome is more accessible in intergenic regions, and that increased accessibility is positively correlated with gene expression and anti-correlated with distance to the origin of replication. Our biophysically motivated model provides a more comprehensive description of TF-binding in vivo from first principles towards a better representation of gene regulation in silico, with promising applications in systems biology.

  6. CerealsDB 2.0: an integrated resource for plant breeders and scientists

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    Wilkinson Paul A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food security is an issue that has come under renewed scrutiny amidst concerns that substantial yield increases in cereal crops are required to feed the world’s booming population. Wheat is of fundamental importance in this regard being one of the three most important crops for both human consumption and livestock feed; however, increase in crop yields have not kept pace with the demands of a growing world population. In order to address this issue, plant breeders require new molecular tools to help them identify genes for important agronomic traits that can be introduced into elite varieties. Studies of the genome using next-generation sequencing enable the identification of molecular markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms that may be used by breeders to identify and follow genes when breeding new varieties. The development and application of next-generation sequencing technologies has made the characterisation of SNP markers in wheat relatively cheap and straightforward. There is a growing need for the widespread dissemination of this information to plant breeders. Description CerealsDB is an online resource containing a range of genomic datasets for wheat (Triticum aestivum that will assist plant breeders and scientists to select the most appropriate markers for marker assisted selection. CerealsDB includes a database which currently contains in excess of 100,000 putative varietal SNPs, of which several thousand have been experimentally validated. In addition, CerealsDB contains databases for DArT markers and EST sequences, and links to a draft genome sequence for the wheat variety Chinese Spring. Conclusion CerealsDB is an open access website that is rapidly becoming an invaluable resource within the wheat research and plant breeding communities.

  7. Ensembl Genomes 2013: scaling up access to genome-wide data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensembl Genomes (http://www.ensemblgenomes.org) is an integrating resource for genome-scale data from non-vertebrate species. The project exploits and extends technologies for genome annotation, analysis and dissemination, developed in the context of the vertebrate-focused Ensembl project, and provi...

  8. Silicon in cereal straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko

    how Si influences cell wall composition in cereal straw and, consequently, the enzymatic saccharification efficiency. Considering the importance of Nitrogen (N) fertilization in cereal production, an additional objective was to elucidate the effect of N supply on Si concentration and cell wall...

  9. Basset: learning the regulatory code of the accessible genome with deep convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, David R.; Snoek, Jasper; Rinn, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The complex language of eukaryotic gene expression remains incompletely understood. Despite the importance suggested by many noncoding variants statistically associated with human disease, nearly all such variants have unknown mechanisms. Here, we address this challenge using an approach based on a recent machine learning advance—deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). We introduce the open source package Basset to apply CNNs to learn the functional activity of DNA sequences from genomics data. We trained Basset on a compendium of accessible genomic sites mapped in 164 cell types by DNase-seq, and demonstrate greater predictive accuracy than previous methods. Basset predictions for the change in accessibility between variant alleles were far greater for Genome-wide association study (GWAS) SNPs that are likely to be causal relative to nearby SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with them. With Basset, a researcher can perform a single sequencing assay in their cell type of interest and simultaneously learn that cell's chromatin accessibility code and annotate every mutation in the genome with its influence on present accessibility and latent potential for accessibility. Thus, Basset offers a powerful computational approach to annotate and interpret the noncoding genome. PMID:27197224

  10. Basset: learning the regulatory code of the accessible genome with deep convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, David R; Snoek, Jasper; Rinn, John L

    2016-07-01

    The complex language of eukaryotic gene expression remains incompletely understood. Despite the importance suggested by many noncoding variants statistically associated with human disease, nearly all such variants have unknown mechanisms. Here, we address this challenge using an approach based on a recent machine learning advance-deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). We introduce the open source package Basset to apply CNNs to learn the functional activity of DNA sequences from genomics data. We trained Basset on a compendium of accessible genomic sites mapped in 164 cell types by DNase-seq, and demonstrate greater predictive accuracy than previous methods. Basset predictions for the change in accessibility between variant alleles were far greater for Genome-wide association study (GWAS) SNPs that are likely to be causal relative to nearby SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with them. With Basset, a researcher can perform a single sequencing assay in their cell type of interest and simultaneously learn that cell's chromatin accessibility code and annotate every mutation in the genome with its influence on present accessibility and latent potential for accessibility. Thus, Basset offers a powerful computational approach to annotate and interpret the noncoding genome.

  11. Detouring of cisplatin to access mitochondrial genome for overcoming resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrache, Sean; Pathak, Rakesh K; Dhar, Shanta

    2014-07-22

    Chemoresistance of cisplatin therapy is related to extensive repair of cisplatin-modified DNA in the nucleus by the nucleotide excision repair (NER). Delivering cisplatin to the mitochondria to attack mitochondrial genome lacking NER machinery can lead to a rationally designed therapy for metastatic, chemoresistant cancers and might overcome the problems associated with conventional cisplatin treatment. An engineered hydrophobic mitochondria-targeted cisplatin prodrug, Platin-M, was constructed using a strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition chemistry. Efficient delivery of Platin-M using a biocompatible polymeric nanoparticle (NP) based on biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-block-polyethyleneglycol functionalized with a terminal triphenylphosphonium cation, which has remarkable activity to target mitochondria of cells, resulted in controlled release of cisplatin from Platin-M locally inside the mitochondrial matrix to attack mtDNA and exhibited otherwise-resistant advanced cancer sensitive to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Identification of an optimized targeted-NP formulation with brain-penetrating properties allowed for delivery of Platin-M inside the mitochondria of neuroblastoma cells resulting in ∼17 times more activity than cisplatin. The remarkable activity of Platin-M and its targeted-NP in cisplatin-resistant cells was correlated with the hyperpolarization of mitochondria in these cells and mitochondrial bioenergetics studies in the resistance cells further supported this hypothesis. This unique dual-targeting approach to controlled mitochondrial delivery of cisplatin in the form of a prodrug to attack the mitochondrial genome lacking NER machinery and in vivo distribution of the delivery vehicle in the brain suggested previously undescribed routes for cisplatin-based therapy.

  12. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  13. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  14. Trichothecenes in Cereal Grains

    OpenAIRE

    François Eudes; Foroud, Nora A.

    2009-01-01

    Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins associated with fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereals, with worldwide economic and health impacts. While various management strategies have been proposed to reduce the mycotoxin risk, breeding towards FHB-resistance appears to be the most effective means to manage the disease, and reduce trichothecene contamination of cereal-based food products. This review provides a brief summary of the trichothecene synthesis in Fusarium species, their toxicity...

  15. Phosphoproteomics in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pingfang

    2015-01-01

    Cereals are the most important crop plant supplying staple food throughout the world. The economic importance and continued breeding of crop plants such as rice, maize, wheat, or barley require a detailed scientific understanding of adaptive and developmental processes. Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important regulatory posttranslational modifications and its analysis allows deriving functional and regulatory principles in plants. This minireview summarizes the current knowledge of phosphoproteomic studies in cereals.

  16. An open access pilot freely sharing cancer genomic data from participants in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, Lauren B; Pereira, Stacey; Drummond, Jennifer A; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Covington, Kyle R; Kovar, Christie L; Doddapaneni, Harsha Vardhan; Hu, Jianhong; Muzny, Donna; McGuire, Amy L; Wheeler, David A; Gibbs, Richard A

    2016-02-16

    Genomic data sharing in cancer has been restricted to aggregate or controlled-access initiatives to protect the privacy of research participants. By limiting access to these data, it has been argued that the autonomy of individuals who decide to participate in data sharing efforts has been superseded and the utility of the data as research and educational tools reduced. In a pilot Open Access (OA) project from the CPRIT-funded Texas Cancer Research Biobank, many Texas cancer patients were willing to openly share genomic data from tumor and normal matched pair specimens. For the first time, genetic data from 7 human cancer cases with matched normal are freely available without requirement for data use agreements nor any major restriction except that end users cannot attempt to re-identify the participants (http://txcrb.org/open.html).

  17. The draft genome of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Jianguo; Sun, Honghe; Salse, Jerome; Lucas, William J; Zhang, Haiying; Zheng, Yi; Mao, Linyong; Ren, Yi; Wang, Zhiwen; Min, Jiumeng; Guo, Xiaosen; Murat, Florent; Ham, Byung-Kook; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Gao, Shan; Huang, Mingyun; Xu, Yimin; Zhong, Silin; Bombarely, Aureliano; Mueller, Lukas A; Zhao, Hong; He, Hongju; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhonghua; Huang, Sanwen; Tan, Tao; Pang, Erli; Lin, Kui; Hu, Qun; Kuang, Hanhui; Ni, Peixiang; Wang, Bo; Liu, Jingan; Kou, Qinghe; Hou, Wenju; Zou, Xiaohua; Jiang, Jiao; Gong, Guoyi; Klee, Kathrin; Schoof, Heiko; Huang, Ying; Hu, Xuesong; Dong, Shanshan; Liang, Dequan; Wang, Juan; Wu, Kui; Xia, Yang; Zhao, Xiang; Zheng, Zequn; Xing, Miao; Liang, Xinming; Huang, Bangqing; Lv, Tian; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Yi, Hongping; Li, Ruiqiang; Wu, Mingzhu; Levi, Amnon; Zhang, Xingping; Giovannoni, James J; Wang, Jun; Li, Yunfu; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus, is an important cucurbit crop grown throughout the world. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the east Asia watermelon cultivar 97103 (2n = 2× = 22) containing 23,440 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative genomics analysis provided an evolutionary scenario for the origin of the 11 watermelon chromosomes derived from a 7-chromosome paleohexaploid eudicot ancestor. Resequencing of 20 watermelon accessions representing three different C. lanatus subspecies produced numerous haplotypes and identified the extent of genetic diversity and population structure of watermelon germplasm. Genomic regions that were preferentially selected during domestication were identified. Many disease-resistance genes were also found to be lost during domestication. In addition, integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses yielded important insights into aspects of phloem-based vascular signaling in common between watermelon and cucumber and identified genes crucial to valuable fruit-quality traits, including sugar accumulation and citrulline metabolism.

  18. The Mouse Genome Database: integration of and access to knowledge about the laboratory mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2014-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD) (http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the community model organism database resource for the laboratory mouse, a premier animal model for the study of genetic and genomic systems relevant to human biology and disease. MGD maintains a comprehensive catalog of genes, functional RNAs and other genome features as well as heritable phenotypes and quantitative trait loci. The genome feature catalog is generated by the integration of computational and manual genome annotations generated by NCBI, Ensembl and Vega/HAVANA. MGD curates and maintains the comprehensive listing of functional annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology, and MGD curates and integrates comprehensive phenotype annotations including associations of mouse models with human diseases. Recent improvements include integration of the latest mouse genome build (GRCm38), improved access to comparative and functional annotations for mouse genes with expanded representation of comparative vertebrate genomes and new loads of phenotype data from high-throughput phenotyping projects. All MGD resources are freely available to the research community.

  19. Genome-Wide Association between Transcription Factor Expression and Chromatin Accessibility Reveals Regulators of Chromatin Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueedi, Rico

    2017-01-01

    To better understand genome regulation, it is important to uncover the role of transcription factors in the process of chromatin structure establishment and maintenance. Here we present a data-driven approach to systematically characterise transcription factors that are relevant for this process. Our method uses a linear mixed modelling approach to combine datasets of transcription factor binding motif enrichments in open chromatin and gene expression across the same set of cell lines. Applying this approach to the ENCODE dataset, we confirm already known and imply numerous novel transcription factors that play a role in the establishment or maintenance of open chromatin. In particular, our approach rediscovers many factors that have been annotated as pioneer factors. PMID:28118358

  20. The Human Genome Project: Information access, management, and regulation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.D.; Micikas, L.B.

    1996-08-31

    The Human Genome Project is a large, internationally coordinated effort in biological research directed at creating a detailed map of human DNA. This report describes the access of information, management, and regulation of the project. The project led to the development of an instructional module titled The Human Genome Project: Biology, Computers, and Privacy, designed for use in high school biology classes. The module consists of print materials and both Macintosh and Windows versions of related computer software-Appendix A contains a copy of the print materials and discs containing the two versions of the software.

  1. Hyperphosphorylation of cereal starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2011-01-01

    Plant starch is naturally phosphorylated at a fraction of the C6 and the C3 hydroxyl groups during its biosynthesis in plastids. Starch phosphate esters are important in starch metabolism and they also generate specific industrial functionality. Cereal grains starch contains little starch bound......-type phenotype. Transgenic cereal grains synthesized starch with higher starch bound phosphate content (7.5 (±0.67) nmol/mg) compared to control lines (0.8 (±0.05) nmol/mg) with starch granules showing altered morphology and lower melting enthalpy. Our data indicate specific action of GWD during starch...... biosynthesis and demonstrates the possibility for in planta production of highly phosphorylated cereal starch....

  2. Trichothecenes in Cereal Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Eudes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins associated with fusarium head blight (FHB of cereals, with worldwide economic and health impacts. While various management strategies have been proposed to reduce the mycotoxin risk, breeding towards FHB-resistance appears to be the most effective means to manage the disease, and reduce trichothecene contamination of cereal-based food products. This review provides a brief summary of the trichothecene synthesis in Fusarium species, their toxicity in plants and humans, followed by the current methods of screening and breeding for resistance to FHB and trichothecene accumulation.

  3. Trichothecenes in cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroud, Nora A; Eudes, François

    2009-01-01

    Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins associated with fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereals, with worldwide economic and health impacts. While various management strategies have been proposed to reduce the mycotoxin risk, breeding towards FHB-resistance appears to be the most effective means to manage the disease, and reduce trichothecene contamination of cereal-based food products. This review provides a brief summary of the trichothecene synthesis in Fusarium species, their toxicity in plants and humans, followed by the current methods of screening and breeding for resistance to FHB and trichothecene accumulation.

  4. The Ruby UCSC API: accessing the UCSC genome database using Ruby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishima Hiroyuki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC genome database is among the most used sources of genomic annotation in human and other organisms. The database offers an excellent web-based graphical user interface (the UCSC genome browser and several means for programmatic queries. A simple application programming interface (API in a scripting language aimed at the biologist was however not yet available. Here, we present the Ruby UCSC API, a library to access the UCSC genome database using Ruby. Results The API is designed as a BioRuby plug-in and built on the ActiveRecord 3 framework for the object-relational mapping, making writing SQL statements unnecessary. The current version of the API supports databases of all organisms in the UCSC genome database including human, mammals, vertebrates, deuterostomes, insects, nematodes, and yeast. The API uses the bin index—if available—when querying for genomic intervals. The API also supports genomic sequence queries using locally downloaded *.2bit files that are not stored in the official MySQL database. The API is implemented in pure Ruby and is therefore available in different environments and with different Ruby interpreters (including JRuby. Conclusions Assisted by the straightforward object-oriented design of Ruby and ActiveRecord, the Ruby UCSC API will facilitate biologists to query the UCSC genome database programmatically. The API is available through the RubyGem system. Source code and documentation are available at https://github.com/misshie/bioruby-ucsc-api/ under the Ruby license. Feedback and help is provided via the website at http://rubyucscapi.userecho.com/.

  5. Environmental Whole-Genome Amplification to Access Microbial Diversity in Contaminated Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abulencia, C.B.; Wyborski, D.L.; Garcia, J.; Podar, M.; Chen, W.; Chang, S.H.; Chang, H.W.; Watson, D.; Brodie,E.I.; Hazen, T.C.; Keller, M.

    2005-12-10

    Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using ?29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils were made possible. The MDA method was validated by analyzing amplified genome coverage from approximately five Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 99.2 percent genome coverage. The method was further validated by confirming overall representative species coverage and also an amplification bias when amplifying from a mix of eight known bacterial strains. We extracted DNA from samples with extremely low cell densities from a U.S. Department of Energy contaminated site. After amplification, small subunit rRNA analysis revealed relatively even distribution of species across several major phyla. Clone libraries were constructed from the amplified gDNA, and a small subset of clones was used for shotgun sequencing. BLAST analysis of the library clone sequences showed that 64.9 percent of the sequences had significant similarities to known proteins, and ''clusters of orthologous groups'' (COG) analysis revealed that more than half of the sequences from each library contained sequence similarity to known proteins. The libraries can be readily screened for native genes or any target of interest. Whole-genome amplification of metagenomic DNA from very minute microbial sources, while introducing an amplification bias, will allow access to genomic information that was not previously accessible.

  6. Classifying Cereal Data (Earlier Methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DSQ includes questions about cereal intake and allows respondents up to two responses on which cereals they consume. We classified each cereal reported first by hot or cold, and then along four dimensions: density of added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium.

  7. Meiosis in cereal crops: the grasses are back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-perez, E

    2009-01-01

    A major goal of breeding programs is to increase and manipulate the genetic diversity of crops. The incorporation of beneficial genes from wild relatives into crops is achieved by producing hybrid plants in which meiotic recombination events occur between the two genomes. Furthering our understanding of meiosis in the cereals could enable the manipulation of homolog pairing and recombination, significantly enhancing the efficiency of breeding programs. The main obstacle to the genetic analysis of meiosis in cereal crops has been the complex organization of most cereal genomes, many of which are polyploid. However, the recent sequencing of the rice genome, the use of insertional mutagenesis and reverse genetics approaches has opened the door for the genetic and genomic analysis of cereal meiosis. The goal of this review is to show how these new resources, as well as the use of three-dimensional microscopy, are rapidly providing insights into the mechanisms that control pairing, recombination and segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis in four major cereal crops: wheat, rice, maize and rye.

  8. Physical Analysis of the Complex Rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 Aluminium (Aluminum) Tolerance Locus Using a Whole-Genome BAC Library of Rye cv. Blanco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is also important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies. The library provides a 6 × genome ...

  9. Silicon in cereal straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko

    concentration in both wheat and rice straw. In field grown wheat, the Si concentration decreased by more than 50 % in response to N application, while at the same time the concentration of lignin increased. Assuming that there was no limitation in Si availability under field conditions, the drastic reduction...... such as germanium and arsenite. The Si concentration in the mutant plant was significantly reduced by more than 80 %. Rice mutants defective in Si transporters OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 also showed significantly lower straw Si concentration. It is concluded that the quality of straw biomass for bioenergy purposes can...... how Si influences cell wall composition in cereal straw and, consequently, the enzymatic saccharification efficiency. Considering the importance of Nitrogen (N) fertilization in cereal production, an additional objective was to elucidate the effect of N supply on Si concentration and cell wall...

  10. Micronutrients in cereal crops

    OpenAIRE

    Hamnér, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Seven elements essential for plants are defined as micronutrients: boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). Deficiency of these nutrients can cause yield losses in crops and impaired crop quality. The overall aim of this thesis work was to increase the knowledge how micronutrients in Swedish cereal crops are affected by nutrient management and soil properties in order to improve crop status and avoid yield losses. Data from long term and s...

  11. Targeted Access to the Genomes of Low Abundance Organisms in Complex Microbial Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Abulencia, Carl [Diversa Corporation; Walcher, Marion [Diversa Corporation; Hutchinson, Don [Diversa Corporation; Zengler, Karsten [Diversa Corporation; Garcia, Joseph [Diversa Corporation; Holland, Trevin [Diversa Corporation; Cotton, Dave [Diversa Corporation; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Keller, Martin [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Current metagenomic approaches to the study of complex microbial consortia provide a glimpse into the community metabolism, and occasionally allow genomic assemblies for the most abundant organisms. However, little information is gained for the members of the community present at low frequency, especially those representing yet uncultured taxa-which includes the bulk of the diversity present in most environments. Here we used phylogenetically directed cell separation by fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry, followed by amplification and sequencing of a fraction of the genomic DNA of several bacterial cells that belong to the TM7 phylum. Partial genomic assembly allowed, for the first time, a look into the evolution and potential metabolism of a soil representative from this group of organisms for which there are no species in stable laboratory cultures. Genomic reconstruction from targeted cells of uncultured organisms directly isolated from the environment represents a powerful approach to access any specific members of a community and an alternative way to assess the community metabolic potential.

  12. Targeted access to the genomes of low-abundance organisms in complex microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podar, Mircea; Abulencia, Carl B; Walcher, Marion; Hutchison, Don; Zengler, Karsten; Garcia, Joseph A; Holland, Trevin; Cotton, David; Hauser, Loren; Keller, Martin

    2007-05-01

    Current metagenomic approaches to the study of complex microbial consortia provide a glimpse into the community metabolism and occasionally allow genomic assemblies for the most abundant organisms. However, little information is gained for the members of the community present at low frequencies, especially those representing yet-uncultured taxa, which include the bulk of the diversity present in most environments. Here we used phylogenetically directed cell separation by fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry, followed by amplification and sequencing of a fraction of the genomic DNA of several bacterial cells that belong to the TM7 phylum. Partial genomic assembly allowed, for the first time, a look into the evolution and potential metabolism of a soil representative from this group of organisms for which there are no species in stable laboratory cultures. Genomic reconstruction from targeted cells of uncultured organisms isolated directly from the environment represents a powerful approach to access any specific members of a community and an alternative way to assess the community's metabolic potential.

  13. Physical analysis of the complex rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 aluminium (aluminum) tolerance locus using a whole-genome BAC library of rye cv. Blanco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, B-J; Gustafson, J P; Button, J; Miyazaki, J; Pallotta, M; Gustafson, N; Zhou, H; Langridge, P; Collins, N C

    2009-08-01

    Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Rye is highly tolerant of aluminum (Al) toxicity, and possesses a complex structure at the Alt4 Al tolerance locus not found at the corresponding locus in wheat. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies, and assess the library's suitability for investigating Al tolerance genes. The library provides 6 x genome coverage of the 8.1 Gb rye genome, has an average insert size of 131 kb, and contains only ~2% of empty or organelle-derived clones. Genetic analysis attributed the Al tolerance of Blanco to the Alt4 locus on the short arm of chromosome 7R, and revealed the presence of multiple allelic variants (haplotypes) of the Alt4 locus in the BAC library. BAC clones containing ALMT1 gene clusters from several Alt4 haplotypes were identified, and will provide useful starting points for exploring the basis for the structural variability and functional specialization of ALMT1 genes at this locus.

  14. Readily Accessible Multiplane Microscopy: 3D Tracking the HIV-1 Genome in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itano, Michelle S; Bleck, Marina; Johnson, Daniel S; Simon, Sanford M

    2016-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection and the associated disease AIDS are a major cause of human death worldwide with no vaccine or cure available. The trafficking of HIV-1 RNAs from sites of synthesis in the nucleus, through the cytoplasm, to sites of assembly at the plasma membrane are critical steps in HIV-1 viral replication, but are not well characterized. Here we present a broadly accessible microscopy method that captures multiple focal planes simultaneously, which allows us to image the trafficking of HIV-1 genomic RNAs with high precision. This method utilizes a customization of a commercial multichannel emission splitter that enables high-resolution 3D imaging with single-macromolecule sensitivity. We show with high temporal and spatial resolution that HIV-1 genomic RNAs are most mobile in the cytosol, and undergo confined mobility at sites along the nuclear envelope and in the nucleus and nucleolus. These provide important insights regarding the mechanism by which the HIV-1 RNA genome is transported to the sites of assembly of nascent virions.

  15. Filter transfer of genomic libraries in a state accessible to DNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebee, T J

    1987-04-01

    I have developed a method for transferring plaque DNA of lambda genomic libraries onto 3MM filters in a state accessible to DNA-binding proteins. DNA bound to 3MM is available to proteins as large as Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and maintains template activity similar to that in free solution. Lambda Plaques can be lifted onto 3MM filter disks, deproteinized, and used for transcription assays in vitro. The RNA synthesized is complementary to phage rather than to E. coli DNA and plaques can be identified by autoradiography. Furthermore, the filters can subsequently be probed with radioactive nucleic acids under standard hybridization conditions. Finally, colorimetric assays can be employed with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) A in which plaques are identified by the localized reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium.

  16. Open-Access Cancer Genomics - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The completion of the Human Genome Project sparked a revolution in high-throughput genomics applied towards deciphering genetically complex diseases, like cancer. Now, almost 10 years later, we have a mountain of genomics data on many different cancer type

  17. Extracellular peptidases of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan George Thomas Lowe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum (Fgr creates economic and health risks in cereals agriculture. Fgr causes head blight (or scab of wheat and stalk rot of corn, reducing yield, degrading grain quality and polluting downstream food products with mycotoxins. Fungal plant pathogens must secrete proteases to access nutrition and to breakdown the structural protein component of the plant cell wall. Research into the proteolytic activity of Fgr is hindered by the complex nature of the suite of proteases secreted. We used a systems biology approach comprising genome analysis, transcriptomics and label-free quantitative proteomics to characterise the peptidases deployed by Fgr during growth. A combined analysis of published microarray transcriptome datasets revealed seven transcriptional groupings of peptidases based on in vitro growth, in planta growth, and sporulation behaviours. An orbitrap MS/MS proteomics technique defined the extracellular proteases secreted by Fusarium graminearum. A meta-classification based on sequence characters and transcriptional/translational activity in planta and in vitro provides a platform to develop control strategies that target Fgr peptidases.

  18. SymbioGenomesDB: a database for the integration and access to knowledge on host-symbiont relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Vargas-Chávez, Carlos; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic relationships occur naturally throughout the tree of life, either in a commensal, mutualistic or pathogenic manner. The genomes of multiple organisms involved in symbiosis are rapidly being sequenced and becoming available, especially those from the microbial world. Currently, there are numerous databases that offer information on specific organisms or models, but none offer a global understanding on relationships between organisms, their interactions and capabilities within their niche, as well as their role as part of a system, in this case, their role in symbiosis. We have developed the SymbioGenomesDB as a community database resource for laboratories which intend to investigate and use information on the genetics and the genomics of organisms involved in these relationships. The ultimate goal of SymbioGenomesDB is to host and support the growing and vast symbiotic-host relationship information, to uncover the genetic basis of such associations. SymbioGenomesDB maintains a comprehensive organization of information on genomes of symbionts from diverse hosts throughout the Tree of Life, including their sequences, their metadata and their genomic features. This catalog of relationships was generated using computational tools, custom R scripts and manual integration of data available in public literature. As a highly curated and comprehensive systems database, SymbioGenomesDB provides web access to all the information of symbiotic organisms, their features and links to the central database NCBI. Three different tools can be found within the database to explore symbiosis-related organisms, their genes and their genomes. Also, we offer an orthology search for one or multiple genes in one or multiple organisms within symbiotic relationships, and every table, graph and output file is downloadable and easy to parse for further analysis. The robust SymbioGenomesDB will be constantly updated to cope with all the data being generated and included in major

  19. Genome-wide identification of novel genetic markers from RNA sequencing assembly of diverse Aegilops tauschii accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Ryo; Yoshida, Kentaro; Motoi, Yuka; Sato, Kazuhiro; Takumi, Shigeo

    2016-08-01

    The wild species in the Triticeae tribe are tremendous resources for crop breeding due to their abundant natural variation. However, their huge and highly repetitive genomes have hindered the establishment of physical maps and the completeness of their genome sequences. To develop molecular markers for the efficient utilization of their valuable traits while avoiding their genome complexity, we assembled RNA sequences of ten representative accessions of Aegilops tauschii, the progenitor of the wheat D genome, and estimated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions (indels). The deduced unigenes were anchored to the chromosomes of Ae. tauschii and barley. The SNPs and indels in the anchored unigenes, covering entire chromosomes, were sufficient for linkage map construction, even in combinations between the genetically closest accessions. Interestingly, the resolution of SNP and indel distribution on barley chromosomes was slightly higher than on Ae. tauschii chromosomes. Since barley chromosomes are regarded as virtual chromosomes of Triticeae species, our strategy allows capture of genetic markers arranged on the chromosomes in order based on the conserved synteny. The resolution of these genetic markers will be comparable to that of the Ae. tauschii whose draft genome sequence is available. Our procedure should be applicable to marker development for Triticeae species, which have no draft sequences available.

  20. Salmonella contamination of cereal ingredients for animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R H; Wales, A D

    2013-10-25

    Cereal ingredients for animal feedstuffs may become contaminated by Salmonella on their farms of origin. This is often concentrated in multiple foci, owing to contamination by rodents and other wildlife which may be missed by routine sampling, and may involve serovars of particular public health significance, such as Salmonella Typhimurium (STM). The study examined such contamination in domestically-produced cereal ingredients in the United Kingdom. Cereal-producing farms with associated cattle or pig enterprises (43) and feedmills (6) were investigated, following the isolation of STM from their premises (feedmills) or STM DT104 from their livestock (farms) by routine surveillance. Cereal samples from feedmills yielded two STM isolates from the same premises, of the same phage types as were isolated from wild bird faeces at ingredient intake and product loading areas. Farm investigations identified numerous Salmonella serovars, including STM, on grain harvesting and handling equipment, in grain storage areas, and in wildlife samples. Mice were removed from one pig farm and shed Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Bovismorbificans for 10 months afterwards. Grain stores more than one kilometre away from livestock areas were rarely found to be contaminated with STM. The principal issues with Salmonella contamination of cereals appeared to be the use of livestock areas as temporary grain stores on cattle farms, and access to stored grain by wildlife and domestic animals. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Glenn; Barona, Elizabeth; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Guevara, Edward; Dixon, John; Beebe, Steve; Castano, Silvia Elena; Alabi, Tunrayo; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Sivasankar, Shoba; Rivera, Ovidio; Espinosa, Herlin; Cardona, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes. PMID:27303632

  2. Accessing the SEED genome databases via Web services API: tools for programmers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Disz, Terry; Akhter, Sajia; Cuevas, Daniel; Olson, Robert; Overbeek, Ross; Vonstein, Veronika; Stevens, Rick; Edwards, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    .... The database contains accurate and up-to-date annotations based on the subsystems concept that leverages clustering between genomes and other clues to accurately and efficiently annotate microbial genomes...

  3. ECR Browser: a tool for visualizing and accessing data from comparisons of multiple vertebrate genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Ovcharenko, Ivan; Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Loots, Gabriela G.; Stubbs, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    With an increasing number of vertebrate genomes being sequenced in draft or finished form, unique opportunities for decoding the language of DNA sequence through comparative genome alignments have arisen. However, novel tools and strategies are required to accommodate this large volume of genomic information and to facilitate the transfer of predictions generated by comparative sequence alignment to researchers focused on experimental annotation of genome function. Here, we present the ECR Br...

  4. Competitiveness of organically grown cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Jánský

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is aimed at the assessment of recommended crop management practices of chosen cereals for organic farming. To increase competitiveness, these practices are modified depending on soil and climatic conditions, and on a way of production use. Furthermore, impacts of the recommended crop management practices on economics of growing chosen cereals are evaluated and compared with economic results obtained under conventional farming. It is assumed that achieved results will contribute to the increase in proportion of arable crops in the Czech Republic where organic production offer does not meet current demands.When evaluating results of growing individual cereal species in a selective set of organic farms, triticale, spelt and spring barley (in this ranking can be considered as profitable crops. Moreover, triticale and spelt have even higher gross margin under organic farming than under conventional farming (by 62 % in triticale. Oat brings losses, however, it is important for livestock production. Winter wheat seems to be also unprofitable since less grain is produced at lower imputs per hectare and only part of it is produced in quality “bio”, i.e. marketed for higher prices. Rye also brings losses under organic farming, particularly due to lower yields, similarly to the other mentioned cereals. Special cereal species that are still neglected in organic farming systems are of potential use. Durum wheat has vitreous kernels with a high content of quality gluten which is used for pasta production. It can be grown in the maize production area on fertile soils only.

  5. Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б. В. Духницький

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze peculiarities of Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade, the situation on the world market, and determine future prospects of its development. Methods. Analysis and synthesis, comparative evaluation, graphic procedure. Results. The role and place of Ukraine in a total grain supply to the world market was determined. Ukraine is a world’s top ten grain producer. Among domestic agricultural products, cereals, oilseeds and sunflower oil are in the highest demand in the world. In recent years, our state has reinforced its status as one of the leading exporters of cereals. The commodity pattern of cereals and oilseeds export was analyzed with specifying most in-demand positions and the main countries purchasing these pro­ducts. According to the results of 2015, Ukraine obtained the highest foreign currency revenue from export of corn, wheat and barley (in grain structure including soybeans and rapeseed (among oil crops. Key domestic and multinational operators are the main exporters of cereals and oilseeds in Ukraine and still hold their leading position. It was found a significant excess of import price of seeds as compared with export price of crops grown in Ukraine. Assortment of maize and sunflower seeds offered by major companies-producers in Ukraine was studied. Main trends of the world grain market development are considered. Conclusions. It was established that Ukraine is one of the major exporters of cereals and oilseeds. However, volatility of their prices significantly affects the export revenue that was decreasing even with increasing export quantities in kind. The dependence of domestic grain industry development on high-quality imported seed of maize and sunflower hybrids was recorded. It is expected that in the years to come Ukraine will maintain its strong positions in the world’s grain market.

  6. [Wholegrain cereals and sanitary benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rosa M; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena

    2015-07-18

    Objetivos: las guías alimentarias para conseguir una alimentación correcta establecen como aconsejable tomar tres o más raciones de cereales integrales de grano completo al día. Sin embargo, la norma es poco conocida en nuestro entorno, afectando el incumplimiento a la práctica totalidad de la población. Por ello, el objetivo de la presente revisión es analizar los beneficios nutricionales y sanitarios asociados al consumo de cereales de grano completo y las posibles ventajas que podrían derivarse del cumplimiento con consumo aconsejado para estos alimentos. Métodos: búsqueda bibliográfica en relación con el tema. Resultados: los cereales de grano completo aportan cantidades elevadas de hidratos de carbono, fibra, vitaminas y minerales, cuya contribución a la dieta media ayuda a alcanzar las ingestas recomendadas y los objetivos nutricionales vigentes, por lo que su consumo en la cantidad aconsejada supone un beneficio nutricional. Por otra parte, diversos estudios señalan que un aumento en el consumo de cereales de grano completo se asocia con una protección frente al padecimiento de diversas enfermedades crónico-degenerativas (cardiovasculares, diabetes, síndrome metabólico y cáncer), ayudando en el mantenimiento de la salud digestiva y del peso corporal. Estos resultados pueden ser debidos al aporte de nutrientes, fibra y fitoquímicos, procedente de estos alimentos, así como al desplazamiento de la dieta de otros productos con un perfil nutricional menos conveniente, teniendo en cuenta la composición de la dieta media española. De hecho, el consumo de cereales de grano completo ha sido relacionado con una posible mejora en la microbiota intestinal y una mayor protección antioxidante. Pese a estas ventajas, el consumo de cereales es mirado con recelo por diversos individuos, especialmente por aquellas personas preocupadas por el control de peso, y los beneficios adicionales asociados al consumo de cereales de grano completo no son

  7. El cerealémetro

    OpenAIRE

    Santos López, Pascual

    2006-01-01

    "Apparatus for measuring wheat" was the title that Geronimo Salmerón Gómez put his invention patented in 1939. Which calls for defining the quality of wheat is marketed. Salmerón always worried about the price of bread and flour quality came to manufacture his invention usually called "Cerealémetro".

  8. El cerealémetro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos López, Pascual

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available "Apparatus for measuring wheat" was the title that Geronimo Salmerón Gómez put his invention patented in 1939. Which calls for defining the quality of wheat is marketed. Salmerón always worried about the price of bread and flour quality came to manufacture his invention usually called "Cerealémetro".

  9. WormBase: network access to the genome and biology of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, L; Sternberg, P; Durbin, R; Thierry-Mieg, J; Spieth, J

    2001-01-01

    WormBase (http://www.wormbase.org) is a web-based resource for the Caenorhabditis elegans genome and its biology. It builds upon the existing ACeDB database of the C.elegans genome by providing data curation services, a significantly expanded range of subject areas and a user-friendly front end.

  10. Cereals Market in Romania under the Impact of the Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina CONSTANTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyses the cereals market after Romania accession to European Union. Thus, I considered necessary and appropriate to achieve the dynamic analysis of production, prices, trade, consumption, and self-sufficiency that provides an overview on the evolution of the cereals market in Romania, in the European context, starting from resources representing the demand, to the uses that represent the supply. I also point out the main mechanisms and support instruments for the cereals market under the Common Agriculture Policy, in the period 2007-2013 and towards 2014-2020.

  11. PLAZA 3.0: an access point for plant comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proost, Sebastian; Van Bel, Michiel; Vaneechoutte, Dries; Van de Peer, Yves; Inzé, Dirk; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Vandepoele, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    Comparative sequence analysis has significantly altered our view on the complexity of genome organization and gene functions in different kingdoms. PLAZA 3.0 is designed to make comparative genomics data for plants available through a user-friendly web interface. Structural and functional annotation, gene families, protein domains, phylogenetic trees and detailed information about genome organization can easily be queried and visualized. Compared with the first version released in 2009, which featured nine organisms, the number of integrated genomes is more than four times higher, and now covers 37 plant species. The new species provide a wider phylogenetic range as well as a more in-depth sampling of specific clades, and genomes of additional crop species are present. The functional annotation has been expanded and now comprises data from Gene Ontology, MapMan, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, PlnTFDB and PlantTFDB. Furthermore, we improved the algorithms to transfer functional annotation from well-characterized plant genomes to other species. The additional data and new features make PLAZA 3.0 (http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/plaza/) a versatile and comprehensible resource for users wanting to explore genome information to study different aspects of plant biology, both in model and non-model organisms.

  12. Detection methods for mycotoxins in cereal grains and cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Michelangelo N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical methods for mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-based products require three major steps, including extraction, clean-up (to eliminate interferences from the extract and concentrate the analyte, and detection/determination of the toxin (by using suitable analytical instruments/technologies. Clean-up is essential for the analysis of mycotoxins at trace levels, and involves the use of solid phase extraction and multifunctional (e.g. MycoSep® or immunoaffinity columns. Different chromatographic methods are commonly used for quantitative determination of mycotoxins, including gas-chromatography (GC coupled with electron capture, flame ionization or mass spectrometry (MS detectors (mainly for type-A trichothecenes, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with ultraviolet, diode array, fluorescence or MS detectors. The choice of method depends on the matrix and the mycotoxin to be analyzed. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS is spreading rapidly as a promising technique for simultaneous screening, identification and quantitative determination of a large number of mycotoxins. In addition, commercial immunometric assays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA, are frequently used for screening purposes as well. Recently, a variety of emerging methods have been proposed for the analysis of mycotoxins in cereals based on novel technologies, including immunochromatography (i.e. lateral flow devices, fluorescence polarization immunoassays (FPIA, infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs and optical biosensors.

  13. POTENTIAL OF CEREALS AND PSEUDOCEREALS FOR LACTIC ACID FERMENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Valík

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and pseudocereals play a significant role in human nutrition. They are source of specific carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, fibre and wide spectrum of vitamins and minerals. Moreover, pseudocereals have a higher content of essential amino acids, e.g. lysine and tryptophan. Cereals and pseudocereals may also contain some antinutrition factors, such as phytic acid, polyphenols, trypsin inhibitors and inhibitors of α-amylase. These are responsible for reducing of protein and carbohydrate digestibility and decreasing accessibility of minerals due to complex formation. This review assesses the applications of cereals and pseudocereals in fermentation technology including the effects of lactic acid bacteria on nutrition, sensory quality and shelf-life. This work is focusing also on fermentation process of cereal matrice leading in degradation of antinutritional factors increase of nutritional value and availability of minerals, proteins and carbohydrates. Lactic acid bacteria produce many aromatic compounds that are beneficial to organoleptic atributes of the products. However, a few questions have been not answered in experiments, yet. For eample, is there any space for evaluation of their suitability to act as carriers of probiotics? Could such the attempts lead in development some special formulae suitable for consumers with food allergies or deficiencies?doi:10.5219/127

  14. Sourdough and cereal fermentation in a nutritional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutanen, Kaisa; Flander, Laura; Katina, Kati

    2009-10-01

    Use of sourdough is of expanding interest for improvement of flavour, structure and stability of baked goods. Cereal fermentations also show significant potential in improvement and design of the nutritional quality and health effects of foods and ingredients. In addition to improving the sensory quality of whole grain, fibre-rich or gluten-free products, sourdough can also actively retard starch digestibility leading to low glycemic responses, modulate levels and bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds, and improve mineral bioavailability. Cereal fermentation may produce non-digestible polysaccharides, or modify accessibility of the grain fibre complex to gut microbiota. It has also been suggested that degradation of gluten may render bread better suitable for celiac persons. The changes in cereal matrix potentially leading to improved nutritional quality are numerous. They include acid production, suggested to retard starch digestibility, and to adjust pH to a range which favours the action of certain endogenous enzymes, thus changing the bioavailability pattern of minerals and phytochemicals. This is especially beneficial in products rich in bran to deliver minerals and potentially protective compounds in the blood circulation. The action of enzymes during fermentation also causes hydrolysis and solubilisation of grain macromolecules, such as proteins and cell wall polysaccharides. This changes product texture, which may affect nutrient and non-nutrient absorption. New bioactive compounds, such as prebiotic oligosaccharides or other metabolites, may also be formed in cereal fermentations.

  15. Comparative pathogenomics reveals horizontally acquired novel virulence genes in fungi infecting cereal hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M Gardiner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analyses of pathogen genomes provide new insights into how pathogens have evolved common and divergent virulence strategies to invade related plant species. Fusarium crown and root rots are important diseases of wheat and barley world-wide. In Australia, these diseases are primarily caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium pseudograminearum. Comparative genomic analyses showed that the F. pseudograminearum genome encodes proteins that are present in other fungal pathogens of cereals but absent in non-cereal pathogens. In some cases, these cereal pathogen specific genes were also found in bacteria associated with plants. Phylogenetic analysis of selected F. pseudograminearum genes supported the hypothesis of horizontal gene transfer into diverse cereal pathogens. Two horizontally acquired genes with no previously known role in fungal pathogenesis were studied functionally via gene knockout methods and shown to significantly affect virulence of F. pseudograminearum on the cereal hosts wheat and barley. Our results indicate using comparative genomics to identify genes specific to pathogens of related hosts reveals novel virulence genes and illustrates the importance of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of plant infecting fungal pathogens.

  16. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  17. Cereal based oral rehydration solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenya, P R; Odongo, H W; Oundo, G; Waswa, K; Muttunga, J; Molla, A M; Nath, S K; Molla, A; Greenough, W B; Juma, R

    1989-07-01

    A total of 257 boys (age range 4-55 months), who had acute diarrhoea with moderate to severe dehydration, were randomly assigned to treatment with either the World Health Organisation/United Nations Childrens Fund (WHO/Unicef) recommended oral rehydration solution or cereal based oral rehydration solution made either of maize, millet, sorghum, or rice. After the initial rehydration was achieved patients were offered traditional weaning foods. Treatment with oral rehydration solution continued until diarrhoea stopped. Accurate intake and output was maintained throughout the study period. Efficacy of the treatment was compared between the different treatment groups in terms of intake of the solution, stool output, duration of diarrhoea after admission, and weight gain after 24, 48, and 72 hours, and after resolution of diarrhoea. Results suggest that all the cereal based solutions were as effective as glucose based standard oral rehydration solution in the treatment of diarrhoea.

  18. Access to the Genome: A Study of Transcription Factor Binding Within Nucleosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehove, Matthew

    All the DNA in a cell's nucleus is packaged into a material called chromatin consisting of DNA and DNA-associated proteins. The basic unit of chromatin is the nucleosome which consists of 147 bases of DNA wrapped around a protein core composed of two copies each of histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. DNA wrapped into a nucleosome is inaccessible to most DNA processing machinery. This machinery needs access to the DNA to perform processes such as transcription, replication, and repair. The cell uses many mechanisms to modulate this protection including nucleosome unwrapping, sliding, remodeling, disassembly, and chemical modification. This work used transcription factors along with fluorescent methods to probe the accessibility of DNA near the ends of the nucleosome. The DNA in this entry-exit region can spontaneously unwrap to provide transient access to DNA binding factors such as transcription factors. We studied the effect of histone post-translational modifications on the accessibility of DNA in the entry-exit region. We found that the phosphorylation at H3Y41ph increased DNA accessibility in vitro by 3-fold, which is similar in size to the effect of a previously studied modification H3K56ac. Since both of these modifications are associated with active genes and could occur together, we studied nucleosomes with both modifications and they showed a 17+/-5-fold increase in accessibility. This indicates that the cell could use multiple modifications in the entry-exit region to adjust the accessibility of nucleosomal DNA by over an order of magnitude. We also studied the effects of the removal of one H2A/H2B dimer. These partially formed nucleosomes, called hexasomes, are a component of chromatin that has been largely unstudied. Our results have shown that hexasomes have DNA accessibility similar to that of fully-formed nucleosomes on the side with the remaining H2A/H2B dimer. However, on the side without the dimer, our results showed the DNA remains permanently

  19. eRNAs promote transcription by establishing chromatin accessibility at defined genomic loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousavi, Kambiz; Zare, Hossein; Dell'orso, Stefania;

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors and DNA regulatory binding motifs are fundamental components of the gene regulatory network. Here, by using genome-wide binding profiling, we show extensive occupancy of transcription factors of myogenesis (MyoD and Myogenin) at extragenic enhancer regions coinciding with RN...

  20. [Development of cereal bar with pineapple skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Renata Siqueira; Del Santo, Victor Rogério; Souza, Gilberto Batista de; Pereira, Cíntia Alessandra Matiucci

    2011-06-01

    The cereal bars are multi-component products consisting of cereals, dried fruit and syrup binder and may be added to the consumable parts of fruits and vegetables which usually are not exploited and have high nutritional value, thereby reducing food waste. It was developed a jam with pineapple skin, which it was utilized in 13.5% in the cereal bar formulation. The cereal bar was sensorial evaluated and had its centesimal and mineral composition determined. The new product achieved average of 8.3 for global impression using 9 points hedonic scale, 91% of acceptance rate and 67% of purchase intent. In this first use of pineapple skin jam as food ingredient it can be concluded that its aggregation in the cereal bar formula is feasible, making an accepted product with fibers, proteins and minerals, as an alternative to traditional cereal bars.

  1. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes in cereals: implication in agriculture, cereal processing and nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juge, N.; Svensson, Birte

    2006-01-01

    Enzymes that degrade, modify, or create glycosidic bonds are involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis and remodelling. Microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes form the basis of current green technology in the food, feed, starch, paper and pulp industries and the revolution in genomics may offer long......-term gains on the quality and quantity of the raw materials. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes (alpha-amylase, limit-dextrinase, polygalacturonase, pectin lyase, pectin methylesterase, invertase and xyloglucan endoglucanase) naturally occur in plants where they are involved in various...... roles from plant defence to metabolism. Xylanase inhibitors represent the latest addition to this growing family. In this review, we will focus on the inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes present in cereals, mostly represented by et-amylase and xylanase inhibitors, and summarise the existing...

  2. Variation in Adult Plant Phenotypes and Partitioning among Seed and Stem-Borne Roots across Brachypodium distachyon Accessions to Exploit in Breeding Cereals for Well-Watered and Drought Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chochois, Vincent; Vogel, John P; Rebetzke, Gregory J; Watt, Michelle

    2015-07-01

    Seedling roots enable plant establishment. Their small phenotypes are measured routinely. Adult root systems are relevant to yield and efficiency, but phenotyping is challenging. Root length exceeds the volume of most pots. Field studies measure partial adult root systems through coring or use seedling roots as adult surrogates. Here, we phenotyped 79 diverse lines of the small grass model Brachypodium distachyon to adults in 50-cm-long tubes of soil with irrigation; a subset of 16 lines was droughted. Variation was large (total biomass, ×8; total root length [TRL], ×10; and root mass ratio, ×6), repeatable, and attributable to genetic factors (heritabilities ranged from approximately 50% for root growth to 82% for partitioning phenotypes). Lines were dissected into seed-borne tissues (stem and primary seminal axile roots) and stem-borne tissues (tillers and coleoptile and leaf node axile roots) plus branch roots. All lines developed one seminal root that varied, with branch roots, from 31% to 90% of TRL in the well-watered condition. With drought, 100% of TRL was seminal, regardless of line because nodal roots were almost always inhibited in drying topsoil. Irrigation stimulated nodal roots depending on genotype. Shoot size and tillers correlated positively with roots with irrigation, but partitioning depended on genotype and was plastic with drought. Adult root systems of B. distachyon have genetic variation to exploit to increase cereal yields through genes associated with partitioning among roots and their responsiveness to irrigation. Whole-plant phenotypes could enhance gain for droughted environments because root and shoot traits are coselected.

