WorldWideScience

Sample records for accessibles aux etudes

  1. Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennouf, Adil

    L'objectif general de la presente these est d'evaluer le comportement a l'arrachement et au fluage d'ancrages injectes constitues de tendons en materiaux composites afin d'etablir des recommandations plus appropriees et realistes pour le dimensionnement et la conception. Quatre types de tendons en materiaux composites, deux a base de fibres d'aramide et deux a base de fibres de carbone, ont ete utilises dans l'etude. Les travaux de recherche de cette these ont porte notamment sur: (I) Une caracterisation physique et mecanique des tendons en materiaux composites utilises dans l'etude. (II) Une etude en laboratoire sur les coulis de scellement. La premiere etape de cette etude a concerne le developpement d'un coulis de scellement performant adapte aux tendons en materiaux composites et a differentes situations d'injection. La seconde etape a traite des essais de caracterisations physique et mecanique du coulis de scellement developpe comparativement a trois coulis de scellement usuels d'un meme rapport E/L de 0,4. (III) Une etude sur des modeles reduits d'ancrages injectes. (IV) Une etude sur des modeles d'ancrages a grande echelle. La synthese de ces etudes a permis d'enoncer les principales conclusions suivantes: (1) Les valeurs moyennes des charges de rupture des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete de 1% a 29% superieures a celles specifiees par les manufacturiers. (2) L'etude sur les coulis de scellement a permis le developpement de coulis de ciment repondant aux criteres fixes, soient une grande stabilite, une bonne fluidite, une legere expansion et de bonnes caracteristiques mecaniques. (3) Les tendons en materiaux composites ont montre des contraintes d'adherence maximum superieures a celles des tendons en acier. (4) Le type de fibre, la configuration et le fini de surface des tendons en materiaux composites gouvernent leur resistance a l'adherence. (5) L'introduction de sable et d'autres ajouts comme les fines de silice et la poudre d'aluminium au coulis

  2. Facilities for external radiation accessible for investigation on biological studies - progress report may 2004; Les installations d'irradiation externe accessibles aux etudes de biologie - etat d'avancement mai 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard-Lecanu, E. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses (DSV/Carmin), 92 (France); Authier, N.; Verrey, B. [CEA Valduc, Dept. Recherche sur les Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Bailly, I. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, 91 (France). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee; Baldacchino, G.; Pin, S.; Pommeret, S.; Renault, J.Ph. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Recherche sur Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Bordy, J.M. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de la Recherche Technologique (DRT/DETECS/LNHB/LMD), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Coffigny, H. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, Dept. de Radiobiologie et de Radiopathologie, 92 (France); Cortela, L. [CEA Grenoble, ARC-Nucleart, 38 (France); Duval, D. [CEA Saclay, Schering - CIS bio International, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Leplat, J.J. [CEA Saclay (DSV/DRR/LREG), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Poncy, J.L. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses (DSV/DRR/SRCA), 92 (France); Testard, I. [CEA Caen (DSV/DRR/LRO-LARIA), 14 - Caen (France); Thuret, J.Y. [CEA Saclay (DSV/DBJC/SBGM), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2004-07-01

    The Life Science Division of the Atomic Energy Commission is making an inventory of the various radiation sources accessible for investigation on the biological effects of ionizing radiation. In this field, a wide range of studies is being carried out at the Life Science Division, attempting to characterize the kind of lesions with their early biological consequences (on the various cell compartments) and their late biological consequences (deterministic or stochastic effects), in relation to the radiation type and dose, especially at low doses. Several experimental models are available: plants, bacteria, eukaryotic cells from yeast up to mammalian cells and in vivo studies, mostly on rodents, in order to characterize the somatic late effects and the hereditary effects. Due to the significant cost of these facilities, also to their specific properties (nature of the radiation, dose and dose rate, possible accuracy of the irradiation at the molecular level), the closeness is no longer the only criteria for biologists to make a choice. The current evolution is to set up irradiation infrastructures combining ionizing radiation sources themselves and specific tools dedicated to biological studies: cell or molecular biology laboratories, animal facilities. The purpose, in this new frame, is to provide biologists with the most suitable facilities, and, if possible, to change these facilities according to requirements in radiobiology. In this report, the basics of interactions of ionizing radiation with biological tissues are briefly introduced, followed by a presentation of some of the facilities available at the CEA for radiobiological studies. This panorama is not a comprehensive one, new data will be included as they advance, whether reporting existing facilities or if a new one is developed. (authors)

  3. External irradiation facilities open for biological studies - progress in july 2005; Les installations d'irradiation externe accessibles aux etudes de biologie etat d'avancement juillet 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard-Lecanu, E. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses (DSV/Carmin), 92 (France); Authier, N.; Verrey, B. [CEA Valduc, Dept. Recherche sur les Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Bailly, I. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, 91 (France). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee; Baldacchino, G.; Pin, S.; Pommeret, S.; Renault, J.Ph. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Recherche sur Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Bordy, J.M. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de la Recherche Technologique (DRT/DETECS/LNHB/LMD), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Coffigny, H. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, Dept. de Radiobiologie et de Radiopathologie, 92 (France); Cortela, L. [CEA Grenoble, ARC-Nucleart, 38 (France); Duval, D. [CEA Saclay, Schering - CIS bio International, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Leplat, J.J. [CEA Saclay (DSV/DRR/LREG), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Poncy, J.L. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses (DSV/DRR/SRCA), 92 (France); Testard, I. [CEA Caen (DSV/DRR/LRO-LARIA), 14 - Caen (France); Thuret, J.Y. [CEA Saclay (DSV/DBJC/SBGM), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2005-07-01

    The Life Science Division of the Atomic Energy Commission is making an inventory of the various radiation sources accessible for investigation on the biological effects of ionizing radiation. In this field, a wide range of studies is being carried out at the Life Science Division, attempting to characterize the kind of lesions with their early biological consequences (on the various cell compartments) and their late biological consequences (deterministic or stochastic effects), in relation to the radiation type and dose, especially at low doses. Several experimental models are available: plants, bacteria, eukaryotic cells from yeast up to mammalian cells and in vivo studies, mostly on rodents, in order to characterize the somatic late effects and the hereditary effects. Due to the significant cost of these facilities, also to their specific properties (nature of the radiation, dose and dose rate, possible accuracy of the irradiation at the molecular level), the closeness is no longer the only criteria for biologists to make a choice. The current evolution is to set up irradiation infrastructures combining ionizing radiation sources themselves and specific tools dedicated to biological studies: cell or molecular biology laboratories, animal facilities. The purpose, in this new frame, is to provide biologists with the most suitable facilities, and, if possible, to change these facilities according to requirements in radiobiology. In this report, the basics of interactions of ionizing radiation with biological tissues are briefly introduced, followed by a presentation of some of the facilities available for radiobiological studies especially at CEA. This panorama is not a comprehensive one, new data will be included as they advance, whether reporting existing facilities or if a new one is developed. (authors)

  4. ETUDE DE LA STABILITE AUX PETITES PERTURBATIONS DANS LES GRANDS RESEAUX ELECTRIQUES : OPTIMISATION DE LA REGULATION PAR UNE METHODE METAHEURISTIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhatib, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Depuis une vingtaine d'années, les grands réseaux électriques se trouvent obligés de fonctionner à pleine puissance et souvent aux limites de la stabilité. L'amélioration de la stabilité aux petites perturbations, en particulier l'amortissement des oscillations interrégionales, est donc devenue un objectif prioritaire. Les interactions entre les générateurs de différentes régions et les régulateurs utilisés nécessitent une optimisation globale de leurs performances : c'est le meilleur moyen p...

  5. ETUDES ANALYTIQUES : Détection des OGM : du libre choix des consommateurs aux études de biovigilance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertheau Yves

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Les récentes affaires de semences conventionnelles de colza et de maïs contaminées par des traces d’OGM ont à nouveau, s’il en était besoin, rappelé à notre bon souvenir les besoins en méthodes de détection et d’identification des OGM fiables et sensibles. Les développements se poursuivent, certes bien plus lentement qu’initialement espéré du fait du nombre important de facteurs à maîtriser et du caractère relativement inédit de ce travail. Concernant des matrices alimentaires variées, cette détection se heurte au manque de recul dans plusieurs domaines tels que celui de l’extraction et la purification d’acides nucléiques en quantité et en qualité. Bien que développées pour satisfaire aux besoins réglementaires européens concernant l’alimentation humaine, ces méthodes devraient être aisément applicables dans d’autres domaines concernés par les OGM (étude des transferts de gènes par flux pollinique, éventuels transferts horizontaux, suivi des acides nucléiques lors de l’ingestion.... Au-delà des OGM, les méthodes mises en œuvre devraient présenter un intérêt dans d’autres domaines comme la microbiologie, l’épidémiologie ou l’authentification des composants biologiques d’un produit.

  6. Etude de la qualité des captures de la pêcherie associée aux DCP ancrés. Projet MAGDELESA

    OpenAIRE

    Dromer, Clément; Eugene, Sonia; Régina, Françoise; Reynal, Lionel; Etienne, Monique; Mathieu, Heloïse; Pau, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    La qualité des produits est un élément du développement durable des pêcheries, car elle vise à garantir la fiabilité sanitaire des débarquements et leur valorisation optimale. Dans le cas de la pêche associée aux DCP ancrés, les embarcations non pontées utilisées pour la capture de grands poissons pélagiques ne sont pas de dimension suffisante pour être équipées de moyens de conservation adéquats (règlementaires) des prises. Cette étude permet, à partir d’embarquements en mer, de suivi des pr...

  7. Etude, analyse et modélisation physique de la production de la parole avec applications aux troubles liés à une surdité profonde

    OpenAIRE

    Delebecque, Louis

    2015-01-01

    L’apprentissage du langage parlé nécessite un contrôle musculaire très précis des différents organes intervenant dans la production de la parole. La production de sons voisés, qui résulte de l’auto-oscillation des cordes vocales, est notamment influencée par l’ensemble du système phonatoire, du diaphragme jusqu’aux lèvres. Les travaux réalisés dans le cadre de cette thèse s’inscrivent dans un contexte de modélisation physique de la parole. Les objectifs s’articulent autour de la compréhension...

  8. Immigration(s et accès aux soins en Guyane Immigration(s and access to health care in French Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Carde

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available L’immigration en Guyane est plurielle. Aux migrants caribéens que la précarité et les violences politiques ont chassés de chez eux se mêlent des migrants partis de France métropolitaine pour goûter à l’exotisme de cette société française sise en Amérique du Sud. Cette pluralité se retrouve lorsque les premiers, usagers étrangers du système de soins, rencontrent des professionnels qui, bien que français, sont soit autochtones, soit eux-mêmes migrants. Ces usagers étrangers sont parfois victimes de discriminations opérées par des professionnels autochtones qui les suspectent de venir profiter indûment du système de soins local. Si ces discriminations ont également cours ailleurs en France, elles sont exacerbées en Guyane par l’importance des flux migratoires et des difficultés socio-économiques. Une autre figure de l’accès aux soins en contexte d’immigration, plus spécifique à la Guyane, est celle de professionnels migrants qui attribuent à certains de leurs usagers étrangers, au nom de leur identité ethnique, une autochtonie que ne leur reconnaît pas la loi. Enfin, les enjeux de l’accès aux soins en contexte d’immigration s’articulent à l’ensemble des rapports sociaux inégalitaires qui traversent la société guyanaise.Immigration in French Guyana is plural. Caribbean migrants, driven away by poverty and political violence, mix with migrants who left metropolitan France to taste the exotism of this French society in South America. This plurality shapes access to health care, since foreign users meet French professionals who are either native or migrants. These foreigners may be victims of discrimination on the part of native professionals who suspect them of taking advantage of the local health care system. Whereas such discrimination exists elsewhere in France, the situation seems exacerbated in French Guyana by the importance of the migratory flows and socioeconomic difficulties. Migrant

  9. Contribution to the study of recoil species produced by potassium ferrocyanide neutron irradiation; Contribution a l'etude de la reactivite des especes de recul dans le ferrocyanure de potassium irradie aux neutrons thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meriadec Vernier de Byans, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    The chemical species produced by potassium ferrocyanide neutron irradiation were separated and identified. The study of their behaviour upon thermal annealing has allowed to establish a scheme of reaction as well as a kinetic treatment of the data. Activation energies are determined in different conditions and the effects of radiation dose, oxygen and water of crystallisation upon the activation energies were studied. Preliminary E.S.R. data and its relevance to the decomposition process is also discussed. (authors) [French] On a separe et identifie les differentes especes chimiques produites par irradiation neutronique de ferrocyanure de potassium. L'etude de leur comportement au cours du recuit thermique a permis l'application de differentes cinetiques et l'etablissement d'un schema de reaction. On a deterrmine la valeur des energies d'activation dans differentes conditions de recuit ainsi que l'influence de la dose de radiations, de l'oxygene et de l'eau de cristallisation sur ces energies. Une serie de mesures de resonance paramagnetique electronique a complete cette etude. (auteurs)

  10. Contribution to thermodynamics and kinetics of argon, krypton and xenon at very low temperatures; Contribution a l'etude thermodynamique et cinetique de l'argon, du krypton et du xenon aux tres basses temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levenson, L.L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A critical analysis of the main theories of condensation, which are due to Zwanzig, Cabrera, Mc Caroll and Ehrlich, Wanlass, Armand, and Yu and Soo, is made. A condensation coefficient equal to unity is expected from these theories, except Armand and Yu and Soo, when the temperature of the gas impinging on its own solid phase is equal or less than 300 K. Using a resonating quartz microbalance the sensitivity of which is 10{sup -9} g. cm{sup 2} the experimental data agree with these theories when the temperature of the solid is less than 20 K. However the agreement must be interpreted for the more sophisticated theories of Armand and Yu and Soo. Regarding the sublimation of the rare gases one is faced with the theories of Salter, Eyring, Goodman and Armand. Within an order of magnitude the experimental data given here agree with the expected values. Moreover Armand theory is able to give the physical meaning of the observed results for argon sublimation from a krypton or a xenon crystalline substrate: localized modes of surface vibration occur. The relaxation time for the thermalization of the argon deposit is found greater than twelve hours at 25 K. (author) [French] Ce travail inclut l'etude critique des principales theories de la condensation dues a Zwanzig, Cabrera, Mc Caroll et Ehrlich, Wanlass, Armand, et Yu et Soo. Ces theories, sauf les deux dernieres, prevoient un coefficient de condensation egal a 1 lorsque le gaz incident sur son propre solide a une temperature inferieure ou egale a 300 K. Les mesures effectuees a l'aide d'une microbalance a quarz resonnant sensible a 10{sup -9} g. cm{sup 2} ont confirme ces theories dans le cas ou la temperature du solide est inferieure a 20 K. Cet accord doit cependant etre interprete pour les theories plus completes d'Armand d'une part, Yu et Soo d'autre part. Pour la sublimation des gaz rares on se trouve en presence des theories de Salter, Eyring, Goodman et Armand. Leurs previsions sont

  11. Organisation of biological research carried out in the United States by the A.E.C. or under her contract (1960); Organisation des recherches biologiques menees aux Etats-Unis par l'A.E.C. ou sous son egide. Compte-rendu sommaire d'une mission d'etude (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This report is based on information gathered in the course of a trip to the United States, in November and December 1958 which consisted chiefly of visits to the main biological and medical research laboratories and discussions with the heads of these establishments. A description is given of the general organisation of the Atomic Energy Commission's Division of Biology and Medicine, and of the distribution of responsibility for radiation protection work and for biological, medical and agricultural research amongst the various Services attached to it; this is followed by a more detailed account of the activities carried on in this field at the great national laboratories. Finally, the systems of collaboration set up with external research organisations in the form of research contracts are examined, together with the substantial help provided by the A.E.C. for biological, medical and agricultural research in general, owing to a systematic policy of subsidising the distribution of radioisotopes for this purpose. (author) [French] Le present rapport a ete etabli sur la base des renseignements recueillis au cours d'un voyage d'etude aux Etats-Unis, en novembre et decembre 1958, comportant notamment la visite des principaux laboratoires de recherche biologique et medicale et des entretiens avec les principaux responsables de ces laboratoires. Apres une description de l'organisation generale de la 'Division of Biology and Medicine' de l'Atomic Energy Commission et de la repartition entre les divers Services qui lui sont rattaches des responsabilites concernant la protection contre les radiations et la Recherche biologique, medicale et agronomique, des indications plus detaillees sont donnees au sujet des activites poursuivies dans ce domaine au sein des grands laboratoires nationaux. Sont examinees enfin, l'importance et les modalites de la collaboration instituee avec les Organismes de Recherche exterieurs sous la forme de

  12. Novel diagnostics for warm dense matter: application to shock compressed target; Nouveaux diagnostics pour l'etude de la matiere dense et chaude: application aux cibles comprimees par choc laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravasio, A

    2007-03-15

    In this work, we present 3 novel diagnostics for warm dense plasma (WDM) investigations: hard X-ray radiography, proton radiography and X-ray Thomson scattering. Each of these techniques is applied in shock compression experiments. The main objective consists in accessing a new parameter, in addition to shock and particle velocity, for EOS (Equation of State) measurements. In the first chapter we give a deep description of WDM states as strongly coupled and Fermi degenerate states. Then, we introduce how we have generated a WDM state in our experiment: the shock wave. We, in particular, illustrate its formation in the classical laser-matter interaction regime. In the second chapter the principles of standard probing techniques are presented. We see that energetic probe sources are necessary to investigate high Z dense plasmas. The third chapter is dedicated to X-ray radiography results. We report on a first direct density measurement of a shock compressed high Z target using K{alpha} hard X-ray radiation. These results are of great interests as they allow an in-situ characterization of high Z material, impossible with standard techniques. We show that probing a well known material as Al will allow the comparison between our data and the results from already validated simulations. In the fourth chapter, we present the results obtained from proton radiography on low density carbon foam. The data analysis will require the development of a specific Monte-Carlo code to simulate the proton propagation through the shocked target. The comparison of the simulations with the experimental data show a low dependency on density. The fifth chapter is devoted to X-ray Thomson scattering results. For the first time, we have performed collective x-ray Thomson scattering measurement from a shock compressed target, accessing to electron density and temperature. The obtained results are compared with simulated x-ray scattered spectra. The novel technique is then used in the

  13. Les enjeux économiques et industriels liés au recours aux partenariats public-privédans le domaine spatialUne application : le contrat de Private Finance Initiative britannique Skynet V

    OpenAIRE

    Frédéric Marty

    2008-01-01

    Analyse économique du contrat de partenariat public-privé relatif aux satellites de télécommunications de défense Skynet V.Etude de la construction contractuelle et de sa renégociation : impact sur l'équilibre économique du contrat

  14. Les enjeux économiques et industriels liés au recours aux partenariats public-privé
    dans le domaine spatial
    Une application : le contrat de Private Finance Initiative britannique Skynet V

    OpenAIRE

    Marty, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Analyse économique du contrat de partenariat public-privé relatif aux satellites de télécommunications de défense Skynet V.Etude de la construction contractuelle et de sa renégociation : impact sur l'équilibre économique du contrat

  15. Intérêt de l'utilisation du questionnaire des problèmes associés aux jeux vidéo de Tejeiro (Problem Video game Playing: PVP) Étude exploratoire chez des enfants présentant un TDA/H

    OpenAIRE

    Bioulac, S.; Arfi, L.; Michel, G; Bouvard, M.-P.

    2010-01-01

    Resume Depuis ces dernieres annees, l?utilisation des jeux video apparait comme l?un des loisirs preferes des enfants et des adolescents. Cependant, les etudes portant sur l?addiction aux jeux video sont encore peu nombreuses. Afin d?evaluer les difficultes induites par une excessive des jeux video, l?equipe du Dr Tejeiro a developpe un autoquestionnaire : le questionnaire des problemes associes aux jeux video (Problem Video Game Playing Scale, Tejeiro, 2002). Nous...

  16. Accès aux ressources documentaires en situation d’autonomie: pratiques et représentations Autonomous accessing of study documents: student practices and perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Develotte

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available L’intégration de la Toile dans les pratiques socio-culturelles des étudiants de certains pays est telle que leurs recherches documentaires à l’université s’effectuent, dans certains domaines, autant par le biais de données en ligne que des livres. La classe de langue a, elle aussi, la possibilité de jouer sur la diversité des supports accessibles en toute autonomie par les apprenants. Cependant les pratiques de recherche et de construction du savoir s’avèrent différentes en fonction du support à partir duquel elles s’exercent. Les représentations qui y sont associées varient également. Nous chercherons ici à préciser la nature des opérations que recouvrent ces différentes démarches de recherche à partir d’un dispositif méthodologique élaboré dans le but de rendre compte des pratiques d’apprenants de français de niveau avancé. À partir de ce protocole méthodologique, nous donnerons les résultats d’une étude menée en 2001, en Australie, auprès d’étudiants de l’université de Sydney.In some countries, the incorporation of the Internet into the socio-cultural practices of students is such that on-line documents are used alongside traditional written documents. Language classrooms also benefit from this diversity of educational supports that allow students to work autonomously. However, the information gathering and learning processes employed differ greatly according to the supports used. The values that students attach to these mediums vary greatly. We propose a methodology which will illustrate the practices of advanced French language learners. Using this protocol we will present the results of a study which was undertaken in 2001 with the students of the university of Sydney, Australia.

  17. Report by the AERES on the unit: Fuel Study Department (DEC) under the supervision of the establishments and bodies: Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA); Rapport de l'AERES sur l'unite: Departement d'Etudes des Combustibles (DEC) sous tutelle des etablissements et organismes: Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory, the DEC (Departement d'Etudes des Combustibles, Fuel Study Department) which comprises four departments: a department of analysis and characterization of fuel behaviour (SA3C) which comprises four laboratories, a Plutonium, Uranium and Minor Actinides department (SPUA) which comprises four laboratories, a department for the investigation and simulation of fuel behaviour (four laboratories) and the Leca-Star department (3 laboratories and a project group). The authors discuss an assessment of the whole unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved, risks and recommendations, productions and publications on different themes (fundamental research on fuels, fuel design, fabrications, characterizations and property measurements, experimental irradiations, characterization of irradiated fuels and chemical and radio-chemical analysis, modelling and simulation). A more detailed assessment is presented for each theme in terms of scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project

  18. L’Etude détaillée des accidents (EDA ): Un outil pour la recherche

    OpenAIRE

    Girard, Yves

    1995-01-01

    L’accès aux données est généralement une difficulté de la recherche. En matière de sécurité routière, une solution possible est le recours aux études approfondies d’accidents. Cette note expose I’Etude Détaillée des Accidents (EDA) de I’INRETS. L’objectif initial de I’EDA est d’enrichir la connaissance sur le déroulement des accidents en vue de leur prévention. La méthode de I’EDA repose sur une conception de l’accident comme symptôme de dysfonctionnement du système de circulation, sur une...

  19. Transport properties of silver telluride in the solid and liquid states; Etude des proprietes de transport dans le tellurure d'argent Ag{sub 2}Te aux hautes temperatures a l'etat solide et a l'etat liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, N.T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-01-01

    tellurure d'argent liquide se comporte comme un semiconducteur. Il est suggere que des ions Ag{sup +} contribuent aux phenomenes de transport pour rendre compte du comportement des proprietes electriques. Les resultats experimentaux ont ete analyses sur la base des theories conventionnelles. (auteur)

  20. Centralisation, décentralisation et accès aux services urbains : le cas de l’enlèvement des ordures ménagères à Abidjan Centralization, decentralization, access to urban public services : waste collection in Abidjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Henry

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article traite de l’inégalité d’accès aux services publics urbains dans les pays en développement et, plus particulièrement, de la question de l’accès au service d’enlèvement des ordures ménagères à Abidjan. Cette question est étroitement liée au mouvement de centralisation, décentralisation et recentralisation qui a affecté la gestion de ce service au cours des dernières décennies. Chaque étape de l’avancée de la Côte d’Ivoire dans le processus de décentralisation a provoqué des changements institutionnels dans la gestion des ordures ménagères à Abidjan ; tous ont eu des effets spécifiques sur l’accès de la population à ce service. Ces effets sont étudiés à l’échelle des communes et des quartiers à travers une enquête de terrain, et sont liés aux caractéristiques socio-économiques des quartiers. Une analyse comparative entre deux communes de standing opposé, ainsi que l’examen des aspects historiques de la problématique, s’attachent à identifier les facteurs-clés d’une telle inégalité d’accès au service d’enlèvement des ordures ménagères à Abidjan.This paper deals with the inequality of access to the urban public utilities in developing countries, and more accurately with the issue of the access to the waste collection in Abidjan. This question is closely linked with the centralization, decentralization and recentralization movements that affected this service management for the last decades. Each stage of the decentralization process in Ivory Coast brought institutional changes in waste collection management in Abidjan. Each of them had specific consequences on the access of people to this service. These consequences are investigated on a local scale and are linked to the socio-economic characteristics of the studied areas. Together with the focus on the historical aspects of the problematic, a comparative analysis between two districts of opposite standing attempts

  1. Etude de la filière cocotier aux Comores dans un contexte de crise phytosanitaire

    OpenAIRE

    Danneville, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    Le cocotier est depuis toujours intimement lié à la culture comorienne. Toutes les parties de l.arbre sont transformées pour les besoins de la vie courante et la noix de coco est utilisée dans de nombreux plats traditionnels. Depuis 1996, le projet DECVAS est chargé de réhabiliter la cocoteraie comorienne qui se trouve en phase de vieillissement avancée. Cependant, depuis les premières observations effectuées en 2000, l.infestation des cocotier...

  2. Etude de l'anode pour la pile à combustible directe aux borohydrures

    OpenAIRE

    Olu, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    The present work focuses on direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) anodes. A first approach to develop a suitable anode design for the DBFC consists in the study of the anode within the real DBFC system. In that frame, carbon-supported platinum and palladium nanoparticles are characterized and compared as anode electrocatalyst in DBFC configuration. Other variables such as the morphology of the anode and the stability of the catalyst nanoparticles are considered.The ideal DBFC anode catalyst sho...

  3. Aux marges du monde arabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Thiollet

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des migrations contemporaines des Érythréens vers le Yémen au tournant des années quatre-vingt-dix permet d’observer les transformations des dynamiques régionales à l’œuvre dans le monde arabe. Les migrations sont un phénomène sensible aux différents aspects (politiques, économiques, culturels, géographiques de l’intégration régionale. Celle si est envisagée dans cet article à travers une approche doublement marginale : -la marginalité géographique de l’Érythrée arabo-africaine et du Yémen, économi­quement isolé dans la péninsule Arabique, -l’étude des migrations formelles et informelles, élément souvent marginal dans l’étude des institutions et des échanges qui constituent un système régional intégré. Cette étude est fondée sur une série d’entretiens menés au Yémen entre février et avril 2002 auprès des administrations yéménites et de la population érythréenne.

  4. L’onomastique comorienne: etude linguistique

    OpenAIRE

    Yahaya, Moinaecha Cheikh

    2012-01-01

    Dans cette etude nous nous sommes fixé commee objectif principal la recherche des morphèmes nominaux altérés dans la langue courante et qui se manifestent au niveau des noms propres surtout au niveau des composés. Ces éléments nous permettront de mieux comprendre le système morphologique du comorien et compléter une etude en cours sur la morphologie des nominaux. L’étude morphologique du nom propre sera complétée par une étude syntaxique des différents éléments qui le composent. Les indicatio...

  5. Le recours aux modeles dans l'enseignement de la biologie au secondaire : Conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants et modes d'utilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, Madeleine

    Le recours aux modeles et a la modelisation est mentionne dans la documentation scientifique comme un moyen de favoriser la mise en oeuvre de pratiques d'enseignement-apprentissage constructivistes pour pallier les difficultes d'apprentissage en sciences. L'etude prealable du rapport des enseignantes et des enseignants aux modeles et a la modelisation est alors pertinente pour comprendre leurs pratiques d'enseignement et identifier des elements dont la prise en compte dans les formations initiale et disciplinaire peut contribuer au developpement d'un enseignement constructiviste des sciences. Plusieurs recherches ont porte sur ces conceptions sans faire de distinction selon les matieres enseignees, telles la physique, la chimie ou la biologie, alors que les modeles ne sont pas forcement utilises ou compris de la meme maniere dans ces differentes disciplines. Notre recherche s'est interessee aux conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants de biologie au secondaire au sujet des modeles scientifiques, de quelques formes de representations de ces modeles ainsi que de leurs modes d'utilisation en classe. Les resultats, que nous avons obtenus au moyen d'une serie d'entrevues semi-dirigees, indiquent que globalement leurs conceptions au sujet des modeles sont compatibles avec celle scientifiquement admise, mais varient quant aux formes de representations des modeles. L'examen de ces conceptions temoigne d'une connaissance limitee des modeles et variable selon la matiere enseignee. Le niveau d'etudes, la formation prealable, l'experience en enseignement et un possible cloisonnement des matieres pourraient expliquer les differentes conceptions identifiees. En outre, des difficultes temporelles, conceptuelles et techniques peuvent freiner leurs tentatives de modelisation avec les eleves. Toutefois, nos resultats accreditent l'hypothese que les conceptions des enseignantes et des enseignants eux-memes au sujet des modeles, de leurs formes de representation et de leur approche

  6. Etude de l'influence de la temperature et de l'humidite sur les proprietes mecaniques en traction des fibres de chanvre et de coco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Thi, Thu Nga

    L'objectif de cette etude fut d'etablir l'effet de l'humidite et de la temperature sur la resistance en traction et le module elastique des fibres de chanvre et de coco. Deux etudes ont ete realisees afin d'atteindre cet objectif. La premiere vise l'absorption de l'humidite dans ces fibres en exposition dans l'air (de 0%RH a 80%RH) ainsi que l'absorption de l'eau dans ces fibres immergees dans l'eau aux differentes temperatures. La deuxieme consiste a mesurer la resistance en traction et le module elastique de ces fibres sous differentes conditions d'humidite et de temperature. En basant sur les resultats experimentaux obtenus, les methodes semi empiriques et de reseaux de neurones ont ete utilisees pour but de predire les proprietes en traction (resistance et module d'elasticite) des fibres de chanvre et de coco sous l'influence de l'humidite et de la temperature.

  7. Substrate-dependent Aux cluster: A new insight into Aux/CeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kong-Jie; Yang, Yan-Ju; Lang, Jia-Jian; Teng, Bo-Tao; Wu, Feng-Min; Du, Shi-Yu; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-11-01

    To theoretically study the structures of metal clusters on oxides is very important and becomes one of the most challenging works in computational heterogeneous catalysis since many factors affect their structures and lead to various possibilities. In this work, it is very interesting to find that the stable structures and stability evolution of Aux clusters on ceria are varied with different index surfaces of CeO2. The corresponding reasons in chemical, geometric and electronic properties are systematically explored. Aux (x = 1-4) clusters prefer to separately disperse at the O-O bridge sites on CeO2(100) due to the low coordination number of surface O; while aggregate due to the strong Au-Au attractions when x is larger than 4. Owing to the uniform distribution of O-O bridge sites on CeO2(111) and (100), the most stable configurations of Aux are 3D structures with bottom atoms more than top ones when x is larger than 4. However, 2D configurations of Aux/CeO2(110) (x < 10) are more stable than the corresponding 3D structures due to the particular O-O arrangement on CeO2(110). 3D Aux clusters across O-O-Y lines are suggested as the most stable configurations for Aux/CeO2(110) (x ≥ 10). The present work gives a detailed example for the theoretical study of metal clusters on oxide, and will shed light into the design for controllable synthesis of ceria-based catalysts with metal nanoparticles supported on CeO2.

  8. Contribution to the study of deformed heavy nuclei by means of nuclear reactions; Contribution a l'etude des noyaux lourds deformes au moyen de reactions nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastebois, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The experimental results obtained in the study of the (d,p) reactions, at E{sub d} = 12 MeV, on the three even-even deformed nuclei {sup 170}Yb, {sup 172}Yb and {sup 174}Yb have been analysed in terms of DWBA calculations. The spectroscopic information relative to the odd final nuclei have been compared with the predictions of the collective model and of the Nilsson's model. The effect of various parameters used in the DWBA analysis (form factors, optical wave functions) has been carefully studied. The observed differences between the three final nuclei are qualitatively reproduced in the experimental study of resonances, seen in excitation functions of elastically and inelastically scattered protons on the same target nuclei, and corresponding to analogue states in the three nuclei {sup 171}Lu, {sup 173}Lu and {sup 175}Lu. (author) [French] Les resultats experimentaux de l'etude des reactions (d.p) a E{sub d} = 12 MeV, sur les noyaux deformes pairs-pairs {sup 170}Yb, {sup 172}Yb et {sup 174}Yb ont ete interpretes dans le cadre de l'approximation de Born des ondes deformees. Les informations spectroscopiques relatives aux noyaux impairs finals ont ete comparees aux predictions du modele collectif et du modele de Nilsson, apres avoir examine avec soin l'influence des differents parametres (facteurs de forme, fonctions d'onde 'optiques') utilises lors de l'analyse. Les differences observees entre les trois noyaux finals sont qualitativement reproduites par les resultats experimentaux de l'etude de resonances dans les fonctions d'excitation de diffusion elastique et inelastique de protons sur les memes noyaux-cibles, lors de la recherche d'etats analogues dans les noyaux {sup 171}Lu, {sup 173}Lu et {sup 175}Lu. (auteur)

  9. Contribution aux Methodes Analytiques des Substances a L'aide de Faisceaux de Particules Chargees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Abdelmajid

    Nous avons vu les possibilites d'analyse par particules chargees des aerosols recueillis sur des filtres de type MILLIPORE. La meme technique a ete utilisee pour des filtres ayant servi a la filtration de l'eau du fleuve Saint-laurent. Deux techniques ont ete utilisees: (1) FAST (Forward Alpha Scattering Technique): pour analyser l'hydrogene, le carbone, l'oxygene et puis l'azote. Des alpha de 12 MeV ont ete utilises. (2) PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission): pour analyser les elements moyens et lourds, dans ce cas des protons de 3 MeV ainsi que des ions d'argon de 1 et 1.6 MeV ont ete utilises. Les etudes ont montre que sous vide, la majorite des problemes proviennent des dommages causes par l'echauffement du a l'impact du faisceau sur le filtre. L'analyse quantitative par l'intermediaire du faisceau extrait peut presenter des difficultes en ce qui concerne les elements legers pour lesquels l'absorption des rayonnements caracteristiques dans l'atmosphere externe est importante. Les ions lourds se pretent mal aux analyses des aerosols du fait de leur limite de sensibilite. L'analyse directe de liquides par des protons est particulierement interessante puisqu'elle ne necessite aucune preparation prealable des echantillons. A cet effet, un programme de calcul de concentration des elements dans la solution a analyser a ete mis au point. Nous avons determine la limite de sensibilite de la methode PIXE pour les cibles minces (filtre) et pour le cas ou la matrice est de l'eau. Enfin, la technique FAST peut etre un complement de la technique PIXE.

  10. Notes de voyage aux Iles Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice LOUIS

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Les excursions du 1Vº Cours de Préhistoire et d'Archéologie, organisé en 1950 par l'Université de Barcelone en collaboratión avec l'Institut de Prehistoire méditerranéenne du Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas d'Espagne, on conduit les participants aux Iles Baléares afin d'étudier sur place la civilisation dite "des talayots" de Majorque et de Minorque.

  11. Assistance et discipline, introduction aux articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Vimont

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Quand Michel Foucault publie Surveiller et punir en 1975, aux lendemains de trois années de mutineries dans l'univers carcéral, il ne se contente pas d'offrir une généalogie de la prison moderne, mais analyse les systèmes disciplinaires à l'oeuvre dans d'autres institutions. Les études que nous reproduisons dans cette rubrique incitent à une réflexion sur la dimension coercitive de certains dispositifs d'assistance et de soins. Non de manière statique, car les oeuvres, les institutions évolue...

  12. The Paris-Nairobi climate initiative. Access to clean energy for all in Africa and countries vulnerable to climate change. Access to energy, sustainable development and climate change; Initiative climat Paris-Nairobi. Acces aux energies propres en Afrique et dans les pays vulnerables au changement climatique. Livre-Blanc, Acces a l'energie, developpement durable et changements climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-21

    The first part of this report highlights the importance of a universal access to energy, the role of public policies and renewable energies, the need to implement sustainable economic models for energy services, and indicates the major objectives and essential actions for these purposes. The second part outlines the weakness of electricity production in Africa, the degradation of the energy mix balance, the vulnerability to climate change, and the fact that Africa, like other countries vulnerable to climate change, possess huge and unexploited renewable energy resources (biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, wind). The third part proposes an approach to energy services by developing sustainable cooking, supplying energy to support rural development and to poles of economic growth, by developing sustainable cities (notably in transports and buildings), and by developing national and regional electricity grids. The last part addresses the issue of energy financing in developing countries

  13. Preliminary study about the necessary concepts and nomenclatures for long duration energy studies; Etude prealable sur les concepts et nomenclatures necessaires aux etudes energetiques sur tres longue periode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-15

    Long duration prospect studies about the worldwide energy demand requires to refer to other, non-economical, disciplines which have different representations of the socio-economic reality and of the evolution dynamics of societies. This study is a multi-disciplinary bibliographic research which aims to identify the categories considered in these disciplines and to show the main elements allowing to answer the questions about energy uses. The bibliographic research is based on a set of key-words which are crossed between each others like: 'categories', 'social behaviour', 'life style', 'energy', 'consumption', 'need', 'development', 'time' etc. The content of each cited bibliographic references is described in a file attached in the appendix of this study. (J.S.)

  14. Technical and harmonic analysis of Carl Czerny op. 299 number 34 etude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Serkan Umuzdas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the 34th etude of the book Czerny Op. 299 that is one of the commonly employed books in the piano training was analysed in terms of technique and harmony. The etude was examined in terms of its technical features and contributions to technical development. If an etude is analysed before it is played, time and effort can be amanged much more efficiently. In turn, it may contribute to play the etude or work in accordance with its objectives and to produce outcomes. The aims of this study are to make the students aware of the goals and methods of etudes and to provide them with the suggestions for studying. It is suggested that any etude written with the 2/4 rhythm pattern should be played very vividly and energytically. Any etude written in the octave width of 5.5 is made up of 43 scales in two section. The etude is composed of two sections, each with four sentences and two periods. It also involves 43 scales. Of them, 16 scales are in the first section and the remaining 27 scales are in the second section. The etude has very regular system in terms of harmonic continuity and motives. It has a homogenious pattern in terms of the order of the sentences with half-decsion and those with full-decision.

  15. Introduction aux études historiques

    OpenAIRE

    Langlois, Charles-Victor; Seignobos, Charles; Noiriel, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    L’Introduction aux études historiques constitue le texte de référence de ce qu’on a appelé « l’école méthodique historique » française. Ce manuel cherche à définir les règles de la méthode historique afin de contribuer à asseoir la scientificité d’une discipline, l’histoire, dans le contexte de sa professionnalisation universitaire. Le texte affirme le primat des archives comme preuves et sources du récit historique, et revient sur les différentes étapes du travail sur archives, de la localis...

  16. Modelisation de la diffusion sur les surfaces metalliques: De l'adatome aux processus de croissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Ghyslain

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude des processus de diffusion en surface dans le but ultime de comprendre, et de modeliser, la croissance d'une couche mince. L'importance de bien mai triser la croissance est primordiale compte tenu de son role dans la miniaturisation des circuits electroniques. Nous etudions ici les surface des metaux nobles et de ceux de la fin de la serie de transition. Dans un premier temps, nous nous interessons a la diffusion d'un simple adatome sur une surface metallique. Nous avons, entre autres, mis en evidence l'apparition d'une correlation entre evenements successifs lorsque la temperature est comparable a la barriere de diffusion, i.e., la diffusion ne peut pas etre associee a une marche aleatoire. Nous proposons un modele phenomenologique simple qui reproduit bien les resultats des simulations. Ces calculs nous ont aussi permis de montrer que la diffusion obeit a la loi de Meyer-Neldel. Cette loi stipule que, pour un processus active, le prefacteur augmente exponentiellement avec la barriere. En plus, ce travail permet de clarifier l'origine physique de cette loi. En comparant les resultats dynamiques aux resultats statiques, on se rend compte que la barriere extraite des calculs dynamiques est essentiellement la meme que celle obtenue par une approche statique, beaucoup plus simple. On peut donc obtenir cette barriere a l'aide de methodes plus precises, i.e., ab initio, comme la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite, qui sont aussi malheureusement beaucoup plus lourdes. C'est ce que nous avons fait pour plusieurs systemes metalliques. Nos resultats avec cette derniere approche se comparent tres bien aux resultats experimentaux. Nous nous sommes attardes plus longuement a la surface (111) du platine. Cette surface regorge de particularites interessantes, comme la forme d'equilibre non-hexagonale des i lots et deux sites d'adsorption differents pour l'adatome. De plus, des calculs ab initio precedents n'ont pas reussi a confirmer la

  17. Etude de la dynamique des porteurs dans des nanofils de silicium par spectroscopie terahertz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Alexandre

    Ce memoire presente une etude des proprietes de conduction electrique et de la dynamique temporelle des porteurs de charges dans des nanofils de silicium sondes par rayonnement terahertz. Les cas de nanofils de silicium non intentionnellement dopes et dopes type n sont compares pour differentes configurations du montage experimental. Les mesures de spectroscopie terahertz en transmission montre qu'il est possible de detecter la presence de dopants dans les nanofils via leur absorption du rayonnement terahertz (˜ 1--12 meV). Les difficultes de modelisation de la transmission d'une impulsion electromagnetique dans un systeme de nanofils sont egalement discutees. La detection differentielle, une modification au systeme de spectroscopie terahertz, est testee et ses performances sont comparees au montage de caracterisation standard. Les instructions et des recommendations pour la mise en place de ce type de mesure sont incluses. Les resultats d'une experience de pompe optique-sonde terahertz sont egalement presentes. Dans cette experience, les porteurs de charge temporairement crees suite a l'absorption de la pompe optique (lambda ˜ 800 nm) dans les nanofils (les photoporteurs) s'ajoutent aux porteurs initialement presents et augmentent done l'absorption du rayonnement terahertz. Premierement, l'anisotropie de l'absorption terahertz et de la pompe optique par les nanofils est demontree. Deuxiemement, le temps de recombinaison des photoporteurs est etudie en fonction du nombre de photoporteurs injectes. Une hypothese expliquant les comportements observes pour les nanofils non-dopes et dopes-n est presentee. Troisiemement, la photoconductivite est extraite pour les nanofils non-dopes et dopes-n sur une plage de 0.5 a 2 THz. Un lissage sur la photoconductivite permet d'estimer le nombre de dopants dans les nanofils dopes-n. Mots-cles: nanofil, silicium, terahertz, conductivite, spectroscopie, photoconductivite.