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Biscarini

    Full Text Available In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding-after data editing-57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions.In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10-7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25. In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10-7 and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011.We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies.

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Filippo; Cozzi, Paolo; Casella, Laura; Riccardi, Paolo; Vattari, Alessandra; Orasen, Gabriele; Perrini, Rosaria; Tacconi, Gianni; Tondelli, Alessandro; Biselli, Chiara; Cattivelli, Luigi; Spindel, Jennifer; McCouch, Susan; Abbruscato, Pamela; Valé, Giampiero; Piffanelli, Pietro; Greco, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding-after data editing-57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions. In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10-7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25). In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10-7) and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011). We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies.

  5. Brachypodium distachyon-Cochliobolus sativus Pathosystem is a New Model for Studying Plant-Fungal Interactions in Cereal Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shaobin; Ali, Shaukat; Leng, Yueqiang; Wang, Rui; Garvin, David F

    2015-04-01

    Cochliobolus sativus (anamorph: Bipolaris sorokiniana) causes spot blotch, common root rot, and kernel blight or black point in barley and wheat. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of C. sativus or the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility in the hosts. This study aims to establish the model grass Brachypodium distachyon as a new model for studying plant-fungus interactions in cereal crops. Six B. distachyon lines were inoculated with five C. sativus isolates. The results indicated that all six B. distachyon lines were infected by the C. sativus isolates, with their levels of resistance varying depending on the fungal isolates used. Responses ranging from hypersensitive response-mediated resistance to complete susceptibility were observed in a large collection of B. distachyon (2n=2x=10) and B. hybridum (2n=4x=30) accessions inoculated with four of the C. sativus isolates. Evaluation of an F2 population derived from the cross between two of the B. distachyon lines, Bd1-1 and Bd3-1, with isolate Cs07-47-1 showed quantitative and transgressive segregation for resistance to C. sativus, suggesting that the resistance may be governed by quantitative trait loci from both parents. The availability of whole-genome sequences of both the host (B. distachyon) and the pathogen (C. sativus) makes this pathosystem an attractive model for studying this important disease of cereal crops.

  6. Cereal aids fight against diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    Ricewater has been proved to be an effective treatment of diarrhea by investigators at the International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), who have shown that cereal-based solutions are even more effective than the much publicized mixtures of water, sugar, and salts. Diarrhea kills 8 or 9 children under the age of 5 every minute, often simply by draining out of them the water and salts the body needs to keep functioning. Only a few years ago, the conventional treatment for severe cases was a drip of saline fluid into the patients arm through a needle. But this requires hospital treatment, and few 3rd world children ever see the inside of a hospital. Recently, "oral rehydration therapy" (ORT)--giving children a carefully measured mix of water, sugar (or pure glucose), and sodium chloride and potassium salts--has gained world recognition as a simple, cheap, and effective treatment. A village mother can give it in her home, either from a prepackaged powder mixed with water or from solution she mixes herself. Sugar, or the glucose into which the body converts sugar, continues to be absorbed across the intestinal walls during diarrhea--when the body is absorbing little else. This process aids the absorption of the all-important salts. The standard ORT formula for a liter of water calls for 20 g of glucose or 40 g of household sugar. The newer cereal-based ORT replaces the sugar with rice powder. Tests have shown that 80-86% of the rice powder is converted into glucose and absorbed. According to Dr. A. Majid Molloa of ICDDR,B who pioneered the use of rice powder in ORT, 1 liter of rice powder solution is twice as effective as 2 liters of sugar solution. There are several advantages in using rice powder in ORT. Rice is the staple food of more than 1/2 the world's population, particularly so where diarrhea is a killer. It is grown and eaten throughout Asia, and in many parts of Latin America and Africa. Some rice is usually available in the

  7. Genomics of Sorghum

    OpenAIRE

    PATERSON, ANDREW H

    2008-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a subject of plant genomics research based on its importance as one of the world's leading cereal crops, a biofuels crop of high and growing importance, a progenitor of one of the world's most noxious weeds, and a botanical model for many tropical grasses with complex genomes. A rich history of genome analysis, culminating in the recent complete sequencing of the genome of a leading inbred, provides a foundation for invigorating progress toward relatin...

  8. Possible Roles for Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 in Cereal Endosperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru eTonosaki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2 is an evolutionarily conserved multimeric protein complex in both plants and animals. In contrast to animals, plants have evolved a range of different components of PRC2 and form diverse complexes that act in the control of key regulatory genes at many stages of development during the life cycle. A number of studies, particularly in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, have highlighted the role of PRC2 and of epigenetic controls via parent-of-origin specific gene expression for endosperm development. However, recent research in cereal plants has revealed that although some components of PRC2 show evolutionary conservation with respect to parent-of-origin specific gene expression patterns, the identity of the imprinted genes encoding PRC2 components is not conserved. This disparity may reflect the facts that cereal plant genomes have undergone different patterns of duplication during evolution compared to Arabidopsis thaliana and that the endosperm development program is not identical in monocots and eudicots. In this context, we focus this review on the expression of imprinted PRC2 genes and their roles in endosperm development in cereals.

  9. A De Novo Genome Sequence Assembly of the Arabidopsis thaliana Accession Niederzenz-1 Displays Presence/Absence Variation and Strong Synteny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucker, Boas; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Rosleff Sörensen, Thomas; Stracke, Ralf; Viehöver, Prisca

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is the most important model organism for fundamental plant biology. The genome diversity of different accessions of this species has been intensively studied, for example in the 1001 genome project which led to the identification of many small nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small insertions and deletions (InDels). In addition, presence/absence variation (PAV), copy number variation (CNV) and mobile genetic elements contribute to genomic differences between A. thaliana accessions. To address larger genome rearrangements between the A. thaliana reference accession Columbia-0 (Col-0) and another accession of about average distance to Col-0, we created a de novo next generation sequencing (NGS)-based assembly from the accession Niederzenz-1 (Nd-1). The result was evaluated with respect to assembly strategy and synteny to Col-0. We provide a high quality genome sequence of the A. thaliana accession (Nd-1, LXSY01000000). The assembly displays an N50 of 0.590 Mbp and covers 99% of the Col-0 reference sequence. Scaffolds from the de novo assembly were positioned on the basis of sequence similarity to the reference. Errors in this automatic scaffold anchoring were manually corrected based on analyzing reciprocal best BLAST hits (RBHs) of genes. Comparison of the final Nd-1 assembly to the reference revealed duplications and deletions (PAV). We identified 826 insertions and 746 deletions in Nd-1. Randomly selected candidates of PAV were experimentally validated. Our Nd-1 de novo assembly allowed reliable identification of larger genic and intergenic variants, which was difficult or error-prone by short read mapping approaches alone. While overall sequence similarity as well as synteny is very high, we detected short and larger (affecting more than 100 bp) differences between Col-0 and Nd-1 based on bi-directional comparisons. The de novo assembly provided here and additional assemblies that will certainly be published in the future will allow to

  10. Whole-Genome Analysis of Candidate genes Associated with Seed Size and Weight in Sorghum bicolor Reveals Signatures of Artificial Selection and Insights into Parallel Domestication in Cereal Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yongfu; Mace, Emma S; Tai, Shuaishuai; Cruickshank, Alan; Campbell, Bradley C; Zhao, Xianrong; Van Oosterom, Erik J; Godwin, Ian D; Botella, Jose R; Jordan, David R

    2017-01-01

    Seed size and seed weight are major quality attributes and important determinants of yield that have been strongly selected for during crop domestication. Limited information is available about the genetic control and genes associated with seed size and weight in sorghum. This study identified sorghum orthologs of genes with proven effects on seed size and weight in other plant species and searched for evidence of selection during domestication by utilizing resequencing data from a diversity panel. In total, 114 seed size candidate genes were identified in sorghum, 63 of which exhibited signals of purifying selection during domestication. A significant number of these genes also had domestication signatures in maize and rice, consistent with the parallel domestication of seed size in cereals. Seed size candidate genes that exhibited differentially high expression levels in seed were also found more likely to be under selection during domestication, supporting the hypothesis that modification to seed size during domestication preferentially targeted genes for intrinsic seed size rather than genes associated with physiological factors involved in the carbohydrate supply and transport. Our results provide improved understanding of the complex genetic control of seed size and weight and the impact of domestication on these genes.

  11. Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics (GPB) Has a New Start——Open Access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Yu

    2012-01-01

    We are now presenting to our readers the first issue of Volume 10 of Genomics,Proteomics & Bioinformatics (GPB).It is also the first issue for the new status.GPB was founded in 2003 and published in English,focusing on research advancement in the fields of omics and bioinformatics.To ensure an international presence,GPB has its 30-50% editorial board members from outside China.From 2006,GPB has been co-published by Elsevier and Science Press,and its full-text articles are available for downloading from ScienceDirect.In 2011,GPB became a bimonthly journal.Annual downloading counts keep increasing with around 70% from outside China in 2011 (Figure 1).In addition,submissions from abroad account for 70% of the published articles after collaborating with Elsevier.

  12. The dbGaP data browser: a new tool for browsing dbGaP controlled-access genomic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kira M.; Langlais, Kristofor; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Fletcher-Hoppe, Colette; Krasnewich, Donna; Leeds, Hilary S.; Rodriguez, Laura Lyman; Godynskiy, Georgy; Schneider, Valerie A.; Ramos, Erin M.; Sherry, Stephen T.

    2017-01-01

    The database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) Data Browser (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gap/ddb/) was developed in response to requests from the scientific community for a resource that enable view-only access to summary-level information and individual-level genotype and sequence data associated with phenotypic features maintained in the controlled-access tier of dbGaP. Until now, the dbGaP controlled-access environment required investigators to submit a data access request, wait for Data Access Committee review, download each data set and locally examine them for potentially relevant information. Existing unrestricted-access genomic data browsing resources (e.g. http://evs.gs.washington.edu/EVS/, http://exac.broadinstitute.org/) provide only summary statistics or aggregate allele frequencies. The dbGaP Data Browser serves as a third solution, providing researchers with view-only access to a compilation of individual-level data from general research use (GRU) studies through a simplified controlled-access process. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) will continue to improve the Browser in response to user feedback and believes that this tool may decrease unnecessary download requests, while still facilitating responsible genomic data-sharing. PMID:27899644

  13. Reticulate Evolution of the Rye Genome

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Rye (Secale cereale) is closely related to wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Due to its large genome (similar to 8 Gb) and its regional importance, genome analysis of rye has lagged behind other cereals. Here, we established a virtual linear gene order model (genome zipper) comprising 22,426 or 72% of the detected set of 31,008 rye genes. This was achieved by high-throughput transcript mapping, chromosome survey sequencing, and integration of conserved synteny informatio...

  14. Genomic Access to Monarch Migration Using TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Targeted Mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Markert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The eastern North American monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is an emerging model system to study the neural, molecular, and genetic basis of animal long-distance migration and animal clockwork mechanisms. While genomic studies have provided new insight into migration-associated and circadian clock genes, the general lack of simple and versatile reverse-genetic methods has limited in vivo functional analysis of candidate genes in this species. Here, we report the establishment of highly efficient and heritable gene mutagenesis methods in the monarch butterfly using transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs and CRISPR-associated RNA-guided nuclease Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9. Using two clock gene loci, cryptochrome 2 and clock (clk, as candidates, we show that both TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 generate high-frequency nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ-mediated mutations at targeted sites (up to 100%, and that injecting fewer than 100 eggs is sufficient to recover mutant progeny and generate monarch knockout lines in about 3 months. Our study also genetically defines monarch CLK as an essential component of the transcriptional activation complex of the circadian clock. The methods presented should not only greatly accelerate functional analyses of many aspects of monarch biology, but are also anticipated to facilitate the development of these tools in other nontraditional insect species as well as the development of homology-directed knock-ins.

  15. Developing genome-wide microsatellite markers of bamboo and their applications on molecular marker assisted taxonomy for accessions in the genus Phyllostachys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hansheng; Yang, Li; Peng, Zhenhua; Sun, Huayu; Yue, Xianghua; Lou, Yongfeng; Dong, Lili; Wang, Lili; Gao, Zhimin

    2015-01-26

    Morphology-based taxonomy via exiguously reproductive organ has severely limitation on bamboo taxonomy, mainly owing to infrequent and unpredictable flowering events of bamboo. Here, we present the first genome-wide analysis and application of microsatellites based on the genome of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) to assist bamboo taxonomy. Of identified 127,593 microsatellite repeat-motifs, the primers of 1,451 microsatellites were designed and 1,098 markers were physically mapped on the genome of moso bamboo. A total of 917 markers were successfully validated in 9 accessions with ~39.8% polymorphic potential. Retrieved from validated microsatellite markers, 23 markers were selected for polymorphic analysis among 78 accessions and 64 alleles were detected with an average of 2.78 alleles per primers. The cluster result indicated the majority of the accessions were consistent with their current taxonomic classification, confirming the suitability and effectiveness of the developed microsatellite markers. The variations of microsatellite marker in different species were confirmed by sequencing and in silico comparative genome mapping were investigated. Lastly, a bamboo microsatellites database (http://www.bamboogdb.org/ssr) was implemented to browse and search large information of bamboo microsatellites. Consequently, our results of microsatellite marker development are valuable for assisting bamboo taxonomy and investigating genomic studies in bamboo and related grass species.

  16. Dietary fibers and associated phytochemicals in cereal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked whole-grain cereal consumption to a reduced risk of developing several chronic diseases – coronary heart disease, arteriosclerosis, type-2 diabetes and colonic and breast cancer. The underlying physiological mechanisms behind the protective effects of whole...... lignin. The main NSP in cereals are arabinoxylan (AX), mixed linkages β(1-3; 1-4)-glucan (β-glucan) and cellulose, which vary significantly according to the cereal species but also between different tissues of the grains. Rye, triticale, wheat and corn are rich in AX, whereas barley and oats contain...

  17. Genome-wide profiling of nucleosome sensitivity and chromatin accessibility in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chereji, Răzvan V; Kan, Tsung-Wai; Grudniewska, Magda K; Romashchenko, Alexander V; Berezikov, Eugene; Zhimulev, Igor F; Guryev, Victor; Morozov, Alexandre V; Moshkin, Yuri M

    2016-02-18

    Nucleosomal DNA is thought to be generally inaccessible to DNA-binding factors, such as micrococcal nuclease (MNase). Here, we digest Drosophila chromatin with high and low concentrations of MNase to reveal two distinct nucleosome types: MNase-sensitive and MNase-resistant. MNase-resistant nucleosomes assemble on sequences depleted of A/T and enriched in G/C-containing dinucleotides, whereas MNase-sensitive nucleosomes form on A/T-rich sequences found at transcription start and termination sites, enhancers and DNase I hypersensitive sites. Estimates of nucleosome formation energies indicate that MNase-sensitive nucleosomes tend to be less stable than MNase-resistant ones. Strikingly, a decrease in cell growth temperature of about 10°C makes MNase-sensitive nucleosomes less accessible, suggesting that observed variations in MNase sensitivity are related to either thermal fluctuations of chromatin fibers or the activity of enzymatic machinery. In the vicinity of active genes and DNase I hypersensitive sites nucleosomes are organized into periodic arrays, likely due to 'phasing' off potential barriers formed by DNA-bound factors or by nucleosomes anchored to their positions through external interactions. The latter idea is substantiated by our biophysical model of nucleosome positioning and energetics, which predicts that nucleosomes immediately downstream of transcription start sites are anchored and recapitulates nucleosome phasing at active genes significantly better than sequence-dependent models.

  18. Whole-crop cereals in dairy production

    OpenAIRE

    Wallsten, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    The four studies summarised and discussed in this thesis evaluate the use of whole-crop cereal silage (WCCS) for cattle in dairy production. The dry matter (DM) yield, chemical composition, digestibility, feed intake and milk production for WCCS were evaluated for different cereal species and maturity stages at harvest. The DM yield increased from milk to dough stages of maturity and was higher in winter triticale and rye than in spring barley and oats. Delayed harvest until early dough stage...

  19. Glycosylations and truncations of functional cereal phytases expressed and secreted by Pichia pastoris documented by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Jørgensen, Malene; Welinder, Karen Gjesing

    2012-01-01

    Cereal purple acid phosphatase-type phytases, PAPhy, play an essential role in making phosphate accessible to mammalian digestion and reducing the environmental impact of manure. Studying the potential of PAPhy requires easy access to the enzymes. For that purpose wheat and barley isophytases hav...

  20. European survey on sterigmatocystin in cereals, cereals-based products, beer and nuts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, H.G.J.; MacDonald, S.J.; Anagnostopoulos, C.; Spanjer, M.; Bertuzzi, T.; Pietri, A.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the EFSA proposal 'Survey on sterigmatocystin in food' (GP/EFSA/CONTAM/2013/02), this study provides a survey on the occurrence of this mycotoxin. A total of 1,259 samples of cereal grains (429), cereal products (713), beer (53) and nuts (64) were analysed for the presence of sterigmatoc

  1. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Hyman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes.

  2. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Hyman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes.

  3. Metagenomics reveals flavour metabolic network of cereal vinegar microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin-Huan; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Zong-Min; Yu, Yong-Jian; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2017-04-01

    Multispecies microbial community formed through centuries of repeated batch acetic acid fermentation (AAF) is crucial for the flavour quality of traditional vinegar produced from cereals. However, the metabolism to generate and/or formulate the essential flavours by the multispecies microbial community is hardly understood. Here we used metagenomic approach to clarify in situ metabolic network of key microbes responsible for flavour synthesis of a typical cereal vinegar, Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, produced by solid-state fermentation. First, we identified 3 organic acids, 7 amino acids, and 20 volatiles as dominant vinegar metabolites. Second, we revealed taxonomic and functional composition of the microbiota by metagenomic shotgun sequencing. A total of 86 201 predicted protein-coding genes from 35 phyla (951 genera) were involved in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of Metabolism (42.3%), Genetic Information Processing (28.3%), and Environmental Information Processing (10.1%). Furthermore, a metabolic network for substrate breakdown and dominant flavour formation in vinegar microbiota was constructed, and microbial distribution discrepancy in different metabolic pathways was charted. This study helps elucidating different metabolic roles of microbes during flavour formation in vinegar microbiota.

  4. Next generation sequencing provides rapid access to the genome of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stripe rust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cantu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The wheat stripe rust fungus (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, PST is responsible for significant yield losses in wheat production worldwide. In spite of its economic importance, the PST genomic sequence is not currently available. Fortunately Next Generation Sequencing (NGS has radically improved sequencing speed and efficiency with a great reduction in costs compared to traditional sequencing technologies. We used Illumina sequencing to rapidly access the genomic sequence of the highly virulent PST race 130 (PST-130. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained nearly 80 million high quality paired-end reads (>50x coverage that were assembled into 29,178 contigs (64.8 Mb, which provide an estimated coverage of at least 88% of the PST genes and are available through GenBank. Extensive micro-synteny with the Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (PGTG genome and high sequence similarity with annotated PGTG genes support the quality of the PST-130 contigs. We characterized the transposable elements present in the PST-130 contigs and using an ab initio gene prediction program we identified and tentatively annotated 22,815 putative coding sequences. We provide examples on the use of comparative approaches to improve gene annotation for both PST and PGTG and to identify candidate effectors. Finally, the assembled contigs provided an inventory of PST repetitive elements, which were annotated and deposited in Repbase. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The assembly of the PST-130 genome and the predicted proteins provide useful resources to rapidly identify and clone PST genes and their regulatory regions. Although the automatic gene prediction has limitations, we show that a comparative genomics approach using multiple rust species can greatly improve the quality of gene annotation in these species. The PST-130 sequence will also be useful for comparative studies within PST as more races are sequenced. This study illustrates the power of NGS for

  5. Whole Genome Fine Map of Rice Completed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Rice is a staple crop for more than half of the world's population, and it was hoped that the availability of its genome sequence might enable scientists to develop more productive and environment friendly rice strains.Furthermore, the rice genome might provide the key to understanding the genetics of other major cereal crops,as all of them have much larger genomes.

  6. The draft genome of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Jianguo; Sun, Honghe;

    2013-01-01

    Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus, is an important cucurbit crop grown throughout the world. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the east Asia watermelon cultivar 97103 (2n = 2× = 22) containing 23,440 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative genomics analysis provided an evolut...

  7. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms based on RNA sequencing data of diverse bio-geographical accessions in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahagi, Kotaro; Uehara-Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Mochida, Keiichi; Saisho, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Barley is one of the founder crops of Old world agriculture and has become the fourth most important cereal worldwide. Information on genome-scale DNA polymorphisms allows elucidating the evolutionary history behind domestication, as well as discovering and isolating useful genes for molecular breeding. Deep transcriptome sequencing enables the exploration of sequence variations in transcribed sequences; such analysis is particularly useful for species with large and complex genomes, such as barley. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of 20 barley accessions, comprising representatives of several biogeographic regions and a wild ancestor. We identified 38,729 to 79,949 SNPs in the 19 domesticated accessions and 55,403 SNPs in the wild barley and revealed their genome-wide distribution using a reference genome. Genome-scale comparisons among accessions showed a clear differentiation between oriental and occidental barley populations. The results based on population structure analyses provide genome-scale properties of sub-populations grouped to oriental, occidental and marginal groups in barley. Our findings suggest that the oriental population of domesticated barley has genomic variations distinct from those in occidental groups, which might have contributed to barley’s domestication. PMID:27616653

  8. Identification and complete genome sequencing of paramyxoviruses in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos using random access amplification and next generation sequencing technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg Thierry

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During a wildlife screening program for avian influenza A viruses (AIV and avian paramyxoviruses (APMV in Belgium, we isolated two hemagglutinating agents from pools of cloacal swabs of wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos caught in a single sampling site at two different times. AIV and APMV1 were excluded using hemagglutination inhibition (HI testing and specific real-time RT-PCR tests. Methods To refine the virological identification of APMV2-10 realized by HI subtyping tests and in lack of validated molecular tests for APMV2-10, random access amplification was used in combination with next generation sequencing for the sequence independent identification of the viruses and the determination of their genomes. Results Three different APMVs were identified. From one pooled sample, the complete genome sequence (15054 nucleotides of an APMV4 was assembled from the random sequences. From the second pooled sample, the nearly complete genome sequence of an APMV6 (genome size of 16236 nucleotides was determined, as well as a partial sequence for an APMV4. This APMV4 was closely related but not identical to the APMV4 isolated from the first sample. Although a cross-reactivity with other APMV subtypes did not allow formal identification, the HI subtyping revealed APMV4 and APMV6 in the respective pooled samples but failed to identify the co-infecting APMV4 in the APMV6 infected pool. Conclusions These data further contribute to the knowledge about the genetic diversity within the serotypes APMV4 and 6, and confirm the limited sensitivity of the HI subtyping test. Moreover, this study demonstrates the value of a random access nucleic acid amplification method in combination with massive parallel sequencing. Using only a moderate and economical sequencing effort, the characterization and full genome sequencing of APMVs can be obtained, including the identification of viruses in mixed infections.

  9. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes in cereals - implication in agriculture, cereal-processing and nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juge, Nathalie; Svensson, Birte

    2006-01-01

    Enzymes that degrade, modify, or create glycosidic bonds are involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis and remodelling. Microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes form the basis of current green technology in the food, feed, starch, paper and pulp industries and the revolution in genomics may offer long......-term gains on the quality and quantity of the raw materials. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes (alpha-amylase, limit-dextrinase, polygalacturonase, pectin lyase, pectin methylesterase, invertase and xyloglucan endoglucanase) naturally occur in plants where they are involved in various...... roles from plant defence to metabolism. Xylanase inhibitors represent the latest addition to this growing family. In this review, we will focus on the inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes present in cereals, mostly represented by et-amylase and xylanase inhibitors, and summarise the existing...

  10. Predictive Modelling of Mycotoxins in Cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Liu, C.

    2015-01-01

    In dit artikel worden de samenvattingen van de presentaties tijdens de 30e bijeenkomst van de Werkgroep Fusarium weergegeven. De onderwerpen zijn: Predictive Modelling of Mycotoxins in Cereals.; Microbial degradation of DON.; Exposure to green leaf volatiles primes wheat against FHB but boosts

  11. Predictive Modelling of Mycotoxins in Cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Liu, C.

    2015-01-01

    In dit artikel worden de samenvattingen van de presentaties tijdens de 30e bijeenkomst van de Werkgroep Fusarium weergegeven. De onderwerpen zijn: Predictive Modelling of Mycotoxins in Cereals.; Microbial degradation of DON.; Exposure to green leaf volatiles primes wheat against FHB but boosts produ

  12. Fusarium Head Blight of Cereals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. K.; Jensen, J. D.; Nielsen, G. C.

    2011-01-01

    1957 to 2000, to determine incidence and abundance of individual Fusarium spp. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, zearalenone, T-2, and HT-2 were quantified using liquid chromatography–double mass spectrometry. Major differences in the Fusarium species complex among the five cereals...

  13. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  14. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  15. Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael G; Clemens, Stephan; Williams, Lorraine E;

    2008-01-01

    The goal of biofortification is to develop plants that have an increased content of bioavailable nutrients in their edible parts. Cereals serve as the main staple food for a large proportion of the world population but have the shortcoming, from a nutrition perspective, of being low in zinc...

  16. Predictive Modelling of Mycotoxins in Cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Liu, C.

    2015-01-01

    In dit artikel worden de samenvattingen van de presentaties tijdens de 30e bijeenkomst van de Werkgroep Fusarium weergegeven. De onderwerpen zijn: Predictive Modelling of Mycotoxins in Cereals.; Microbial degradation of DON.; Exposure to green leaf volatiles primes wheat against FHB but boosts produ

  17. The Need for Cooperation in Cereal Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.W. van der

    2004-01-01

    The trends and needs in cereal research as discussed in 2003 AACC annual meeting are presented. The seminar identified the need of feeding a growing world population with less arable land and under more adverse agronomic conditions. An urgent need of eliminating mycotoxins and coeliac diseases to

  18. Mineral Analysis of Whole Grain Total Cereal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of elemental iron in Whole Grain Total Cereal using visible spectroscopy is suitable for a general chemistry course for science or nonscience majors. The more extensive mineral analysis, specifically for the elements iron, calcium and zinc, is suitable for an instrumental or quantitative analysis chemistry course.

  19. Monitoring the Expression Profiles of Cereal Crops Seedlings by Using Rice cDNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNLiang-xian; DONGHai-tao; LIDe-bao

    2004-01-01

    Through exploiting the high homology of cereal crop genes, membranous cDNA microarrays containing 3311 unique rice transcripts (including 1 639 cndosperm-derived transcripts and 1 672 mature stem-derived transcripts) were used for monitoring the expression profiles of l-leaf stage seedlings of 4 cereal crop species: rice, maize, sorghum and barley. After hybridizing with [P] labeled probes, 73.6 % of the arrayed genes generated reliable signals in all of the four cereal crops. Further analysis revealed that among the arrayed genes, a higher percentage of the endosperm-derived transcripts (86.6%) expressed than that of the mature stem-derived genes (60.9 %), indicating that most of the endosperm expressed genes functioned in young seedlings whilc considerable amount of mature stem tissue expressed genes did not express. These results also inferred that some genes might function only at certain developmental stages. By comparing the obtained profdes, 84 genes were identified constantly expressed in all the four cereal crops. Many housekeeping genes, such as polyubiquitin, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and ribosomal proteins were included in this catalogue. The experiment also identified 14 rice seedling specifically expressed genes, including 3 biotic and abiotic stress induced genes and 1 apoptosis suppressor encoding gene Bax inhibitor-1. This investigation provided invaluable information for comparative genomics of gramineae members.

  20. Monitoring the Expression Profiles of Cereal Crops Seedlings by Using Rice cDNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Liang-xian; DONG Hai-tao; LI De-bao

    2004-01-01

    Through exploiting the high homology of cereal crop genes, membranous cDNA microarrays containing 3 311 unique rice transcripts (including 1 639 endosperm-derived transcripts and 1 672 mature stem-derived transcripts) were used for monitoring the expression profiles of 1-leaf stage seedlings of 4 cereal crop species: rice, maize, sorghum and barley. After hybridizing with [α-33p] labeled probes, 73.6 % of the arrayed genes generated reliable signals in all of the four cereal crops. Further analysis revealed that among the arrayed genes, a higher percentage of the endosperm-derived transcripts (86.6 %) expressed than that of the mature stem-derived genes (60.9 %), indicating that most of the endosperm expressed genes functioned in young seedlings while considerable amount of mature stem tissue expressed genes did not express. These results also inferred that some genes might function only at certain developmental stages. By comparing the obtained profiles, 84 genes were identified constantly expressed in all the four cereal crops. Many housekeeping genes, such as polyubiquitin, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and ribosomal proteins were included in this catalogue. The experiment also identified 14 rice seedling specifically expressed genes, including 3 biotic and abiotic stress induced genes and 1 apoptosis suppressor encoding gene Bax inhibitor-1. This investigation provided invaluable information for comparative genomics of gramineae members.

  1. The human genome project: Information management, access, and regulation. Technical progress report, 1 April--31 August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.D.; Micikas, L.B.

    1993-09-10

    Efforts are described to prepare educational materials including computer based as well as conventional type teaching materials for training interested high school and elementary students in aspects of Human Genome Project.

  2. New Local, National and Regional Cereal Price Indices for Improved Identification of Food Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Tondel, Fabien; Thorne, Jennifer A.; Essam, Timothy; Mann, Bristol F.; Stabler, Blake; Eilerts, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Large price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets. However, reporting by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) indicates that staple cereal prices in many markets of the developing world, especially in surplus-producing areas, often have a delayed and variable response to international export market price trends. Here we present new price indices compiled for improved food security monitoring and assessment, and specifically for monitoring conditions of food access across diverse food insecure regions. We found that cereal price indices constructed using market prices within a food insecure region showed significant differences from the international cereals price, and had a variable price dispersion across markets within each marketshed. Using satellite-derived remote sensing information that estimates local production and the FAO Cereals Index as predictors, we were able to forecast movements of the local or national price indices in the remote, arid and semi-arid countries of the 38 countries examined. This work supports the need for improved decision-making about targeted aid and humanitarian relief, by providing earlier early warning of food security crises.

  3. Effect of irradiation and storage time on the content of thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamin A in feeds based on cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanis, T.; Pospisil, M.; Klir, P.; Bondy, R. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Fyziologicky Ustav); Mnukova, J. (Institut Hygieny a Epidemiologie, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1985-01-01

    Two diets for laboratory rat, based on cereals, were either irradiated with 25 or 50 kGy or untreated and stored under free access of air and day light at ambient temperature for 79 d. At the beginning of the experiment and at one month intervals the changes in moisture and vitamin A, thiamine and riboflavin content were evaluated.

  4. Frictional Impact Modeling of a Cereal Thresher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian O. Osueke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There is no point producing cereal threshing models that cannot replicate its performance on the field. The frictional impact that occurs between the crop surface and threshing cylinder has been often neglected by most researchers in cereal threshing. Approach: Study proffers a solution to this issue by developing a model for threshing which in-cooperate friction. This was done by analyzing the crop/threshing cylinder behavior, hence establishing mathematical sub-models to characterize the performance of this model. Results: The model was further packaged with computer aided software based on visual basic programming language and finally applied. Conclusion: Upon application, it was discovered that at a moisture content of 15% v = 9 m sec-1, Q = 0.18 kg sec-1 the model yielded performance characteristics as Eff = 88.22%, TNL = 11.78% and CAPTH = 211.52 kg h-1.

  5. Fumonisins, Trichothecenes and Zearalenone in Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülden Z. Omurtag

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisins are phytotoxic mycotoxins which are synthesized by various species of the fungal genus Fusarium such as Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc. Nirenberg (ex F.moniliforme Sheldon and Fusarium proliferatum. The trichothecene (TC mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produce by species that belong to several fungal genera, especially Fusarium, Stachybotrys, Trichothecium, Trichoderma, Memnoniella and Myrothecium. Fusarium mycotoxins are widely dispersed in cereals and their products. Zearalenone (ZEA is an estrogenic compound produced by Fusarium spp. such as F. graminearum and F. culmorum. Fumonisins, the TCs and ZEA are hazardous for human and animal health. Contamination with TCs causes a number of illnesses in human and animal such as decrease in food consumption (anorexia, depression or inhibition on immune system function and haematoxicity. The purpose of this paper is to give a review of the papers published on the field of fumonisin, TC and ZEA mycotoxins in cereals consumed in the world.

  6. Usage of hydrocolloids in cereal technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Mikuš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocolloids are high-molecular-weight polymer substances soluble in water which create viscous colloidal solutions. They are mainly used to influence functional properties of food (structure, texture, etc., improving their properties during production (bigger dough volume, better dough manipulation – better adhesion, increasing stability, maintaining taste firmness in frozen products and prolonging durability of cereal products in food industry. Hydrocolloids are characteristic for their thickening effect and are used for their emulsifying and steadiness properties. The aim of this review is to provide useful information about hydrocolloids including chemical structure, origin, common and recommended usage in food industry, proper application in the cereal technology and future scientific heading of these hydrocolloids.

  7. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.

    2008-01-01

    into the crop can be helped by diversification within the crop, allowing complementation and compensation among plants. Although the problems of breeding cereals for organic farming systems are large, there is encouraging progress. This lies in applications of ecology to organic crop production, innovations......The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local......, in European OA. Currently, the effort is determined, partly, by the outcomes from trials that compare varieties under OA and CA (conventional agriculture) conditions. The differences are sufficiently large and important to warrant an increase in appropriate breeding. The wide range of environments within OA...

  8. Distribution of 5-methylcytosine residues in 5S rRNA genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Secale cereale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulnecek, J; Matyásek, R; Kovarík, A

    2002-12-01

    Bisulfite genomic sequencing was used to localise 5-methylcytosine residues (mC) in 5S rRNA genes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Secale cereale. The maps of mC distribution were compared with the previously published map of the corresponding region in Nicotiana tabacum. In all three species, the level of methylation of 5S rRNA genes was generally higher than the average for the entire genome. The ratio of 5S rDNA methylation to average overall methylation was 44%/30-33% for N. tabacum, 27%/4-6% for A. thaliana and 24%/20-22% for S. cereale. With the exception of one clone from S. cereale, no methylation-free 5S rDNA was detected. The level of methylation at different sequence motifs in 5S rDNA was calculated for N. tabacum/A. thaliana/ S. cereale, and this analysis yielded the following values (expressed as a percentage of total C): mCG 90%/78%/85%, mCWG 89%/41%/53%, mCmCG 72%/32%/16%, mCCG 4%/2%/0%, mCHH 15%/6%/1%, where W=A or T, and H=A or C or T. Non-symmetrical methylation was almost negligible in the large genome of S. cereale but relatively frequent in N. tabacum and A. thaliana, suggesting that the strict correlation between genome size and cytosine methylation might be violated for this type of methylation. Among non-symmetrical motifs the mCWA triplets were significantly over-represented in Arabidopsis, while in tobacco this preference was not as pronounced. The differences in methylation levels in different sequence contexts might be of phylogenetic significance, but further species in related and different taxa need to be studied before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  9. Regulation of aleurone development in cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becraft, Philip W; Yi, Gibum

    2011-03-01

    The aleurone layer of cereal grains is important biologically as well as nutritionally and economically. Here, current knowledge on the regulation of aleurone development is reviewed. Recent reports suggest that the control of aleurone development is more complex than earlier models portrayed. Multiple levels of genetic regulation control aleurone cell fate, differentiation, and organization. The hormones auxin and cytokinin can also influence aleurone development. New technical advances promise to facilitate future progress.

  10. Presence of aflatoxins in cereals from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Jovana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins (AFs, one of the most toxic and the strongest natural carcinogens can be found in a variety of food commodities, including cereals. For that purpose, the aim of this study was to investigate occurrence of AFs (AFB1, AFG1, AFB2 and AFG2 in 130 cereal samples. AFs content was determined by direct competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method. Samples with AFs content higher than 1 μg/kg were analyzed again with confirmatory High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD. Analyses showed that none of the analyzed wheat (30, barley (20, oats (20 and rye (20 samples was contaminated with AFs. On the other hand, among 40 analyzed maize samples 24 of them (60% were contaminated in the following way: 6 (25% samples had AFs concentration between 1 and 10 μg/kg, 14 (58% samples between 10 and 50 μg/kg and 4 (17% between 50 and 70.3 μg/kg. The most predominant aflatoxin was AFB1 which was detected in all contaminated maize samples. AFG1, AFB2 and AFG2 were found in 12, 5 and 1 sample, respectively. This study represents the first investigation of the occurrence of AFs in five different cereals from Serbia.

  11. Identification of the chromosome complement and the spontaneous 1R/1V translocations in allotetraploid Secale cereale × Dasypyrum villosum hybrids through cytogenetic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książczyk, Tomasz; Apolinarska, Barbara; Kulak-Książczyk, Sylwia; Wiśniewska, Halina; Stojałowski, Stefan; Łapiński, Mirosław

    2011-08-01

    Genome modifications that occur at the initial interspecific hybridization event are dynamic and can be consolidated during the process of stabilization in successive generations of allopolyploids. This study identifies the number and chromosomal location of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sites between Secale cereale, Dasypyrum villosum, and their allotetraploid S. cereale × D. villosum hybrids. For the first time, we show the advantages of FISH to reveal chromosome rearrangements in the tetraploid Secale × Dasypyrum hybrids. Based on the specific hybridization patterns of ribosomal 5S, 35S DNA and rye species-specific pSc200 DNA probes, a set of genotypes with numerous Secale/Dasypyrum translocations of 1R/1V chromosomes were identified in successive generations of allotetraploid S. cereale × D. villosum hybrids. In addition we analyse rye chromosome pairs using FISH with chromosome-specific DNA sequences on S. cereale × D. villosum hybrids.

  12. Current status of genetics and genomics of reared penaeid shrimp: information relevant to access and benefit sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Feng, Tingting; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-08-01

    At present, research and progress in shrimp genomics and genetics show significant developments. Shrimp genetics and genomics also show immense potential for an increased production in a way that meets shrimp culture progress goals for the third millennium. This review article aims to provide an overview of its current status and future direction, discusses questions that need focused research to address them, and summarizes areas where genetics and genomics knowledge can make a positive difference to shrimp culture sustainability. Sustainable progress of penaeid shrimps will depend upon feasible solutions for environmental, research, economic, consumer problems, proper development, and planning policy enforcement. It is recommended that increased funding for biotechnology research and progress be directed to expand worldwide commercial shrimp culture and address environmental and public health issues. For any researcher or shrimp company member who has attempted to or whom would like to thoroughly search the literature to gain a complete understanding of the current state of shrimp genetics and genomics, this publication will be an invaluable source of reference materials, some of which is reported here for the first time.

  13. The chloroplast genome hidden in plain sight, open access publishing and anti-fragile distributed data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Kevin Judd

    2016-11-01

    We sequenced several cannabis genomes in 2011 of June and the first and the longest contigs to emerge were the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes. Having been a contributor to the Human Genome Project and an eye-witness to the real benefits of immediate data release, I have first hand experience with the potential mal-investment of millions of dollars of tax payer money narrowly averted due to the adopted global rapid data release policy. The policy was vital in reducing duplication of effort and economic waste. As a result, we felt obligated to publish the Cannabis genome data in a similar spirit and placed them immediately on a cloud based Amazon server in August of 2011. While these rapid data release practices were heralded by many in the media, we still find some authors fail to find or reference said work and hope to compel the readership that this omission has more pervasive repercussions than bruised egos and is a regression for our community.

  14. A semantic Grid Infrastructure Enabling Integrated Access and Knowledge Discovery from Multilevel Data in Ppost-Genomic Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiknakis, Manolis; Sfakianakis, Stelios; Potamias, George; Zacharioudakis, Giorgos; Kafetzopoulos, Dimitris

    This paper reports on original results of the ACGT integrated project focusing on the design and development of a European Biomedical Grid infrastructure in support of multicentric, post genomic clinical trials on Cancer. The paper provides a presentation of the needs of users involved in post-genomic CTs, and presents such needs in the form of scenarios which drive the requirements engineering phase of the project. Subsequently, the initial architecture specified by the project is presented and its services are classified and discussed. The Master Ontology on Cancer, been developed by the project, is presented and our approach to develop the required metadata registries, which provide semantically rich information about available data and computational services, is provided. Finally, a short discussion of the work lying ahead is included.

  15. Lunasin in cereal seeds: What is the origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rowan A C; Lovegrove, Alison; Shewry, Peter R

    2013-05-01

    Lunasin is a peptide from soybean seeds which has been demonstrated to have anticancer properties. It has also been reported in cereal seeds: wheat, rye, barley and Triticale. However, extensive searches of transcriptome and DNA sequence databases for wheat and other cereals have failed to identify sequences encoding either the lunasin peptide or a precursor protein. This raises the question of the origin of the lunasin reported in cereal grain.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment in the Cereal and Derived Products Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Benedetto, Graziella; Fusi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    environmental improvement in such systems. Following a brief introduction to the cereal sector and supply chain, this chapter reviews some of the current cereal-based life cycle thinking literature, with a particular emphasis on LCA. Next, an analysis of the LCA methodological issues emerging from...... of the main hot spots in the cereal supply chain.......This chapter discusses the application of life cycle assessment methodologies to rice, wheat, corn and some of their derived products. Cereal product systems are vital for the production of commodities of worldwide importance that entail particular environmental hot spots originating from...

  17. Study on Full Supply Chain Quality and Safetytraceability Systems For Cereal And Oilproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shihong; Zheng, Huoguo; Meng, Hong; Hu, Haiyan; Wu, Jiangshou; Li, Chunhua

    Global food industry and Governments in many countries are putting increasing emphasis on establishment of food traceability systems. Food traceability has become an effective way in food safety management. Aimed at the major quality problems of cereal and oil products existing in the production, processing, warehousing, distribution and other links in the supply chain, this paper firstly proposes a new traceability framework combines the information flow with critical control points and quality indicators. Then it introduces traceability database design and data access mode to realize the framework. In practice, Code design for tracing goods is a challenge thing, so this paper put forward a code system based on UCC/EAN-128 standard.Middleware and Electronic terminal design are also briefly introduced to accomplish traceability system for cereal and oil products.

  18. Microbiological assay-trienzyme procedure for total folates in cereals and cereal foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Keagy, Pamela M; Hudson, Carol A; Angyal, G; Arcot, J; Castelli, M; Doreanu, N; Hudson, C; Lawrence, P; Martin, J; Peace, R; Rosner, L; Strandler, H S; Szpylka, J; van den Berg, H; Wo, C; Wurz, C

    2005-01-01

    In 1996, U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations mandated the fortification of enriched cereal-grain products with folic acid, thereby emphasizing the need for validated methods for total folates in foods, particularly cereal products. The AOAC Official Methods (944.12, 960.46) currently used for the analysis of folate in foods for compliance purposes are microbiological methods. When the fortification regulations were finalized, no Official AOAC or Approved AACC methods for folate in cereal-grain products were in place. The AOAC Official Method (992.05) for folic acid in infant formula does not incorporate important improvements in the extraction procedure and was not considered suitable for the analysis of folates in foods in general. A microbiological assay protocol using a trienzyme extraction procedure was prepared and submitted for comments to 40 laboratories with recognized experience in folate analysis. On the basis of comments, the method was revised to have the conjugase (gamma-glutamyl-carboxy-peptidase) treatment follow a protease treatment, to include the use of cryoprotected inoculum, and to include the spectroscopic standardization of the standard and optional use of microtiter plates. Thirteen laboratories participated in a collaborative study of 10 required and 10 optional cereal-grain products, including flour, bread, cookies, baking mixes, and ready-to-eat breakfast cereals. The majority of the participating laboratories performed the assay by the standard test tube method; others used the microtiter plate modification for endpoint quantitation with equal success. For the required products, the relative standard deviation between laboratories (RSD(R)) ranged from 7.4 to 21.6% for 8 fortified (or enriched) products compared with expected (Horwitz equation-based) values of 11-20%. RSD(R) values were higher (22.7-52.9%) for 2 unfortified cereal-grain products. For the optional products, the RSD(R) ranged from 1.8 to 11.2% for 8 fortified

  19. Probiotic potentials of cereal-based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enujiugha, Victor N; Badejo, Adebanjo A

    2017-03-04

    Probiotics offer remarkable potential for the prevention and management of various infective and noninfective disorders. They are reported to play key roles in the suppression of gastrointestinal infections, antimicrobial activity, improvement in lactose metabolism, reduction in serum cholesterol, immune system stimulation, antimutagenic properties, anticarcinogenic properties, anti-diarrheal properties, and improvement in inflammatory bowel disease. Although probiotic foods are classically confined to beverages and cheese, containing live organisms of the lactic acid bacteria family, such health-promoting foods are traditionally dairy-based, comprising milk and its fermented products. However, recent research focuses on the probiotic potentials of fermented cereal-based beverages which are especially consumed in developing countries characterized by low nutritional security and high incidence of gut pathogen infections. Moreover, lactose intolerance and cholesterol content associated with dairy products, coupled with the vegetarian tendencies of diverse populations in the third world, tend to enforce the recent recourse to nondairy beverages. Probiotic microorganisms are mostly of human or animal origin; however, strains recognized as probiotics are also found in nondairy fermented substrates. This review examines the potentials of some traditional cereal-based beverages to serve as probiotic foods, their microbial and functional properties, as well as their process optimization and storage for enhanced utilization.

  20. Programmed cell death in cereal aleurone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fath, A; Bethke, P; Lonsdale, J; Meza-Romero, R; Jones, R

    2000-10-01

    Progress in understanding programmed cell death (PCD) in the cereal aleurone is described. Cereal aleurone cells are specialized endosperm cells that function to synthesize and secrete hydrolytic enzymes that break down reserves in the starchy endosperm. Unlike the cells of the starchy endosperm, aleurone cells are viable in mature grain but undergo PCD when germination is triggered or when isolated aleurone layers or protoplasts are incubated in gibberellic acid (GA). Abscisic acid (ABA) slows down the process of aleurone cell death and isolated aleurone protoplasts can be kept alive in media containing ABA for up to 6 months. Cell death in barley aleurone occurs only after cells become highly vacuolated and is manifested in an abrupt loss of plasma membrane integrity. Aleurone cell death does not follow the apoptotic pathway found in many animal cells. The hallmarks of apoptosis, including internucleosomal DNA cleavage, plasma membrane and nuclear blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies, are not observed in dying aleurone cells. PCD in barley aleurone cells is accompanied by the accumulation of a spectrum of nuclease and protease activities and the loss of organelles as a result of cellular autolysis.

  1. Genome-wide chromatin accessibility, DNA methylation and gene expression analysis of histone deacetylase inhibition in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Matias A; Salomon, Matthew P; Nelson, Nellie; Hsu, Sandy C; DiNome, Maggie L; Hoon, Dave S B; Marzese, Diego M

    2017-06-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), especially the subset with a basal phenotype, represents the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer. Unlike other solid tumors, TNBCs harbor a low number of driver mutations. Conversely, we and others have demonstrated a significant impact of epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications, affecting TNBCs. Due to the promising results in pre-clinical studies, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are currently being tested in several clinical trials for breast cancer and other solid tumors. However, the genome-wide epigenetic and transcriptomic implications of HDAC inhibition are still poorly understood. Here, we provide detailed information about the design of a multi-platform dataset that describes the epigenomic and transcriptomic effects of HDACi. This dataset includes genome-wide chromatin accessibility (assessed by ATAC-Sequencing), DNA methylation (assessed by Illumina HM450K BeadChip) and gene expression (assessed by RNA-Sequencing) analyses before and after HDACi treatment of HCC1806 and MDA-MB-231, two human TNBC cell lines with basal-like phenotype.

  2. Novel method to ascertain chromatin accessibility at specific genomic loci from frozen brain homogenates and laser capture microdissected defined cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Delvaux

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel method for assessing the “open” or “closed” state of chromatin at selected locations within the genome. This method combines the use of Benzonase, which can digest DNA in the presence of actin, with quantitative polymerase chain reaction to define digested regions. We demonstrate the application of this method in brain homogenates and laser captured cells. We also demonstrate application to selected sites within more than 1 gene and multiple sites within 1 gene. We demonstrate the validity of the method by treating cells with valproate, known to render chromatin more permissive, and by comparison with classical digestion with DNase I in an in vitro preparation. Although we demonstrate the use of this method in brain tissue, we also recognize its applicability to other tissue types.

  3. Genome-wide expression profiling of the transcriptomes of four Paulownia tomentosa accessions in response to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yanpeng; Fan, Guoqiang; Deng, Minjie; Xu, Enkai; Zhao, Zhenli

    2014-10-01

    Paulownia tomentosa is an important foundation forest tree species in semiarid areas. The lack of genetic information hinders research into the mechanisms involved in its response to abiotic stresses. Here, short-read sequencing technology (Illumina) was used to de novo assemble the transcriptome on P. tomentosa. A total of 99,218 unigenes with a mean length of 949 nucleotides were assembled. 68,295 unigenes were selected and the functions of their products were predicted using Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations. Afterwards, hundreds of genes involved in drought response were identified. Twelve putative drought response genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. This study provides a dataset of genes and inherent biochemical pathways, which will help in understanding the mechanisms of the water-deficit response in P. tomentosa. To our knowledge, this is the first study to highlight the genetic makeup of P. tomentosa.

  4. The relationship between strigolactones and Striga hermonthica infection in cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamil, M.

    2012-01-01

    Cereal production in Africa is under increasing constraint due to the obligate, out-crossing, hemiparasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth, a member of the Scrophulariaceae family. Striga parasitizes roots of cereals like sorghum, pearl millet, maize and upland rice. It has infested about 40%

  5. Phytase-mediated mineral solubilization from cereals underin vitrogastric conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne V. F.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    cereal phytic acid at similar rates and to similar extents. Microbial phytase-catalysed phytate dephosphorylation was accompanied by increased iron and zinc release from the cereal substrates. For wheat bran at pH 5, the endogenous wheat phytase activity produced mineral release equal to or better than...

  6. Lignan Content in Cereals, Buckwheat and Derived Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Durazzo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal foods are a fundamental part of a balanced diet and several studies have assigned to wholemeal cereal products a protective role in human health, due to their content of bioactive compounds. Within the phytochemicals, lignans are of increasing interest for their potential anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities. The aim of this work is to contribute to the updating of food lignan databases by providing the profile and the amount of lignans in cereals, buckwheat and several cereal based foods commonly consumed in human diets. Values were taken from published papers. Items were divided in different groups, namely grains, brans and flours, bread, cereal staple foods, breakfast cereals and other cereal products, and values for secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, pinoresinol, lariciresinol are given. For example, the total average values for the mentioned lignans in grains ranged between 23 μg/100 g and 401 μg/100 g dry weight. The contribution of each single lignan molecule to the total value of lignans appears to be different for every cereal species. Lignan content and typology in processed foods depends on the raw materials used, their degree of refinement and on processing conditions.

  7. The relationship between strigolactones and Striga hermonthica infection in cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamil, M.

    2012-01-01

    Cereal production in Africa is under increasing constraint due to the obligate, out-crossing, hemiparasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth, a member of the Scrophulariaceae family. Striga parasitizes roots of cereals like sorghum, pearl millet, maize and upland rice. It has infested about 40%

  8. Cereal production, high status and climate in Medieval Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Riddell, Scott

    2017-04-01

    At Hrísbrú (formerly the medieval Mosfell estate) in the Mosfell Valley, southwest Iceland, archaeologists have excavated a medieval skáli (hall) proposed to be the high status residence of a chieftain. This is indicated by the size of the skáli, artefacts (foreign goods), archaeofaunal (cattle/sheep bone) ratios and macrobotanical remains (cereal grain). The analysis of pollen from nearby natural contexts suggests that cereals were grown locally. Using multiple profile palynological approach, this paper examines if the apparent cereal production is representative of high status in the Icelandic context. First as a correlate by confirming that cereals were grown in association with the archaeological features characteristic of high status; secondly, as an indicator in its own right through comparison with other palynological datasets from inferred lower status farms. The presence or absence of cereal-type pollen (cf. barley) and other arable correlates was examined for each site. The results suggest that medieval cereal cultivation in the Mosfell Valley was confined to the landholding of the medieval Mosfell estate. This feature is seen as an attribute of the locale's greater status in relation to the other farms in Mosfell Valley. The abandonment of cereal cultivation at the Mosfell estate around AD 1200 is probably associated with interactions between changes in the nation's social power structure and how marginal cereal production in Iceland was (and is) in terms of climate.

  9. From protein catalogues towards targeted proteomics approaches in cereal grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Sultan, Abida; Grasser, Klaus D.

    2011-01-01

    Due to their importance for human nutrition, the protein content of cereal grains has been a subject of intense study for over a century and cereal grains were not surprisingly one of the earliest subjects for 2D-gel-based proteome analysis. Over the last two decades, countless cereal grain...... proteomes, mostly derived using 2D-gel based technologies, have been described and hundreds of proteins identified. However, very little is still known about post-translational modifications, subcellular proteomes, and protein–protein interactions in cereal grains. Development of techniques for improved...... of proteins. These “next-generation” proteomics studies will vastly increase our depth of knowledge about the processes controlling cereal grain development, nutritional and processing characteristics....

  10. A cross-cultural study of cereal food quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Costa, Ana I. A.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    Cereal food production and use show substantial heterogeneity across Europe. For a category central in most EU diets, cereal food quality perception is, nevertheless, surprisingly understudied. With this in mind, 357 Danish, Lithuanian and Portuguese citizens were interviewed about the importance...... were more often assessed by the Portuguese as relevant for decision-making at the point-of-purchase. This highlights the need for further cross-cultural research on food quality perception.......Cereal food production and use show substantial heterogeneity across Europe. For a category central in most EU diets, cereal food quality perception is, nevertheless, surprisingly understudied. With this in mind, 357 Danish, Lithuanian and Portuguese citizens were interviewed about the importance...... of several cues and dimensions in their evaluation of the perceived quality of bread, cookies, breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka. Portuguese and Lithuanians consistently gave a significantly higher average importance to all the cues and quality dimensions considered, for all products, than their Danish...

  11. DOP-PCR-based chromosome painting of rye (Secale cereale) and wheat-rye hybrid 1R and 1RS chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chromosome painting is an efficient tool for chromosome research. In oeder to determine whether the chromosome painting techniques can be used to identify rye genome in wheat genetic background, 1R and 1RS chromosomes were microdissected from rye (Secale cereale L. var. King ll) and wheat-rye a...

  12. Gibberellins and flowering of grasses and cereals: prizing open the lid of the "florigen" black box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rod W; Evans, Lloyd T

    2003-01-01

    Comprehensive studies in grasses show that gibberellins (GAs) play a role as a florigen. For Lolium temulentum, which flowers in response to a single long day (LD), GAs are a transmitted signal, their content increasing in the leaf early in the LD and then, hours later, at the shoot apex. There is a continuous trail of evidence of hormonal action of these GAs for L. temulentum and support for a similar role in the flowering of other LD-responsive temperate grasses and cereals. A characteristic of the initial flowering responses of grasses and cereals is their limited stem elongation. Interestingly, it is GAs with low effectiveness for stem elongation, GA5 and GA6, that reach the shoot apex and, structurally, are probably not degraded by 2-oxidase enzymes. By contrast, GA1 and GA4 cause stem elongation, may be inactive for floral evocation, and do not reach the vegetative shoot apex apparently because of susceptibility to degradation. However, GA4 can be florally active if protected against 2-oxidases either structurally or by using a 2-oxidase inhibitor. Later in inflorescence development, GA1 and GA4 can be detected at the shoot apex and are florally active if applied. The 2-oxidase restricting accessibility to the apex has probably declined at this time so there is a second florigenic, LD-regulated GA action. A growing body of molecular evidence supporting these actions of GA may provide a future basis for manipulating flowering of grasses and cereals.

  13. Dietary fibers and associated phytochemicals in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Nørskov, Natalja; Bolvig, Anne Katrine

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked whole-grain (WG) cereal consumption to a reduced risk of developing several chronic diseases—coronary heart disease, arteriosclerosis, type-2 diabetes, and some form of cancers. The underlying physiological mechanisms behind the protective effects of WG...... are unclear, but can most likely be assigned to a concerted action of dietary fiber (DF) and a wide variety of phytochemicals. Physiologically, it is important that soluble nonstarch polysaccharides contribute to higher viscosity in the small intestine as this may influence rate and extent of digestion...... fraction of the phenolics is absorbed in the small intestine, but the availability can be increased by bioprocessing. The major part, however, is passed to the large intestine where the microbiota, which degrade and metabolize DF to SCFAs and gases, also convert the phenolic compounds into a range of other...

  14. Optimal root arrangement of cereal crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yeonsu; Park, Keunhwan; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-11-01

    The plant root absorbs water from the soil and supplies it to the rest part of the plant. It consists of a number of root fibers, through whose surfaces water uptake occurs. There is an intriguing observation that for most of cereal crops such as maize and wheat, the volume density of root in the soil declines exponentially as a function of depth. To understand this empirical finding, we construct a theoretical model of root water uptake, where mass transfer into root surface is modeled just as heat flux around a fin. Agreement between the theoretically predicted optimal root distribution in vertical direction and biological data supports the hypothesis that the plant root has evolved to achieve the optimal water uptake in competition with neighbors. This study has practical implication in the agricultural industry as well as optimal design of water transport networks in both micro- and macroscales. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

  15. Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins in Italian cereal and cereal products from organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Cristina; Ritieni, Alberto; Mañes, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, the occurrence of eighteen mycotoxins, nine trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, neosolaniol, diacetoxyscirpenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin), three zearalenones (zearalenone, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol), and six emergent mycotoxins, beauvericin and five enniatins (A, A1, B, B1 and B4), was monitored in different Italian organic cereals and cereal products by using a liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method. A total of 93 organic cereal samples (wheat, barley, rye and oat) were collected from Italy. Limits of quantification ranged from 5 to 15 μg/kg. 80% of analyzed samples contained mycotoxins. The occurrence was 33%, 6.5%, 2%, 27%, 7%, 10% and 43% for deoxynivalenol, HT-2, T-2, nivalenol, zearalenone, beauvericin and enniatins, respectively. The major mycotoxin found was enniatin B4; it was detected in 40% of all analyzed samples and its levels ranged from 5.7 to 284.2 μg/kg. Risk assessment was evaluated by EDI calculations which were lower than TDI for all legislated Fusarium mycotoxins.

  16. Population genomics of Fusarium graminearum head blight pathogens in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we utilized comparative genomics to identify candidate adaptive alleles in the fungus Fusarium graminearum, the primary pathogen of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal crops. Recent epidemics of FHB have been economically devastating to agriculture, as F. graminearum reduces cereal yi...

  17. Formation of the texture of fermented milk and cereal product by varying the particle size distribution of cereal compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pas'ko O. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining animal and plant components is a promising direction of creating specialized foods of high biological and nutritional value. In this regard, research aimed at developing a fermented product technology based on combination of raw milk and grain products is relevant. In researches a set of generally accepted standard methods including physical-chemical, microbiological, biochemical, rheological, and mathematical methods of statistical processing of research results and development of mathematical models has been applied. The paper presents the results of research aimed at developing the technology of fermented milk – cereal product. In the first phase of research to substantiate product composition the systematic approach has been applied considering components of the product, changes of their status and properties as the current biotechnological systems (BPS. Selection of the grains' optimum ratio in the composition has been carried out on the basis of a set of indicators: the chemical composition and energy value, the content of B vitamins and dietary fibers, the indicator of biological value, organoleptic characteristics. Analysis of the combined results allows choose cereal flakes composition ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 (Oatmeal : Barley : Rye for further studies. As the main source of carbohydrate honey is used, it also improves the organoleptic properties of the product. Nutritional supplement glycine is used as a modifier of taste and smell. It has been found that introduction of glycine at 0.1 % in the BPS "milk – cereal composition" naturally decreases the intensity of taste and smell of cereal composition. The effect of particle size distribution of cereal composition on properties of the biotechnological system of milky cereal product has been established as well. For technology of the developed product the fraction selected cereal composition (Oatmeal : Barley : Rye as a 1 : 1 : 1 with a particle size of 670–1 000 microns has

  18. A genome-wide RNAi screen reveals that mRNA decapping restricts bunyaviral replication by limiting the pools of Dcp2-accessible targets for cap-snatching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Kaycie C.; McLane, Laura M.; Maqbool, Tariq; Panda, Debasis; Gordesky-Gold, Beth; Cherry, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Bunyaviruses are an emerging group of medically important viruses, many of which are transmitted from insects to mammals. To identify host factors that impact infection, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila and identified 131 genes that impacted infection of the mosquito-transmitted bunyavirus Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Dcp2, the catalytic component of the mRNA decapping machinery, and two decapping activators, DDX6 and LSM7, were antiviral against disparate bunyaviruses in both insect cells and adult flies. Bunyaviruses 5′ cap their mRNAs by “cap-snatching” the 5′ ends of poorly defined host mRNAs. We found that RVFV cap-snatches the 5′ ends of Dcp2 targeted mRNAs, including cell cycle-related genes. Loss of Dcp2 allows increased viral transcription without impacting viral mRNA stability, while ectopic expression of Dcp2 impedes viral transcription. Furthermore, arresting cells in late S/early G2 led to increased Dcp2 mRNA targets and increased RVFV replication. Therefore, RVFV competes for the Dcp2-accessible mRNA pool, which is dynamically regulated and can present a bottleneck for viral replication. PMID:23824541

  19. Rhizobium as a crop enhancer and biofertilizer for increased cereal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OHWESIRI IBUJE

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... groundwater (Shrestha and Ladha, 1998), acidification of soil (Kennedy and .... cereal with symbiotic process (Khush and Bennett, 1992). Rhizobia are able to ..... 154:131-145. Gutierrz-Zamora ML, Martinez-Romero E (2001).

  20. Gravity Perception and Response in Shoots of Cereal Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, P. B.; Song, I.; Bluncson, C.

    1985-01-01

    Two components of the gravitropic curvature response in cereal grass pulvini are studied. These two components are gravity perception and mechanism of response following the transduction phase. The effects of gravity, time lag, protein synthesis and enzyme production are included.

  1. Improving cereal grain carbohydrates for diet and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafiandra, Domenico; Riccardi, Gabriele; Shewry, Peter R

    2014-05-01

    Starch and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fibre) of cereal grains contribute to the health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain cereal products, including reduced risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer. The physiological bases for these effects are reviewed in relation to the structures and physical properties of the polysaccharides and their behaviour (including digestion and fermentation) in the gastro-intestinal tract. Strategies for modifying the content and composition of grain polysaccharides to increase their health benefits are discussed, including exploiting natural variation and using mutagenesis and transgenesis to generate further variation. These studies will facilitate the development of new types of cereals and cereal products to face the major health challenges of the 21st century.

  2. Post-Adaptation Vulnerability of Cereals to Rainfall and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-09-04

    Sep 4, 2014 ... climate variability, assessment of cereals yield sensitivity index, determining climate exposure index .... savannah vegetation type dominating the northern part of the ..... financial backing to hire labour are likely to be restricted ...

  3. Production of Drought and Salt Tolerant Transgenic Cereal Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Garg; R. Wu

    2007-01-01

    @@ Genetic transformation of cereal plants is a powerful method for producing agronomically useful transgenic plants. Salt and drought stress result in substantial yield losses, which amounts to many billions of dollars each year.

  4. Determinant of soil management practices in cereal based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinant of soil management practices in cereal based production systems ... land degradation issues and improving soil productivity, but generally there are low ... Descriptive statistics and regression model were the analytical tools used.

  5. A cross-cultural study of cereal foods' quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Costa, Ana I. A.

    of several cues and dimensions in their evaluation of the perceived quality of bread, cookies, breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka. Portuguese and Lithuanians consistently gave a significantly higher average importance to all the cues and quality dimensions considered, for all products, than their Danish...... information and price were the most important for Danes. The cues and dimensions Portuguese found relevant were fairly different and more category-dependent. Cues like store type for bread, brand for breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka, country-of-origin for vodka, and price for cookies, pasta and vodka were......Cereal foods' production and use show substantial heterogeneity across Europe. For a category central in most EU diets, cereal foods' quality perception is, nevertheless, surprisingly understudied. With this in mind, 357 Danish, Lithuanian and Portuguese citizens were inquired about the importance...

  6. Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, Shusei; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2014-01-01

    The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based on transcr......The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based...

  7. The Effects of Cereals and Legumes on Iron Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Figure 5. Both flours and soy products in greatest quantity are vegetarians , the concentrates may be further modified by an extrusion military...when it was added to a vegetarian meal of in a series of experiments using six cereal-based infant low iron bioavailability. foods, four of which...that depress iron absorption from cereals in- meat on the absorption of non-henie iron, and part clude some phytates and certain components of fiber

  8. Preparation and Properties of Cereal-Metal Complex Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Various kinds of biodegradable polymer materials have been researched[1]. In our previous papers,cereals such as wheat,buckwheat,glutinous rice and nonglutinous rice were polycondenced with citric acid and polysilicic acid to prepare copolymer films respectively[2,3].These copolymer fims have relatively good mechanical properties but the water proofness is not so good.Recently,some cereals such as wheat,glutinous rice,nonglutinous rice,kaoliang,millet and maize were reacted with copper chlorid...

  9. Cell wall chemical characteristics of whole‐crop cereal silages harvested at three maturity stages

    OpenAIRE

    Wallsten, Johanna; Hatfield, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In cooler climates such as found in Scandinavian countries cereals are important feedstuffs for ruminants often ensiled as whole‐crop cereal silages (WCCS) to preserve nutrients. Animal performance varies with the type of cereal forage and stage of cereal development being ensiled. Cell wall isolation and analysis was undertaken to determine differences among cereal silages harvested at different stages of maturity. Results A set of 27 WCCS samples of barley, wheat and oat...

  10. The Palatability of Cereal Based Nutritional Supplements in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Hyun Wook; Lee, Yu Sun; Song, Min-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Recently, it is reported that intervention of oral nutritional supplement improves the nutritional status of cancer patients, and the effectiveness is affected by the sensory preference of cancer patients on the oral nutritional supplement. However, the variety of oral nutritional supplement is extremely limited and the number of patient's benefits from using the products are restricted mostly due to sensory dislikes. The objective of this study was to provide sensory preference score of trial manufactured products with different accessory ingredients to maximize the use of oral nutritional supplements. Cancer patients (n = 30) and age, sex-matched healthy volunteers (n = 30) participated in the sensory assessments (taste, flavor, viscosity, color and overall preference) of three types of oral supplements (cereal base, cereal base+herb and cereal base+fruit) and a control supplement product with scorched cereal flavor, a top seller in current Korean market. Results indicate that the cancer patients' overall preference was significantly higher for the control supplement, and fruit added supplement was preferred over plain cereal and herb added products, although the difference was insignificant. However, there was no significant preference difference for the supplements among the control group for all sensory factors. These results suggest that cancer patients are more sensitive to sensory preferences compared to the control group, and the patients prefer the flavor of cooked cereal which is a staple food in Korea. PMID:24527420

  11. Functional properties of pasta enriched with variable cereal brans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurkirat; Sharma, Savita; Nagi, H P S; Dar, Basharat N

    2012-08-01

    To explore the potentiality of cereal brans for preparation of fiber enriched pasta, various cereal brans (Wheat, Rice, Barley and Oat) were added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent to durum wheat semolina. The effect of cereal bran enrichment on the colour, cooking, sensory quality and shelf life of enriched pasta was assessed at ambient temperature. Pasta prepared with added fiber at 25 per cent level had the highest protein and dietary fiber content as compared to control. Enrichment with variable fiber sources improved the brightness of pasta, as colour of pasta enhanced significantly. Addition of cereal brans resulted an increase in the water absorption and cooking losses of pasta. This effect was dependent on the level and type of cereal brans. Significant correlation (r = 0.80) was obtained between water absorption and volume expansion in all types of bran enriched pasta. At 25 per cent level of supplementation, maximum solids were leached into cooking water. Bran enriched pasta required less cooking time for complete gelatinization of starch. Increasing level of cereal brans had significantly affected the overall acceptability of enriched pasta. Cooking quality of pasta remained constant during storage. Non significant effect of storage was found on water activity, free fatty acids. Enriched pasta (15 per cent level of wheat, rice and oat bran and 10 per cent barley bran) was highly acceptable upto 4 months of storage with respect to quality.

  12. [Nutritional characteristics of cereal and peanut bars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Tepper, A; Aguayo, M

    1998-06-01

    Snack with good nutritional value could play an important role in the physical and mental development of children and teenagers since they show a great preference for them. The tendency is increasing their nutritional value by supplying proteins, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals in a balanced form. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical, sensorial and nutritional quality of cereal and peanut bars. Three types of bars using different ratios of oat, wheat germ, peanut, toasted and expanded amaranthus and wheat extrudate were prepared. Bars proximate composition was determined according the AOAC methods, and their acceptability according Hedonic Scale. In the biological assays, rats fed with 10% protein diets, were used to obtain the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) Net Protein Ratio (NPR) and Apparent Digestibility (AD). Corrected PER, relative PER, relative AD, PER and NPR values did not showed difference between bars CM1 and CM2 (PER: 2.59-2.57; NPR: 3.99-3.95 respectively); CM3 bar showed a lower quality. There were not differences among bars in relation to AD. CM1 and CM2 bars had a better biological quality of the protein being CM3 bar of lower quality. From a chemical and sensorial point of view CM1 bar shows the highest protein content (14.23%) and acceptability (6.8) and CM2 bar shows a high raw fiber content (2.27%).

  13. Transgene expression systems in the Triticeae cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Götz; Himmelbach, Axel; Chen, Wanxin; Douchkov, Dimitar K; Kumlehn, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    The control of transgene expression is vital both for the elucidation of gene function and for the engineering of transgenic crops. Given the dominance of the Triticeae cereals in the agricultural economy of the temperate world, the development of well-performing transgene expression systems of known functionality is of primary importance. Transgenes can be expressed either transiently or stably. Transient expression systems based on direct or virus-mediated gene transfer are particularly useful in situations where the need is to rapidly screen large numbers of genes. However, an unequivocal understanding of gene function generally requires that a transgene functions throughout the plant's life and is transmitted through the sexual cycle, since this alone allows its effect to be decoupled from the plant's response to the generally stressful gene transfer event. Temporal, spatial and quantitative control of a transgene's expression depends on its regulatory environment, which includes both its promoter and certain associated untranslated region sequences. While many transgenic approaches aim to manipulate plant phenotype via ectopic gene expression, a transgene sequence can be also configured to down-regulate the expression of its endogenous counterpart, a strategy which exploits the natural gene silencing machinery of plants. In this review, current technical opportunities for controlling transgene expression in the Triticeae species are described. Apart from protocols for transient and stable gene transfer, the choice of promoters and other untranslated regulatory elements, we also consider signal peptides, as they too govern the abundance and particularly the sub-cellular localization of transgene products.

  14. Monitoring of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in cereals and cereal products from the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woese, K

    2001-03-01

    A Fusarium and Fusarium toxin monitoring programme has been established within the food and feed control authorities of Saxony-Anhalt for the 2001-2003 period. The first results of the deoxynivalenol analyses of cereals and cereal products with assured origin in this federal state, showed a contamination rate of 42% for wheat and wheat products. The contamination incidence reached only 14% in rye and rye products. Zearalenone couldn't be detected at all in the analyzed samples.

  15. Reticulate evolution of the rye genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Mihaela M; Zhou, Ruonan; Haseneyer, Grit; Schmutzer, Thomas; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; König, Susanne; Kugler, Karl G; Scholz, Uwe; Hackauf, Bernd; Korzun, Viktor; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Bauer, Eva; Mayer, Klaus F X; Stein, Nils

    2013-10-01

    Rye (Secale cereale) is closely related to wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Due to its large genome (~8 Gb) and its regional importance, genome analysis of rye has lagged behind other cereals. Here, we established a virtual linear gene order model (genome zipper) comprising 22,426 or 72% of the detected set of 31,008 rye genes. This was achieved by high-throughput transcript mapping, chromosome survey sequencing, and integration of conserved synteny information of three sequenced model grass genomes (Brachypodium distachyon, rice [Oryza sativa], and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor]). This enabled a genome-wide high-density comparative analysis of rye/barley/model grass genome synteny. Seventeen conserved syntenic linkage blocks making up the rye and barley genomes were defined in comparison to model grass genomes. Six major translocations shaped the modern rye genome in comparison to a putative Triticeae ancestral genome. Strikingly dissimilar conserved syntenic gene content, gene sequence diversity signatures, and phylogenetic networks were found for individual rye syntenic blocks. This indicates that introgressive hybridizations (diploid or polyploidy hybrid speciation) and/or a series of whole-genome or chromosome duplications played a role in rye speciation and genome evolution.

  16. Functional genomics strategies with transposons in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greco, R.

    2003-01-01

    Rice is a major staple food crop and a recognizedmonocotylenedousmodel plant from which gene function discovery is projected to contribute to improvements in a variety of cereals like wheat and maize. The recent release of rough drafts of the rice genome sequence for public

  17. Molecular genetic analysis of cereal β-amylase genes using exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratula Olga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proteins encoded by cereal β-amylase genes Bamy1 and Bamy2 genes play an important role in seedling germination and in the brewing process. Here, we use exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC to analyse Bamy1 and Bamy2 genetic diversity among 38 accessions belonging to six Poaceae tribes. DNA sequence alignment of multiple Poaceae species β-amylase sequences allowed design of EPIC primers that simultaneously amplify Bamy1 and Bamy2 in all the cereal species investigated. The genetic variation observed in the samples investigated is analysed and discussed, and illustrates the effectiveness of this approach for intra- and interspecific analysis in plant species.

  18. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Cereals and their Malts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrejovič Miroslav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of malting on the antioxidant content in cereals such as wheat (PS Sunanka, Zaira, PS 57/11 and Vanda, oat (Dunajec and barley (Laudis 550 harvested in 2013. Antioxidant and polyphenol contents of these cereals and malts were investigated. Secondary, technological parameters of prepared malts were evaluated and compared with malt from barley Laudis 550 used as reference material. Malting of selected cereals had an impact on antioxidant and polyphenol content and allowed a better extraction of these compounds from cereal matrix, except of barley malt, whose antioxidant and total polyphenol content remained comparable. For other cereal malts, antioxidant contents were 2.0, 1.8, 2.6, 2.9 and 3.2-fold higher and total polyphenol content were 1.8, 1.9, 1.9, 3.1 and 3.4-fold higher than in wheat (PS Sunanka, Zaira, PS 57/11, Vanda and oat (Dunajec, respectively. From correlation analysis, the results showed that not all polyphenols released by malting have antioxidant activity. Technological parameters (friability, haze of wort, saccharification rate, filtration rate, extract and diastatic power also indicated that good malt quality had oat Dunajec and wheat PS Sunanka and Zaira in comparison with reference material (barley Laudis 550.

  19. Molecular genetics and evolution of disease resistance in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krattinger, Simon G; Keller, Beat

    2016-10-01

    Contents 320 I. 320 II. 321 III. 321 IV. 322 V. 324 VI. 328 VII. 329 330 References 330 SUMMARY: Cereal crops produce a large part of the globally consumed food and feed. Because of the constant presence of devastating pathogens, the molecular characterization of disease resistance is a major research area and highly relevant for breeding. There has been recent and accelerating progress in the understanding of three distinct resistance mechanisms in cereals: resistance conferred by plasma membrane-localized receptor proteins; race-specific resistance conferred by intracellular immune receptors; and quantitative disease resistance. Intracellular immune receptors provide a particularly rich source for evolutionary studies, and have, for example, resulted in the recent discovery of a novel detection mechanism based on integrated decoy domains. Evolutionary studies have also revealed the origins of active resistance genes in both wild progenitors of today's cereals as well as in cultivated forms. In addition, independent evolution of orthologous genes in related cereals has resulted in resistance to different pathogen species. Quantitative resistance genes have been best characterized in wheat. The quantitative resistance genes identified so far in wheat encode transporter proteins or unusual kinase proteins. The recent discoveries in these three different resistance mechanisms have contributed to the basic molecular understanding of cereal immunity against pathogens and have suggested novel applications for resistance breeding.

  20. Functionality of lipids and lipid-protein interactions in cereal-derived food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Didier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids and especially cereal lipids play a significant role in the processing and quality of cereals and baked cereal foods (bread, biscuits and beverages (beer. Most of the physico-chemical mechanisms responsible for the lipid functionality has been investigated and recently the specific role of lipid-binding proteins, e.g. lipid transfer proteins and puroindolines, has been highlighted. The state of the researches performed in this field are briefly presented in this review and the data obtained until now show that new perspectives are opened in cereal breeding and processing for improving the quality of cereals and cereal products.

  1. Microbotanical evidence of domestic cereals in Africa 7000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madella, Marco; García-Granero, Juan José; Out, Welmoed A; Ryan, Philippa; Usai, Donatella

    2014-01-01

    The study of plant exploitation and early use of cereals in Africa has seen over the years a great input from charred and desiccated macrobotanical remains. This paper presents the results of one of the few examples in Africa of microbotanical analyses. Three grave contexts of phytolith-rich deposits and the dental calculus of 20 individuals were analysed from two Neolithic cemeteries in North and Central Sudan. The radiocarbon-dated phytoliths from the burial samples show the presence of Near East domestic cereals in Northern Sudan at least 7000 years ago. Phytoliths also indicate the exploitation of wild, savannah-adapted millets in Central Sudan between 7500 and 6500 years ago. The calculus samples contained starch grains from wheat/barley, pulses and millets, as well as panicoid phytoliths. This evidence shows that Near East domestic cereals were consumed in Northern Africa at least 500 years earlier than previously thought.

  2. Microbotanical evidence of domestic cereals in Africa 7000 years ago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Madella

    Full Text Available The study of plant exploitation and early use of cereals in Africa has seen over the years a great input from charred and desiccated macrobotanical remains. This paper presents the results of one of the few examples in Africa of microbotanical analyses. Three grave contexts of phytolith-rich deposits and the dental calculus of 20 individuals were analysed from two Neolithic cemeteries in North and Central Sudan. The radiocarbon-dated phytoliths from the burial samples show the presence of Near East domestic cereals in Northern Sudan at least 7000 years ago. Phytoliths also indicate the exploitation of wild, savannah-adapted millets in Central Sudan between 7500 and 6500 years ago. The calculus samples contained starch grains from wheat/barley, pulses and millets, as well as panicoid phytoliths. This evidence shows that Near East domestic cereals were consumed in Northern Africa at least 500 years earlier than previously thought.

  3. Temporal Variation of Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Norwegian Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Sundheim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Spring barley is grown on about half of the Norwegian cereal area. The rest of the area is equally divided between wheat and oats. Most years the domestic production provides 70%–80% of the domestic market for bread wheat. Barley and oats are mainly grown for animal feed. During the years 2008–2012, severe epidemics of Fusarium head blight have led to increased mycotoxin contamination of cereals. During that period, precipitation was above normal during anthesis and grain maturation. The most important mycotoxin producers have been F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. langsethiae. Increased deoxynivalenol contamination of Norwegian cereals during recent years is due to severe F. graminearum epidemics.

  4. A cross-cultural study of cereal food quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Costa, Ana I. A.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    Cereal food production and use show substantial heterogeneity across Europe. For a category central in most EU diets, cereal food quality perception is, nevertheless, surprisingly understudied. With this in mind, 357 Danish, Lithuanian and Portuguese citizens were interviewed about the importance...... were more often assessed by the Portuguese as relevant for decision-making at the point-of-purchase. This highlights the need for further cross-cultural research on food quality perception....... of several cues and dimensions in their evaluation of the perceived quality of bread, cookies, breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka. Portuguese and Lithuanians consistently gave a significantly higher average importance to all the cues and quality dimensions considered, for all products, than their Danish...

  5. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-09-04

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered.

  6. Effects of processing on mycotoxin stability in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Jafar; Maleki, Gisoo

    2014-09-01

    The mycotoxins that generally occur in cereals and other products are not completely destroyed during food-processing operations and can contaminate finished processed foods. The mycotoxins most usually associated with cereal grains are aflatoxins, ochratoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisins. The various food processes that may have effects on mycotoxins include cleaning, milling, brewing, cooking, baking, frying, roasting, flaking, alkaline cooking, nixtamalization, and extrusion. Most of the food processes have variable effects on mycotoxins, with those that utilize high temperatures having the greatest effects. In general, the processes reduce mycotoxin concentrations significantly, but do not eliminate them completely. This review focuses on the effects of various thermal treatments on mycotoxins.

  7. Soil conditions and cereal root system architecture: review and considerations for linking Darwin and Weaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Sarah M; Watt, Michelle

    2013-03-01

    Charles Darwin founded root system architecture research in 1880 when he described a root bending with gravity. Curving, elongating, and branching are the three cellular processes in roots that underlie root architecture. Together they determine the distribution of roots through soil and time, and hence the plants' access to water and nutrients, and anchorage. Most knowledge of these cellular processes comes from seedlings of the model dicotyledon, Arabidopsis, grown in soil-less conditions with single treatments. Root systems in the field, however, face multiple stimuli that interact with the plant genetics to result in the root system architecture. Here we review how soil conditions influence root system architecture; focusing on cereals. Cereals provide half of human calories, and their root systems differ from those of dicotyledons. We find that few controlled-environment studies combine more than one soil stimulus and, those that do, highlight the complexity of responses. Most studies are conducted on seedling roots; those on adult roots generally show low correlations to seedling studies. Few field studies report root and soil conditions. Until technologies are available to track root architecture in the field, soil analyses combined with knowledge of the effects of factors on elongation and gravitropism could be ranked to better predict the interaction between genetics and environment (G×E) for a given crop. Understanding how soil conditions regulate root architecture can be effectively used to design soil management and plant genetics that best exploit synergies from G×E of roots.

  8. Drought impacts on cereal yields in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Russo, Ana; Montero, Irene

    2014-05-01

    In the present context of climate change, land degradation and desertification it becomes crucial to assess the impact of droughts to determine the environmental consequences of a potential change of climate. Large drought episodes in Iberian Peninsula have widespread ecological and environmental impacts, namely in vegetation dynamics, resulting in significant crop yield losses. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 Iberia was affected by two extreme drought episodes (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). This work aims to analyze the spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales using spatially distributed time series of drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature. We have used CRU TS3 dataset to compute SPEI and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Results will be analyzed in terms of the mechanisms that are responsible by these drought events and will also be used to assess the impact of droughts in crops. Accordingly an analysis is performed to evaluate the large-scale conditions required for a particular extreme anomaly of long-range transport of water vapor from the subtropics. We have used the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA Interim reanalyses, namely, the geopotential height fields, temperature, wind, divergence data and the specific humidity at all pressure levels and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and total column water vapor (TCWV) for the Euro-Atlantic sector (100°W to 50°E, 0°N-70°N) at full temporal (six hourly) and spatial (T255; interpolated to 0.75° regular horizontal grid) resolutions available to analyse the large-scale conditions associated with the drought onset. Our analysis revealed severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat) for Portugal and

  9. Nutritional quality, labelling and promotion of breakfast cereals on the New Zealand market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Anandita; Eyles, Helen; Rayner, Mike; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Swinburn, Boyd; Lonsdale-Cooper, Emily; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2014-10-01

    Breakfast cereals substantially contribute to daily energy and nutrient intakes among children. In New Zealand, new regulations are being implemented to restrict nutrition and health claims to products that meet certain 'healthy' criteria. This study investigated the difference in nutritional quality, labelling and promotion between 'healthy' and 'less healthy' breakfast cereals, and between breakfast cereals intended for children compared with other breakfast cereals on the New Zealand market. The cross-sectional data collection involved taking pictures of the nutrition information panel (NIP) and front-of pack (FoP) for all breakfast cereals (n = 247) at two major supermarkets in Auckland in 2013. A nutrient profiling tool was used to classify products into 'healthy'/'less healthy'. In total 26% of cereals did not meet the 'healthy' criteria. 'Less healthy' cereals were significantly higher in energy density, sugar and sodium content and lower in protein and fibre content compared with 'healthy' cereals. Significantly more nutrition claims (75%) and health claims (89%) featured on 'healthy' compared with 'less healthy' cereals. On the 'less healthy' cereals, nutrition claims (65%) were more predominant than health claims (17%). Of the 52 products displaying promotional characters, 48% were for 'cereals for kids', and of those, 72% featured on 'less healthy' cereals. In conclusion, most breakfast cereals met the 'healthy' criteria; however, 'cereals for kids' were 'less healthy' and displayed more promotional characters than other cereal categories. Policy recommendations include: food composition targets set or endorsed by government, strengthening and enforcing current regulations on health and nutrition claims, considering the application of nutrient profiling for nutrition claims in addition to health claims, introducing an interpretative FoP labelling system and restricting the use of promotional characters on 'less healthy' breakfast cereals.

  10. All about the Human Genome Project (HGP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genome Resources Access to the full human sequence All About The Human Genome Project (HGP) The Human ... an international research effort to sequence and map all of the genes - together known as the genome - ...

  11. The Salmonella In Silico Typing Resource (SISTR): An Open Web-Accessible Tool for Rapidly Typing and Subtyping Draft Salmonella Genome Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Catherine E; Kruczkiewicz, Peter; Laing, Chad R; Lingohr, Erika J; Gannon, Victor P J; Nash, John H E; Taboada, Eduardo N

    2016-01-01

    For nearly 100 years serotyping has been the gold standard for the identification of Salmonella serovars. Despite the increasing adoption of DNA-based subtyping approaches, serotype information remains a cornerstone in food safety and public health activities aimed at reducing the burden of salmonellosis. At the same time, recent advances in whole-genome sequencing (WGS) promise to revolutionize our ability to perform advanced pathogen characterization in support of improved source attribution and outbreak analysis. We present the Salmonella In Silico Typing Resource (SISTR), a bioinformatics platform for rapidly performing simultaneous in silico analyses for several leading subtyping methods on draft Salmonella genome assemblies. In addition to performing serovar prediction by genoserotyping, this resource integrates sequence-based typing analyses for: Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), ribosomal MLST (rMLST), and core genome MLST (cgMLST). We show how phylogenetic context from cgMLST analysis can supplement the genoserotyping analysis and increase the accuracy of in silico serovar prediction to over 94.6% on a dataset comprised of 4,188 finished genomes and WGS draft assemblies. In addition to allowing analysis of user-uploaded whole-genome assemblies, the SISTR platform incorporates a database comprising over 4,000 publicly available genomes, allowing users to place their isolates in a broader phylogenetic and epidemiological context. The resource incorporates several metadata driven visualizations to examine the phylogenetic, geospatial and temporal distribution of genome-sequenced isolates. As sequencing of Salmonella isolates at public health laboratories around the world becomes increasingly common, rapid in silico analysis of minimally processed draft genome assemblies provides a powerful approach for molecular epidemiology in support of public health investigations. Moreover, this type of integrated analysis using multiple sequence-based methods of sub

  12. In vitro estimation of the rate and extent of ruminal digestion of cereal feed fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahir, M.N.; Lund, Peter; Hetta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Cereal grains are important components in diets for high producing dairy cows and fast growing beef cattle. The most important feed fraction in cereals is starch, which constitutes the major portion (70-80%) of cereal grains. In ruminant nutrition different starch sources are characterized...

  13. 40 CFR 406.90 - Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-to-eat cereal subcategory. 406.90 Section 406.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ready-to-Eat Cereal Subcategory § 406.90 Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory....

  14. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  15. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle Juel

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule...

  16. Physicochemical, nutritive and safety evaluation of local cereal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-11-30

    Nov 30, 2014 ... amongst local cereal producers to help minimize food safety risk and limit nutritive depletion in flour meals ... when meat products are not included in the diet ... the other hand adversely affect digestibility of ...... Mycotoxins, fungi and .... Alkali treatment as a method of processing whole grain for cattle.

  17. Decrease in Content of Lead in Danish Cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Per Bent; Aarkrog, Asker; Fenger, Jørgen Folkvard

    1978-01-01

    or contamination by lead. So far we have examined three cereals (spring and winter wheat (Triticum vulgare) and barley (Hordeurn sativum), and total diet2, which is the average daily diet of an adult in Denmark. (The composition of total diet is given in ref. 2.) We report here that there has been an overall...

  18. Analysing lodging of the panicle bearing cereal teff (Eragrostis tef)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van S.H.; Vos, J.; Ennos, A.R.; Stomph, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    •Lodging, the permanent displacement of crop plants from their vertical because of root or shoot failure, is a major yield constraint of the gluten free, panicle bearing cereal teff. The objective of this paper was to analyse the causes of lodging of teff by using, modifying and validating conventio

  19. Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arpita; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2012-12-01

    Due to constant health awareness and readily available information on usefulness of different diet and their direct link with health, the demand of functional food is increasing day by day. The concept of functional foods includes foods or food ingredients that exert a beneficial effect on host health and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions. Increasing awareness of consumer health and interest in functional foods to achieve a healthy lifestyle has resulted in the need for food products with versatile health-benefiting properties. Cereal- and cereal component-based food products offer opportunities to include probiotics, prebiotics, and fibers in the human diet. Various growth studies using probiotic Lactic acid bacteria on cereal-based substrates and utilization of whole grain or components as high-fiber foods in developing novel food products lend support to the idea that cereal-based media may well be good probiotic carriers. It is essential that science and traditional knowledge should go together to find mutually beneficial results. In the Indian subcontinent, making use of fermented food and beverages using local food crops and other biological resources are very common. But the nature of the products and the base material vary from region to region.

  20. Factors Influencing Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Small Grain Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegulo, Stephen N.

    2012-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can lead to toxicosis in humans and animals, respectively. DON is the predominant and most economically important of these mycotoxins in the majority of small grain-producing regions of the world. This review examines the factors that influence DON accumulation in small grain cereals from an agricultural perspective. The occurrence and economic importance of FHB and DON in small grain cereals, epidemiological factors and cereal production practices that favor FHB development and DON accumulation in grain under field conditions, and regulatory/advisory standards for DON in food and feed are discussed. This information can be used to develop strategies that reduce DON accumulation in grain before harvest and to mitigate the human and animal health risks associated with DON contamination of food and feed. PMID:23202310

  1. Speciation of chromium in bread and breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathebula, Mpho Wendy; Mandiwana, Khakhathi; Panichev, Nikolas

    2017-02-15

    Bread and breakfast cereals are a major constituents of the human diet, yet their Cr(VI) content is not known. Chromium(VI) was determined in these products by high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer (HR-CS AAS) after leaching Cr(VI) with 0.10molL(-1) Na2CO3. The results showed that 33-73% of total Cr (58.17±5.12μgkg(-1)-156.1±6.66μgkg(-1)) in bread exist as Cr(VI) and the highest total Cr content was found in brown bread. It was shown that Cr(III) is oxidized to Cr(VI) during toasting of bread. Chromium(VI) content in breakfast cereals ranged between 20.4±4μgkg(-1) and 470.4±68μgkg(-1). Therefore, it can be concluded that bread and breakfast cereals contains Cr(VI) which does not exceed maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of 0.003mgkg(-1)bw(-1)day(-1) through daily consumption of half a bowl (65g) of breakfast cereal and four slices of toasted (122g) or untoasted bread (160g). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  3. Factors Influencing Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Small Grain Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen N. Wegulo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can lead to toxicosis in humans and animals, respectively. DON is the predominant and most economically important of these mycotoxins in the majority of small grain-producing regions of the world. This review examines the factors that influence DON accumulation in small grain cereals from an agricultural perspective. The occurrence and economic importance of FHB and DON in small grain cereals, epidemiological factors and cereal production practices that favor FHB development and DON accumulation in grain under field conditions, and regulatory/advisory standards for DON in food and feed are discussed. This information can be used to develop strategies that reduce DON accumulation in grain before harvest and to mitigate the human and animal health risks associated with DON contamination of food and feed.

  4. Factors influencing deoxynivalenol accumulation in small grain cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegulo, Stephen N

    2012-11-06

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can lead to toxicosis in humans and animals, respectively. DON is the predominant and most economically important of these mycotoxins in the majority of small grain-producing regions of the world. This review examines the factors that influence DON accumulation in small grain cereals from an agricultural perspective. The occurrence and economic importance of FHB and DON in small grain cereals, epidemiological factors and cereal production practices that favor FHB development and DON accumulation in grain under field conditions, and regulatory/advisory standards for DON in food and feed are discussed. This information can be used to develop strategies that reduce DON accumulation in grain before harvest and to mitigate the human and animal health risks associated with DON contamination of food and feed.

  5. Prevention of ochratoxin A in cereals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Monica; Jonsson, Nils; Magan, Naresh;

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes objectives and activities of a major European Community project (OTA PREV) aimed at understanding sources of contamination of ochratoxin A in European cereals and related food-stuffs, and the development of strategies to minimise ochratoxin A in the food supply. The project ran...

  6. Algorithms for in-season nutrient management in cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for improved decision making products for cereal production systems has placed added emphasis on using plant sensors in-season, and that incorporate real-time, site specific, growing environments. The objective of this work was to describe validated in-season sensor based algorithms prese...

  7. Fertilizer effects on a winter cereal cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits associated with conservation tillage in the Southeast are improved by using a winter cereal cover crop. In general, cover crop benefits increase as biomass production is increased, but the infertile soils typically require additional N (inorganic or organic). Currently, limited informatio...

  8. Diagnosis and control of cereal viruses in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Ata, Aboul-Ata E; Mazyad, Hamed; El-Attar, Ahmad Kamal; Soliman, Ahmed Mohamed; Anfoka, Ghandi; Zeidan, Muhammad; Gorovits, Rena; Sobol, Iris; Czosnek, Henryk

    2011-01-01

    Middle Eastern countries are major consumers of small grain cereals. Egypt is the biggest bread wheat producer with 7.4 million tons (MT) in 2007, but at the same time, it had to import 5.9 MT. Jordan and Israel import almost all the grains they consume. Viruses are the major pathogens that impair grain production in the Middle East, infecting in some years more than 80% of the crop. They are transmitted in nonpersistent, semipersistent, and persistent manners by insects (aphids, leafhoppers, and mites), and through soil and seeds. Hence, cereal viruses have to be controlled, not only in the field but also through the collaborative efforts of the plant quarantine services inland and at the borders, involving all the Middle Eastern countries. Diagnosis of cereal viruses may include symptom observation, immunological technologies such as ELISA using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies raised against virus coat protein expressed in bacteria, and molecular techniques such as PCR, microarrays, and deep sequencing. In this chapter, we explore the different diagnoses, typing, and detection techniques of cereal viruses available to the Middle Eastern countries. We highlight the plant quarantine service and the prevention methods. Finally, we review the breeding efforts for virus resistance, based on conventional selection and genetic engineering.