  18. A new deconvolution method applied to ultrasonic images; Etude d'une methode de deconvolution adaptee aux images ultrasonores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallard, J

    1999-07-01

    This dissertation presents the development of a new method for restoration of ultrasonic signals. Our goal is to remove the perturbations induced by the ultrasonic probe and to help to characterize the defects due to a strong local discontinuity of the acoustic impedance. The point of view adopted consists in taking into account the physical properties in the signal processing to develop an algorithm which gives good results even on experimental data. The received ultrasonic signal is modeled as a convolution between a function that represents the waveform emitted by the transducer and a function that is abusively called the 'defect impulse response'. It is established that, in numerous cases, the ultrasonic signal can be expressed as a sum of weighted, phase-shifted replicas of a reference signal. Deconvolution is an ill-posed problem. A priori information must be taken into account to solve the problem. The a priori information translates the physical properties of the ultrasonic signals. The defect impulse response is modeled as a Double-Bernoulli-Gaussian sequence. Deconvolution becomes the problem of detection of the optimal Bernoulli sequence and estimation of the associated complex amplitudes. Optimal parameters of the sequence are those which maximize a likelihood function. We develop a new estimation procedure based on an optimization process. An adapted initialization procedure and an iterative algorithm enables to quickly process a huge number of data. Many experimental ultrasonic data that reflect usual control configurations have been processed and the results demonstrate the robustness of the method. Our algorithm enables not only to remove the waveform emitted by the transducer but also to estimate the phase. This parameter is useful for defect characterization. At last the algorithm makes easier data interpretation by concentrating information. So automatic characterization should be possible in the future. (author)

  19. Recueil des Etudes & Observations 2006 de l'Observatoire des non recours aux droits et services (Odenore)

    OpenAIRE

    Chauveaud, Catherine; Warin, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Annual Report 2006 of the Unit for research on Non-take up of Social Benefits and Public ServicesThis Unit has been launched in March 2003 to develop a research program dedicated to the analysis of non-take-up in France and Europe.This annual report presents a collection of studies carried out in 2006 in the fields of the social and professional inclusion, health and refusal of benefits. Some studies are confidential and not published here.All studies are put on line on the website (http://Od...

  20. Contribution aux etudes de signaux radar de surfaces de mer et mise au point d'un traitement rapide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousselme, Anne-Laure

    Dans le but d'utiliser un radar comme instrument de mesures oceanographiques, il apparai t necessaire de developper des techniques pour extraire les caracteristiques d'une surface de mer a partir du signal recu par le radar. La plupart des algorithmes existant considerent les images radar comme des photographies de la surface oceanique, negligeant l'effet de la vitesse de rotation du radar sur le signal, ainsi que le systeme de coordonnees polaires intrinseque de l'image radar. De plus, a cause de la loudeur des calculs, ces methodes ne peuvent fournir de resultats dans des applications en temps reel. La premiere partie de notra travail consiste a modeliser et quantifier l'effet de la distorsion du spectre oceanique provoquee par une vitesse de rotation du radar trop faible. Les resultats permettent de definir clairement les vitesses de rotation du radar pour lesquelles cette distorsion est negligeable. La deuxieme partie prospose un algorithme de traitement en temps reel qui extrait les informations caracteristiques principales de la surface de mer observee, i.e., la longueur d'onde et la direction des vagues. Cette estimation, basees sur une modelisation autoregressive offre une ouverture pour le traitement des signaux en temps reel. A travers cette approche, une succession de signaux unidimensionnels est traitee, ce qui conduit a l'elimination naturelle de la distorsion introduite dans le spectre du signal.

  1. Etude de l'écaillage du tantale aux très grandes vitesses de déformation

    OpenAIRE

    Priou, P.; Dommanget, M.; Clerc, R.

    1994-01-01

    Cette étude consiste à simuler, à l'aide des codes AUTODYN et DYNA-2D, deux essais d'écaillage réalisés sur du tantale au moyen d'un canon à gaz et d'un canon à électrons. Pour chaque essai, la tension d'écaillage est calculée par la formule empirique de TAYLOR, à partir d'un paramètre mesuré directement sur le diagramme de vitesse de face arrière de l'écaille. On cherche alors, d'une part à restituer le profil temporel de cette vitesse et l'épaisseur de l'écaille et d'autre part à déterminer...

  2. Etude des concepts de filtrage robuste aux méconnaissances de modèle et aux pertes de mesures. Application aux systèmes de navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Sircoulomb, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    To solve the problem of estimating the state of a system, it is necessary to have at one's disposal a model governing the dynamic of the state variables and to measure directly or indirectly all or a part of these variables. The work presented in this thesis deals with the estimation issue in the presence of model uncertainties and sensor losses. The first part of this work represents the synthesis of a state estimation device for nonlinear systems. It consists in selecting a state estimator ...

  3. Kinetic study of the reaction of nitrogen with uranium monocarbide; Etude cinetique de la reaction de l'azote sur le monocarbure d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, F.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The nitridation of uranium monocarbide pieces, microspheres and powder as well, is investigated in the temperature range 700 - 1200 deg. C and the kinetics of this reaction specified, using a thermogravimetric experimental procedure. In every case; the kinetics appears to be linear, except for massive monocarbide at temperatures above 950 deg. C which obeys following the rate law: {delta} m{sup x} = Kt, with x = 1.5 {+-} 0.1 Accordingly, the activation energy varies from 15 to 30 Kcal/mole. Furthermore, as evidenced by the curves K = F(P), the rate of nitridation increases proportionally to the square root of nitrogen pressure. The particular behaviour of the powders can be accounted for through a study of their 'over-temperature'. On the basis of all experimental results, the author suggests a reactional mechanism. (author) [French] L'etude thermogravimetrique de nitruration du monocarbure d'uranium sous differentes formes: massif, billes, poudre, entre 700 et 1200 deg. C, permet de connaitre la cinetique de cette reaction. Dans tous les cas la loi est lineaire sauf pour le monocarbure massif aux temperatures superieures a 950 deg. C, ou elle peut s'exprimer sous la forme: {delta} m{sup x} = Kt avec x = 1,5 {+-} 0,1 L'energie d'activation varie de 15 a 30 Kcal/mole suivant le type de loi rencontre. Les courbes K = F(P) montrent que la vitesse de nitruration croit avec la racine carree de la pression d'azote. L'etude de surtemperature des poudres permet d'expliquer leur comportement particulier. L'auteur propose un mecanisme reactionnel regroupant l'ensemble des resultats experimentaux. (auteur)

  4. Reconstruction de la surface de Fermi dans l'etat normal d'un supraconducteur a haute Tc: Une etude du transport electrique en champ magnetique intense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boeuf, David

    Des mesures de resistance longitudinale et de resistance de Hall en champ magnetique intense transverse (perpendiculaire aux plans CuO2) ont ete effectuees au sein de monocristaux de YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) demacles, ordonnes et de grande purete, afin d'etudier l'etat fondamental des supraconducteurs a haute Tc dans le regime sous-dope. Cette etude a ete realisee en fonction du dopage et de l'orientation du courant d'excitation J par rapport a l'axe orthorhombique b de la structure cristalline. Les mesures en champ magnetique intense revelent par suppression de la supraconductivite des oscillations magnetiques des resistances longitudinale et de Hall dans YBa2Cu 3O6.51 et YBa2Cu4O8. La conformite du comportement de ces oscillations quantiques au formalisme de Lifshitz-Kosevich, apporte la preuve de l'existence d'une surface de Fermi fermee a caractere quasi-2D, abritant des quasiparticules coherentes respectant la statistique de Fermi-Dirac, dans la phase pseudogap d'YBCO. La faible frequence des oscillations quantiques, combinee avec l'etude de la partie monotone de la resistance de Hall en fonction de la temperature indique que la surface de Fermi d'YBCO sous-dope comprend une petite poche de Fermi occupee par des porteurs de charge negative. Cette particularite de la surface de Fermi dans le regime sous-dope incompatible avec les calculs de structure de bande est en fort contraste avec la structure electronique presente dans le regime surdope. Cette observation implique ainsi l'existence d'un point critique quantique dans le diagramme de phase d'YBCO, au voisinage duquel la surface de Fermi doit subir une reconstruction induite par l'etablissement d'une brisure de la symetrie de translation du reseau cristallin sous-jacent. Enfin, l'etude en fonction du dopage de la resistance de Hall et de la resistance longitudinale en champ magnetique intense suggere qu'un ordre du type onde de densite (DW) est responsable de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi. L'analogie de

  5. Etude experimentale des excitations topologiques de l'effet Hall quantique a nu = 1 dans les heterostructures semiconductrices a double puits quantique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Serge

    De nombreux travaux theoriques et experimentaux ont ete publies sur les excitations topologiques de gaz electroniques bidimensionnels (GE2D), appellees skyrmions, dans le regime de l'effet Hall quantique a remplissage unitaire. On attend des excitations semblables appellees bimerons dans les systemes formes de deux GE2D couples. Contrairement au cas des GE2D simples, aucune experience n'a, a notre connaissance, presente la mesure d'une propriete specifique aux bimerons. Nous presentons dans cette these des travaux experimentaux ayant pour objectif l'etude d'excitations topologiques dans les heterostructures a double puits quantique. Une manifestation attendue (les bimerons est la presence d'une anisotropie dans la conductivite a travers une constriction. Nous avons concu un dispositif original a point de contact a trois grilles non-coplanaires. Ce dispositif a trois grilles a la particularite de permettre la creation d'une constriction etroite dans le double GE2D tout en permettant l'equilibrage de la densite electronique entre les deux puits dans l'etroit canal de conduction. Nous avons fabrique ce dispositif de taille submicronique par electrolithographie sur des heterostructures a double puits. Les dispositifs ainsi fabriques ont ete etudies a basse temperature (0.3K) et ont montre un fonctionnement conforme aux attentes. Les travaux n'ont pas permis de mettre en evidence une anisotropie de transport revelatrice de l'existence de bimerons. Cette these est a notre connaissance la premiere etude experimentale visant la realisation de l'experience d'anisotropie de transport et est ainsi une contribution significative a l'avancement des connaissances dans ce domaine. Les travaux theoriques que nous presentons ont permis de montrer l'effet des excitations topologiques sur la capacite grille-GE2D du systeme. Ces travaux ouvrent la voie de la detection des bimerons par l'intermediaire de la mesure de la capacite grille-GE2D ou encore de la susceptibilite electrique du

  6. Nuclear study of Melusine; Etude nucleaire de Melusine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherot, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In this report are reviewed - with respect to starting of experiments - the main nuclear characteristics of a 20 per cent enriched uranium lattice, with light water as moderator and reflector. The reactor is to operate at 1 MW. 1) Study of various critical masses. 2) Control. Effectiveness of cadmium. Control rods and of a stainless steel regulating rod. 3) Study of the effect on reactivity of disturbances in the core center. 4) Study of xenon and samarium poisoning. 5) Temperature factor. 6) Heat exchanges in a fuel element. (author) [French] On etudie, dans ce rapport, les principales proprietes nucleaires d'un reseau a uranium enrichi (20 pour cent), dont le moderateur et le reflecteur sont l'eau legere en vue des experiences de demarrage. Ce reacteur devra fonctionner a 1 MW. 1) Etude de diverses masses critiques. 2) Controle. Efficacite des barres de controle en cadmium et d'une barre de reglage en acier inoxydable. 3) Etude de l'effet sur la reactivite de perturbation au centre du coeur. 4) Etude de l'empoisonnement xenon et samarium. 5) Coefficient de temperature. 6) Echanges thermiques dans un element. (auteur)

  7. Contribution to the study of {pi}{sup -} + p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + n and {pi}{sup -} + p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + {pi} + n reactions at the energies of the maxima of the {pi}-nucleon interaction in the T = 1/2 state total cross section; Contribution a l'etude des reactions {pi}{sup -} + p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + n et {pi}{sup -} + p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + n aux energies des maxima de la section efficace totale de l'interaction {pi}{sup -} nucleon dans l'etat de spin isobarique T = 1/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turlay, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    avec et sans plomb. La transmission experimentale ainsi definie est fonction du nombre moyen de photons presents, donc du rapport entre les voies neutres {pi}{sup 0} n et {pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} n. Dans le dernier chapitre de ce travail, nous avons discute les resultats experimentaux, en les comparant a ceux obtenus par d'autres auteurs dans l'etude de la photoproduction et de l'interaction {pi}-nucleon. (auteur)

  8. ETUDE DE LA SISMICITE DU NORD ALGERIEN

    OpenAIRE

    BELDJOUDI, Hamoud

    2011-01-01

    Cette thèse comporte l’étude de neuf séismes du nord algérien qui se sont produits entre 1999 et 2008. Différentes approches étaient utilisées pour étudier ces événements : l’analyse des répliques et la détermination des mécanismes aux foyers en utilisant les enregistrements des stations sismologiques situées en champ lointain et des stations sismologiques situées en champ proche. L’étude des répliques a concerné les séismes de Lâalam (Béjaïa) et de Boumerdes. Cette analyse permis...

  9. Report of the experts group on the taxation of the access to gas transport and distribution network; Rapport du groupe d'experts sur la tarification de l'acces aux reseaux de transport et de distribution de gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    In the framework of a new french gas industry organization (directive of the 22 june 1998), a concerting mission has been realized on prices taxation for the transport and distribution facilities. The following topics have been debated: the integration and competition of the european gas market, the gas market liberalization consistency and the taxation of transport and distribution network access. (A.L.B.)

  10. Composes inter-halogenes sous pression: etude des transformations structurales dans le monobromure d'iode sous forme dense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Alexandre

    La famille des composes halogenes et inter-halogenes representent des solides moleculaires adoptant des phases denses communes avec des solides moleculaires diatomiques comme l'azote et l'hydrogene. Parmi les transformations structurales et electroniques induites sous haute pression et observees dans ces solides, on note, entre autres, la dissociation moleculaire et la metallisation. De plus, l'etude des phases denses de l'iode a permis recemment l'observation d'une structure cristalline possedant une modulation dite incommensurable, c'est-a-dire une modulation possedant une periodicite differente de celle de la structure cristalline, jetant ainsi une lumiere nouvelle sur le processus de dissociation moleculaire dans les solides halogenes. Dans ce memoire, on propose d'etudier les changements structuraux dans monobromure d'iode (IBr), un compose inter-halogene possedant des proprietes structurales semblables a celles de deux composes halogenes, soit l'iode (I 2) et le brome (Br2) sous leur forme solide. Des experiences de diffraction des rayons X de poudres en utilisant un rayonnement synchrotron ont ete realisees a temperature ambiante sur l'IBr en variant la pression jusqu'aux environs de 60 GPa. La nature chimique particuliere du compose IBr a necessite la mise au point de techniques de chargement d'echantillon destinees a preserver l'integrite chimique de la substance utilisee. On rapporte egalement l'observation d'une phase de l'IBr presentant une modulation incommensurable. Les phases observees dans l'IBr permettent d'etablir des paralleles avec les phases denses rapportees dans I2 et Br2 par le biais d'un modele phenomenologique decrivant la sequence structurale des solides halogenes sous forme condensee.

  11. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue

  12. Soja MON 87701 Résistant Aux Insectes

    OpenAIRE

    Canada, Publié par la Direction des aliments de Santé

    2014-01-01

    Santé Canada a avisé Monsanto Canada Inc. qu’il ne s’oppose pas à l’utilisation alimentaire du soja MON 87701 résistant aux insectes. Le Ministère a réalisé une évaluation approfondie de cette lignée de soja conformément aux Lignes directrices sur l’évaluation de l’innocuité des aliments nouveaux. Ces lignes directrices sont fondées sur les principes admis internationalement de l’établissement de l’innocuité d’aliments comportant des caractères nouveaux. Le texte qu...

  13. Etude, consolidation et protection de caoutchouc naturel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Duboisset

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Un exemplaire d’un fauteuil MAA de George Nelson produit en 1958 a été restauré dans l’atelier mobilier du département des restaurateurs de l’Institut National du Patrimoine. Ce fauteuil est un exemple très représentatif du modernisme américain par sa simplicité des formes et  son esthétisme recherché. Les articulations du dossier en caoutchouc naturel sont fortement fissurées suite à une exposition à la lumière couplée à l’utilisation du fauteuil. Un protocole technico-scientifique a permis d’établir une méthode de comblement réversible des fissures à l’aide d’éthylène vinyle acétate, résine thermoplastique souple. Ce procédé a été appliqué sur les caoutchoucs du fauteuil afin de redonner une cohérence mécanique aux pièces.A MAA chair of George Nelson dating of 1958 was restored in the workshop of furniture in the department of restoration at the National institute of heritage. This chair is a very representative example of American modernism by its simplicity of form and its refine style. The articulation of the back is composed with natural rubber. These are highly cracked due to exposure to light and coupled with the use of the chair. A protocol on scientific-technical established a reversible method of filling cracks with ethylene vinyl acetate with anti-oxidant, soft thermoplastic resin. This method has been applied on the rubber chair to give mechanical coherence to the parts and to the chair.

  14. Blowing loop in the EL-4 reactor: CO{sub 2} flow control analogue study; Boucle de soufflage de la centrale EL-4 - regulation du debit CO{sub 2} - etude analogique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chazal, G.; Merle, J.P.; Guillemard, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Leroy, C.; Robin, L.; Jacquin, J.C.; Cornudet, A. [Societe INDATOM, France (France)

    1966-07-01

    This report describes one study which contributed to the construction of the Monts d'Arree nuclear power station: EL-4. The reactor is cooled by a CO{sub 2} current provided by 3 turbo-blower groups. The priming vapour for the turbines is taken at the exit of the main CO{sub 2} - H{sub 2}O exchangers. The operation of EL 4 is based on a high degree of centralization of the controls which attributes an important role to the general regulation circuits. This general regulation includes in particular an internal blowing loop which controls the CO{sub 2} flow. The study of the control of this CO{sub 2} flow is made up of 3 parts: - analogue representation of the reactors cooling circuit and of the turbo blower unit. - first test campaign using the analogue computer describing the natural behaviour of the system in the absence of control. theoretical determination of the regulation factors; definition of the regulation using an analogue computer and second test campaign for recording the performances of the blowing loop. The 4. part of the report deals with the analogue study: analogue equations - development. (authors) [French] Ce rapport prend place parmi les etudes de realisation de la Centrale des Monts d'Arree EL-4. Le reacteur est refroidi par une circulation de CO{sub 2} assuree par 3 groupes turbosoufflantes. La vapeur d'entrainement des turbines est prelevee a la sortie des echangeurs principaux CO{sub 2} - H{sub 2}O. L'exploitation de EL-4 repose sur une centralisation poussee des moyens de controle-commande qui attribue un role essentiel aux circuits de regulation generale. Cette regulation generale comporte en particulier une boucle interne de soufflage qui realise un asservissement du debit de CO{sub 2}. L'etude de cette regulation du debit CO{sub 2} comprend 3 parties: - representation analogique du circuit de refroidissement du reacteur et de l'ensemble turbine-soufflante. - premiere campagne d'essais sur calculateur

  15. Etude exploratoire des conceptions de la circulation sanguine aupres d'eleves de l'ordre collegial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Jean-Marc

    Il existe peu d'etudes sur les conceptions touchant les domaines de la biologie, notamment sur les conceptions de la circulation sanguine Nous avons observe egalement l'absence de recherche menee aupres d'eleves de l'ordre collegial sur cette question. Nous avons voulu combler une lacune en menant une recherche sur les conceptions de la circulation sanguine aupres d'eleves de l'ordre collegial. Pour mener cette recherche nous nous sommes inspires d'une methode developpee par Treagust (1988). Le premier niveau de formulation didactique etablit l'architecture du systeme et la fonction nutritive de la circulation. Le second niveau de formulation didactique decrit et relie les parametres de la dynamique de la circulation et leur relation: Pression, Debit et Resistance. Le troisieme niveau de formulation didactique s'interesse au controle de la circulation du sang dans un contexte d'homeostasie qui implique la regulation de la pression arterielle. Nous avons construit un questionnaire en nous guidant sur les niveaux de formulation didactique et l'analyse des entrevues menees aupres de dix-huit eleves, representatifs de la population cible. Ce questionnaire fut administre a un echantillon de 2300 eleves disperses dans six colleges de la region de Montreal. Notre echantillon comprend des eleves inscrits a des programmes de l'ordre collegial en Sciences de la nature et en Techniques de la sante et qui n'ont pas suivi le cours sur la circulation sanguine. Notre analyse des reponses des eleves de notre echantillon aux questions sur le premier niveau de formulation didactique revele que la majorite des eleves considerent que le systeme circulatoire relie les organes les uns aux autres dans un circuit en serie. Notre analyse revele egalement que la majorite des eleves estiment que les nutriments sont extraits du sang par les organes selon un processus de selection base sur les besoins determines par la fonction de l'organe. Ces besoins sont differents selon les organes qui ne

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa usin...

  17. Sexe et pouvoir aux États-Unis

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtar BEN BARKA

    2012-01-01

    Les adversaires politiques de Bill Clinton aiment à dire que l’Histoire se souviendra de lui plus à cause de ses mensonges et de sa sexualité débordante qu’en raison de son bilan. En vérité, les frasques sexuelles du président Clinton ne sont que la perpétuation d’une tradition qui remonte aux origines de la nation américaine. “Long before there was a United States of America”, écrit Shelley Ross, “there was sex, scandal, and corruption in American politics. In fact, some of the most notoriou...

  18. Socio-economic determinants of cooperative societies’ access to the services of the Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank Déterminants socioéconomiques de l’accès des sociétés coopératives aux services de la Banque du Nigéria pour les coopératives agricoles et le développement rural Determinantes socioeconómicos para el acceso de las cooperativas a los servicios del Banco de Cooperativas Agrícolas y Desarrollo Rural de Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festus Agbo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the extent to which cooperative societies had access to the special intervention fund administered by the  Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative And Rural Development Bank (NACRDB Ltd. The study was carried out between March and September, 2005, on six randomly selected states, one from each of the six geopolitical zones into which Nigeria has been divided. States sampled included Enugu (South-East. Rivers (South-South, Ondo (South West, Benue (North Central, Bauchi (North East and Kano (North West. Sixty cooperative societies were also randomly selected for the study from each state covered; thirty of them with access and thirty without access to the intervention fund, on the whole 360 cooperative societies were studied. Statistical tools used for data analysis included percentage, means and range. Levene’s test for equality of means was used to determine if the means of the two categories of cooperatives (those with access and those without were statistically different. Likert scale rating was used to determine cooperative societies’ perception of the effects of agency operational guidelines on access. The Levene’s test for equality of means showed that the difference between the means of the two categories of cooperative societies were statistically significant at 5% probability level. Likert scale rating confirmed that the operational guidelines of NACRDB such as minimum credit requirement, type of crop grown, approved loan size, and insurance cover affected access to the intervention fund. It was recommended that promoters of cooperative societies should pay adequate attention to the socioeconomic characteristics of the cooperative societies so promoted and the credit guidelines of the NACRDB Ltd.Cet article évalue l’étendue de l’accès des sociétés coopératives au fonds spécial d’intervention administré par la NACRDB Ltd (Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative And Rural Development Bank. Une étude a

  19. Etude des phenomenes dynamiques ultrarapides et des caracteristiques impulsionnelles d'emission terahertz du supraconducteur YBCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Stephane

    Les premieres etudes d'antennes a base de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique emettant une impulsion electromagnetique dont le contenu en frequence se situe dans le domaine terahertz remontent a 1996. Une antenne supraconductrice est formee d'un micro-pont d'une couche mince supraconductrice sur lequel un courant continu est applique. Un faisceau laser dans le visible est focalise sur le micro-pont et place le supraconducteur dans un etat hors-equilibre ou des paires sont brisees. Grace a la relaxation des quasiparticules en surplus et eventuellement de la reformation des paires supraconductrices, nous pouvons etudier la nature de la supraconductivite. L'analyse de la cinetique temporelle du champ electromagnetique emis par une telle antenne terahertz supraconductrice s'est averee utile pour decrire qualitativement les caracteristiques de celle-ci en fonction des parametres d'operation tels que le courant applique, la temperature et la puissance d'excitation. La comprehension de l'etat hors-equilibre est la cle pour comprendre le fonctionnement des antennes terahertz supraconductrices a haute temperature critique. Dans le but de comprendre ultimement cet etat hors-equilibre, nous avions besoin d'une methode et d'un modele pour extraire de facon plus systematique les proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui compose l'antenne terahertz a partir des caracteristiques d'emission de celle-ci. Nous avons developpe une procedure pour calibrer le spectrometre dans le domaine temporel en utilisant des antennes terahertz de GaAs bombarde aux protons H+ comme emetteur et detecteur. Une fois le montage calibre, nous y avons insere une antenne emettrice dipolaire de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta . Un modele avec des fonctions exponentielles de montee et de descente du signal est utilise pour lisser le spectre du champ electromagnetique de l'antenne de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta, ce qui nous permet d'extraire les proprietes intrinseques de ce dernier. Pour confirmer la validite du modele

  20. OVER- EXPRESSION OF AN AUX1 HOMOLOG TRIGGERS OVARY INITIATION IN VITRO OF POPULUS TOMENTOSA CARR.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    PtAUX1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis AtAUX1 ( encoding auxin influx carrier protein), has been cloned from Populus tomentosa. PtAUX1 protein is similar to Arabidopsis AtAUX1 in structure, but PtAUX1 contains an additional cAMP/cGMP - dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site. Its overexpression lines driven by 35S promoter exhibits a novel phenotype related flower development which has not been revealed in AtAUX1 mutants. Ovary - like structures each with 1 ~ 2 styles, but without a cup - like disc and a bract, can initial from regenerated transgenic bud in cluster,resembling an inflorescence. The histological dissections illuminate that the ovary - like structures have womb and transmitting tissue inner its styles, but no ovules. PtAUX1 expression pattern are ubiquitous and various in different organs,which is coincident with its candidate auxin influx, functioning in distributing auxin thorough a plant body. These results suggest that PtAUX1 or polar auxin transport has a substantial function in floral organ initiation.

  1. Histological data concerning the pig (sus scrofa) for use in radiobiology. I. Normal histology of certain systems. 2. Injuries caused by total {gamma} irradiation; Donnees histologiques sur le porc (sus scrofa), utilisables en radiobiologie. 1. histologie normale de certains appareils. 2. etude des lesions consecutives a une irradiation {gamma} totale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenet, J.L.; Vaiman, M.; Nizza, P. [Commissariat a L' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    The domestic pig lately become a laboratory whose anatomical and physiological characteristics appear to be appreciated for certain radiological studies. In this report the authors describe research which they have carried out (in particular in the field of histology) on domestic pigs of different species with a view to compiling a record which might be of help to future workers in this field. The second part of their work deals with anatomical and histological injuries caused by total exposure to gamma radiation from cobalt 60 at doses of around 285 rads. (authors) [French] Le porc domestique est devenu depuis peu un animal de laboratoire, dont les caracteristiques anatomiques et physiologiques paraissent fort appreciees pour certaines etudes de radiobiologie. Dans ce rapport les auteurs font part des recherches qu'ils ont effectuees (notamment dans le domaine de l'histologie) sur des porcs domestiques de differentes races, de maniere a constituer un document capable de venir en aide aux utilisateurs eventuels. La deuxieme partie de leur travail traite de lesions anatomiques et histologiques, consecutives a des expositions totales aux rayonnements gamma du cobalt 60 a des doses voisines de 285 rads. (auteurs)

  2. Determination of a PWR key neutron parameters uncertainties and conformity studies applications; Determination des incertitudes liees aux grandeurs neutroniques d'interet des reacteurs a eau pressurisee a plaques combustible et applications aux etudes de conformite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, D

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate uncertainties of key neutron parameters of slab reactors. Uncertainties sources have many origins, technologic origin for parameters of fabrication and physical origin for nuclear data. First, each contribution of uncertainties is calculated and finally, a factor of uncertainties is associated to key slab parameter like reactivity, isotherm reactivity coefficient, control rod efficiency, power form factor before irradiation and lifetime. This factors of uncertainties were computed by Generalized Perturbations Theory in case of step 0 and by directs calculations in case of irradiation problems. One of neutronic conformity applications was about fabrication and nuclear data targets precision adjustments. Statistic (uncertainties) and deterministic (deviations) approaches were studied. Then neutronics key slab parameters uncertainties were reduced and so nuclear performances were optimised. (author)

  3. NMR studies of the molecules dynamics to the solid-liquid interfaces: from graded porous materials to oil rocks; Etudes RMN de la dynamique des molecules aux interfaces solide-liquide: des materiaux poreux calibres aux roches petroliferes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godefroy, S.

    2001-11-01

    Low field NMR relaxation for laboratory or in-situ applications provides critical information for oil recovery such as porosity, saturation, and permeability of rocks. In addition, pore size distribution and wettability can also be obtained in some cases. The technique relies on the measurement of proton longitudinal (T{sub 1}) or transverse (T{sub 2}) nuclear relaxation times. For better predictions, the surface micro-dynamics and the chemical properties of the liquids entrapped in the pore space are important and must be characterized. It is well known that the NMR relaxation is enhanced by the paramagnetic impurities at the pore surface but many other parameters influence the relaxation time distributions. These parameters are used to derive the petrophysical properties of the rocks. We propose here an original method to probe the dynamics of water and oil at the pore surface. In the present study, we used both nuclear relaxation at 2.2 MHz and field cycling Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Dispersion (NMRD) techniques. We applied these two techniques to different kinds of water or oil saturated macroporous media (grain packings, outcrop and reservoir rocks with SiO{sub 2} or CaCO{sub 3} surfaces). We studied the dependence of NMR relaxation on pore size, magnetic field and temperature. Varying the pore size and the surface density of paramagnetic impurities of water saturated grain packings allowed experimental evidence for the two limiting regimes of the water relaxation in pores (surface- and diffusion-limited regimes). NMRD technique (evolution of 1/T{sub 1} with the magnetic field) allowed us to probe liquid surface dynamics in water or oil fully saturated grain packing, outcrop rocks or reservoir rocks (water- and oil-wet surfaces). We evidenced a two-dimensional molecular surface diffusion and directly estimated important parameters such as correlation times, residence times and molecular self-diffusion on the surface. Finally, we proved that the temperature dependence of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} is directly related to the surface chemistry of the rocks. Such a dependence is clearly important for oil field in-situ measurements (well logging). (author)

  4. Shakespeare Cliff, rempart symbolique aux portes du royaume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Price

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Figure 1 : Clarkson STANFIELD, Shakespeare Cliff, Dover, 1849, 1862« Il est une falaise, dont le front haut et courbeRegarde avec effroi dans l’abîme qu’elle enserre :Conduis-moi jusqu’à son bordEt je remédierai à la misère que tu souffresPar quelque riche objet ; de cet endroitJe n’aurai point besoin de guide. »Les lignes ci-dessus, tirées de l’Acte IV, Scène I du Roi Lear, font allusion aux falaises de Douvres, plus particulièrement à leur point culminant, un grand bloc de calcaire et de cr...

  5. Feticismo e desiderio in Poulet aux prunes di Marjane Satrapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Rimini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio si propone di individuare e descrivere le sfumature erotiche e sentimentali del film Poulet aux prunes di Marjane Satrapi, felice adattamento dell’omonima graphic novel. Il racconto procede per scarti, ellissi, anticipazioni e flasback, dando luogo a una narrazione labirintica dalla singolare trama arabescante. Le sottili dinamiche seduttive messe in campo dal complesso stile di regia di Satrapi-Paronnaud vengono analizzate alla luce delle categorie feticistiche individuate da Massimo Fusillo, che offrono interessanti modelli di interazione fra desiderio e creatività. L’esito di tale indagine consente di ampliare il dibattito relativo al rapporto di scambio e interferenza fra oggetti, pulsioni e sguardi nel cinema contemporaneo.

  6. Le date rape aux États-Unis

    OpenAIRE

    Fassin, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Pour appréhender une culture, on peut partir, non des représentations partagées, mais des polémiques qui la déchirent. Ainsi du date rape aux États-Unis, invention du féminisme universitaire et médiatique des années 1980 : en posant la question de la violence au cœur des rapports amoureux, le féminisme impose moins une orthodoxie qu’il ne propose une interprétation, doublement contestée durant les années quatre-vingt-dix par les intellectuels conservateurs et les essayistes « post-féministes ...

  7. Sexe et pouvoir aux États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar BEN BARKA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Les adversaires politiques de Bill Clinton aiment à dire que l’Histoire se souviendra de lui plus à cause de ses mensonges et de sa sexualité débordante qu’en raison de son bilan. En vérité, les frasques sexuelles du président Clinton ne sont que la perpétuation d’une tradition qui remonte aux origines de la nation américaine. “Long before there was a United States of America”, écrit Shelley Ross, “there was sex, scandal, and corruption in American politics. In fact, some of the most notoriou...

  8. Application de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebas, E.; Martin, G. H.

    2002-04-01

    La réduction des émissions d'oxydes d'azote sur turbines à gaz est obtenue par diminution de la température au sein de la chambre de combustion. Les techniques possibles comprennent l'injection d'eau ou de vapeur, la combustion pauvre et l'oxydation catalytique. Parmi celles-ci, la dernière est la plus prometteuse en terme de coûts et de performances, avec des émissions de NOx ramenées à un seul chiffre (typiquement inférieures à 3 ppm). L'IFP travaille depuis maintenant 10 ans sur l'adaptation de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz. Les études ont été conduites au travers de projets européen tels que AGATA (Advance Gas Turbine for Automotive Application) et ULECAT (Ultra Low CATalytic combustor for dual fuel gas turbine). Le premier projet était destiné au développement de véhicules hybrides et le second à la combustion stationnaire de biogaz et de combustible Diesel. Les études en cours dans ce domaine portent sur le développement d'une unité de cogénération intégrant une microturbine à combustion catalytique. Les travaux menés à l'IFP concernent la mise au point de catalyseurs répondant aux exigences de la combustion catalytique en turbine à gaz et le développement de chambres de combustion permettant la mise en oeuvre de ces catalyseurs.

  9. Contribution to the study of the uranium-hydrogen system; Contribution a l'etude du systeme uranium-hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-01-01

    Previous work on uranium-hydrogen system is reviewed. The U-H{sub 2}-UH{sub n} equilibrium is then investigated at pressures below one atmosphere, i.e. at temperatures lower than 430 deg. C. The hydride obtained at equilibrium is deficient in hydrogen (UH{sub n<3}), the hydrogen deficit increasing as the temperature rises. Thermodynamic functions for the formation of non-stoichiometric hydride and of one hydrogen vacancy are derived from pressure composition isotherms, in U-H phase diagram is proposed. The hydrogenation of U-UC alloys is also examined at pressures below one atmosphere with regard to the equilibrium: (free U + UC) - H{sub 2}-UH{sub n}. The equilibrium conditions are found different from that observed for pure uranium. (author) [French] Une etude bibliographique du systeme uranium-hydrogene est exposee. L'equilibre U-H{sub 2}-UH{sub n} est ensuite etudie sous des pressions inferieures a une atmosphere, soit aux temperatures inferieures a environ 430 degs. C. L'hydrure obtenu a l'equilibre est deficitaire en hydrogene - UH{sub n<3} - et d'autant plus que la temperature s'eleve. Les grandeurs thermodynamiques relatives a la formation et a la saturation de l'hydrure, ainsi qu'a la formation d'une lacune d'hydrogene sont deduites des pressions d'equilibre. Un modele de diagramme de phases U-H est propose. L'hyduration des alliages U-UC est etudiee egalement sous des pressions inferieures a l'atmosphere, au point de vue de l'equilibre (U libre + UC) - H{sub 2}-UH{sub n}. Les conditions d'equilibre sont trouvees differentes de celles observees sur l'uranium pur. (auteur)

  10. Concerning the study of the irreversible magnetic behaviour of superconductivity; Contribution a l'etude du comportement magnetique irreversible des supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    The influence of the presence of extended lattice defects on the magnetic behaviour has been studied for the case of type I superconductors, such as Re and Ta, and in a more quantitative manner for the type II superconductor niobium. In this case, measurements of the thermal conductivity have given an estimate of the relative concentration of lattice defects in each specimen. These measurements show that the larger the number of lattice defects, the more irreversible becomes the magnetization curve, and the larger becomes the values of the critical current, which is related by a simple model to the magnetization values. Finally, a study by transmission electron microscopy has confirmed on the one hand the diversity of the extended lattice defects and on the other hand has allowed the formulation of several hypothesis on their respective influence. [French] L'influence de la presence de defauts etendus sur le comportement magnetique a ete etudie pour des supraconducteurs de premiere espece, tels que le rhenium et le tantale, et plus quantitativement pour un supraconducteur de deuxieme espece, le niobium. Dans ce cas, des mesures de conductibilite thermique ont permis d'estimer la concentration relative des defauts du reseau dans chaque echantillon. Ces mesures montrent que plus les defauts du reseau sont nombreux, plus la courbe d'aimantation est irreversible, et plus les valeurs du courant critique, reliees par un modele simple aux valeurs de l'aimantation, sont elevees. Enfin une etude par microscopie electronique en transmission - a permis d'une part de constater la diversite des defauts etendus et d'autre part de formuler quelques hypotheses sur leurs influences respectives.

  11. Laser-matter interaction studies at Centre d'Etudes de Limeil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is made of the laser-matter interaction and implosion experiments carried out at Centre d'Etudes de Limeil with the two following neodymium glass lasers; the monobeam 50 J - 1ns P102 laser for the interaction with foils and the eight beam 400 J - 0.5ns OCTAL laser for the implosion of glass microballoons

  12. OsAUX1 controls lateral root initiation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heming; Ma, Tengfei; Wang, Xin; Deng, Yingtian; Ma, Haoli; Zhang, Rongsheng; Zhao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by influx and efflux transporters, controls many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin influx carriers in Arabidopsis have been shown to control lateral root development and gravitropism, but little is known about these proteins in rice. This paper reports on the functional characterization of OsAUX1. Three OsAUX1 T-DNA insertion mutants and RNAi knockdown transgenic plants reduced lateral root initiation compared with wild-type (WT) plants. OsAUX1 overexpression plants exhibited increased lateral root initiation and OsAUX1 was highly expressed in lateral roots and lateral root primordia. Similarly, the auxin reporter, DR5-GUS, was expressed at lower levels in osaux1 than in the WT plants, which indicated that the auxin levels in the mutant roots had decreased. Exogenous 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) treatment rescued the defective phenotype in osaux1-1 plants, whereas indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-D could not, which suggested that OsAUX1 was a putative auxin influx carrier. The transcript levels of several auxin signalling genes and cell cycle genes significantly declined in osaux1, hinting that the regulatory role of OsAUX1 may be mediated by auxin signalling and cell cycle genes. Overall, our results indicated that OsAUX1 was involved in polar auxin transport and functioned to control auxin-mediated lateral root initiation in rice.

  13. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. PMID:27247276

  14. Study of the age of uranium-containing mineral deposits in the Limouzat, the bois-noir mountains (12963); Etude des ages des mineralisations uraniferes du gisement du Limouzat, Massif des bois-noirs (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The present work is concerned with 7 different samples taken at various levels in the Limouzat mine in the Bois-Noirs mountains. It has been possible to show that the uranium dates from 265 M.Y. and that a rearrangement occurred 65 M.Y. ago. A {gamma}-spectrometer study which was originally intended to show the existence of the lack of balance in the radon circulation, has made it possible to show that the {gamma} spectra recorded on various samples could be erroneous. We observed in effect that the presence of lead, iron, etc., had a strong influence on the {gamma} spectrum of the radium family, whereas all research workers have considered that concentrations in the uranium ore were negligible and had no significant effect on the study of the {gamma} spectra of the samples. It is obvious that an interesting study has to be undertaken on the screen effects of the different cations existing in the ores. We believe that it is possible to show the presence of certain elements directly by {gamma}-spectrometry. The ages measured with the mass spectrometer present two types of disagreement but these have been explained by considering that there occurred a first arrival of lead followed by a rearrangement and, at certain points, a second arrival at this date. Finally, the deposit studied undergoes a circulation of uranium and of radon. (author) [French] La presente etude a porte sur 7 prelevements differents effectues a divers niveaux de la mine du Limouzat, massif des Bois-Noirs. Elle a permis de mettre en evidence une premiere venue d'uranium il y a 265 M.A., suivie d'un remaniements il y a 65 M.A. Une etude au spectrometre {gamma} destinee, a l'origine, a prouver les desequilibres dus aux circulations de radon a permis de montrer que les spectres {gamma} enregistres sur divers echantillons pouvaient etre entaches d'erreurs. Nous nous sommes apercus en effet que la presence de plomb, de fer..., avait une forte influence sur le spectre {gamma} de la

  15. Study of the preparation of deuterium-containing palladium and titanium targets for neutron generation; Etude de la preparation de cibles de palladium et de titane chargees en deuterium pour la generation de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latrous, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    After briefly reviewing the use and production problems of tritiated and deuterated targets, the report deals with the following topics: Charging of palladium and titanium wires; Contribution to structural studies concerning palladium and titanium deuterides; Charging of targets and neutron production tests. The conclusion stresses the fact that electrochemical charging is not of very great interest for the preparation of deuterated or tritiated targets, but makes it possible nevertheless to study effectively the structure of the deuterides. (author) [French] Apres un bref rappel de l'emploi et des problemes de fabrication de cibles tritiees et deuteriees, ce rapport traite des points suivants: Chargement de fils de palladium et de titane; Contribution aux etudes de structure des deuteriures de palladium et de titane; Chargement de cibles et essai de production de neutrons. La conclusion souligne que le chargement electrochimique n'est pas d'un interet primordial pour la preparation de cibles deuteriees ou tritiees, mais par contre permet des progres dans le domaine de structure des deuteriures. (auteur)

  16. Etudes théorique et expérimentale du suivi de particules uniques en conditions extrêmes : imagerie aux photons uniques

    OpenAIRE

    Cajgfinger, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript presents my thesis on the high frame rate (500 frames/second) single-photon detector electron-bombraded CMOS (ebCMOS). The first section compares three ultra-sensitive detectors and their methods for improving photon sensitivity : the CMOS low noise (sCMOS), the electron-multiplying CCD (emCCD) with signal multiplication by pixel and the ebCMOS with amplification by applied electric field. The method developped to detected single photon impacts with intra-pixel resolution on t...

  17. Etude et développement d’une interface graphique de conception logicielle appliquée aux réseaux de capteurs sans fil

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeyrol, S.

    2011-01-01

    / Ce travail a consisté à développer une interface graphique de programmation permettant de faciliter la création de nouvelles applications pour les capteurs sans fil utilisés au Cemagref. Cette interface doit permettre de générer le code de l’application à partir des paramètres fournis par l’utilisateur et des briques logicielles. Elle a été développée en langage Java à l’aide du framework Eclipse RCP. Cette interface permet notamment de sauvegarder et de réutiliser certain...

  18. Study of luminous emissions associated to electron emissions in radiofrequency cavities; Etude des emissions lumineuses associees aux emissions electroniques dans les cavites hyperfrequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maissa, S

    1996-11-26

    This study investigates luminous emissions simultaneously to electron emissions and examines their features in order to better understand the field electron emission phenomenon. A RF cavity, operating at room temperature and in pulsed mode, joined to a sophisticated experimental apparatus has been especially developed. The electron and luminous emissions are investigated on cleaned or with metallic, graphitic and dielectric particles contaminated RF surfaces in order to study their influence on these phenomena. During the surface processing, unstable luminous spots glowing during one RF pulse are detected. Their apparition is promoted in the vicinity of the metallic particles or scratches. Two hypotheses could explain their origin: the presence of micro-plasmas associated to electronic explosive emission during processing or the thermal radiation of the melted metal during this emission. Stable luminous spots glowing during several RF pulses are also detected and appear to increase on RF surfaces contaminated with dielectric particles, leading to strong and explosive luminous emissions. Two interpretations are considered: the initiation of surface breakdowns on the dielectric particles or the heating by the RF field at temperatures sufficiently intense to provoke their thermal radiation then their explosion. Finally a superconducting cavity has been adapted to observe luminous spots, which differ from the former ones bu their star shape and could be associated to micro-plasmas, revealed by the starbursts observed on superconducting cavity walls. (author) 102 refs.

  19. Study of heavy ions collision at SIS energies with the detector FOPI; Etude des collisions d'ions lourds aux energies de SIS avec le detecteur FOPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastid, N

    1999-09-23

    The present work has been carried out in the framework of experiments performed with the FOPI detector at the SIS/ESR accelerator facility of GSI-Darmstadt. It is devoted to the study of central and semi-central heavy ion collisions at beam energies ranging from 100 MeV to 2 GeV per nucleon. We present first generalities on relativistic heavy ion collisions then the FOPI detector with a special attention to the FOPI Inner Wall constructed by the Clermont-Ferrand group. The main results of the FOPI collaboration obtained with light and intermediate mass fragments and kaons are presented. A systematic study of the different forms of collection motion of nuclear matter, radial flow in very central reactions, sideward flow and squeeze-out in semi-central collisions, is performed. Further exciting possibilities concerning production and propagation of strangeness at SIS energies will be offered soon with the upgrade of the FOPI detector. The FOPI data have introduced constraints on parameters of theoretical models. Important progress concerning the knowledge of the properties of nuclear matter, the dynamics of the collisions and in-medium effects have been achieved. (author)

  20. Etude de l'Interaction Protéine-Protéine par Modélisation Moléculaire. Application aux Processus Biologiques

    OpenAIRE

    SARI MOHAMED, Souad

    2013-01-01

    Les interactions protéine-protéine ont un aspect essentiel des processus biologiques. Elles sont fortement impliquées dans la formation de structures macromoléculaires, dans la signalisation, dans la régulation et dans les différentes voies métaboliques. La haute spécificité de ces interactions fait d’elles des cibles idéales pour les agents thérapeutiques. Les protéines kinases, plus particulièrement, représentent une des plus grandes familles de protéines, La plupart des canc...

  1. Les discriminations selon l'origine dans l'accès aux soins. Etude en France métropolitaine et en Guyane française

    OpenAIRE

    Carde, Estelle

    2006-01-01

    Discriminations are differential treatments which are illegitimate and unfavorable in most cases. Health care public policies led towards “poors” and foreigners are first presented. Then are analysed interviews and observations conducted with 175 health care professionals in metropolitan France and in french Guyana, from 2001 to 2003.A typology of origin based discriminations is built from the metropolitan datas. In the first two types, the professional justifies his or her discriminatory tre...

  2. Regular multi-sequences copolymers study at interfaces and in solution; Etude des copolymeres multisequences reguliers aux interfaces et en solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclerc, E.

    1996-11-15

    In this study are described the conformations which are taken by multi-sequences copolymers in various situations. The phase diagram of copolymers near an interface defined by two non-miscible liquids has been given, respectively for a strongly adsorbing interface and for a weakly adsorbing interface. The passage between these two extreme conditions has revealed the existence of a lot of intermediate conditions. Copolymers have also been studied with several solvents of different quality. The formation of folded structures described by micellar structures have been studied according to the size of the respective sequences in a ``good`` solvent and in a ``bad`` solvent. The obtention of ``flower`` micelles is due to very strict conditions on the solvent quality and on the sequences size. The phase diagram of the different micellar structures has then been established. Jointly to this theoretical study, an experimental work has been developed on a model protein: the {beta} casein. The main characteristic parameters of the aggregates formed by the protein have been established by experiments of small angle neutrons scattering. The interactions which are present between macromolecules are strongly attractive at low concentration (formation of micelles) and repulsive when the concentration increases. Some resemblances exist between the micelles formed by the copolymers and the aggregates formed by the {beta} casein. (O.M.) 141 refs.

  3. Detailed study of transmutation scenarios involving present day reactor technologies; Etude detaillee des scenarios de transmutation faisant appel aux technologies actuelles pour les reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document makes a detailed technical evaluation of three families of separation-transmutation scenarios for the management of radioactive wastes. These scenarios are based on 2 parks of reactors which recycle plutonium and minor actinides in an homogeneous way. A first scenario considers the multi-recycling of Pu and Np and the mono-recycling of Am and Cm using both PWRs and FBRs. A second scenario is based on PWRs only, while a third one considers FBRs only. The mixed PWR+FBR scenario requires innovative options and gathers more technical difficulties due to the americium and curium management in a minimum flux of materials. A particular attention has been given to the different steps of the fuel cycle (fuels and targets fabrication, burnup, spent fuel processing, targets management). The feasibility of scenarios of homogeneous actinides recycling in PWRs-only and in FBRs-only has been evaluated according to the results of the first scenario: fluxes of materials, spent fuel reprocessing by advanced separation, impact of the presence of actinides on PWRs and FBRs operation. The efficiency of the different scenarios on the abatement of wastes radio-toxicity is presented in conclusion. (J.S.)

  4. Contributions to safety studies for new concepts of nuclear reactors; Contributions aux etudes de surete pour des filieres innovantes de reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdu, F

    2003-12-01

    The complete study of molten salt reactors, designed for a massive and durable nuclear energy production, must include neutronics, hydraulics and thermal effects. This coupled study, using the MCNP and Trio{sub U} codes, is undertaken in the case of the MSRE (molten salt reactor experiment) prototype. The obtained results fit very well the experiment. Their extrapolation suggests ways of improving the safety coefficients of power molten salt reactors. A second part is devoted to accelerator driven subcritical reactors, developed to incinerate radioactive waste.We propose a method to measure the prompt reactivity from the decay following a neutron pulse. It relies only on the distribution of times between generations, which is a characteristic of the reactor. This method is implemented on the results of the MUSE 4 experiment, and the obtained reactivity is accurate within 5%. (author)

  5. Les représentations sociales du travail dans des parcours de retour aux études aux niveaux collégial et universitaire

    OpenAIRE

    Claude Julie Bourque; Pierre Doray

    2009-01-01

    Cet article porte sur le volet éducatif de la production et de la reproduction de la main-d’œuvre hautement qualifiée par l’examen des processus en jeu au moment des retours aux études dans des programmes de formation technique et de génie. Nous nous intéressons en particulier à une situation emblématique des référentiels politiques récents en matière d’éducation, soit les retours aux études. Nous cherchons à mieux comprendre comment le retour aux études se réalise, comment les représentation...

  6. COMPLIANCE OF KÖHLER OP:33 NO I-II-III ETUDE BOOKS THAT ARE USED IN HIGH SCHOOLS OF FINE ARTS WITH FLUTE CONCERTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucan EKE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is done for attesting the compliance of the etudes in German composer Ernesto Köhler’s op:33 no I-II-III books that are used in high schools of fine arts, with ability to play the flute concertos in high schools of fine arts 12 grade program, in terms of the knowledge – skills and musical functions they cover and also for contributing to learning by matching the etudes and works which are relevant. Etudes and the chosen concertos are analyzed and separated into templates in terms of melody, rhythm and tone for this research. Opinions are taken from the flute lesson instructors of various universities of Turkey to define the melody, technique and rhythm patterns. As a result of the analysis, Köhler op: 33, Book I, Etudes: 2,3,6,7,8,9,10,11,12; Köhler op: 33, Book II, Etudes:1,3,4,5,8,9,10,11; Köhler op: 33, Book III, Etudes: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8; It is determined that the etudes given above in Köhler books are qualified enough to be preparative and instructive for the ability of playing the flute concertos. Some suggestions are given about which etude(s is instructive for which concerto and what kind of benefits could be gained, by this study. Based on the observed results, various suggestions are made about defining and studying the etudes which meet the technical, rhythmic and melodic features of the target concerto.

  7. Introduction aux études sur le genre. - 2e éd. revue et augm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Bereni; S. Chauvin; A. Jaunait; A. Revillard

    2012-01-01

    Pourquoi offre-t-on des poupées aux filles et des voitures aux garçons ? Pourquoi les femmes gagnent-elles moins que les hommes ? Comment expliquer qu’elles effectuent les deux tiers du travail domestique ? Pourquoi est-ce si mal vu pour un homme d’être efféminé ? Le pouvoir est-il intrinsèquement m

  8. Aux limites de la physique les paradoxes quantiques

    CERN Document Server

    Rothen, François

    2012-01-01

    Dans l’esprit des pères fondateurs de la science moderne, les phénomènes matériels se déroulent selon un schéma unique. La cause précède nécessairement l’effet, et la connaissance de l’effet permet de remonter à la cause. Sur la scène de la nature, le hasard n’occupe qu’une place congrue. On ne fait appel à lui que pour pallier notre ignorance. Dans les années 1920, la révolution quantique bouleverse ce cadre rigide. Elle accorde une place de choix au hasard, si malmené jusqu’alors, puis elle met en scène une constellation de phénomènes inexplicables aux yeux de la science dite classique. Après une courte introduction historique, l’auteur met ses lecteurs au contact de certains de ces phénomènes si contraires à l’intuition. Refusant l’aide du langage mathématique, il les convie à pénétrer dans un monde quantique qui déconcerte le novice avant de l’éblouir par sa nouveauté et sa cohérence. Un accent particulier est mis sur une application nouvelle de la physiqu...

  9. The atomic energy course of the 'Institut National des Sciences et Techniques nucleaires' at the centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay; L'enseignement de genie atomique de l'Institut national des Sciences et Techniques nucleaires au Centre d'Etudes nucleaires de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baissas, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    foreign students. 8- Annexe: list of courses, practical work, pile projects drawn up by the 1957 students. (author)Fren. [French] 1- Les raisons de sa creation. L'electricite de France et l'industrie interessee par le developpement de l'Energie atomique ont demande au Commissariat a l'Energie atomique de former des ingenieurs capables d'etudier des projets de piles et de diriger leur construction. 2- Recrutement et Droits d'inscription. Les demandes d'inscription ont toujours depasse les possibilites. Cette annee, les cours sont suivis par 74 eleves permanents, dont 20 etrangers, et une centaine d'auditeurs libres. Tous les elevont deja ingenieurs ou nantis de grades universitaires eleves. Droit d'inscription: 250 000 F pour les eleves, 125 000 F pour les auditeurs. 3- Organisation de l'Enseignement. II comprend deux options: physique et chimie et dans chaque option: une centaine de conferences, une trentaine de travaux pratiques, des stages dans les services, l'etude d'un projet de reacteur par un groupe de 4 ou 5 eleves. L'ensemble occupe l'annee universitaire du 1 novembre au 14 juillet. 4- Sanction. Un examen final combinant les notes de deux epreuves theoriques, des travaux pratiques, du stage, et du projet conduit a un diplome d'ingenieur en genie atomique. Il n'est pas cree en realite de nouveaux ingenieurs; une mention nouvelle est seulement ajoutee a un diplome deja acquis. Les resultats ont toujours ete excellents. Le pourcentage des echecs est tres faible. 5- Placement des Diplomes. Ils reviennent tous dans leurs industries d'origine qui ont paye leurs salaires et les droits d'inscription en se privant de leurs services pendant les neuf mois de duree des cours. 6- Creations analogues. Un cours analogue a ete cree au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble. Tandis que celui de SACLAY s'adresse plus specialement aux ingenieurs deja en fonctions, celui de Grenoble

  10. Study on the bound water of several high specific surface-area oxides (beryllia, alumina, silica-alumina); Etude de l'eau de constitution de plusieurs oxydes a grande surface specifique (glucine, alumine, silice-alumine)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouquerol, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-11-01

    This study is concerned with the bound water of several oxides (beryllia, alumina, silica-alumina) at different steps of their dehydration (heating temperatures between 150 and 1100 deg. C). The following techniques have been used simultaneously: Thermal analysis (a new method has been developed), nitrogen adsorption (study of the texture), Diborane hydrolysis (qualitative and quantitative analysis of surface water), Infra-red spectrography (in the absorption range of water), Nuclear magnetic resonance (in the resonance range of protons). Thanks to these different techniques, five kinds of bound water have been observed. Attention is called on the great influence of the thermal treatment conditions on the evolution of the products resulting from the decomposition of alumina {alpha}-trihydrate Al(OH){sub 3} and beryllium {alpha}-hydroxide, in the course of the dehydration. Moreover, the author emphasizes the peculiar properties of the two kinds of oxides (alumina and beryllia) prepared through a new method of treatment under low pressure and constant speed of decomposition. Such particular features concern mainly texture, bound water, and consequently, also catalytic activity. (author) [French] Ce travail porte sur l'eau de constitution de plusieurs oxydes (glucine, alumine, silice-alumine) aux differents degres de leur deshydratation (temperatures de traitement comprises entre 150 et 1100 deg. C). Cette etude met simultanement en oeuvre: l'analyse thermique (proposition d'une nouvelle methode), l'adsorption d'azote (etude de texture), l'hydrolyse du diborane (analyse qualitative et quantitative de l'eau de surface), la spectrographie infra-rouge (dans le domaine d'absorption de l'eau), la resonance magnetique nucleaire (dans le domaine de resonance des protons). A l'aide de ces differentes techniques, cinq formes d'eau de constitution ont ete observees. L'attention est attiree sur la tres grande influence

  11. Le transfert de connaissances entre les mathematiques et les sciences. Une etude exploratoire aupres d'eleves de 4e secondaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Ghislain

    2003-06-01

    'analyse qualitative et adaptee de la litterature (Thouin, 1995). Une seconde serie d'analyses permettant de categoriser les reponses selon la typologie des connaissances declaratives, procedurales et conditionnelles complete la prise de donnees. Nos resultats indiquent que les sujets sont tres influences par des elements de surface, principalement lorsqu'il s'agit de problemes auxquels ils ne sont pas habitues. En l'absence de connaissances de base, plusieurs sujets vont tendre vers des propositions de solution "pratico-pratique" provenant de leur vecu: cela nous apparait d'importance d'un point de vue didactique et en matiere de transfert. Lors des entretiens realises un mois plus tard, les sujets ont eprouve de la difficulte a se rappeler le contenu de l'epreuve. Et lorsqu'il y avait un rappel, celui-ci etait superficiel et surtout axe sur le contenu ou le contexte d'un probleme. La plupart des sujets ne pouvait nommer que deux ou trois elements (des problemes en mathematiques, en sciences physiques, le probleme de la fenetre, le probleme du laser, etc.). Nos resultats confirment ce que plusieurs chercheurs (Julo, 1995, Jonnaert et Vander Borght, 1999; Richard et al., 1990) qui s'interessent aux questions de l'apprentissage admettent aujourd'hui: l'eleve ne travaille jamais sur la situation proposee par l'enseignant, mais bien sur la representation qu'il s'en est construite. Au plan methodologique, cette recherche est interessante par la variete des sources de collecte de donnees utilisees, par l'application d'outils methodologiques et d'analyses originaux tires de la recherche et de la pratique. Du cote theorique, il resulte de cette etude une meilleure comprehension du processus de transfert des connaissances mathematiques vers les sciences physiques. Finalement, aux plans didactique et pedagogique, cette recherche alimente la reflexion sur l'apprentissage et l'enseignement des sciences au secondaire. Elle fait ressortir que les mathematiques sont importantes dans la mobilisation

  12. THE INVESTIGATION OF ETUDES AND PIECES USED IN BEGINNING FLUTE EDUCATION IN MUSIC TEACHER EDUCATION DEPARTMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    UYAN, Zeynep Deniz

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the investigation of the most common etudes-pieces used in the first year flute education from the angle of target and target behaviours was purposed. Interview, questionairre and literature review techniques were used to gather the information needed. Classifications were done, qualitative and quantitative tables were made and statistical frequencies-percentages were used. As a result of these studies, it was determined that there is not a common flute education programme in a...

  13. Équité socio-spatiale d’accès aux soins périnatals en milieu urbain : utilisation des techniques géographiques pour la planification sanitaire

    OpenAIRE

    Charreire, Hélène; Combier, Évelyne

    2009-01-01

    La ville, parce qu’elle concentre le potentiel humain et les services sur de faibles distances physiques, est souvent perçue comme le lieu où tout est accessible. Mais dans le domaine de la santé, proximité n’implique pas systématiquement accessibilité. D’autres formes de déterminants – sociaux, culturels– freinent le recours aux soins de la population. En santé périnatale, les difficultés d’accès aux soins peuvent se traduire par des retards de prise en charge de la grossesse (après le premi...

  14. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  15. Electrochemical study in molten potassium thiocyanate; Etude electrochimique dans le thiocyanate de potassium fondu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    {sup +} underline the oxidising properties of Cu{sup 2+}. A polarographic study of complexes in molten salts has shown the existence of two cupro-cyanic complexes having the formulae Cu(CN){sup -}{sub 2} and Cu(CN){sup 3-}{sub 4} of which the dissociation constants have been measured experimentally. (author) [French] Dans ce travail nous avons etudie les proprietes electrochimiques du thiocyanate de potassium fondu. Le point de fusion de ce sel est de l73 deg C, nous avons adopte comme temperature de travail 195 deg C. Le sel fondu est dissocie en ions K{sup +} et SCN{sup -}; les ions K{sup +} etant tres difficiles a reduire, ce sont les reactions d'oxido-reduction de l'anion SCN{sup -} qui limitent le domaine d'electroactivite du solvant. Nous avons montre que SCN{sup -} se comporte comme un compose d'addition de S{sup 0} et CN{sup -}; l'analyse des produits formes au cours de l'oxydation et de la reduction coulometrique du bain montre que les reactions electrochimiques qui limitent le domaine d'electroactivite du solvant sont les suivantes: SCN{sup -} + 2 e {yields} S{sup 2-} + CN{sup -} SCN{sup -} + 2 e {yields} S{down_arrow} + 1/2 (CN){sup -}{sub 2} Nous avons montre que l'on pouvait egalement realiser l'oxydation chimique du thiocyanate, en y introduisant un cation oxydant comme Fe{sup 3+} ou Cu{sup 2+}, Cette reaction conduit aux memes especes chimiques que l'oxydation electrochimique. Par rapport a l'electrode Ag{down_arrow} / Ag 0,1 M prise comme reference les limites d'electroactivite sont les suivantes: de - 1,050 V a + 0,750 V a une electrode de platine; de - 1,350 V a + 0,050 V a une electrode a gouttes de mercure. Nous avons etudie le comportement electrochimique d'un certain nombre d'ions dans le bain fondu; le trace des courbes intensite-potentiel nous a permis de determiner les potentiels de demi-vague de plusieurs cations: Pb{sup 2+}, Sn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+}{sub

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswari Paul

    Full Text Available Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa. Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309. Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa.

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  18. Ti1-xAux Alloys: Hard Biocompatible Metals and Their Possible Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M. Fevzi; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Morosan, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Furthermore, using materials for biomedical applications calls for alloys with high biocompatibility which are even more sparse. The Ti1-xAux (0 . 22 dental, and prosthetic applications, where they could be used as both permanent and temporary components. Additionally, the ability of Ti1-xAux alloys to adhere to ceramic parts could reduce the weight and cost of these components. The work at Rice was supported by NSF DMR 0847681 (E.M. and E.S.).

  19. Report of transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Fontenay aux Roses; Rapport transparence et securite nucleaire 2007 CEA Fontenay aux Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Fontenay aux roses for the year 2007. After many years of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations, the Center is now devoted (since 2005) to the development of research programmes on biology and biomedical technologies. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  20. Study of the artificial radioactivity of the marine medium using gamma spectrometry (1962-1966); Etude de la radioactivite artificielle du milieu marin par spectrometrie gamma (1962-1966)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesselet, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    atmospherique entre 1962 et 1964 et les incidences de cette retombee dans les eaux marines superficielles. Considerant les radioelements etudies comme des 'traceurs' dans le milieu marin, divers processus physiques, chimiques ou biologiques ont ete etudies par spectrometrie gamma a haute sensibilite. Le passage en phase soluble dans l'eau de mer d'une fraction importante (environ 50 pour cent) de l'activite liee aux poussieres radioactives, phenomene qui n'etait pas previsible pour les radioelements etudies, gouverne les processus d'accumulation dans la biomasse planctonique et la diffusion vers les eaux plus profondes. Par ailleurs, une methode de spectrometrie 'in situ' permettant de mesurer directement dans la mer de tres faibles concentrations en certains radionuclides emetteurs gamma est decrite. L'application de cette methode a permis de nombreuses observations dans les eaux de surface de la Mediterranee occidentale et du Golfe de Gascogne. On montre quo la profondeur de melange est etroitement liee a celle de la thermocline. Un processus d'accumulation au niveau de celle-ci est constate. Les coefficients de diffusion sont voisins du coefficient de diffusion thermique turbulente. L'existence de compartiments qui subsistent pendant plusieurs mois dans la masse des eaux de surface du Golfe de Gascogne est mise en evidence. Grace aux bilans effectues, une etude comparative montre que le taux de retombees radioactives sur les surfaces maritimes est toujours deux a trois fois superieur a celui sur les regions continentales voisines. Diverses explications de ce phenomene sont discutees. (auteur)

  1. Access Denied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  2. Study of the asymptotic expansion of multiple integrals in mathematical physics; Etudes sur les developpements asymptotiques des integrales multiples de la physique mathematique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chako, N. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    , provided one interprets in a proper manner the results derived from the two methods, especially the expression of the geometrical wave. (author) [French] Nous avons applique la methode de la phase stationnaire pour evaluer les integrales doubles et multiples du type: (A) U(k) = g(x)e{sup ik{phi}}{sup (x)} d(x), (x)=(x{sub 1},..., x{sub n}) pour les grandes valeurs du parametre k. Dans la premiere partie nous avons etendu d'une maniere rigoureuse la methode de la phase stationnaire aux integrales doubles et multiples de type (A). De plus, nous avons obtenu un developpement asymptotique de (A), lorsque l'amplitude et la phase peuvent se developper sous forme canonique au voisinage de points critiques ou stationnaires de l'integrale (A). Ce developpement contient comme cas particuliers tous les cas importants dans les applications physiques et particulierement en diffraction et diffusion d'ondes electromagnetiques et corpusculaires par des systemes optiques, corps diffractants et potentiels de diffusions. Dans la seconde partie nous avons considere le probleme de la convergence du developpement de la contribution principale a l'integrale, au sens asymptotique de Poincare. La preuve est basee sur la methode des majorantes, utilisee en analyse mathematique. La troisieme partie contient la derivation des series asymptotiques diverses, due aux types varies de points critiques ou stationnaires lies aux fonctions d'amplitude et de phase. Dans la quatrieme partie nous avons generalise la methode aux integrales multiples et au cas ou le parametre k entre implicitement dans la fonction de phase. Ce dernier type d'integrales permet l'extension du premier type a de nombreux problemes physiques, par exemple a la propagation d'ondes en milieux dispersifs et absorbants. Au dernier chapitre, nous faisons l'etude des integrales doubles de diffractions (theorie de Kirchhoff) et nous comparons les resultats par l'application de la methode

  3. Monitoring the performance of Aux. Feedwater Pump using Smart Sensing Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Young Gyu; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Many artificial intelligence (AI) techniques equipped with learning systems have recently been proposed to monitor sensors and components in NPPs. Therefore, the objective of this study is the development of an integrity evaluation method for safety critical components such as Aux. feedwater pump, high pressure safety injection (HPSI) pump, etc. using smart sensing models based on AI techniques. In this work, the smart sensing model is developed at first to predict the performance of Aux. feedwater pump by estimating flowrate using group method of data handing (GMDH) method. If the performance prediction is achieved by this feasibility study, the smart sensing model will be applied to development of the integrity evaluation method for safety critical components. Also, the proposed algorithm for the performance prediction is verified by comparison with the simulation data of the MARS code for station blackout (SBO) events. In this study, the smart sensing model for the prediction performance of Aux. feedwater pump has been developed. In order to develop the smart sensing model, the GMDH algorithm is employed. The GMDH algorithm is the way to find a function that can well express a dependent variable from independent variables. This method uses a data structure similar to that of multiple regression models. The proposed GMDH model can accurately predict the performance of Aux.

  4. The carrier AUXIN RESISTANT (AUX1) dominates auxin flux into Arabidopsis protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutschow, Heidi L; Baskin, Tobias I; Kramer, Eric M

    2014-11-01

    The ability of the plant hormone auxin to enter a cell is critical to auxin transport and signaling. Auxin can cross the cell membrane by diffusion or via auxin-specific influx carriers. There is little knowledge of the magnitudes of these fluxes in plants. Radiolabeled auxin uptake was measured in protoplasts isolated from roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. This was done for the wild-type, under treatments with additional unlabeled auxin to saturate the influx carriers, and for the influx carrier mutant auxin resistant 1 (aux1). We also used flow cytometry to quantify the relative abundance of cells expressing AUX1-YFP in the assayed population. At pH 5.7, the majority of auxin influx into protoplasts - 75% - was mediated by the influx carrier AUX1. An additional 20% was mediated by other saturable carriers. The diffusive influx of auxin was essentially negligible at pH 5.7. The influx of auxin mediated by AUX1, expressed as a membrane permeability, was 1.5 ± 0.3 μm s(-1) . This value is comparable in magnitude to estimates of efflux permeability. Thus, auxin-transporting tissues can sustain relatively high auxin efflux and yet not become depleted of auxin.

  5. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H; Jalili, Espanta; Roberto, Don Karl A; Moss, Britney L; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Crosby, William L

    2016-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development. PMID:27618443

  6. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H; Jalili, Espanta; Roberto, Don Karl A; Moss, Britney L; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Crosby, William L

    2016-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development.

  7. Study of secondary electronic emission in some piezo-electric materials: application to ultrasonic visualization; Etude de l'emission electronique secondaire de quelques materiaux piezoelectriques: application a la visualisation ultrasonore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Methods allowing the visualization of acoustic images appear at the moment to be of great interest in the field of non-destructive testing as well as in that of underwater detection. In order to carry out certain calculations on the operation of an ultrasonic camera, it has been necessary to study the secondary electron emission of some piezoelectric materials liable to be incorporated into the equipment. The secondary electron emission of insulators is a rather complex phenomenon; in order to find a rational explanation for the observations made, a theory has been developed for the energy spectrum of the emitted electrons. The experimental results of this work have then been used to build an ultrasonic visualization installation. Some examples of acoustic images which have been visualized are also presented. (author) [French] Les methodes qui permettent de visualiser des images acoustiques trouvent a l'heure actuelle un grand interet dans le domaine du controle non destructif comme dans celui de la detection sous-marine. De maniere a effectuer certains calculs sur le fonctionnement d'une camera ultrasons, il a ete necessaire d'etudier l'emission electronique secondaire de quelques materiaux piezoelectriques susceptibles d'etre utilises dans sa construction. L'emission electronique secondaire des isolants est un phenomene assez complexe et de maniere a trouver des explications coherentes aux observations effectuees, une theorie du spectre energetique des electrons emis a ete elaboree. Une installation de visualisation ultrasonore a alors ete realisee a partir des donnees experimentales de cette etude. Quelques exemples d'images acoustiques visualisees par cette methode sont egalement presentees. (auteur)

  8. Contribution to the study of the biological properties of compounds labeled with radio-chromium {sup 51}Cr; Contribution a l'etude des proprietes biologiques des composes marques au radiochrome {sup 51}Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingrand, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-15

    Among the radioisotopes commonly used in biology and medicine which are controlled Individually in the Radioelement Departement of the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre before being sent to the users, the author has chosen chromium 51 incorporated in inorganic salts or in organic substrates for a study of the biological properties of the compounds. In the first part, he has compared the pathways followed by the radioactive sodium chromate and chromic chloride mixed with blood or given to the whole animal, the object being to determine whether a reduction of hexavalent chromium occurs, both in vitro and in vivo. In the second part, the author has tried to show the validity of using, various substrates labeled with chromium 51, red cells, haemoglobin, plasma proteins and cytochrome c. The results obtained have contributed to underline the interest of using such compounds for biological applications. (author) [French] Parmi les radioisotopes d'utilisation courants en biologie et en medecine qui sont l'objet d'un controle particulier dans le Departement des Radioelements du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay avant leur diffusion aux utilisateurs, l'auteur a choisi le chrome 51 incorpore a des sels mineraux ou a des substrats organiques, afin d'en etudier les proprietes biologiques. Dans la premiere partie, il a compare le sort du chromate de sodium et du chlorure chromique radioactifs melanges a du sang ou administres a l'animal entier en s'efforcant de mettre en evidence une reduction du chrome hexavalent aussi bien in vitro qu'in vivo. Dans la deuxieme partie, il a cherche a etablir la validite de l'emploi de differents substrats marques au chrome 51, l'hematie, l'hemoglobine, les proteines plasmatiques et le cytochrome c. Les resultats obtenus ont permis de souligner le reel interet des applications biologiques des composes marques par le radioisotope. (auteur)

  9. Penser aux/les limites de nos limites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lévy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Le mot « frontière » a beaucoup de succès, dans son sens propre mais plus encore comme métaphore d’une multitude de réalités qui ont à voir avec les limites, c’est-à-dire avec notre propension à découper le monde en objets séparables. Mais on constate une grande indétermination entre concept et métaphore et un usage trop facile de mélanges entre ceux-ci. Il faut donc d’abord admettre que la matérialité n’est qu’une des composantes de notre monde, mais que l’immatériel n’est pas l’irréel, le simulé ou le métaphorique. Après un détour par une théorie des limites et ses limites et une distinction entre le topographique (continu et le topologique (discontinu appliquée à l’intérieur et aux limites d’une aire, deux exemples sont développés qui visent à montrer que, si l’on trouve des frontières, ce n’est pas forcément là où on les attend et que l’appréciation juste de la place des frontières suppose la prise en compte de bien d’autres considérations que la seule limitation volontaire et brutale du franchissement d’une ligne imaginaire tracée au sol.Think about limits and the limits of our limitsThe word “boundary” has been very successful in its literal sense but even more so as a metaphor of a multitude of realities involving limits, that is, with regards to our tendency to divide the world into separable objects. However, one can observe a considerable uncertainty between the concept and the metaphor and an utilisation too easy of various mixtures of them. It becomes necessary therefore to first admit that materiality is only one of the components of our world whilst the immaterial is not unreal, simulated or metaphoric. After a detour consisting of examining a theory of limits and its limits and making the distinction between the topographic (continuous and the topologic (discontinuous applied to the interior and the limits of an area, two examples are developed which aim to

  10. Bio-metric study of pig karyotype; Etude biometrique du caryotype du porc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, J.; Lacourly, N.; Nizza, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This study has a twofold purpose, the former is to determine the swine karyotype as accurately as possible, the latter is to try and develop a method of automatic classification and to show its possibilities and limits. (authors) [French] Cette etude a un double objet: d'une part, de definir de la facon aussi precise que possible le caryotype du porc et d'autre part, de tenter une methode de classification automatique et d'en montrer les possibilites ainsi que les limites. (auteurs)

  11. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  12. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  13. Hemodialysis access - self care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  14. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  15. Application of real-time RT-PCR quantification to evaluate differential expres sion of Arabidopsis Aux/IAAgenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The molecular techniques including Northern blot, dot blot, in situ hybridization, etc. have been success fully used to estimate semi-quantitatively mRNA levels in plant samples. In this study, we employed a real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay using SYBR Green Ifluorescence methodology to evaluate accurate quant itation and sequence specific detection of Aux/IAA mRNA levels in Arabidopsis. Results obtained indicate a linear dynamic range of 102-106 Aux/IAA mRNA copies with standard de viations of generally less than 15%. As a model experiment,the outcome of analysis of expression patterns of five Aux/IAA genes in Arabidopsis under various chemical and temperature treatments is presented. The method presented here provides a sensitive and rapid technique to evaluate plant Aux/IAA mRNA expression levels in nanogram order.

  16. Le Carnaval de Schignano : un dernier salut aux émigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Del Biaggio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pour arriver à Schignano, il faut passer par una cürva al giazz e una cürva al suu [Un virage dans la glace et un virage au soleil], comme disent les mots en dialecte d’une récente chanson écrite par Davide Van De Sfroos, compositeur-interprète de la région. C’est dans ce petit hameau de la Vallée d’Intelvi, au-dessus du Lac de Côme, que, tous les ans, le carnaval anime le village. Une fête populaire spontanée, sans règles écrites, ni lois, qui survit grâce aux habitants qui l’animent, aux ar...

  17. Disruptions in AUX1-Dependent Auxin Influx Alter Hypocotyl Phototropism in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bethany B.Stone; Emily L.Stowe-Evans; Reneé M.Harper; R.Brandon Celaya; Karin Ljung; G(o)ran Sandberg; Emmanuel Liscum

    2008-01-01

    Phototropism represents a differential growth response by which plant organs can respond adaptively to changes in the direction of incident light to optimize leaf/stem positioning for photosynthetic light capture and root growth orientation for water/nutrient acquisition. Studies over the past few years have identified a number of components in the signaling pathway(s) leading to development of phototropic curvatures in hypocotyls. These include the phototropin photoreceptors (phot1 and phot2) that perceive directional blue-light (BL) cues and then stimulate signaling,leading to relocalization of the plant hormone auxin, as well as the auxin response factor NPH4/ARF7 that responds to changes in local auxin concentrations to directly mediate expression of genes likely encoding proteins necessary for development of phototropic curvatures. While null mutations in NPH4/ARF7 condition an aphototropic response to unidirectional BL, seedlings carrying the same mutations recover BL-dependent phototropic responsiveness if coirradiated with red light (RL) or pre-treated with either ethylene. In the present study, we identify second-site enhancer mutations in the nph4 background that abrogate these recovery responses. One of these mutations-map1 ((m)odifier of (a)rf7 (p)henotypes (1))-was found to represent a missense allele of AUX1-a gene encoding a high-affinity auxin influx carrier previously associated with a number of root responses. Pharmocological studies and analyses of additional aux1 mutants confirmed that AUX1 functions as a modulator of hypocotyl phototropism. Moreover, we have found that the strength of dependence of hypocotyl phototropism on AUX1-mediated auxin influx is directly related to the auxin responsiveness of the seedling in question.

  18. Report of transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Fontenay aux Roses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Fontenay aux roses for the year 2007. After many years of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations, the Center is now devoted (since 2005) to the development of research programmes on biology and biomedical technologies. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  19. T0002 / MilliNewton / Erreurs dues à l'orientation et aux forces latérales

    OpenAIRE

    Maeder, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Le capteur de force MilliNewton est sensible aux forces latérales, dans le sens longitudinal à la poutre. Le degré de sensibilité du capteur à ces forces dépend essentiellement de la taille de la bille et de la longueur de la poutre. En revanche, la sensibilité aux forces latérales perpendiculaires à la poutre est très faible.