  9. Cereal and nonfat milk support muscle recovery following exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Yi-Hung

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study compared the effects of ingesting cereal and nonfat milk (Cereal and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Drink immediately following endurance exercise on muscle glycogen synthesis and the phosphorylation state of proteins controlling protein synthesis: Akt, mTOR, rpS6 and eIF4E. Methods Trained cyclists or triathletes (8 male: 28.0 ± 1.6 yrs, 1.8 ± 0.0 m, 75.4 ± 3.2 kg, 61.0 ± 1.6 ml O2•kg-1•min-1; 4 female: 25.3 ± 1.7 yrs, 1.7 ± 0.0 m, 66.9 ± 4.6 kg, 46.4 ± 1.2 mlO2•kg-1•min-1 completed two randomly-ordered trials serving as their own controls. After 2 hours of cycling at 60–65% VO2MAX, a biopsy from the vastus lateralis was obtained (Post0, then subjects consumed either Drink (78.5 g carbohydrate or Cereal (77 g carbohydrate, 19.5 g protein and 2.7 g fat. Blood was drawn before and at the end of exercise, and at 15, 30 and 60 minutes after treatment. A second biopsy was taken 60 minutes after supplementation (Post60. Differences within and between treatments were tested using repeated measures ANOVA. Results At Post60, blood glucose was similar between treatments (Drink 6.1 ± 0.3, Cereal 5.6 ± 0.2 mmol/L, p Conclusion These results suggest that Cereal is as good as a commercially-available sports drink in initiating post-exercise muscle recovery.

  10. Phytotoxicity and Benzoxazinone Concentration in Field Grown Cereal Rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. La Hovary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter rye (Secale cereale L. is used as a cover crop because of the weed suppression potential of its mulch. To gain insight into the more effective use of rye as a cover crop we assessed changes in benzoxazinone (BX levels in rye shoot tissue over the growing season. Four rye varieties were planted in the fall and samples harvested at intervals the following spring. Two different measures of phytotoxic compound content were taken. Seed germination bioassays were used as an estimate of total phytotoxic potential. Dilutions of shoot extracts were tested using two indicator species to compare the relative toxicity of tissue. In addition, BX (DIBOA, DIBOA-glycoside, and BOA levels were directly determined using gas chromatography. Results showed that rye tissue harvested in March was the most toxic to indicator species, with toxicity decreasing thereafter. Likewise the BX concentration in rye shoot tissue increased early in the season and then decreased over time. Thus, phytotoxicity measured by bioassay and BX levels measured by GC have a similar but not identical temporal profile. The observed decrease in phytotoxic potential and plant BX levels in rye later in the season appears to correlate with the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth.

  11. Gene Discovery and Advances in Finger Millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] Genomics—An Important Nutri-Cereal of Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Salej; Kumar, Anil; Babu, B. Kalyana; Gaur, Vikram S.; Pandey, Dinesh; Kant, Lakshmi; Pattnayak, Arunava

    2016-01-01

    The rapid strides in molecular marker technologies followed by genomics, and next generation sequencing advancements in three major crops (rice, maize and wheat) of the world have given opportunities for their use in the orphan, but highly valuable future crops, including finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]. Finger millet has many special agronomic and nutritional characteristics, which make it an indispensable crop in arid, semi-arid, hilly and tribal areas of India and Africa. The crop has proven its adaptability in harsh conditions and has shown resilience to climate change. The adaptability traits of finger millet have shown the advantage over major cereal grains under stress conditions, revealing it as a storehouse of important genomic resources for crop improvement. Although new technologies for genomic studies are now available, progress in identifying and tapping these important alleles or genes is lacking. RAPDs were the default choice for genetic diversity studies in the crop until the last decade, but the subsequent development of SSRs and comparative genomics paved the way for the marker assisted selection in finger millet. Resistance gene homologs from NBS-LRR region of finger millet for blast and sequence variants for nutritional traits from other cereals have been developed and used invariably. Population structure analysis studies exhibit 2–4 sub-populations in the finger millet gene pool with separate grouping of Indian and exotic genotypes. Recently, the omics technologies have been efficiently applied to understand the nutritional variation, drought tolerance and gene mining. Progress has also occurred with respect to transgenics development. This review presents the current biotechnological advancements along with research gaps and future perspective of genomic research in finger millet. PMID:27881984

  12. Technologies for Enhancement of Bioactive Components and Potential Health Benefits of Cereal and Cereal-Based Foods: Research Advances and Application Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed S M; Wang, Peng; Wang, Na; Yang, Shu; Xiao, Zhigang

    2017-08-28

    Cereal grains are a major source of human food and their production has steadily been increased during the last several decades to meet the demand of our increasing world population. The modernized society and the expansion of the cereal food industry created a need for highly efficient processing technologies, especially flour production. Earlier scientific research efforts have led to the invention of the modern steel roller mill, and the refined flour of wheat has become a basic component in most of cereal-based foods such as breads and pastries because of the unique functionality of wheat protein. On the other hand, epidemiological studies have found that consumption of whole cereal grains was health beneficial. The health benefit of whole cereal grain is attributed to the combined effects of micronutrients, phytochemicals, and dietary fibre, which are mainly located in the outer bran layer and the germ. However, the removal of bran and germ from cereal grains during polishing and milling results in refined flour and food products with lower bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents than those from whole grain. Also, the level of bioactive compounds in cereal food is influenced by other food preparation procedures such as baking, cooking, extrusion, and puffing. Therefore, food scientists and nutritionists are searching for strategies and processing technologies to enhance the content and bioavailability of nutrients, bioactive compounds, and dietary fibre of cereal foods. The objective of this article was to review the research advances on technologies for the enhancement of bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents of cereal and cereal-based foods. Bioactivities or biological effects of enhanced cereal and cereal-based foods are presented. Challenges facing the application of the proposed technologies in the food industry are also discussed.

  13. The Salmonella In Silico Typing Resource (SISTR: An Open Web-Accessible Tool for Rapidly Typing and Subtyping Draft Salmonella Genome Assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Yoshida

    Full Text Available For nearly 100 years serotyping has been the gold standard for the identification of Salmonella serovars. Despite the increasing adoption of DNA-based subtyping approaches, serotype information remains a cornerstone in food safety and public health activities aimed at reducing the burden of salmonellosis. At the same time, recent advances in whole-genome sequencing (WGS promise to revolutionize our ability to perform advanced pathogen characterization in support of improved source attribution and outbreak analysis. We present the Salmonella In Silico Typing Resource (SISTR, a bioinformatics platform for rapidly performing simultaneous in silico analyses for several leading subtyping methods on draft Salmonella genome assemblies. In addition to performing serovar prediction by genoserotyping, this resource integrates sequence-based typing analyses for: Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST, ribosomal MLST (rMLST, and core genome MLST (cgMLST. We show how phylogenetic context from cgMLST analysis can supplement the genoserotyping analysis and increase the accuracy of in silico serovar prediction to over 94.6% on a dataset comprised of 4,188 finished genomes and WGS draft assemblies. In addition to allowing analysis of user-uploaded whole-genome assemblies, the SISTR platform incorporates a database comprising over 4,000 publicly available genomes, allowing users to place their isolates in a broader phylogenetic and epidemiological context. The resource incorporates several metadata driven visualizations to examine the phylogenetic, geospatial and temporal distribution of genome-sequenced isolates. As sequencing of Salmonella isolates at public health laboratories around the world becomes increasingly common, rapid in silico analysis of minimally processed draft genome assemblies provides a powerful approach for molecular epidemiology in support of public health investigations. Moreover, this type of integrated analysis using multiple sequence

  14. Antioxidant properties of diverse cereal grains: A review on in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masisi, Kabo; Beta, Trust; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2016-04-01

    Cereal grains and products have gained popularity in contributing to healthy eating behavior because of their antioxidant properties associated with protection against chronic diseases. In this review, notable studies on the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of commonly consumed cereal grains are summarized. Cereals contain phytochemicals or certain minor components with antioxidant properties. The antioxidant potential of cereals depends on their bioaccessibility, absorption in the gastrointestinal and their bioavailability utilization in vivo. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of cereals increased their antioxidant potentials which are significantly correlated with their total phenolic contents. Most studies performed in vivo have been concerned with the antioxidant properties of colored rice, wheat bran and rye products. There are inadequate in vitro and in vivo studies on antioxidative potentials of fermented versus unfermented cereals. Therefore, further studies are necessary to maximize possible health benefits of cereal antioxidative phytochemicals.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity reduction of cereal porridges for improving energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Hong; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Mee-Ree; Kim, Kwan-Soo; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2008-03-01

    Cereal porridges have low energy and nutrient density because of its viscosity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the reduction of viscosity and on the increasing solid content of cereal porridge. Four cereals, wheat, rice, maize (the normal starchy type) and waxy rice, were used in this study. The porridge with 3000 cP was individually prepared from cereal flour, gamma-irradiated at 20 kGy and tested. Gamma irradiation of 20 kGy was allowed that the high viscous and rigid cereal porridges turned into semi-liquid consistencies. The solid contents of all porridges could increase by irradiation, compared with non-irradiated ones. No significant differences of starch digestibility were observed in all cereal porridge samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation might be helpful for improving energy density of cereal porridge with acceptable consistency.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity reduction of cereal porridges for improving energy density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, Jae-Hun; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Hong [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Mee-Ree [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwan-Soo [Research and Development Department, Greenpia Technology, Yeoju 469-811 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2008-03-15

    Cereal porridges have low energy and nutrient density because of its viscosity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the reduction of viscosity and on the increasing solid content of cereal porridge. Four cereals, wheat, rice, maize (the normal starchy type) and waxy rice, were used in this study. The porridge with 3000 cP was individually prepared from cereal flour, gamma-irradiated at 20 kGy and tested. Gamma irradiation of 20 kGy was allowed that the high viscous and rigid cereal porridges turned into semi-liquid consistencies. The solid contents of all porridges could increase by irradiation, compared with non-irradiated ones. No significant differences of starch digestibility were observed in all cereal porridge samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation might be helpful for improving energy density of cereal porridge with acceptable consistency.

  17. Nucleotide sequences from the genomes of diverse cowpea accessions for discovery of genetic variation as part of the Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Climate Resilient Cowpea

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Nucleotide sequences were generated from 37 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) accessions relevant to Africa, China and the USA to discover at type of genetic...

  18. Genome wide association mapping of grain arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc in rice (Oryza sativa L. grown at four international field sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth J Norton

    Full Text Available The mineral concentrations in cereals are important for human health, especially for individuals who consume a cereal subsistence diet. A number of elements, such as zinc, are required within the diet, while some elements are toxic to humans, for example arsenic. In this study we carry out genome-wide association (GWA mapping of grain concentrations of arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc in brown rice using an established rice diversity panel of ∼ 300 accessions and 36.9 k single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The study was performed across five environments: one field site in Bangladesh, one in China and two in the US, with one of the US sites repeated over two years. GWA mapping on the whole dataset and on separate subpopulations of rice revealed a large number of loci significantly associated with variation in grain arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc. Seventeen of these loci were detected in data obtained from grain cultivated in more than one field location, and six co-localise with previously identified quantitative trait loci. Additionally, a number of candidate genes for the uptake or transport of these elements were located near significantly associated SNPs (within 200 kb, the estimated global linkage disequilibrium previously employed in this rice panel. This analysis highlights a number of genomic regions and candidate genes for further analysis as well as the challenges faced when mapping environmentally-variable traits in a highly genetically structured diversity panel.

  19. Genome databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courteau, J.

    1991-10-11

    Since the Genome Project began several years ago, a plethora of databases have been developed or are in the works. They range from the massive Genome Data Base at Johns Hopkins University, the central repository of all gene mapping information, to small databases focusing on single chromosomes or organisms. Some are publicly available, others are essentially private electronic lab notebooks. Still others limit access to a consortium of researchers working on, say, a single human chromosome. An increasing number incorporate sophisticated search and analytical software, while others operate as little more than data lists. In consultation with numerous experts in the field, a list has been compiled of some key genome-related databases. The list was not limited to map and sequence databases but also included the tools investigators use to interpret and elucidate genetic data, such as protein sequence and protein structure databases. Because a major goal of the Genome Project is to map and sequence the genomes of several experimental animals, including E. coli, yeast, fruit fly, nematode, and mouse, the available databases for those organisms are listed as well. The author also includes several databases that are still under development - including some ambitious efforts that go beyond data compilation to create what are being called electronic research communities, enabling many users, rather than just one or a few curators, to add or edit the data and tag it as raw or confirmed.

  20. Prediction of cereal feed value by near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    with the error in the chemical analysis. Prediction error by NIRS prediction of feed value has been shown to be above the error of the chemical measurement. The conclusion is that it has proved possible to predict the feed value in cereals with NIRS quickly and cheaply, but prediction error with this method....... NIRS is therefore appropriate as a quick method for the determination of FEsv and FEso, since it is rapid (approximately 1 minute per measurement of a ground test) and cheap. The aim is to develop a rapid method to analyse grain feed value. This will contribute to highlight the opportunities...... and problems that crop variety choices and cropping practices have on feeding value of winter wheat, triticale and spring barley. A successful development of an EDOM, EDOMi, FEso and FEsv calibration to NIRS will be a relatively cheap tool to monitor, diversify and evaluate the quality of cereals for animal...

  1. Glycemic index of cereals and tubers produced in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Xin Yang; Hong-Wei Wang; Hong-Mei Cui; Yan Wang; Lian-Da Yu; Shi-Xue Xiang; Shui-Ying Zhou

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the GI of some cereals and tubers produced in China in an effort to establish the database of glycemic index (GI) of Chinese food.METHODS: Food containing 50 g carbohydrate was consumed by 8-12 healthy adults after they have been fasted for 10 h and blood glucose was monitored for 2 h.Glucose was used as reference food. GI of food was calculated according to a standard method.RESULTS: GI of 9 types of sugar and 60 kinds of food were determined.CONCLUSION: Food GI is mainly determined by nature of carbohydrate and procession. Most of cereals and tubers produced in China have similar GI with their counterparts produced in other countries.

  2. SELENIUM UPTAKE IN CEREALS GROWN IN LOWER AUSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sager

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure optimum trace element supply via cereals, the uptake of selenium from a selenate containing NPK fertilizer (20:8:8, with 20 mg/kg selenate Se was tested. A series of fi eld and pot experiments were run on a cambisol, a clay soil, a calcareous phaeozem, and a chernozem within the physiologically feasible range in 3 subsequent years. Selenate addition led to a signifi cant increase in all kinds of cereals investigated, and the memory in subsequent years was poor. The transfer of added selenium to the grains ranged between 0,7 and 4,7% in the fi eld conditions, and between 1,6 and 5,4 % from the pots. In the grains, selenium was specifi ed mainly as seleno-methionine. The selenium addition did not affect the contents of the other essential trace elements. Uptake from pot and fi eld experiments was different.

  3. Problems of residues in cereals and bread. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocker, H.D.; Seibel, W.

    1980-01-01

    More than 1200 samples of cereals (wheat and rye) and more than 180 representative bread samples of the years 1975 to 1978 have been analyzed with regard to Pb and Cd concentrations (AAS tubular graphite cell). The findings are presented in 4 tables and 11 histograms and discussed. In wheat, the mean Pb concentration was a constant 0.05 ppm while the Cd concentration increased from 0.05 ppm to 0.06 ppm. In rye, the mean Pb concentration increased from 0.08 ppm to 0.11 ppm while the Cd concentration remained at 0.12 ppm. Variations between samples were considerable. Mean values for bread were between 0.021 and 0.059 ppm for Pb and between 0.011 and 0.037 ppm for Cd (referred to the fresh substance). The decontaminating effect of cereals processing was clearly proven.

  4. Cereal Grains: Their Impacts on Health and Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Rayas-Duarte; J Uriyapongson

    2006-01-01

    Cereal grains can contribute to maintain health and prevent chronic diseases by supplying biologically active components. The exact mechanism of action of these components is not completely understood, but extensive evidence suggests the antioxidants that are present in the grains are the likely source of benefits. These activities or properties might protect against coronary heart disease and diabetes. The relationships of complex carbohydrates, whole grain products and the prevention of diseases, including type2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease continue to challenge the scientific community. Though cereal grains contribute to a healthy diet there are some people that can not tolerate the proteins present in the grain. This can lead to food allergies and when severe can be diagnosed as celiac disease.

  5. Impacts of cereal ergot in food animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eCoufal-Majewski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the 5th century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (<100 ppb total reducing the growth efficiency of livestock. Extended periods of increased moisture and cold during flowering promote the development of ergot in cereal crops. Furthermore, the unpredictability of climate change may have detrimental impacts to important cereal crops such as wheat, barley and rye, favouring ergot production. Allowable limits for ergot in livestock feed are confusing as they may be determined by proportions of ergot bodies or by total levels of alkaloids, measurements which may differ widely in their estimation of toxicity. The proportion of individual alkaloids including ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety and genotype. Considerable animal to animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome.

  6. Cover crops in cereals – better companions than weeds?

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Jukka; Zarina, Livija; Melander, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cover crops have gained popularity in cereal cropping now that they are one of the subsidized options in agri-environmental schemes of the EU. Several studies on cover/catch crops affecting nutrient leaching have been published but less information is available concerning their applicability for weed management. In our opinion, combinations of crop and cover crop types as well as crop sequencing conform IPM principles and optimize weed management. The PRODIVA project (ERA-Net Core Organic Plu...

  7. Plant protection and food safety: notes on cereal chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Trematerra

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management (or IPM is a decision-making process that prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term solutions. Components of an IPM program may include education, proper waste management, structural repair, maintenance, biological and mechanical control techniques, and pesticide application. These tactics should meet economic, public health and environmental goals. In this paper new methods and strategies of pest control in cereal chain are reported.

  8. Optimization of the composition of the powdered cereal sprouts mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas-Šaponjac Vesna T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sprouts of cereals have received significant attention as functional food due to their nutritional and functional value. Consumption of sprouts has become increasingly popular among people interested in improving and maintaining their health status by changing dietary habits. Cereal grains contain several classes of phytochemicals, i.e. phenolics, chlorophylls, and carotenoids. However, their nutritional and chemical profile is altered and improved during germination. The purpose of this study was to find the best ratio of the powdered wheat (WS, oat (OS and barley (BS sprouts for designing the cereal sprout mixture (CSM with the highest total phenolic content (TPh and antioxidant capacity (AC, using Simplex-Centroid experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM. Single- and multi-response optimizations showed that OS did not contribute to TPh or AC values of CSM and, therefore, was not included in any of the compositions of the optimized CSM. Single-response optimizations showed that the highest TPh was found for CSM containing 82% BS and 18% WS, while the best AC was found for pure BS. The predicted ratio of cereal sprout powders in CSM obtained by multi-response optimization was: 96% BS and 4% WS. This mixture possessed the highest predicted TPh and AC (372.32 mg GAE/100 g, 549.99 μmol TE/100 g, respectively, which was confirmed to be in accordance with the experimental values. Based on the results obtained in this study, a designed CSM is proposed as a convenient ingredient of functional food products, dietary supplements and nutraceuticals.

  9. Cereal Crop Farm Planning for Profit Maximization in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadzai, Najeebullah; Nanseki, Teruaki; Chomei, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    Cereal crops are the major component of agriculture sector in Afghanistan by generating income and providing food dietary of subsistence to the farm family. The sector which is dominated by small scale farmer across the country is facing numerous problems such as inefficient use of resources, poor production technology, low labor productivity and high production costs. This study was carried out to maximize farm income by optimization resource allocation and developing an optimal farm plan fo...

  10. Comparative analysis of multiple disease resistance in ryegrass and cereal crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young-Ki; Barker, Reed; Pfender, William; Warnke, Scott; Sim, Sung-Chur; Jung, Geunhwa

    2008-08-01

    Ryegrass (Lolium spp.) is among the most important forage crops in Europe and Australia and is also a popular turfgrass in North America. Previous genetic analysis based on a three-generation interspecific (L. perennexL. multiflorum) ryegrass population identified four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to gray leaf spot (Magneporthe grisea) and four QTLs for resistance to crown rust (Puccinia coronata). The current analysis based on the same mapping population detected seven QTLs for resistance to leaf spot (Bipolaris sorokiniana) and one QTL for resistance to stem rust (Puccinia graminis) in ryegrass for the first time. Three QTLs for leaf spot resistance on linkage groups (LGs) 2 and 4 were in regions of conserved synteny to the positions of resistance to net blotch (Drechslera teres) in barley (Hordeum vulgare). One ryegrass genomic region spanning 19 cM on LG 4, which contained three QTLs for resistance to leaf spot, gray leaf spot, and stem rust, had a syntenic relationship with a segment of rice chromosome 3, which contained QTLs for resistance to multiple diseases. However, at the genome-wide comparison based on 72 common RFLP markers between ryegrass and cereals, coincidence of QTLs for disease resistance to similar fungal pathogens was not statistically significant.

  11. Proteomic profiling of 16 cereal grains and the application of targeted proteomics to detect wheat contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Goswami, Hareshwar; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Howitt, Crispin A; Tanner, Gregory J

    2015-06-01

    Global proteomic analysis utilizing SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and LC-MS/MS of total protein and gluten-enriched extracts derived from 16 economically important cereals was undertaken, providing a foundation for the development of MS-based quantitative methodologies that would enable the detection of wheat contamination in foods. The number of proteins identified in each grain correlated with the number of entries in publicly available databases, highlighting the importance of continued advances in genome sequencing to facilitate accurate protein identification. Subsequently, candidate wheat-specific peptide markers were evaluated by multiple-reaction monitoring MS. The selected markers were unique to wheat, yet present in a wide range of wheat varieties that represent up to 80% of the bread wheat genome. The final analytical method was rapid (15 min) and robust (CV 0.98) spanning over 3 orders of magnitude, and was highly selective and sensitive with detection down to 15 mg/kg in intentionally contaminated soy flour. Furthermore, application of this technology revealed wheat contamination in commercially sourced flours, including rye, millet, oats, sorghum, buckwheat and three varieties of soy.

  12. Application of roasted rice bran in cereal bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of using microwave-roasted rice bran as an ingredient in high-fiber cereal bars to obtain a product with good acceptability. The influence of the rice flakes, corn flakes, and roasted rice bran levels on the physical and chemical characteristics of the cereal bars was studied. The overall acceptability of three selected formulations was also evaluated. An increase in the roasted rice bran level in the formulation reduced the force of rupture and water activity, resulted in intermediate density, and caused darkening of the bars. The contents of lipid and total dietary fiber were higher in the formulation with the highest rice bran content, which was therefore classified as functional food. The formulation containing 0.34; 0.32; and 0.34 roasted rice bran, rice flakes, and corn flakes, respectively, seemed to be the best outcome. Cereal bars with roasted rice bran levels between 10 and 20% were accepted by consumers.

  13. Assessment of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Rabbani, Tehmeena; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Jinap, S

    2014-08-15

    Aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN) were analysed in 237 breakfast cereal samples collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. According to the results, 41% of the samples were found contaminated with AFs, out of which 16% and 8% samples were found to be above the European Union (EU) maximum content for AFB1 and total AFs, respectively. About 48% samples were found contaminated with OTA and 30% samples were found to be above the EU maximum content. The results have shown that 53% samples of breakfast cereals were found contaminated with ZEN and 8% samples were found to be above the permissible limit of EU. The highest mean level of AFB1 and total AFs were found in semolina i.e. 3.60 and 4.55 μg/kg, respectively. Similarly, semolina was the highest contaminated breakfast cereal for OTA (3.90 μg/kg), while cornflakes (brand B) was found highest contaminated with ZEN (13.45 μg/kg). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Storage and use of antioxidants in cereal and peanut bars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Tepper, A; Castillo, E

    1998-06-01

    The use of fatty materials in cereal bars gives to them a good energetic value; however they are exposed to oxidative rancidity which can affect their acceptability and nutritional value. So, the purpose of this research was to determine the stability in storage and the effect of antioxidants on three tipes of cereal bars with peanuts. Cereal bars with 18% of peanuts were prepared, with and without antioxidants (BHA + BHT; 100 ppm). Bars were packed in polyprolpilene-aluminium-polythilene bags, and were stored at room temperature (18-20 degrees C) for 90 days. Each 30 days, analysis of water activity (Aw); moisture content, peroxides index, sensory quality (flavor, aroma and appearance) and acceptability, were carried out. Moisture content was similar in all bars (7.6-9.6%) and Aw was higher in the bar which contained expanded amaranthus and antioxidant. At the 60th day of storage, the peroxide values were lower in the bars with antioxidants; only the bar which included expanded amaranthus showed significant differences (16.4 meq/kg in the bar with antioxidant and 25.7 meq/kg for the control bar). The sensory parameters were kept within normal status without differences between the bars with antioxidants and the control ones, along all the storage period. Shelf life of bars CM1 and CM2 was at least of 60 days when they are kept at 18-20 degrees C.

  15. Reducing the potential for processing contaminant formation in cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Tanya Y; Postles, Jennifer; Halford, Nigel G

    2014-05-01

    Processing contaminants may be defined as substances that are produced in a food when it is cooked or processed, are not present or are present at much lower concentrations in the raw, unprocessed food, and are undesirable either because they have an adverse effect on product quality or because they are potentially harmful. The presence of very low levels of processing contaminants in common foods is becoming an increasingly important issue for the food industry, as developments in analytical techniques and equipment bring foods under closer and closer scrutiny. This review considers the formation of lipid oxidation products, hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to prevent lipid oxidation and the associated risk of trans fatty acid formation. The formation of acrylamide in the Maillard reaction is described, as well as the genetic and agronomic approaches being taken to reduce the acrylamide-forming potential of cereal grain. The multiple routes for the formation of furan and associated chemicals, including hydroxymethylfurfuryl, are also described. The evolving regulatory and public perception situations for these processing contaminants and their implications for the cereal supply chain are discussed, emphasising the need for cereal breeders to engage with the contaminants issue.

  16. Properties of duck meat sausages supplemented with cereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H S; Ali, M S; Jeong, J Y; Moon, S H; Hwang, Y H; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2009-07-01

    Duck meat sausages were prepared using 10% beef fat (FDS) and 10% hydrated cereal flours including rice (RDS), wheat, corn, millet, and barley to replace fat. Control duck sausages (DS) were also prepared only with duck meat and duck meat plus 10% beef fat. Results showed that protein and fat contents significantly decreased and total expressible fluid reduced with the addition of cereal flours in duck sausage batters. The FDS had higher fat content and lower pH compared with others. Duck sausages with 10% supplemented wheat flour showed the lowest cooking loss among sausages and had similar redness and chroma values to FDS and DS. Texture analysis indicated that hardness of duck sausage significantly decreased when cereal flours and beef fat were added. In particular, RDS showed the lowest values for all texture measurements compared with others. Result of moisture absorption capacity suggested that the decrease in hardness in RDS was due to higher moisture retention for rice flour treatment. Sensory evaluation indicated that DS had significantly lower overall acceptability than RDS, due to its off-flavor, whereas RDS had higher overall acceptability than DS.

  17. Sensory Acceptability of Infant Cereals with Whole Grain in Infants and Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro-Vicente, Juan Francisco; Bernal-Cava, Maria Jose; Lopez-Fernandez, Amparo; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Bodenstab, Stefan; Sanchez-Siles, Luis Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In many countries, infant cereals are one of the first foods introduced during the complementary feeding stage. These cereals are usually made with refined cereal flours, even though several health benefits have been linked to the intake of whole grain cereals. Prior evidence suggests that food preferences are developed at early stages of life, and may persist in later childhood and adulthood. Our aim was to test whether an infant cereal with 30% of whole grain was similarly accepted both by parents and infants in comparison to a similar cereal made from refined flour. A total of 81 infants between 4 and 24 months old were included in the study. Parent-infant pairs participated in an 8-day experimental study. Acceptance was rated on hedonic scales (4-points for infants and 7-points for parents). Other attributes like color, smell, and taste were evaluated by the parents. Acceptability for infant cereals with whole grain and refined cereals was very similar both for infants (2.30 ± 0.12 and 2.32 ± 0.11, p = 0.606) and parents (6.1 ± 0.8 and 6.0 ± 0.9, p = 0.494). Therefore, our findings show that there is an opportunity to introduce whole grain cereals to infants, including those who are already used to consuming refined infant cereals, thereby accelerating the exposure of whole grain in early life. PMID:28098769

  18. Sensory Acceptability of Infant Cereals with Whole Grain in Infants and Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Haro-Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, infant cereals are one of the first foods introduced during the complementary feeding stage. These cereals are usually made with refined cereal flours, even though several health benefits have been linked to the intake of whole grain cereals. Prior evidence suggests that food preferences are developed at early stages of life, and may persist in later childhood and adulthood. Our aim was to test whether an infant cereal with 30% of whole grain was similarly accepted both by parents and infants in comparison to a similar cereal made from refined flour. A total of 81 infants between 4 and 24 months old were included in the study. Parent-infant pairs participated in an 8-day experimental study. Acceptance was rated on hedonic scales (4-points for infants and 7-points for parents. Other attributes like color, smell, and taste were evaluated by the parents. Acceptability for infant cereals with whole grain and refined cereals was very similar both for infants (2.30 ± 0.12 and 2.32 ± 0.11, p = 0.606 and parents (6.1 ± 0.8 and 6.0 ± 0.9, p = 0.494. Therefore, our findings show that there is an opportunity to introduce whole grain cereals to infants, including those who are already used to consuming refined infant cereals, thereby accelerating the exposure of whole grain in early life.

  19. Querying genomic databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baehr, A.; Hagstrom, R.; Joerg, D.; Overbeek, R.

    1991-09-01

    A natural-language interface has been developed that retrieves genomic information by using a simple subset of English. The interface spares the biologist from the task of learning database-specific query languages and computer programming. Currently, the interface deals with the E. coli genome. It can, however, be readily extended and shows promise as a means of easy access to other sequenced genomic databases as well.

  20. BGI-RIS: an integrated information resource and comparative analysis workbench for rice genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Wenming; Wang, Jing; He, Ximiao

    2004-01-01

    the application of the rice genomic information and to provide a foundation for functional and evolutionary studies of other important cereal crops, we implemented our Rice Information System (BGI-RIS), the most up-to-date integrated information resource as well as a workbench for comparative genomic analysis...

  1. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis of the Cereal Cyst Nematode, Heterodera avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Gantasala, Nagavara Prasad; Roychowdhury, Tanmoy; Thakur, Prasoon Kumar; Banakar, Prakash; Shukla, Rohit N.; Jones, Michael G. K.; Rao, Uma

    2014-01-01

    The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae) is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp) that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy) revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs) but more glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs) when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million) value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb) for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction. PMID:24802510

  2. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    Full Text Available The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs but more glycosyl transferases (GTs and carbohydrate esterases (CEs when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction.

  3. Prospects for exploitation of disease resistance from Hordeum chilense in cultivated cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, D; Niks, R E; Carver, T L; Ballesteros, J; Martín, A

    2001-01-01

    Hordeum chilense is a South American wild barley with high potential for cereal breeding given its high crossability with other members of the Triticeae. In the present paper we consider the resistance of H. chilense to several fungal diseases and the prospects for its transference to cultivated cereals. All H. chilense accessions studied are resistant to the barley, wheat and rye brown rusts, the powdery mildews of wheat, barley, rye and oat, to Septoria leaf blotch, common bunt and to loose smuts, which suggests that H. chilense is a non-host of these diseases. There are also lines resistant to wheat and barley yellow rust, stem rust and to Agropyron leaf rust, as well as lines giving moderate levels of resistance to Septoria glume blotch, tan spot and Fusarium head blight. Some H. chilense lines display pre-appressorial avoidance to brown rust. Lines differ in the degree of haustorium formation by rust and mildew fungi they permit, and in the degree to which a hypersensitive response occurs after haustoria are formed. Unfortunately, resistance of H. chilense to rust fungi is not expressed in tritordeum hybrids, nor in chromosome addition lines in wheat. In tritordeum, H. chilense contributes quantitative resistance to wheat powdery mildew, tan spot and loose smut. The resistance to mildew, expressed as a reduced disease severity, is not associated with macroscopically visible necrosis. Hexaploid tritordeums are immune to Septoria leaf blotch and to common bunt although resistance to both is slightly diluted in octoploid tritordeums. Studies with addition lines in wheat indicate that the resistance of H. chilense to powdery mildew, Septoria leaf blotch and common bunt is of broad genetic basis, conferred by genes present on various chromosomes.

  4. Complete genome sequence of a new maize-associated cytorhabdovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new 11,877 nt cytorhabdovirus sequence with 6 open reading frames has been identified in a maize sample. It shares 50 and 51% genome-wide nucleotide sequence identity with northern cereal mosaic cytorhabdovirus (NCMV) and barley yellow striate mosaic cytorhabdovirus (BYSMV), respectively....

  5. WHAT IS BEHIND BIASED TECHNICAL CHANGE IN PRODUCTION OF CEREAL AND OILSEED CROPS IN SLOVAKIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter FANDEL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the productivity change in the production of cereal and oilseed crops in Slovakia with special emphasis on technical change analysis. It employs a non-parametric distance function approach to measure Malmquist productivity index which is decomposed into technical efficiency change and technical change. Technical change is further decomposed into technical change magnitude and input- and output-bias indices. The productivity change components provide more detailed information about character of productivity change itself and its sources. Our results indicate that productivity in the analysed sector decreased approximately by 20% within the examined period of 1998-2007. The decrease was caused mostly by worsening the technical change (-41,6%. Indices of input- and output bias of technical change were various from unity what suggests that technical change was not Hicks’- neutral. Results of further analysis of the direction of technical change bias indicate that farms in average tend to apply fertilizers-using/seed-saving, seed-using/labour-saving, and fertilizers-using/labour-saving technical change bias over the whole sample period, as well as in the EU pre-accession and EU post-accession periods.

  6. Increased understanding of the cereal phytase complement for better mineral bio-availability and resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holme, Inger Bæksted

    2014-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the current state of knowledge on cereal phytase that are particular relevant for improving mineral and phosphate bio-availability. Phytases can initiate the hydrolysis of phytate, the main storage form of phosphate in cereals and the major anti-nutritional factor...... for the bio-availability of micronutrients in human nutrition. The composition and levels of mature grain phytase activity (MGPA) in cereals is of central importance for efficient phytate hydrolysis. The MGPA varies considerably between species. Substantial activity is present in Triticeae tribe cereals like...

  7. Characterization of Breakfast Cereals Available in the Mexican Market: Sodium and Sugar Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Claudia; Rincon-Gallardo Patiño, Sofia; Tolentino-Mayo, Lizbeth; Carriedo, Angela; Barquera, Simón

    2017-08-16

    Preschool Mexican children consume 7% of their total energy intake from processed breakfast cereals. This study characterized the nutritional quality and labelling (claims and Guideline Daily Amount (GDA)) of the packaged breakfast cereals available in the Mexican market. Photographs of all breakfast cereals available in the 9 main food retail chains in the country were taken. The nutrition quality of cereals was assessed using the United Kingdom Nutrient Profiling Model (UKNPM). Claims were classified using the International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) taxonomy and the GDA was defined according to the Mexican regulation, NOM-051. Overall, a total of 371 different breakfast cereals were analysed. The nutritional profile showed that 68.7% were classified as "less healthy". GDAs and claims were displayed more frequently on the "less healthy" cereals. Breakfast cereals within the "less healthy" category had significantly higher content of energy, sugar and sodium (p < 0.001). Most of the claims were displayed in the "less healthy" cereals (n = 313). This study has shown that there is a lack of consistency between the labelling on the front of the pack and the nutritional quality of breakfast cereals.

  8. Prediction of cereal feed value using spectroscopy and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Gislum, René

    2009-01-01

    Feed value in form of FEsv (Feed unit / kg dry matter, for piglets) and FEso (Feed unit / kg dry matter, for sows), EDOM (Enzyme Degradable Organic Matter) and EDOMi (Enzyme Degradable Organic Matter, Ileum) is used in the feed evaluation system for pigs. Analysis of feed value have highlighted...... for cereal breeders. A collection of 1213 grain samples of wheat, triticale, barley and rye, and related chemical reference analyses to describe the feed value have been established. The samples originate from available field trials over a three-year period. The chemical reference analyses are dry matter...

  9. ANALYSIS OF FREE AND BOUND CHLOROPHENOXY ACIDS IN CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans

    1975-01-01

    of sulphuric acid and resulted in residues up to ten times lower than found after the combined acid hydrolysis/enzymatic degradation procedure. In the second comparison a direct extraction was made with a mixture of 65% (v/v) acetonitrile in water. No differences were found between this and the combined acid......Extraction of the chlorophenoxy acids 2,4-D and dichlorprop in cereals has been examined by analyzing barley from spraying experiments. A procedure has been set up by combination of acid hydrolysis and enzymatic degradation followed by extraction and clean up on either silica gel or basic aluminum...

  10. Influence of water-based ferrofluid upon chlorophylls in cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racuciu, Mihaela [Lucian Blaga University, Faculty of Science, 10 Blvd. Victoriei, Sibiu, 550012 (Romania)]. E-mail: mracuciu@yahoo.com; Creanga, Dorina-Emilia [Al. I. Cuza University, Faculty of Physics, 11A Blvd.Copou, Iasi, 700506 (Romania)

    2007-04-15

    The present experimental investigation was focused on the study of the simultaneous influence of the water-based ferrofluid and static magnetic field exposure on young cereal plants. Water-based ferrofluid, stabilized with citric acid was added daily in various concentrations, ranging between 10 and 250 {mu}L/L, in the culture medium of maize (Zea mays) plants in their early ontogenetic stages. The used static magnetic field was about 50 mT. In order to investigate the biochemical changes of chlorophylls and total carotenoids, spectrophotometric measurements were carried out, that revealed stimulatory effects of ferrofluid and magnetic exposure upon the studied plant species.

  11. Fusarium head blight of winter rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kiecana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on Fusarium head blight of rye were carried out in the years 2005-2007 on 10 production fields in the Lublin region. The percentage of heads showing the fusariosis symptoms in the years 2005-2007 ranged from 0 to 7%. Mycological analysis of kernels and chaff obtained from heads with Fusarium blight (scab symptoms showed that Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium sporotrichioides were the largest threat to heads of this cereal. The species of Fusarium poae and Fusarium crookwellense were also isolated from infected rye heads. The dominance of particular species in infecting rye heads was determined by weather conditions.

  12. On genomics, kin, and privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telenti, Amalio; Ayday, Erman; Hubaux, Jean Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The storage of greater numbers of exomes or genomes raises the question of loss of privacy for the individual and for families if genomic data are not properly protected. Access to genome data may result from a personal decision to disclose, or from gaps in protection. In either case, revealing genome data has consequences beyond the individual, as it compromises the privacy of family members. Increasing availability of genome data linked or linkable to metadata through online social networks and services adds one additional layer of complexity to the protection of genome privacy.  The field of computer science and information technology offers solutions to secure genomic data so that individuals, medical personnel or researchers can access only the subset of genomic information required for healthcare or dedicated studies.

  13. A snapshot into the uptake and utilization of potential oligosaccharide prebiotics by probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria as accessed by transcriptomics, functional genomics, and recombinant protein characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Joakim Mark

    and lifestyle diseases are currently well documented. Selective utilization, of primarily non-digestible carbohydrates, termed prebiotics, by probiotics has been identified as an attribute of probiotic action, however the molecular mechanisms of prebiotics utilization and in particular the specificities...... of carbohydrate transporters and glycoside hydrolases that confer this remain largely unknown, limiting a robust understanding for the basis of selective utilization of known prebiotics and the discovery and documentation of novel prebiotics. The aim of this Ph.D. thesis was to identify the genes involved...... with uptake and catabolism of potential prebiotics by the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 as model organisms, using DNA whole genome microarrays and by in silico pathway re-construction to identify key genes for further functional analysis by gene...

  14. PGSB/MIPS Plant Genome Information Resources and Concepts for the Analysis of Complex Grass Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannagl, Manuel; Bader, Kai; Pfeifer, Matthias; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2016-01-01

    PGSB (Plant Genome and Systems Biology; formerly MIPS-Munich Institute for Protein Sequences) has been involved in developing, implementing and maintaining plant genome databases for more than a decade. Genome databases and analysis resources have focused on individual genomes and aim to provide flexible and maintainable datasets for model plant genomes as a backbone against which experimental data, e.g., from high-throughput functional genomics, can be organized and analyzed. In addition, genomes from both model and crop plants form a scaffold for comparative genomics, assisted by specialized tools such as the CrowsNest viewer to explore conserved gene order (synteny) between related species on macro- and micro-levels.The genomes of many economically important Triticeae plants such as wheat, barley, and rye present a great challenge for sequence assembly and bioinformatic analysis due to their enormous complexity and large genome size. Novel concepts and strategies have been developed to deal with these difficulties and have been applied to the genomes of wheat, barley, rye, and other cereals. This includes the GenomeZipper concept, reference-guided exome assembly, and "chromosome genomics" based on flow cytometry sorted chromosomes.

  15. A comparison of methods to quantify prolamin contents in cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Giuberti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobic prolamins are endosperm storage proteins accounting for about 40% of the total protein in most cereals seeds. Despite the absence of a reference method, several procedures have been periodically published to quantify prolamins in cereals. The aim of this study was to compare a conventional fractionation assay (LND vs three other methods: one based on sequential extractions (HAM and two rapid turbidimetric procedures (L&H and DRO. Prolamins were extracted in duplicate on barley, corn and wheat samples. For the turbidimetric prolamin evaluation in barley and wheat, a universally available purified gliadin, as alternative to purified zein, was also tested as standard reference material (SRM. The extraction prolamin values were different among grain types (P0.05. LND agreed sufficiently well both with HAM and with L&H methods (R2=0.664 and R2=0.703, respectively, P0.05, whereas a higher prolamin quantification was obtained using HAM (P<0.05. Overall, DRO did not provide similar comparison and performance parameters with respect to other method comparisons. The effect of changing purified zein with purified gliadin was noteworthy only for L&H, both for wheat and barley samples (P<0.01. Considering the increasing attention of animal nutritionists on prolamins, our results could get useful information for routine laboratories analysis.

  16. Metabolomics of cereals under biotic stress: current knowledge and techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk eBalmer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Prone to attacks by pathogens and pests, plants employ intricate chemical defense mechanisms consisting of metabolic adaptations. However, many plant attackers are manipulating the host metabolism to counteract defense responses and to induce favorable nutritional conditions. Advances in analytical chemistry have allowed the generation of extensive metabolic profiles during plant-pathogen and pest interactions. Thereby, metabolic processes were found to be highly specific for given tissues, species and plant-pathogen/pest interactions. The clusters of identified compounds not only serve as base in the quest of novel defense compounds, but also as markers for the characterization of the plants’ defensive state. The latter is especially useful in agronomic applications where meaningful markers are essential for crop protection. Cereals such as maize make use of their metabolic arsenal during both local and systemic defense responses, and the chemical response is highly adapted to specific attackers. Here, we summarize highlights and recent findings of metabolic patterns of cereals under pathogen and pest attack.

  17. Quantification of sugars in breakfast cereals using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutounji, Michelle R; Van Leeuwen, Matthew P; Oliver, James D; Shrestha, Ashok K; Castignolles, Patrice; Gaborieau, Marianne

    2015-05-18

    About 80% of the Australian population consumes breakfast cereal (BC) at least five days a week. With high prevalence rates of obesity and other diet-related diseases, improved methods for monitoring sugar levels in breakfast cereals would be useful in nutrition research. The heterogeneity of the complex matrix of BCs can make carbohydrate analysis challenging or necessitate tedious sample preparation leading to potential sugar loss or starch degradation into sugars. A recently established, simple and robust free solution capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was used in a new application to 13 BCs (in Australia) and compared with several established methods for quantification of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates identified in BCs by CE included sucrose, maltose, glucose and fructose. The CE method is simple requiring no sample preparation or derivatization and carbohydrates are detected by direct UV detection. CE was shown to be a more robust and accurate method for measuring carbohydrates than Fehling method, DNS (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid) assay and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography).

  18. CEREALS AS BASIS OF PREVENTING NUTRITION AGAINST OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Šturdík

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Still more alarming obesity studies show in fact that it is largely due to incorrect diet and lifestyle. For suitable alternative for prevention of this disease are now considered cereal foods, mainly based on increased fiber content. The importance of dietary fiber for human organism consist primarily in its protective function before civilization diseases. It has beneficial effects on digestive physiology and it is therefore an important factor in the prevention of obesity, but also other diseases. Fiber consumption in developed countries is low and it is below the lower limit of the recommended dose. Slovaks per day take only 10-12 g of fiber, which represents only 47% of the recommended dose. Recent large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of wholegrain cereals can reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers by 30 percent. One of the factors that increase the functionality of foods is the so-called indigestible resistant starch. For its the positive impact on the physiology of digestion is referred to as prebiotics new generation of dietary fiber. The increasing availability of tasty, whole grain products rich in fiber could be health benefits. doi:10.5219/76

  19. Simple and efficient methodology to determine mycotoxins in cereal syrups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Huertas-Pérez, José F; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2015-06-15

    Consumption of cereal syrups is increasing nowadays. Mycotoxins may be found in syrups resulting from the use of contaminated raw material or invading microorganisms in the final manufactured product. However, these matrices have been scarcely explored regarding their mycotoxin content. A sensitive, simple and rapid method for the determination of ten mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 and HT-2 toxin, citrinin, sterigmatocystin and zearalenone) in cereal syrups (rice, wheat and barley) has been developed and characterised using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and a sample treatment based on QuEChERS procedure. Matrix-matched calibration curves were established and limits of quantification were below the limits usually established by current legislation in different foodstuff. The relative standard deviation of the whole analytical method was lower than 12% in all cases, while recoveries ranged from 70.2% to 100.6%, therefore fulfilling the current requirements for mycotoxins analysis.

  20. Reduced fungicide doses in cereals: Which parameters to consider?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:A long tradition for using reduced fungicides rates in cereals have been exploited successfully in Denmark for more than 20 years and a similar trend has also been seen in other Northern European countries. The use of reduced and appropriate dose rates have been driven by field trials wi...... that reduced fungicide rates select less for fungicide resistance and can help to delay development of resistance.......Abstract:A long tradition for using reduced fungicides rates in cereals have been exploited successfully in Denmark for more than 20 years and a similar trend has also been seen in other Northern European countries. The use of reduced and appropriate dose rates have been driven by field trials...... to be controlled successfully at rates down to quarter rates. Fungicides, in general, show highly variable dose responses for specific diseases, which is important to know when specific advice is given. Preventive treatments generally require less input compared with treatments during the latent period or later...

  1. Manufacturing cereal bars with high nutritional value through experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Covino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations responsible for public health throughout the world have been increasingly worrying about how to feed populations encouraging a nutritious and balanced diet in order to decrease the occurrence of chronic diseases, which are constantly related to an inadequate diet. Still, due to matters of modern lifestyle consumers are increasingly seeking convenient products. This being so, cereal bars have been an option when the matter is low calorie fast food which is also source of fiber. This study aimed at developing a cereal bar with high dietary fiber, iron, vitamins A and vitamin E, in order to easily enable adult population achieve the daily recommendation for such nutrients. Eight formulations plus the focal point were conducted through experimental planning; sensory analysis with 110 tasters for each block and texture. Afterwards, we conducted centesimal analysis for all three formulations presenting the best sensory results. After statistical analysis and comparison to the means for products available in the market, it was possible to conclude that the product developed presented great acceptance and fiber level more than twice as much as the means for commercial products.

  2. Exploring the Boundaries of N2-Fixation in Cereals and Grasses: A Hypothetical and Experimental Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Merckx, R.

    2003-01-01

    Despite more than 40 years of research on free-living and endophytic bacteria associated with cereals and grasses, conclusive examples of impacts of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in agriculture are lacking. All available methods for measurement of N2-fixation associated with cereals and grasses have

  3. Cereal Foods and Health : New results and science-based nutrition guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, S.; Ashwell, M.; Kamp, J.W. van der

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies, in populations with higher intakes of whole grain, have extended and confirmed the evidence from previous findings showing an association between whole grain cereal or cereal fibre consumption and prevention of several non-communicable diseases. Although the results

  4. Improving zinc accumulation in cereal endosperm using HvMTP1, a transition metal transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menguer, Paloma K; Vincent, Thomas; Miller, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms, including humans. It is estimated that around two billion people are deficient in their Zn intake. Human dietary Zn intake relies heavily on plants, which in many developing countries consists mainly of cereals. The inner part of cereal grain, the endosp...