  20. Compatibility problems of canning materials with carbon dioxide at high temperatures; Problemes de comptabilite des materiaux de gainage avec le gaz carbonique aux temperatures elevees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, R.; Loriers, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    comparativement les moins oxydables. Au dessus de 600 C, les nuances stabilisees au niobium, sans addition de molybdene, s'averent les plus recommandables. A partir de 700 C, la nuance 20 Cr - 25 Ni + Nb semble meme s'imposer par rapport a la nuance classique 18 Cr - 10 Ni + Nb, surtout en raison d'une tendance moins accentuee aux penetrations locales d'oxyde. Par ailleurs, l'alliage fer-aluminium a 25 pour cent d'aluminium en poids, presente une resistance a l'oxydation remarquable, tout en permettant une economie appreciable de neutrons, mais sa mise en oeuvre technologique reste delicate. Enfin, des etudes recentes ont permis d'etablir que certains alliages a base de zirconium, renfermant 1 a 4 pour cent de cuivre en poids, pourraient constituer une solution valable jusqu'a des temperatures de l'ordre de 600 C. Ces alliages s'oxydent en effet beaucoup moins rapidement que le zirconium non allie et d'autres alliages classiques, qui avaient ete elimines precedemment pour cette raison. Finalement, parmi les materiaux capables de supporter les conditions physicochimiques auxquelles seraient soumises les gaines d'elements combustibles dans les reacteurs a moyenne temperature, les plus susceptibles d'application immediate seraient les aciers inoxydables austenitiques et les alliages zirconium-cuivre, dont la metallurgie est relativement bien connue. Dans le futur, l'interet pratique des alliages de beryllium et des alliages fer-aluminium devrait croitre, compte tenu des etudes poursuivies en vue de l'amelioration de leurs proprietes mecaniques et de leur mise en oeuvre. (auteurs)

  1. The reactions of magnesium and its alloys with moist gases at high temperatures; Les reactions du magnesium et de ses alliages avec les gaz humides aux temperatures elevees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-02-15

    presence sont moins oxydantes. De plus, un changement important d'energie d'activation du processus d'oxydation se produit systematiquement, mais aussi a une temperature variable suivant l'atmosphere consideree. Cependant, dans le cas des alliages, la cinetique d'oxydation lineaire classique est generalement precedee de courtes periodes d'induction, a caractere parabolique. On a ensuite mis en evidence et interprete deux possibilites d'inhibition de ia corrosion du magnesium par la vapeur d'eau: soit a la suite d'une fluoration superficielle partielle, soit lorsque le gaz porteur est l'anhydride carbonique. D'autre part, les conditions extremes de l'oxydation, c'est-a-dire les phenomenes d'inflammation qui surviennent a une temperature bien determinee dans chaque atmosphere, ont fait l'objet d'une etude particuliere. Enfin, on s'est efforce de degager la portee de l'ensemble de ces resultats aux deux points de vue fondamental et pratique. (auteur)

  2. Etude thermo-aeraulique d'une piscine interieure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerfala, Nasreddine

    Les grands espaces fermés (amphithéâtres, supermarchés, gymnases et piscines) jouent un rôle essentiel dans l'économie et la société canadienne mais n'assurent pas nécessairement le confort thermique et la bonne qualité de l'air intérieur. En outre, leur consommation énergétique demeure très élevée. Plus spécifiquement, les piscines intérieures présentent certaines particularités telles qu'une humidité relative élevée, une température contrôlée de l'eau et une condensation possible sur les parois ce qui rend la tâche d'assurer le confort des baigneurs encore plus difficile. Rares sont les études réalisées pour ce type de bâtiment malgré l'existence de pistes d'optimisation de la consommation énergétique et l'amélioration de la qualité d'air intérieur. Dans cette optique, ce mémoire présente une étude thermo-aéraulique réalisée sur la piscine intérieure de l'Université Bishop's (Sherbrooke, Canada). La simulation numérique a été effectuée en utilisant le logiciel TRNSYS. L'approche adoptée pour la modélisation est la méthode zonale qui découpe l'espace de travail étudié en plusieurs zones fictives tout en calculant les caractéristiques thermo-aérauliques (température, pression, nombre de changement d'air par heure). D'autre part, une validation expérimentale en situations réelles est mise en œuvre au sein de cette piscine moyennant un dispositif expérimental spécifique. Ce dernier a été conçu spécialement pour s'adapter aux caractéristiques du milieu (hauteur du bâtiment, présence de l'eau et forte humidité) afin de mesurer la température, la pression et la vitesse de l'air dans plusieurs endroits significatifs de la piscine. Cette étude développe un outil de calcul capable de prédire les températures de différentes zones thermiques et des surfaces de l'enveloppe du bâtiment d'une part et de calculer le débit massique de l'air entre les zones ainsi que le nombre de changement d'air par

  3. Pharmacological study of radioactive-gold colloid transport by blood and by serous exudate; Contribution a l'etude pharmacologique du transport des colloides d'or radioactif par le sang et les exsudats sereux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousselet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    substances et particulierement dans le transport de l'or colloidal radioactif. Les fractions sanguines qui peuvent participer au transport de l'or colloidal sont les hematies, les leucocytes et elements histiocytaires, et le plasma. La repartition de la radioactivite dans ces elements est precisee en pratiquant des autoradiographies de coupes de culots de sang centrifuge et congele apres incubation avec de l'or colloidal. Cette etude montre l'importance du plasma dans le transport des particules radioactives. Nous avons alors recherche une fixation eventuelle de l'or colloidal 198 sur les diverses proteines seriques en appliquant certaines methodes de separation a savoir une filtration-exclusion sur colonne de gel de Sephadex G-200 et un fractionnement electrophoretique sur papier et sur acetate de cellulose gelatineux (cellogel). Nous avons etudie la liaison ''in vitro'' et ''in vivo'' des particules colloidales d'or 198 d'abord avec les proteines seriques de sujets sains puis avec les proteines des liquides d'epanchement d'origine pathologique, chez l'homme, ou du a une inflammation experimentale a la carragenine chez le rat. Les particules d'or colloidal 198 de 30 m{mu} (S-2) sont liees dans une certaine mesure aux {alpha}2 globulines sanguines ou ascitiques, celles de 5 m{mu} (S-6) sont liees aux {alpha}1 globulines de meme que les grains contenus dans l'or polydisperse. Cette liaison semble intervenir grace a la couche protectrice de macromolecules constituees par la gelatine. Seules les caracteristiques physicochimiques de grains colloidaux peuvent expliquer leur difference de localisation sur l'electrophoregramme. L'or sous forme ionique, par contre, est combine, aux seules albumines si la quantite de metal presente ne depasse pas une certaine limite. (auteur)

  4. Le projet Petits Films : du retour aux participants à la valorisation des données

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccoli Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2014, au sein du laboratoire ICAR (équipe InSitu / Cellule Corpus Complexe un projet appelé “Petits Films” a été conduit avec une double finalité : confectionner des petits films à partir de trois différents corpus et parallèlement mener une réflexion sur les modalités de réalisation, les finalités et les contraintes de ce type de réalisation. On considère que dans le domaine de l’analyse conversationnelle, dans lequel les chercheurs recourent de plus en plus à des corpus de données vidéo, la réalisation d’un petit film peut représenter non seulement un retour pour les participants, mais aussi un moyen de valorisation du corpus, d’un type d’approche en linguistique et plus largement de l’activité du laboratoire de recherche. Grâce à leur forme agréable et à leur courte durée, les petits films sont conçus pour la diffusion et la valorisation des méthodologies et des recherches, ils sont accessibles pour un large public, même de non-experts. Cependant, il est nécessaire de réfléchir aux questions juridiques et déontologiques que soulève cette opération.

  5. Hemodialysis access procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic-dialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-dialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency-dialysis access; Chronic kidney failure-dialysis access; Chronic renal failure-dialysis access

  6. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission.

  7. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission. PMID:25982744

  8. Efficience de la gestion du risque handicap : une typologie des prestations servies aux personnes handicapées

    OpenAIRE

    Cros-Courtial, Marie-Louise; Boureille, Bernard; Perrin, Jannick; Vennin, Françoise; Vericel, Marc

    1993-01-01

    Rapport de recherche intermédiaire sur l'évaluation du coût de la gestion du handicap réalisé à la demande du Centre National d'Etudes Supérieures de la Sécurité Sociale. Il s'agissait de recenser l'ensemble des avantages directs et indirects dont bénéficient les handicapés en matière de protection sociale et de chiffrer le coût global de ces avantages pour la collectivité en précisant les flux financiers auxquels ils donnent lieu.

  9. Chemical composition and geologic history of saline waters in Aux Vases and Cypress Formations, Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Seyler, B.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-six samples of formation waters were collected from oil wells producing from the Aux Vases or Cypress Formations in the Illinois Basin. Forty core samples of the reservoir rocks were also collected from the two formations. Analyses of the samples indicated that the total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the waters ranged from 43,300 to 151,400 mg/L, far exceeding the 35,400 mg/mL of TDS found in typical seawater. Cl-Br relations suggested that high salinities in the Aux Vases and Cypress formation waters resulted from the evaporation of original seawater and subsequent mixing of the evaporated seawater with concentrated halite solutions. Mixing with the halite solutions increased Na and Cl concentrations and diluted the concentration of other ions in the formation waters. The elemental concentrations were influenced further by diagenetic reactions with silicate and carbonate minerals. Diagenetic signatures revealed by fluid chemistry and rock mineralogy delineated the water-rock interactions that took place in the Aux Vases and Cypress sandstones. Dissolution of K-feldspar released K into the solution, leading to the formation of authigenic illite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Some Mg was removed from the solution by the formation of authigenic chlorite and dolomite. Dolomitization, calcite recrystallization, and contribution from clay minerals raised Sr levels significantly in the formation waters. The trend of increasing TDS of the saline formation waters with depth can be explained with density stratification. But, it is difficult to explain the combination of the increasing TDS and increasing Ca/Na ratio with depth without invoking the controversial 'ion filtration' mechanism.

  10. DES ACCENTS ÉTRANGERS AUX ABORDS DE L’UTOPIE BROSSARDIENNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Boulanger

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse l’analogie entre une langue sexiste et une langue étrangère, et démontre comment cette comparaison met en jeu des dimensions identitaires qui seront progressivement refoulées aux frontières de l’utopie féministe imaginée par Nicole Brossard. Cette étude met en relief certains problèmes d’exclusion reliés à la disparition symbolique de l’accent, tels que l’effacement de l’identité juive dans le roman Picture theory.

  11. La conquête de l’Algérie racontée aux enfants

    OpenAIRE

    Guillemette Tison

    2012-01-01

    L’histoire de la conquête de l’Algérie est racontée aux enfants aussi bien dans les manuels que dans les romans. Cet article propose d’examiner comment les années 1827 à 1847 sont restituées dans les ouvrages scolaires et non scolaires, par l’utilisation d’anecdotes récurrentes, par la mise en scène de figures de héros ou de collectivités.

  12. François-Ronan DUBOIS (2014), Introduction aux Porn Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Loubradou, Esther

    2015-01-01

    « La pornographie est un exemple typique de ces objets culturels dont le discours public s’empare volontiers sans jamais en produire une connaissance un tant soit peu détaillée » (p. 7). Cette connaissance partielle est pourtant regrettable et par rapport aux débats virulents entre discours anti-pornographiques et discours pro-sexe, la nécessité d’une posture compétente et objective sans perspective de condamnation ou de défense sur la pornographie se fait sentir. François-Ronan Dubois propos...

  13. Dialogisme et interdiscours : des discours coloniaux aux discours du développement

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, Françoise

    2007-01-01

    Cet article explore l’articulation des notions de dialogisme et d’interdiscours à partir de l’analyse des reformulations repérables dans le passage des discours coloniaux aux discours du développement. L’analyse d’un corpus authentique de la formation discursive du développement permet de mettre en évidence différents niveaux de négociation avec l’hétérogénéité discursive auxquels l’énonciateur est soumis dans les nominations de l’autre. Les discours du développement interagissent dialogiquem...

  14. Conference - Découvrez notre région - Aux bornes de Genève

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      Les premières bornes-frontière sont posées en 1816 aux confins du royaume de Sardaigne, d’autres feront leur apparition dès 1818 du côté du royaume de France. Deux cents ans plus tard, on retrouve toujours ces pierres, témoins de la naissance du canton et patrimoine partagé des communes genevoises, gessiennes et savoisiennes qui font notre région.  

  15. Protection sociale et démocratie aux États-Unis

    OpenAIRE

    Ndiaye, Pap

    2000-01-01

    L'assurance et l'assistance sociale firent longtemps l'objet d'un consensus large dans la classe politique et la population américaines, particulièrement notable entre la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale et le début des années 1970, en apparaissant comme des piliers d'une démocratie moderne, capable de répondre aux défis posés par l'essor du grand capitalisme industriel. [Premier paragraphe de l'article

  16. Le capital-risque aux Etats-Unis dans les technologies de l'information

    OpenAIRE

    Patrice Boivin

    1999-01-01

    Aux États-Unis, les années 1990 consacrent la montée en puissance des fonds de capital-risque comme sources de financement pour les entreprises spécialisées dans les technologies de l'information. Plus précisément, les secteurs des logiciels et des communications reçoivent les montants les plus importants, en raison de leur potentiel de croissance lié au développement exponentiel d'Internet (accroissement des besoins de communication des entreprises et développement du commerce électronique)....

  17. Evaluation of the radiology state at the CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses and its environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1946 the nuclear installations followed one other at the CEA of Fontenay-aux-Roses still their gradual stop the last ten years, except two installations INB34 and INB73, necessary for the wastes management. Today these installations form the subject of a drainage program. The public opinion is regularly informed on this program since 1999. This document presents the stock of the actions realized since this date: the track keeping of the sites activities impacts on the environment and the actions realized since 1999. (A.L.B.)

  18. Est-on aux pizzas comme on est aux casseroles ? Sur les emplois métonymiques des syntagmes prépositionnels en à avec un nom d’objet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Patricia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail aborde les emplois spatiaux du type être à + article défini + nom d’objet (par exemple, être aux surgelés, aux casseroles, aux costumes, aux pizzas. De tels emplois sont compris, dans les ouvrages de spécialité comme des relations de localisation interprétables selon les connaissances partagées aussi bien sur le contexte d’énonciation que sur l’univers environnant. Sur la base de ce savoir lié aux routines établies, le repérage induit par la préposition à déclenche des inférences sur les interactions entre l’entité à situer et l’objet de référence. Notre parcours des descriptions existantes (Vandeloise 1988, Borillo 2001, Aurnague 2009, Corblin 2010 est suivi d’une réflexion, inspirée des principes de base de la sémantique cognitive (Langacker 1987, sur la nature de ces connexions. Ainsi, notre analyse prend en compte la corrélation entre objets et actions dans les rapports expérientiels entre l’être humain et son environnement : les lexèmes renvoyant aux entités dénotées offrent des clés d’accès à des routines et des synthèses d’expérience (Janet 1935, Brown 1965, Cadiot et Nemo 1997b. Ces scénarios, organisés en cadres d’interactions typiques (Fillmore 1982, fournissent un fond de connaissances permettant des connexions métonymiques par proximité conceptuelle selon des Modèles Cognitifs Idéalisés (Lakoff 1987, Radden & Kövecses 1999. Notre réflexion théorique est étayée par des occurrences attestées qui permettent de mieux saisir le rôle du contexte et des critères pragmatiques dans l’interprétation des formulations. En effet, sur la base d’une analyse contextuelle d’usages effectifs sur support électronique (Google France octobre 2011, nous présentons une ébauche de classement de ces emplois particuliers. La taxinomie proposée, qui ne se veut nullement définitive, conçoit les formulations en à avec des noms d’objet comme donnant un accès mental

  19. La sensibilisation aux valeurs liées à l’eau et à la bonne gouvernance

    OpenAIRE

    Smets, Henri

    2008-01-01

    Pour les économistes ‘traditionnels”, l’eau est une matière première indispensable à la vie humaine de la même manière que l’essence est indispensable aux moteurs des voitures et l’électricité aux ordinateurs. Aussi conviendrait-il, selon eux de traiter l’eau comme les autres marchandises et de la soumettre aux lois du marché afin d’en optimiser la gestion. Les difficultés concernant son approvisionnement et sa répartition entre les usagers seront automatiquement résolues par le mécanisme des...

  20. Les représentations sociales du travail dans des parcours de retour aux études aux niveaux collégial et universitaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Julie Bourque

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur le volet éducatif de la production et de la reproduction de la main-d’œuvre hautement qualifiée par l’examen des processus en jeu au moment des retours aux études dans des programmes de formation technique et de génie. Nous nous intéressons en particulier à une situation emblématique des référentiels politiques récents en matière d’éducation, soit les retours aux études. Nous cherchons à mieux comprendre comment le retour aux études se réalise, comment les représentations professionnelles agissent sur ce dernier et comment l’expérience scolaire influence les projets des individus. Notre analyse met l’accent sur les ressorts sociaux et culturels des décisions relatives au choix de programmes et à l’orientation professionnelle d’étudiants qui ont interrompu leurs études et qui y retournent. Nous explorons le discours d’étudiants et d’étudiantes qui ont choisi de profiter de la souplesse du système d’éducation québécois pour compléter ou bonifier leur formation initiale ou encore pour tenter une réorientation professionnelle. En particulier, nous désirons savoir comment les différentes formes d’articulation entre éducation et travail influencent les représentations sociales des étudiants au sujet des titres scolaires, de l’évolution de leur carrière scolaire et de leur projet professionnel personnel.This paper deals with the educational aspect of the production and reproduction of highly qualified manpower through examining the processes at play when people return to school by enrolling in technical or engineering training programs. Our interest is focussed specifically on returning to school as an emblematic situation in recent educational policy frameworks. We are trying to better understand how school return is done, how professional representations act upon it and how previous school experience influences individual projects. Our analysis focuses on the

  1. Identification and expression analysis of primary auxin-responsive Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Defang Gan; Dan Zhuang; Fei Ding; Zhenzhou Yu; Yang Zhao

    2013-12-01

    Aux/IAA is an important gene family involved in many aspects of growth and development. Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins that are induced primarily by various phytohormones. In this study, 29 Aux/IAA family genes (CsIAA01–CsIAA29) were identified and characterized in cucumber, including gene structures, phylogenetic relationships, conserved protein motifs and chromosomal locations. These genes show distinct organizational patterns of their putative motifs. The distributions of the genes vary: except for five CsIAA genes in cucumber that were not located, seven CsIAA genes were found on scaffold, while the other 17 CsIAA genes were distributed on seven other chromosomes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA protein sequences from cucumber, Arabidopsis and other plants, the Aux/IAA genes in cucumber were categorized into seven subfamilies. To investigate whether the expression of CsIAA genes is associated with auxin induction, their transcript levels were monitored in seedlings treated with IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), and their expression patterns were analysed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that 11/29 CsIAA genes were expressed in leaves whether treated with IAA or not and the time course of processing and compared with the control, five CsIAA genes showed low expression only after 60 min treatment with IAA, while 11 genes showed no expression. These results provide useful information for further functional analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber.

  2. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité). Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité) FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236 safety.training@cern.ch

  3. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité). Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité) FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236 sa...

  4. Edgar Morin, aux risques d'une pensée libre

    CERN Document Server

    Pena Vega, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    8 juillet 2011 ; Edgar Morin fête ses 90 ans et 60 ans passés au sein du CNRS. Une occasion unique pour l'équipe d'Hermès et Dominique Wolton, d'analyser et de critiquer la pensée de ce grand intellectuel. Aspiration à la liberté, attention à la complexité du monde et une profonde originalité épistémologique, Edgar Morin a bouleversé aussi bien la philosophie, la politique que la physique ou les mathématiques. Avec un souci constant : faire communiquer et interagir toutes les sciences pour relever le défi de la compréhension. Plus qu'un simple hommage, ce numéro questionne l'œuvre d'Edgar Morin au filtre de la communication, dévoilant les mécaniques de cette vision du monde profondément originale, échappant aux cloisonnements et aux certitudes académiques, portée par un projet central, celui d'une réforme des connaissances. Suivant les cheminements intellectuels et politiques de ce chercheur itinérant et passionné à travers l'Europe, l'Est, l'Amérique latine ou les États-Unis, ce...

  5. Study of current instabilities in high resistivity gallium arsenide; Etude des instabilites de courant dans l'arseniure de gallium de haute resistivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraud, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    'arseniure de gallium de haute resistivite. Nous montrons que ces oscillations sont associees a la progression lente d'un domaine de fort champ electrique a travers tout l'echantillon. L'etude experimentale des proprietes de ces instabilites nous a permis de differencier ce phenomene de l'effet Gunn, des effets acoustoelectriques et des effets de contacts. Nous proposons pour rendre compte de ce type d'instabilites un mecanisme de piegeage differentiel sur des impuretes repulsives, capable de depeupler la bande de conduction a champ electrique eleve et de donner naissance a un domaine de champ intense. Le developpement qualitatif de ce modele nous permet de rendre compte de toutes les proprietes des cristaux d'arseniure de gallium de haute resistivite soumis a un champ electrique eleve: augmentation de la constante de Hall, existence d'un seuil de tension pour ces oscillations, formation de domaines de champ intense, lenteur de la propagation de ces domaines, enfin possibilite de renverser le sens de la propagation du domaine sans detruire celui-ci. Le developpement quantitatif du modele permet de calculer les differentes grandeurs caracteristiques de ces instabilites. La comparaison avec l'experience montre une bonne concordance, les legeres divergences provenant surtout de la meconnaissance actuelle des proprietes de transport dans l'arseniure de gallium aux champs electriques eleves. A la lumiere de ce modele, il apparait que le phenomene d'instabilite etudie peut se produire pour une gamme etendue de concentrations en centres repulsifs, et pour toute une gamme de resistivites. Ceci explique qu'il apparaisse systematiquement dans l'arseniure de gallium de moyenne et haute resistivite. (auteurs)

  6. Etude de la Production des Mesons d* Sur le PIC de Resonance du Boson Z Observes AU Lep avec le Detecteur Opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przysiezniak, Helenka

    L'etude de la production des mesons D* est effectuee a partir d'evenements multihadroniques rm Z^0to q| q, avec des donnees prises en 1990, 1991 et 1992 avec le detecteur OPAL au LEP. La notation q definit les quarks des cinq saveurs pouvant etre observees au LEP: up (u), down (d), strange (s), charme (c), beaute (b). Les D* et les correlations D*-leptons sont identifiees et ces dernieres servent a effecteur une separation claire entre les evenements rm Z^0to b| b et Z^0to c| c. On mesure la distribution de la variable de fragmentation x_{rm D^ *}=E_{rm D^*}/E _{rm faisceau} pour les D* produits dans les evenements rm Z^0 to c| c. Elle est notee f _{rm cto D^*}. Ce resultat est a la base d'une publication OPAL (1), avec trois autres methodes de separation etudiees en parallele, donnat la premiere mesure OPAL de f _{rm cto D^*} qui soit independante de toute modelisation de la fragmentation des quarks lourds, ainsi qu'une mesure de Gamma_{rm c| c} parmi les plus precises effectuees a ce jour, ou Gamma_{rm c| c} est la largeur partielle de la desintegration du Z^0 en une paire cc. En ce qui concerne les resultats obtenus dans le cadre de cette these, la valeur moyenne de la distribution f_ {rm cto D^*}, notee cto D^*}>, est donnee par:cto D^*}>=0.530+/-0.027 +/-0.022ou la premiere erreur est statistique, et la seconde est systematique. On mesure aussi le taux de production des mesons D*, donnee par: {Gamma({rm Z^0to D^ *}X)overGamma_{rm hadrons}}=0.207+/-0.007+/-0.017 ou Gamma_{rm hadrons } est la largeur totale de la desintegration du Z^0 en paires de qq des cinq saveurs. La separation entre evenements rm Z^0to b| b et Z^0 to c| c, dans lesquels sont produits des D* se desintegrant selon rm D^ *to D^0pito (Kpi)pi, nous donne:(DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI)La variable de fragmentation x_ {rm cto D^*} est utilisee pour tester les modeles des processes perturbatifs et non-perturbatifs qui entrent en jeu lors de la fragmentation des quarks b et c

  7. Transition des soins curatifs aux soins palliatifs dans un contexte de soins intensifs dans le cadre des soins infirmiers

    OpenAIRE

    Grzywack, Maurine; Meyer, Margaux; Ventimiglia, Valérie; Charmillot, Pierre-Alain

    2016-01-01

    Buts : Le travail de Bachelor, comprenant une revue de littérature et d’articles probants, comporte les objectifs suivants : 1) Mettre en évidence les différentes perceptions infirmières liées à la mort dans le contexte de soins intensifs par rapport aux soins palliatifs. 2) Relever les difficultés, obstacles, rencontrés par les professionnels de la discipline infirmière dans un milieu très aigu concernant la transition des soins curatifs aux soins palliatifs. 3) Mettre en lumière les interve...

  8. Particularités du discours dans le roman du conflit arabo-sioniste. Etude analytique

    OpenAIRE

    Charchar, Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    Cette recherche porte sur deux niveaux ; le premier de nature théorique, a pour but de présenter une approche sur la théorie du texte et le discours narratif, puis elle s’élargit à la lecture des méthodes d’analyse du discours à la lumière des études modernes. Le deuxième niveau de nature critique et analytique, cherche à répondre aux problématiques se rapportant aux concepts suivants : Concept de discours littéraire. Concept de texte et les problèmes de la critique littéraire contemporaine. ...

  9. Education relative a l'environnement (ERE): Une etude des representations sociales et des pratiques educatives d'enseignants de science et technologie du secondaire en contexte de formation continue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard-Fortin, Ugo

    Le developpement des sciences/technologie a tres clairement contribue a ce que ce dernier domaine de savoirs jouisse d'une place de choix au sein de notre societe. Au-dela des progres de notre civilisation inherents a ce dernier developpement, cette croissance amena avec elle un lot d'ineluctables dommages collateraux, contribuant en corollaire a l'emergence de diverses problematiques environnementales inquietantes pour lesquelles les valeurs ainsi que le mode de fonctionnement de la societe occidentale contemporaine sont largement tributaires. C'est entre autres en reponse a cet etat de fait que la recente vague de reforme de l'Education conduisit a l'integration, dans les curricula de sciences/technologie, de contenus relavant d'education relative a l'environnement (ERE). Face au changement, les enseignants de sciences ont du s'approprier ce nouveau programme afm de l'enseigner a leurs eleves. Toutefois, l'analyse de la situation montre que les prescriptions du programme en matiere d'ERE ne se sont pas toujours traduites en de reelles actions dans la pratique. Le contexte de notre etude s'est interesse aux pratiques educatives de l'ERE ainsi qu'a la representation sociale qui en decoule. Notre recherche aborde plus specifiquement la problematique de la modification de ces derniers objets chez les enseignants de sciences et technologie du deuxieme cycle du secondaire. Pour y arriver, nous avons propose a un groupe de trois praticiens de participer a une activite, en communaute de pratique, de formation continue orientee autour de thematiques ERE. Cette recherche developpement, s'inscrivant dans un paradigme qualitatif/interpretatif, s'est appuyee sur une cueillette de donnees effectuee a partir d'entrevues semi-dirigees, d'observations en situation et d'un groupe de discussion, au debut et a la fm de la formation continue. Les donnees brutes ont ete soumises a une demarche d'analyse inductive et ont genere diverses categories etayant nos objets de recherche

  10. Etude du mecanisme de predissociation de l'ion moleculaire de protoxyde d'azote par la mesure de l'energie cinetique des fragments de l'oxyde nitrique et de l'oxygene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Claude

    La reaction N2 + O+ ↔ NO + + N, laquelle joue un role important dans la physique de la haute atmosphere, a ete le sujet de plusieurs etudes. Bien que cette reaction ait ete l'objet d'une quantite importante de travaux, ces derniers ne permettent toutefois pas de comprendre entierement le mecanisme d'un point de vue quantique, particulierement les niveaux d'energie excites des fragments qui permettent cette reaction. Puisque cette reaction n'est pas tres facile a reproduire en laboratoire, nous avons utilise la spectroscopie laser sur faisceaux d'ions rapides afin d'explorer les limites de dissociation de l'ion moleculaire intermediaire de cette reaction, a savoir l'ion N2O+. Le faisceau d'ions N2O+ rapides, apres excitation de l'ion moleculaire vers un niveau predissocie de l'etat A2Sigma+, se dissocie pour produire les fragments ioniques O+ et NO+. Par la mesure de la variation du nombre de fragments ioniques en fonction de l'energie cinetique des ions N2O+, nous avons enregistre les spectres de predissociation de l'ion N2O+. Lorsque c'etait possible, nous avons procede a l'analyse de ces spectres de dissociation afin d'en tirer les constantes moleculaires. Pour certaines des transitions rotationnelles intenses, nous avons mesure l'energie cinetique acquise par les fragments lors de la predissociation de l'ion N 2O+. Afin d'analyser les distributions en energie cinetique, nous avons developpe une simulation de l'experience en considerant, entre autres choses, la position des niveaux de vibration et de rotation des fragments diatomiques de chacune des limites de dissociation de N2O+. Les resultats de l'analyse sont exprimes en termes de population des niveaux de vibration des fragments diatomiques pour une distribution donnee de la population des niveaux de rotation des fragments. Les resultats ainsi obtenus, montrent que les fragments diatomiques sont produits dans des niveaux de vibration fortement excites. De tels niveaux d'excitation ne correspondent pas aux

  11. Répondre aux suds : imaginaires et défis géopolitiques aux frontières du nord : cas du maroc et du mexique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Sierra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Maroc et Mexique sont deux Etats qui ont construit depuis une quinzaine d’années un nouveau discours et de nouvelles politiques pour valoriser leur proximité au « Nord ». Alena et Mexamérique d’un côté, quasi intégration au marché européen et péninsule tingitane de l’autre, sont devenues des lignes majeures des discours gouvernementaux. Cette valorisation des nords a provoqué une nouvelle vision des territoires nationaux, dans laquelle il faut répondre aux inquiétudes des suds, éloignés et sources de problèmes géopolitique tant au Mexique (la rébellion néo-zapatiste au Chiapas qu’au Maroc (le Sahara occidental. Cet article tente de montrer comment à travers les nouveaux plans de développement mis en place par les Etats pour répondre différemment à leurs inquiétudes, de nouvelles représentations géopolitiques révélatrices des « imaginaires du sud » se mettent en place auxquelles répondent des populations en soif d’identité.

  12. Dépendance économique aux produits forestiers non ligneux : cas des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé au Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Ouédraogo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dépendance économique aux produits forestiers non ligneux : cas des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé au Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso Résumé Cette étude a pour objectif d’évaluer la dépendance économique des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé aux produits forestiers non ligneux (PFNL et d’identifier les déterminants de cette dépendance. Des enquêtes ont été menées auprès de 583 ménages de 14 villages riverains de ces forêts. Les résultats montrent que le revenu moyen annuel par ménage est de 846 800 F CFA avec une contribution de 60% du revenu des cultures et 12% du revenu d’élevage. Les PFNL procurent en moyenne 72 479 F CFA par ménage et par an à près de 93% des ménages enquêtés. La dépendance économique des ménages aux PFNL est estimée à 12%. Elle diminue avec le revenu, traduisant une plus grande dépendance des ménages pauvres des PFNL. Par ailleurs, les hommes sont économiquement moins dépendants des PFNL que les femmes. Les principaux déterminants de la dépendance aux PFNL sont le statut d’autochtone, la taille du ménage, la superficie forestière et la densité de population du département qui affectent positivement la dépendance aux PFNL. Dans le cadre d’une politique de réduction de la pauvreté en milieu rural, il faut prendre des mesures qui favorisent l’accès durable des ménages les plus pauvres aux ressources forestières. Mots clés : Produits forestiers non ligneux, dépendance économique, modélisation économétrique, Burkina Faso.   Economic dependence on non-timber forest products: case of households living near the Forests of Boulon and Koflande, in the south-western of Burkina Faso Abstract This study aims at assessing the household economic dependence on non-timber forest products (NTFPs in Boulon and Koflande Forest area and the main determinants of that dependence. The data have been collected with a sample of 583

  13. La présence perturbatrice du Front national aux élections municipales

    OpenAIRE

    Perrineau, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Depuis sa percée électorale aux élections européennes de 1984, le Front national a toujours atteint ses meilleurs niveaux lors des élections nationales et particulièrement lors de l'élection-reine qu'est l'élection présidentielle. Dans les cinq élections présidentielles qui se sont tenues depuis lors, il rassemble en moyenne presque 15% des suffrages exprimés (tableau 1). Les deux autres séries d'élections dans lesquelles il dépasse la barre des 10% des suffrages exprimés (s.e.) sont les élec...

  14. Chapitre 4. La Russie face aux révoltes libyenne et syrienne

    OpenAIRE

    De Tinguy, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Résumé : Face aux soulèvements dans le monde arabe, la Russie a glissé d’une attitude de compréhension à une prise de distance avec les stratégies adoptées par la majorité des États occidentaux et arabes, d’abord dans le cas libyen mais surtout dans le dossier syrien. Dans ses choix, la diplomatie russe est aussi bien guidée par des considérations stratégiques régionales (appui à un partenaire de longue date, ventes d’armes, facilités navales à Tartous, peur d’avoir à ses frontières un « seco...

  15. Introduction aux modèles espace état et au filtre de Kalman

    OpenAIRE

    Lemoine, Matthieu; Pelgrin, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Nous détaillons ici les principaux concepts et problèmes liés aux modèles espace-état, ainsi que leurs applications. Nous présentons d'abord ces modèles dans leur généralité. Ensuite, nous explicitons les algorithmes utilisés afin de procéder à l'estimation par le maximum de vraisemblance, c'est-à-dire fondamentalement le filtre de Kalman et l'algorithme EM. Nous considérons enfin quatre applications : les décompositions tendance-cycle, l'extraction d'indicateurs coïncidents d'activité, l'est...

  16. La lettre aux Colossiens: une théologie de la mémoire

    OpenAIRE

    Dettwiler, Andréas

    2013-01-01

    La lettre aux Colossiens - très probablement un document deutéropaulinien - peut être vue avant tout comme un remarquable effort théologique de mémoire. Si son auteur n'a pas l'ambition de dire quelque chose de réellement inédit, il y propose une relecture très originale de la tradition religieuse communément partagée entre lui et la communauté destinataire, pour offrir à celle-ci une interprétation qui donne sens à ce qu'elle vit dans une situation devenue de plus en plus opaque et conflictu...

  17. Des furoncles résistants aux antibiotiques: penser à la myiase !!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajili, Faida; Abid, Rim; Bousseta, Najeh; Mrabet, Ali; Karoui, Ghazi; Louzir, Bassem; Battikh, Riadh; Othmani, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Les myiases sont des infections parasitaires par des larves de mouches. La localisation cutanée doit être évoquée de retour d'un pays tropical devant une évolution inhabituelle de lésions cutanées. Nous rapportons une observation d'un militaire tunisien, ayant séjourné en République Démocratique du Congo. Il était atteint de myiase cutanée simulatrice d'une furonculose résistante aux antibiotiques. L'intérêt de cette observation est de souligner l'importance d’évoquer la myiase dont le traitement est simple et rapide chez un patient de retour de zone d'endémie. PMID:24106569

  18. Compartimentation microscopique: depuis les microchambres femtolitriques jusqu'aux particules pseudo-virales

    OpenAIRE

    Tresset, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Avec l'avènement de la microélectronique et des techniques de miniaturisation, de nouveaux domaines transdisciplinaires sont nés au confluent des sciences de l'ingénieur, de la matière et du vivant. La technologie a désormais investi l'échelle du nanomètre ; elle parvient à sonder, mais aussi surtout à façonner les constituants élémentaires de la matière synthétique et organique, depuis les atomes jusqu'aux complexes macromoléculaires. La nécessité d'isoler des molécules et des assemblages su...

  19. Observation spatiale et SIG: des outils pour cartographier les zones sensibles aux mouvements de terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves SCANVIC

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Les niveaux de sensibilité des sols aux mouvements de terrain ont été cartographiés dans différents bassins de risques en Bolivie, en Colombie et à Taïwan, selon une méthodologie développée au BRGM et fondée en partie sur l’extraction visuelle et numérique d’informations contenues dans les données de télédétection spatiale stéréoscopiques et leur gestion-valorisation dans un SIG. Ces cartes font apparaître l’intérêt de l’imagerie Spot pour la gestion du risque naturel.

  20. Former des enseignants pour faire apprendre aux élèves

    OpenAIRE

    Galand, Benoît; Entretiens Jacques Cartier, « Le déploiement à large échelle des meilleures pratiques pour soutenir la persévérance scolaire : un défi collectif. »

    2013-01-01

    Si le décrochage scolaire est clairement un phénomène multifactoriel, les recherches convergent pour mettre en avant le rôle proximal que joue l'expérience scolaire des élèves dans le processus d'abandon de l'école. Réfléchir aux pistes de prévention du décrochage en partant de ce constat amène à une série de défis imbriqués. Le premier de ces défis est d'identifier ce qui affecte l'expérience scolaire des élèves, pour la rendre plus positive. Il s'agit notamment de repérer les pratiques péda...

  1. Safety Training: Ergonomie - Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours d'ergonomie (durée : 1 jour) Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité). FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236 safety.training@cern.ch

  2. L'Ecole aux prises avec les idéologues de l'informatisation sociale

    OpenAIRE

    Thellen, Stéphane

    2002-01-01

    Cette communication s'inscrit dans une perspective sociologique de l'informatisation du champ éducatif. L'arrimage École / Société par le biais des nouvelles technologies de l'information et de la communication (NTIC) interpelle le sociologue, celui-ci s'étant toujours intéressé au procès de socialisation dans laquelle fut engagée l'École publique moderne. Or en ce début de 21ème siècle, le discours dominant sur l'informatisation des activités scolaires semble univoque : on prétend qu'aux pro...

  3. La panique pédophile aux États-Unis et en France

    OpenAIRE

    Kristen Zgoba; Mélanie-Angela Neuilly

    2005-01-01

    Durant la première moitié des années 1990, les États-Unis traversèrent ce qui peut être appelé une crise liée aux crimes sexuels. Ceci entraîna le passage de législations spécifiques destinées à adresser ce qui était perçu par le public comme un problème social de grande envergure. Durant la seconde moitié des années 1990, l’Europe (principalement l’Angleterre, la Belgique, les Pays-Bas, la France, et l’Allemagne) se trouva dans la même situation que les États-Unis. Là aussi des législations ...

  4. Jean-Philippe BELLEAU, Le mouvement indien au Brésil. Du village aux organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Fichet, Pascaline

    2015-01-01

    « Le mouvement indien au Brésil est un miracle », annonce l'accroche de la quatrième de couverture du dernier ouvrage de Jean-Philippe Belleau, Le mouvement indien au Brésil, Du village aux organisations. Depuis 1974, année de la première assemblée indigène brésilienne, les indiens du Brésil se sont progressivement constitués en acteurs modernes et éminents de l'espace politico-social national, à travers ce que l'auteur qualifiera de « mouvement indien » brésilien. Comment ces individus issus...

  5. Alternatives aux traitements anthelminthiques en élevage biologique des ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Hoste, Hervé; Cabaret, Jacques; Grosmond, G.; Guitard, J.-P.

    2009-01-01

    En termes de gestion sanitaire des troupeaux, les recommandations du règlement de la commission européenne du 5 septembre 2008 (CE 889/2008), remplaçant le REPAB, visent à restreindre le recours aux traitements chimiques pour gérer les pathologies. Elles privilégient en contre-partie les règles d’hygiène et le développement de la réponse immune de l’animal. Ces principes généraux se retrouvent et sont illustrés dans la gestion du parasitisme helminthique par les strongles gastro-intestinaux q...

  6. Charles-Victor Langlois et Charles Seignobos, Introduction aux études historiques

    OpenAIRE

    Castellesi, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Positivistes, scientistes, fétichistes du document, généralistes : autant de qualificatifs utilisés par l’école des Annales, incarnées par un Lucien Febvre revanchard, et largement repris tout au long du XXe siècle pour critiquer les auteurs de L’Introduction aux études historiques, parue en 1898. L’intérêt nouveau suscité par l’ouvrage de Charles Seignobos et Charles-Victor Langlois signe t-il leur retour en grâce ? Dans sa préface inédite à cette nouvelle édition de l’ouvrage dans la toute ...

  7. Contrôle d'accès aux expériences et au tunnel de l'accélérateur LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cennini, E

    1998-01-01

    Le "LHC-Access and Interlock Working Group" réunit des représentants des divisions ST, SL, LHC et TIS. Il est chargé de définir une nouvelle philosophie pour les systèmes de Contrôle d'Accès et de Verrouillage des Faisceaux du LHC ainsi qu'obtenir l'approbation des comités LHC-TC, LHC-TCC et LEMIC. Cette philosophie constituera la base de la spécification technique de ces systèmes. Les sujets principaux traités sont la classification des zones d'accès en fonctions des risques, l'identification des emplacements des EIS-accès en fonction des contraintes de trafic, de sécurité et d'encombrement, ainsi que la définition du concept de patrouille de fermeture des zones radiations. La spécificité du LHC, quant aux risques qu'il présente, implique un changement considérable du point de vue du Contrôle d'Accès. Il est impératif de préparer les utilisateurs à un changement de comportement afin d'accroître la sécurité ainsi que de respecter les procédures et les règles d'accès.

  8. ETUDE DE L’ETAT NUTRITIONNEL ET SANITAIRE DE QUELQUES VARIETES DU GENRE PRUNUS DANS LA WILAYA DE TLEMCEN

    OpenAIRE

    HADJ ABDELKADER, Fatima Zohra

    2014-01-01

    ETUDE DE L’ETAT NUTRITIONNEL ET SANITAIRE DE QUELQUES VARIETES DU GENRE PRUNUS DANS LA WILAYA DE TLEMCEN La présente expérimentation s'inscrit dans le cadre d'une recherche sur la nutrition minérale et l’état sanitaire de quelques espèces du genre Prunus en l’occurrence le merisier (Prunus avium) et Sainte Lucie (Prunus mahaleb) avec quelques cultivars tels que Gaouar et Bigarreau Noir. Ce travail est basé essentiellement sur l'analyse physicochimique de l’eau et du sol ainsi que l'anal...

  9. Conformation and arrangement of polyelectrolytes in semi-diluted solution. A study by small angle neutrons scattering; Conformation et arrangement des polyelectrolytes en solution semi-diluee. Etude par diffusion des neutrons aux petits angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiteri, M.N.