  5. Online detection and quatification of ergot bodies in cereals using near infrared hyperspectral imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Ph.; Fernandez - Pierna, J.A.; Egmond, van H.P.; Dardenne, P.; Baeten, V.

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of ergot bodies (sclerotia of Claviceps purpurea) in cereals presents a high toxicity risk for animals and humans due to the alkaloid content. To reduce this risk, the European Commission fixed an ergot concentration limit of 0.1% in all feedstuffs containing unground cereals, and a l

  6. Cereal Foods and Health : New results and science-based nutrition guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, S.; Ashwell, M.; Kamp, J.W. van der

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies, in populations with higher intakes of whole grain, have extended and confirmed the evidence from previous findings showing an association between whole grain cereal or cereal fibre consumption and prevention of several non-communicable diseases. Although the results f

  7. Effects of Ready-to-Eat-Cereals on Key Nutritional and Health Outcomes : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, Marion G.; McMonagle, Jolene R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In many countries breakfast cereals are an important component of breakfast. This systematic review assesses the contribution of consumption of ready-to eat cereal (RTEC) to the recommended nutrient intake. Furthermore, the effects of RTEC consumption on key health parameters are investig

  8. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2011-01-01

    bioengineering of cereals. Bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes. References: Blennow, A., Engelsen, S. B. (2010). Helix-breaking news...

  9. Genetic population structure of Fusarium graminearum species complex in Korean cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small grain cereals are frequently contaminated with toxigenic Fusarium species. Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are known as a head blight pathogens and mycotoxin producers. In order to characterize the FGSC populations associated with cereals in Korea, barley, corn, maiz...

  10. Exploring the Boundaries of N2-Fixation in Cereals and Grasses: A Hypothetical and Experimental Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Merckx, R.

    2003-01-01

    Despite more than 40 years of research on free-living and endophytic bacteria associated with cereals and grasses, conclusive examples of impacts of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in agriculture are lacking. All available methods for measurement of N2-fixation associated with cereals and grasses have bee

  11. Effects of Ready-to-Eat-Cereals on Key Nutritional and Health Outcomes : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, Marion G.; McMonagle, Jolene R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In many countries breakfast cereals are an important component of breakfast. This systematic review assesses the contribution of consumption of ready-to eat cereal (RTEC) to the recommended nutrient intake. Furthermore, the effects of RTEC consumption on key health parameters are investig

  12. Increased understanding of the cereal phytase complement for better mineral bio-availability and resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holme, Inger Bæksted

    2014-01-01

    for the bio-availability of micronutrients in human nutrition. The composition and levels of mature grain phytase activity (MGPA) in cereals is of central importance for efficient phytate hydrolysis. The MGPA varies considerably between species. Substantial activity is present in Triticeae tribe cereals like...

  13. A PCR test to detect the cereal root-knot nematode Meloidogyne naasi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, C.; Hoof, van R.A.; Donkers-Venne, D.

    2004-01-01

    The cereal root-knot nematode Meloidogyne naasi can cause serious cereal crop losses. The nematode is also found in agricultural fields where non-host crops are grown. Control of M. naasi can be based on preventing its spread, host resistance and crop management as well as on the design of crop rota

  14. Effect of infant cereals on zinc and copper absorption during weaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.; Loennerdal, B.

    1987-10-01

    Zinc and copper absorption from five infant cereal products mixed with water, human milk, or cow's milk was measured using an in vivo absorption model (rat pup) involving gastric intubation of extrinsically radiolabeled diets. Whole-body copper 64 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 14% to 31% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. The resultant bioavailability of copper from human milk-cereal combinations (23% to 26%) was significantly lower than that from human milk alone (38%). Whole-body zinc 65 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 13% to 54% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. These values were significantly lower than the whole-body zinc 65 uptake from milk alone (61%). Zinc availability was lower (13% to 25%) from dry cereal combinations that contained phytic acid (oatmeal and high-protein varieties) compared with the ready-to-serve cereal-fruit combinations (24% to 54%). The highest zinc uptake (37% to 54%) was from rice-fruit combinations that do not contain phytic acid. We estimated the amounts of zinc and copper that would be absorbed from these cereal products and speculated on the potential impact of these foods on the weaning infant's zinc and copper nutriture. Depending on the feeding practices employed during the weaning period, it is apparent that infant cereals may compromise utilization of zinc and copper from milk diets during weaning.

  15. Aegilops tauschii Accessions with Geographically Diverse Origin Show Differences in Chromosome Organization and Polymorphism of Molecular Markers Linked to Leaf Rust and Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, Maciej; Kwiatek, Michał T.; Majka, Joanna; Wiśniewska, Halina

    2017-01-01

    Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14) is a diploid wild species which is reported as a donor of the D-genome of cultivated bread wheat. The main goal of this study was to examine the differences and similarities in chromosomes organization among accessions of Ae. tauschii with geographically diversed origin, which is believed as a potential source of genes, especially determining resistance to fungal diseases (i.e., leaf rust and powdery mildew) for breeding of cereals. We established and compared the fluorescence in situ hybridization patterns of 21 accessions of Ae. tauschii using various repetitive sequences mainly from the BAC library of wheat cultivar Chinese Spring. Results obtained for Ae. tauschii chromosomes revealed many similarities between analyzed accessions, however, some hybridization patterns were specific for accessions, which become from cognate regions of the World. The most noticeable differences were observed for accessions from China which were characterized by presence of distinct signals of pTa-535 in the interstitial region of chromosome 3D, less intensity of pTa-86 signals in chromosome 2D, as well as lack of additional signals of pTa-86 in chromosomes 1D, 5D, or 6D. Ae. tauschii of Chinese origin appeared homogeneous and separate from landraces that originated in western Asia. Ae. tauschii chromosomes showed similar hybridization patterns to wheat D-genome chromosomes, but some differences were also observed among both species. What is more, we identified reciprocal translocation between short arm of chromosome 1D and long arm of chromosome 7D in accession with Iranian origin. High polymorphism between analyzed accessions and extensive allelic variation were revealed using molecular markers associated with resistance genes. Majority of the markers localized in chromosomes 1D and 2D showed the diversity of banding patterns between accessions. Obtained results imply, that there is a moderate or high level of polymorphism in the genome of Ae

  16. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread highly destructive, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turfgrass loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass a...

  17. Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB): an integrative and interactive database for rice genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Lee, Sung Shin; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Numa, Hisataka; Kim, Jungsok; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Wakimoto, Hironobu; Yang, Ching-chia; Iwamoto, Masao; Abe, Takashi; Yamada, Yuko; Muto, Akira; Inokuchi, Hachiro; Ikemura, Toshimichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sasaki, Takuji; Itoh, Takeshi

    2013-02-01

    The Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB, http://rapdb.dna.affrc.go.jp/) has been providing a comprehensive set of gene annotations for the genome sequence of rice, Oryza sativa (japonica group) cv. Nipponbare. Since the first release in 2005, RAP-DB has been updated several times along with the genome assembly updates. Here, we present our newest RAP-DB based on the latest genome assembly, Os-Nipponbare-Reference-IRGSP-1.0 (IRGSP-1.0), which was released in 2011. We detected 37,869 loci by mapping transcript and protein sequences of 150 monocot species. To provide plant researchers with highly reliable and up to date rice gene annotations, we have been incorporating literature-based manually curated data, and 1,626 loci currently incorporate literature-based annotation data, including commonly used gene names or gene symbols. Transcriptional activities are shown at the nucleotide level by mapping RNA-Seq reads derived from 27 samples. We also mapped the Illumina reads of a Japanese leading japonica cultivar, Koshihikari, and a Chinese indica cultivar, Guangluai-4, to the genome and show alignments together with the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene functional annotations through a newly developed browser, Short-Read Assembly Browser (S-RAB). We have developed two satellite databases, Plant Gene Family Database (PGFD) and Integrative Database of Cereal Gene Phylogeny (IDCGP), which display gene family and homologous gene relationships among diverse plant species. RAP-DB and the satellite databases offer simple and user-friendly web interfaces, enabling plant and genome researchers to access the data easily and facilitating a broad range of plant research topics.

  18. Cereal foods are the major source of betaine in the Western diet--analysis of betaine and free choline in cereal foods and updated assessments of betaine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alastair B; Zangger, Alicia; Guiraud, Seu Ping

    2014-02-15

    Betaine and its precursor choline are important components of one-carbon metabolism, remethylating homocysteine into methionine and providing methyl groups for DNA methylation. Cereals are the main source of betaine in the diet, though there is little literature available on the content of betaine in cereal products, nor on betaine intake from cereals. Betaine and free-choline concentrations were measured by liquid-chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in a wide range of commercially available cereal foods and cereal fractions. Whole grain wheat and related fractions were the best overall common source of betaine, while the pseudocereal quinoa had the highest amount of betaine measured (3900 μg/g). Based on estimates of dietary intake data cereal foods provide approximately 60-67% of betaine in Western diets, and 20-40% of betaine in South-East Asian diets. Average intake of betaine was 131 mg/d, well below those used in intervention studies using betaine to lower blood homocysteine.

  19. In vitro estimation of the rate and extent of ruminal digestion of cereal feed fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahir, M.N.; Lund, Peter; Hetta, M.

    2011-01-01

    by their physical and chemical properties and might be ranked as highly and poorly degrading starch after their extent and rate of degradation in rumen (Nocek and Tamminga, 1991). It is hypothesized that rumen fermentation rate of cereal starch varies considerably and that this might affect fibre digestibility......Cereal grains are important components in diets for high producing dairy cows and fast growing beef cattle. The most important feed fraction in cereals is starch, which constitutes the major portion (70-80%) of cereal grains. In ruminant nutrition different starch sources are characterized......, forage intake, and animal performance (Nocek and Tamminga, 1991; Mills et al., 1999). It would, therefore, be useful to reliably determine the differences in rumen fermentation characteristics of cereals. Part of the variation can be attributed to the methods used for evaluation (Stensig et al., 1998b...

  20. A low glycaemic index breakfast cereal preferentially prevents children's cognitive performance from declining throughout the morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwersen, Jeanet; Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Kennedy, David O; Wesnes, Keith A; Scholey, Andrew B

    2007-07-01

    This study investigated whether the glycaemic index (GI) of breakfast cereal differentially affects children's attention and memory. Using a balanced cross-over design, on two consecutive mornings 64 children aged 6-11 years were given a high GI cereal and a low GI cereal in a counterbalanced order. They performed a series of computerised tests of attention and memory, once prior to breakfast and three times following breakfast at hourly intervals. The results indicate that children's performance declines throughout the morning and that this decline can be significantly reduced following the intake of a low GI cereal as compared with a high GI cereal on measures of accuracy of attention (M=-6.742 and -13.510, respectively, p<0.05) and secondary memory (M=-30.675 and -47.183, respectively, p<0.05).

  1. Cereal area and nitrogen use efficiency are drivers of future nitrogen fertilizer consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Achim Dobermann; Kenneth G. Cassman

    2005-01-01

    At a global scale, cereal yields and fertilizer N consumption have increased in a near-linear fashion during the past 40 years and are highly correlated with one another. However,large differences exist in historical trends of N fertilizer usage and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)among regions, countries, and crops. The reasons for these differences must be understood to estimate future N fertilizer requirements. Global nitrogen needs will depend on: (i) changes in cropped cereal area and the associated yield increases required to meet increasing cereal demand from population and income growth, and (ii) changes in NUE at the farm level. Our analysis indicates that the anticipated 38% increase in global cereal demand by 2025 can be met by a 30% increase in N use on cereals, provided that the steady decline in cereal harvest area is halted and the yield response to applied N can be increased by 20%. If losses of cereal cropping area continue at the rate of the past 20 years (-0.33% per year) and NUE cannot be increased substantially, a 60% increase in global N use on cereals would be required to meet cereal demand. Interventions to increase NUE and reduce N losses to the environment must be accomplished at the farm- or field-scale through a combination of improved technologies and carefully crafted local policies that contribute to the adoption of improved N management; uniform regional or national directives are unlikey to be effective at both sustaining yield increases and improving NUE. Examples from several countries show that increases in NUE at rates of 1% per year or more can be achieved if adequate investments are made in research and extension. Failure to arrest the decrease in cereal crop area and to improve NUE in the world's most important agricultural systems will likely cause severe damage to environmental services at local, regional, and global scales due to a large increase in reactive N load in the environment.

  2. Cereal area and nitrogen use efficiency are drivers of future nitrogen fertilizer consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobermann, Achim; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2005-12-01

    At a global scale, cereal yields and fertilizer N consumption have increased in a near-linear fashion during the past 40 years and are highly correlated with one another. However, large differences exist in historical trends of N fertilizer usage and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) among regions, countries, and crops. The reasons for these differences must be understood to estimate future N fertilizer requirements. Global nitrogen needs will depend on: (i) changes in cropped cereal area and the associated yield increases required to meet increasing cereal demand from population and income growth, and (ii) changes in NUE at the farm level. Our analysis indicates that the anticipated 38% increase in global cereal demand by 2025 can be met by a 30% increase in N use on cereals, provided that the steady decline in cereal harvest area is halted and the yield response to applied N can be increased by 20%. If losses of cereal cropping area continue at the rate of the past 20 years (-0.33% per year) and NUE cannot be increased substantially, a 60% increase in global N use on cereals would be required to meet cereal demand. Interventions to increase NUE and reduce N losses to the environment must be accomplished at the farm- or field-scale through a combination of improved technologies and carefully crafted local policies that contribute to the adoption of improved N management; uniform regional or national directives are unlikey to be effective at both sustaining yield increases and improving NUE. Examples from several countries show that increases in NUE at rates of 1% per year or more can be achieved if adequate investments are made in research and extension. Failure to arrest the decrease in cereal crop area and to improve NUE in the world's most important agricultural systems will likely cause severe damage to environmental services at local, regional, and global scales due to a large increase in reactive N load in the environment.

  3. Depicted serving size: cereal packaging pictures exaggerate serving sizes and promote overserving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Aner; Niemann, Stina; Wansink, Brian

    2017-02-06

    Extensive work has focused on the effects of nutrition label information on consumer behavior on the one hand, and on the effects of packaging graphics on the other hand. However, little work has examined how serving suggestion depictions - graphics relating to serving size - influence the quantity consumers serve themselves. The current work examines the prevalence of exaggerated serving size depictions on product packaging (study 1) and its effects on food serving in the context of cereal (study 2). Study 1 was an observational field survey of cereal packaging. Study 2 was a mixed experimental cross-sectional design conducted at a U.S. university, with 51 student participants. Study 1 coded 158 US breakfast cereals and compared the serving sizes depicted on the front of the box with the suggested serving size stated on the nutrition facts panel. Study 2 measured the amount of cereal poured from exaggerated or accurate serving size depictions. Study 1 compared average servings via t-tests. Study 2 used a mixed model with cereal type as the repeated measure and a compound symmetry covariance matrix. Study 1 demonstrated that portion size depictions on the front of 158 cereal boxes were 64.7% larger (221 vs. 134 calories) than the recommended portions on nutrition facts panels of those cereals. Study 2 showed that boxes that depicted exaggerated serving sizes led people to pour 17.8% more cereal compared to pouring from modified boxes that depicted a single-size portion of cereal matching suggested serving size. This was 42% over the suggested serving size. Biases in depicted serving size depicted on cereal packaging are prevalent in the marketplace. Such biases may lead to overserving, which may consequently lead to overeating. Companies should depict the recommended serving sizes, or otherwise indicate that the depicted portion represents an exaggerated serving size.

  4. Genetic resources offer efficient tools for rice functional genomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shuen-Fang; Fan, Ming-Jen; Hsing, Yue-Ie; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Chen, Shu; Wen, Ien-Chie; Liu, Yi-Lun; Chen, Ku-Ting; Jiang, Mirng-Jier; Lin, Ming-Kuang; Rao, Meng-Yen; Yu, Lin-Chih; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Yu, Su-May

    2016-05-01

    Rice is an important crop and major model plant for monocot functional genomics studies. With the establishment of various genetic resources for rice genomics, the next challenge is to systematically assign functions to predicted genes in the rice genome. Compared with the robustness of genome sequencing and bioinformatics techniques, progress in understanding the function of rice genes has lagged, hampering the utilization of rice genes for cereal crop improvement. The use of transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertional mutagenesis offers the advantage of uniform distribution throughout the rice genome, but preferentially in gene-rich regions, resulting in direct gene knockout or activation of genes within 20-30 kb up- and downstream of the T-DNA insertion site and high gene tagging efficiency. Here, we summarize the recent progress in functional genomics using the T-DNA-tagged rice mutant population. We also discuss important features of T-DNA activation- and knockout-tagging and promoter-trapping of the rice genome in relation to mutant and candidate gene characterizations and how to more efficiently utilize rice mutant populations and datasets for high-throughput functional genomics and phenomics studies by forward and reverse genetics approaches. These studies may facilitate the translation of rice functional genomics research to improvements of rice and other cereal crops.

  5. Purchases of ready-to-eat cereals vary across US household sociodemographic categories according to nutritional value and advertising targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castetbon, Katia; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2012-08-01

    To describe ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal purchases in 2008 in the USA according to cereal nutritional quality and marketing strategy and household sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional study of purchases in one year. Each type of cereal was assigned to one of four nutrition quality categories (based on Nutrient Profile Index, NPI) and one of four advertising categories based on television exposure and analysis of packaging (child-targeted, family-targeted, adult-targeted and no television advertising). Medians and distributions of purchase indicators were calculated for the cereal categories and the distributions were compared across sociodemographic groups. RTE cereals (n 249) with complete label and nutritional content. RTE cereal purchases according to household sociodemographic characteristics obtained from Nielsen Homescan, a nationally representative panel of households. Purchases of RTE cereals were highest in households with one or more child and lowest in African-American and Asian households, as well as those earning loyalty to these products was lower. Purchases of cereals by households with children and in African-American and Hispanic households increased as cereal nutritional quality declined. Compared with non-advertised products, advertised child-targeted cereals were purchased thirteen times more frequently; family-targeted brand purchases were ten times higher; and adult-targeted cereals were purchased four times more frequently. Our findings suggest that improving the nutritional quality of RTE cereals with advertising targeted to children could also lead to increased consumption of healthier products by young people.

  6. A review of the potential for competitive cereal cultivars as a tool in integrated weed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, I K S; Storkey, J; Sparkes, D L

    2015-06-01

    Competitive crop cultivars offer a potentially cheap option to include in integrated weed management strategies (IWM). Although cultivars with high competitive potential have been identified amongst cereal crops, competitiveness has not traditionally been considered a priority for breeding or farmer cultivar choice. The challenge of managing herbicide-resistant weed populations has, however, renewed interest in cultural weed control options, including competitive cultivars. We evaluated the current understanding of the traits that explain variability in competitive ability between cultivars, the relationship between suppression of weed neighbours and tolerance of their presence and the existence of trade-offs between competitive ability and yield in weed-free scenarios. A large number of relationships between competitive ability and plant traits have been reported in the literature, including plant height, speed of development, canopy architecture and partitioning of resources. There is uncertainty over the relationship between suppressive ability and tolerance, although tolerance is a less stable trait over seasons and locations. To realise the potential of competitive crop cultivars as a tool in IWM, a quick and simple-to-use protocol for assessing the competitive potential of new cultivars is required; it is likely that this will not be based on a single trait, but will need to capture the combined effect of multiple traits. A way needs to be found to make this information accessible to farmers, so that competitive cultivars can be better integrated into their weed control programmes.

  7. DETERMINATION OF PRIMARY METABOLITES IN CEREAL MILLING FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine of primary metabolites (content of starch, total dietary fibre, reducing sugars, proteins and amino acids in four milling fractions of selected cereals (barley, wheat, oat, spelt, rye, triticale grew in the year 2009. It was found that flour fractions (break flour and reduction flour showed the lower content of primary metabolites than bran fractions (fine bran and coarse bran. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of bran parts of grain - substances from these parts can be isolated and after treatment, which causes their efficiently usable for human body, they can be used for fortification of wide range of food products.

  8. Ensuring sustainable grain legume-cereal cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, E-P; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    health makes them a key rotation crop in the sustainable intensification and diversification of smallholder farming. This makes grain legumes a key food security crop. However, yields in developing countries are low as a result of such factors as the need for improved varieties of seed, poor seed......Grain legumes are widely cultivated, particularly for their dry seeds (known as pulses). Grain legumes are an important crop for a number of reasons. They are a rich source of protein and fibre, minerals and vitamins. In addition, their rapid growth and ability to fix nitrogen and improve soil...... as in Denmark using spring and winter cereal-grain legume intercrops. Intercropping involves simultaneously growing two or more crops in the same field for a significant period of time. The practice is ancient as early records from many human societies all over the world have shown. Intercropping systems...

  9. Prediction of cereal feed value using spectroscopy and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Gislum, René

    2009-01-01

    value, the prediction error has to be compared with the error in the chemical analysis. Prediction error by NIRS prediction of feed value is above the error of the chemical measurement. The conclusion is that it is possible to predict the feed value in cereals with NIRS quickly and cheaply......, but prediction error with this method is relatively high in relation to a chemical determination of the feed value. A further improvement of the NIRS method will probably be possible with the addition of further references (several years, varieties and sites), which is therefore recommended. Likewise...... in-situ. Near infra-red reflection spectroscopy (NIRS) is appropriate as a standard analysis of dry matter, total N and starch in grains, since it is rapid (approximately 1 minute per measurement of a ground test) and cheap. NIRS is therefore appropriate as a quick method for the determination...

  10. Analytical Aspects of Total Starch Polarimetric Determination in Some Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Caprita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the most important digestible polysaccharide present in foods and feeds. The starch concentration in cereals cannot be determined directly, because the starch is contained within a structurally and chemically complex matrix. Fine grinding and boiling in dilute HCl are preparative steps necessary for complete release of the starch granules from the protein matrix. Starch can be determined using simple and inexpensive physical methods, such as density, refractive index or optical rotation assessment. The polarimetric method allows the determination even of small starch contents due to its extremely high specific rotation. For more accurate results, the contribution of free sugars is eliminated by dissolution in 40% (V/V ethanol. The influence of other optically active substances, which might interfere, is removed by filtration/clarification prior to the optical rotation measurement.

  11. Valorization of cereal based biorefinery byproducts: reality and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmekawy, Ahmed; Diels, Ludo; De Wever, Heleen; Pant, Deepak

    2013-08-20

    The growth of the biobased economy will lead to an increase in new biorefinery activities. All biorefineries face the regular challenges of efficiently and economically treating their effluent to be compatible with local discharge requirements and to minimize net water consumption. The amount of wastes resulting from biorefineries industry is exponentially growing. The valorization of such wastes has drawn considerable attention with respect to resources with an observable economic and environmental concern. This has been a promising field which shows great prospective toward byproduct usage and increasing value obtained from the biorefinery. However, full-scale realization of biorefinery wastes valorization is not straightforward because several microbiological, technological and economic challenges need to be resolved. In this review we considered valorization options for cereals based biorefineries wastes while identifying their challenges and exploring the opportunities for future process.

  12. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle Juel;

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule...... structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics...... showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated...

  13. Sex influence on recombination frequency in Secale cereale L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, C; Romero, M P; Henriques-Gil, N; Llorente, F; Figueiras, A M

    1996-10-01

    The variation in recombination frequency (rf) is important to plant breeders since their major objective is to obtain favorable recombinants of linked genes. One source of variation in rf is sex. Sex differences for recombination frequencies were studied in four of the seven chromosomes of Secale cereale L. cv 'Ailés' using isozyme and storage protein loci and were determined on the basis of reciprocal crosses between heterozygous plants of cv. 'Ailés' and homozygous plants of the inbred line 'Riodeva'. The differences were found to be strongly segmentspecific. In some cases the level of crossing-over in male and female meiosis was about the same (between Pgm1 and Ndh1 loci on chromosome arm 4RS). However, for most of the chromosome segments in 1R, 3RL and 6RL the male rf was significantly higher than the female rf. Different hypotheses about the mechanisms of plant sex differences for recombination are discussed.

  14. Genome interplay in the grain transcriptome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Kugler, Karl G; Sandve, Simen R; Zhan, Bujie; Rudi, Heidi; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Mayer, Klaus F X; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2014-07-18

    Allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) provides approximately 20% of calories consumed by humans. Lack of genome sequence for the three homeologous and highly similar bread wheat genomes (A, B, and D) has impeded expression analysis of the grain transcriptome. We used previously unknown genome information to analyze the cell type-specific expression of homeologous genes in the developing wheat grain and identified distinct co-expression clusters reflecting the spatiotemporal progression during endosperm development. We observed no global but cell type- and stage-dependent genome dominance, organization of the wheat genome into transcriptionally active chromosomal regions, and asymmetric expression in gene families related to baking quality. Our findings give insight into the transcriptional dynamics and genome interplay among individual grain cell types in a polyploid cereal genome. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Parallel Domestication of the Heading Date 1 Gene in Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanhuan; Liu, Hangqin; Zhou, Leina; Zhang, Zhihai; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Mingli; Li, Haixia; Lin, Zhongwei

    2015-10-01

    Flowering time is one of the key determinants of crop adaptation to local environments during domestication. However, the genetic basis underlying flowering time is yet to be elucidated in most cereals. Although staple cereals, such as rice, maize, wheat, barley, and sorghum, have spread and adapted to a wide range of ecological environments during domestication, it is yet to be determined whether they have a common genetic basis for flowering time. In this study, we show, through map-based cloning, that flowering time in sorghum is controlled by a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) Heading Date 1 (HD1), located on chromosome 10. The causal gene encodes the CONSTANS gene family which contains a CCT domain. A 5-bp deletion of a minor allele present in the coding sequence leads to a gene frameshift that delays flowering in sorghum. In contrast, in foxtail millet, association mapping of HD1 showed a common causal site with a splicing variant from "GT" to "AT" that was highly correlated with flowering time. In addition, the rice HD1 gene is known to harbor several causal variants controlling flowering time. These data indicate that the major flowering time QTL HD1 was under parallel domestication in sorghum, foxtail millet, and rice. The pattern of common mixed minor, or even rare, causal alleles in HD1 across different species may be representative of the genetic basis of the domestication syndrome. Furthermore, large DNA sequence analysis of HD1 revealed multiple origins for domesticated sorghum and a single origin for domesticated foxtail millet.

  16. Open access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Open access week Van 19 tot en met 25 oktober 2015 vond wereldwijd de Open Access Week plaats. Tijdens deze week werden er over de hele wereld evenementen georganiseerd waar open access een rol speelt. Ook in Nederland zijn er diverse symposia, workshops en debatten georganiseerd zoals het debat in

  17. A Review on Genomics APIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Swaminathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The constant improvement and falling prices of whole human genome Next Generation Sequencing (NGS has resulted in rapid adoption of genomic information at both clinics and research institutions. Considered together, the complexity of genomics data, due to its large volume and diversity along with the need for genomic data sharing, has resulted in the creation of Application Programming Interface (API for secure, modular, interoperable access to genomic data from different applications, platforms, and even organizations. The Genomics APIs are a set of special protocols that assist software developers in dealing with multiple genomic data sources for building seamless, interoperable applications leading to the advancement of both genomic and clinical research. These APIs help define a standard for retrieval of genomic data from multiple sources as well as to better package genomic information for integration with Electronic Health Records. This review covers three currently available Genomics APIs: a Google Genomics, b SMART Genomics, and c 23andMe. The functionalities, reference implementations (if available and authentication protocols of each API are reviewed. A comparative analysis of the different features across the three APIs is provided in the Discussion section. Though Genomics APIs are still under active development and have yet to reach widespread adoption, they hold the promise to make building of complicated genomics applications easier with downstream constructive effects on healthcare.

  18. Dry Cereals Fortified with Electrolytic Iron or Ferrous Fumarate Are Equally Effective in Breast-fed Infants123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ekhard E.; Fomon, Samuel J.; Nelson, Steven E.; Jeter, Janice M.; Theuer, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Precooked, instant (dry) infant cereals in the US are fortified with electrolytic iron, a source of low reactivity and suspected low bioavailability. Iron from ferrous fumarate is presumed to be more available. In this study, we compared a dry infant rice cereal (Cereal L) fortified with electrolytic iron (54.5 mg iron/100 g cereal) to a similar cereal (Cereal M) fortified with ferrous fumarate (52.2 mg Fe/100 g) for efficacy in maintaining iron status and preventing iron deficiency (ID) in breast-fed infants. Ascorbic acid was included in both cereals. In this prospective, randomized double-blind trial, exclusively breast-fed infants were enrolled at 1 mo and iron status was determined periodically. At 4 mo, 3 infants had ID anemia and were excluded. Ninety-five infants were randomized at 4 mo, and 69 (36 Cereal L, 33 Cereal M) completed the intervention at 9 mo. From 4 to 9 mo, they consumed daily one of the study cereals. With each cereal, 2 infants had mild ID, a prevalence of 4.2%, but no infant developed ID anemia. There were no differences in iron status between study groups. Iron intake from the study cereals was (mean ± SD) 1.21 ± 0.31 mg⋅kg−1⋅d−1 from Cereal L and 1.07 ± 0.40 mg⋅kg−1⋅d−1 from Cereal M. Eleven infants had low birth iron endowment (plasma ferritin ferrous fumarate were equally efficacious as fortificants of this infant cereal. PMID:21178077

  19. Registered access: a 'Triple-A' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Stephanie O M; Kirby, Emily; Shabani, Mahsa; Thorogood, Adrian; Kato, Kazuto; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2016-12-01

    We propose a standard model for a novel data access tier - registered access - to facilitate access to data that cannot be published in open access archives owing to ethical and legal risk. Based on an analysis of applicable research ethics and other legal and administrative frameworks, we discuss the general characteristics of this Registered Access Model, which would comprise a three-stage approval process: Authentication, Attestation and Authorization. We are piloting registered access with the Demonstration Projects of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health for which it may provide a suitable mechanism for access to certain data types and to different types of data users.

  20. Sugar as part of a balanced breakfast? What cereal advertisements teach children about healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoDolce, Megan E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-01-01

    Marketing that targets children with energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods is a likely contributor to the childhood obesity crisis. High-sugar ready-to-eat cereals are the packaged food most frequently promoted in child-targeted food advertising on television. The authors combined content analysis of product nutritional quality and messages presented in cereal television advertisements with syndicated data on exposure to those ads. The analysis quantifies children's exposure to specific products and messages that appear in advertisements and compares it with adult exposure. Children viewed 1.7 ads per day for ready-to-eat cereals, and 87% of those ads promoted high-sugar products; adults viewed half as many ads, and ads viewed were equally likely to promote high- and low-sugar cereals. In addition, the messages presented in high-sugar ads viewed by children were significantly more likely to convey unrealistic and contradictory messages about cereal attributes and healthy eating. For example, 91% of high-sugar cereal ads viewed by children ascribed extraordinary powers to these products, and 67% portrayed healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors. Given children's vulnerability to the influence of advertising, the emotional and mixed messages used to promote high-sugar cereals are confusing and potentially misleading.

  1. Antioxidant properties of certain cereals as affected by food-grade bacteria fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Wu, Sz-Jie; Shyu, Yuan-Tay

    2014-04-01

    The effects of fermentation by 2 food-grade bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum) on antioxidant activities and the contents of phenolics and flavonoids in 4 cereals (specifically adlay, chestnut, lotus seed, and walnut) were determined and compared with those of their non-fermented counterparts. Results showed that antioxidant properties observed in the fermented and non-fermented cereals may vary with fermented starters. Fermentation was observed to increase the phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts. The effects on Bacillus-fermented cereals were stronger than on Lactobacillus-fermented cereals. In IC50 values (mg/mL) of extracts, the extracts of fermented cereal showed a stronger DPPH radical scavenging and ferric-reducing activities. Fermentation did not significantly alter the Fe(2+)-chelating activity in the extracts of chestnuts and lotus seeds. All cereals were shown significantly inhibited the production of LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) without creating obvious cytotoxic effects in the macrophage cells. These results suggest that the fermentation process enables cereal-based foods with enhanced antioxidant capacities to contribute to health and nutritional improvements in consumers.

  2. How Does Gender Affect Sustainable Intensification of Cereal Production in the West African Sahel? Evidence from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriault, Veronique; Smale, Melinda; Haider, Hamza

    2017-04-01

    Better understanding of gender differences in the adoption of agricultural intensification strategies is crucial for designing effective policies to close the gender gap while sustainably enhancing farm productivity. We examine gender differences in adoption rates, likelihood and determinants of adopting strategy sets that enhance yields, protect crops, and restore soils in the West African Sahel, based on analysis of cereal production in Burkina Faso. Applying a multivariate probit model to a nationally representative household panel, we exploit the individual plot as unit of analysis and control for plot manager characteristics along with other covariates. Reflecting the socio-cultural context of farming combined with the economic attributes of inputs, we find that female managers of individual cereal fields are less likely than their male counterparts to adopt yield-enhancing and soil-restoring strategies, although no differential is apparent for yield-protecting strategies. More broadly, gender-disaggregated regressions demonstrate that adoption determinants differ by gender. Plot manager characteristics, including age, marital status, and access to credit or extension services do influence adoption decisions. Furthermore, household resources influence the probability of adopting intensification strategy sets differently by gender of the plot manager. Variables expressing the availability of household labor strongly influence the adoption of soil-restoring strategies by female plot managers. By contrast, household resources such as extent of livestock owned, value of non-farm income, and area planted to cotton affect the adoption choices of male plot managers. Rectifying the male bias in extension services along with improving access to credit, income, and equipment to female plot managers could contribute to sustainable agricultural intensification.

  3. Cereal Feeding in Fishes Nutrition for Fishery in Fresh Water from Banat Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Mnerie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries have traditionally been managed by direct restrictions, including seasonal and area closures, minimum mesh size, and access limitations. In recent years, licensing and an individual quota system were introduced as effortcontrol measures, in order to bring fishing effort more in line with the available resources. The overall responsibility for fisheries policy in Romania falls under auspices of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forests and Rural Development through its Directorate of Fisheries. The major objectives of Romanian fisheries are to bring the national fisheries legislation closer to the European Union (EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP and to set up the administrative capacity and institutional building needed to cope with EU accession in 2007. In June 2001, Romania completed negotiations with EU in the area of fisheries, accepting the entire acquis communautaire without requesting any derogation or transition periods. The European Fisheries Fund will support Romania as a new EU Member State to develop a competitive, modern and dynamic fisheries sector, based on sustainable fishing and aquaculture activities, while also taking account of other important aspects such as environmental protection, the demands of the consumers and the food industry. The program is also expected to increase the competitiveness of the fisheries sector, encourage job creation and promote the growth of the aquaculture industry. The paper shows some aspects about Romanian fishery policy, an important opportunity for development research in fishery in fresh water from Banat region. Also, it is presents some research results about using the cereal feeding as fish’s nutrition, in special for common carp.

  4. THE USE OF PSEUDO-CEREALS FLOURS IN BAKERY / UTILISATION DE FARINES DES PSEUDO-CEREALES DANS LA BOULANGERIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMULUS MARIAN BURLUC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a special attention should be given to the nutritional properties of foods. In the bakery industry there is a tendency to develop innovative range of bakery products by using the therapeutic role of cereals that are not used at their true potential (buckwheat, millet, rice, oats. Among bioactive components present in the pseudocereal flours, flavones group is highlighted, in particular rutine, the most important ramnoglicosid with multiple beneficial effects on health. The aims of this study were the obtention of different bakery products (bread, biscuits from raw materials with high therapeutic potential (fiber, antioxidant capacity, minerals, the optimization of process parameters and recipes, and the characterization of finished products in terms of sensory and physico-chemical properties. The results confirm that the use of unusual raw materials for the Romanian market led to obtaining high quality finished products with special therapeutic features.

  5. The Cereal Pollen Sensitivity and Effect of the Asthma Clinics in Sanliurfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Ceylan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim in this study was to detect the kinds of cereal that cause cereal pollens sensitivity, and to investigate the effects of cereal pollen sensitivity on the asthma clinic. Material and Method: In this study 140 cases from Sanliurfa with asthma (83 women, 57 men, with the mean age of 26.3-7.9 year and sensitivity against cereal pollen demonstrated by skin prick test, who applied to OSM Ortadogu Hospital Chest Diseases Outpatient Clinic in the period of March-June were evaluated prospectively. The patients’ peak expiratory flow (PEF values measured in the morning and evening, changes in PEF, asthma symptom score and the symptom-relieving therapy used during the 16-weeks study period were recorded and evaluated in the clinic with FEV1 results at the beginning, month 1, 2, 3 and 4. Results: Of the patients with sensitivity against cereals pollens, 25.4% had allergy against Hordeum vulgare, 23.6% against Secale cereale, 20.7% against Triticum sativum, 19,3% against Zea mays and 18.6% against Avena sativa. Prior to the study and at the end of follow up period, morning and evening PEF values, asthma scores and symptom relieving drug usage were same cereals pollens sensitivity (p>0.05. Discussion: Accordance to the vegetation of Sanliurfa region, important ratio of the sensitivities were detected with prick test against Hordeum vulgare, Secale cereale, Triticum sativum, Zea mays and Avena sativa pollens. The effects of cereals pollens were similar rates of asthma clinics.

  6. Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2013-03-20

    Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one.

  7. Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, S. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dally, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Fortson, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Joyce, G. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Kimble, H. J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Lewis, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Max, C. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Prince, T. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Schwitters, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Weinberger, P. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Woodin, W. H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1998-01-04

    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  8. Genomic Datasets for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of datasets from genome-wide association studies of cancer and other genotype-phenotype studies, including sequencing and molecular diagnostic assays, are available to approved investigators through the Extramural National Cancer Institute Data Access Committee.

  9. Genomics and the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipkin, Matthew E; Monticelli, Silvia

    2008-05-01

    While the hereditary information encoded in the Watson-Crick base pairing of genomes is largely static within a given individual, access to this information is controlled by dynamic mechanisms. The human genome is pervasively transcribed, but the roles played by the majority of the non-protein-coding genome sequences are still largely unknown. In this review we focus on insights to gene transcriptional regulation by placing special emphasis on genome-wide approaches, and on how non-coding RNAs, which derive from global transcription of the genome, in turn control gene expression. We review recent progress in the field with highlights on the immune system.

  10. Using fuzzy logic for automatic control: Case study of a problem of cereals samples classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhoua Najeh Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the use of fuzzy logic for automatic control of industrial systems particularly the way to approach a problem of classification. We present a case study of a grading system of cereals that allows us to determine the price of transactions of cereals in Tunisia. Our contribution in this work consists in proposing not only an application of the fuzzy logic on the grading system of cereals but also a methodology enabling the proposing of a new grading system based on the concept of 'Grade' while using the fuzzy logic techniques. .

  11. Barras de cereales energéticas y enriquecidas con otras fuentes vegetales

    OpenAIRE

    Zenteno Pacheco, Sonia; Universidad Peruana Unión, E.P. Ingeniería de Alimentos

    2016-01-01

    Las barras de cereales se constituyen a base de avena pero además se adicionan ingredientes como la jalea de mora, harina de camote, camu camu deshidratado, cascara de piña, murici deshidratado, algarrobo y semillas de macauba. El objetivo es sistematizar la revisión de las distintas barras de cereales y conocer el elemento que destaca nutricionalmente. Se compararon cada una de las barras frente a una barra comercial. La información disponible realizados por los estudios de barras de cereale...

  12. The prevalence and distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiak, B.; Torp, M.; Skjerve, E.

    2003-01-01

    In the period 1994-1996 a post-harvest survey was conducted in wheat, barley and oats to assess the occurrence and geographic distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals. The number of samples investigated was adjusted proportionally to the production of each cereal species within...... the regions. A total of 695 grain samples were analysed. The amount of Fusarium infection varied with cereal species and region of origin. The most frequently isolated Fusarium spp. from all samples were F. avenaceum, F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. culmorum. Other important toxigenic Fusarium spp. were F...

  13. Effects of milling on the extraction efficiency of incurred pesticides in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Andersen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of particle size and milling temperature on the extraction efficiencies of pesticide residues from cereal flour. Samples of cereal grains (barley, oat, rye and wheat) were milled using a centrifugal mill with four different sieves (0.2, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mm...... shaker. Based on the pesticide levels recovered from each of the different millings and the corresponding particle size distributions, it was confirmed that smaller average particle sizes increase the extraction efficiency up to 31%, with all other factors equal. The cereals milled at room temperature...

  14. Distribution of carotenoids in endosperm, germ, and aleurone fractions of cereal grain kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndolo, Victoria U; Beta, Trust

    2013-08-15

    To compare the distribution of carotenoids across the grain, non-corn and corn cereals were hand dissected into endosperm, germ and aleurone fractions. Total carotenoid content (TCC) and carotenoid composition were analysed using spectrophotometry and HPLC. Cereal carotenoid composition was similar; however, concentrations varied significantly (paleurone layer had zeaxanthin levels 2- to 5-fold higher than lutein among the cereals. Positive significant correlations (paleurone layer. Our findings suggest that the aleurone of wheat, oat, corn and germ of barley have significantly enhanced carotenoid levels.

  15. Structural and functional analysis of rice genome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhilesh K. Tyagi; Jitendra P. Khurana; Paramjit Khurana; Saurabh Raghuvanshi; Anupama Gaur; Anita Kapur; Vikrant Gupta; Dibyendu Kumar; V. Ravi; Shubha Vij; Parul Khurana; Sulabha Sharma

    2004-04-01

    Rice is an excellent system for plant genomics as it represents a modest size genome of 430 Mb. It feeds more than half the population of the world. Draft sequences of the rice genome, derived by whole-genome shotgun approach at relatively low coverage (4–6 X), were published and the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP) declared high quality (>10 X), genetically anchored, phase 2 level sequence in 2002. In addition, phase 3 level finished sequence of chromosomes 1, 4 and 10 (out of 12 chromosomes of rice) has already been reported by scientists from IRGSP consortium. Various estimates of genes in rice place the number at > 50,000. Already, over 28,000 full-length cDNAs have been sequenced, most of which map to genetically anchored genome sequence. Such information is very useful in revealing novel features of macro- and micro-level synteny of rice genome with other cereals. Microarray analysis is unraveling the identity of rice genes expressing in temporal and spatial manner and should help target candidate genes useful for improving traits of agronomic importance. Simultaneously, functional analysis of rice genome has been initiated by marker-based characterization of useful genes and employing functional knock-outs created by mutation or gene tagging. Integration of this enormous information is expected to catalyze tremendous activity on basic and applied aspects of rice genomics.

  16. Comparative population genomics of fusarium graminearum reveals adaptive divergence among cereal head blight pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the last decade, a combination of molecular surveillance and population genetic analyses have significantly altered our understanding of Fusarium graminearum, the major FHB pathogen in North America. In addition to the native NA1 population (largely 15ADON toxin type) and the invasive NA2 pop...

  17. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Brachypodium distachyon: sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of eight grass plastomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Olin D

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat, barley, and rye, of tribe Triticeae in the Poaceae, are among the most important crops worldwide but they present many challenges to genomics-aided crop improvement. Brachypodium distachyon, a close relative of those cereals has recently emerged as a model for grass functional genomics. Sequencing of the nuclear and organelle genomes of Brachypodium is one of the first steps towards making this species available as a tool for researchers interested in cereals biology. Findings The chloroplast genome of Brachypodium distachyon was sequenced by a combinational approach using BAC end and shotgun sequences derived from a selected BAC containing the entire chloroplast genome. Comparative analysis indicated that the chloroplast genome is conserved in gene number and organization with respect to those of other cereals. However, several Brachypodium genes evolve at a faster rate than those in other grasses. Sequence analysis reveals that rice and wheat have a ~2.1 kb deletion in their plastid genomes and this deletion must have occurred independently in both species. Conclusion We demonstrate that BAC libraries can be used to sequence plastid, and likely other organellar, genomes. As expected, the Brachypodium chloroplast genome is very similar to those of other sequenced grasses. The phylogenetic analyses and the pattern of insertions and deletions in the chloroplast genome confirmed that Brachypodium is a close relative of the tribe Triticeae. Nevertheless, we show that some large indels can arise multiple times and may confound phylogenetic reconstruction.

  18. Non-Alcoholic Beverages from Fermented Cereals with Increased Oligosaccharide Content

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loreta Basinskiene; Grazina Juodeikiene; Daiva Vidmantiene; Maija Tenkanen; Tomas Makaravicius; Elena Bartkiene

    2016-01-01

      The aim of this study is to develop a new technology for making traditional Lithuanian non-alcoholic beverage kvass from fermented cereals by extending the spectrum of raw materials (extruded rye...

  19. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to Cereal Grain Volatiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Germinara, Giacinto Salvatore; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    ..., and different doses of three individual compounds previously identified in cereal grain odors were investigated in Y-tube olfactometer and Petri dish arena behavioral bioassays and electroantennogram recordings...

  20. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... bioengineering of cereals. Bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes. References: Blennow, A., Engelsen, S. B. (2010). Helix-breaking news......: fighting crystalline starch energy deposits in the cell. Trends in Plant Science Vol. 15, 4:236-240 Hebelstrup, K. H., Christiansen, M. W., Carciofi, M., Tauris, B., Brinch-Pedersen, H., Bach Holm, P. (2010). UCE: A uracil excision (USER™)-based toolbox for transformation of cereals. Plant Methods 6:15...

  1. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... bioengineering of cereals. Bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes. References: Blennow, A., Engelsen, S. B. (2010). Helix-breaking news......: fighting crystalline starch energy deposits in the cell. Trends in Plant Science Vol. 15, 4:236-240 Hebelstrup, K. H., Christiansen, M. W., Carciofi, M., Tauris, B., Brinch-Pedersen, H., Bach Holm, P. (2010). UCE: A uracil excision (USER™)-based toolbox for transformation of cereals. Plant Methods 6:15...

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Functional Properties of Some Commonly Used Cereal and Legume Flours and Their Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties such as protein solubility, swelling capacity, water holding capacity, gelling ability, bulk density and foaming capacity of flours of some commonly used cereals and legume (wheat, refined wheat, maize and chickpea and their blends were studied. Blends of flours were prepared by mixing equal proportions of selected floors. Statistically significant difference  in studied functional properties except bulk density was observed among cereal flours and their blends. Chickpea flour was found to possess comparatively high water holding capacity, protein solubility index and swelling capacity. The functional properties of maize and wheat flours were found to be improved when blended with chickpea. Chickpea flour and its blends with cereal flours were found to possess good functional score and suggested as favorable candidates for use in the preparation of viscous foods and bakery products. The data provide guidelines regarding the improvement in functional properties of economically favorable cereal flours.

  3. Calcium availability from yogurt by itself or yogurt-cereal-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibniewska, Krystyna A; Zakrzewski, Janusz; Siemianowska, Ewa; Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna; Aljewicz, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Dairy products are the basic source of calcium (Ca) for many nations. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of addition of cereal products to yogurt on the ability of subsequent release of Ca present in yogurt. This was conducted in vitro by the process of enzymatic digestion simulating digestion in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Calcium content was determined in commercial yogurts containing cereal and in yogurt meals with subsequent addition of cereal products or bread. Only 3 samples contained more Ca than 100 mg/100 g. Only about 45% (from 28.5 to 77.9%) of Ca was released from the samples with cereals. Innovations in yogurt production technologies actually result in less Ca being released to humans, which may be a problem for individuals with low daily Ca intake.