    1997-03-25

    Polyelectrolytes have particular physical and chemical properties and can thus be used for instance for petroleum production. Some of their microscopic properties have been studied in this work. With the particular zero average contrast technique, the small angle neutron scattering allows to directly know the form factors in semi-diluted solutions of polyelectrolytes where the chains are mixed. Another measure leads to the crystal structure. The electrostatic screen effects when salt is added in aqueous solutions of completely charged PSSNa solutions (f=1) (sodium polystyrene sulfonate) are studied. It seems that the chains take a vermiform conformation. Their persistence length varies as I{sup -1/3} (I is the ionic force). The hydrophobicity effects in partially charged PSSNa solutions (f<1) are given too. They lead to a progressive collapse of the chains when their charge rates decrease. The screen and condensation effects when the charge rate f of the PSSNa (f>f(Manning)) varies in a polar solvent (DMSO) are studied. The vermiform chains have the same persistence length (for each f) which varies as I{sup -1/4}. Lastly, the f variation effects in the case of a weakly charged hydrophilic poly-ion (f

  10. Pseudo planar images obtained from pulmonary SPECT: Agreement of reading and comparison to planar images; Images pseudoplanaires issues des tomographies pulmonaires: etude de la reproductibilite de lecture et comparaison aux images planaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciappuccini, R.; Boichot, C.; Cochet, A.; Touzery, C.; Dygai-Cochet, I.; Berriolo-Riedinger, A.; Toubeau, M.; Brunotte, F. [Centre Georges-Francois-Leclerc, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 21 - Dijon (France)

    2009-02-15

    Purpose Due to a long time of acquisition, performing during the same examination planar and pulmonary tomography is time expensive. Then, pseudo planar images have been advocated to be used instead of planar images in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. We aim to compare both kinds of images in terms of probability and to assess intra- and inter-observer agreement. Materials and methods Thirty-four patients referred to our unit to diagnose or rule out pulmonary embolism, underwent a planar ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) lung scan and a V/Q lung SPECT. Using the SPECT projections, eight pseudo planar images were created for each examination. Two experienced physicians read twice both sets of anonymous planar and pseudo planar images. They checked the probability of pulmonary embolism using the modified PIOPED criteria but without the chest X-ray. Results For both readers, intra-observer agreement for pseudo planar images is good (kw = 0.69 and 0.78), and similar to the planar images agreement. Interobserver agreement (kw = 0.63) is also good. Both modalities show a good agreement in terms of probability of pulmonary embolism. Conclusions We showed that pseudo planar pulmonary images have a good intra- and interobserver agreement. Furthermore, in our population, these images lead to the same results in terms of probability of pulmonary embolism as those obtained using the standard planar technique. (authors)

  11. Approach of combined cancer gene therapy and radiation: response of promoters to ionizing radiation; Approche de therapie genique anti-cancereuse combinee a l'irradiation: etude de la reponse de promoteurs aux radiations ionisantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anstett, A

    2005-09-15

    Gene therapy is an emerging cancer treatment modality. We are interested in developing a radiation-inducible gene therapy system to sensitize the tumor vasculature to the effects of ionizing radiation (IR) treatment. An expression system based on irradiation-inducible promoters will drive the expression of anti-tumor genes in the tumor vasculature. Solid tumors are dependent on angio genesis, a process in which new blood vessels are formed from the pre-existing vasculature. Vascular endothelial cells are un transformed and genetically stable, thus avoiding the problem of resistance to the treatments. Vascular endothelial cells may therefore represent a suitable target for this therapeutic gene therapy strategy.The identification of IR-inducible promoters native to endothelial cells was performed by gene expression profiling using cDNA micro array technology. We describe the genes modified by clinically relevant doses of IR. The extension to high doses aimed at studying the effects of total radiation delivery to the tumor. The radio-inductiveness of the genes selected for promoter study was confirmed by RT-PCR. Analysis of the activity of promoters in response to IR was also assessed in a reporter plasmid. We found that authentic promoters cloned onto a plasmid are not suitable for cancer gene therapy due to their low induction after IR. In contrast, synthetic promoters containing repeated sequence-specific binding sites for IR-activated transcription factors such as NF-{kappa}B are potential candidates for gene therapy. The activity of five tandemly repeated TGGGGACTTTCCGC elements for NF-{kappa}B binding in a luciferase reporter was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the response to fractionated low doses was improved in comparison to the total single dose. Thus, we put present evidence that a synthetic promoter for NF-{kappa}B specific binding may have application in the radio-therapeutic treatment of cancer. (author)

  12. The SILENE reactor: an instrument suitable for studying the impact of intermediate and high radiation doses; Reacteur silene : outil adapte aux etudes appliquees a l'effet des moyennes et fortes doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verray, B.; Leo, Y.; Fouillaud, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA, Service de Recherches en Neutronique et Criticite, SNRC, Valduc, Is sur Tille (France)

    2002-07-01

    Designed in 1974 to study the phenomenology and consequences of a criticality accident, the SILENE experimental reactor, an intense source of mixed neutron and gamma radiation, is also suited to radiobiological studies. (author)

  13. Study of heavy ion collisions at Fermi energy: is the methodology orientating our understanding of physics?; Etude des collisions d'ions lourds aux energies de Fermi: les demarches utilisees orientent-elles notre comprehension de la physique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacri, Ch.O

    2001-07-01

    The analysis of the reaction products in the case of a multi-fragmentation reaction requires an efficient sorting of the experimental data. A collision, detected in a 4{pi} detector generates about 100 parameters that are measured. Experimental data have to be reduced to the part most meaningful of the studied event. A model of the reaction is necessary to discard or value variables on which the sorting could be based. The selection of experimental data implies almost always the introduction of a bias that is necessary to know in order to continue a thorough analysis of the experimental results. A theoretical work is then necessary not only in the view of the comparison between results and predictions but also to validate the assumptions that have been made to sort out the experimental data. This method is applied to the study of the nuclear reaction: Gd + U at 36 MeV/U. (A.C.)

  14. Executive report. From the preliminary phase to the first results of the pilot study; Rapport executif. De la phase preparatoire aux premiers resultats de l'etude pilote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    This report presents a status of the actions carried out since the end of 1999 to the account of the observatory of indoor air quality in the framework of the contracts and conventions signed between the scientific and technical centre of building engineering (CSTB), the French ministries of accommodation, research, health and environment, and the agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe). The actions concern: the production of data about the indoor environment (preliminary phase, pilot-campaign on 90 residential buildings and 9 schools of 3 different regions, preparation of the operational campaign on 800 sites (720 residential buildings and 80 schools), sampling strategy, optimization/development of investigation tools), the collection of available data in France, the management and exploitation of data, the development of information and communication tools, and the quality assurance of the observatory. (J.S.)

  15. Realisation of dosimetric studies for workplaces with a risk of exposure to ionizing radiations (version 2). Practical guide; Realisation des etudes dosimetriques de poste de travail presentant un risque d'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants (version 2). Guide pratique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donadille, L.; Rehel, J.L.; Deligne, J.M.; Queinnec, F.; Aubert, B.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Clairand, I.; Jourdain, J.R.; Rannou, A.

    2010-07-01

    This guide proposes a methodological approach to help carry out dosimetric workplace studies complying with the french regulation, and necessary to identify risks of radiological exposure, optimize radiation protection, classify the workers into different categories and the workplaces into different areas. Additional information is provided relating the main objectives of a workplace study, the French regulatory context, main sources and pathways of exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiation protection and operational quantities are reminded. Recommendations about the selection and use of detectors and about the implementation of calculation methods are also provided. The general methodological approach is applied and developed into 'workplace sheets', each one devoted to a particular type of workplace. (authors)

  16. Etudes structurales des rhodopsines microbiennes et des autres protéines membranaires au moyen de la cristallographie aux rayons X et de la modélisation informatique

    OpenAIRE

    Gushchin, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Every living cell on Earth is surrounded by a lipid membrane. Proteins residing in the membrane perform a variety of functions crucial for the cell's survival. Among them are active and passive transport in and out of the cell, signaling and reaction catalysis.One of the largest membrane protein families are microbial rhodopsins, which utilize light energy for their function. Members of this family count among them light-driven proton, cation and anion pumps, light-gated ion channels and phot...

  17. Etude des non-linéarités de permittivité de diélectriques utilisés en microélectronique. Application aux capacités MIM.

    OpenAIRE

    Bécu, Stéphane

    2006-01-01

    In order to fabricate ICs with more and more functions it is necessary to develop newelectronic devices. METAL-INSULATOR-METAL (MIM) capacitors integrated in the ICsinterconnections are some of these new devices. ICs down-scaling imposes to reduce MIMcapacitors dimensions and to increase surfacic capacitance. For that using dielectrics withhigher dielectric constant than SiO2 is necessary. Metallic oxides such as Al2O3, Ta2O5and HfO2 are good candidates as dielectrics of MIM capacitors. Never...

  18. Study of the influence of chemical binding on resonant absorption and scattering of neutrons; Etude de l'influence des liaisons chimiques sur l'absorption et la diffusion des neutrons aux energies de resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naberejnev, D.G. [Aix-Marseille-1 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France)

    1999-02-01

    At present time the problem of taking into account of the crystalline binding in the heavy nuclei resonance range is not correctly treated in nuclear data processing codes. The present work deals separately with resonant absorption and scattering of neutrons. The influence of crystalline binding is considered for both types of reactions in the harmonic crystal frame work. The harmonic crystal model is applied to the study of resonant absorption cross sections to show the inconsistency of the free gas model widely in use in reactor neutronics. The errors due to the use of the latter were found to be non negligible. These errors should be corrected by introducing a more elaborated harmonic crystal model in codes for resonances analysis and on the nuclear data processing stage. Currently the influence of crystalline binding on transfer cross section in the resonance domain is taken into account in a naive manner using the model of the free nucleus at rest in the laboratory system. In this work I present a formalism (Uncoupled Phonon Approximation) which permits to consider in more detail the crystalline structure of the nuclear fuel. This formalism shows new features in comparison with the static model. (author)

  19. Quantum mechanical study of molecular collisions at ultra-low energy: applications to alkali and alkaline-earth systems; Etude quantique de collisions moleculaires a ultra-basse energie: applications aux alcalins et alcalino-terreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quemener, G

    2006-10-15

    In order to investigate the collisional processes which occur during the formation of molecular Bose-Einstein condensates, a time-independent quantum mechanical formalism, based on hyperspherical coordinates, has been applied to the study of atom-diatom dynamics at ultra-low energies. We present theoretical results for three alkali systems, each composed of lithium, sodium or potassium atoms, and for an alkaline-earth system composed of calcium atoms. We also study dynamics at large and positive atom-atom scattering length. Evidence for the suppression of inelastic processes in a fermionic system is given, as well as a linear relation between the atom-diatom scattering length and the atom-atom scattering length. (author)

  20. Application of native knowledge in EIA: Inuit, eiders and Hudson Bay oil. Les connaissances des autochtones appliquees aux etudes d'impact environnemental: Les Inuit, les eiders et le petrole de la baie d'Hudson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    Environmental baseline data, essential for environmental impact assessment of petroleum development, is scarce or nonexistent for much of the Arctic. It is proposed that environmental assessment in Arctic regions can benefit substantially from Inuit environmental knowledge, in the form of a formal integration of Inuit expertise into the environmental assessment process. To assess the soundness of this proposition, environmental data from Inuit of 3 communities in southeastern Hudson Bay are examined. These data pertain to the biogeography and ecology of the Hudson Bay eider (Somateria mollissima sedentaria), a large seaduck of interest because of its extreme vulnerability to oil pollution. Information on this bird was collected by means of semi-directive interviews with Inuit hunters. This information reveals an extensive knowledge of the dramatic seasonal changes in the distribution and habitat use of the eider, and their winter mortality. The applications of this knowledge to environmental impact assessment is discussed. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Study of a power coupler for superconducting RF cavities used in high intensity proton accelerator; Etude et developpement d'un coupleur de puissance pour les cavites supraconductrices destinees aux accelerateurs de protons de haute intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souli, M

    2007-07-15

    The coaxial power coupler needed for superconducting RF cavities used in the high energy section of the EUROTRANS driver should transmit 150 kW (CW operation) RF power to the protons beam. The calculated RF and dielectric losses in the power coupler (inner and outer conductor, RF window) are relatively high. Consequently, it is necessary to design very carefully the cooling circuits in order to remove the generated heat and to ensure stable and reliable operating conditions for the coupler cavity system. After calculating all type of losses in the power coupler, we have designed and validated the inner conductor cooling circuit using numerical simulations results. We have also designed and optimized the outer conductor cooling circuit by establishing its hydraulic and thermal characteristics. Next, an experiment dedicated to study the thermal interaction between the power coupler and the cavity was successfully performed at CRYOHLAB test facility. The critical heat load Qc for which a strong degradation of the cavity RF performance was measured leading to Q{sub c} in the range 3 W-5 W. The measured heat load will be considered as an upper limit of the residual heat flux at the outer conductor cold extremity. A dedicated test facility was developed and successfully operated for measuring the performance of the outer conductor heat exchanger using supercritical helium as coolant. The test cell used reproduces the realistic thermal boundary conditions of the power coupler mounted on the cavity in the cryo-module. The first experimental results have confirmed the excellent performance of the tested heat exchanger. The maximum residual heat flux measured was 60 mW for a 127 W thermal load. As the RF losses in the coupler are proportional to the incident RF power, we can deduce that the outer conductor heat exchanger performance is continued up to 800 kW RF power. Heat exchanger thermal conductance has been identified using a 2D axisymmetric thermal model by comparing experimental and computed temperatures. Finally, a last part of our work has been dedicated to a preliminary study of thermohydraulic behaviour of supercritical helium observed during the experiment. Then we have established a stability diagram based on dimensionless parameters. This diagram shows a good agreement between our data and those of previous similar experiments. (author)

  2. Etude numérique de l'influence de la forme des particules sur la comportement mécanique des matériaux granulaires : application aux transferts de charge autour des conduits enterrés

    OpenAIRE

    Szarf, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    This study was devoted to the in_uence of grain shape on the mechanical behaviourof granular materials and its e_ect on load transfer over underground pipes. Shapeof convex polygons and concave clumps of discs was generalised with a geometricalparameter α. In the study a Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) approach was used.Biaxial compression of granular assemblies revealed that mechanical and geometricalproperties like porosity, macroscopic friction or shear localisation depends both on αand on...

  3. Uncertainty representation and combination: new results with application to nuclear safety issues; Representation et combinaison d'informations incertaines: nouveaux resultats avec applications aux etudes de surete nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destercke, S.

    2008-10-15

    It often happens that the value of some parameters or variables of a system are imperfectly known, either because of the variability of the modelled phenomena, or because the available information is imprecise or incomplete. Classical probability theory is usually used to treat these uncertainties. However, recent years have witnessed the appearance of arguments pointing to the conclusion that classical probabilities are inadequate to handle imprecise or incomplete information. Other frameworks have thus been proposed to address this problem: the three main are probability sets, random sets and possibility theory. There are many open questions concerning uncertainty treatment within these frameworks. More precisely, it is necessary to build bridges between these three frameworks to advance toward a unified handling of uncertainty. Also, there is a need of practical methods to treat information, as using these frameworks can be computationally costly. In this work, we propose some answers to these two needs for a set of commonly encountered problems. In particular, we focus on the problems of: 1) Uncertainty representation 2) Fusion and evaluation of multiple source information 3) Independence modelling, the aim being to give tools (both of theoretical and practical nature) to treat uncertainty. Some tools are then applied to some problems related to nuclear safety issues. (author)

  4. Etude des sources et de la dynamique atmosphérique de polluants organiques particulaires en vallées alpines : apport de nouveaux traceurs organiques aux modèles récepteurs

    OpenAIRE

    Golly, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Air quality has become a sensitive topic for Rhône-Alpes region due to the formal notice which was addressed by the European Commission for non-compliance with legislation in force. Indeed, certain geographic areas in the region present a lot of overruns in PM10, especially in Alpine valleys during winter. These overruns particles are also accompanied by high concentrations of organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which constitute these PMs. An increase ...

  5. Study of the integration of distributed generation systems in the grid: application in micro-grids; Etude de structures d'integration des systemes de generation decentralisee: application aux microreseaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaztanaga Arantzamendi, H

    2006-12-15

    The present PhD deals with an original micro-grid concept and its application as a Renewable Energy Source's (RES) grid integration scheme. This micro-grid is composed of RES generators as well as support systems that incorporate additional functionalities in order to improve RES integration into the grid. According to this concept, two practical micro-grid applications have been studied in detail: a residential micro-grid and a wind farm supported by DFACTS systems (STATCOM and DVR). In both applications, the control structures which are implemented at different levels and applied to the different micro-grid elements have been developed, analyzed by means of off-line simulations and finally validated in real-time conditions with physical reduced-scale prototypes. (author)

  6. Tribological study of hard coatings without cobalt intended to isolation components of PWR primary cooling system; Etude tribologique de revetements durs sans cobalt destines aux organes d`isolement du circuit primaire des REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachon, L.

    1995-10-18

    The objective is to qualify coatings without cobalt to replace ``Stellites`` coatings in isolation valves of PWR primary cooling system, as Co is activated when passing in the reactor core and contaminated the cooling loop. Three families of coatings were tested: PVD thin films from 1 to 8 {mu}m monolayers of Cr/C{sub x} with x varying between 1.6 and 9.5 at% or multilayers of pure chromium and Cr/C{sub 1.6} at%, coatings with a thickness between 100 and 200 {mu}m of cermets NiCr{sub y} (y varying from 5 to 35 at%) matrix binding chromium or tungsten carbides, and thick coatings 2 mm thickness of cermets Nitronic 60 or Inconel 625 matrix binding 10, 20 or 30% titanium or niobium carbides. Stellite 6 (2 mm) is the reference coating for tribology. Coatings were qualified and selected by thermal shocks, corrosion and plane friction. The thin film and the thick families were disqualified by their destruction or by their high friction coefficient. Then coatings between 100 and 200 {mu}m were used in a valve mock-up working in PWR primary cooling system pressure and temperature conditions. Tests show that these coatings have better wear or tightness performances than stellite 6, except for a slightly higher friction coefficient. (A.B.).

  7. Etude par Résonance Magnétique Nucléaire de macromolécules biologiques: structure, dynamique et interactions. Application à une protéine de liaison aux odeurs

    OpenAIRE

    Lescop, Ewen

    2003-01-01

    President: Joel Janin Rapporteur: Alexandre Bonvin & Jean-Pierre Simorre Membre: Jean-Claude Pernollet ASP2 is a 123-amino-acid odorant-binding protein (OBP) from the honeybee. The transport of airborne, hydrophobic odorants and pheromones through the sensillum lymph is thought to be accomplished by OBPs. The structure of the complex of ASP2 with TSP (trim�ethylesilylpropionate-d4) was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance. The structure is monomeric and well-defined (rmsd

  8. The study of the extreme radiation tolerance mechanisms of the bacterium Deinococcus deserti by a functional genomics approach; Etude des mecanismes de l'extreme tolerance aux radiations de la bacterie Deinococcus deserti par une approche de genomique fonctionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulermo, R.

    2009-12-15

    The genome of Deinococcus deserti, a highly radiation-tolerant bacterium, was analyzed and compared to those of D. radiodurans and D. geothermalis. About 230 proteins are specifically conserved in these 3 species, including IrrE, a regulator protein essential for radio tolerance. D.deserti has several supplementary DNA repair genes, like imuY and dnaE2 (trans-lesion DNA polymerases). Moreover, D. deserti has 3 recA that code for 2 different RecA proteins (RecAC et RecAP). To study these genes, genetic tools were developed for D. deserti. Different results suggest that IrrE, required for the induction of several genes after irradiation, has peptidase activity. The 2 RecA proteins are functional for DNA repair. D. deserti is mutable by UV, which requires ImuY, DnaE2 and RecAC, but not RecAP. (author)

  9. Etude et développement des flux solides en vue d'application en soudage ATIG appliqué au titane et ses alliages ainsi qu'aux aciers inoxydables

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Nicolas

    2000-01-01

    Le procédé de soudage TIG met en jeu un arc électrique entre une électrode réfractaire de tungstène et les pièces à souder. L'électrode et la zone fondue sont protégées contre la pollution ambiante par une atmosphère neutre d'argon. Ainsi, de est un procédé de prédilection dans les secteurs aussi variés que le nucléaire, l'aéronautique, les industries chimiques et agro-alimentaires.Nonobstant ces qualités, ce procédé souffre d'un lourd handicap : sa faible productivité, particulièrement dans ...

  10. Adenosine Diphosphate Ribosylation Factor-GTPaseActivating Protein Stimulates the Transport of AUX1Endosome, Which Relies on Actin Cytoskeletal Organization in Rice Root DevelopmentF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Du; Yunyuan XU; Yingdian Wang; Kang Chong

    2011-01-01

    Polar auxin transport,which depends on polarized subcellular distribution of AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (AUX1/LAX) influx carriers and PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers,mediates various processes of plant growth and development.Endosomal recycling of PIN1 is mediated by an adenosine diphosphate (ADP)ribosylation factor (ARF)-GTPase exchange factor protein,GNOM.However,the mediation of auxin influx carrier recycling is poorly understood.Here,we report that overexpression of OsAGAP,an ARF-GTPase-activating protein in rice,stimulates vesicle transport from the plasma membrane to the Golgi apparatus in protoplasts and transgenic plants and induces the accumulation of early endosomes and AUX1.AUX1 endosomes could partially colocalize with FM4-64 labeled early endosome after actin disruption.Furthermore,OsAGAP is involved in actin cytoskeletal organization,and its overexpression tends to reduce the thickness and bundling of actin filaments.Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis revealed exocytosis of the AUX1 recycling endosome was not affected in the OsAGAP overexpression cells,and was only slightly promoted when the actin filaments were completely disrupted by Lat B.Thus,we propose that AUX1 accumulation in the OsAGAP overexpression and actin disrupted cells may be due to the fact that endocytosis of the auxin influx carrier AUX1 early endosome was greatly promoted by actin cytoskeleton disruption.

  11. Contribution to the study and use of ionisation chambers for nuclear reactor control (1965); Contribution a l'etude et a l'utilisation des chambres d'ionisation pour le controle des reacteurs nucleaires (1965)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchene, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-02-15

    high-power reactors. (author) [French] Les chambres d'ionisation sont actuellement les detecteurs les mieux adaptes au controle des reacteurs nucleaires par des mesures neutroniques. Nous avons cru bon de rappeler quelques generalites concernant la dynamique des reacteurs, les differents procedes de detection des neutrons, le fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation et les methodes de mesure utilisees. Notre contribution aux techniques de controle des reacteurs consiste d'une part en une tentative de synthese des facteurs intervenant dans le fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation, l'etude de ces facteurs, et d'autre part l'elaboration de chambres d'ionisation a fission et a bore permettant de suivre la marche d'un reacteur du demarrage jusqu'a la puissance maximale. Dans le domaine des chambres a fission, nous avons en particulier ameliore les techniques de depot d'oxyde d'uranium sur l'aluminium et realise la mise au point de depots par electrolyse sur d'autres metaux: acier inoxydable, cuivre, molybdene, nickel, tantale, titane, kovar, tungstene et beryllium. Nous avons elabore plusieurs types de chambres a fission servant au demarrage des reacteurs: un type de performances moyennes actuellement utilise dans les piles francaises un type a haute sensibilite un type a haute temperature qui a fonctionne jusqu'a 600 deg. C. En ce qui concerne les chambres a bore, nous avons etudie les perturbations apportees dans les mesures par l'exposition des chambres a d'importants flux de neutrons et a un rayonnement {gamma} intense. Cette exposition produit une modification des proprietes des materiaux constitutifs et la production dans les chambres d'un bruit de fond qui peut gener considerablement les mesures neutroniques. Nous avons montre que la technique de compensation permettait de limiter l'importance de ce bruit de fond et d'augmenter ainsi la plage de fonctionnement des

  12. Etude de l'affaiblissement du comportement mecanique du pergelisol du au rechauffement climatique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteau, Sylvie

    Le rechauffement climatique predit pour les prochaines decennies, aura des impacts majeurs sur le pergelisol qui sont tres peu documentes pour l'instant. La presente etude a pour but d'evaluer ces impacts sur les proprietes mecaniques du pergelisol et sa stabilite a long terme. Une nouvelle technique d'essai de penetration au cone a taux de deformation controle, a ete developpee pour caracteriser en place le pergelisol. Ces essais geotechniques et la mesure de differentes proprietes physiques ont ete effectues sur une butte de pergelisol au cours du printemps 2000. Le developpement et l'utilisation d'un modele geothermique 1D tenant compte de la thermodependance du comportement mecanique ont permis d'evaluer que les etendues de pergelisol chaud deviendraient instables a la suite d'un rechauffement de l'ordre de 5°C sur cent ans. En effet, la resistance mecanique du pergelisol diminuera alors rapidement jusqu'a 11,6 MPa, ce qui correspond a une perte relative de 98% de la resistance par rapport a un scenario sans rechauffement.

  13. Preparation and study of dialkyl nitroxide radicals; Preparation et etude de radicaux nitroxydes diacyles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenavas, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    These radicals are obtained by oxidation of N-hydroxy-imides with lead tetracetate or p-nitro-perbenzoic acid. These imides are prepared by heating dicarboxylic acids anhydrides with benzyloxy-amine followed by catalytic hydrogenation of N-benzyloxy-imides so obtained. Two series of radicals have mainly been studied, the first concerning five-membered cyclic imides, the second six-membered cyclic imides, these molecules having methyls substituents or no on the carbon ring. N. M. R. spectra of some O-benzyl-imides have been analysed. These different results have made it possible to study the conformation and stereochemistry of these imides. (author) [French] Ces radicaux sont obtenus par oxydation d'imides N-hydroxyles par le tetracetate de plomb ou l'acide p-nitroperbenzoique; ces imides sont prepares par chauffage d'anhydrides de diacides en presence de benzyloxyamine suivie d'une hydrogenation catalytique des N-benzyloxyimides ainsi obtenus. Deux series de radicaux ont principalement ete etudies: la premiere relative a des imides cycliques a cinq chainons, la seconde a des imides cycliques a six chainons, ces molecules ayant des substituants methyles ou non sur la chaine carbonee. Les derives O-benzyles de quelques-uns de ces imides ont ete analyses en R. M. N. Ces differents resultats ont permis une etude de la conformation et de la stereochimie de ces imides. (auteur)

  14. Politiques linguistiques et interprétation en milieu social au Canada : des droits linguistiques aux droits d’accès aux services publics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jiménez-Salcedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the importance of the interpreter as a vector of distinction between linguistic rights and rights of access to public services in the Canadian context. For the former, the specific case of the language used during legal proceedings and the recognition of the national official languages are analyzed. For the latter, the fact that access to any kind of essential public services must be accomplished by means of an interpreter is underlined. In order to illustrate this distinction, both the Canadian jurisprudence on language used during the trials and the mode of functioning of interpreter lists in Quebec are examined.

  15. Etude des etats electroniques en champ magnetique dans le niveau de Landau N=0 de la tricouche ABC de graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Maxime

    Dans cet ouvrage nous etudions les phases du gaz d'electrons bidimensionnel dans la tricouche de graphene en empilement ABC. En partant du modele des liaisons fortes et en faisant l'approximation du continuum autour des vallees K +, K-, nous obtenons un modele effectif a deux bandes qui permet de decrire la physique de basse energie des electrons en champ magnetique dans cette structure. Ce modele contient trois orbitales degenerees dans le niveau de Landau N = O. Ce dernier est donc 12N φ, fois degeneres en incluant les degres de liberte de spin et de vallee. En ajoutant l'interaction de Coulomb au systeme et en considerant seulement les remplissages v = -5, -4, -4, 5 afin d'avoir un systeme a trois niveaux, nous etudions le diagramme de phase du gaz d'electrons en fonction d'un biais electrique entre les couches externes. Nous trouvons une phase d'onde de densite de charge bidimensionnelle (ODC2D) comme etat fondamental du systeme. Cette ODC2D se nomme cristal dans ce memoire et nous derivons ses proprietes de transports et ses modes collectifs. Nous discutons egalement du caractere topologique de ce cristal. Notre etude englobe aussi les phases liquides avec ou sans coherence orbitale. Nous concluons notre memoire par l'etude de quelques signatures experimentales des phases du gaz d'electrons dans la tricouche.

  16. CERN Access Cards and Access Authorisations

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From the 01/05/2003, all problems relating to access cards and refusal of access to any zone, building or experiment within CERN must be addressed to the Centrale de Surveillance des Accès (CSA building 120) on 78877 or send an e-mail to Access.Surveillance@cern.ch. The responsibles for CERN access control have put into place a procedure with the CSA, Service Enregistrement and the Technical Control Room, to make sure that all problems get resolved in a proper and timely manner.

  17. Order of 30 March 1988 on licensing of gaseous radioactive effluent releases by the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Decree prescribes the documents and information the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre must provide to the Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (SCPRI) and lays down the permissible effluent release limits for the Centre

  18. L’utilisation du vaccin contre l’influenza chez les enfants allergiques aux œufs

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Charles PS; MacDonald, Noni E

    2011-01-01

    Les enfants sont plus vulnérables à la morbidité attribuable à l’influenza. Les vaccins contre l’influenza sont cultivés sur des œufs et pour cette raison, une infime quantité de protéines d’œuf persiste dans leur composition. De récentes recherches et de nouveaux paramètres de pratique suscités par la pandémie mondiale d’influenza de 2009 ont remis en question la décision de ne pas administrer le vaccin contre l’influenza aux patients allergiques aux œufs. Selon les données disponibles, l’an...

  19. Inégalités sociales dans le renoncement aux soins de santé et dans leur utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Cette recherche se focalise sur l’analyse des inégalités sociales associées à l’accès et à l’utilisation des services de soins médicaux et hospitaliers au Luxembourg. Les données utilisées proviennent des enquêtes PSELL3/EU-SILC réalisées chaque année sur un échantillon représentatif de la population luxembourgeoise vivant en ménage privé. Des indicateurs d’accès aux soins (ou de renoncement aux soins) et d’utilisation des services de santé sont définis et les principales mesures d’inégalité ...

  20. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4](-) (X = F, CI, Br, I, At, Uus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Congqiao; Wang, Xue B.; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Li, Jun

    2015-12-07

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity and electronic structures of trivalent-gold halides using gold tetrahalides [AuX4]⁻ anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4]⁻ (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were produced in gas phase and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, which exhibited rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. We calculated the adiabatic as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional methods with scalar and spin-orbit coupling relativistic effects. The simulated photoelectron spectra based on these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) is preferred when the halides become heavier along the Period Table. This trend reveals that the oxidation state of metals in complexes can be manipulated through ligand design

  1. Annliese Nef, Conquérir et gouverner la Sicile islamique aux XIe et XIIe siècles

    OpenAIRE

    Lejbowicz, Max

    2012-01-01

    625 pages de texte abondamment annotées, 106 d’annexes de nature diverse (iconographique, tabulaire, lexicographique, onomastique), 57 consacrées aux Sources et bibliographie, 13 à quatre Index, 5 aux abréviations, sans compter, intégrés au texte, sept figures (en fait des cartes et des plans) et dix-huit tableaux : l’ouvrage sous examen a l’épaisseur et le sérieux d’une thèse. Plus précisément : il est « la version profondément remaniée d’une thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2001 » (p. 9). Rapp...

  2. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a new design concept; sensory accessibility. While acknowledging the importance of sensory experiences in architectural quality, as well as the importance of accommodating user needs the concept combines three equally important factors; architecture, the senses...... and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...

  3. Phloem-specific expression of a melon Aux/IAA in tomato plants alters auxin sensitivity and plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eGolan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phloem sap contains a large repertoire of macromolecules in addition to sugars, amino acids, growth substances and ions. The transcription profile of melon phloem sap contains over 1,000 mRNA molecules, most of them associated with signal transduction, transcriptional control, and stress and defense responses. Heterografting experiments have established the long-distance trafficking of numerous mRNA molecules. Interestingly, several trafficking transcripts are involved in the auxin response, including two molecules coding for auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA. To further explore the biological role of the melon Aux/IAA transcript CmF-308 in the vascular tissue, a cassette containing the coding sequence of this gene under a phloem-specific promoter was introduced into tomato plants. The number of lateral roots was significantly higher in transgenic plants expressing CmF-308 under the AtSUC2 promoter than in controls. A similar effect on root development was obtained after transient expression of CmF-308 in source leaves of N. benthamiana plants. An auxin-response assay showed that CmF-308-transgenic roots are more sensitive to auxin than control roots. In addition to the altered root development, phloem-specific expression of CmF-308 resulted in shorter plants, a higher number of lateral shoots and delayed flowering, a phenotype resembling reduced apical dominance. In contrast to the root response, cotyledons of the transgenic plants were less sensitive to auxin than control cotyledons. The reduced auxin sensitivity in the shoot tissue was confirmed by lower relative expression of several Aux/IAA genes in leaves and an increase in the relative expression of a cytokinin-response regulator, TRR8/9b. The accumulated data suggest that expression of Aux/IAA in the phloem modifies auxin sensitivity in a tissue-specific manner, thereby altering plant development.

  4. Second meeting of the Atomic and Molecular Data Centre network. Fontenay aux Roses, 23-24 May 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary report of the Second A+M Data Centre Network (DCN) meeting convened by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section at the CEA Laboratory at Fontenay-aux-Roses, France, 23-24 May 1980. The meeting was attended by 20 representatives from centres and groups from six Member States concerned with the coordinated international management of atomic and molecular data pertinent to controlled fusion research and technology

  5. Distribution et extension de la résistance chloroplatique aux atrazines chez les adventices annuelles en France

    OpenAIRE

    GASQUEZ, Jacques; BARRALIS, Gilbert; Aigle, N.

    1982-01-01

    La résistance chloroplastique aux triazines a été observée en France chez 13 espèces, dont les auteurs précisent l’importance agronomique et la distribution géographique ; les 3 espèces qui présentent la plus grande dispersion sont Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L. et Solanum nigrum L.

  6. La politique européenne d’aide à la mise aux normes de qualité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vialatte Philippe

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available La Commission européenne peut aider les pays en développement à financer des programmes de mise aux normes de qualité pour contribuer à la lutte contre la pauvreté, améliorer les conditions de vie des populations locales et leur permettre de bénéficier encore plus largement des opportunités offertes par le marché européen.

  7. Comparison of VITEK 2 YST Card and API 20C AUX system in identification of non- albicans Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Durmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In the present study, it was aimed to compare results obtained by using VITEK 2 YST Card (bioMérieux, France with those obtained by using API 20C AUX (bioMérieux, France for identification of non- albicans Candida species, which was isolated from various clinical samples, at level of species.Materials and methods: Forty-one non-albicans Candida isolates, which were isolated from 28 urine, 10 blood and 3 vaginal swab specimens, and found to be negative by germ tube test, were identified by using VITEK 2 YST Card (bioMérieux, France. In addition, microscopic morphology was assessed in corn-meal Tween 80 agar, while carbohydrate assimilation was assessed by using commercially available API 20C AUX kit (bioMérieux, France.Results: Thirty-four isolates (82.9% were identified as identical species by these 2 systems, while different results were obtained in 7 isolates (17.1%. 5 isolates, identified as Candida glabrata by API 20C AUX system, were identified as Candida tropicalis (n=2, Candida krusei, Candida lipolitica and Candida kefyr by VITEK 2 YST Card. One other isolate, identified as C.tropicalis, was identified as Candida parapsilosis; and additional one isolate, identified as C.parapsilosis, was identified as C.tropicalis.Conclusion: It was concluded that one should be cautious in the identification of C.glabrata, in particular, C.tropicalis and C.parapsilosis, although between VITEK 2 YST Card and API 20C AUX system results was found largely similarity in identification of non-albicans Candida spp.

  8. The tomato Aux/IAA transcription factor IAA9 is involved in fruit development and leaf morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Jones, Brian; Li, Zhengguo; Frasse, Pierre; Delalande, Corinne; Regad, Farid; Chaabouni, Salma; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2005-10-01

    Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins are transcriptional regulators that mediate many aspects of plant responses to auxin. While functions of most Aux/IAAs have been defined mainly by gain-of-function mutant alleles in Arabidopsis thaliana, phenotypes associated with loss-of-function mutations have been scarce and subtle. We report here that the downregulation of IAA9, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene from a distinct subfamily of Aux/IAA genes, results in a pleiotropic phenotype, consistent with its ubiquitous expression pattern. IAA9-inhibited lines have simple leaves instead of wild-type compound leaves, and fruit development is triggered before fertilization, giving rise to parthenocarpy. This indicates that IAA9 is a key mediator of leaf morphogenesis and fruit set. In addition, antisense plants displayed auxin-related growth alterations, including enhanced hypocotyl/stem elongation, increased leaf vascularization, and reduced apical dominance. Auxin dose-response assays revealed that IAA9 downregulated lines were hypersensitive to auxin, although the only early auxin-responsive gene that was found to be upregulated in the antisense lines was IAA3. The activity of the IAA3 promoter was stimulated in the IAA9 antisense genetic background, indicating that IAA9 acts in planta as a transcriptional repressor of auxin signaling. While no mutation in any member of subfamily IV has been reported to date, the phenotypes associated with the downregulation of IAA9 reveal distinct and novel roles for members of the Aux/IAA gene family. PMID:16126837

  9. SIDARI : un système intelligent distribué appliqué aux réseaux informatiques

    OpenAIRE

    Oumtanaga, S.

    1996-01-01

    Cet article présente le projet SIDARI, un système intelligent distribué appliqué aux réseaux informatiques. Après avoir exposé les besoins et les contraintes en formation des réseaux informatiques, nous proposons une solution issue des techniques de l'intelligence artificielle, de l'approche orientée objets, et des tuteurs intelligents. (Résumé d'auteur)

  10. Evaluation of uncertainties of key neutron parameters of PWR-type reactors with slab fuel, application to neutronic conformity; Determination des incertitudes liees aux grandeurs neutroniques d'interet des reacteurs a eau pressurisee a plaques combustibles et application aux etudes de conformite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, D

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate uncertainties of key neutron parameters of slab reactors. Uncertainties sources have many origins, technologic origin for parameters of fabrication and physical origin for nuclear data. First, each contribution of uncertainties is calculated and finally, a factor of uncertainties is associated to key slab parameter like reactivity, isotherm reactivity coefficient, control rod efficiency, power form factor before irradiation and life-time. This factors of uncertainties were computed by Generalized Perturbations Theory in case of step 0 and by directs calculations in case of irradiation problems. One of neutronic conformity applications was about fabrication and nuclear data targets precision adjustments. Statistic (uncertainties) and deterministic (deviations) approaches were studied. Then, neutronics key slab parameters uncertainties were reduced and so nuclear performances were optimized. (author)

  11. Contribution to the study of sorption mechanisms at solid-liquid interfaces: application to the cases of apatites and oxy-hydroxides; Contribution a l'etude des mecanismes de sorption aux interfaces solide-liquide: application aux cas des apatites et des oxy-hydroxydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duc, M

    2002-11-15

    Sorption-desorption phenomena play an important role in the transport of toxic and radioactive elements in surface and underground water in contact with solid matter. Selenium, which is one of the long-lived radionuclides present in radioactive waste, is characterized by several oxidation states and by anionic species in aqueous solutions. In order to predict its transport, we need a good knowledge of its sorption processes. We have studied the sorption of Se(IV) and Se(VI) on two types of solids present in natural media or which have been proposed as additives to active barriers: hydroxy-apatites, fluoro-apatite and iron oxi-hydroxides (goethite and hematite). Sorption mechanisms have been studied through an approach including several different and complementary methods: titrimetry, zeta-metry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy, etc... Results showed that Se(VI) is much less sorbed than Se(VI) on both types of solids. For Se(IV) the sorption mechanisms are different for iron oxides and apatites. On oxides, sorption increases when pH decreases. It can be interpreted by a surface complexation model, essentially through an inner sphere complex (monodentate or bidentate). Modelling of Se sorption curves was performed after the determination of acido-basic properties of oxides. However, the determination of the intrinsic properties of oxides is disturbed by several parameters identified as impurities, evolution of the solid in solution, kinetic and solubility of the solid. For apatites, selenium sorption proceeds by exchange with superficial groups, with a maximum of fixation at approximately pH 8. Thanks to XPS measurements and the elaboration of a mathematical model, we could determine the depth of penetration of both selenium and cadmium on apatites. (author)

  12. Shoot-supplied ammonium targets the root auxin influx carrier AUX1 and inhibits lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baohai

    2011-03-24

    Deposition of ammonium (NH4 +) from the atmosphere is a substantial environmental problem. While toxicity resulting from root exposure to NH4 + is well studied, little is known about how shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) affects root growth. In this study, we show that SSA significantly affects lateral root (LR) development. We show that SSA inhibits lateral root primordium (LRP) emergence, but not LRP initiation, resulting in significantly impaired LR number. We show that the inhibition is independent of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and sucrose uptake in shoots but relates to the auxin response in roots. Expression analyses of an auxin-responsive reporter, DR5:GUS, and direct assays of auxin transport demonstrated that SSA inhibits root acropetal (rootward) auxin transport while not affecting basipetal (shootward) transport or auxin sensitivity of root cells. Mutant analyses indicated that the auxin influx carrier AUX1, but not the auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN)1 or PIN2, is required for this inhibition of LRP emergence and the observed auxin response. We found that AUX1 expression was modulated by SSA in vascular tissues rather than LR cap cells in roots. Taken together, our results suggest that SSA inhibits LRP emergence in Arabidopsis by interfering with AUX1-dependent auxin transport from shoot to root. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4]- (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Cong-Qiao; Wang, Xue-Bin; Vorpagel, Erich; Li, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity, electronic structures, and bonding of gold halides using tetrahalide [AuX4](-) anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4](-) (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were experimentally produced in the gas phase, and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, exhibiting rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. As expected, Au-X bonds in such series contain generally increasing covalency when halogen ligands become heavier. We calculated the adiabatic electron detachment energies as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional theory methods with scalar relativistic and spin-orbit coupling effects. The computationally simulated photoelectron spectra are in good agreement with the experimental ones. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) tends to be preferred when the halides become heavier along the Periodic Table. This series of molecules provides an example for manipulating the oxidation state of metals in complexes through ligand design. PMID:26550845

  14. Proposition d'attribution de deux contrats pour la fourniture de fils supraconducteurs destines aux aimants de correction du LHC

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    Le présent document concerne l'attribution de deux contrats pour la fourniture de fils supraconducteurs émaillés de quatre types différents (fil 1, fil 2, fil 3 et fil 4) destinés aux aimants de correction du LHC. Un appel d'offres (IT-2649/LHC/LHC) a été adressé le 13 juillet 1999 à quatre entreprises dans quatre Etats membres, trois entreprises au Japon et trois entreprises aux Etats-Unis. A la date de clôture, le CERN avait reçu cinq offres. Il est demandé au Comité des finances d'approuver la négociation de deux contrats: 1. d'une part avec IGC (USA) pour la fourniture de fils supraconducteurs 1 et 2 destinés aux aimants de correction du LHC pour un prix total net de 996 074 dollars des Etats-Unis, non révisable, avec une option pour la fourniture de fils 1 et 2 supplémentaires représentant 20% de la quantité initiale pour un prix total net de 199 215 dollars des Etats-Unis, révisable, ce qui porte le montant total à 1 195 289 dollars US, révisable pour l'option. Au taux de change in...

  15. Phloem-Mobile Aux/IAA Transcripts Target to the Root Tip and Modify Root Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michitaka Notaguchi; Shmuel Wolf; William J. Lucas

    2012-01-01

    In plants,the phloem is the component of the vascular system that delivers nutrients and transmits signals from mature leaves to developing sink tissues.Recent studies have identified proteins,mRNA,and small RNA within the phloem sap of several plant species.It is now of considerable interest to elucidate the biological functions of these potential long-distance signal agents,to further our understanding of how plants coordinate their developmental programs at the whole-plant level.In this study,we developed a strategy for the functional analysis of phloem-mobile mRNA by focusing on IAA transcripts,whose mobility has previously been reported in melon (Cucumis melo cv.Hale's Best Jumbo).Indoleacetic acid (IAA) proteins are key transcriptional regulators of auxin signaling,and are involved in a broad range of developmental processes including root development.We used a combination of vasculature-enriched sampling and hetero-grafting techniques to identify IAA18 and IAA28 as phloemmobile transcripts in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.Micro-grafting experiments were used to confirm that these IAA transcripts,which are generated in vascular tissues of mature leaves,are then transported into the root system where they negatively regulate lateral root formation.Based on these findings,we present a model in which auxin distribution,in combination with phloem-mobile AuxIIAA transcripts,can determine the sites of auxin action.

  16. Cours Sécurité : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    DGS Unit

    2010-01-01

    Prochaine session le 21 octobre 2010. 12 places disponibles. Ce cours concerne toutes les personnes appelées à réaliser des manutentions manuelles dans le cadre de leurs activités. Contenu du cours : Théorie - Présentation des objectifs du programme ; - L'accident du travail (définition, coûts) ; - Statistiques CNAM ; - Notion d'anatomie (mécanique humaine) ; - Les différentes pathologies (lumbago, sciatique, hernie discale) ; - Discussion sur les problèmes particuliers rencontrés dans la vie courante. Pratique - Les efforts mécaniques sur la colonne dus aux mauvaises postures ; - Les principes de base de l'utilisation de la mécanique humaine ; - Exercices pratiques d'application (sur objets divers standards) ; - Prises de vues au caméscope des positions de chacun. Pour vous inscrire : https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/TRN?new=YES&...

  17. Application of solar chargers to prospection instruments; Application des chargeurs solaires aux appareils de prospection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caille, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The use of conventional batteries has certain disadvantages, and for this reason high-voltage batteries have been gradually replaced in all prospection instruments by transistor supply systems, using less cumbersome sources of energy. All the same low voltages are still necessary, and in hot or damp countries the use of these batteries leads to consumptions out of all proportion to the services rendered. This is why the use of solar energy possesses real advantages. After a brief review of the basic ideas on semiconductors, this article describes a selenium solar battery which was developed by the Westinghouse brakes and signals society. (author) [French] L'utilisation de piles classiques presente certains inconvenients. C'est pourquoi, dans tous les appareils de prospection, les piles fournissant des tensions elevees ont ete remplacees au fur et a mesure par des alimentations a base de transistors, utilisant des sources d'energie moins encombrantes. Toutefois, il faut tout de meme avoir des tensions faibles et l'utilisation de ces piles entraine dans les pays chauds ou humides une consommation disproportionnee par rapport aux services rendus. C'est pourquoi l'emploi de l'energie solaire presente de reels avantages. Cet expose decrit, apres un rappel de notion de base sur les semi-conducteurs, une batterie solaire a base de selenium qui a ete realisee par la Societe des freins et signaux Westinghouse. (auteur)

  18. Contribution to the study of french pitchblendes; Contribution a l'etude des pechblendes francaises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffroy, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. de Mineralogie, Centre de Chatillon (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Sarcia, J.A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Div. de la Crouzille, Haute Vienne (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The authors first review the characteristics of uraninite-pitchblende, as deduced of present literature. They set apart from typical pitchblende a black oxide aspect, which probably corresponds to neo-formations, and a 'para-pitchblende' aspect, which they relate to deep sur-oxidation of normal pitchblende. They insist on the easy replacement of pitchblende by silica. and give indications as to changes in vein stones (fluorite, quartz, etc...). A detailed study of paragenesis and successions in french uranium districts follows (including discussion of uranium of uranium-bearing coals). The authors attempt to classify french pitchblende veins. They are chiefly epithermal and poor in satellite ores. Three types of deposits are identified: massive - pitchblende type, silica type, fluorite type. These deposits, as those of Portugal, are included in granite, Central-European peri-batholitic types where uranium associates which Ni, Co, Bi and Ag, are in France both rare and poor. Finally, the authors attempt to bring out in the european Hercynian area a particular distribution of paragenetic types. (authors) [French] Les auteurs recapitulent d'abord les caracteres et les occurences de l'uraninite - pechblende, tels qu'ils peuvent etre degages de l'actuelle bibliographie. Ils exposent ensuite les faits qui du point de vue mineralogique seulement ressortent de l'etude mineralogique et chalcographique des pechblendes francaises et de leurs satellites. Ils distinguent de la pechblende-type un facies oxyde noir; correspondant probablement a une neoformation, et un facies parapechblende, qui est rapporte a une sur oxydation hypogene de la pechblende proprement dite. Ils insistent sur le facile remaniement de la pechblende par la slice; et donnent quelques precisions sur les modifications des gangues (fluorine, quartz, etc...). Suit l'etude detaillee des parageneses et des successions dans les districts uraniferes francais: Divisions du

  19. Professional Access 2013 programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hennig, Teresa; Hepworth, George; Yudovich, Dagi (Doug)

    2013-01-01

    Authoritative and comprehensive coverage for building Access 2013 Solutions Access, the most popular database system in the world, just opened a new frontier in the Cloud. Access 2013 provides significant new features for building robust line-of-business solutions for web, client and integrated environments.  This book was written by a team of Microsoft Access MVPs, with consulting and editing by Access experts, MVPs and members of the Microsoft Access team. It gives you the information and examples to expand your areas of expertise and immediately start to develop and upgrade projects. Exp

  20. Physical Access Control Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains the personnel access card data (photo, name, activation/expiration dates, card number, and access level) as well as data about turnstiles and...

  1. Access Customized Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Cosma Emil; Jeflea Victor

    2010-01-01

    By using Word, Excel or PowerPoint one can automate routine operations using the VBA language (Visual Basic for Applications). This language is also used in Access, allowing access to data stored in tables or queries. Thus, Access and VBA resources can be used together. Access is designed for programming forms and reports (among other things), so there won’t be found any of the VBA editor’s specific forms.

  2. Pegase: safety studies - experimental study of burn-out risks in transient operation; Pegase: etude de surete - etude experimentale des risques de burn out en regime transitoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernier, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    permet de conclure que le canal chaud se met en etat de calefaction au bout de 0.1 s et que sa temperature atteint 500 C en 0.8 s. Les regimes hydrodynamiques rencontres dans les canaux apres l'accident sont des regimes d'expulsion periodiques de periodes courtes 0.2 a 0.5 s, caracteristiques de l'ebullition a basse pression. L'etude en regime permanent de la redistribution de debit dans un by-pass a donne des flux PHI{sub R} de redistribution de 190 W/cm{sup 2} pour une vitesse de 4.5 m/s a 50 C et de 175 W/cm{sup 2} a 60 C. Ces valeurs sont a majorer de 25 pour cent pour une vitesse de 6 m/s. On a montre la distinction a faire entre flux critique PHI{sub C} en regime periodique d'expulsion et flux de redistribution PHI{sub R} en regime permanent. (auteur)

  3. Analytical Solutions and Optimization of the Exo-Irreversible Schmidt Cycle with Imperfect Regeneration for the 3 Classical Types of Stirling Engine Solutions analytiques et optimisation du cycle de Schmidt irréversible à régénération imparfaite appliquées aux 3 types classiques de moteur Stirling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle P.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The “old” Stirling engine is one of the most promising multi-heat source engines for the future. Simple and realistic basic models are useful to aid in optimizing a preliminary engine configuration. In addition to new proper analytical solutions for regeneration that dramatically reduce computing time, this study of the Schmidt-Stirling engine cycle is carried out from an engineer-friendly viewpoint introducing exo-irreversible heat transfers. The reference parameters are the technological or physical constraints: the maximum pressure, the maximum volume, the extreme wall temperatures and the overall thermal conductance, while the adjustable optimization variables are the volumetric compression ratio, the dead volume ratios, the volume phase-lag, the gas characteristics, the hot-to-cold conductance ratio and the regenerator efficiency. The new normalized analytical expressions for the operating characteristics of the engine: power, work, efficiency, mean pressure, maximum speed of revolution are derived, and some dimensionless and dimensional reference numbers are presented as well as power optimization examples with respect to non-dimensional speed, volume ratio and volume phase-lag angle.analytical solutions. Le “vieux” moteur Stirling est l’un des moteurs a sources multiples d’energie les plus prometteurs pour le futur. Des modeles elementaires simples et realistes sont utiles pour faciliter l’optimisation de configurations preliminaires du moteur. En plus de nouvelles solutions analytiques qui reduisent fortement le temps de calcul, cette etude du cycle moteur de Schmidt-Stirling modifie est entreprise avec le point de vue de l’ingenieur en introduisant les exo-irreversibilites dues aux transferts thermiques. Les parametres de reference sont des contraintes technologiques ou physiques : la pression maximum, le volume maximum, les temperatures de paroi extremes et la conductance totale, alors que les parametres d

  4. Open Access Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  5. Expression of wild-type PtrIAA14.1, a poplar Aux/IAA gene causes morphological changes in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanda eLiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aux/IAA proteins are transcriptional repressors that control auxin signaling by interacting with Auxin Response Factors (ARFs. So far all of the identified Aux/IAA mutants with auxin-related phenotypes in Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa are dominant gain-of-function mutants, with mutantions in Domain II that affected stability of the corresponding Aux/IAA proteins. On the other hand, morphological changes were observed in knock-down mutants of Aux/IAA genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, suggesting that functions of Aux/IAA proteins may be specific for certain plant species. We report here the characterization of PtrIAA14.1, a poplar (Populus trichocarpa homologue of IAA7. Bioinformatics analysis showed that PtrIAA14.1 is a classic Aux/IAA protein. It contains four conserved domains with the repressor motif in Domain I, the degron in Domain II, and the conserved amino acid signatures for protein-protein interactions in Domain III and Domain IV. Protoplast transfection assays showed that PtrIAA14.1 is localized in nucleus. It is unable in the presence of auxin, and it represses auxin response reporter gene expression. Expression of wild type PtrIAA14.1 in Arabidopsis resulted in auxin-related phenotypes including down-curling leaves, semi-draft with increased number of branches, and greatly reduced fertility, but expression of the Arabidopsis Aux/IAA genes tested remain largely unchanged in the transgenic plants. Protein-protein interaction assays in yeast and protoplasts showed that PtrIAA14.1 interacted with ARF5, but not other ARFs. Consistent with this observation, vascular patterning was altered in the transgenic plants, and the expression of AtHB8 (Arabidopsis thaliana Homeobox Gene 8 was reduced in transgenic plants.

  6. Etude et essais d'un système de mise en contrainte de Si

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Rives, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    La microélectronique a connu, depuis l’invention du transistor dans les années cinquante, un formidable essor. Le transistor, élément de base de tout circuit intégré, est présent à travers des nombreuses applications dans plusieurs domaines comme: l’aviation, l’électroménager, l’automobile, l’informatique, le spatial… Grâces aux progrès accomplis en microélectronique, le monde qui nous entoure a véritablement évolué. Il y a quelques années de nombreuses applications étaient réservées à ...

  7. Etude numérique de la convection mixte dans un tube incliné

    OpenAIRE

    Kholai, Omar; Bellaouar, Ahmed; Kadja, Mahfoud

    2007-01-01

    International audience Dans le présent travail, on étudie numériquement la convection mixte dans un tube circulaire incliné par rapport à l'horizontale et chauffé à l'aide d'un flux de chaleur constant et uniforme sur toute sa surface circonférentielle. L'écoulement à l'intérieur du tube est supposé laminaire pour un fluide newtonien et incompressible (l'eau). Les équations différentielles elliptiques régissantes sont résolues à l'aide de la méthode aux volumes finis. Les résultats sont ob...

  8. Etude de l'autofloculation dans un Chenal Algal à Haut Rendement (CAHR)

    OpenAIRE

    Baya, Dehenould Guy

    2012-01-01

    Dans la technique du Chenal Algal à Haut Rendement (CAHR), l’effluent récupéré est très riche en microalgues. Les caractéristiques particulières de ce système (faible profondeur, faible temps de séjour, agitation mécanique) combinées avec la présence d’ions inorganiques dans l’effluent sont les principaux éléments qui favorisent le développement intensif d’algues. Le rejet d’un tel effluent sans récupération préalable des microalgues est nuisible aux ressources biologiques terrestres et aquat...

  9. PME socialement responsables. Etudes de cas (Corporate social responsibility among smes. case studies)

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Ferreira; Blandine Laperche

    2007-01-01

    Ce document présente vingt-huit exemples de démarches positives en matière de responsabilité sociale mises en oeuvre par de petites et moyennes entreprises françaises. Les PME, souvent à l’écart des débats portant sur la responsabilité sociale des entreprises (RSE) sont pourtant assez souvent actives dans les domaines de l’environnement, de l’organisation du travail et de la société. Nous nous sommes particulièrement intéressées aux raisons qui incitent les PME à développer la RSE. Lorsqu’ell...

  10. Pro Access 2010 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Pro Access 2010 Development is a fundamental resource for developing business applications that take advantage of the features of Access 2010 and the many sources of data available to your business. In this book, you'll learn how to build database applications, create Web-based databases, develop macros and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) tools for Access applications, integrate Access with SharePoint and other business systems, and much more. Using a practical, hands-on approach, this book will take you through all the facets of developing Access-based solutions, such as data modeling, co

  11. Access 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ulrich Fuller, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    The easy guide to Microsoft Access returns with updates on the latest version! Microsoft Access allows you to store, organize, view, analyze, and share data; the new Access 2013 release enables you to build even more powerful, custom database solutions that integrate with the web and enterprise data sources. Access 2013 For Dummies covers all the new features of the latest version of Accessand serves as an ideal reference, combining the latest Access features with the basics of building usable databases. You'll learn how to create an app from the Welcome screen, get support

  12. Android Access Control Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Baláž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.

  13. Investigation of the diffusion {proportional_to} brasses using methods depending on the evaporation or condensation of zinc; Etude de la diffusion dans les laitons {proportional_to} au moyen des methodes d'evaporation ou de condensation du zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accary, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Centre d' Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique du CNRS (France)

    1959-07-01

    Diffusion in {alpha} brasses has been investigated using methods involving the evaporation and the condensation of zinc. Having shown that at sufficiently high temperatures intergranular diffusion has no effect, it was then proved that the rate of evaporation or of condensation can only be defined if the mechanical treatment of the test piece before diffusion, the direction of the diffusion and the nature of the impurities present are also defined. The coefficient of diffusion D is then given by the equation D ({pi}/4t){rho}{sup 2}{sub 0} where t is the duration of the diffusion; {rho}{sub 0} is the extrapolated value of {rho} = ({delta}m)/({delta}C) for a zero value of the variation of concentration ({delta}m in is the change in weight of the test piece per unit surface; {delta}C is the difference between the concentration at the surface and the initial concentration of the test piece). This method has been used to study the effect of the direction of the diffusion on the coefficient of diffusion. The coefficient for diffusion which decreases the concentration of zinc is 5 times greater than that for diffusion which increases the quantity of zinc in the metal; an interpretation of this phenomena based on the mechanism of diffusion vacancies in the structure has been proposed. By means of micrographic investigation and by weighing it has been shown that the presence of certain impurities, such as phosphorous, arsenic, antimony, silicon, and aluminium can result in a marked increase of the rate of diffusion: the effect of these impurities on the coefficient of diffusion has been related to their valency and atomic weight. (author) [French] La diffusion dans les laitons {alpha} a ete etudiee au moyen des methodes d'evaporation et de condensafion du zinc. Apres avoir montre qu'aux temperatures suffisamment elevees, la diffusion intergranulaire ne jouait aucun role, l'auteur a prouve que la vitesse d'evaporation ou de condensation n'est definie

  14. Dosimeter calibration facilities and methods at the Radiation Measurement Laboratory of the Centre d'etudes nucleaires, Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Centre d'etudes nucleaires, Grenoble, the Radiation Measurement Laboratory, which forms part of the Environmental Protection and Research Department, serves the entire Centre for purposes of dosimetry and the calibration of dose meters. The needs of radiation protection are such that one must have facilities for checking periodically the calibration of radiation-monitoring instruments and developing special dosimetry techniques. It was thought a good idea to arrange for the dosimetry and radiation protection team to assist other groups working at the Centre - in particular, the staff of the biology and radiobiology laboratories - and also bodies outside the framework of the French Commissariat a l'energie atomique. Thus, technical collaboration has been established with, for example, Grenoble's Centre hospitalier universitaire (university clinic), which makes use of the facilities and skills available at the Radiation Measurement Laboratory for solving special dosimetry problems. With the Laboratory's facilities it is possible to calibrate dose meters for gamma, beta and neutron measurements

  15. Urban Railway Accessibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Hongzhi; YIN Yuanfei; YAN Hai; HAN Yan; QIN Huanmei

    2007-01-01

    Effective use of urban rapid railway systems requires that the railway systems be effectively connected with other transportation modes so that they are accessible. This paper uses the logit model and data to analyze the factors influencing railway access choices in a railway choice access model. The results indicate that access time, access cost, and access distance are factors significantly affecting railway access choices. The user's income significantly affects the probability of choosing to walk rather than to take a taxi,but is not related to choosing buses or bicycles. Vehicle ownership significantly affects the probability of choosing a taxi, but is not significantly related to the other modes. The conclusions provide an analysis tool for urban railway planning and construction.

  16. Open Access @ DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Jeannette

    Open Access is high on the agenda in Denmark and internationally. Denmark has announced a national strategy for Open Access that aims to achieve Open Access to 80% in 2017 and 100% in 2022 to peer review research articles. All public Danish funders as well as H2020 requires that all peer review...... articles that is an outcome of their funding will be Open Access. Uploading your full texts (your final author manuscript after review ) to DTU Orbit is a fundamental part of providing Open Access to your research. We are here to answer all your questions with regards to Open Access and related topics...... such as copyright, DTU Orbit, Open Access journals, APCs, Vouchers etc....

  17. Evaluation of the radiology state at the CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses and its environment; Point sur l'etat radiologique du CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses et de son environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    Since 1946 the nuclear installations followed one other at the CEA of Fontenay-aux-Roses still their gradual stop the last ten years, except two installations INB34 and INB73, necessary for the wastes management. Today these installations form the subject of a drainage program. The public opinion is regularly informed on this program since 1999. This document presents the stock of the actions realized since this date: the track keeping of the sites activities impacts on the environment and the actions realized since 1999. (A.L.B.)

  18. RELIGION ET IMMIGRATION AUX ÉTATS-UNIS [Religion and immigration in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Gérard-François

    2012-01-01

    International audience In any country, the number of religions evolve according to the number of people who identify with the various religions and the number of people who deviate. In the United States, this type of evolution is particularly dependent on immigration resulting in significant changes in the religious distribution of the population. Aux États-Unis, l'évolution des effectifs des religions est tout particulièrement dépendant de l'immigration qui engendre des changements imp...

  19. Interactions entre les bacteries et les algues dans une culture continue de phytoplancton naturel soumise aux conditions exterieures

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, M; Martin, Y; Lelong, P; Breittmayer, V

    1984-01-01

    Au cours d'une expérience de culture continue de phytoplancton marin en grand volume soumise aux conditions extérieures, des tests microbiologiques et biochimiques ont été effectués pour mettre en évidence la production de substances antibactériennes et antialgales par les algues unicellulaires. De nombreux paramètres ont été mesurés pour caractériser la croissance de ces algues (qualitativement et quantitativement) et des bassin expérimental et dans la biomasse à différents stades de la cult...

  20. Mobilisations urbaines et espaces de résistance aux Jeux Olympiques de Londres et de Vancouver

    OpenAIRE

    Nativel, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    En juillet 2012, Londres accueillera les Jeux Olympiques et Paralympiques d’été. Partant du constat que l’organisation et la tenue de grands évènements sportifs suscitent d’importantes controverses et que les mouvements d’opposition aux JO restent encore méconnus, cet article propose d’identifier et d’analyser les mobilisations et espaces de résistance dans la capitale britannique. Il présente quelques éléments théoriques ainsi que la genèse et les principaux marqueurs contextuels des JO lond...

  1. Les références aux documents en ligne dans les textes scientifiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Couture

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available [Français] Avec le développement de la diffusion en ligne de documents scientifiques, la primauté reconnue traditionnellement à l’imprimé devient de moins en moins pertinente ; les références à des ressources et documents en ligne forment ainsi une proportion significative des références dans certaines revues scientifiques, notamment celles qui, comme la RITPU, s’intéressent à l’information et à la communication. Dans cet article, on passe d’abord en revue les divers rôles des références répertoriés dans la littérature. On décrit ensuite les caractéristiques et les conditions permettant aux documents en ligne de jouer pleinement ces rôles. On montre enfin comment, dans l’adaptation française des normes de l’APA adoptée par la RITPU, certains choix touchant le format des notices des documents en ligne facilitent la tâche des évaluateurs et des lecteurs des articles. Par la même occasion, les auteurs y trouveront conseils et consignes visant à rendre plus pertinente et efficace cette dimension souvent négligée de la communication scientifique. [English] With the increase of online scientific publications, the traditional primacy of print documents has become less and less relevant. In some scientific journals, notably in the field of information technology and its applications (like IJTHE, a significant part of the citations now refer to online documents. This paper first reviews the various roles played by citations in scientific texts according to the literature. It then describes the characteristics and conditions which must be met if citations to online documents are to fully play these roles. Finally, it shows how, in the French-language adaptation of the APA reference formats which was adopted by IJTHE, a few choices have been made regarding online references in order to ease the task of both referees and readers. By the same token, authors will find guidelines and suggestions which should improve

  2. Migrants' access to healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie

    2011-01-01

    There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare...... according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why...... are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were...

  3. Access Data Analysis Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bluttman, Ken

    2008-01-01

    This book offers practical recipes to solve a variety of common problems that users have with extracting Access data and performing calculations on it. Whether you use Access 2007 or an earlier version, this book will teach you new methods to query data, different ways to move data in and out of Access, how to calculate answers to financial and investment issues, how to jump beyond SQL by manipulating data with VBA, and more.

  4. Usability and accessibility curricula

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Mora, Sergio; Cachero Castro, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Presentation of existing curricula connected with usability and accessibility at the University of Alicante for the Leonardo da Vinci project "GUI Usability and Accessibility: Exchanging Knowledge and Experiences" (Grenoble, France, 27 November 2012). Presentación del currículo actual relacionado con la usabilidad y la accesibilidad en la Universidad de Alicante para el proyecto Leonardo da Vinci "GUI Usability and Accessibility: Exchanging Knowledge and Experiences" (Grenoble, Francia, 27...

  5. Web Accessibility and Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.

  6. OGIS Access System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The OGIS Access System (OAS) provides case management, stakeholder collaboration, and public communications activities including a web presence via a web portal.

  7. THE LAW SOCIETY OF UPPER CANADA AND ACCESS TO JUSTICE: LESSONS FROM LAWYER-LICENSING REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wiseman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The process for licensing new lawyers in Ontario is in the midst of significant change following the Law Society of Upper Canada’s approval of a recommendation by it’s Articling Task Force to introduce of a 3-year pilot project that will provide a program of practical legal training as an alternative to articling.  This article describes and critically analyzes these changes and the process that led to them in relation to three aspects of access to justice: access to the legal profession, access to legal services, and access to legal governance.  The analysis reveals numerous shortcomings that provide lessons that could be applied to the proposal for evaluating the pilot project as well as to the Law Society’s recently announced initiative to overhaul its institutional approach to access to justice.   Le processus d’accès à la profession qui s’applique aux nouveaux avocats en Ontario fait actuellement l’objet de changements importants. Le Barreau du Haut-Canada a approuvé un projet pilote de trois ans recommandé par son Groupe de travail sur le stage, dans le cadre duquel il sera possible de suivre un programme de pratique du droit plutôt que de faire un stage. Le présent article décrit et analyse de façon critique ces changements – ainsi que le processus ayant mené aux changements – par rapport à trois aspects de l’accès à la justice : l’accès à la profession juridique, l’accès aux services juridiques et l’accès à la gouvernance juridique. L’analyse fait ressortir de nombreuses lacunes qui pourraient servir de leçons à appliquer à la proposition d’évaluation du projet pilote ainsi qu’à l’initiative récemment annoncée du Barreau visant à réviser son approche institutionnelle à l’accès à la justice.

  8. Les ecarts de financement en matiere d'adaptation aux changements climatiques - avec la perspective des CPDN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Anne; Bee, Skylar; Puig, Daniel

    rapport sur les écarts financiers et les options permettant de les combler. Le rapport sera publié au printemps 2016. Cette mise à jour doit contribuer aux débats lors de la 21ème session de la Conférence des Parties (COP 21) à la Convention-Cadre des Nations Unies sur les Changements Climatiques (CCNUCC......). Elle comprend les principales conclusions concernant les coûts et les financements de l’adaptation aux changements climatiques du rapport AGR 2014 du PNUE ainsi que les conclusions préliminaires de l’évaluation de 2016. De plus, elle s’appuie sur les réflexions concernant les coûts de l’adaptation et...... les besoins de financement présentes dans les composantes adaptation des Contributions Prévues Déterminées au niveau National (CPDN) (INDC) – soit les engagements post 2020 que les pays se proposent mettre en oeuvre dans le cadre d’un nouvel accord mondial sur les changements climatiques....

  9. Low-energy electron observation of graphite and molybdenite crystals. Application to the study of graphite oxidation; Observation au moyen d'electrons de faible energie de cristaux de graphite et de molybdenite. Application a l'etude de l'oxydation du graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The LEED study of cleaved (0001) faces of crystals having a layered structure allowed to investigate flakes free of steps on graphite and molybdenite, to show twinning on natural graphite. By intensity measurements and computation in the case of a kinematical approximation it has been possible to determine an inner potential of 19 eV for graphite and to identify the direction of the Mo-S bond of the surface layer of molybdenite. The oxidation of graphite has been studied by observing changes, in symmetry of the diffraction patterns and by mass spectrometry of the gases evolved during the oxidation. No surface compounds have been detected and the carbon layers appeared to be peeled off one after the other. The oxidation took place at temperatures higher than 520 C under an oxygen pressure of 10{sup -5} torr. (author) [French] L'etude par diffraction des electrons lents des faces (0001) de cristaux ayant une structure en feuillet a permis de mettre en evidence des plages sans gradins sur des clivages de graphite et de molybdenite caracterisees par la symetrie ternaire des diagrammes, de montrer l'existence de macles sur des cristaux de graphite naturel. Un calcul utilisant une approximation cinematique a ete applique aux intensites mesurees des taches de diffraction; il a ete ainsi possible de determiner un potentiel interne de 19 eV pour le graphite et de preciser la direction de la liaison Mo-S du feuillet superficiel de la molybdenite. L'oxydation du graphite a ete etudiee en mettant en relation des changements de symetrie des diagrammes de diffraction avec l'analyse des gaz provenant de la reaction carbone-oxygene. Il a ete montre qu'il n'y avait pas formation de composes de surface et que les couches de carbone etaient enlevees les unes apres les autres. L'oxydation a ete observee sous une pression d'oxygene de 10{sup -5} torr au-dessus de 520 C. (auteur)

  10. INFLUENCE DE LA STRUCTURE ET DE LA SEGREGATION AUX JOINTS DE GRAINS SUR LES PROPRIETES ELECTRIQUES ET LE RENDEMENT PHOTOVOLTAIQUE DU SILICIUM POLYCRISTALLIN

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, J.; Laval, J

    1982-01-01

    On relie les propriétés électriques et structurales des joints de grains dans le cas du silicium polycristallin produit par la méthode Bridgman (C.G.E.), en comparant les mesures macroscopiques de réponse photovoltaïque (LBIC) et de chute de potentiel aux joints, aux analyses cristallographiques et chimiques effectuées en microscopie électronique (STEM, EDS, EELS). On peut distinguer trois types de joints : 1) les joints plans -cohérents- qui n'influent pas sur le photocourant, à moins d'être...

  11. Homosexualité/hétérosexualité : les enquêtes sur les comportements sexuels en France et aux USA

    OpenAIRE

    Lhomond, Brigitte; Michaels, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Cet article propose une analyse des résultats concernant l’attirance et les pratiques homosexuelles dans les deux enquêtes nationales récentes sur les comportements sexuels en France et aux USA. On observe des attitudes sociales différentes vis‑à‑vis de l’homosexualité dans les deux pays avec une beaucoup plus grande acceptation en France, une affirmation plus nette de l’attirance homosexuelle aux Etats‑Unis, surtout chez les hommes et une structuration socio-démographique assez similaire des...

  12. Le secteur bovin (viande et lait): quel avenir face aux évolutions des marchés et de la PAC ?

    OpenAIRE

    Chatellier, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Cette communication propose une synthèse des principales évolutions économiques de la filière bovine. Elle présente, dans un premier temps, l’évolution de la production, de la consommation et des échanges de viande bovine aux échelles internationales, communautaires et françaises. Dans une même logique, elle s’intéresse ensuite au secteur laitier. Dans une dernière partie, une réflexion est proposée quant aux évolutions pressenties de la PAC pour ces deux productions agricoles....

  13. Tolérance aux fautes dans les applications J2EE: Une solution scalable et générique

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchenak, Sara; Krakowiak, Sacha; De Plama, Noël

    2005-01-01

    La plate-forme J2EE définit un modèle pour développer des applications réparties dans une architecture multi-tiers, telles que les applications Web de commerce électronique. Avec la multiplication des couches logicielles et intergicielles, les applications Internet sont encore plus sujettes aux défaillances ; ces défaillances étant, pour la majorité, causées par des fautes logicielles ou des fautes de l'opérateur. Dans cet article, nous proposons un système de tolérance aux fautes qui traite ...

  14. Coded Random Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paolini, Enrico; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Liva, Gianluigi;

    2015-01-01

    as waste. However, if the common receiver (e.g., base station) is capable to store the collision slots and use them in a transmission recovery process based on successive interference cancellation, the design space for access protocols is radically expanded. We present the paradigm of coded random access...

  15. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both...

  16. Intellectual Access to Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Liang; Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1999-01-01

    The increased availability of digital images is accompanied by a need for solutions to the problems inherent in indexing them for retrieval. Problems in image description and access are discussed, with a perspective on traditional and new solutions. Recent developments in intellectual access to images are surveyed and contrasted with…

  17. The Open Access Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Xia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to review various aspects of the open access divide regarding the difference between those academics who support free sharing of data and scholarly output and those academics who do not. It provides a structured description by adopting the Ws doctrines emphasizing such questions as who, what, when, where and why for information-gathering. Using measurable variables to define a common expression of the open access divide, this study collects aggregated data from existing open access as well as non-open access publications including journal articles and extensive reports. The definition of the open access divide is integrated into the discussion of scholarship on a larger scale.

  18. Experimental study of the Rapsodie protections; Etude experimentale des protections de rapsodie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapelet, M.; Edeline, J.; Lhiaubet, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This report gives details of the protection tests which have been carried out by the Protection Sub-Commission during the starting-up trials on the reactor Rapsodie. The main types of tests reported concern the flux measurements in the core, the reflectors, the sodium and the near biological protections, the radio-protection measurements in the premises, and the activation of the principal fluids. In the last part, the results obtained are analyzed and compared to the forecast calculations. (author) [French] Ce rapport rend compte des essais de protection qui ont ete effectues dans le cadre des essais de demarrage de RAPSODIE par la Sous Commission Protection. Les principaux types d'essais rapportes sont les mesures de flux dans le coeur, les reflecteurs, le sodium et les protections biologiques proches, les mesures de radioprotection dans les locaux, et l'activation des principaux fluides. Dans la derniere partie, les resultats obtenus sont analyses et compares aux calculs previsionnels. (auteur)

  19. Pediatric vascular access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  20. Pediatric vascular access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, James S. [Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging, Children' s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  1. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    According to the literature, well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. Such conflict between welfare and market access...... objectives of trade policy is problematic and calls for finding alternative tariff reform rules that can achieve both objectives at the same time. The present paper contributes to this aim by using a new set of tariff reforms that are based on local optimality. Using such reforms it is shown that market...

  2. Access 2010 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ulrich Fuller, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    A friendly, step-by-step guide to the Microsoft Office database application Access may be the least understood and most challenging application in the Microsoft Office suite. This guide is designed to help anyone who lacks experience in creating and managing a database learn to use Access 2010 quickly and easily. In the classic For Dummies tradition, the book provides an education in Access, the interface, and the architecture of a database. It explains the process of building a database, linking information, sharing data, generating reports, and much more.As the Micr

  3. Preparatory operations before emptying of tank B located in the former Petrus tank room in Building 18 at the CEA site at Fontenay-aux-Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toulemonde, V.; Jeanjacques, M.; Feaugas, P. [DRSN, CEA/DEN, CEA/Siege (Paris), 31-33, rue de la Federation, 75752 Paris cedex 15 (France); Idasiak, J.M.; Brenneis, C.; Laurent, F. [DDCO, CEA/DEN, CEA/Siege (Paris), 31-33, rue de la Federation, 75752 Paris cedex 15 (France); Bisel, I.; Pochon, P. [DRCP, CEA/DEN, CEA/Siege (Paris), 31-33, rue de la Federation, 75752 Paris cedex 15 (France)

    2003-07-01

    The Petrus line is installed in Hall 40, of Unit 4 of Building 18 at the CEA centre at Fontenay-aux-Roses. It was used for the production of transuranic elements between 1970 and July 1995, when operations in Building 18 ended. The Petrus cell, which was in place until 1965, was replaced by the shielded Petrus line at the late sixties. It was connected to two vulcathene effluent tanks (1 and 2), each with a capacity of 1 m{sup 3}, located on the second sub-level of the building in a room referred to as the 'former Petrus tank room'. These tanks were supplied by a main pipe shielded with 15 cm of lead located in the upstream adit. The content of these tanks was extracted via the intermediate tank to the Circe zone, held at a negative pressure differential and located in the downstream adit, at an intermediate level relative to level 0. From this tank, liquors were removed by suction with tank truck pumps. The Petrus line is also connected to three stainless steel tanks (A, B and C), with a capacity of 0.5 m{sup 3} each, located in the same room as the vulcathene tanks. The former tank room is entered via a lobby connected to the room by a lead plug door. The tank room is severely contaminated. Access to the room is therefore prevented due to the contamination and the high ambient dose rate. The stainless steel tanks that still contain liquors have been emptied using the existing piping, with the exception of tank B which still contains trilaurylamine (TLA) solution containing large amounts of actinides.The paper has the following contents: I. Introduction; II. The problem; III. Closed-circuit television investigation - connection to the PYRAMIDE software; IV. Taking of samples from tank; IV.I. General; IV.2. Phase 0: Preliminary work in Building 18; IV.3. Phase 1: Continuous scavenging of tank; IV.3. Phase 2: Making the borehole; IV.4. Phase 3: Installation of glovebox; IV.6. Phase 4: Cutting of the two pipes; IV.7. Stage 5. Fibro-scopic inspection; IV.8

  4. Preparatory operations before emptying of tank B located in the former Petrus tank room in Building 18 at the CEA site at Fontenay-aux-Roses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Petrus line is installed in Hall 40, of Unit 4 of Building 18 at the CEA centre at Fontenay-aux-Roses. It was used for the production of transuranic elements between 1970 and July 1995, when operations in Building 18 ended. The Petrus cell, which was in place until 1965, was replaced by the shielded Petrus line at the late sixties. It was connected to two vulcathene effluent tanks (1 and 2), each with a capacity of 1 m3, located on the second sub-level of the building in a room referred to as the 'former Petrus tank room'. These tanks were supplied by a main pipe shielded with 15 cm of lead located in the upstream adit. The content of these tanks was extracted via the intermediate tank to the Circe zone, held at a negative pressure differential and located in the downstream adit, at an intermediate level relative to level 0. From this tank, liquors were removed by suction with tank truck pumps. The Petrus line is also connected to three stainless steel tanks (A, B and C), with a capacity of 0.5 m3 each, located in the same room as the vulcathene tanks. The former tank room is entered via a lobby connected to the room by a lead plug door. The tank room is severely contaminated. Access to the room is therefore prevented due to the contamination and the high ambient dose rate. The stainless steel tanks that still contain liquors have been emptied using the existing piping, with the exception of tank B which still contains trilaurylamine (TLA) solution containing large amounts of actinides.The paper has the following contents: I. Introduction; II. The problem; III. Closed-circuit television investigation - connection to the PYRAMIDE software; IV. Taking of samples from tank; IV.I. General; IV.2. Phase 0: Preliminary work in Building 18; IV.3. Phase 1: Continuous scavenging of tank; IV.3. Phase 2: Making the borehole; IV.4. Phase 3: Installation of glovebox; IV.6. Phase 4: Cutting of the two pipes; IV.7. Stage 5. Fibro-scopic inspection; IV.8. Stage 6: Sample-taking

  5. Etude par spectroscopie de Coulomb de points quantiques lateraux individuels et couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioro-Ladriere, Michel

    Des points quantiques contenant un nombre discret et variable d'electrons sont formes dans un gaz bi-dimensionnel d'electrons a l'aide de grilles metalliques. Le transport electrique, le blocage de spin et la detection de charge sont employes comme outils spectroscopiques permettant de sonder les proprietes de ces nanostructures. Ces techniques permettent aussi de controler exactement le nombres d'electrons confines dans des points quantiques individuels et couples en utilisant un patron de grille judicieux. Une technique de refroidissement en tension est developpee afin de minimiser les effets parasites du bruit telegraphique. Ce type de bruit de charge deteriore la stabilite des nanostructures laterales par l'activation d'un minuscule courant de fuite entre les grilles et le gaz bi-dimensionnel. Un modele expliquant le role du refroidissement en tension sur le courant de fuite est presente. L'activation du courant de fuite est confirmee par detection de charge. Les effets des interactions entre les electrons pieges dans un point quantique sont ensuite etudies dans un regime ou il est possible de comparer les resulats experimentaux avec ceux obtenus par diagonalisation exacte. L'etude demontre que la phase associee au facteur de remplissage nu = 2 est instable au-dessus d'un nombre critique d'electrons. Cette instabilite est confirmee experimentalement par blocage de spin. On demontre aussi l'existence d'etats correles dans le regime des renversements de spin, associe au passage de la phase nu = 2 a nu = 1. Les etats correles sont identifies par spectroscopie en transport non lineaire. Cette caracterisation du diagramme de phase de points individuels permet de coupler deux points quantiques configures a nu = 2. Pour ce regime, la nanostructure se comporte comme un systeme a deux niveaux pouvant contenir entre un et quatre electrons de valence et ce, meme si le nombre total d'electrons est plus eleve. Les degres de liberte de charge et de spin des deux points

  6. Extra- and intrathoracic access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarides, Miltos K; Georgakarakos, Efstratios I; Schoretsanitis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    The most complex patients requiring vascular access are those with bilateral central vein occlusions. Endovascular repair of the central lesions when feasible allow upper extremity use for access. When endovascular repair is not feasible, femoral vein transposition should be the next choice. When lower limb access sites have been exhausted or are contraindicated as in obese patients and in patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease, a range of extrathoracic "exotic" extra-anatomic access procedures as the necklace cross-chest arteriovenous (AV) grafts, the ipsilateral axillo-axillary loops, the brachial-jugular AV grafts, the axillo-femoral AV grafts or even intra-thoracic ones as the right atrial AV bypasses represent the vascular surgeon's last resort. The selection among those extra-anatomical chest-wall procedures should be based upon each patient's anatomy or patient-specific factors. PMID:24817469

  7. Access cavity preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, N; Tomson, P L

    2014-03-01

    Each stage of root canal treatment should be carried out to the highest possible standard. The access cavity is arguably the most important technical stage, as subsequent preparation of the root canal(s) can be severely comprised if this is not well executed. Inadequate access can lead to canals being left untreated, poorly disinfected, difficult to shape and obturate, and may ultimately lead to the failure of the treatment. This paper highlights common features in root canal anatomy and outlines basic principles for locating root canals and producing a good access cavity. It also explores each phase of the preparation in detail and offers suggestions of instruments that have been specifically designed to overcome potential difficulties in the process. Good access design and preparation will result in an operative environment which will facilitate cleaning, shaping and obturation of the root canal system in order to maximise success.