  4. Rich nutrition from the poorest - Cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia involve mainly the processing of maize, rice, sorghum and the millets. Lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Pediococcus), Enterobacter spp., yeasts (Candida, Debaryomyces, Endomycopsis, Hansenula, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Trichosporon spp.) and filamentous fu

  5. Relative severity of aflatoxin contamination of cereal crops in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Kumar, Manjula; Leslie, John F

    2007-10-01

    Aflatoxins are a common contaminant of cereals that can cause cancer, liver disease, immune suppression, retarded growth and development, and death, depending on the level and duration of exposure. Maize is an introduced crop to Africa and there have been efforts over the last 20 years or so to replace traditional cereal crops, such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), with maize. We found that maize was significantly more heavily colonized by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. than either sorghum or millet, with overall aflatoxin levels being correspondingly higher. On average, Nigerians consume 138 kg cereals annually. If the primary cereal is sorghum instead of maize, then the risk of aflatoxin-related problems is reduced 4-fold; if it is pearl millet, then the risks are reduced 8-fold. Development programs and other ventures to increase maize production in marginal cropping areas of Africa should be reconsidered and, instead, efforts to improve/maintain traditional crops encouraged.

  6. Ochratoxin A and ochratoxin-producing fungi on cereal grain in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhihong, Liang; Kunlun, Huang; Yunbo, Luo

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is known to be the main contaminant of cereal grain and has become increasingly important in recent years. Therefore, a survey of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA contamination in China is a special challenge. This paper summarises data on cereals and moulds (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus ochraceus, for example) and on grain and OTA from 1973 by searching Chinese information databases (NCKI, VIP, DuXiu etc.), calculating the OTA-producing mould detection rate, referring to sampling locations, latitude and temperature, and also combining six grain-producing areas of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA positive rate through a comprehensive analysis. It is concluded that in China rice (excluding shell rice) has less OTA contamination than wheat or maize. The contamination of cereal grains with Aspergillus section Nigri (formerly of the A. niger group) is a serious problem in China, and these fungi may be the main ochratoxigenic fungi on cereals.

  7. Dietary fibre fractions in cereal foods measured by a new integrated AOAC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Juergen; Themeier, Heinz; Neese, Ursula; Lindhauer, Meinolf G

    2013-10-01

    The reliable determination of soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre in baked goods and cereal flours is an important issue for research, nutritional labelling and marketing. We compared total dietary fibre (TDF) contents of selected cereal based foods determined by AOAC Method 991.43 and the new AOAC Method 2009.01. Fifteen bread and bakery products were included in the study. Our results showed that TDF values of cereal products determined by AOAC Method 2009.01 were always significantly higher than those determined by AOAC Method 991.43. This was explained by the inclusion of low molecular weight soluble fibre fractions and resistant starch fractions in the TDF measurement by AOAC 2009.01. This documents that nutritional labelling of cereal products poses the challenge how to update TDF data in nutrient databases in a reasonable time with an acceptable expenditure. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of Cereals and Pseudocereals Suitability for the Development of New Probiotic Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kocková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to evaluate suitability of cereals and pseudocereals for the development of new probiotic foods and to evaluate the stability of cereal and pseudocereal porridges fermented by probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Ten samples of cereals and pseudocereals obtained from Slovak mill house and markets were used in this work. A mixture of each cereal and pseudocereal samples with water (10% w/v was inoculated after sterilization with coequal number of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, to obtain approximately 5-6 log colony form units per gram of suspensions. Fermentation was led at 37°C during 10 hours. Fermented suspensions were stored for 21 days at 5°C. Monitoring of cell counts, pH value, and concentration of organic acids during fermentation and storage was done.

  9. The prevalence and distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiak, B.; Torp, M.; Skjerve, E.

    2003-01-01

    and F. culmorum demonstrated in this study , corresponded to previously reported DON-distribution, although DON seems to be produced by different species in different regions. Distribution of the isolated Fusarium species and comparison between cereals and locations are discussed.......In the period 1994-1996 a post-harvest survey was conducted in wheat, barley and oats to assess the occurrence and geographic distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals. The number of samples investigated was adjusted proportionally to the production of each cereal species within....... graminearum, "powdery F. poae ", F. equiseti and F. sporotrichioides . A north-south gradient was valid for F. tricinctum, F. poae and in 1994 for "powdery F. poae ". In 1994 "powdery F. poae " was the most abundant potential producer of HT-2 and T-2 toxins in Norwegian cereals. Distribution of F. graminearum...

  10. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties in Cereals: Study of Some Traditional Italian Wheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Durazzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Whole grain cereals contain a wide range of phytochemicals and it is often difficult to ascribe protective effects on metabolic health to any one particular constituent. The interactions among bioactive components, which contribute highly to the total antioxidant capacity of cereals, represent the first step in the evaluation of food potential health benefits. This research focused on the determination of antioxidant properties in grains and whole flours of some traditional Italian wheats. Results showed that hydrolysable polyphenols in grains are 85% of total polyphenols and contribute 95% of the total antioxidant properties, which indicates that hydrolysable polyphenols represent an important fraction of polyphenols in cereals. The distinction between extractable and non-extractable antioxidants was shown to be of paramount importance for an adequate determination of antioxidant capacity in cereals and represents a key element in the definition of potential nutritional value of the food matrix under consideration.

  11. Teff, an Orphan Cereal in the Chloridoideae, Provides Insights into the Evolution of Storage Proteins in Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jianhong; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Messing, Joachim

    2016-06-13

    Seed storage proteins (SSP) in cereals provide essential nutrition for humans and animals. Genes encoding these proteins have undergone rapid evolution in different grass species. To better understand the degree of divergence, we analyzed this gene family in the subfamily Chloridoideae, where the genome of teff (Eragrostis tef) has been sequenced. We find gene duplications, deletions, and rapid mutations in protein-coding sequences. The main SSPs in teff, like other grasses, are prolamins, here called eragrostins. Teff has γ- and δ-prolamins, but has no β-prolamins. One δ-type prolamin (δ1) in teff has higher methionine (33%) levels than in maize (23-25%). The other δ-type prolamin (δ2) has reduced methionine residues (<10%) and is phylogenetically closer to α prolamins. Prolamin δ2 in teff represents an intermediate between δ and α types that appears to have been lost in maize and other Panicoideae, and was replaced by the expansion of α-prolamins. Teff also has considerably larger numbers of α-prolamin genes, which we further divide into five sub-groups, where α2 and α5 represent the most abundant α-prolamins both in number and in expression. In addition, indolines that determine kernel softness are present in teff and the panicoid cereal called foxtail millet (Setaria italica) but not in sorghum or maize, indicating that these genes were only recently lost in some members of the Panicoideae Moreover, this study provides not only information on the evolution of SSPs in the grass family but also the importance of α-globulins in protein aggregation and germplasm divergence.

  12. Drought-resistant cereals: impact on water sustainability and nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, W T B

    2015-08-01

    This review uses production and climate data to examine global and local production trends that can be related to events such as drought. UK grain quality data is also available and provides an overview of trends in protein content. Literature surveys show a consistent reduction in grain size due to the effects of temperature and/or drought. A review of gene expression studies showed that most genes involved in starch synthesis are down regulated under heat stress. Net protein production is also reduced under heat and/or drought stress but apparently to a lesser degree as the reduction in grain mass is larger, resulting in an increase in protein concentration. Modelling has suggested that adaptation could be achieved by moving production to more extreme latitudes but other research suggests that simply transferring germplasm from one region to another is unlikely to be successful. Another review has identified drought tolerance phenotypes that could be used to breed more drought tolerant crops. At the time of the review, the authors concluded that phenotypic selection was generally preferable to forms of marker-assisted breeding and have used the approach to produce drought tolerant wheat cultivars. Transgenic approaches have also been shown to improve drought tolerance under controlled environment conditions but there are no results to show how well these results translate into improved crop performance under field conditions. The recent advances in genomic data and detecting marker-trait associations suggest that marker-assisted breeding will play a much more important role in breeding drought tolerant cereals in the future.

  13. Material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruder barrels and screw elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastio, Michael Joseph, Jr.

    2005-11-01

    Nearly seventy-five years ago, the single screw extruder was introduced as a means to produce metal products. Shortly after that, the extruder found its way into the plastics industry. Today much of the world's polymer industry utilizes extruders to produce items such as soda bottles, PVC piping, and toy figurines. Given the significant economical advantages of extruders over conventional batch flow systems, extruders have also migrated into the food industry. Food applications include the meat, pet food, and cereal industries to name just a few. Cereal manufacturers utilize extruders to produce various forms of Ready-to-Eat (RTE) cereals. These cereals are made from grains such as rice, oats, wheat, and corn. The food industry has been incorrectly viewed as an extruder application requiring only minimal energy control and performance capability. This misconception has resulted in very little research in the area of material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruders. Breakfast cereal extruder barrels and individual screw elements are subjected to the extreme pressures and temperatures required to shear and cook the cereal ingredients, resulting in excessive material wear and catastrophic failure of these components. Therefore, this project focuses on the material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruder barrels and screw elements, modeled as a Discrete Time Markov Chain (DTMC) process in which historical data is used to predict future failures. Such predictive analysis will yield cost savings opportunities by providing insight into extruder maintenance scheduling and interchangeability of screw elements. In this DTMC wear analysis, four states of wear are defined and a probability transition matrix is determined based upon 24,041 hours of operational data. This probability transition matrix is used to predict when an extruder component will move to the next state of wear and/or failure. This information can be used to determine

  14. High protein and vitamin cereal bars: enzymatic and vitamins C and E stability during storage.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela G.C. Freitas; Moretti,Roberto H.

    2006-01-01

    Cereal-based products have become an excellent vehicle for delivering tasty functional food ingredients to busy consumers. One emerging trends is food products formulates with soy protein because of its proven health benefits. Because of the potential usefulness of these products, it was considered of interest to determine the stability of cereal bars based on soy protein, wheat germ and oat, enriched with vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and E (acetate of a-tocopherol 50%), during the storage. Thre...

  15. A manual collection of Syt, Esyt, Rph3a, Rph3al, Doc2, and Dblc2 genes from 46 metazoan genomes - an open access resource for neuroscience and evolutionary biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craxton Molly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synaptotagmin proteins were first identified in nervous tissue, residing in synaptic vesicles. Synaptotagmins were subsequently found to form a large family, some members of which play important roles in calcium triggered exocytic events. These members have been investigated intensively, but other family members are not well understood, making it difficult to grasp the meaning of family membership in functional terms. Further difficulty arises as families are defined quite legitimately in different ways: by common descent or by common possession of distinguishing features. One definition does not necessarily imply the other. The evolutionary range of genome sequences now available, can shed more light on synaptotagmin gene phylogeny and clarify family relationships. The aim of compiling this open access collection of synaptotagmin and synaptotagmin-like sequences, is that its use may lead to greater understanding of the biological function of these proteins in an evolutionary context. Results 46 metazoan genomes were examined and their complement of Syt, Esyt, Rph3a, Rph3al, Doc2 and Dblc2 genes identified. All of the sequences were compared, named, then examined in detail. Esyt genes were formerly named Fam62. The species in this collection are Trichoplax, Nematostella, Capitella, Helobdella, Lottia, Ciona, Strongylocentrotus, Branchiostoma, Ixodes, Daphnia, Acyrthosiphon, Tribolium, Nasonia, Apis, Anopheles, Drosophila, Caenorhabditis, Takifugu, Tetraodon, Gasterosteus, Oryzias, Danio, Xenopus, Anolis, Gallus, Taeniopygia,Ornithorhynchus, Monodelphis, Mus and Homo. All of the data described in this paper is available as additional files. Conclusions Only a subset of synaptotagmin proteins appear able to function as calcium triggers. Syt1, Syt7 and Syt9 are ancient conserved synaptotagmins of this type. Some animals carry extensive repertoires of synaptotagmin genes. Other animals of no less complexity, carry only a small

  16. First Draft Genome Sequence of a UK Strain (UK99) of Fusarium culmorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Robert; Andongabo, Ambrose; Maheswari, Uma; Pedro, Helder; Kersey, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium culmorum is a soilborne fungal plant pathogen that causes foot and root rot and Fusarium head blight on small-grain cereals, in particular on wheat and barley. We report herein the draft genome sequence of a 1998 field strain called FcUK99 adapted to the temperate climate found in England. PMID:27634986

  17. Sensorial analysis evaluation in cereal bars preserved by ionizing radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Rela, P. R.; Mancini-Filho, J.

    2007-11-01

    Gamma-rays utilized as a food-processing treatment to eliminate insect contamination is well established in food industries. Recent troubles in Brazilian cereal bars commercialization require a special consumer's attention because some products were contaminated by insects. To solve the problem, food-irradiation treatment was utilized as a safe and effective solution. The final product was free of insect contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the best radiation dose processing utilized to disinfestations and detect some change on sensorial characteristic by sensorial analysis in cereal bars. In this study, three different kinds of cereal bars were purchased in São Paulo (Brazil) in supermarkets and irradiated with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy at "Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares" (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The samples were treated with ionizing radiation using a 60Co gamma-ray facility (Gammacell 220, A.E.C.L.). That radiation doses were used successfully as an anti-insect treatment in the cereal bars, since in some food industries doses up to 3.0 kGy are used to guarantee at least a dose of 1.0 kGy in internal cereal bars package. Sensorial analysis was necessary since cereal bars contain ingredients very sensitive to ionizing radiation process.

  18. The Gluten-Free Diet: Testing Alternative Cereals Tolerated by Celiac Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sousa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A strict gluten-free diet (GFD is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine associated with a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins. The complete elimination of gluten proteins contained in cereals from the diet is the key to celiac disease management. However, this generates numerous social and economic repercussions due to the ubiquity of gluten in foods. The research presented in this review focuses on the current status of alternative cereals and pseudocereals and their derivatives obtained by natural selection, breeding programs and transgenic or enzymatic technology, potential tolerated by celiac people. Finally, we describe several strategies for detoxification of dietary gluten. These included enzymatic cleavage of gliadin fragment by Prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs from different organisms, degradation of toxic peptides by germinating cereal enzymes and transamidation of cereal flours. This information can be used to search for and develop cereals with the baking and nutritional qualities of toxic cereals, but which do not exacerbate this condition.

  19. The gluten-free diet: testing alternative cereals tolerated by celiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, Isabel; Moreno, María de Lourdes; Real, Ana; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso; Barro, Francisco; Sousa, Carolina

    2013-10-23

    A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine associated with a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins. The complete elimination of gluten proteins contained in cereals from the diet is the key to celiac disease management. However, this generates numerous social and economic repercussions due to the ubiquity of gluten in foods. The research presented in this review focuses on the current status of alternative cereals and pseudocereals and their derivatives obtained by natural selection, breeding programs and transgenic or enzymatic technology, potential tolerated by celiac people. Finally, we describe several strategies for detoxification of dietary gluten. These included enzymatic cleavage of gliadin fragment by Prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs) from different organisms, degradation of toxic peptides by germinating cereal enzymes and transamidation of cereal flours. This information can be used to search for and develop cereals with the baking and nutritional qualities of toxic cereals, but which do not exacerbate this condition.

  20. Sensorial analysis evaluation in cereal bars preserved by ionizing radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Lab. de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Travessa R. No. 400, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-910, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Araujo, M.M.; Fanaro, G.B.; Rela, P.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Lab. de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Travessa R. No. 400, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-910, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mancini-Filho, J. [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas-FCF/USP, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental, Lab. de Lipides, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: jmancini@usp.br

    2007-11-15

    Gamma-rays utilized as a food-processing treatment to eliminate insect contamination is well established in food industries. Recent troubles in Brazilian cereal bars commercialization require a special consumer's attention because some products were contaminated by insects. To solve the problem, food-irradiation treatment was utilized as a safe and effective solution. The final product was free of insect contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the best radiation dose processing utilized to disinfestations and detect some change on sensorial characteristic by sensorial analysis in cereal bars. In this study, three different kinds of cereal bars were purchased in Sao Paulo (Brazil) in supermarkets and irradiated with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy at 'Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares' (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The samples were treated with ionizing radiation using a {sup 60}Co gamma-ray facility (Gammacell 220, A.E.C.L.). That radiation doses were used successfully as an anti-insect treatment in the cereal bars, since in some food industries doses up to 3.0 kGy are used to guarantee at least a dose of 1.0 kGy in internal cereal bars package. Sensorial analysis was necessary since cereal bars contain ingredients very sensitive to ionizing radiation process.

  1. From the concept of totipotency to biofortified cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    I was a college teacher when opportunity opened a path into academia. A fascination with totipotency channeled me into research on tissue culture. As I was more interested in contributions to food security than in scientific novelty, I turned my attention to the development of genetic modification technology for cereals. From my cell culture experience, I had reasons not to trust Agrobacterium for that purpose, and I developed direct gene transfer instead. In the early 1990s, I became aware of the problem of micronutrient deficiency, particularly vitamin A deficiency in rice-eating populations. Golden Rice, which contains increased amounts of provitamin A, was probably instrumental for the concept of biofortification to take off. I realized that this rice would remain an academic exercise if product development and product registration were not addressed, and this is what I focused on after my retirement. Although progress is slowly being made, had I known what this pursuit would entail, perhaps I would not have started. Hopefully Golden Rice will reach the needy during my lifetime.

  2. Spectrophotometric estimation of total carotenoids in cereal grain products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luterotti, Svjetlana; Kljak, Kristina

    2010-12-01

    Total carotenoids (TC) were determined as a measure of total xanthophylls in grain flours and grits, by new validated spectrophotometric method based on A1cm1%-approach. The general analytical procedure is easily adjustable to different samples, the number of extraction steps depending on TC concentration in the sample. Basically, two methods have been suggested: the rapid one for low-TC samples (white corn, wheat, soybean, sorghum) including one to two extractions, and the one for high-TC samples (yellow corn) needing three to four extractions. Method's accuracy was proven against the reference standard material (102.1±3.9%) and the reference method. Good precision (repeatability and intermediate precision of upto 9% for yellow corn products) and sensitivity with LOD (limit of detection) and LLOQ (lower limit of quantitation) of 0.2 and 0.6 mg kg-1 TC, resp., were estimated. The method was applied to the control of nutritional value of cereal grain products. TC concentration (in mg kg-1) in the samples ranged from 11-23 in yellow corn flours, 0.7-0.9 in white corn flours, 17-22 in yellow corn grits, 1.1-1.3 in wheat flours, 1.6 in wheat grits and 1.5 in sorghum flour, to 0.9-9.9 in soybean flours.

  3. Molecular Approaches to Understand Nutritional Potential of Coarse Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, Rakesh; Subramani, Rajkumar; Kumar, Rajesh; Wankhede, Dhammaprakash P

    2016-06-01

    Coarse grains are important group of crops that constitutes staple food for large population residing primarily in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Coarse grains are designated as nutri-cereals as they are rich in essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins. In spite of having several nutritional virtues in coarse grain as mentioned above, there is still scope for improvement in quality parameters such as cooking qualities, modulation of nutritional constituents and reduction or elimination of anti-nutritional factors. Besides its use in traditional cooking, coarse grains have been used mainly in the weaning food preparation and other malted food production. Improvement in quality parameters will certainly increase consumer's preference for coarse grains and increase their demand. The overall genetic gain in quality traits of economic importance in the cultivated varieties will enhance their industrial value and simultaneously increase income of farmers growing these varieties. The urgent step for improvement of quality traits in coarse grains requires a detailed understanding of molecular mechanisms responsible for varied level of different nutritional contents in different genotypes of these crops. In this review we have discussed the progresses made in understanding of coarse grain biology with various omics tool coupled with modern breeding approaches and the current status with regard to our effort towards dissecting traits related to improvement of quality and nutritional constituents of grains.

  4. Streptomyces strains producing mitochondriotoxic antimycin A found in cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasimus-Sahari, Stiina; Mikkola, Raimo; Andersson, Maria A; Jestoi, Marika; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2016-02-02

    Reasons for mammalian cell toxicity observed in barley and spring wheat grains were sought. Streptomyces sp. isolates from wheat and barley produced heat-stable methanol-soluble substances which inhibited the motility of exposed porcine spermatozoa used as a toxicity indicator. Several barley isolates produced antimycin A (2 to 5 ng/mg wet wt of biomass), a macrolide antibiotic known to block oxygen utilization in mitochondria. The antimycin-producing isolates were members of the Streptomyces albidoflavus group. In in vitro assays with porcine kidney tubular epithelial cells, the specific toxicity of antimycin A towards mitochondria was higher than that of the mycotoxin enniatin B but lower than that of the mitochondriotoxins cereulide and paenilide, produced by food-related Bacillus cereus and Paenibacillus tundrae, respectively. The toxic wheat isolates, related to Streptomyces sedi, did not produce antimycin A and or any other known toxin. Our results suggest that the presence of toxin-producing streptomycetes in stored cereal grains may pose a thus far unrecognized threat for food and feed safety.

  5. Access Denied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  6. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  7. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  8. Genome size variation in the genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Honghai; Martin, Sara L; Bekele, Wubishet A; Latta, Robert G; Diederichsen, Axel; Peng, Yuanying; Tinker, Nicholas A

    2016-03-01

    Genome size is an indicator of evolutionary distance and a metric for genome characterization. Here, we report accurate estimates of genome size in 99 accessions from 26 species of Avena. We demonstrate that the average genome size of C genome diploid species (2C = 10.26 pg) is 15% larger than that of A genome species (2C = 8.95 pg), and that this difference likely accounts for a progression of size among tetraploid species, where AB genome configuration had similar genome sizes (average 2C = 25.74 pg). Genome size was mostly consistent within species and in general agreement with current information about evolutionary distance among species. Results also suggest that most of the polyploid species in Avena have experienced genome downsizing in relation to their diploid progenitors. Genome size measurements could provide additional quality control for species identification in germplasm collections, especially in cases where diploid and polyploid species have similar morphology.

  9. Genomic Data Commons and Genomic Cloud Pilots - Google Hangout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Join us for a live, moderated discussion about two NCI efforts to expand access to cancer genomics data: the Genomic Data Commons and Genomic Cloud Pilots. NCI subject matters experts will include Louis M. Staudt, M.D., Ph.D., Director Center for Cancer Genomics, Warren Kibbe, Ph.D., Director, NCI Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology, and moderated by Anthony Kerlavage, Ph.D., Chief, Cancer Informatics Branch, Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology. We welcome your questions before and during the Hangout on Twitter using the hashtag #AskNCI.

  10. Genomic Data Commons and Genomic Cloud Pilots - Google Hangout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Join us for a live, moderated discussion about two NCI efforts to expand access to cancer genomics data: the Genomic Data Commons and Genomic Cloud Pilots. NCI subject matters experts will include Louis M. Staudt, M.D., Ph.D., Director Center for Cancer Genomics, Warren Kibbe, Ph.D., Director, NCI Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology, and moderated by Anthony Kerlavage, Ph.D., Chief, Cancer Informatics Branch, Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology. We welcome your questions before and during the Hangout on Twitter using the hashtag #AskNCI.

  11. Mouse genome database 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data.

  12. Essential and toxic heavy metals in cereals and agricultural products marketed in Kermanshah, Iran, and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Fattahi, Nazir; Sharafi, Kiomars; Khamotian, Razieh; Atafar, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Levels of some essential and toxic heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, zinc and copper in cereals and agricultural products obtained from the markets in Kermanshah city, west Iran, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average concentrations for lead and cadmium in some cereals were higher than the maximum levels set by the Codex Alimentarius. A potential human health risk assessment was conducted by calculating estimated weekly intake (EWI) of the metals from eating cereals and comparison of these values with provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values. In combination with recent cereal consumption data, the EWIs of heavy metals were calculated for the Kermanshah population. EWI data for the studied metals through cereal consumption were lower than the PTWI values. Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu levels in all samples analysed were within the ranges reported for similar cereals from various parts of the world.

  13. Breakfast cereal industry pledges to self-regulate advertising to youth: will they improve the marketing landscape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Ross, Craig; Harris, Jennifer L; Jernigan, David H; Siegel, Michael; Ostroff, Joshua; Brownell, Kelly D

    2010-04-01

    In 2007, the Council of Better Business Bureaus created the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative to improve the nutritional profile of products marketed to children in the United States. We provide quantitative baseline data describing (a) the amount of child-directed breakfast cereal advertising in 2007; (b) an assessment of the nutritional value for all cereals advertised on television; and (c) the relationship between nutrition quality and child exposure to television advertising for major cereal brands. In 2007, the average American child viewed 757 cereal ads, and 98 per cent of these ads promoted unhealthy cereals that would be prohibited from advertising to children in the United Kingdom. Healthy cereals were advertised in 2007 in the United States, but adults, not children, were predominantly exposed to these ads. These quantitative methods can be used in the future to evaluate the impact of industry self-regulation efforts to improve the marketing landscape.

  14. Cereal and nut bars, nutritional quality and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Vásquez, M; Castillo, E; Araya, E; Zacarías, I

    1995-06-01

    Six snack-type bars were manufactured, to contain oat and wheat germ and two different walnut levels, agglutinated with natural sweeteners and fats. Two bars also contained toasted amaranth with brown sugar cover and wheat extrudate, while two others, contained puffed instead of toasted amaranth. Water activity (Aw) and moisture were determined in the manufactured products. Quality and sensory evaluation and proximate analysis were carried out on the bars containing highest levels of walnuts (18%). The caloric contribution of the bars was computed by Atwater methods. The nutritional quality of the bars was determined by means of the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Net Protein Ratio (NPR), and the results were used to obtain relative PER and relative NPR. Samples of the latter bars were kept under accelerated storage for 15 days at 37 degrees C and analyzed every 5 days to determine their Aw, moisture, peroxide and sensory acceptability. The drying time for the cereal - and walnut - based bars was 45 min at 120 degrees C. All bars presented a good fiber supply and the CN1 bar, containing only oat, wheat germ and walnut, had the greatest protein content. In the sensory evaluation, the walnut level with the greatest preference was 18%. PER and NPR values of the bars did not differ significantly showing values approximately 86% that of the casein value. During storage, the moisture and Aw decreased in all the bars. Peroxides remained within the acceptable ranges; acceptability based on sensory evaluation remained best in the bar with toasted amaranth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Active oxygen and cell death in cereal aleurone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fath, Angelika; Bethke, Paul; Beligni, Veronica; Jones, Russell

    2002-05-01

    The cereal aleurone layer is a secretory tissue whose function is regulated by gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Aleurone cells lack functional chloroplasts, thus excluding photosynthesis as a source of active oxygen species (AOS) in cell death. Incubation of barley aleurone layers or protoplasts in GA initiated the cell death programme, but incubation in ABA delays programmed cell death (PCD). Light, especially blue and UV-A light, and H(2)O(2) accelerate PCD of GA-treated aleurone cells, but ABA-treated aleurone cells are refractory to light and H(2)O(2) and are not killed. It was shown that light elevated intracellular H(2)O(2), and that the rise in H(2)O(2) was greater in GA-treated cells compared to cells in ABA. Experiments with antioxidants show that PCD in aleurone is probably regulated by AOS. The sensitivity of GA-treated aleurone to light and H(2)O(2) is a result of lowered amounts of enzymes that metabolize AOS. mRNAs encoding catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase are all reduced during 6-18 h of incubation in GA, but these mRNAs were present in higher amounts in cells incubated in ABA. The amounts of protein and enzyme activities encoded by these mRNAs were also dramatically reduced in GA-treated cells. Aleurone cells store and metabolize neutral lipids via the glyoxylate cycle in response to GA, and glyoxysomes are one potential source of AOS in the GA-treated cells. Mitochondria are another potential source of AOS in GA-treated cells. AOS generated by these organelles bring about membrane rupture and cell death.

  16. Progress of cereal transformation technology mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukoh eHiei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Monocotyledonous plants were believed to be not transformable by the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens until two decades ago, although convenient protocols for infection of leaf disks and subsequent regeneration of transgenic plants had been well established in a number of dicotyledonous species by then. This belief was reinforced by the fact that monocotyledons are mostly outside the host range of crown gall disease caused by the bacterium and by the failures in trials in monocotyledons to mimic the transformation protocols for dicotyledons. However, a key reason for the failure could have been the lack of active cell divisions at the wound sites, which are the basis of tissue culture and transformation in dicotyledons, in monocotyledons. The complexity and narrow optimal windows of critical factors, such as genotypes of plants, conditions of the plants from which explants are prepared, tissue culture methods and culture media, pre-treatments of explants, strains of A. tumefaciens, inducers of virulence genes, transformation vectors, selection marker genes and selective agents, kept technical hurdles high. Eventually it was determined that rice and maize could be transformed by co-cultivating cells of callus cultures or immature embryos, which are actively dividing or about to divide, with A. tumefaciens. Subsequently, these initial difficulties were resolved one by one by many research groups, and the major cereals are now transformed quite efficiently. As many as 15 independent transgenic events may be regenerated from a single piece of immature embryo of rice. Maize transformation protocols are well established, and almost all transgenic events deregulated for commercialization after 2003 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Wheat, barley and sorghum are also among those plants that can be efficiently transformed by A. tumefaciens.

  17. Evaluation of iron bioavailability in a mixture of cereals, seeds, and grains ("Human Ration"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Nery Enes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron bioavailability was evaluated in three mixtures of cereals, seeds, and grains ("Human Ration": light, regular, and homemade provided to rats. The animals received an iron depletion diet for 21 days, followed by a repletion diet containing 12 mg·kg-1 of iron for 14 days. The hemoglobin regeneration efficiency and the relative biological value did not differ between the light mixture and control group. The iron bioavailability of the light mixture of cereals, seeds, and grains and the control group were 99.99±27.62 and 80.02±36.63, respectively, while the regular and homemade mixtures of cereals, seeds, and grains showed lower iron bioavailability, 50.12±35.53 and 66.66±15.44, respectively; the iron content of the diet with light cereal mixture light was statistically similar to that of the control (ferrous sulfate 99.99±27.62. The high content of tannin (202.81±19.53 mg·100-1 in the diet with the regular cereal mixture may have contributed to its low iron bioavailability. The higher intake of soluble fiber by the animals fed the light mixture (21.15±0.92 g was moderately correlated (r=0.5712, p=0.0018 with the concentration of propionate in the caecal bulk (65.49±11.08 µmol/g. The short chain fatty acids produced by soluble fiber fermentation, associated with the low-content of tannin may have improved iron solubility and absorption in the light cereal mixture diet. The iron bioavailability in the light mixture of cereals, seeds, and grains was similar to that of ferrous sulfate.

  18. Effects of cereal bars for breakfast and mid-morning snacks on mood and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P; Wilds, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of consuming cereal bars, given either for breakfast or a mid-morning snack, on mood and memory. Thirty-two volunteers (16 males, 16 females; mean age, 20 years 9 months) were randomly assigned to one of four groups formed by combining breakfast (cereal bar versus no breakfast) and snack (cereal bar versus no snack) conditions. A baseline session was completed at 08:30 h followed by breakfast at 9:00 h, another test at 10:00 h, followed by a mid-morning snack and then a final test at 12:00 h. In each session, volunteers rated their mood and carried out four memory tasks: free recall; recognition memory; a verbal reasoning task; and a semantic processing task. The results showed that volunteers who consumed a cereal bar for breakfast felt more alert, happy and sociable and less anxious. In addition, they also recalled more words in a free recall task. When the cereal bar was consumed as a mid-morning snack, alertness and hedonic tone increased, especially in the group who received no breakfast. The group who had no breakfast reported reduced anxiety after consumption of the snack. Recall was also improved after the snack. These findings show that consuming cereal bars in the early and mid-morning leads to beneficial behavioural effects. The results confirm earlier research on effects of breakfast and extend our knowledge of effects of snacks. Consumption of cereal bars may have important practical applications especially in situations where preparation of breakfast is difficult.

  19. Co-exposure to methylmercury and inorganic arsenic in baby rice cereals and rice-containing teething biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Jackson, Brian P; Carly McCalla, G; Donohue, Alexis; Emmons, Alison M

    2017-11-01

    Rice is an important dietary source for methylmercury (MeHg), a potent neurotoxin, and inorganic arsenic (As), a human carcinogen. Rice baby cereals are a dietary source of inorganic As; however, less is known concerning MeHg concentrations in rice baby cereals and rice teething biscuits. MeHg concentrations were measured in 36 rice baby cereals, eight rice teething biscuits, and four baby cereals manufactured with oats/wheat (n = 48 total). Arsenic (As) species, including inorganic As, were determined in rice baby cereals and rice teething biscuits (n = 44/48), while total As was determined in all products (n = 48). Rice baby cereals and rice teething biscuits were on average 61 and 92 times higher in MeHg, respectively, and 9.4 and 4.7 times higher in total As, respectively, compared to wheat/oat baby cereals. For a 15-g serving of rice baby cereal, average MeHg intake was 0.0092μgday(-1) (range: 0.0013-0.034μgday(-1)), while average inorganic As intake was 1.3μgday(-1) (range: 0.37-2.3μgday(-1)). Inorganic As concentrations in two brands of rice baby cereal (n = 12/36 boxes of rice cereal) exceeded 100ng/g, the proposed action level from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Log10 MeHg and inorganic As concentrations in rice baby cereals were strongly, positively correlated (Pearson's rho = 0.60, p Rice-containing baby cereals and teething biscuits were a dietary source of both MeHg and inorganic As. Studies concerning the cumulative impacts of MeHg and inorganic As on offspring development are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. NCBI viral genomes resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brister, J Rodney; Ako-Adjei, Danso; Bao, Yiming; Blinkova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have ignited an explosion in virus genome sequencing that promises to fundamentally alter our understanding of viral biology and profoundly impact public health policy. Yet, any potential benefits from the billowing cloud of next generation sequence data hinge upon well implemented reference resources that facilitate the identification of sequences, aid in the assembly of sequence reads and provide reference annotation sources. The NCBI Viral Genomes Resource is a reference resource designed to bring order to this sequence shockwave and improve usability of viral sequence data. The resource can be accessed at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/ and catalogs all publicly available virus genome sequences and curates reference genome sequences. As the number of genome sequences has grown, so too have the difficulties in annotating and maintaining reference sequences. The rapid expansion of the viral sequence universe has forced a recalibration of the data model to better provide extant sequence representation and enhanced reference sequence products to serve the needs of the various viral communities. This, in turn, has placed increased emphasis on leveraging the knowledge of individual scientific communities to identify important viral sequences and develop well annotated reference virus genome sets.

  1. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  2. Trace Metals in Vegetables and Cereals- A Case Study of Indian Market-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaidya Nath Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Vegetables and Cereals are considered vital for properly-balanced diet given that they deliver vitamins, minerals, nutritional fiber, and phytochemicals. This study aimed to assess the concentration of As, Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr and Hg in common vegetables and cereals in urban open markets in Varanasi district, India Materials & Methods: Total 260 edible portions of vegetable samples of 13 species were collected in March to October, 2016 from predefined market sites. These samples classified into roots, stems, leafy vegetables, fruits, and legumes. These samples (unwashed, acetic acid washed and boiled were assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The statistical evaluations were carried out using the IBM SPSS 21. Results: The results obtained reveal that unwashed vegetables and cereals as compared to washed and boiled samples contain higher trace metal concentration. The order of heavy metal concentration was observed in Cu>Pb>Cd>As in vegetable and cereals samples. Hg and Cr were not detected in any samples. The mean value of Cu, Cd and Pb in unwashed and washed vegetables and cereals were lower than PFA standard except As, whereas in boiled vegetables and cereals are lower than PFA standard but the mean value of Cd and Pb were many folds higher than the EU standard at all the market site samples. Leafy vegetables were found to contain the highest metals values especially Spinacia oleracea followed by roots vegetable like Brassica rapa, at all the studied sites. The market sites MS3 located in the vicinity of industrial zone and in proximity to national highway showed elevated levels of trace metals concentration in the vegetables and cereals as compared to other market sites. Conclusions: The results showed that, the As, Cu, Cd and Pb concentration were reduced to about 12.5%, 5.87%, 11.36% and 10.42% of the initial concentrations by 2% acetic acid washing and to 25%, 21.87%, 20.45% and 16.67% of the initial

  3. Ebolavirus comparative genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Se-Ran; Leuze, Michael R.; Nookaew, Intawat; Uberbacher, Edward C.; Land, Miriam; Zhang, Qian; Wanchai, Visanu; Chai, Juanjuan; Nielsen, Morten; Trolle, Thomas; Lund, Ole; Buzard, Gregory S.; Pedersen, Thomas D.; Wassenaar, Trudy M.; Ussery, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa is the largest documented for this virus. To examine the dynamics of this genome, we compare more than 100 currently available ebolavirus genomes to each other and to other viral genomes. Based on oligomer frequency analysis, the family Filoviridae forms a distinct group from all other sequenced viral genomes. All filovirus genomes sequenced to date encode proteins with similar functions and gene order, although there is considerable divergence in sequences between the three genera Ebolavirus, Cuevavirus and Marburgvirus within the family Filoviridae. Whereas all ebolavirus genomes are quite similar (multiple sequences of the same strain are often identical), variation is most common in the intergenic regions and within specific areas of the genes encoding the glycoprotein (GP), nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase (L). We predict regions that could contain epitope-binding sites, which might be good vaccine targets. This information, combined with glycosylation sites and experimentally determined epitopes, can identify the most promising regions for the development of therapeutic strategies. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan (http://energy.gov/downloads/doe-public-access-plan). PMID:26175035

  4. Reduced representation sequencing: a success in maize and a promise for other plant genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbazuk, W Brad; Bedell, Joseph A; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2005-08-01

    Plant, and particularly cereal genomes, are challenging to sequence due to their large size and high repetitive DNA content. Gene-enrichment strategies are alternative or complementary approaches to complete genome sequencing that yield, rapidly and inexpensively, useful sequence data from large and complex genomes. The maize genome is large (2.7 Gbp) and contains large amounts of conserved repetitive elements. Furthermore, the high allelic diversity found between maize inbred lines may necessitate sequencing several inbred lines in order to recover the maize "gene pool". Two gene-enrichment approaches, methylation filtration (MF) and high C(o)t (HC) sequencing have been tested in maize and their ability to sample the gene space has been examined. Combined with other genomic sequencing strategies, gene-enriched genomic sequencing is a practical way to examine the maize gene pool, to order and orient the genic sequences on the genome, and to enable investigation of gene content of other complex plant genomes.

  5. Forage potential of winter cereal/legume intercrops in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mariotti

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was performed to assess the potential of cereal/legume intercropping to enhance forage yield and quality when compared with cereal sole crops under the constrains imposed by UE organic farming regulations. Sole crops (SC and intercrops (IC of two winter cereals, barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., and two legumes, white lupin (Lupinus albus L. and common vetch (Vicia sativa L., were evaluated at two harvest times for dry matter yield (DMY, crude protein concentration (CPC, and nitrogen yield (NY. Yield values and dry matter concentration (DMC were generally higher when cereals were at the hard dough compared to the late milk stage. On average, intercropping increased forage yield by 72%, NY by 190%, and CPC by 40 g kg-1, compared to cereal sole crops, but the choice of legume species affected the yield advantage and the composition of forage. Land equivalent ratio (LER of intercrops was always higher than 1, ranging from 1.39 to 1.61. Intercropping also enhanced weed suppression, compared to sole crop.

  6. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  7. Perspectives for geographically oriented management of fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Booij, C J H

    2010-06-01

    This article provides an overview of available systems for management of Fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal grain supply chain, with an emphasis on the use of predictive mathematical modeling. From the state of the art, it proposes future developments in modeling and management and their challenges. Mycotoxin contamination in cereal grain-based feed and food products is currently managed and controlled by good agricultural practices, good manufacturing practices, hazard analysis critical control points, and by checking and more recently by notification systems and predictive mathematical models. Most of the predictive models for Fusarium mycotoxins in cereal grains focus on deoxynivalenol in wheat and aim to help growers make decisions about the application of fungicides during cultivation. Future developments in managing Fusarium mycotoxins should include the linkage between predictive mathematical models and geographical information systems, resulting into region-specific predictions for mycotoxin occurrence. The envisioned geographically oriented decision support system may incorporate various underlying models for specific users' demands and regions and various related databases to feed the particular models with (geographically oriented) input data. Depending on the user requirements, the system selects the best fitting model and available input information. Future research areas include organizing data management in the cereal grain supply chain, developing predictive models for other stakeholders (taking into account the period up to harvest), other Fusarium mycotoxins, and cereal grain types, and understanding the underlying effects of the regional component in the models.

  8. Acrylamide exposure among Turkish toddlers from selected cereal-based baby food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Gündüz, Cennet Pelin Boyacı

    2013-10-01

    In this study, acrylamide exposure from selected cereal-based baby food samples was investigated among toddlers aged 1-3 years in Turkey. The study contained three steps. The first step was collecting food consumption data and toddlers' physical properties, such as gender, age and body weight, using a questionnaire given to parents by a trained interviewer between January and March 2012. The second step was determining the acrylamide levels in food samples that were reported on by the parents in the questionnaire, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The last step was combining the determined acrylamide levels in selected food samples with individual food consumption and body weight data using a deterministic approach to estimate the acrylamide exposure levels. The mean acrylamide levels of baby biscuits, breads, baby bread-rusks, crackers, biscuits, breakfast cereals and powdered cereal-based baby foods were 153, 225, 121, 604, 495, 290 and 36 μg/kg, respectively. The minimum, mean and maximum acrylamide exposures were estimated to be 0.06, 1.43 and 6.41 μg/kg BW per day, respectively. The foods that contributed to acrylamide exposure were aligned from high to low as bread, crackers, biscuits, baby biscuits, powdered cereal-based baby foods, baby bread-rusks and breakfast cereals.

  9. THE SUPPLEMENTARY RELATIONS BETWEEN THE PROTEINS OF MOTTLED GRAM BEAN AND CERTAIN OTHER CEREALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗登义

    2006-01-01

    @@ It has been well understood that a mixture of vegetable and animal proteins is of higher quality than the former alone, and also there are some remarkable instances of effective supplementing between the proteins of certain cereals and certain legume seeds[1]. In practice, it is very valuable for the selection of human diets and farm-animal relations. This question is especially important in China where the protein of the average diet are mainly of vegetable origin, in which about 83 percent are derived from cereals and 11 percent from beans[2]. However, a review of the literature indicates that no work has been done on the supplementary relationships of the protein of mottled gram bean with those of other cereals. The writer purchased, therefore, from the Peiping market some cheaper cereals commonly used in China, namely, yellow corn(黄玉米), red kaoliang(红高粱),oat meal(油麦面),panicled glutinous and non-glutinous millets(黄米及糜子米); and determined the supplementary values between the proteins of mottled gram bean and these cereals. The experimental details are communicated in the present paper.

  10. [High protein and vitamin cereal bars: enzymatic and vitamins C and E stability during storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Daniela G C; Moretti, Roberto H

    2006-09-01

    Cereal-based products have become an excellent vehicle for delivering tasty functional food ingredients to busy consumers. One emerging trends is food products formulates with soy protein because of its proven health benefits. Because of the potential usefulness of these products, it was considered of interest to determine the stability of cereal bars based on soy protein, wheat germ and oat, enriched with vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and E (acetate of a-tocopherol 50%), during the storage. Three films with different properties of barrier (A: PET/PEBD; B: PETMET/PEBD; C: PET/PEBD/ALIPEBD) were used as packing and the cereal bars were stored at temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C) and relative humidity ambient (56%) for six months. The stability of vitamin C, vitamin E and, its lipase and peroxidase activity was verified. During the study, the cereal bars packed in three tested films presented retention in the vitamin C lesser that 50%. However, packing structuralized with aluminum (C) leaf provided to minor speed of reaction during the storage, k = 0.00437 (-day), and greater time of half-life (146 days). The vitamin E (acetate of a-tocopherol) in the cereal bars presented a little variation during the storage. It had a significant (p < or = 0.05) increase in the peroxidase activity at 90 days of storage in the packages tested, while that the lipase activity demonstrated no significant increase during the period studied.

  11. Breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee: effects on working memory, attention, mood, and cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A P; Clark, R; Gallagher, J

    1999-08-01

    This study examined the effects of breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee on working memory, attention, mood, and cardiovascular function. One hundred and forty-four volunteers (72 male, 72 female, mean age 21 years) were assigned to one of the groups formed by combining breakfast (cereal versus no breakfast) and caffeine (caffeinated versus decaffeinated coffee) conditions. The volunteers completed a baseline session between 0800 and 0845 h. The breakfast/caffeine administration took place between 0845 and 0915 h. They then completed another test session (starting at 0945) and had a coffee break at 1045, followed by a final session starting at 1145. The results showed that those who consumed breakfast cereal had a more positive mood at the start of the test sessions, performed better on a spatial memory task, and felt calmer at the end of the test session than those in the no breakfast condition. Ingestion of caffeine had no effect on initial mood or working memory, but it did improve encoding of new information and counteracted the fatigue that developed over the test session. Caffeine increased blood pressure and pulse rate, whereas breakfast cereal consumption only had an effect on pulse. Overall, these results confirm previous findings on the effects of breakfast and caffeine, and demonstrate distinct profiles for two common examples of early-morning food and drink, breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee.

  12. Characterisation of dietary fibre components in cereals and legumes used in Serbian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodevska, Margarita S; Djordjevic, Brizita I; Sobajic, Sladjana S; Miletic, Ivanka D; Djordjevic, Predrag B; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna S

    2013-12-01

    The typical Serbian diet is characterised by high intake of cereal products and also legumes are often used. The content of total fibre as well as certain fibre fractions was determined in cereals, cereal products, and cooked legumes. The content of total fibre in cooked cereals and cereal products ranged from 2.5 to 20.8 g/100 g, and in cooked legumes from 14.0 to 24.5 g/100 g (on dry matter basis). Distribution of analysed fibre fractions and their quantities differed significantly depending on food groups. Fructans and arabinoxylans were the most significant fibre fractions in rye flakes, and β-glucan in oat flakes, cellulose and resistant starch were present in significant amounts in peas and kidney beans. When the size of regular food portions was taken into consideration, the best sources of total dietary fibre were peas and kidney beans (more than 11 g/serving). The same foods were the best sources of cellulose (4.98 and 3.56 g/serving) and resistant starch (3.90 and 2.83 g/serving). High intake of arabinoxylans and fructans could be accomplished with cooked wheat (3.20 g and 1.60 g/serving, respectively). Oat (1.39 g/serving) and barley flakes (1.30 g/serving) can be recommended as the best sources of β-glucan.

  13. Effect of flaxseed flour incorporation on the physical properties and consumer acceptability of cereal bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouryieh, H; Aramouni, F

    2013-12-01

    Extensive research has revealed numerous nutritional and health benefits of flaxseed due primarily to its nutrients content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of flaxseed flour addition on the physical and sensory characteristics of cereal bars. Four formulations of the flaxseed cereal bars were prepared by partially replacing oats with flaxseed flour added at levels of 0 (control), 6%, 12% and 18%. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in water activity, moisture and firmness values between the flaxseed bars and control. Flaxseed addition significantly (p bars. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the 12% flax cereal bars and the control with respect to sensory attributes and overall acceptability. The overall acceptability for both 12% flax bars and the control was in between 'like moderately' and 'like slightly' on the 9-point hedonic scale. The overall acceptability was most highly correlated with flavor acceptability for both control (r = 0.80) and 12% flax (r = 0.82) cereal bars. Flaxseed bars provided 12% dietary fiber of the daily recommended value. These results indicated that flaxseed flour incorporation up to 12% substantially enhanced the nutritional qualities of the cereal bars without affecting their sensory and quality properties.

  14. Major Cereal Grain Fibers and Psyllium in Relation to Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Roizen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies reveal the cardiovascular benefits of consuming dietary fiber and, especially, cereal fiber. Cereal fiber is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction through multiple mechanisms and consuming a variety of cereal fiber sources offers health benefits specific to the source. Certain cereal fibers have been studied more extensively than others and provide greater support for their incorporation into a healthful diet. β-glucan from oats or barley, or a combination of whole oats and barley, and soluble fiber from psyllium reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; inulin-type fructans added to foods and beverages may modestly decrease serum triacylglycerols; arabinoxylan and resistant starch may improve glycemic control. Individuals with low cereal fiber intake should increase their intake of whole grains in order to receive the benefits of whole grains in addition to fiber. For those adjusting to the texture and palatability of whole grains, turning to added-fiber products rich in β-glucan and psyllium may allow them to reach their fiber goals without increasing caloric intake.