  8. Accessibility and assistive products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Porrero, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Accessibility and assistive products and technologies are needed to ensure the rights of persons with disabilities and older persons. Many developments have been implemented in laws, standards, markets and from the consumers perspective, at international, European and national levels. The real issue is that not all the potential users benefit from the use of assistive products or accessible measures. Discussion Innovative methods are needed to allow all potential users to have real advantage of assistive technologies and accessible and design for all facilities. Best practices will be presented and existing gaps and recommendations will be discussed. Cost-benefits aspects will also be presented. Conclusion In order to get advantages from opportunities of globalization, hard work and responsibilities of all stakeholders are needed, so that assistive products and accessibility reach a whole range of situations and environments and contribute to ensure quality of life in a society for all.

  9. Access/AML

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The AccessAML is a web-based internet single application designed to reduce the vulnerability associated with several accounts assinged to a single users. This is a...

  10. The universal access handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Stephanidis, Constantine

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the field of Universal Access has made significant progress in consolidating theoretical approaches, scientific methods and technologies, as well as in exploring new application domains. Increasingly, professionals in this rapidly maturing area require a comprehensive and multidisciplinary resource that addresses current principles, methods, and tools. Written by leading international authorities from academic, research, and industrial organizations and nonmarket institutions, The Universal Access Handbook covers the unfolding scientific, methodological, technological, and pol

  11. CERN access cards

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Holders of CERN access cards are reminded that the card is an official document. It is important to carry it with you at all times when you are on the site. This applies also to those on standby duty who are called out for emergency interventions. As announced in Weekly Bulletin 13/2006, any loss or theft of access cards must be declared to the competent external authorities.

  12. Children's access to medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Alkahtani, Saad Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Access to health care for children is important. It is dependent on access to health professionals and also parental attitudes towards illness. Children have the right to receive medicines that are scientifically evaluated for both efficacy and safety. Counterfeit and substandard medicines unfortunately result in the death of many children worldwide. There have been particular problems with diethylene glycol which has been used as a solvent in counterfeit medicines. It has also been foun...

  13. IMPROVING ACCESS TO DRUGS

    OpenAIRE

    Max Joseph Herman

    2012-01-01

    Although essentially not all therapies need drug intervention, drugs is still an important components in health sector, either in preventive, curative, rehabilitative or promotion efforts. Hence the access to drugs is a main problem, either in international or national scale even to the smallest unit. The problem on access to drugs is very complicated and cannot be separated especially from pharmacy management problems; moreover in general from the overall lack of policy development and effec...

  14. Une méthode de production de truites fario destinées aux repeuplements de restauration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAISSE G.

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Une méthode de production de populations de truites fario présentant une forte variabilité génétique est proposée pour les repeuplements de restauration. Du sperme de géniteurs sauvage est conservé à des températures voisines de 0° C et à l'obscurité, pendant la durée du transport entre le cours d'eau d'origine et la pisciculture, où l'on procède à l'insémination d'ovules de truites fario d'élevage en utilisant le dilueur de sperme 532. La descendance est destinée de préférence aux déversements au stade oeuf dans le milieu préalablement restauré.

  15. Environnements stellaire : des étoiles lambda Boötis aux disques protoplanétaires

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    J'ai effectué une étude des éléments C, N, et O dans les atmosphères d'étoiles chimiquement particulières de la séquence principale, où ils sont sous-abondants et répartis de manière inhomogène. J'ai recensé les processus physiques qu'il faut inclure dans les calculs d'accélération radiative et montré leur importance relative. Des améliorations majeures par rapport aux approximations usuelles ont été obtenues grâce à l'utilisation systématique des données atomiques du projet OPACITY. Elles pe...

  16. Les images de l’Arabie Saoudite aux États-Unis - De 1973 au 11 septembre 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond Vidén, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Cette étude avance l’idée que la relation américano-saoudienne « spéciale » fait partie intégrante d’un récit sur la relation entre les États-Unis et l’Arabie Saoudite, créé par la compagnie pétrolière ARAMCO et entretenu par Washington au travers de déclarations, doctrines politiques et voyages officiels en Arabie Saoudite. L’Arabie Saoudite elle-même entretient ce récit avec sa diplomatie publique et l’influence exercée par le « lobby saoudien » aux États-Unis. Ce récit souligne l’importanc...

  17. The Politics of Religion in the United States Manifestations politiques de la religion aux États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Braml

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aux États-Unis, les attitudes religieuses ont plus d’influence sur les choix politiques que dans n’importe quelle autre démocratie occidentale. L’engagement religieux/moral de la droite chrétienne polarise les États-Unis, ce qui a des conséquences sur le plan électoral mais aussi sur les choix politiques réels. L’importance de la droite chrétienne dans la coalition électorale du Parti républicain oblige celui-ci à mettre l’accent sur les questions liées à la sécurité nationale, en particulier la lutte anti-terroriste, afin de mieux souder une coalition électorale hétérogène.

  18. ALDUY Cécile, WAHNICH Stéphane, 2015, Marine Le Pen prise aux mots

    OpenAIRE

    Née, Émilie

    2016-01-01

    Alors que le discours politique est l’objet privilégié, l’objet « noble », presque naturel de l’analyse de discours française (du côté de la lexicologie comme de la rhétorique), peu de chercheurs se sont penchés sur les discours des dirigeants du Front national. Et pourtant, comme l’indique Cécile Alduy en ouverture de Marine Le Pen prise aux mots, l’histoire du Front national « c’est aussi, fondamentalement, une histoire de mots » (p. 14). Ce paradoxe s’explique si l’on considère le discours...

  19. Le registre aux notices de Dinant : le nombre d'affaires d'avortement transmises à la justice

    OpenAIRE

    Villers, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    L’analyse des articles du Code pénal sanctionnant l’avortement a prouvé combien il était malaisé de rassembler et de démontrer les quatre éléments constitutifs de l’avortement. Dans l’impasse face à cette infraction d’un autre genre, la justice n’a souvent d’autre choix que d’abandonner les poursuites. L’orientation dominante des affaires d’avortement est donc le sans suite ou le non-lieu. Comment les connaître et les quantifier ? À cet égard, le registre aux notices, témoin de l’activité du ...

  20. Dépouillement de l'essai aux barres de Hopkinson par une technique de calcul inverse

    OpenAIRE

    Gary, G.; Zhao, H

    1994-01-01

    Le dépouillement classique des essais aux barres d'Hopkinson ne permet pas la mesure directe d'une relation précise "contrainte-déformation" à vitesse de déformation constante en raison du non équilibre des forces et de la variation importante de vitesse de déformation au cours de l'essai, en particulier dans la zone des faibles déformations. Nous proposons ici une méthode de dépouillement basée sur une technique du calcul inverse permettant de passer outre ces limitations, et d'améliorer ain...

  1. Le "non-recours" aux soins des populations précaires. Constructions et réceptions des normes.

    OpenAIRE

    Rode, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    Les populations précaires sont celles pour qui persistent les difficultés dans l'accès et l'utilisation des soins, alors que leur état de santé est plus dégradé que pour le reste de la population. Ces constats communs à plusieurs études viennent pleinement réinterroger l'effectivité des dispositifs – protection et services de soins – mis en place en France depuis les années 1990 pour favoriser l'accès aux soins de tous. Dans ce contexte, la question du « non-recours » dans le domaine des soin...

  2. Marketers as Innovators: how ethnic marketing revisits ethnicity Marketing ethnique et innovation aux États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine Pauwels

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available L’innovation aux États-Unis est ici vue sous un angle social et culturel. Il ne s’agit plus d’étudier l’innovation technologique, mais l’innovation en matière de produit. L’article aborde la création de valeur à travers la variable ethnique dans le domaine de la vente, du marketing et de la publicité. Les nouvelles tendances en matière d’ethno-marketing sont analysées, en particulier la manière dont les professionnels utilisent la notion d’ethnicité pour vendre des produits de consommation courante à un marché de consommateurs de plus en plus exigeants, soit en ayant recours à une segmentation de ces consommateurs en micro-marchés toujours plus étroits, soit en privilégiant un marketing multi- ou trans-culturel.

  3. Décentraliser la gestion de réseaux grâce aux agents mobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Galtier, Virginie

    1998-01-01

    Stage de DEA. Rapport de stage.; Dans un contexte où les réseaux informatiques et de télécommunications prennent une importance toujours plus critique, la gestion de réseaux devient une activité cruciale. Mais les systèmes inspirés du modèle centralisé de l'OSI et largement utilisés s'adaptent mal aux nouvelles caractéristiques des réseaux actuels (de plus en plus évolutifs). Utiliser les agents mobiles pour décentraliser cette gestion permettrait de gagner en efficacité en distribuant la tâc...

  4. Le monde arabe face aux d\\'efis de l'eau : enjeux et conflits

    OpenAIRE

    Mutin, Georges

    2009-01-01

    In the past years, water has become a global concern. This essential and irreplaceable resource is unevenly distributed between Continents. North Africa and Middle East Arabic countries appear to be the most menaced area. From a starting point : 4.3% of the world population has access to only 0.67% of the resources for sustainable soft water. After decades of voluntarism, self-help, and of technical and development keen interest, times of worries have started. Since the 50's, all the efforts,...

  5. Saqayti: For greater rationalization of tapstand water supplies Une meilleure rationalisation de la distribution d’eau grâce aux Saqaytis Saqayti para racionalizar la utilización de los puntos de abastecimiento de agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hascoet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In Morocco, considerable progress has been made in connecting users to water and sanitation. However, some households, particularly in urban and surrounding areas, currently cannot be given an individual connection to the drinking water network due to a lack of equipment and/or financial reasons. To ensure that they have access to this essential service, these households are generally supplied by means of communal tapstands (CTs where water is made available to them free of charges by the local authorities. While these open access CTs provide a temporary connection solution, they do not enable the resource to be optimally managed nor equitably shared. Free and open access to all has lead to over-consumption, wastage, and use of the resource by consumers outside the intended beneficiary group. This results in heavy costs for the municipalities concerned and jeopardizes the sustainability of the utility. In response to this situation, and in accordance with the recommendations of the international community and of civil society, a new type of tapstand “Saqayti” has been developed to distribute prepaid water to beneficiaries in Rabat, Tangier and Tetouan. Saqaytis allow for targeted distribution of the utility to the intended beneficiaries as they are accessible by means of a chip card distributed to users on a case-by-case basis by the municipal authority. These users benefit from free access to the tapstand up to a monthly limit equivalent to their basic needs. This paper aims at demonstrating how Saqayti has shown itself to be an innovative addition to the provision of individual utility connections, providing the poorest with access to a water and sanitation service which meets international standards of quality, and fulfills a threefold goal of economic, social and environmental progress.Au Maroc, l’accès à l’eau et à l’assainissement a connu des progrès considérables au cours des dix dernières années. Cependant certains

  6. L’institutionnalisme de John Commons et les origines de l’État providence aux États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel da Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La politique officielle des États-Unis, soutenue par la pensée économique et juridique, était à l’origine le « laissez-faire » sur le marché et dans les relations de travail. Cet article analyse la construction d’un rôle légitime pour l’État dans la régulation sociale du marché du travail à travers l’ébauche de réglementations du travail et l’émergence de dispositifs de protection sociale aux États-Unis. Nous analyserons tout d’abord comment le mouvement progressiste a impulsé certaines réformes sociales établissant les prémisses d’une législation sociale ; nous nous attacherons ensuite à démontrer la contribution majeure de l’institutionnalisme de John Commons et de ses disciples de l’université du Wisconsin à la conception et au développement de l’État providence aux États-Unis.The official policy of the United States, backed by economic and legal thought, was originally “laissez-faire” on the market and in labor relations. This article analyzes the development of a legitimate role for the state in the social regulation of the labor market through the emergence of the early labor regulations and social protection schemes in the United States. We first analyze how the progressive movement brought about certain social reforms establishing the beginnings of social legislation; we will then focus on the major contribution of the institutionalism of John Commons and his followers from the University of Wisconsin to the design and the development of the welfare state in the United States.

  7. Diversification and expression of the PIN, AUX/LAX and ABCB families of putative auxin transporters in Populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola eCarraro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular transport of the plant hormone auxin is mediated by three families of membrane-bound protein carriers, with the PIN and ABCB families coding primarily for efflux proteins and the AUX/LAX family coding for influx proteins. In the last decade our understanding of gene and protein function for these transporters in Arabidopsis has expanded rapidly but very little is known about their role in woody plant development. Here we present a comprehensive account of all three families in the model woody species Populus, including chromosome distribution, protein structure, quantitative gene expression, and evolutionary relationships. The PIN and AUX/LAX gene families in Populus comprise 16 and 8 members respectively, and show evidence for the retention of paralogs following a relatively recent whole genome duplication. There is also evidence for differential expression across tissues within many gene pairs. The ABCB family is previously undescribed in Populus and includes 20 members, showing a much deeper evolutionary history including both tandem and whole genome duplication as well as probable loss. A striking number of these transporters are expressed in developing Populus stems and we suggest that evolutionary and structural relationships with known auxin transporters in Arabidopsis can point toward candidate genes for further study in Populus. This is especially important for the ABCBs, which is a large family and includes members in Arabidopsis that are able to transport other substrates in addition to auxin. Protein modeling, sequence alignment and expression data all point to ABCB1.1 as a likely auxin transport protein in Populus. Given that basipetal auxin flow through the cambial zone shapes the development of woody stems, it is important that we identify the full complement of proteins involved in this process. This work should lay the foundation for studies targeting specific proteins for functional characterization and in situ

  8. The auxin transporter, OsAUX1, is involved in primary root and root hair elongation and in Cd stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, ChenLiang; Sun, ChenDong; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Suikang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yan; Chen, YunLong; Li, Chuanyou; Qian, Qian; Aryal, Bibek; Geisler, Markus; Jiang, De An; Qi, YanHua

    2015-09-01

    Auxin and cadmium (Cd) stress play critical roles during root development. There are only a few reports on the mechanisms by which Cd stress influences auxin homeostasis and affects primary root (PR) and lateral root (LR) development, and almost nothing is known about how auxin and Cd interfere with root hair (RH) development. Here, we characterize rice osaux1 mutants that have a longer PR and shorter RHs in hydroponic culture, and that are more sensitive to Cd stress compared to wild-type (Dongjin). OsAUX1 expression in root hair cells is different from that of its paralogous gene, AtAUX1, which is expressed in non-hair cells. However, OsAUX1, like AtAUX1, localizes at the plasma membrane and appears to function as an auxin tranporter. Decreased auxin distribution and contents in the osaux1 mutant result in reduction of OsCyCB1;1 expression and shortened PRs, LRs and RHs under Cd stress, but may be rescued by treatment with the membrane-permeable auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Treatment with the auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid increased the Cd sensitivity of WT rice. Cd contents in the osaux1 mutant were not altered, but reactive oxygen species-mediated damage was enhanced, further increasing the sensitivity of the osaux1 mutant to Cd stress. Taken together, our results indicate that OsAUX1 plays an important role in root development and in responses to Cd stress.

  9. Politiques et idéaux éducatifs de l'Ecole québécoise et française (1963-2004). Évolutions et enjeux des discours relatifs aux valeurs et aux finalités de l'éducation scolaire du rapport Parent au rapport Thélot.

    OpenAIRE

    GIOL, Franck

    2013-01-01

    Les mutations qui affectent l’éducation scolaire des sociétés occidentales de l’après Deuxième Guerre mondiale peuvent être lues comme la marque d’une décomposition de la modernité, décomposition considérée par certains auteurs comme l’un des traits les plus saillants de la postmodernité. A ce titre, elles ne peuvent manquer d’affecter les idéaux éducatifs, et plus particulièrement les valeurs et les finalités dont l’Ecole contemporaine se trouve investie.La fin du récit de l’émancipation par...

  10. IVOA Simple Image Access

    CERN Document Server

    Dowler, Patrick; Bonnarel, François

    2016-01-01

    The Simple Image Access protocol (SIA) provides capabilities for the discovery, description, access, and retrieval of multi-dimensional image datasets, including 2-D images as well as datacubes of three or more dimensions. SIA data discovery is based on the ObsCore Data Model (ObsCoreDM), which primarily describes data products by the physical axes (spatial, spectral, time, and polarization). Image datasets with dimension greater than 2 are often referred to as datacubes, cube or image cube datasets and may be considered examples of hypercube or n-cube data. In this document the term "image" refers to general multi-dimensional datasets and is synonymous with these other terms unless the image dimensionality is otherwise specified. SIA provides capabilities for image discovery and access. Data discovery and metadata access (using ObsCoreDM) are defined here. The capabilities for drilling down to data files (and related resources) and services for remote access are defined elsewhere, but SIA also allows for dir...

  11. For a return to the Etudes sur les sciences sociales. Local autonomy and territorial wealth according to Sismondi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pioletti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyse the Etudes sur les sciences sociales, published by Sismondi between 1836 and 1838, conducted in the light of the theses not only of the historians of Italian thinking who have determined the revival of interest in the Genevan’s doctrine, but also of very relevant works on issues of the growth and degrowth of the world economy. In particular, Pioletti focuses attention on the question of the territories: for the social scientist Sismondi at the end of the 1830s, they are functional and ideally constitutional units, where rules and customs apply that alone can deal with the risks of haphazard economic growth. Small localities, small estates: from these elements Sismondi also draws inspiration for an original theory of government – and for the national and local relations in the modern States – which, albeit presenting itself in 1836, was clearly affected by an interest that had been manifested in the historiographic field from 1807.

  12. Access Not Denied? The Role American Localities Can Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen B. Marrow

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available San Francisco represents a unique case in the United States in that it has enacted a set of inclusive policies at the local level to increase unauthorized immigrants’ access to and utilization of health care. Based on interviews conducted with 36 primary care providers working in the city’s public safety net in 2009, I examine how this inclusive local policy environment both reinforces and constrains their aspirational views of unauthorized immigrants as morally “deserving” patients, and how it operates to help provide care to unauthorized immigrants. On one hand, this environment reinforces safety-net providers’ aspirational views by creating a more legal-status-blind environment that encourages unauthorized immigrants to come in for care, and by facilitating their abilities to offer key services to and advocate for unauthorized immigrant patients. At the same time, this environment constrains their aspirational views by operating through an institutional structure whose bureaucratic rules effectively deter some unauthorized immigrants from accessing care, and by explicitly delimiting unauthorized immigrants’ access to care to the realm of select primary medical services. These results highlight the great potential of, but also the limitations and internal dilemmas constituting, local “right to care” strategies that seek to ameliorate unauthorized immigrants’ health vulnerability in what is still a hostile U.S. federal context.En matière d’accès aux soins des immigrants illégaux, San Francisco constitue aux Etats-Unis un cas à part. La municipalité californienne a en effet voté un ensemble de politiques inclusives au niveau local visant à élargir cet accès. Sur la base d’entretiens réalisés auprès de 36 prestataires de soins primaires qui travaillaient dans le système de protection sociale de la ville en 2009, j’ai examiné d’une part la manière dont ces politiques locales inclusives renforcent et

  13. L'Accès aux données confidentielles en milieu militaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    “Conducting a scientific research in a military environment reinforces the traditional challenges of social science research, but few epistemological and methodological discussions of this issue are available. This article’s objective is threefold. First, it aims at exploring the issue of data...... of practices and argues that combining this variety of approaches (methodological triangulation) is a satisfying way to collect data fit for the researcher’s particular project”....... collection in a French, foreign or multinational military environment. Second, it explores the specific place of the researcher in such an environment. Third, it evaluates the quality of the data gathered in this context. The article discusses issues such as access to archives, interviews or the observation...

  14. Support open access publishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Jeannette

    2013-01-01

    Projektet Support Open Access Publishing har til mål at få opdateret Sherpa/Romeo databasen (www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo) med fagligt relevante, danske tidsskrifter. Projektet skal endvidere undersøge mulighederne for at få udviklet en database, hvor forskere på tværs af relevante tidsskriftsinformati......Projektet Support Open Access Publishing har til mål at få opdateret Sherpa/Romeo databasen (www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo) med fagligt relevante, danske tidsskrifter. Projektet skal endvidere undersøge mulighederne for at få udviklet en database, hvor forskere på tværs af relevante...... tidsskriftsinformationer (faglig disciplin, BFI niveau, Impact Factor, Open Access) vil kunne danne sig et hurtigt overblik, for derved at kunne træffe et kvalificeret valg om, hvor og hvordan man skal publicere sine forskningsresultater....

  15. Etude expérimentale du soudage par laser YAG de l'alliage base nickel Hastelloy X

    OpenAIRE

    Graneix, Jérémie; Béguin, Jean-Denis; Pardeilhan, François; Masri, Talal; Alexis, Joël

    2013-01-01

    Le procédé de soudage laser YAG est envisagé pour remplacer le procédé de soudage TIG manuel pour la réalisation de pièces de turboréacteur en alliage nickel-chrome-molybdène Hastelloy X. Cette étude expérimentale a permis de définir un domaine de soudabilité de cet alliage répondant aux critères spécifiques du secteur aéronautique.

  16. Disruption - Access cards service

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    We would like to inform you that between 10 November and 15 December 2014, the access cards service in Building 55 will be disrupted, as the GS Department has decided to improve the facilities for users of this building. During the work, you will find the registration, biometric registration and dosimeter exchange services on the second floor of Building 55 and the vehicle sticker service on the ground floor along with the access cards service. We thank you for your understanding and apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  17. Sprawl and Accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bruegmann

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues that many of the assumptions that have been made about sprawl are misleading or just wrong. Nowhere has this been more the case than in debates about transportation and access. Because of this, it is not surprising that a good many of the policies advocated by proponents of Smart Growth would almost certainly lead to reduced mobility and impaired accessibility for a large part of the population. At very least, the debates over sprawl have pitted private vs. public transportation in a way that has contributed to serious underfunding of transportation infrastructure of all kinds.

  18. Quantum random access memory

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    A random access memory (RAM) uses n bits to randomly address N=2^n distinct memory cells. A quantum random access memory (qRAM) uses n qubits to address any quantum superposition of N memory cells. We present an architecture that exponentially reduces the requirements for a memory call: O(log N) switches need be thrown instead of the N used in conventional (classical or quantum) RAM designs. This yields a more robust qRAM algorithm, as it in general requires entanglement among exponentially l...

  19. Contribution to the study of hydrogenated and oxygenated impurities in liquid sodium; Contribution a l'etude des impuretees hydrogenees et oxygenees dans le sodium liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-15

    This study is made up essentially of two parts. The first is devoted to the development of dosage methods for selectively determining the oxygenated and hydrogenated impurities present in sodium, that is the oxide, the hydride and the hydroxide. The second makes use of these methods for a study of the Na-H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} system, as well as of the related problem of the attack of pyrex glass by molten sodium. The conventional method for dosing oxygen by amalgamation was first adapted to the simultaneous measurement of the hydride. We then developed a method for dosing the total hydrogen by measuring successively the concentrations of gas present in the hydride and hydroxide form. This method is based on the thermal decomposition of the hydride and the reaction between sodium and the hydroxide. Our contribution to the study of the Na-H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} System consists first of all in the study of the reaction between hydrogen and sodium in the temperature range from 150 to 250 deg C and at a pressure of about 150 mm of mercury. The study of the thermal decomposition of the hydride in sodium was then studied. It was possible to make some qualitative observations concerning the reaction between sodium and sodium hydroxide. Finally some complementary tests made it possible to define the nature of the phenomena occurring during the attack of pyrex glass by sodium. (author) [French] Cette etude comporte essentiellement deux parties. La premiere est consacree a la mise au point de methodes de dosages permettant de determiner selectivement les impuretes oxygenees et hydrogenees presentes dans le sodium, a savoir l'oxyde, l'hydrure et l'hydroxyde. La seconde met a profit ces methodes en vue de l'etude du systeme Na-H{sub 2}-O{sub 2}. ainsi que du phenomene connexe d'attaque du verre pyrex par le sodium fondu. La methode classique de dosage de l'oxygene par amalgamation a d'abord ete adaptee au dosage simultane de l'hydrure. Nous avons

  20. Analysis of Open Access Landscape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen Doyle; Andy Gass; Debra Lappin; Rebecca Kennison

    2005-01-01

    This paper is created by bounding 5 editorials of Public Library of Science (PLoS ) which have written on various aspects of open access. It covers wide range topics of important open access issues, such as from paying for open access to copyright to open access as a public issue, which may be more or less of interest of our audience.

  1. Access to telecommunications networks

    OpenAIRE

    Canoy, M.F.M.; de Bijl, P.W.J.; Kemp, R.

    2003-01-01

    Contributing to a convergence of legal and economic approaches, The Economics of Antitrust and Regulation in Telecommunications integrates economic theory into current EU antitrust policy within the sector. The book addresses the role of competition and regulatory policies on a number of key issues in telecommunications, such as market definition, collective dominance, access to networks, and allocation of scarce resources.

  2. Access to effective healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Access to effective healthcare is in particular challenging for vulnerable and socially disadvantaged patients. Patients with chronic conditions are over-represented in these lower socioeconomic (LSES) groups. No generic review integrating the evidence on Self-Management support interventions in ...

  3. ACCESS Project: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, Heiko [Robert Bosch, LLC, Farmington Hills, MI (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The ACCESS project addressed the development, testing, and demonstration of the proposed advanced technologies and the associated emission and fuel economy improvement at an engine dynamometer and on a full-scale vehicle. Improve fuel economy by 25% with minimum performance penalties Achieve SULEV level emissions with gasoline Demonstrate multi-mode combustion engine management system

  4. Funding scientific open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the knowledge divide, more Open Access Journals (OAJ) are needed in all languages and scholarly subject areas that exercise peer-review or editorial quality control. To finance needed costs, it is discussed why and how to sell target specific advertisement by associating ads to given scientific keywords. (author)

  5. Efficient Distributed Medium Access

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Devavrat; Tetali, Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Consider a wireless network of n nodes represented by a graph G=(V, E) where an edge (i,j) models the fact that transmissions of i and j interfere with each other, i.e. simultaneous transmissions of i and j become unsuccessful. Hence it is required that at each time instance a set of non-interfering nodes (corresponding to an independent set in G) access the wireless medium. To utilize wireless resources efficiently, it is required to arbitrate the access of medium among interfering nodes properly. Moreover, to be of practical use, such a mechanism is required to be totally distributed as well as simple. As the main result of this paper, we provide such a medium access algorithm. It is randomized, totally distributed and simple: each node attempts to access medium at each time with probability that is a function of its local information. We establish efficiency of the algorithm by showing that the corresponding network Markov chain is positive recurrent as long as the demand imposed on the network can be supp...

  6. Analysing Access Control Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    When prosecuting crimes, the main question to answer is often who had a motive and the possibility to commit the crime. When investigating cyber crimes, the question of possibility is often hard to answer, as in a networked system almost any location can be accessed from almost anywhere. The most...

  7. College Access Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…

  8. Access as justice

    OpenAIRE

    FITZPATRICK, Peter

    2005-01-01

    With the considerable help of Derrida, aptly aided by Mandela, this paper advances an idea of justice as integral to law. Thence, by way of an homology with such justice, access also is shown to be integral to law. What impels the overall argument is the primacy accorded to law in the constitution of the social bond.

  9. Open Access: Soziologische Aspekte

    OpenAIRE

    Herb, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Die Forderung nach Open Access wird wissenschaftslogisch (Beschleunigung der wissenschaftlichen Kommunikation), finanziell (Linderung der Zeitschriftenkrise), sozial (Verringerung des Digital Divide), demokratietheoretisch (Zugang zu Informationen ermöglicht Partizipation) und sozialpolitisch (freier Zugang zu Informationen nivelliert Ungleichheiten) begründet. Dieser Beitrag untersucht einige dieser Annahmen mittels sozialwissenschaftlicher Modelle. Von Befunden aus der Bildungssoziologie un...

  10. Kinds of access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Sandberg, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    that there is not only a theoretical, but also an empirical difference between different methods of reporting. We hypothesize that differences in the sensitivity of different scales may reveal that different types of access are used to issue direct reports about experiences and metacognitive reports about...

  11. Kinds of Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Sandberg, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    that there is not only a theoretical, but also an empirical difference between different methods of reporting. We hypothesise that differences in the sensitivity of different scales may reveal that different types of access are used to issue direct reports about experiences and metacognitive reports about...

  12. Managing access block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Peter; Scown, Paul; Campbell, Donald

    2002-01-01

    There is pessimism regarding the ability of the Acute Health Sector to manage access block for emergency and elective patients. Melbourne Health suffered an acute bed crisis in 2001 resulting in record ambulance diversions and emergency department (ED) delays. We conducted an observational study to reduce access block for emergency patients whilst maintaining elective throughput at Melbourne Health. This involved a clinician-led taskforce using previously proven principles for organisational change to implement 51 actions to improve patient access over a three-month period. The primary outcome measures were ambulance diversion, emergency patients waiting more than 12 hours for an inpatient bed, elective throughput and theatre cancellations. Despite a reduction in multi-day bed numbers all primary objectives were met, ambulance diversion decreased to minimal levels, 12-hour waits decreased by 40% and elective throughput was maintained. Theatre cancellations were also minimised. We conclude that access block can be improved by clinician-led implementation of proven process improvements over a short time frame. The ability to sustain change over the longer term requires further study.

  13. Behaviour of an irradiated photomultiplier; Etude du comportement d'un photomultiplicateur sous rayonnements nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdant, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-04-15

    With the aim of using scintillation detectors for the starting-up, the study of transient phenomena, the control or the safety of a nuclear reactor or of a critical assembly, the behaviour of 8 photomultipliers (Radiotechnique 51 AVP and UVP, and EMI 9524 B) has been studied in the gamma flux of 1 to 10{sup 3} Rh{sup -1} in a storage well, and in an EL 2 reactor channel where the exposures varied between 1 to 2 x 10{sup 3} Rh{sup -1} and 6 x 10{sup 5} to 5 x 10{sup 7} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. Spurious pulses are produced by this radiation at the photomultiplier anode. By comparing the amplitudes of these pulses to those produced by a NaI scintillator, it was observed that their maximum energy level was about 100 keV at 10{sup 3} Rh{sup -1} in the gamma flow of the storage well and from 200 to 400 keV at 10{sup 3} Rh{sup -1} and 10{sup 7} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} in the reactor channel. Furthermore, the detection of a luminous reference pulse corresponding to 200 keV (NaI) is only perturbed at values Of above a few hundred Rh{sup -1} the {gamma} radiation alone, and above 5 x 10{sup 6} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} and {approx} 500 Rh{sup -1} in the reactor channel. The dispersion of these results is of the order of 2 for the 8 tubes tested. The main part of the {gamma} radiation effect is attributed to the Cerenkov effect in the window of the photomultiplier. The possibility of separating the respective effects of neutrons and of {gamma} radiation is considered. No marked evolution in the photomultiplier parameters during exposure was noticed. Their characteristics were not modified by the doses received, the largest of which attained 4 x 10{sup 12} neutrons.cm{sup -2} and {approx_equal} 3 x 10{sup 4} roentgens. The advantages of using photomultipliers and fast circuits for widening the field of use of photomultipliers under irradiation is stressed. (author) [French] En vue de l'utilisation de detecteurs a scintillations pour le demarrage, l'etude des phenomenes

  14. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  15. Probing the structures of gold-aluminum alloy clusters AuxAly-: a joint experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetrapal, Navneet Singh; Jian, Tian; Pal, Rhitankar; Lopez, Gary V.; Pande, Seema; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Besides the size and structure, compositions can also dramatically affect the properties of alloy nanoclusters. Due to the added degrees of freedom, determination of the global minimum structures for multi-component nanoclusters poses even greater challenges, both experimentally and theoretically. Here we report a systematic and joint experimental/theoretical study of a series of gold-aluminum alloy clusters, AuxAly- (x + y = 7,8), with various compositions (x = 1-3 y = 4-7). Well-resolved photoelectron spectra have been obtained for these clusters at different photon energies. Basin-hopping global searches, coupled with density functional theory calculations, are used to identify low-lying structures of the bimetallic clusters. By comparing computed electronic densities of states of the low-lying isomers with the experimental photoelectron spectra, the global minima are determined. It is found that for y >= 6 there is a strong tendency to form the magic-number square bi-pyramid motif of Al6- in the AuxAly- clusters, suggesting that the Al-Al interaction dominates the Au-Au interaction in the mixed clusters. A closely related trend is that for x > 1, the gold atoms tend to be separated by Al atoms unless only the magic-number Al6- square bi-pyramid motif is present, suggesting that in the small-sized mixed clusters, Al and Au components do not completely mix with one another. Overall, the Al component appears to play a more dominant role due to the high robustness of the magic-number Al6- square bi-pyramid motif, whereas the Au component tends to be either ``adsorbed'' onto the Al6- square bi-pyramid motif if y >= 6, or stays away from one another if x searches, coupled with density functional theory calculations, are used to identify low-lying structures of the bimetallic clusters. By comparing computed electronic densities of states of the low-lying isomers with the experimental photoelectron spectra, the global minima are determined. It is found that for y >= 6

  16. Du sport aux activités physiques de loisir : des formes culturelles et sociales bigarrées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Dugas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available L'espace ludique des formes sociales des pratiques physiques accepte maintes variations. Du jeu informel et libre aux activités physiques institutionnelles (les sports, plusieurs catégories de situations motrices, distinctes des unes des autres, jalonnent l'espace des jeux sportifs. Après avoir défini et délimité, dans un premier temps, les contours et la richesse de l'univers des pratiques physiques ludiques, nous essayons, dans un second temps de mettre au jour le type de pratiques qui coïncident le mieux aux aspirations des pratiquants du xxie siècle. On s'aperçoit actuellement que malgré l'hégémonie du sport au sein de l'espace médiatique et économique, il se dessine néanmoins une tendance forte : la prédominance d’activités physiques ludiques de plus en plus autocontrôlées qui laissent l'initiative aux pratiquants et dans lesquelles les institutions sportives ne sont plus totalement ou pas du tout maître du jeu.From sport to leisure physical activities: mixed cultural and social formsThe game space of physical activities' social forms accepts many variations. From informal and free games to institutional physical activities (sports, several motor situation categories, distinct from each other, punctuate the space of physical games. After having specified and delimited the contours and richness of the world of playful physical activities, we will try to bring to light the kind of practices which coincide best with the 21st century's players or sports (women. Currently, we can see that in spite of sport's hegemony within the media and the economic spheres, a strong tendency is becoming apparent: the predominance of more and more self-controlled playful physical activities, which leave the initiative to players and in which governing bodies are not totally or not at all in command any more.Del deporte a las actividades de ocio: una mezcolanza en las formas culturales y socialesEl espacio lúdico de las formas sociales de

  17. Le rôle politique des revues conservatrices aux Etats-Unis depuis les années 1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Cécile Naves

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available L’article vise à étudier, à travers l’exemple de la théorie de la « Fin de l’Histoire » de Fukuyama, en quoi la revue américaine The National Interest est, à l’instar d’autres revues conservatrices, un instrument médiatique crucial pour la diffusion de certains idéaux du Parti Républicain aux Etats-Unis depuis le milieu des années 1980. Il s’agit par là même de réfléchir aux conditions de production et de diffusion de cette théorie, dans un contexte géopolitique et intellectuel exceptionnel, celui de la fin de la guerre froide. L’évolution des liens entre intellectuels et pouvoir politique américains, avec pour enjeu, depuis le début des années 1980, la politique étrangère, sont au cœur de cette réflexion.El artículo intenta estudiar a través del ejemplo de la teoría del « Fin de la Historia » de Fukuyama, hasta que punto la revista americana The National Interest es, a semejanza de otras revistas conservadoras, un instrumento crucial para la difusión de algunos ideales del partido republicano en los estados Unidos desde mediados de los años ochenta. Se trata de reflexionar sobre las condiciones de producción y de difusión de esta teoría, en un contexto geopolítico e intelectual excepcional, el del final de la guerra fría. El centro de esta reflexión es la evolución de las relaciones entre los intelectuales y el poder político americano, teniendo como telón de fondo, la política exterior.The article aims at studying, through the example of Fukuyama’s theory of the « End of History », how the American journal The National Interest, as other conservative journals, has, since the mid 1980s, been a crucial media instrument for the dissemination of some ideals of the Republican Party. We have thus to think about the conditions of production and dissemination of this theory in an exceptional geopolitical and intellectual context – the end of the cold war. The changing links between

  18. Etude par imagerie radar des pollutions pétrolières

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rees

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En Russie, chaque année, les déversements de pétrole représentent un cinquième de la production totale. Les plus importants se produisent dans le domaine périglaciaire où le milieu naturel est d’une extrême fragilité. Les pipelines sont soumis à de rudes conditions notamment à la corrosion et aux processus cryogéniques. Le risque de rupture augmente en conséquence. La surveillance des déversements d’hydrocarbures, contrainte par l’immensité et la fréquente inaccessibilité du réseau de pipelines, peut être réalisée par le recours à la télédétection. L’objectif de ce travail est de fournir, à travers l’exemple de la catastrophe d’Usinsk (Rép. de Komi survenue en 1994, des outils d’analyse des images radar. Outre leur capacité à s’affranchir du couvert nuageux, les capteurs radar apportent des informations complémentaires à celles fournies par des capteurs optiques. L’exploitation thématique de ces images est rendue difficile par un certain nombre de facteurs perturbateurs tels que les caractéristiques propres du capteur, la direction de visée, la topographie et le phénomène de chatoiement (speckle. Le travail présenté montre le rôle prépondérant joué par ces corrections qui permettent de disposer de données quantitatives comparables d’une date à une autre. La méthode mise au point ici pour le suivi temporel de l’épanchement de pétrole d’Usinsk à partir de trois images radar, est discutée notamment dans ses limites et son aspect opérationnel possible.

  19. Le monde arabe face aux d\\'efis de l'eau : enjeux et conflits

    CERN Document Server

    Mutin, Georges

    2009-01-01

    In the past years, water has become a global concern. This essential and irreplaceable resource is unevenly distributed between Continents. North Africa and Middle East Arabic countries appear to be the most menaced area. From a starting point : 4.3% of the world population has access to only 0.67% of the resources for sustainable soft water. After decades of voluntarism, self-help, and of technical and development keen interest, times of worries have started. Since the 50's, all the efforts, in the Arabic World, have tended towards the mobilization of increasing volumes. The expected advantages of irrigated agriculture and production of electricity have been lauded, as well as the extension of distribution networks in cities and country side districts. Today's big construction works contribute to legitimize present acting teams: projects such as the Assouan high dam in Egypt, in its time the largest in the world and the Syrian dam of Tabqa, the Moroccan slogan for a million irrigated hectares. Under the trip...

  20. The French Tsunami warning center for the Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic (CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis, CENALT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelé, F.; Bossu, R.; Alabrune, N.; Arnoul, P.; Duperray, P.; Gailler, A.; Guilbert, J.; Hébert, H.; Hernandez, B.; Loevenbruck, A.; Roudil, P.

    2012-04-01

    The CENALT (CENtre d'Alerte aux Tsunamis) is responsible for the French NTWC (National Tsunami Warning Center). This center was established through a project that was requested by the French Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Sustainable Development. It is implemented by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), the French Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM) and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and is based in Bruyères-le-Châtel (30 km from Paris). This center is based on three main components: seismic network data, sea level network data, dissemination system and processing and analyzing softwares and is operating on a 24/7 basis. The CENALT has established scientific cooperation with 8 institutions and implemented and funded private leased lines to exchange data with institutions from 5 different European countries (Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia). The seismic data are processed with the Seiscomp 3 software. SHOM is working on making all French tide-gauge stations operated and available in real-time in 2012, and they installed 5 new tide gage stations. The tide gage data will be processed with a customized version of the Guitar (Gempa) software allowing the detection of tsunami signals, complemented by other softwares developed by the CEA. Historical tsunami databases (sources and observations) and earthquake databases, mostly based on available international databases, have been synthetized by CEA to produce information maps in real time, used to guide operators of permanence. Precomputed tsunami scenarios are implemented to build in real time maps of the highest tsunami impact expected in deep water. Along with an optimized tsunami modeling tool, these softwares help to define the areas where the tsunami may be observed and cause damage. The CENALT has been operating since early January 2012 as a pre-operational service and will be fully operational in July 2012. It is also

  1. Mémoire de guerre et nouvelles pratiques culturelles sous la IIIe République : l’exemple du monument aux morts de 1870 à Marseille

    OpenAIRE

    Dalisson, Rémi

    2013-01-01

    La gestion de la mémoire de la guerre de 1870/1871 fut un enjeu capital pour la Troisième République. Comme les autres fêtes, elle devait la légitimer. Les érections et les inaugurations de monuments aux morts aux combattants « morts pour la patrie » est emblématique de cette politique culturelle de masse. L’exemple de Marseille, qui inaugura son monument en 1894, à un moment charnière de l’histoire nationale, illustre les ambiguïtés de la politique de la mémoire de guerre républicaine. Il mo...