  15. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  16. Genome update: the 1000th genome - a cautionary tale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagesen, Karin; Ussery, David; Wassenaar, Gertrude Maria

    2010-01-01

    conclusions for example about the largest bacterial genome sequenced. Biological diversity is far greater than many have thought. For example, analysis of multiple Escherichia coli genomes has led to an estimate of around 45 000 gene families more genes than are recognized in the human genome. Moreover......There are now more than 1000 sequenced prokaryotic genomes deposited in public databases and available for analysis. Currently, although the sequence databases GenBank, DNA Database of Japan and EMBL are synchronized continually, there are slight differences in content at the genomes level...... for a variety of logistical reasons, including differences in format and loading errors, such as those caused by file transfer protocol interruptions. This means that the 1000th genome will be different in the various databases. Some of the data on the highly accessed web pages are inaccurate, leading to false...

  17. Effective transfer of chromosomes carrying leaf rust resistance genes from Aegilops tauschii Coss. into hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale Witt.) using Ae. tauschii × Secale cereale amphiploid forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Wiśniewska, Halina; Apolinarska, Barbara; Belter, Jolanta

    2015-05-01

    This paper shows the results of effective uses of a molecular cytogenetics toolbox and molecular marker to transfer leaf rust resistance genes from Aegilops tauschii × Secale cereale (DDRR, 2n = 4x = 28) amphiploid forms to triticale cv. Bogo (AABBRR, 2n = 6x = 42). The molecular markers of resistance genes and in situ hybridization analysis of mitotic metaphase of root meristems confirmed the stable inheritance of chromosome 3D segments carrying Lr32 from the BC2F2 to the BC2F5 generation of (Ae. tauschii × S. cereale) × triticale hybrids. The chromosome pairing analysis during metaphase I of meiosis of BC2F4 and BC2F5 hybrids showed increasing regular bivalent formation of 3D chromosome pairs and decreasing number of univalents in subsequent generations. The results indicate that using amphiploid forms as a bridge between wild and cultivated forms can be a successful technology to transfer the D-genome chromatin carrying leaf rust resistance genes into triticale.

  18. An ultrasonic system for weed detection in cereal crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar, Dionisio; Weis, Martin; Gerhards, Roland

    2012-12-13

    Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index) computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group discrimination were

  19. An Ultrasonic System for Weed Detection in Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio Andújar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group

  20. Legume-Cereal Intercropping Improves Forage Yield, Quality and Degradability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available Intercropping legume with cereal is an extensively applied planting pattern in crop cultivation. However, forage potential and the degradability of harvested mixtures from intercropping system remain unclear. To investigate the feasibility of applying an intercropping system as a forage supply source to ruminants, two consecutive experiments (experiments 1 and 2 involving a field cultivation trial and a subsequent in vivo degradable experiment were conducted to determine the forage production performance and the ruminally degradable characteristics of a harvested mixture from an alfalfa/corn-rye intercropping system. In experiment 1, the intercropping system was established by alternating alfalfa and corn or rye with a row ratio of 5:2. Dry matter (DM and nutrient yields were determined. In experiment 2, forages harvested from the different treatments were used as feedstuff to identify nutrient degradation kinetics and distribution of components between the rapidly degradable (a, potentially degradable (b and the degradation rate constant (c of 'b' fraction by in sacco method in Small-Tail Han wether Sheep. The intercropping system of alfalfa and corn-rye provided higher forage production performance with net increases of 9.52% and 34.81% in DM yield, 42.13% and 16.74% in crude protein (CP yield, 25.94% and 69.99% in degradable DM yield, and 16.96% and 5.50% in degradable CP yield than rotation and alfalfa sole cropping systems, respectively. In addition, the harvest mixture from intercropping system also had greater 'a' fraction, 'b' fraction, 'c' values, and effective degradability (E value of DM and CP than corn or rye hay harvested from rotation system. After 48-h exposure to rumen microbes, intercropping harvest materials were degraded to a higher extent than separately degraded crop stems from the sole system as indicated by visual microscopic examination with more tissues disappeared. Thus, the intercropping of alfalfa and corn

  1. Legume-Cereal Intercropping Improves Forage Yield, Quality and Degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yin, Binjie; Xie, Yuhuai; Li, Jing; Yang, Zaibin; Zhang, Guiguo

    2015-01-01

    Intercropping legume with cereal is an extensively applied planting pattern in crop cultivation. However, forage potential and the degradability of harvested mixtures from intercropping system remain unclear. To investigate the feasibility of applying an intercropping system as a forage supply source to ruminants, two consecutive experiments (experiments 1 and 2) involving a field cultivation trial and a subsequent in vivo degradable experiment were conducted to determine the forage production performance and the ruminally degradable characteristics of a harvested mixture from an alfalfa/corn-rye intercropping system. In experiment 1, the intercropping system was established by alternating alfalfa and corn or rye with a row ratio of 5:2. Dry matter (DM) and nutrient yields were determined. In experiment 2, forages harvested from the different treatments were used as feedstuff to identify nutrient degradation kinetics and distribution of components between the rapidly degradable (a), potentially degradable (b) and the degradation rate constant (c) of 'b' fraction by in sacco method in Small-Tail Han wether Sheep. The intercropping system of alfalfa and corn-rye provided higher forage production performance with net increases of 9.52% and 34.81% in DM yield, 42.13% and 16.74% in crude protein (CP) yield, 25.94% and 69.99% in degradable DM yield, and 16.96% and 5.50% in degradable CP yield than rotation and alfalfa sole cropping systems, respectively. In addition, the harvest mixture from intercropping system also had greater 'a' fraction, 'b' fraction, 'c' values, and effective degradability (E value) of DM and CP than corn or rye hay harvested from rotation system. After 48-h exposure to rumen microbes, intercropping harvest materials were degraded to a higher extent than separately degraded crop stems from the sole system as indicated by visual microscopic examination with more tissues disappeared. Thus, the intercropping of alfalfa and corn-rye exhibited a greater

  2. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  3. OryzaGenome: Genome Diversity Database of Wild Oryza Species

    KAUST Repository

    Ohyanagi, Hajime

    2015-11-18

    The species in the genus Oryza, encompassing nine genome types and 23 species, are a rich genetic resource and may have applications in deeper genomic analyses aiming to understand the evolution of plant genomes. With the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, a flood of Oryza species reference genomes and genomic variation information has become available in recent years. This genomic information, combined with the comprehensive phenotypic information that we are accumulating in our Oryzabase, can serve as an excellent genotype-phenotype association resource for analyzing rice functional and structural evolution, and the associated diversity of the Oryza genus. Here we integrate our previous and future phenotypic/habitat information and newly determined genotype information into a united repository, named OryzaGenome, providing the variant information with hyperlinks to Oryzabase. The current version of OryzaGenome includes genotype information of 446 O. rufipogon accessions derived by imputation and of 17 accessions derived by imputation-free deep sequencing. Two variant viewers are implemented: SNP Viewer as a conventional genome browser interface and Variant Table as a textbased browser for precise inspection of each variant one by one. Portable VCF (variant call format) file or tabdelimited file download is also available. Following these SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) data, reference pseudomolecules/ scaffolds/contigs and genome-wide variation information for almost all of the closely and distantly related wild Oryza species from the NIG Wild Rice Collection will be available in future releases. All of the resources can be accessed through http://viewer.shigen.info/oryzagenome/.

  4. OryzaGenome: Genome Diversity Database of Wild Oryza Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyanagi, Hajime; Ebata, Toshinobu; Huang, Xuehui; Gong, Hao; Fujita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Takako; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Feng, Qi; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Han, Bin; Kurata, Nori

    2016-01-01

    The species in the genus Oryza, encompassing nine genome types and 23 species, are a rich genetic resource and may have applications in deeper genomic analyses aiming to understand the evolution of plant genomes. With the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, a flood of Oryza species reference genomes and genomic variation information has become available in recent years. This genomic information, combined with the comprehensive phenotypic information that we are accumulating in our Oryzabase, can serve as an excellent genotype-phenotype association resource for analyzing rice functional and structural evolution, and the associated diversity of the Oryza genus. Here we integrate our previous and future phenotypic/habitat information and newly determined genotype information into a united repository, named OryzaGenome, providing the variant information with hyperlinks to Oryzabase. The current version of OryzaGenome includes genotype information of 446 O. rufipogon accessions derived by imputation and of 17 accessions derived by imputation-free deep sequencing. Two variant viewers are implemented: SNP Viewer as a conventional genome browser interface and Variant Table as a text-based browser for precise inspection of each variant one by one. Portable VCF (variant call format) file or tab-delimited file download is also available. Following these SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) data, reference pseudomolecules/scaffolds/contigs and genome-wide variation information for almost all of the closely and distantly related wild Oryza species from the NIG Wild Rice Collection will be available in future releases. All of the resources can be accessed through http://viewer.shigen.info/oryzagenome/.

  5. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd) to 9(th) centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  6. Ochratoxin A in Danish cereals 1986-1992 and daily intake by the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Rasmussen, Gitte; Thorup, Inger

    1996-01-01

    Ochratoxin A is a common contaminant in Danish cereals, and surveillance of ochratoxin A in cereals has been a part of the Danish monitoring system since 1986. Occurrence of ochratoxin A is highly related to the climatic conditions during harvest. Rye is the crop which is most often contaminated...... and contains the highest levels of ochratoxin A. The result of the survey period from 1986 to 1992 (total of 1431 samples) together with food consumption data is the basis of intake calculations. Especially in years with wet weather during harvest, the daily intake of ochratoxin A for some individuals...... in the Danish population could reach levels which exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for ochratoxin A of 5 ng/kg bw suggested by The Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation. A maximum limit of 5 mu g ochratoxin A per kg cereal would keep the daily intake below 5 ng/kg bw....

  7. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    Full Text Available Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd to 9(th centuries is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  8. Bound phytophenols from ready-to-eat cereals: comparison with other plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsu, M; McMonagle, J; Fletcher, R J; Scobbie, L; Duncan, G J; Cantlay, L; de Roos, B; Duthie, G G; Russell, W R

    2013-12-01

    Whole-grain diets are linked to reduced risk of several chronic diseases (heart disease, cancer, diabetes, metabolic syndrome) and all-cause mortality. There is increasing evidence that these benefits are associated with the gut microbiota and that release of fibre-related phenolic metabolites in the gut is a contributing factor. Additional sources of these metabolites include fruits and vegetables, but the evidence for their protective effects is less well established. With respect to the availability of bound phytophenols, ready-to-eat cereals are compared with soft fruits (considered rich in antioxidants) and other commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. The results demonstrated that when compared with an equivalent serving of fruits or vegetables, a recommended portion of whole-grain cereals deliver substantially higher amounts of bound phytophenols, which are available for metabolism in the colon. The increased amount of these phenolic metabolites may, in part, explain the evidence for the protective effects of whole-grain cereals.

  9. Efficacy of imidacloprid for control of cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, C; Blodgett, S L; Johnson, G D

    2000-02-01

    The toxicity of imidacloprid to the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.), was measured under laboratory and field conditions. Insect mortality and plant damage were determined from artificial and natural infestations of O. melanopus applied to various growth stages of barley. All rates of imidacloprid formulated and applied as a seed treatment caused >90% mortality to cereal leaf beetle larvae when barley was infested with eggs at the 4-leaf stage, but were ineffective when barley was infested with eggs at the early tillering or flag-leaf stages of barley. This window of susceptibility influenced results obtained in field trials where peak larval emergence did not occur until the early tillering stage of barley. The resulting mortality in plants from treated seeds never exceeded 40% in the field. Foliar imidacloprid, however, caused >90% mortality in the field, and may be another option in the management of the cereal leaf beetle.

  10. Effect of temperature and precipitation on nitrate leaching from organic cereal cropping systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabloun, Mohamed; Schelde, Kirsten; Tao, F

    2015-01-01

    The effect of variation in seasonal temperature and precipitation on soil water nitrate (NO3single bondN) concentration and leaching from winter and spring cereals cropping systems was investigated over three consecutive four-year crop rotation cycles from 1997 to 2008 in an organic farming crop...... rotation experiment in Denmark. Three experimental sites, varying in climate and soil type from coarse sand to sandy loam, were investigated. The experiment included experimental treatments with different rotations, manure rate and cover crop, and soil nitrate concentrations was monitored using suction......N concentration for winter and spring cereals, respectively, and 68% and 77% of the variation in the square root transform of annual NO3single bondN leaching for winter and spring cereals, respectively. Nitrate concentration and leaching were shown to be site specific and driven by climatic factors and crop...

  11. The Dietary Intake of Wheat and other Cereal Grains and Their Role in Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin de Punder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is one of the most consumed cereal grains worldwide and makes up a substantial part of the human diet. Although government-supported dietary guidelines in Europe and the U.S.A advise individuals to eat adequate amounts of (whole grain products per day, cereal grains contain “anti-nutrients,” such as wheat gluten and wheat lectin, that in humans can elicit dysfunction and disease. In this review we discuss evidence from in vitro, in vivo and human intervention studies that describe how the consumption of wheat, but also other cereal grains, can contribute to the manifestation of chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases by increasing intestinal permeability and initiating a pro-inflammatory immune response.

  12. Methods for analysis of the distribution and speciation of iron and zinc in the cereal grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj

    is lost during the milling processes used to remove the outer layers of the grain. Furthermore, the bioavailability of the Fe and Zn remaining in the grain is low, thus underlining the need for improved understanding of the factors controlling their distribution and speciation. The distribution of mineral......-localization and identification of P and S with mineral micronutrients can therefore be a circumstantial evidence for their chemical speciation. The focus of this PhD has therefore been on the analysis of mineral micronutrients as well as S and P. In this PhD, four methods for elemental analysis of the cereal grain have been...... mineral micronutrients in extracts of a cereal grain, especially because S was measured with an increased sensitivity without decreasing that of the other elements. This novel analytical method paved the road for multi-elemental speciation and elemental imaging studies of the cereal grain. In addition...

  13. Cereal fibre and type 2 diabetes: time now for randomised controlled trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whincup, Peter H; Donin, Angela S

    2015-07-01

    Diet and nutrition are strongly implicated in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes; low dietary fibre intake could be an important factor. Evidence from prospective observational studies has suggested that it may be low cereal fibre intake, rather than low fruit and vegetable fibre intake, which is particularly important. In this issue of Diabetologia (DOI 10.1007/s00125-015-3585-9 ) Kuijsten et al report on the prospective associations between different dietary fibre sources and type 2 diabetes risk in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Interact study and set their findings in context with a meta-analysis of relevant published prospective studies. The results presented strengthen the evidence implicating cereal fibre as an important determinant of type 2 diabetes risk and suggest that randomised controlled trials examining the effect of cereal fibre supplementation on type 2 diabetes risk are now needed.

  14. Potential of phytase-mediated iron release from cereal-based foods: a quantitative view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Tetens, Inge; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    The major part of iron present in plant foods such as cereals is largely unavailable for direct absorption in humans due to complexation with the negatively charged phosphate groups of phytate (myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6)-hexakisphosphate). Human biology has not evolved an efficient mechanism...... to naturally release iron from iron phytate complexes. This narrative review will evaluate the quantitative significance of phytase-catalysed iron release from cereal foods. In vivo studies have shown how addition of microbially derived phytases to cereal-based foods has produced increased iron absorption via...... enzyme-catalysed dephosphorylation of phytate, indicating the potential of this strategy for preventing and treating iron deficiency anaemia. Despite the immense promise of this strategy and the prevalence of iron deficiency worldwide, the number of human studies elucidating the significance of phytase...

  15. Effect of primary processing of cereals and legumes on its nutritional quality: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Oghbaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and legumes are important part of dietaries and contribute substantially to nutrient intake of human beings. They are significant source of energy, protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. Primary processing of cereals and legumes is an essential component of their preparation before use. For some grains, dehusking is an essential step, whereas for others, it could be milling the grain into flour. Grains are subjected to certain processing treatments to impart special characteristics and improve organoleptic properties such as expanded cereals. All these treatments result in alteration of their nutritional quality which could either be reduction in nutrients, phytochemicals and antinutrients or an improvement in digestibility or availability of nutrients. It is important to understand these changes occurring in grain nutritional quality on account of pre-processing treatments to select appropriate techniques to obtain maximum nutritional and health benefits. This review attempts to throw light on nutritional alterations occurring in grains due to pre-processing treatments.

  16. Changes in time of sowing, flowering and maturity of cereals in Europe under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Elsgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The phenological development of cereal crops from emergence through flowering to maturity is largely controlled by temperature, but also affected by day length and potential physiological stresses. Responses may vary between species and varieties. Climate change will affect the timing of cereal...... crop development, but exact changes will also depend on changes in varieties as affected by plant breeding and variety choices. This study aimed to assess changes in timing of major phenological stages of cereal crops in Northern and Central Europe under climate change. Records on dates of sowing......, flowering, and maturity of wheat, oats and maize were collected from field experiments conducted during the period 1985–2009. Data for spring wheat and spring oats covered latitudes from 46 to 64°N, winter wheat from 46 to 61°N, and maize from 47 to 58°N. The number of observations (site...

  17. Hemodialysis access - self care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - ...

  18. Physicochemical properties and nutritional quality of raw cereals for newly weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, G A; Doucet, F J; Hill, S E; Wiseman, J

    2008-06-01

    The digestibility of the starch component of raw cereals in newly weaned piglets is highly variable. Reasons for this must be elucidated if the most suitable cereals are to be used. A novel approach was employed, which consisted of assessing the physicochemical properties (rapid visco analysis, water absorption and solubility indices, particle size distribution and in vitro amylolytic digestion) of eight raw cereals contained within piglet diets and subsequently relating this in vitro data to the biological responses of weaned piglets. Trial 1 examined soft and hard wheat, trial 2 - soft wheat, barley, rye and triticale, and trial 3 - soft wheat, naked oats, whole oats and maize. The initial observation was that in vitro testing prior to animal trials is recommended in nutritional evaluation since it indicated fundamental differences between raw cereals, such as for example the levels of endogenous amylase in wheat. Starch and nitrogen digestibility differed between cereals (apparent digestibility coefficients at the 0.5 site of the small intestine ranged from 0.10 to 0.69 for starch and from 0.17 to 0.68 for nitrogen). There is also a probable relationship between the coefficients of ileal apparent starch digestibility, at approximately halfway from the gastric pylorus to the ileocaecal valve, and the presence of endogenous amylase (mean values of 0.53 and 0.62 in trials 2 and 3, respectively, for the higher amylase wheat; 0.38 for the low-amylase wheat used in trial 1). This additional variable (i.e. the unforeseen presence of endogenous amylase) in wheat made it more difficult to draw a firm conclusion about the nutritional suitability of the different cereals. All raw-cereal diets caused atrophy of the villi during the initial week following weaning, but the soft wheat was associated with the highest comparative villi height and might therefore be considered the best of all raw cereals in minimising the post-weaning growth check. For wheat, this might also

  19. Unraveling the major triticeae phytases – towards cereals with high grain phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh

    acid constitutes the most important anti nutritional factor for the bioavailability of minerals. However, the mature grain phytase activity varies considerably between plant species and between cultivars. Cereals like rye, wheat and barley possess significant phytase activity with the potential...... to contribute to the hydrolysis of phytic acid in food and feed. In contrast rice and maize possess insufficient phytase activity in the mature grain to have a notable effect on the phytic acid. The aim of the present study was to (1) uncover the genetic basis for the major phytases in cereal grains (2) explain...

  20. Exploring the potential of symbiotic fungal endophytes in cereal disease suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hanlon, Karen; Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup;

    2012-01-01

    Cereal crops are an essential source of nutrition worldwide. The incidence and severity of fungal diseases, in particular foliar diseases such as leaf spots, mildews and rusts, is a serious challenge to cereal production, and this problem is likely to escalate with the changing global climate....... Traditional and current methods for controlling fungal pathogens include the use of fungicides, good farming practices, and increasing plant resistance through conventional breeding. While effective, these strategies also carry limitations, mainly due to fungicide-resistance, breakdown of plant resistance...

  1. Environmentally Friendly Nitrogen Fertilizers Appplication for Winter Cereals Considering the Mineral Nitrogen Content in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Timbare, R.; Bušmanis, M.

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve nitrogen fertilizers application recommendations for cereals, the soil mineral nitrogen (Nmin) investigations (1995 – 2000) were carried out on sod – podzolic and brown – lesssive loamy sand and loamy soils in co-operation with other research institutions. The soil samples for determination of NO3 – N and NH4 – N were taken in depth 0 - 20, 21 – 40 and 41 – 60 cm in spring before the start of growth on winter cereals fields, but in 2001,2002- also in autumn before the sowi...

  2. Experiences with intercropping design - a survey about pulse cereal-combinations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Fragstein und Niemsdorff, P.; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Gooding, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    A survey was carried out within five European countries with regard to the practice of cereal grain legume intercropping. The mostly given combination was spring barleyspring pea beside 27 other combinations between pulses and cereals. 72 % of all examples consisted of spring varieties, the rest...... of winter varieties, mainly a special case of the French South West with mild winter climate. Intercrops were mainly used for feeding purposes. Best experiences were named as better yield stability, effective weed suppression, and good quality of feed. Of the negative experiences complicated mechanical weed...

  3. Moisture sorption curves of fruit and nut cereal bar prepared with sugar and sugar substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi, Byrappa Vasu; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Ravi, Ramaswamy; Reddy, Sunkireddy Yella

    2013-01-01

    Low sugar, low fat, dry fruit and nut cereal bars without sugar were prepared using cereals, nuts, and sugar substitutes. The sorption characteristics of the bars prepared with sugar substitutes in comparison with that of sugar were studied by keeping the bars at water activity (aw) from 0.1 to 0.9. The sorption isotherms of low sugar bars were practically identical below aw of 0.5 but above aw of 0.5, a clear differentiation in the isotherms could be observed compared to that of sugar counte...

  4. Skin health promotion effects of natural beta-glucan derived from cereals and microorganisms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bin; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Xu, Baojun

    2014-02-01

    β-Glucans are natural cell wall polysaccharides found in yeast, fungi (including mushrooms), some bacteria, seaweeds and cereals. Natural β-glucans possess many health promotion effects on human health, such as anti-tumor, anti-diabetes, anti-infection, lowering blood cholesterol and immune-modulating properties. These effects have been reviewed previously. However, skin health promotion of β-glucan derived from cereals and microorganisms has received little attention. This review focuses on antioxidant activity, anti-wrinkle activity, anti-ultraviolet light, wound healing, and moisturizing effect and skin permeation absorption of β-glucan. Furthermore, applications of β-glucan in cosmetics are also discussed.

  5. Genome wide association mapping for the tolerance to the polyamine oxidase inhibitor guazatine in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadin Evgeniev eAtanasov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Guazatine is a potent inhibitor of polyamine oxidase (PAO activity. In agriculture, guazatine is used as non-systemic contact fungicide efficient in the protection of cereals and citrus fruits against disease. The composition of guazatine is complex, mainly constituted by a mixture of synthetic guanidated polyamines (polyaminoguanidines. Here we have studied the effects from exposure to guazatine in the weed Arabidopsis thaliana. We report that micromolar concentrations of guazatine are sufficient to inhibit growth of Arabidopsis seedlings and induce chlorosis, whereas germination is barely affected. We observed the occurrence of quantitative variation in the response to guazatine between 107 randomly chosen Arabidopsis accessions. This enabled us to undertake genome-wide association (GWA mapping that identified a locus on chromosome one associated with guazatine tolerance. CHLOROPHYLLASE 1 (CLH1 within this locus was studied as candidate gene, together with its paralog (CLH2. The analysis of independent clh1-2, clh1-3, clh2-3, clh2-2 and double clh1-2 clh2-3 mutant alleles indicated that CLH1 and/or CLH2 loss-of-function or expression down-regulation promote guazatine tolerance in Arabidopsis. We report a natural mechanism by which Arabidopsis populations can overcome toxicity by the fungicide guazatine.

  6. Dated tribe-wide whole chloroplast genome phylogeny indicates recurrent hybridizations within Triticeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Nadine; Brassac, Jonathan; Kilian, Benjamin; Blattner, Frank R

    2017-06-16

    Triticeae, the tribe of wheat grasses, harbours the cereals barley, rye and wheat and their wild relatives. Although economically important, relationships within the tribe are still not understood. We analysed the phylogeny of chloroplast lineages among nearly all monogenomic Triticeae taxa and polyploid wheat species aiming at a deeper understanding of the tribe's evolution. We used on- and off-target reads of a target-enrichment experiment followed by Illumina sequencing. The read data was used to assemble the plastid locus ndhF for 194 individuals and the whole chloroplast genome for 183 individuals, representing 53 Triticeae species and 15 genera. We conducted Bayesian and multispecies coalescent analyses to infer relationships and estimate divergence times of the taxa. We present the most comprehensive dated Triticeae chloroplast phylogeny and review previous hypotheses in the framework of our results. Monophyly of Triticeae chloroplasts could not be confirmed, as either Bromus or Psathyrostachys captured a chloroplast from a lineage closely related to a Bromus-Triticeae ancestor. The most recent common ancestor of Triticeae occurred approximately between ten and 19 million years ago. The comparison of the chloroplast phylogeny with available nuclear data in several cases revealed incongruences indicating past hybridizations. Recent events of chloroplast capture were detected as individuals grouped apart from con-specific accessions in otherwise monopyhletic groups.

  7. Molecular characterization of lactic acid bacteria and in situ amylase expression during traditional fermentation of cereal foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin Anthony; Narbad, Arjan

    2012-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria play an important role in traditional fermented foods consumed in different countries. Study of their taxonomic structure and diversity is necessary for starter culture selection, improved safety and nutritional enhancement. To achieve these objectives, microbial genomic typing methods were used to study genetic differences of autochthonous bacteria and their distribution in two traditional African fermented cereal foods. A total of 85 predominant bacterial species were isolated from ogi and kunu-zaki obtained from Northern and Southern geographical region of Nigeria. They were identified using combination of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on rpoA, pheS and atpA genes as well as M13-PCR gel fingerprints. The results showed that Lactobacillus fermentum was the most frequently isolated species in ogi (71.4%) and kunu-zaki (84.5%). Other species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Non lactic acid bacteria isolated from these foods were species belonging to the Bacillus and Staphylococcus. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) analysis of the M13-PCR fingerprints for LAB strains showed clonal diversity among strains of the same species. In vitro and in situ expression of amylase gene during fermentation by amylolytic L. plantarum ULAG11 was detected, indicating the potential usefulness of such species for development of starter cultures and for controlled fermentation processes.

  8. De novo assembly and characterization of the root transcriptome of Aegilops variabilis during an interaction with the cereal cyst nematode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu De-Lin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aegilops variabilis No.1 is highly resistant to cereal cyst nematode (CCN. However, a lack of genomic information has restricted studies on CCN resistance genes in Ae. variabilis and has limited genetic applications in wheat breeding. Results Using RNA-Seq technology, we generated a root transcriptome at a sequencing depth of 4.69 gigabases of Ae. variabilis No. 1 from a pooled RNA sample. The sample contained equal amounts of RNA extracted from CCN-infected and untreated control plants at three time-points. Using the Trinity method, nearly 52,081,238 high-quality trimmed reads were assembled into a non-redundant set of 118,064 unigenes with an average length of 500 bp and an N50 of 599 bp. The total assembly was 59.09 Mb of unique transcriptome sequences with average read-depth coverage of 33.25×. In BLAST searches of our database against public databases, 66.46% (78,467 of the unigenes were annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology terms. Functional categorization further revealed 7,408 individual unigenes and three pathways related to plant stress resistance. Conclusions We conducted high-resolution transcriptome profiling related to root development and the response to CCN infection in Ae. variabilis No.1. This research facilitates further studies on gene discovery and on the molecular mechanisms related to CCN resistance.

  9. Invertebrate communities in spring wheat and the identification of cereal aphid predators through molecular gut content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereal aphid complexes are responsible for reducing wheat production worldwide; however, management against these species is rare in North America. Generalist predators may contribute to reducing cereal aphid numbers and preventing significant damage to crops. A two-year survey identifying the arth...

  10. 9 CFR 318.15 - Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tagging chemicals, preservatives...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.15 Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.” When any chemical, preservative, cereal, spice, or other substance is...

  11. Cancer genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrild, Bodil; Guldberg, Per; Ralfkiær, Elisabeth Methner

    2007-01-01

    Almost all cells in the human body contain a complete copy of the genome with an estimated number of 25,000 genes. The sequences of these genes make up about three percent of the genome and comprise the inherited set of genetic information. The genome also contains information that determines whe...

  12. Effect of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sholly, D.M.; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Sutton, A.L.;

    2011-01-01

    square design. Pigs were cannulated and housed individually in metabolism pens during sample collection. The 4 cerealbased diets were nonfermented liquid barley (NFLB), nonfermented liquid wheat (NFLW), fermented liquid barley (FLB), and fermented liquid wheat (FLW). The fermented feeds were prepared...... ingredients were added. Water was added to the dry nonfermented feeds [1:1 (wt/wt)] immediately before feeding. The fermentation process reduced the amount of DM in both cereals (P fermented cereals. There was an interaction of cereal.......243) on the fecal digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides in either of the cereals but their digestibility was 10.0% greater (P fermentation of cereal before feeding altered the dietary composition and influenced flow and composition...

  13. Cereal bran fractionation: processing techniques for the recovery of functional components and their applications to the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Christos; Aprea, Eugenio

    2012-04-01

    Bran is the outer part of cereal grains that is separated during the cereals de-hulling and milling processes. It was considered in the past a by-product of cereal industry employed mainly as animal feed. Cereal bran, being particularly rich in different functional biopolymers, bio-active compounds and essential fatty acids, attracted the interest of pharmaceutical and food industry. Furthermore, the peculiar techno-functional properties of brans together with their particular physiological and nutritional aspects have led to a great interest in their incorporation as main or secondary components in different groups of food products including bakery and confectionery products, breakfast cereals and extruded foodstuffs, emulsions and functional dairy products and pasta products. In the first part of the present work the main fractionation processes, bran fractions properties and their physicochemical and technological properties are briefly reviewed. In the second part, relevant applications, with emphasis on patents, in food industry are reviewed as well.

  14. High levels of nucleotide diversity and fast decline of linkage disequilibrium in rye (Secale cereale L. genes involved in frost response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korzun Viktor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rye (Secale cereale L. is the most frost tolerant cereal species. As an outcrossing species, rye exhibits high levels of intraspecific diversity, which makes it well-suited for allele mining in genes involved in the frost responsive network. For investigating genetic diversity and the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD we analyzed eleven candidate genes and 37 microsatellite markers in 201 lines from five Eastern and Middle European rye populations. Results A total of 147 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and nine insertion-deletion polymorphisms were found within 7,639 bp of DNA sequence from eleven candidate genes, resulting in an average SNP frequency of 1 SNP/52 bp. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity of candidate genes were high with average values π = 5.6 × 10-3 and Hd = 0.59, respectively. According to an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, most of the genetic variation was found between individuals within populations. Haplotype frequencies varied markedly between the candidate genes. ScCbf14, ScVrn1, and ScDhn1 were dominated by a single haplotype, while the other 8 genes (ScCbf2, ScCbf6, ScCbf9b, ScCbf11, ScCbf12, ScCbf15, ScIce2, and ScDhn3 had a more balanced haplotype frequency distribution. Intra-genic LD decayed rapidly, within approximately 520 bp on average. Genome-wide LD based on microsatellites was low. Conclusions The Middle European population did not differ substantially from the four Eastern European populations in terms of haplotype frequencies or in the level of nucleotide diversity. The low LD in rye compared to self-pollinating species promises a high resolution in genome-wide association mapping. SNPs discovered in the promoters or coding regions, which attribute to non-synonymous substitutions, are suitable candidates for association mapping.

  15. Validation and transferability study of a method based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for the detection and quantification of ergot bodies in cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Ph.; Fernández - Pierna, J.A.; Egmond, van H.P.; Zegers, J.; Dardenne, P.; Baeten, V.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging has proved its suitability for quality and safety control in the cereal sector by allowing spectroscopic images to be collected at single-kernel level, which is of great interest to cereal control laboratories. Contaminants in cereals includ

  16. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Maria; Schnoor, Heidi J; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without...

  17. Cereal crops as viable production and storage systems for pharmaceutical scFv antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöger, E; Vaquero, C; Torres, E; Sack, M; Nicholson, L; Drossard, J; Williams, S; Keen, D; Perrin, Y; Christou, P; Fischer, R

    2000-03-01

    This report describes the stable expression of a medically important antibody in the staple cereal crops rice and wheat. We successfully expressed a single-chain Fv antibody (ScFvT84.66) against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a well characterized tumor-associated marker antigen. scFv constructs were engineered for recombinant antibody targeting to the plant cell apoplast and ER. Up to 30 microg/g of functional recombinant antibody was detected in the leaves and seeds of wheat and rice. We confirmed that transgenic dry seeds could be stored for at least five months at room temperature, without significant loss of the amount or activity of scFvT84.66. Our results represent the first transition from model plant expression systems, such as tobacco and Arabidopsis, to widely cultivated cereal crops, such as rice and wheat, for expression of an antibody molecule that has already shown efficacy in clinical applications. Thus, we have established that molecular pharming in cereals can be a viable production system for such high-value pharmaceutical macromolecules. Our findings provide a strong foundation for exploiting alternative uses of cereal crops both in industrialized and developing countries.

  18. Cereal fiber intake may reduce risk of gastric adenocarcinomas : The EPIC-EURGAST study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendez, M. A.; Pera, Guillem; Aguclo, Antonio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Carneiro, Ftima; Berrino, Franco; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Berglund, Goeran; Manjer, Jonas; Johansson, Ingegerd; Stenling, Roger; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tormo, Maria J.; Quiros, Jose R.; Allen, Naomi; Key, Timothy J.; Bingham, Sheila; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Jensen, Majken; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Numans, Mattijs E.; Ocke, Marga C.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lund, Eiliv; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Gonzalez, Carlos A.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous case-control studies suggest dietary fiber may reduce risk of gastric cancer, but this has not been confirmed prospectively. A previous case-control study reported reduced risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinomas associated with cereal fiber, but not with fruit or vegetable fiber. To date, di

  19. Identification of secreted proteins of Aspergillus oryzae associated with growth on solid cereal substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesebeke, R. te; Boussier, A.; Biezen, N. van; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Punt, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Filamentous growth of Aspergillus oryzae on solid cereal substrates involves secretion of substrate converting enzymes and a solid substrate specific polarised hyphal growth phenotype. To identify proteins produced under these specific conditions, the extracts of A. oryzae grown on wheat-based media

  20. Larger Bowl Size Increases the Amount of Cereal Children Request, Consume, and Waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, Brian; van Ittersum, Koert; Payne, Collin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether larger bowls bias children toward requesting more food from the adults who serve them. Study design Study 1 was a between-subject design involving 69 preschool-age children who were randomized to receive either a small (8 oz) or large (16 oz) cereal bowl and were asked t

  1. Development and Life History of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae on Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Adebayo Ojo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, is one of the most destructive pests of stored cereals. Knowledge of the life history and biology is important to the development of an integrated pest management program. Investigation was carried out on developmental biology of S. zeamais on four main cereal crops, maize, rice, sorghum, and millet, under laboratory conditions. Egg incubation, oviposition periods, and larval instar development were not different significantly among the food hosts. Number of eggs laid varied significantly among the cereal grains; mean fecundity was highest on maize (67.2±3.16 and lowest on millet (53.8±0.17. Number of immature (larva and pupa and adult stages varied significantly among the cereal grains. There exist four larval instars with a varied mean head capsule width, with a mean total instar larval developmental period of 23.1, 22.2, 22.2, and 21.6 d on maize, rice, sorghum, and millet, respectively. There was linear relationship and significant correlation between the stages of larval development and head capsule width. The mean developmental period from egg to adult varied, being highest on maize (34.7 d and lowest on sorghum (33.5 d.

  2. Cereal bioengineering: amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2011-01-01

    for the presence of a general mechanism in starch degradation in the plant kingdom where phosphorylation carried out by ectopic expression of StGWD tags barley starch granules for degradation by endogenous enzymes. Together this work shows two new strategies for in planta starch bioengineering of cereals...

  3. Colour and shape analysis techniques for weed detection in cereal fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, A.J; López, F; Benlloch, J.V.;

    2000-01-01

    Information on weed distribution within the field is necessary to implement spatially variable herbicide application. This paper deals with the development of near-ground image capture and processing techniques in order to detect broad-leaved weeds in cereal crops under actual field conditions. T...

  4. Tillage system and cereal rye residue affects pigweed establishment and competitiveness in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integral component of conservation-agriculture systems in cotton is the use of a winter cover crop; however, managing problematic weeds in such systems is a challenge. To evaluate pigweed dynamics in conventional vs. conservation systems, a rye (Secale cereale L.) winter cover crop was establish...

  5. Beyond whole grain: The European HEALTHGRAIN project aims at healthier cereal foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutanen, K.; Shepherd, R.; Shewry, P.R.; Delcour, J.A.; Björck, I.; Kamp, J.W. van der

    2008-01-01

    Cereal foods are an important source of carbohydrates and dietary fiber in our diet. Epidemiological evidence increasingly demonstrates that a diet rich in whole grain is protective against development of diet-related disorders such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The majority of cere

  6. Estimation of leaf area index in cereal crops using red-green images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Kristian; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Thomsen, Anton G;

    2009-01-01

    A new method for estimating the leaf area index (LAI) in cereal crops based on red-green images taken from above the crop canopy is introduced. The proposed method labels pixels into vegetation and soil classes using a combination of greenness and intensity derived from the red and green colour...

  7. Beyond whole grain: The European HEALTHGRAIN project aims at healthier cereal foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutanen, K.; Shepherd, R.; Shewry, P.R.; Delcour, J.A.; Björck, I.; Kamp, J.W. van der

    2008-01-01

    Cereal foods are an important source of carbohydrates and dietary fiber in our diet. Epidemiological evidence increasingly demonstrates that a diet rich in whole grain is protective against development of diet-related disorders such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The majority of

  8. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer.

  9. Relative importance of vertebrates and invertebrates in epigeaic weed seed predation in organic cereal fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, P.R.; Hofman, A.; Vet, L.E.M.; Van der Werf, W.

    2003-01-01

    Exclosure trials were conducted in four organic cereal fields in The Netherlands in 1999 and 2000 to determine the relative importance of vertebrates and invertebrates in weed seed predation. The trials showed that seed predation by vertebrates was rather consistent and predictable, occurring on all

  10. Sensory characteristics of wholegrain and bran-rich cereal foods - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiniö, R.L.; Noort, M.W.J.; Katina, K.; Alam, S.A.; Sozer, N.; Kock, H.L. de; Hersleth, M.; Poutanen, K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Wholegrain foods are known to be health-beneficial but their sensory characteristics may be a limiting factor for consumption. The scientific literature of factors influencing sensory quality of wholegrain foods is rather scarce. Scope and approach: Many cereals like rye, oats, barley

  11. INFLUENCE DE LA PROPOLIS SUR LA MITOSE DANS LE MERYSTEME DE SECALE CEREALE L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara Navrotescu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Cette recherche présente l’influence de propolis sur la mitose dans le merysteme de Secale cereale L. (2n=14. On confirme l’utilisation de plus en plus large de ce produit apicole - propolis - au niveau de la thérapeutique.

  12. INFLUENCE DE LA PROPOLIS SUR LA MITOSE DANS LE MERYSTEME DE SECALE CEREALE L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mioara Navrotescu; Ovidiu Toma

    2005-01-01

    Cette recherche présente l’influence de propolis sur la mitose dans le merysteme de Secale cereale L. (2n=14). On confirme l’utilisation de plus en plus large de ce produit apicole - propolis - au niveau de la thérapeutique.

  13. Innovaciones Tecnológicas y Tendencias de Desarrollo en las cosechadoras de Cereales

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Revisamos en este artículo los temas en los que ingenieros y científicos están trabajando para aportar innovaciones a la cosecha de cereal. Además se revisa el mercado español y las últimas novedades comerciales presentadas por los fabricantes.

  14. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi contribute to Striga management on cereals in Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendzemo, V.W.; Ast, van A.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Witchweeds (Striga spp.) are important root parasites of many cereal and legume crops in savanna and Sahelian regions of Africa. Evidence on the possible role of soil pathogenic bacteria and fungi in Striga control has been obtained. Here, the authors report that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi ca

  15. Sourdough lactic acid bacteria: exploration of non-wheat cereal-based fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Cagno, Raffaella Di; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    Cereal-based foods represent a very important source of biological as well as of cultural diversity, as testified by the wide range of derived fermented products. A trend that is increasingly attracting bakery industries as well as consumers is the use of non-conventional flours for the production of novel products, characterised by peculiar flavour and better nutritional value. Lactic acid bacteria microbiota of several non-wheat cereals and pseudo-cereals has been recently deeply investigated with the aim of studying the biodiversity and finding starter cultures for sourdough fermentation. Currently, the use of ancient or ethnic grains is mainly limited to traditional typical foods and the bread making process is not well standardised with consequent negative effects on the final properties. The challenge in fermenting such grains is represented by the necessity to combine good technology and sensory properties with nutritional/health benefits. The choice of the starter cultures has a critical impact on the final quality of cereal-based products, and strains that dominate and outcompete contaminants should be applied for specific sourdough fermentations. In this sense, screening and characterisation of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota is very useful in the improvement of a peculiar flour, from both a nutritional and technological point of view.

  16. Country of origin (COO) effect in cereal products: A comparative study of Danish and Lithuanian consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Costa, Ana I.A.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey which aimed at uncovering the influence of COO information on the perceptions of 281 Danish and Lithuanian consumers regarding several cereal foods and their marketing characteristics, such as price, place-of-purchase, brand, packaging, and labelling...

  17. Mycotoxin contamination of cereal grain commidities in relation to climate in North West Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Klemsdal, S.S.; Hietaniemi, V.; lindblad, M.; Ioannou-Kakouri, E.; Asselt, van E.D.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate mycotoxin contamination of cereal grain commodities for feed and food production in North Western Europe during the last two decades, including trends over time and co-occurrence between toxins, and to assess possible effects of climate on the presence of mycotoxins.

  18. Stability of the Trichothecene, Deoxynivalenol in Processed Foods and Wheat Flake Cereal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, principally F. graminearum and F. culmorum. These fungi are natural contaminants of wheat, barley and corn and, consequently, DON is found in cereal-based foods. The effect of thermal processing on DON is variable: som...

  19. New Trends in Pesticide Residue Analysis in Cereals, Nutraceuticals, Baby Foods, and Related Processed Consumer Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina-Fulton, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Pesticide residue methods have been developed for a wide variety of food products including cereal-based foods, nutraceuticals and related plant products, and baby foods. These cereal, fruit, vegetable, and plant-based products provide the basis for many processed consumer products. For cereal and nutraceuticals, which are dry sample products, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method has been used with additional steps to allow wetting of the dry sample matrix and subsequent cleanup using dispersive or cartridge format SPE to reduce matrix effects. More processed foods may have lower pesticide concentrations but higher co-extracts that can lead to signal suppression or enhancement with MS detection. For complex matrixes, GC/MS/MS or LC/electrospray ionization (positive or negative ion)-MS/MS is more frequently used. The extraction and cleanup methods vary with different sample types particularly for cereal-based products, and these different approaches are discussed in this review. General instrument considerations are also discussed.

  20. Genetic Engineering of Cereal Grains with Starch Consisting of More Than 99% Amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Numerous textbooks tell us that plant starches are a mix of two starch types: amylopectin and amylose. We recently succeeded in engineering a cereal crop – a barley line – producing grain starch consisting of more than 99% amylose1. This amylose-only starch contains a high residual fraction...

  1. Grass Hosts Harbor More Diverse Isolates of Puccinia striiformis Than Cereal Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, P; Chen, X M; See, D R

    2016-04-01

    Puccinia striiformis causes stripe rust on cereal crops and many grass species. However, it is not clear whether the stripe rust populations on grasses are able to infect cereal crops and how closely they are related to each other. In this study, 103 isolates collected from wheat, barley, triticale, rye, and grasses in the United States were characterized by virulence tests and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Of 69 pathotypes identified, 41 were virulent on some differentials of wheat only, 10 were virulent on some differentials of barley only, and 18 were virulent on some differentials of both wheat and barley. These pathotypes were clustered into three groups: group one containing isolates from wheat, triticale, rye, and grasses; group two isolates were from barley and grasses; and group three isolates were from grasses and wheat. SSR markers identified 44 multilocus genotypes (MLGs) and clustered them into three major molecular groups (MG) with MLGs in MG3 further classified into three subgroups. Isolates from cereal crops were present in one or more of the major or subgroups, but not all, whereas grass isolates were present in all of the major and subgroups. The results indicate that grasses harbor more diverse isolates of P. striiformis than the cereals.

  2. Preparation of a cereal bar containing bocaiuva: physical, nutritional, microbiological and sensory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Leite Munhoz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Regional fruit have been increasingly used in recent years in the preparation of foodstuffs because besides promoting the biome preservation, it is obtained differentiated and value-added products. This study aimed to prepare cereal bars containing pulp and kernel of bocaiuva and determine the nutritional quality, assess the acceptability, and microbiological quality. Two formulations of cereal bar were prepared with pulp dehydrated by osmoconvection and kernel of bocaiuva. The formulations were analyzed as for the texture, color analysis, proximate composition, fatty acids profile, mineral, microbiology and sensory evaluation. Cereal bars presented on average, in g 100 g-1, 4.83 moisture, 8.01 protein, 12.93 lipids, 1.30 ash, 53.75 total carbohydrate, 19.78 fiber and 363.41 kcal 100 g-1 total caloric value. Bars represented a source of calcium and iron and had a high content of oleic acid, average of 20 g 100 g-1 total lipids. In the microbiological evaluation, cereal bars have met the standards set by the legislation, being suitable for consumption. As for the attributes evaluated in the sensory analysis, all showed mean values above 6, considered acceptable for consumption. The use of bocaiuva may contribute to highlight differentiated taste and appearance, emphasizing the use of native fruits in the preparation of new products.

  3. Food safety of cereals: a chain wide approach to reduce Fusarium mycotoxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.E.; Ruckenbauer, P.; Visconti, A.; Osenburggen, W.A.; Nijs, den A.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley and Fusarium ear rot in maize is caused by several Fusarium species. The disease reduces the quality of the seed since several of these fungi produce mycotoxins. From a food safety point of view, consumption of mycotoxin-infected cereals is dangerous as

  4. Haemoglobin fortified cereal: a source of available iron to breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertrampf, E; Olivares, M; Pizarro, F; Walter, T; Cayazzo, M; Heresi, G; Llaguno, S; Chadud, P; Stekel, A

    1990-11-01

    We tested in the field an extruded rice flour, fortified with a bovine haemoglobin concentrate (Fe:14 mg/100 g of powder). This cereal has a high iron bioavailability, good protein quality and amino acid score. Healthy, term breast-fed infants were prospectively studied. One group (n = 92) received the fortified cereal (from 4 to 12 months of age). As control, 96 infants received regular solid foods (cooked vegetables and meat) from age 4 months. At the end of the field trial, a subsample of infants in both groups was supplemented with 45 mg Fe during 90 d. Iron nutrition status was determined at 9, 12 and 15 months. At 12 months, iron deficiency anaemia was present in 17 per cent of controls, in 10 per cent of fortified infants as a whole, but only in 6 per cent of the babies who consumed over 30 g of cereal/d. In addition, this latter group did not show any significant changes in iron nutrition status after the supplementation trial. Results demonstrate that the consumption of a haemoglobin fortified cereal is effective in markedly reducing the incidence of iron deficiency in breast-fed infants.

  5. Methods for analysis of the distribution and speciation of iron and zinc in the cereal grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj

    micronutrients in cereal grain primarily depends on two main components; phytic acid and proteins. Most of the phosphorus (P) found in the grain is bound in phytic acid and most sulphur (S) is incorporated into the amino acids cysteine and methionine that are part of different proteins. Co...

  6. Developments on the cereal grains Digitaria exilis (acha) and Digitaria iburua (iburu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jideani, I A; Jideani, V A

    2011-06-01

    Research and development on these indigenous African cereal grains, acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf) and iburu (D. iburua Stapf), is experiencing renewed interest not just in Africa but the rest of the world. It is believed that acha and iburu may have nutraceutical properties, as it is used in some areas for managing diabetes. Value addition and exploitation of fonio (acha and iburu) in the development of health or speciality foods like acha-bread, biscuit, cookies, sour dough, traditional drinks, nonfermented steamed and granulated dumpling products are gaining interest. These grains may also contribute in addressing some very relevant challenges in today's food formulation-both from functionality and health perspectives. The constraint of low yield is receiving attention in cereal breeding programmes which may give rise to a new generation of 'healthy' cereal grains in future. Further research on acha and iburu whole grains will hopefully lead to increase understanding of the health effects of grain components and to increase the intake of health-protective grain components. Moreover, with strong consumer demand for these grains due to their potential nutritional and health benefits, and because they help to satisfy the demand for a more varied cereal diet, efforts should be made to tackle the obstacles militating against production, improved quality, competitiveness and value-addition.

  7. Sinapate dehydrodimers and sinapate−ferulate heterodimers in cereal dietary fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirko Bunzel; John Ralph; Hoon Kim; Fachuang Lu; Sally A. Ralph; Jane M. Marita; Ronald D. Hatfield; Hans Steinhart

    2003-01-01

    Two 8-8-coupled sinapic acid dehydrodimers and at least three sinapate-ferulate heterodimers have been identified as saponification products from different insoluble and soluble cereal grain dietary fibers. The two 8-8-disinapates were authenticated by comparison of their GC retention times and mass spectra with authentic dehydrodimers synthesized from methyl or ethyl...

  8. Genetic Engineering of Cereal Grains with Starch Consisting of More Than 99% Amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    that is resistant to enzymatic degradation, even when gelatinized by cooking. The barley plants producing the grains had a moderate yield loss of 25% in comparison with other barley plants of the same cultivar. We believe that the method can be applied to produce amylose-only starch in other cereal crops including...

  9. Perspectives for geographically oriented management of fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Booij, C.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of available systems for management of Fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal grain supply chain, with an emphasis on the use of predictive mathematical modeling. From the state of the art, it proposes future developments in modeling and management and their challenges.

  10. The effect of perennials as green manure on cereal productivity and disease incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuodiene, R.; Nekrosiene, R.

    2012-11-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Vezaiciai Branch of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry during the period 2002-2007. They were designed to ascertain the effects of phytomass of different perennial pre-crops used for green manure on the productivity and on the occurrence of foliar fungal diseases of cereal agrocenoses. Plant residues and phytomass ploughed down as green manures positively affected cereal indices of crop productivity not only for the first but for the second year as well. It influenced the productivity of cereal segments. The largest amount of metabolizable energy was in the yield of cereal sequence under white clover (Trifolium repens L.) 83.23-84.76% GJ ha{sup 1}. The potential accumulated by perennials of the second year of development was more efficiently utilised by winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) cv. Tevo, and that of perennials of the third year of development was more efficiently utilised by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. Ula. Perennials had a significant effect on the spread of foliar diseases in winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) agrocenoses. The severity of the disease was 1.1-1.3 times higher in the winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) treatments with white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pre-crops. Foliar disease incidence and severity was 1.1-1.2 times higher in the agrocenoses of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after legumes of the third year of development, especially after lucerne (Medicago sativa L.). (Author) 28 refs.

  11. Characterization of the Fatty Acid and Mineral Compositions of Selected Cereal Cultivars from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman Kan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, crude oil, fatty acid and mineral compositions of wheat (Triticum sp. L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus., rye (Secale cereale L., and oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars, respectively, from Turkey were investigated. Both the distribution of saturated fatty acids (SFA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, and the mineral contents of evaluated cereals were reported. Fatty acid compositions and mineral contents were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES techniques, respectively. The highest crude oil content was found in oat [cv. Seydisehir; 5.35%], whereas the lowest crude oil was in triticale [cv. Aslım-95; 1.19 %]. The results showed that the contents of total UFA in the different cultivars varied between 77.1 - 81.5 %. The major components of the cereal oils were determined as oleic and linoleic acid, respectively. The total macro-, micro- element, and heavy metal contents varied between 8638 - 16108 ppm, 113-180 ppm and 1.8 - 6.9 ppm, respectively. As a conclusion, there were significant (p < 0.01 differences between the cereal cultivars in view of their crude oil contents, fatty acid and mineral compositions of the investigated samples from Turkey.

  12. Identification of secreted proteins of Aspergillus oryzae associated with growth on solid cereal substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesebeke, R. te; Boussier, A.; Biezen, N. van; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Punt, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Filamentous growth of Aspergillus oryzae on solid cereal substrates involves secretion of substrate converting enzymes and a solid substrate specific polarised hyphal growth phenotype. To identify proteins produced under these specific conditions, the extracts of A. oryzae grown on wheat-based media

  13. Relative importance of vertebrates and invertebrates in epigeaic weed seed predation in organic cereal fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, P.R.; Hofman, A.; Vet, L.E.M.; Van der Werf, W.

    2003-01-01

    Exclosure trials were conducted in four organic cereal fields in The Netherlands in 1999 and 2000 to determine the relative importance of vertebrates and invertebrates in weed seed predation. The trials showed that seed predation by vertebrates was rather consistent and predictable, occurring on all

  14. The Effect of Plant Proteins Derived from Cereals and Legumes on Heme Iron Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Weinborn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of proteins from cereals and legumes on heme iron (Fe absorption. The absorption of heme Fe without its native globin was measured. Thirty adult females participated in two experimental studies (15 per study. Study I focused on the effects of cereal proteins (zein, gliadin and glutelin and study II on the effects of legume proteins (soy, pea and lentil on heme Fe absorption. When heme was given alone (as a control, study I and II yielded 6.2% and 11.0% heme absorption (p > 0.05. In study I, heme Fe absorption was 7.2%, 7.5% and 5.9% when zein, gliadin and glutelin were added, respectively. From this, it was concluded that cereal proteins did not affect heme Fe absorption. In study II, heme Fe absorption was 7.3%, 8.1% and 9.1% with the addition of soy, pea and lentil proteins, respectively. Only soy proteins decreased heme Fe absorption (p < 0.05. These results suggest that with the exception of soy proteins, which decreased absorption, proteins derived from cereals and legumes do not affect heme Fe absorption.

  15. Тhe effectiveness of extruding the poly-cereal mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ospanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies about the effectiveness of extruding the floury polycereal mixtures; obtained dependence of the operating parameters of the process on the variable rotation frequency of extruder’ auger and humidity value of extruded poly-cereal mixture. The obtained results have practical significance in the construction of the technological scheme of food production of high readiness.

  16. Suitability of cereal porridges as substrate for probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Valík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find new substrates suitable for growth and metabolism of probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which would be interesting for development of new functional food. The growth and metabolic activity of Lb. rhamnosus GG in cereal (rye, barley, oat and millet porridges were monitored during fermentation process. Cereal and porridges, were inoculated with this strain at two initial levels to obtain approximately 5 or 6 log colony form units per gram of suspension after sterilization and cooling,. Fermentation was led stationary at 37 °C for 48 hours and viable cell count, pH value, titratable acidity and organic acids were analysed. Metabolic activity of Lb. rhamnosus GG was influenced by inoculation level and by the type of cereal used. The cereals fermented by lactic acid bacteria, especially probiotic strains, might broaden the offer of probiotic products for those suffering from milk allergy.doi:10.5219/242 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  17. Cereal bar with added chayote peel flour: physico-chemical and sensory characteristics among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Wendler de Cristo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to verify the sensory acceptability of traditional cereal bars and cereal bars added with chayote peel flour, and determine the physico-chemical compositions of their formulations. Five cereal bars formulas were prepared and analyzed as follows: F1: standard (0% and with the addition of chayote peel flour in the proportions of 6.75% (F2; 13.5% (F3; 20.25% (F4 and 27% (F5. Sixty tasters, aged 7-10 took part in the sensorial analysis. There was no significant difference (p> 0.05 regarding appearance, aroma, texture and color among formulations. For the attributes taste, overall acceptance and purchase intention, higher scores were given towards the standard sample when compared to F5, but no differences were observed among the other sample scores. There was no statistical difference (p>0.05 for moisture, protein, fat and calories between F1 and F4 formulations. However, higher levels of ash and dietary fiber and lower level of carbohydrates were observed in F4 compared to F1. The formulas preparation demonstrated that a level of addition of up to 20.25% of chayote peel flour in cereal bars was well accepted by the panel, with a sensory acceptance similar to the standard product and good trading expectation.

  18. Growth, yield and composition of four winter cereals. 1. Biomass, grain yield and yield formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellen, J.

    1993-01-01

    A field experiment with 3 cultivars of each of 4 winter cereals (wheat, rye, triticale and barley), sown at about 320 plants/msuperscript 2, was conducted on a fertile clay soil in the central Netherlands. The N fertilizer was split-dressed: 120 kg/ha in total for wheat and triticale, and 60 kg/ha f

  19. Food safety of cereals: a chain wide approach to reduce Fusarium mycotoxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.E.; Ruckenbauer, P.; Visconti, A.; Osenburggen, W.A.; Nijs, den A.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley and Fusarium ear rot in maize is caused by several Fusarium species. The disease reduces the quality of the seed since several of these fungi produce mycotoxins. From a food safety point of view, consumption of mycotoxin-infected cereals is dangerous as

  20. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi contribute to Striga management on cereals in Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendzemo, V.W.; Ast, van A.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Witchweeds (Striga spp.) are important root parasites of many cereal and legume crops in savanna and Sahelian regions of Africa. Evidence on the possible role of soil pathogenic bacteria and fungi in Striga control has been obtained. Here, the authors report that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi

  1. Beyond whole grain: The European HEALTHGRAIN project aims at healthier cereal foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutanen, K.; Shepherd, R.; Shewry, P.R.; Delcour, J.A.; Björck, I.; Kamp, J.W. van der

    2008-01-01

    Cereal foods are an important source of carbohydrates and dietary fiber in our diet. Epidemiological evidence increasingly demonstrates that a diet rich in whole grain is protective against development of diet-related disorders such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The majority of cere

  2. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower me

  3. The coffee genome hub: a resource for coffee genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereeper, Alexis; Bocs, Stéphanie; Rouard, Mathieu; Guignon, Valentin; Ravel, Sébastien; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Poncet, Valérie; Garsmeur, Olivier; Lashermes, Philippe; Droc, Gaëtan

    2015-01-01

    The whole genome sequence of Coffea canephora, the perennial diploid species known as Robusta, has been recently released. In the context of the C. canephora genome sequencing project and to support post-genomics efforts, we developed the Coffee Genome Hub (http://coffee-genome.org/), an integrative genome information system that allows centralized access to genomics and genetics data and analysis tools to facilitate translational and applied research in coffee. We provide the complete genome sequence of C. canephora along with gene structure, gene product information, metabolism, gene families, transcriptomics, syntenic blocks, genetic markers and genetic maps. The hub relies on generic software (e.g. GMOD tools) for easy querying, visualizing and downloading research data. It includes a Genome Browser enhanced by a Community Annotation System, enabling the improvement of automatic gene annotation through an annotation editor. In addition, the hub aims at developing interoperability among other existing South Green tools managing coffee data (phylogenomics resources, SNPs) and/or supporting data analyses with the Galaxy workflow manager. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Influence of Agronomic and Climatic Factors on Fusarium Infestation and Mycotoxin Contamination of Cereals in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhoft, A.; Torp, M.; Clasen, P.-E.; Løes, A.-K.; Kristoffersen, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 602 samples of organically and conventionally grown barley, oats and wheat was collected at grain harvest during 2002–2004 in Norway. Organic and conventional samples were comparable pairs regarding cereal species, growing site and harvest time, and were analysed for Fusarium mould and mycotoxins. Agronomic and climatic factors explained 10–30% of the variation in Fusarium species and mycotoxins. Significantly lower Fusarium infestation and concentrations of important mycotoxins were found in the organic cereals. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2) constitute the main risk for human and animal health in Norwegian cereals. The impacts of various agronomic and climatic factors on DON and HT-2 as well as on their main producers F. graminearum and F. langsethiae and on total Fusarium were tested by multivariate statistics. Crop rotation with non-cereals was found to reduce all investigated characteristics significantly – mycotoxin concentrations as well as various Fusarium infestations. No use of mineral fertilisers and herbicides was also found to decrease F. graminearum, whereas lodged fields increased the occurrence of this species. No use of herbicides was also found to decrease F. langsethiae, but for this species the occurrence was lower in lodged fields. Total Fusarium infestation was decreased with no use of fungicides or mineral fertilisers, and with crop rotation, as well as by using herbicides and increased by lodged fields. Clay and to some extent silty soils seemed to reduce F. graminearum in comparison with sandy soils. Concerning climate factors, low temperature before grain harvest was found to increase DON; and high air humidity before harvest to increase HT-2. F. graminearum was negatively correlated with precipitation in July but correlated with air humidity before harvest. F. langsethiae was correlated with temperature in July. Total Fusarium increased with increasing precipitation in July. Organic cereal

  5. A Genetic Analysis of Aluminium Tolerance in Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeba Navakode

    2010-12-01

    Using a set of D genome (Ae. tauschii introgression lines, a major Al tolerance locus was assigned to chromosome arm 4DL, explaining 31% of the phenotypic variation displayed by the population. A second major QTL was mapped to chromosome arm 3BL using a set of doubled haploid progeny lines. This major QTL, QaltCS.ipk-3B, originated from ‘Chinese Spring’ accounted for 49% of the variation in the population. The inheritance for Al tolerance in barley was dissected based on a genetic map constructed with genic markers. QTLs were identified on chromosomes 2H, 3H and 4H. A sequence homology search was used to derive the putative function of the genes linked to the QTL, in order to identify potential candidate genes for Al tolerance. Some of these candidates are implicated in stress/defence responses, in particular, stress signal transduction, transcription regulation factors and cell metabolism.

  6. Calidad tecnológica de la harina de trigo obtenida a partir de cereales ozonizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lobo Paes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El cloro es uno de los principales agentes antimicrobianos utilizados en la industria molinera, pero debido a la formación de organoclorados tóxicos o incluso cancerígenos su uso no ha sido considerado seguro. El proceso de ozonización puede considerarse como uno de los más modernos y eficientes, tanto en la desinfección de insectos-plaga como en los microorganismos. Sin embargo, es necesario evaluar su efecto sobre la calidad de cereales y subproductos. Así, el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del gas ozono en la calidad tecnológica de la harina de trigo obtenidos a partir de cereales ozonizados. Los cereales de trigo fueron ozonizado con una concentración de 200 ppm por períodos de 0, 48, 96, 144, 192 y 240 h, y posteriormente molidos para obtener harina. Para evaluar el efecto del gas en la harina de trigo fueron realizados los análisis físico químicos (tasa de extracción, la composición y la Falling number y reológicas (alveógrafia, farinógrafia y extensografia. El gas ozono se ha obtenido mediante el generador de ozono desarrollado por el Ozone & Life y la concentración fue cuantificada por el método Yodométrica. La harina de trigo obtenidas a partir de cereales ozonizados no presento diferencia significativa en la tasa de extracción, composición y Falling Number, alveografia, farinógrafia y extensoggrafia cuando fue comparada con la harina obtenida de granos no ozonizados. Se concluye que el gas de ozono puede ser considerado una alternativa para ser implementada en la industria molinera, ya que no afecta la calidad tecnológica de harinas procedentes de cereales ozonizada.

  7. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-12-17

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp.) respectively (P ingredient in diets for both pigs and chickens.

  8. [Cereal bars with soy protein and wheat germ, physicochemical characteristics and texture during the storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Freitas, Daniela D G

    2005-09-01

    Studies analyzing cereal bars have reported on consumer characteristics and preferences in sensory analyses and on their market growth, however little has been published on their physicochemical data and texture properties. Thus the objective of this research was to provide information about the storage of a cereal bar formulation with high protein and vitamin levels based on soy protein and wheat germ, packaged in 3 different films (A: PET/PEBD; B: PETmet/PEBD; C: PET/PEBD/AL/PEBD), during 6 months under environmental conditions of temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C) and relative humidity (56%). The moisture content, water activity, pH and total acidity of the cereal bars were determined. The textural measurements accompanied during storage were breaking strength, hardness and cohesiveness. The cereal bars presented variations in water activity (Aw), moisture content and total acidity during storage. The moisture content of the bars tended to increase, which led to a significant (p = 0.05) influence on the texture characteristics of breaking strength and hardness, in the different packaging films tested. The increase in the values for breaking strength (A: 4756,5N; B: 5093,0N; C: 5575,6N) at 45 days of storage was attributed to a possible crystallization of the agglutinating syrup used for the bars. The textured soy protein used in the formulation could also have contributed to this fact due to its hygroscopic character, also interfering in the decrease in the cohesiveness measurements (deformation) with time. The effect of the different barrier properties of the packaging films tested was significant (p cereal bars during storage.

  9. Long Term Evaluation of Yield Stability Trend for Cereal Crops in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi nassiri mahalati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades cereals yield have increased drastically at the national level however, information about yield stability and its resistance to annual environmental variability are scare. In this study long term stability of grin yield of wheat, barley, rice, corn and overall cereals in Iran were evaluated during a 40-year period (1971-2011. Stability analysis was conducted using two different methods. In the first method the residuals of regression between crop yield and time (years were calculated as stability index. For this different segmented regression models including linear, bi-linear and tri-linear were fitted to yield trend data and the best model for each crop was selected based on statistical measures. Absolute residuals (the difference between actual and predicted yields for each year as well as relative residuals (absolute residuals as percent of predicted yield were estimated. In the second method yield stability was estimated from the slope of the regression line between average annual yield of all cereals (environmental index and the yield of each crop in the same year. Results indicted that in wheat and barley absolute and relative residuals were increased during the study period leading to reduction of stability despite considerable yield increment. However, for rice and corn residuals followed a decreasing trend and therefore yield stability of these crops was increased during the last 40 years. The same result was obtained with the environmental index but in this method reduction of yield stability in barley was lower than wheat. Based on the results, yield and yield stability of cereals crops in Iran increased during the last 40 years. However, the percentage increase in stability is lower than that of yield. Application of nitrogen fertilizers was led to reduction in stability. Yield stability of wheat, barley, rice, corn and overall cereals was improved with increasing their cultivated area.

  10. Digestible indispensable amino acid score and digestible amino acids in eight cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Pahm, Sarah K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-05-01

    To determine values for the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS), it is recommended that ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility values obtained in growing pigs are used to characterise protein quality in different foods. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in eight cereal grains (yellow dent maize, Nutridense maize, dehulled barley, dehulled oats, polished white rice, rye, sorghum and wheat) fed to pigs, where SID values in pigs can be used to calculate approximate DIAAS values in humans. In the present experiment, twenty-four barrows with a T-cannula inserted in the distal ileum were allotted to eight diets and fed for three periods to give a total of nine replicate pigs per diet. Each period lasted 14 d, and ileal digesta samples were collected on days 13 and 14. Among the SID values obtained for all cereal grains, values for total indispensable AA were greatest (P< 0·05) in rice and lowest (P< 0·05) in rye and sorghum. The concentrations of SID indispensable AA in rice were less (P< 0·05) than in dehulled oats, but greater (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, and the concentrations of SID indispensable AA in Nutridense maize were greater (P< 0·05) than in yellow dent maize and sorghum, but less (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, except rye. In conclusion, results indicate that to meet dietary requirements for AA in humans, diets based on yellow dent maize or sorghum require more AA supplementation than diets based on other cereal grains.

  11. Cereal Crops Are not Created Equal: Wheat Consumption Associated with Obesity Prevalence Globally and Regionally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng You

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cereals have been extensively advocated as the beneficial food group in terms of body weight management, but each staple cereal crop may contribute in different ways. Studies of the association between wheat availability and risk of obesity are controversial. This study aimed to test the global and regional association between wheat availability as reported by FAO and obesity prevalence at a population level. FAO does not distinguish between whole grain wheat and refined wheat. Methods: Population-specific data from 170 countries on prevalence of obesity, availabilities of mixed cereals, wheat, rice, maize, meat, sugar, fat, soy and calories and GDP are obtained from the UN agencies. All variables were measured as per capita per day (or per year. Each country is treated as an individual subject. SPSS v. 22 is used to analyse these data for all the 170 countries and official country groupings (regions using non parametric and parametric correlations, including partial correlation analysis. Results: Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis showed that obesity prevalence is positively associated with wheat availability (r = 0.500, p < 0.001, but is inversely associated with availabilities of total cereals (r = -0.132, p = 0.087, rice (r = -0.405, p < 0.001 and maize (r = -0.227, p = 0.004. These associations remain in partial correlation model when we keep availabilities of meat, fat, sugar, soy, caloric intake and GDP statistically constant. Overall, positive associations between wheat availability and obesity prevalence remain in different regions. Maize and mixed cereal availabilities do not show independent associations with the obesity prevalence. Conclusions: Our study suggests that wheat availability is an independent predictor of the obesity prevalence both worldwide and with special regard to the regions of Africa, Americas and Asia. Future studies should distinguish between possible influence of whole grain and ultra

  12. Quantitative estimation of sampling uncertainties for mycotoxins in cereal shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, F S; Lyman, G J

    2012-01-01

    Many countries receive shipments of bulk cereals from primary producers. There is a volume of work that is on-going that seeks to arrive at appropriate standards for the quality of the shipments and the means to assess the shipments as they are out-loaded. Of concern are mycotoxin and heavy metal levels, pesticide and herbicide residue levels, and contamination by genetically modified organisms (GMOs). As the ability to quantify these contaminants improves through improved analytical techniques, the sampling methodologies applied to the shipments must also keep pace to ensure that the uncertainties attached to the sampling procedures do not overwhelm the analytical uncertainties. There is a need to understand and quantify sampling uncertainties under varying conditions of contamination. The analysis required is statistical and is challenging as the nature of the distribution of contaminants within a shipment is not well understood; very limited data exist. Limited work has been undertaken to quantify the variability of the contaminant concentrations in the flow of grain coming from a ship and the impact that this has on the variance of sampling. Relatively recent work by Paoletti et al. in 2006 [Paoletti C, Heissenberger A, Mazzara M, Larcher S, Grazioli E, Corbisier P, Hess N, Berben G, Lübeck PS, De Loose M, et al. 2006. Kernel lot distribution assessment (KeLDA): a study on the distribution of GMO in large soybean shipments. Eur Food Res Tech. 224:129-139] provides some insight into the variation in GMO concentrations in soybeans on cargo out-turn. Paoletti et al. analysed the data using correlogram analysis with the objective of quantifying the sampling uncertainty (variance) that attaches to the final cargo analysis, but this is only one possible means of quantifying sampling uncertainty. It is possible that in many cases the levels of contamination passing the sampler on out-loading are essentially random, negating the value of variographic quantitation of

  13. The α-gliadin genes from Brachypodium distachyon L. provide evidence for a significant gap in the current genome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G X; Lv, D W; Li, W D; Subburaj, S; Yu, Z T; Wang, Y J; Li, X H; Wang, K; Ye, X G; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Y M

    2014-03-01

    Brachypodium distachyon, is a new model plant for most cereal crops while gliadin is a class of wheat storage proteins related with wheat quality attributes. In the published B. distachyon genome sequence databases, no gliadin gene is found. In the current study, a number of gliadin genes in B. distachyon were isolated, which is contradictory to the results of genome sequencing projects. In our study, the B. distachyon seeds were found to have no gliadin protein expression by gel electrophoresis, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and Western blotting analysis. However, Southern blotting revealed a presence of more than ten copies of α-gliadin coding genes in B. distachyon. By means of AS-PCR amplification, four novel full-ORF α-gliadin genes, and 26 pseudogenes with at least one stop codon as well as their promoter regions were cloned and sequenced from different Brachypodium accessions. Sequence analysis revealed a few of single-nucleotide polymorphisms among these genes. Most pseudogenes were resulted from a C to T change, leading to the generation of TAG or TAA in-frame stop codon. To compare both the full-ORFs and the pseudogenes among Triticum and Triticum-related species, their structural characteristics were analyzed. Based on the four T cell stimulatory toxic epitopes and two ployglutamine domains, Aegilops, Triticum, and Brachypodium species were found to be more closely related. The phylogenetic analysis further revealed that B. distachyon was more closely related to Aegilops tauschii, Aegilops umbellulata, and the A or D genome of Triticum aestivum. The α-gliadin genes were able to express successfully in E. coli using the functional T7 promoter. The relative and absolute quantification of the transcripts of α-gliadin genes in wheat was much higher than that in B. distachyon. The abundant pseudogenes may affect the transcriptional and/or posttranscriptional level of the α-gliadin in B. distachyon.

  14. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CHANGE IN SALIVARY pH ON CONSUMPTION OF DRY READY TO EAT CEREALS, CEREALS WITH AND WITHOUT ADDED SUGAR IN MILK- AN IN -VIVO STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh J*, Sapna B, Veeresh DJ, Divya D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dry, Ready to Eat Cereals are a combination of refined sugar and starch, most commonly consumed breakfast in the modern human diet. The present study was done to investigate the effects of combination foods on salivary pH. Objective: To assess and compare the salivary pH changes after consumption of Dry Ready to Eat Cereals (REC), Cereals with plain and sugar added milk. Method: Thirty six adults of age 18 to 25 years were assessed for salivary pH at baseline followed by one minut...

  15. Prospective associations among cereal intake in childhood and adiposity, lipid levels, and physical activity during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Ann M; Thompson, Douglas; Franko, Debra L; Holschuh, Norton M; Bauserman, Robert; Barton, Bruce A

    2009-10-01

    Cereal consumption is a common dietary behavior that has been associated with positive health outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine prospective associations between cereal intake in childhood and percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid levels, and physical activity during late adolescence. In this longitudinal investigation (data collected 1987-1997), data were analyzed for the 2,379 girls who participated in the 10-year National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. The cumulative percent of days that each girl consumed cereal during childhood (based on 3-day food diaries collected during six study visits between ages 11.5 and 18.6 years) was examined in relation to percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid levels, and physical activity measured at age 18.6 years. Results indicated that nearly all girls (90.1%) reported eating cereal and 18.7% reported eating cereal on half or more of the days reported in the food diaries. Girls who ate cereal on a greater percentage of days during childhood had lower percent body fat and total cholesterol, and were more likely to exhibit high levels of physical activity and less television viewing during Study Year 10 (P values<0.05). Further research should explore lifestyle issues related to cereal consumption.

  16. Glycosylations and truncations of functional cereal phytases expressed and secreted by Pichia pastoris documented by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Jørgensen, Malene; Welinder, Karen Gjesing; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2012-03-01

    Cereal purple acid phosphatase-type phytases, PAPhy, play an essential role in making phosphate accessible to mammalian digestion and reducing the environmental impact of manure. Studying the potential of PAPhy requires easy access to the enzymes. For that purpose wheat and barley isophytases have been expressed in Pichia pastoris from constructs encoding the alpha-mating factor at the N-termini and a His₆ tag before the stop codon in all constructs. A protein chemical study of a C-terminally truncated recombinant wheat phytase, r-TaPAPhy_b2, was carried out to clarifying the posttranslational processing of proteins secreted from P. pastoris. Extensive mass spectrometric sequencing of tryptic, chymotryptic and AspN derived peptides of both the native and endoH deglycosylated forms showed: (i) All mating factor derived sequence had been removed and further unspecific proteolysis left highly heterogeneous N-terminal variant forms of r-TaPAPhy; (ii) The His₆ tag had been retained or slightly truncated; (iii) All seven potential N-glycan sites were glycosylated except for two sites which were partially glycosylated by ca. 90% and 30%; (iv) Among the nine cysteine residues of this phytase, the most N-terminal residue is free, whereas the remaining eight appear to be disulfide bonded. It is noteworthy that already the first step in ESI-MS/MS sequencing had fragmented the hyper glycosylated peptides into free Z, Y and X mass spectrometric glycan fragments attached to the peptide. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-wide association study dissects the genetic architecture of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in a sorghum diversified collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of polyphenol-rich food is associated with decreased risk of several oxidative stress-related chronic diseases. Sorghum, a major cereal crop grown worldwide, has many polyphenol-containing accessions with high antioxidant activity in the grain. However, many of these polyphenol-containin...

  18. Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGAP generated a wide range of genomics data on cancerous cells that are accessible through easy-to-use online tools. Researchers, educators, and students can find "in silico" answers to biological questions through the CGAP website. Request a free copy of the CGAP Website Virtual Tour CD from ocg@mail.nih.gov to learn how to navigate the website.

  19. Cancer Genome Anatomy Project | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) is an online resource designed to provide the research community access to biological tissue characterization data. Request a free copy of the CGAP Website Virtual Tour CD from ocg@mail.nih.gov.

  20. A Genetic Analysis of Aluminium Tolerance in Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeba Navakode

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium (Al toxicity is a major threat to agricultural production world wide wherever acid soil exists. Wheat and barley, the major food and feed crops, are severely affected and this necessitates investigations that could help to improve the yield by utilising the available genetic diversity for Al tolerance with the aid of several molecular platforms. We investigated the quantitative trait loci (QTL conferring tolerance to Al toxicity in three different mapping populations of wheat and barley.Using a set of D genome (Ae. tauschii introgression lines, a major Al tolerance locus was assigned to chromosome arm 4DL, explaining 31% of the phenotypic variation displayed by the population. A second major QTL was mapped to chromosome arm 3BL using a set of doubled haploid progeny lines. This major QTL, QaltCS.ipk-3B, originated from ‘Chinese Spring’ accounted for 49% of the variation in the population. The inheritance for Al tolerance in barley was dissected based on a genetic map constructed with genic markers. QTLs were identified on chromosomes 2H, 3H and 4H. A sequence homology search was used to derive the putative function of the genes linked to the QTL, in order to identify potential candidate genes for Al tolerance. Some of these candidates are implicated in stress/defence responses, in particular, stress signal transduction, transcription regulation factors and cell metabolism.

  1. A Genetic Analysis of Aluminium Tolerance in Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeba Navakode

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium (Al toxicity is a major threat to agricultural production world wide wherever acid soil exists. Wheat and barley, the major food and feed crops, are severely affected and this necessitates investigations that could help to improve the yield by utilising the available genetic diversity for Al tolerance with the aid of several molecular platforms. We investigated the quantitative trait loci (QTL conferring tolerance to Al toxicity in three different mapping populations of wheat and barley. Using a set of D genome (Ae. tauschii introgression lines, a major Al tolerance locus was assigned to chromosome arm 4DL, explaining 31% of the phenotypic variation displayed by the population. A second major QTL was mapped to chromosome arm 3BL using a set of doubled haploid progeny lines. This major QTL, QaltCS.ipk-3B, originated from ‘Chinese Spring’ accounted for 49% of the variation in the population. The inheritance for Al tolerance in barley was dissected based on a genetic map constructed with genic markers. QTLs were identified on chromosomes 2H, 3H and 4H. A sequence homology search was used to derive the putative function of the genes linked to the QTL, in order to identify potential candidate genes for Al tolerance. Some of these candidates are implicated in stress/defence responses, in particular, stress signal transduction, transcription regulation factors and cell metabolism.

  2. Legumes increase rhizosphere carbon and nitrogen relative to cereals in California agricultural plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R.; Maltais-landry, G.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient to plant growth, therefore a sufficient supply is needed for high yields. By using N-fixing plants like legumes in crop rotation, we can increase soil N and yields of following crops. Furthermore, legumes also affect soil carbon (C) and C:N ratios, which impacts nutrient cycling in soils. We assessed the effects of two legumes (vetch, fava bean) and a cereal mixture (oats and wheat) on soil N and C by comparing both rhizosphere and bulk soils. We studied the impacts of these plants with different management types (organic, low-input conventional, unfertilized) to see if plant effects on soil C and N changed across management. We used plots from the Long-Term Research on Agricultural Systems (LTRAS) experiment (Davis, CA) to conduct this experiment, where three plots were under each management type. Within each of these plots, we sampled three micro-plots, where we collected rhizosphere soil from fava bean, vetch, and cereals as well as bulk soil, i.e. non-rhizosphere soil. We collected 108 samples, each of which were dried and ball-milled into a fine, uniform powder. Tin capsules with 15-30mg of soil were then analyzed with a Carlo Erba Elemental analyzer to measure how much N and C was present in each of the samples. The different management types didn't affect the relationship among plants, but soil C and N were highest in organic and lowest in unfertilized plots. We found that N was significantly higher in legume rhizosphere than cereal rhizosphere and bulk soils. Soil C was also higher in legumes vs. cereals and bulk soils, but the only significant difference was with the bulk soils. This ultimately resulted in lower C:N ratios in the rhizosphere of legumes, only vetch, however, had significantly lower soil C:N than cereals. Vetch had higher N, and lower C and C:N than fava bean, but the difference between the two legumes was never significant. Similarly, cereals had higher C and N and lower C:N than bulk soils, although

  3. Genomic Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Briceño Balcázar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Until the twilight of the 20th century, genetics was a branch of medicine applied to diseases of rare occurrence.  The advent of the human genome sequence and the possibility of studying it at affordable costs for patients and healthcare institutions, has permitted its application in high-priority diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s, among others. There is great potential in predictive and preventive medicine, through studying polymorphic genetic variants associated to risks for different diseases. Currently, clinical laboratories offer studies of over 30,000 variants associated with susceptibilities, to which individuals can access without much difficulty because a medical prescription is not required. These exams permit conducting a specific plan of preventive medicine.  For example, upon the possibility of finding a deleterious mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, the patient can prevent the breast cancer by mastectomy or chemoprophylaxis and in the presence of polymorphisms associated to cardiovascular risk preventive action may be undertaken through changes in life style (diet, exercise, etc.. Legal aspects are also present in this new conception of medicine.  For example, currently there is legislation for medications to indicate on their labels the different responses such medication can offer regarding the genetic variants of the patients, given that similar doses may provoke adverse reactions in an individual, while for another such dosage may be insufficient. This scenario would allow verifying the polymorphisms of drug response prior to administering medications like anticoagulants, hyperlipidemia treatments, or chemotherapy, among others. We must specially mention recessive diseases, produced by the presence of two alleles of a mutated gene, which are inherited from the mother, as well as the father. By studying the mutations, we may learn if a couple is at risk of bearing children with the

  4. GENOMIC MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Briceño Balcázar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Until the twilight of the 20th century, genetics was a branch of medicine applied to diseases of rare occurrence. The advent of the human genome sequence and the possibility of studying it at affordable costs for patients and healthcare institutions, has permitted its application in high-priority diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s, among others.There is great potential in predictive and preventive medicine, through studying polymorphic genetic variants associated to risks for different diseases. Currently, clinical laboratories offer studies of over 30,000 variants associated with susceptibilities, to which individuals can access without much difficulty because a medical prescription is not required. These exams permit conducting a specific plan of preventive medicine. For example, upon the possibility of finding a deleterious mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, the patient can prevent the breast cancer by mastectomy or chemoprophylaxis and in the presence of polymorphisms associated to cardiovascular risk preventive action may be undertaken through changes in life style (diet, exercise, etc..Legal aspects are also present in this new conception of medicine. For example, currently there is legislation for medications to indicate on their labels the different responses such medication can offer regarding the genetic variants of the patients, given that similar doses may provoke adverse reactions in an individual, while for another such dosage may be insufficient. This scenario would allow verifying the polymorphisms of drug response prior to administering medications like anticoagulants, hyperlipidemia treatments, or chemotherapy, among others.We must specially mention recessive diseases, produced by the presence of two alleles of a mutated gene, which are inherited from the mother, as well as the father. By studying the mutations, we may learn if a couple is at risk of bearing children with the disease

  5. Fungal genome resources at NCBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, B; Tatusova, T

    2011-09-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools.

  6. Draft genome sequence of Talaromyces islandicus (“Penicillium islandicum”) WF-38-12, a neglected mold with significant biotechnological potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schafhauser, Thomas; Wibberg, Daniel; Rückert, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Talaromyces (Penicillium) islandicus is a common mold found in stored rice or cereals. It has a highly versatile metabolism characterized by the secretion of numerous biopolymer degrading enzymes, mycotoxins, and anthraquinones that altogether offer a broad range of potential industrial applicati...... applications. Here, we reportthe draft genome sequence of Talaromyces islandicus, which provides the basis of a biotechnological usage of this species...

  7. Biological control as a strategy to reduce the impact of mycotoxins in peanuts, grapes and cereals in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chulze, S.N.; Palazzini, J.M.; Torres, A.M.; Barros, G.; Ponsone, M.L.; Geisen, R.; Schmidt-Heydt, M.; Köhl, J.

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins including aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins and ochratoxin A are among the main fungal secondary metabolites detected as natural contaminants in South America in different commodities such as peanuts (aflatoxins), cereals (deoxynivalenol and fumonisins) or grapes (ochratoxin A). Diff

  8. Does Regular Breakfast Cereal Consumption Help Children and Adolescents Stay Slimmer? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne de la Hunty

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review systematically the evidence on breakfast cereal consumption and obesity in children and adolescents and assess whether the regular consumption of breakfast cereals could help to prevent excessive weight gain. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies relating breakfast cereal consumption to BMI, BMI z-scores and prevalence of obesity as the outcomes. Results: 14 papers met the inclusion criteria. The computed effect size for mean BMI between high consumers and low or non-consumers over all 25 study subgroups was -1.13 kg/m2 (95% CI -0.81, -1.46, p Conclusion: Overall, the evidence reviewed is suggestive that regular consumption of breakfast cereals results in a lower BMI and a reduced likelihood of being overweight in children and adolescents. However, more evidence from long-term trials and investigations into mechanisms is needed to eliminate possible confounding factors and determine causality.

  9. The GLOBE-Consortium: The Next-Generation Genome Viewer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); H.J.F.M.M. Eussen (Bert); M.J. Moorhouse (Michael)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe GLOBE 3D Genome Viewer is the novel system-biology oriented genome browser necessary to access, present, annotate, and to simulate the holistic genome complexity in a unique gateway towards a real understanding, educative presentation and curative manipulation planning of this tr

  10. Fermentation of cereals - Influence on digestibility of nutrients in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Sholly, Danielle; Pedersen, Anni Øyan;

    2010-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the impact of fermentation of two cereals, barley and wheat, on chemical composition and nutrient digestibility in the small intestine and the total tract of growing pigs. Fermented liquid cereals were prepared by mixing either barley or wheat and water (25 °C......) at a ratio of 1:2.75 (wt/wt). Four experimental diets consisting of either dry or fermented barley or wheat, supplemented with a protein mixture (not fermented) were formulated to contain recommended levels of nutrients. Eight pigs from two litters were surgically fitted with a T-cannula anterior to the ileo......-cecal junction and fed one of the four experimental diets according to a repeated 4 × 4 Latin-square design. The fermentation process was followed by measuring the changes in the major nutrients, microbial composition and organic acid concentrations. Fermentation caused a reduced concentration of carbohydrates...

  11. Effect of cadmium on physiological parameters of cereal and millet plants-A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asopa, Prem Prakash; Bhatt, Ritika; Sihag, Santosh; Kothari, S L; Kachhwaha, Sumita

    2017-03-04

    Metal load is an abiotic stress that becomes stronger by continual industrial production, wastage, and long-range transport of contaminants. It deteriorates the conditions of agricultural soil that leads to lower growth of cereals as well as decreasing nutritional value of harvested grains. Cadmium (Cd) entry by food chain also affects the health of population. The present study is focused on finding out the superior cereal variety under increasing Cd regime. The plants were grown in increasing Cd levels (0-1000 µM) in the medium and were investigated on 15th day of the exposure. Various parameters like antioxidative enzymes and osmoprotectant levels were studied in both roots and shoots. Cd accumulation in plant organs was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Analysis of stress tolerance mechanisms through reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and better partitioning of Cd in roots indicated kodo millet to be more stress tolerant than wheat.

  12. Content of phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers in 17 rye (Secale cereale L.) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Christensen, L P; Meyer, A S;

    2000-01-01

    of the analyzed components were observed among the different rye varieties and also between different harvest years. However, the content of phenolic acids in the analyzed rye varieties was narrow compared to cereals such as wheat and barley. The concentration of ferulic acid, the most abundant phenolic acid......The contents of pnenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers were quantified by HPLC analysis after alkaline hydrolysis in kernels of 17 rye (Secale cereale L.) varieties grown in one location in Denmark during 1997 and 1998. Significant variations (P ... ranged from 900 to 1170 microgram g(-1) dry matter. The content in sinapic acid ranged from 70 to 140 microgram g(-1) dry matter, p-coumaric acid ranged from 40 to 70 microgram g(-1) dry matter, and caffeic, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, and vanillic acids were all detected in concentrations less...

  13. Evaluation of anaerobic degradation, biogas and digestate production of cereal silages using nylon-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Marco; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco; Bocchi, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the degradation efficiency and the biogas and digestate production during anaerobic digestion were evaluated for the cereal silages most used to feed biogas plants. To this purpose, silages of: maize from the whole plant, maize from the ear, triticale and wheat were digested, inside of nylon bags, in laboratory scale digesters, for 75days. Overall, the test involved 288 nylon bags. After 75days of digestion, the maize ear silage shows the highest degradation efficiency (about 98%) while wheat silage the lowest (about 83%). The biogas production ranges from 438 to 852Nm(3)/t of dry matter for wheat and ear maize silage, respectively. For all the cereal silages, the degradation as well as the biogas production are faster at the beginning of the digestion time. Digestate mass, expressed as percentage of the fresh matter, ranges from 38% to 84% for wheat and maize ear silage, respectively.

  14. Allergen labelling in meat, dairy and cereal products from the Serbian market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirić, D.; Nikolić, D.; Ćirić, J.; Janković, S.; Stefanović, S.; Janković, V.; Teodorović, V.

    2017-09-01

    Allergens in food are a great health risk, because of the ratio of severity of problems compared to small amounts of ingested allergen. Since 2014, Serbian producers and importers of food have been obliged to declare allergens from the list of Codex Alimentarius on the product packaging. Surveillance of different meat, diary, and cereal product took place in 2016, with aim of checking if the Serbian regulatory requirements for labelling of allergens in food are being fulfilled. Out of 68 different meat products, 20 were not labelled for allergens. Thirty-six labels of various dairy products were examined revealing that allergen information was included on 27 of them. Only one of eight examined cereal products did not have allergen labelling.

  15. Variation in chemical composition and physical characteristics of cereal grains from different genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodehutscord, Markus; Rückert, Christine; Maurer, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    to as GrainUp. Genotypes of one grain species were grown on the same site, except maize. In general, concentrations of proximate nutrients were not largely different from feed tables. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the ether extract concentration of maize was high because the data pool comprised...... speciality maize bred for its high oil content. A subset of 8 barley, 20 rye, 20 triticale and 20 wheat samples was analysed to differ significantly in several carbohydrate fractions. Gross energy concentration of cereal grains could be predicted from proximate nutrient concentration with good accuracy......Genotypes of cereal grains, including winter barley (n = 21), maize (n = 27), oats (n = 14), winter rye (n = 22), winter triticale (n = 21) and winter wheat (n = 29), were assayed for their chemical composition and physical characteristics as part of the collaborative research project referred...

  16. Construction of Traceability System for Quality Safety of Cereal and Oil Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huoguo; Liu, Shihong; Meng, Hong; Hu, Haiyan

    After several significant food safety incident, global food industry and governments in many countries are putting increasing emphasis on establishment of food traceability systems. Food traceability has become an effective way in food quality and safety management. The traceability system for quality safety of cereal and oil products was designed and implemented with HACCP and FMECA method, encoding, information processing, and hardware R&D technology etc, according to the whole supply chain of cereal and oil products. Results indicated that the system provide not only the management in origin, processing, circulating and consuming for enterprise, but also tracing service for customers and supervisor by means of telephone, internet, SMS, touch machine and mobile terminal.

  17. Screening Cereals Quality by Electronic Nose: the Example of Mycotoxins Naturally Contaminated Maize and Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnoli, Anna; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni; Cheli, Federica

    2009-05-01

    Mycotoxins represent an heterogeneous group of toxic compounds from fungi metabolism. Due to the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals commodities the develop of cost/effective screening methods represent an important topic to ensure food and feed safety. In the presented study a commercial electronic nose constituted by ten MOS (Metal Oxide Sensors) was applied to verify the possibility of discriminating between mycotoxins contaminated and non-contaminated cereals. The described analytical approach was able to discriminate contaminated and non-contaminated samples both in the case of aflatoxins infected maize and deoxynivalenol infected durum wheat samples. In the case of maize data two sensors from the array revealed a partial relation with the level of aflatoxins. These results could be promising for a further improvement of electronic nose application in order to develop a semi-quantitative screening approach to mycotoxins contamination.

  18. Bipolaris sorokiniana, a cereal pathogen of global concern: cytological and molecular approaches towards better controldouble dagger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jagdish; Schäfer, Patrick; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Langen, Gregor; Baltruschat, Helmut; Stein, Elke; Nagarajan, Subramaniam; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2002-07-01

    Summary Bipolaris sorokiniana (teleomorph Cochliobolus sativus) is the causal agent of common root rot, leaf spot disease, seedling blight, head blight, and black point of wheat and barley. The fungus is one of the most serious foliar disease constraints for both crops in warmer growing areas and causes significant yield losses. High temperature and high relative humidity favour the outbreak of the disease, in particular in South Asia's intensive 'irrigated wheat-rice' production systems. In this article, we review the taxonomy and worldwide distribution, as well as strategies to counteract the disease as an emerging threat to cereal production systems. We also review the current understanding of the cytological and molecular aspects of the interaction of the fungus with its cereal hosts, which makes B. sorokiniana a model organism for studying plant defence responses to hemibiotrophic pathogens. The contrasting roles of cell death and H(2)O(2) generation in plant defence during biotrophic and necrotrophic fungal growth phases are discussed.

  19. Effect of Addition of Cereal Based Beta-glucan on Technological and Functional Properties of Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Şimşekli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays usage of dietary fibers in foods has been increasing duo to revealing of health benefits. Beta-glucans found especially in oats and barley, are polysaccharide and source of water-soluble dietary fiber. Positive effects of beta-glucans like healing coronary-heart disease, lowering blood cholesterol level, balancing blood sugar level and preventing obesity, made beta-glucans widespread functional food components for producing various foods. In addition to beneficial physiological effects of beta-glucans, they texturize, gelatinize, emulsify and stabilize the foods. They increase viscosity, replace fat and enhance rheological properties in cereal, meat and dairy products. They are also used to produce packing material depending on their mechanical properties and molecular weights. In this review, effects of addition of cereal based beta-glucans on technological and functional properties of various foods are revealed based on previous studies.

  20. Unraveling the major triticeae phytases – towards cereals with high grain phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh

    Phytic acid is the main storage form of phosphate in plant seeds. Phosphorus in this form is largely indigestible by monogastric animals due to insufficient activity of the hydrolytic enzyme phytase in their digestive tract and in most plant seeds. Moreover as a strong chelator, undigested phytic...... acid constitutes the most important anti nutritional factor for the bioavailability of minerals. However, the mature grain phytase activity varies considerably between plant species and between cultivars. Cereals like rye, wheat and barley possess significant phytase activity with the potential...... to contribute to the hydrolysis of phytic acid in food and feed. In contrast rice and maize possess insufficient phytase activity in the mature grain to have a notable effect on the phytic acid. The aim of the present study was to (1) uncover the genetic basis for the major phytases in cereal grains (2) explain...