  2. Observation et diagnostic de processus industriels à modèle non linéaire : application aux machines électriques

    OpenAIRE

    Mahamoud, Ayan

    2010-01-01

    Cette thèse porte sur la définition d'une stratégie robuste pour le diagnostic des processus industriels à modèle non linéaire. La stratégie définie repose sur l'utilisation d'observateurs non linéaires non seulement pour le diagnostic mais aussi pour la commande de ces systèmes. L'objectif est triple. L'observateur synthétisé devra reconstruire les variables d'état, être sensible aux défauts pour le diagnostic tout en étant robuste aux perturbations et autres incertitudes paramétriques pour ...

  3. Un cadre conceptuel pour explorer localement les facteurs de vulnérabilité et les options d’adaptation aux changements climatiques

    OpenAIRE

    Beaulieu, Nathalie; Santos Silva, Julia; Plante, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Cet article décrit un cadre conceptuel pour explorer les facteurs affectant la vulnérabilité aux aléas reliés au climat ainsi que des options d’adaptation aux changements climatiques. Ce cadre permet de guider des réflexions dans un langage simple et non technique, tout en étant compatible avec différentes conceptualisations de la vulnérabilité. Il a été développé à travers l’élaboration d’un plan d’action pour l’adaptation avec l’administration municipale de Rivière-au-Tonnerre sur la Côte-N...

  4. Field and concentration dependent scaling behavior of the thermal expansion near the quantum critical point of CeCu6-xAux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy-fermion system CeCu6-xAux exhibits long-range antiferromagnetic order at x>0.1. The order can be suppressed by hydrostatic or chemical pressure, through the variation of the Au content, as well as by the application of a magnetic field. The quantum critical point at the onset of antiferromagnetism leads to non-Fermi liquid behavior visible in thermodynamic and transport properties. Among these, the thermal expansion offers a particularly sensitive probe to study the quantum critical scaling behavior due to the strong pressure dependence of the Kondo effect in heavy-fermion materials. To shed light on the difference between the two control parameters, pressure and magnetic field, we studied the scaling behavior of the thermal expansion on CeCu6-xAux single crystals with varying Au content as a function of the magnetic field in the temperature range between 40 mK and 10 K.

  5. Les trajectoires de conversion écologique face aux enjeux économiques et sociaux du « logement durable » en France

    OpenAIRE

    Hamman, Philippe; Frank, Cécile; Mangold, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Cet article interroge les trajectoires de conversion écologique des modes de vie à travers un questionnement du logement en développement durable en France, et retient deux groupes cibles : les jeunes primo-accédants et les séniors, dans trois régions différentes. Par rapport aux programmes immobiliers axés sur le « durable » qui se développent à l’heure actuelle, et mettent fréquemment l’accent sur une dimension technique liée aux économies d’énergie, la recherche révèle la pluralité des dyn...

  6. Accessing offshoring advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Motika, Agnes; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to advance the understanding of factors that affect offshoring performance results. To do so, this paper focuses on the access to location-specific advantages, rather than solely on the properties of the offshoring company, its strategy or environment....... Assuming that different levels of synergy may exist between particular offshoring strategic decisions (choosing offshore outsourcing or captive offshoring and the type of function) and different offshoring advantages, this work advocates that the actual fact of realization of certain offshoring advantages...... (getting or not getting access to them) is a more reliable predictor of offshoring success. Design/methodology/approach – Aset of hypotheses derived from the extant literature is tested on the data from a quantitative survey of 1,143 Scandinavian firms. Findings – The paper demonstrates that different...

  7. Complication with intraosseous access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intraosseous access (IO) is indicated if vascular access cannot be quickly established during resuscitation. Complication rates are estimated to be low, based on small patient series, model or cadaver studies, and case reports. However, user experience with IO use in real......-life emergency situations might differ from the results in the controlled environment of model studies and small patient series. We performed a survey of IO use in real-life emergency situations to assess users' experiences of complications. METHODS: An online questionnaire was sent to Scandinavian emergency...... the willingness of medical staff to use IO. Therefore, user experience should be addressed both in education of how to use, and research and development of IOs....

  8. INAVEM : un parcours professionnel d’écoute et d’aide aux victimes / INAVEM: a professional way of listening to and helping victims of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellucci Sabrina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is only in the last 20 years that support for victims of crime has received attention. The French history of associations dedicated to victims of crime is based on INAVEM (Institut National d’Aide aux Victimes et de Médiation – National Institute for Victims of Crime and Mediation: indeed, an associative network and its federation devoted to a mission of general interest and public service, constitute a French specificity. In France, the enforcement of the public policy to help and support victims of crime relies on associations, the most of which joined the INAVEM. L’aide aux victimes a longtemps été méconnue, elle s’est construite progressivement et a connu un essor considérable au cours de ces vingt dernières années. L’histoire associative française au service de la cause des victimes se fonde sur l’INAVEM (Institut National d’Aide aux Victimes et de Médiation : en effet, un réseau associatif et sa fédération en charge d’une mission d’intérêt général, de service public, constitue une spécificité française. La mise en œuvre de la politique publique d’aide aux victimes repose en France sur des structures associatives, la plupart adhérentes à l’INAVEM.

  9. Gestion bancaire du risque de non-remboursement des crédits aux entreprises : une revue de la littérature

    OpenAIRE

    Rougès, Véronique

    2003-01-01

    Les banquiers subissent un risque de non-remboursement des crédits aux entreprises. Ce risque peut être réduit lors des deux phases du crédit : lors de l'octroi, par une analyse du risque de défaillance et la rédaction de contrats incitatifs, et en cours de vie, par un suivi actif du crédit.

  10. Modernité, corps et transformation de soi: Les salons de coiffure aux îles Tonga (Polynésie occidentale)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Besnier

    2013-01-01

    Aux îles Tonga, la fin des années 2000 fut marquée par une véritable explosion des salons de coiffure dans la petite capitale, Nuku’alofa. Ce phénomène reflète de nouvelles manières de concevoir le corps, par lesquelles les Tongiennes cherchent à se distancier de la vie traditionnelle sans néanmoins

  11. Mutation in domain II of IAA1 confers diverse auxin-related phenotypes and represses auxin-activated expression of Aux/IAA genes in steroid regulator-inducible system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Hye-Joung; Kim, Jungmook

    2002-12-01

    Most of Aux/IAA genes are rapidly induced by auxin. The Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins sharing the four conserved domains. Domain II is critical for rapid degradation of Aux/IAA proteins. Among these gene family members, IAA1 is one of the earliest auxin-inducible genes. We used a steroid hormone-inducible system to reveal putative roles and downstream signaling of IAA1 in auxin response. Arabidopsis transgenic plants were generated expressing fusion protein of IAA1 (IAA1-GR) or IAA1 with a mutation in domain II (iaa1-GR) and the glucocorticoid hormone-binding domain (GR). IAA1-GR transgenic plants did not exhibit any discernable phenotypic differences by DEX treatment that allows nuclear translocation of the fusion protein. In contrast, diverse auxin-related physiological processes including gravitropism and phototropism were impaired by DEX treatment in roots, hypocotyls, stems, and leaves in iaa1-GR transgenic plants. Auxin induction of seven Aux/IAA mRNAs including IAA1 itself was repressed by DEX treatment, suggesting that IAA1 functions in the nucleus by mediating auxin response and might act as a negative feedback regulator for the expression of Aux/IAA genes including IAA1 itself. Auxin induction of Aux/IAA genes in the presence of cycloheximide can be repressed by DEX treatment, showing that the repression of transcription of the Aux/IAAs by the iaa1 mutant protein is primary. Wild-type IAA1-GR could not suppress auxin induction of IAA1 and IAA2. These results indicate that inhibition of auxin-activated transcription of Aux/IAA genes by the iaa1 mutant protein might be responsible for alteration of various auxin responses.

  12. Internet Access to Spacecraft

    OpenAIRE

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Jackson, Chris; Price, Harold

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project at NASA's Goddard Space flight Center (GSFC), is demonstrating the use of standard Internet protocols for spacecraft communication systems. This year, demonstrations of Internet access to a flying spacecraft have been performed with the UoSAT-12 spacecraft owned and operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL). Previously, demonstrations were performed using a ground satellite simulator and NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Sa...

  13. Accessibility and Economic Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    O'Regan, Katherine M.; Quigley, John M.

    1997-01-01

    Over thirty years ago, researchers raised the possibility of an important link between transportation, jobs and prospects for the poor. Decentralized employment, centralized minorities and poor, and inadequate transportation links in between were the context of the urban riots of the 1960's and posited as a causal factor by researchers. Given federal mandates for large-scale movement of welfare recipients into jobs, whether--and to what extent--access affects employment is still of national i...

  14. IMPROVING ACCESS TO DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although essentially not all therapies need drug intervention, drugs is still an important components in health sector, either in preventive, curative, rehabilitative or promotion efforts. Hence the access to drugs is a main problem, either in international or national scale even to the smallest unit. The problem on access to drugs is very complicated and cannot be separated especially from pharmacy management problems; moreover in general from the overall lack of policy development and effective of health policy, and also the implementation process. With the policy development and effective health policy, rational drug uses, sufficient health service budget so a country can overcome the health problems. Besides infrastructures, regulations, distribution and cultural influences; the main obstacles for drug access is drugs affordability if the price of drugs is an important part and determined by many factors, especially the drug status whether is still patent orgenerics that significantly decrease cost of health cares and enhance the drugs affordability. The determination of essential drug prices in developing countries should based on equity principal so that poor people pay cheaper and could afford the essential drugs. WHO predicts two third of world population can not afford the essential drugs in which in developing countries, some are because of in efficient budget allocation in consequence of drug distribution management, including incorrect selection and allocation and also irrational uses. In part these could be overcome by enhancing performances on the allocation pharmacy needs, including the management of information system, inventory management, stock management and the distribution. Key words: access, drugs, essential drugs, generic drugs

  15. Study of some properties of 's' neutron resonance parameters for target nuclei I = 1/2 and I = 3/2 in function of spin value J = I + 1/2 in the energy range 1 {yields} 5000 eV; Etude de quelques proprietes des parametres de resonances des neutrons ''s'' pour des noyaux cibles I = 1/2 et I = 3/2 en fonction de la valeur du spin J = I + 1/2 dans le domaine d'energie 1 eV {yields} 5000 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julien, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-15

    Different kinds of experiments and analysis methods allowing to achieve neutron resonances parameters in the low energy range (1 eV {yields} 5000 eV) are described. A great deal of effort to improve experimental conditions and data processing in order to know the spin value J = I {+-} 1/2 has been spent. The time of flight method was used. A few target nuclei I = 3/2 and 1 = 1/2 have been studied. For I = 3/2 (Ga, As, 3r, Au) we find S{sub o} J = 2 {approx_equal} 2 S{sub o} J = 1 and S{sub o} J = 1 {approx_equal} S{sub o} J = 0 for I = 1/2 (Tm, Pt) but {sup 77}Se. Fluctuations of the total radiative width {gamma}{sub {gamma}} depend on the spin value I = I {+-} 1/2 when E1 transition, are enhanced for one of the both spin states. The magnitude of these fluctuations can be explained of the strength of E1 transitions (E{sub {gamma}} {approx} 7 MeV) is supposed to be proportional to E{sup 5}{sub {gamma}} instead of E{sup 3}{sub {gamma}}. The distribution of levels spacings against spin value J are considered and are compared to theoretical predictions. (author) [French] On decrit les differentes methodes d'analyse permettant d'obtenir les parametres des resonances de neutron dans le domaine d'energie 1 eV {yields} 5000 eV. Un effort particulier a ete fait pour connaitre la valeur du spin J = I {+-} 1/2. Les types d'experience et les analyses des donnees, developpes et ameliores pour determiner J sont decrits. Les resultats obtenus ont permis l'etude de differentes proprietes en fonction du spin J. On trouve: S{sub o} J 2 {approx_equal} 2 S{sub o} J = 1 pour les noyaux I = 3/2 etudies (Ga, As, Br, Au) et S{sub o} J = 1 {approx_equal} S{sub o} J = 0 Pour le Tm et {sup 195}Pt de spin I = 1/2. On constate que les largeurs radiatives totales {gamma}{sub {gamma}} fluctuent si des transitions E1 aux premiers etats excites sont favorisees. Ces fluctuations peuvent etre expliquees si on suppose que les intensites de ces transitions sont

  16. ADOPT Open Access

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Are you writing a theoretical paper? An experimental one? Or one about instrumentation? You can publish it in Open Access. Now. Read how... You might have heard about Open Access, the next big thing in scientific publishing. The idea is to make the results of your (publicly funded) research free to read for everyone out there ... not only those lucky ones who work in places where libraries can afford to purchase the expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. CERN, DESY and other particle physics institutes have accepted an offer by one of the leading journals in High Energy Physics, JHEP: our libraries will pay a special subscription fee, and, in exchange, all articles with at least one author from our institutes will be published in Open Access. Anyone, anywhere and anytime will be able to read them, without any financial barrier! If you are writing an instrumentation paper, you can submit it to JINST and benefit from the same offer. This is a major step forward in the planned conversion of existi...

  17. Intelligent card access keys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly developed access control technology allows information about users to be stored on key-like EEPROM devices. The keys store encrypted information about the user and his or her authorized access activity. Specially developed key readers scan, decrypt, and process the key data, and make the decision whether entry should be granted or denied. The key readers can function as complete, stand-alone facility management systems, incorporating access control, security monitoring, and remote control. In this configuration, the key readers provide anti-passback protection and other special features without requiring any data lines between readers. The key readers also feature sophisticated algorithmic processing for performing complex operations such as two-man control or cross zoned security annunciation. Key readers can also be interconnected with an MCM-1000 Multiples Monitoring System to form a distributed processing local area network. In such a configuration, changes in key reader status can be uploaded to the MCM-1000, and programming changes and operator commands can be downloaded to the key readers

  18. Open-Access Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nature, one of the most prominent scientific journals dedicated one of its issues to recent changes in scientific publishing (Vol. 495, Issue 7442, 27 March 2013. Its editors stressed that words technology and revolution are closely related when it comes to scientific publishing. In addition, the transformation of research publishing is not as much a revolution than an attrition war in which all sides are buried. The most important change they refer to is the open-access model in which an author or an institution pays in advance for publishing a paper in a journal, and the paper is then available to users on the Internet free of charge.According to preliminary results of a survey conducted among 23 000 scientists by the publisher of Nature, 45% of them believes all papers should be published in open access, but at the same time 22% of them would not allow the use of papers for commercial purposes. Attitudes toward open access vary according to scientific disciplines, leading the editors to conclude the revolution still does not suit everyone.

  19. Direct access to INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Librarians, researchers, and information specialists throughout the world now have the opportunity for direct access to coverage of almost 95% of the world's literature dealing with the peaceful uses of atomic energy and nuclear science. This opportunity has been provided by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA. INIS, with the voluntary collaboration of more than 60 of the Agency's Member States, maintains a comprehensive, computer-resident data-base, containing the bibliographic details plus informative abstracts of the bulk of the world's literature on nuclear science and technology. Since this data-base is growing at a rate of 75,000 items per year, and already contains more than 500,000 items, it is obviously important to be able to search this collection conveniently and efficiently. The usefulness of this ability is enhanced when other data-bases on related subjects are made available on an information network. During the early 1970s, on-line interrogation of large bibliographic data-bases became the accepted method for searching this type of information resource. Direct interaction between the searcher and the data-base provides quick feed-back resulting in improved literature listings for launching research and development projects. On-line access enables organizations which cannot store a large data-base on their own computer to expand the information resources at their command. Because of these advantages, INIS undertook to extend to interested Member States on-line access to its data-base in Vienna

  20. Annual progress report of the Fontenay-aux-Roses Research Group, January 1 to December 31 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The salient events of 1974 were the full-time working of TFR at Fontenay-aux-Roses and the building of Petula and Wega at Grenoble. The remounting of TFR after reinforcement of the vacuum chamber was followed by an increase in the small plasma radius by elimination of the copper shell to prolong the present program. In agreement with the Culham laboratory a common program to develop the injection of neutral particles up to the performance needed for the JET has begun. At Grenoble the mounting of Petula was finished and the technological problems of the vacuum chamber (metallic joints for the alumina-metal joints) have been solved. The mounting of Wega was pursued simultaneously with that of Petula within the European context of a collaboration with Garching and the Royal Military School. In the ''Ionized Gas Theory Section'' work was centered on: M.H.D. equilibrium and stability, plasma development in Tokamaks, waves, transport and convection, spectroscopy, micro-instabilities and turbulence. Fundamental physics covers the subjects: EQUATOR, EOS-POP and ODE experiments, HCN laser and atomic collisions. The activity in open configuration concerned the experiment Bille-en-Tete MB

  1. TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA auxin perception mediates rapid cell wall acidification and growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrych, Matyáš; Leung, Jeffrey; Friml, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Despite being composed of immobile cells, plants reorient along directional stimuli. The hormone auxin is redistributed in stimulated organs leading to differential growth and bending. Auxin application triggers rapid cell wall acidification and elongation of aerial organs of plants, but the molecular players mediating these effects are still controversial. Here we use genetically-encoded pH and auxin signaling sensors, pharmacological and genetic manipulations available for Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls to clarify how auxin is perceived and the downstream growth executed. We show that auxin-induced acidification occurs by local activation of H+-ATPases, which in the context of gravity response is restricted to the lower organ side. This auxin-stimulated acidification and growth require TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA nuclear auxin perception. In addition, auxin-induced gene transcription and specifically SAUR proteins are crucial downstream mediators of this growth. Our study provides strong experimental support for the acid growth theory and clarified the contribution of the upstream auxin perception mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19048.001 PMID:27627746

  2. Flora Tristan: De la nécessité de faire bon accueil aux femmes étrangères

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Reid

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dans son traité De la nécessité de faire bon accueil aux femmes étrangères (1835, Flora Tristan (1803-1844, l’écrivaine française qui adopte l’état psychologique d’une étrangère dans son propre pays, traite de la situation des femmes “étrangères” qui voyagent seules en France et/ou commencent une nouvelle vie dans le pays, en particulier à Paris. Politiquement engagée auprès des plus défavorisés à partir du socialisme, Tristan propose la création d’une association pour ces femmes. En assimilant les deux groupes d'"étrangères” (nationales et non nationales, car elle pense que le même type d’accueil doit être fourni à toutes, Tristan préconise l’aide à la voisine nécessiteuse, voisine qui est à la fois un sujet national ou un sujet en transit, une femme sans-papiers ou une réfugiée.

  3. After Access: Underrepresented Students' Postmatriculation Perceptions of College Access Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Darris R.; Pyne, Kimberly B.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the perceived impact of college-going capital gained during participation in a college access program. In three, semistructured interviews spanning the first-year college experience, 10 first-year college students who participated in a college access program articulate the value of access programming and also raise…

  4. Etude de la photosensibilite dans la silice implantee avec des ions de haute energie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Marc

    La photosensibilite est la propriete par laquelle une materiau donne voit son indice de refraction changer sous l'effet d'une exposition lumineuse. Malgre le nombre croissant de dispositif base sur ce phenomene, les mecanismes a la base de la photosensibilite sont encore debattus. Nous apportons dans cette these un eclairage original sur ce sujet en etudiant la matrice de silice pure non dopee rendue photosensible par implantation d'ion de haute energie. L'implantation d'ions silicium de S MeV modifie l'indice de refraction principalement en densifiant une couche mince dont l'epaisseur est de l'ordre de quelques microns. Nos mesures montrent qu'un guide plan supportant les modes TEi et TMi (i = 0,1) est forme et que l'indice effectif du mode TE0 suit l'evolution de la densification en fonction de la dose de silicium implantee. Nous montrerons egalement que l'augmentation d'indice et la densification produites par implantation atteignent un palier pour une dose de 3 x 1014Si/cm 2, alors que la production de defauts par implantation atteint son palier pour une dose plus faible d'un ordre de grandeur soit 3 x 1013Si/cm2. Le profil d'indice longitudinal produit par l'implantation ionique est calcule a partir des mesures des indices effectifs des modes guides. Ce profil suggere que l'augmentation d'indice comprend une contribution dues collisions et une contribution dues aux pertes d'energie par ionisation. La contribution des pertes par ionisation influence significativement le profil d'indice pour des valeurs de pertes d'energie par unite de longueur (dE/dx) de l'ordre de 2 keV/nm. Lorsque la silice implantee est soumise a un rayonnement ultraviolet d'un laser a excimeres, il en resulte une diminution d'indice de refraction de l'ordre de 10-3 avec une efficacite plus grande si la longueur d'onde d'exposition est 193nm (ArF) plutot que 248nm (KrF). Deux regimes d'exposition lumineuse de la silice implantee a 193nm sont observes. Le premier regime produit une diminution

  5. Etude des defauts microscopiques et des proprietes optiques, electroniques et magnetiques du compose neodyme cerium oxyde de cuivre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Pierre

    La presente these, qui combine des mesures de diffusion Raman, de transmission infrarouge, de conductivite hyperfrequence et d'interferometrie ultrasonore sur les composes Nd 2-xCexCuO 4, traite des defauts d'oxygene, ainsi que des proprietes optiques, electroniques et magnetiques de ces materiaux. Les resultats experimentaux obtenus sont correles avec plusieurs donnees experimentales disponibles dans la litterature. D'abord, la caracterisation des modes Raman et des niveaux d'energie de champ cristallin de l'ion Nd3+ au moyen de techniques optiques, en fonction du dopage en cerium et du contenu en oxygene, permettent de conclure a la presence de defauts lies a une non-stoechiometrie en oxygene dans ces composes. En effet, des excitations de champ cristallin assignees a des ions Nd3+ en sites irreguliers sont observees, en plus des bandes d'absorption associees aux ions Nd3+ en site regulier, dans les spectres correspondant aux multiplets 4I11/2, 4I13/2 et 4I 15/2 de l'ion Nd3+. Les resultats experimentaux indiquent que, contrairement a la croyance largement repandue, les oxygenes apicaux, bien que presents dans les echantillons dopes, ne sont pas enleves lors du processus de reduction des echantillons necessaire pour faire apparaitre la supraconductivite dans cette famille de cuprates. Au contraire, des lacunes d'oxygene, dont le type varie en fonction du dopage, sont creees lors de ce processus. En particulier, il est montre dans ce travail que la reduction des echantillons dopes de maniere optimale conduit a la creation de lacunes d'oxygene dans les plans CuO2. Les consequences de telles lacunes sont largement discutees. En outre, il est suggere que de telles lacunes sont responsables de la perte de l'ordre antiferromagnetique a longue portee des ions Cu2+. Finalement, l'interaction d'echange anisotrope Nd3+-Cu 2+ dans le compose nondope est caracterisee au moyen de la transmission infrarouge sous champ magnetique. L'eclatement des doublets de Kramers mesure

  6. Influência do auxílio mecânico na colheita de tomates Influence of the harvesting aid equipment in tomato harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto C. Sanchez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar parâmetros que influenciam na colheita auxiliada e comparar a colheita tradicionalmente realizada para tomate de mesa em propriedades agrícolas, no Estado de São Paulo. Para tanto, foi desenvolvido um dispositivo de auxílio à colheita, de estrutura metálica, dotado de rodas e com assentos acoplados para um ou dois colhedores, avaliado em quatro modalidades de colheita: testemunha (colheita-padrão utilizada na Fazenda Santa Luzia, Brotas-SP, colhedor a pé com auxílio, colhedor sentado com auxílio e composição dos dois sistemas, com dois colhedores sentados e um a pé, em diferentes velocidades de deslocamento. Os resultados demonstraram que os tipos de colheita com auxílio mecânico se apresentaram mais eficientes do que a testemunha em relação à produtividade horária média por colhedor. O sistema de colheita auxiliada com três colhedores apresentou aumento de 290% na produtividade média horária por colhedor, para a faixa de 0,5 a 1,0 fruto por planta, seguido dos sistemas de colheita auxiliada com colhedor a pé, com aumento de aproximadamente 41%, e colheita auxiliada com colhedor sentado, com aumento de aproximadamente 35%. Esses resultados comprovam a importância do uso do dispositivo de auxílio mecânico.Fresh tomato harvest is traditionally made without harvesting aids. The main goal of this research was to evaluate performance parameters of fresh tomato harvesting aid equipment and compare it to traditional harvest, in the state of São Paulo. Therefore, an equipment was developed and the harvest process was evaluated in four different ways: traditional system (harvest system used in Santa Luzia farm, Brotas, SP, Brazil, picker walking with a harvesting aid equipment, picker seated in a harvesting aid equipment and a composition of both systems: two pickers seated and one picker walking in two different velocities ranges. The different systems using harvesting aid showed an

  7. Contribution to the study of the stability of water-cooled reactors; Contribution a l'etude de la stabilite des reacteurs refroidis par de l'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudert, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the stability of reactors cooled by water subjected only to natural convection. It is made up of two parts, a theoretical study and experimental work, each of these parts being devoted to a consideration of linear and non-linear conditions: - calculation of the transfer function of the reactor using neutronic and hydrodynamic linear equations with the determination of the instability threshold; - demonstration of the existence of the limiting oscillation cycle in the case of a linear feedback using MALKIN'S method; - measurement and interpretation of the reactor's transfer functions and of the hydrodynamic transfer functions; and - analysis of the noise due to boiling. (author) [French] Dans ce travail on etudie la stabilite des piles refroidies par de l'eau circulant en convection naturelle. Cette etude se divise en deux parties: un travail theorique et un travail experimental, chacune de ces parties comportant une etude lineaire et une etude non-lineaire: - calcul de la fonction de transfert du reacteur a partir des equations lineaires de la neutronique et de l'hydrodynamique avec determination du seuil d'instabilite; - demonstration de l'existence du cycle limite des oscillations dans le cas d'une retroaction lineaire en utilisant la methode de MALKIN; - mesure et interpretation de la fonction de transfert du reacteur et des fonctions de transfert hydrodynamiques; et - analyse du bruit d'ebullition. (auteur)

  8. Etude du comportement dynamique de matériaux sous choc laser subpicoseconde

    OpenAIRE

    Cuq-Lelandais, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    Laser driven shocks allow to investigate materials behavior at high strain rate and presents a great interest for research applications, but also for industry fields. The latest laser technologies evolutions provide an access to shorter regimes in durations, going below the picosecond. This work, which results from a collaboration between the P' institute, the PIMM laboratory and the CEA‐DAM, is dedicated to characterize the metallic material behavior in this ultra‐short mode, (aluminium, tan...

  9. Access and Fishing Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    a detailed ethnographic description of five different fishing operations and then compare them on a number of different fronts. This will direct us to some general differences in their modes of operation in relation to the vessel quota share (VQS) system and lead us to the next chapter, where the principal......In this chapter, I look at the implications of transferable quotas on the organization of production; that is, how fishing activities are structured around access to the individual and transferable quotas and how, in turn, the quotas structure the production. Therefore, this chapter will give...

  10. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    2015-01-01

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depends on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...

  11. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...

  12. Some self-access principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Cooker

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I will describe how the Self-Access Learning Centre (SALC at Kanda University of International Studies (KUIS was established, and discuss some of the personal philosophies of self-access centres (SACs and self-access learning that I have developed over the eight years of being associated with this centre.

  13. Mechanisms that improve referential access*

    OpenAIRE

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    1989-01-01

    Two mechanisms, suppression and enhancement, are proposed to improve referential access. Enhancement improves the accessibility of previously mentioned concepts by increasing or boosting their activation; suppression improves concepts’ accessibility by decreasing or dampening the activation of other concepts. Presumably, these mechanisms are triggered by the informational content of anaphors. Six experiments investigated this proposal by manipulating whether an anaphoric reference was made wi...

  14. Etude protéomique du vieillissement musculaire chez la femme post-ménopausée

    OpenAIRE

    Gueugneau, Marine; Coudy-Gandilhon, Cécile; Chambon, Christophe; Picard, Brigitte; Bijislma, A.; Maier, A.; Attaix, Didier; Butler-Browne, G.; Bechet, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction et Méthodes : Une approche protéomique a été développée afin identifier de nouveaux biomarqueurs du vieillissement musculaire (sarcopénie). Des extraits totaux et sarcoplasmiques ont été préparés à partir de femmes ménopausées matures (54 ans) et âgées (78 ans). Sur un total de 1919 spots, 133 sont exprimés de façon différentielle chez les femmes âgées par rapport aux femmes matures, et la spectrométrie de masse (nanoLC-MS/MS) a permis d’identifier 74 protéines différentes. Résul...

  15. Etude d'un capteur capacitif différentiel pour la détection de pluie

    OpenAIRE

    Bord, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    Ces travaux portent sur le développement d'un capteur capacitif de pluie à électrodes protégées fonctionnant en mode différentiel. Dans un premier temps, les propriétés électriques des différents matériaux constitutifs du capteur sont déterminées expérimentalement. A partir de considérations théoriques, nous avons établi des expressions semi-empiriques traduisant la dépendance en fréquence [10^2 à 10^5Hz] et en température [−40 à +80°C] des permittivités diélectriques, nécessaires aux calculs...

  16. Etude du nickel fritté au SPS et de l’écrouissage du Fe-3%Si GO

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Martínez, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    Les objectifs de ce projet consistent à caractériser deux types de matériaux métalliques. La première partie porte sur le frittage d’une poudre de nickel pure par Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) et la seconde s’intéresse à la microstructure ainsi qu’aux propriétés mécaniques d’un alliage de fer –silicium (Fe-3%Si). Le nickel est un élément chimique fortement connu et utilisé depuis plus de vingt siècles. Il ne se trouve pas sous forme de minéral pur dans la nature. Pour en obtenir, il faut l’...

  17. Accessibility and inclusion informational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Sena de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discusses the role of information professionals in meeting the informational demands of people with disabilities in the information society. The librarian is crucial for the effectiveness and success in the informational inclusion of people with disabilities, considering also continuing education for their professional qualification.Objective: To provide reflections on the role of the librarian in serving users with disabilities, highlighting the need for improvement in information units, identified in the scientific literature with regard to accessibility.Methodology: Literature search, based on a review of literature in books and scientific papers, highlighting the main authors: Adams (2000, Mazzoni (2001 and Sassaki (1997, 2002, 2005.Results: The lack of informational access for people with disabilities hampers their social and political participation, hence, reduces its condition of citizenship.Conclusion: The librarian responsible for seeking continuing education, greater involvement in the events of the area and the constant search for job training, which will reflect on the best service the information needs of users with disabilities.

  18. Access to legal abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Countries are grouped by the nature and extent of access to legal abortion. The categories include abortion on demand, for social reasons, for health reasons, for rape or incest or to save a mother's life, and only to save a mother's life. Abortion on demand is available for about 40% of the world's population and may have restrictions, such as parental consent or approval of state committees or physicians. There are 22 countries in Europe, 12 in the former Soviet Union, four in Asia, four in the Americas, one in the Middle East (Turkey), and one in Africa (Tunisia) which provide access to early abortion on demand. Abortion for social and economic reasons is available to 21% of the world's population in five countries in Asia, three in Europe (Great Britain, Finland, and Hungary), and one in Africa (Zambia). Abortion for health reasons is available to 16% of the world's population located in 21 countries in Africa, eight in the Americas, seven in Asia, five in Europe, and four in the Middle East. Laws governing about 5% of the world's population permit abortion only in the case of rape, incest, or when a mother's life is in danger (Brazil, Mexico, and Sudan). 18% of the world's population is covered by laws which permit an abortion only when a mother's life is in danger; this includes 19 countries in Africa, 11 in the Americas, nine in Asia, seven in the Middle East, and one in Europe (Ireland). PMID:12287145

  19. Beach sediments drift study by means of radioactive tracers; L'etude du transport littoral par la methode des traceurs radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hours, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Jaffry, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Lab. National d' Hydraulique

    1959-07-01

    The present state of the sediments drift studies by means of radioactive tracers is exposed. Various processes of labelling, immersion and detection, used in France and other countries, are reviewed. A more extended analysis of some aspects of the problem by the same authors can be found in 'La Houille Blanche', number 3, may-june 1959 (Rapport C.E.A. number 1269). (author) [French] L'etude du transport littoral des sediments et galets par la methode des traceurs radioactifs est en plein developpement. Le present rapport precise l'etat actuel de la question. Les techniques de marquage, d'immersion et de detection utilisees en France et a l'etranger sont decrites; une analyse plus detaillee de certains aspects de la question est presentee par les memes auteurs dans 'La Houille Blanche', numero 3, mai-juin 1959 (Rapport C.E.A. numero 1269). (auteur)

  20. Experimental study of the hydrodynamic instabilities occurring in boiling-water reactors; Etude experimentale des instabilites hydrodynamiques survenant dans les reacteurs nucleaires a ebullition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabreca, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-10-01

    The subjects is an experimental out-of pile loop study of the hydrodynamic oscillations occurring in boiling-water reactors. The study was carried out at atmospheric pressure and at pressure of about 8 atmospheres, in channels heated electrically by a constant and uniform specified current. In the test at 8 atmospheres the channel was a round tube of approximately 6 mm interior diameter. At 1 atmosphere a ring-section channel was used, 10 * 20 mm in diameter, with an inner heating tube and an outer tube of pyrex. It was possible to operate with natural convection and also with forced convection with test-channel by-pass. The study consists of 3 parts: 1. Preliminary determination of the laws governing pressure-drop during boiling. 2. Determination of the fronts at which oscillation appears, within a wide range of the parameters involved. 3. A descriptive study of the oscillations and measurement of the periods. The report gives the oscillation fronts with natural and forced convection for various values of the singular pressure drop at the channel inlet and for various riser lengths. The results are presented in non-dimensional form, which is available, in first approximation, for all geometric scales and for all fluids. Besides the following points were observed: - the wall (nature and thickness) can be an important factor ; - oscillation can occur in a horizontal channel. (author) [French] II a ete effectue une etude experimentale, en boucle hors-pile, des oscillations hydrodynamiques survenant dans les reacteurs a ebullition. L'etude a ete effectuee a la pression atmospherique et a une pression voisine de 8 atmospheres dans des canaux chauffes electriquement a puissance imposee constante et uniforme. Dans les essais a 8 atmospheres le canal etait un tube circulaire de diametre interieur 6 mm environ. A 1 atmosphere le canal etait de section annulaire 10 * 20 mm avec un tube interieur chauffant et un tube exterieur en pyrex. Le fonctionnement etait possible

  1. Etudes écologique, floristique, phytosociologique et ethnobotanique de la forêt marécageuse de Lokoli, Zogbodomey - Bénin

    OpenAIRE

    Dan, Céline

    2009-01-01

    Etudes écologique, floristique, phytosociologique et ethnobotanique de la forêt marécageuse de Lokoli (Zogbodomey – Bénin)La forêt marécageuse de Lokoli, située dans le sud du Bénin est une formation non protégée, bien qu’elle soit la seule forêt marécageuse avec un cours d’eau permanent connue en Afrique de l’Ouest. Pour envisager une prise de décision de conservation et de protection de cet écosystème forestier, il est important de disposer d’une meilleure connaissance de sa flore, de sa vé...

  2. Function-Based Access Control (FBAC): From Access Control Matrix to Access Control Tensor

    OpenAIRE

    Desmedt, Yvo; Shaghaghi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Security researchers have stated that the core concept behind current implementations of access control predates the Internet. These assertions are made to pinpoint that there is a foundational gap in this field, and one should consider revisiting the concepts from the ground up. Moreover, Insider threats, which are an increasing threat vector against organizations are also associated with the failure of access control. Access control models derived from access control matrix encompass three ...

  3. Monte Carlo simulations for thermodynamical properties calculations of plasmas at thermodynamical equilibrium. Applications to opacity and equation of state calculations; Apport d'un code de simulation Monte Carlo pour l'etude des proprietes thermodynamiques d'un plasma a l'equilibre et application au calcul de l'elargissement des profils de raies ioniques emises dans les plasmas denses, aux opacites spectrales et aux equations d'etat de systemes fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, D

    2005-07-01

    This report is devoted to illustrate the power of a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation code to study the thermodynamical properties of a plasma, composed of classical point particles at thermodynamical equilibrium. Such simulations can help us to manage successfully the challenge of taking into account 'exactly' all classical correlations between particles due to density effects, unlike analytical or semi-analytical approaches, often restricted to low dense plasmas. MC simulations results allow to cover, for laser or astrophysical applications, a wide range of thermodynamical conditions from more dense (and correlated) to less dense ones (where potentials are long ranged type). Therefore Yukawa potentials, with a Thomas-Fermi temperature- and density-dependent screening length, are used to describe the effective ion-ion potentials. In this report we present two MC codes ('PDE' and 'PUCE') and applications performed with these codes in different fields (spectroscopy, opacity, equation of state). Some examples of them are discussed and illustrated at the end of the report. (author)

  4. Les stratégies des investisseurs : des bords de ville aux bords de mer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Cueille

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available L’architecture de la villégiature a un prix. Construire des villes nouvelles, qu’elles soient balnéaires, thermales ou périurbaines, induit la mise en place de réseaux ferroviaires et viaires, d’édifices dévolus à la détente, les soins ou les jeux, d’hôtels et de maisons. Quels sont les investisseurs qui engagent d’importants financements en ces lieux ? Personnages de la vie politique, industrielle et bancaire, le plus souvent parisiens, tous se saisissent des besoins de la nouvelle société bourgeoise montante, consommatrice de loisirs dès le milieu du XIXe siècle. Si certains projets peuvent être initialement teintés d’une certaine forme de philanthropie, toutes les opérations deviennent très vite de véritables entreprises lucratives. Sociétés civiles en tous genres, concessions et affermages, les formules d’investissement s’adaptent au produit où souvent se mêlent intérêts publics et privés. La réussite de tels projets suscite également le financement de campagnes publicitaires importantes : journaux, affiches et guides sont publiés pour faire accourir la clientèle visée et ainsi rapporter aux investisseurs les profits escomptés.

  5. Aux Débuts de la syntaxe structural: Tesnière et la construction d’une syntaxe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Swiggers

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available “…il est parfaitement possible de constituer une syntaxe sur des données purement syntaxiques et en dehors de toute morphologie. Certes, le système proposé (... est loin d'être parfait. Mais on ne saurait le taxer d'arbitraire, prétendre qu'il dépasse la réalité des données, et n'y voir qu'une vue personnelle et subjective de son auteur (... Pour être plus abstraits et plus difficiles à saisir que Jes faits morphologiques, Jes faits syntaxiques n'en ont pas moins une réalité objective. Et ceux qui voudront Jes étudier pour édifier la syntaxe qui nous manque encore peuvent être en tout cas assurés de construire sur un terrain solide" (Lucien Tesniere, "Comment construire une syntaxe''., p. 229. Le projet tesniérien d'une syntaxe structurale - aboutissant aux Élements de syntaxe structurale (1959, deuxieme ed. 1966, ouvrage posthume - a sa propre histoire. Une histoire qui la rattache d'ailleurs à un courant de pensee international, qui se manifeste dans l'reuvre de Bally,2 Jespersen,3 Sapir,4 Brunot,5 Brøndal 6 et Hjelmslev,7 et qui s'articule autour de la problématique des classes de mots. En fait, ce courant de pensée se présente en premier lieu comme une critique du système des parties du discours: celles-ci ne sont guère des composantes du discours, au sens où elles constitueraient les bases constructives du discours, mais elles sont en fait des parties du système de la langue. Il importe done de franchir le pas, à partir d'elles, vers l'organisation de la phrase.

  6. Access For All

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove Kjeld; Hjulmand, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the Danish population has severe problems in reading everyday text. In the light of the increasing amount of text available on the Internet this poses a democratic challenge to ensure “equal access” to information. The Talking Internet service - Access For All (AFA) - offers...... a free Internet-based tool for reading aloud any marked text with a synthetic voice. The only requirements are a standard equipped PC running a recent Windows OS and an Internet connection. Experiences gathered from running the service for more than 28 months underline the viability of the concept....... There is a clear need for a free internet based Danish text-to-speech synthesizer. Furthermore, the current state of technology i.e. internet bandwidth, response time and server technology is sufficient for setting up an online automatic reading service that is used by steadily growing number of individuals...

  7. AccessCulture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtysson, Bjarki

    of the European Union, and how its cultural policy responds to the changes that the digital paradigm has brought upon the field. The self-publishing features of various Web 2.0 platforms, along with the interactive and distributional potentials that the Internet offers, have given rise to what is referred to here...... in cultural production and consumption. The first part of this works looks at how these changes respond to the field of cultural policy, as well as suggesting a possible culturepolitical reaction in a model which I refer to as access culture. In terms of theoretical approach, the notion of digital cultural...... of YouTube, MySpace, Facebook and Flickr, along with lesser known platforms such as the animated short film Elephants Dream, the BBC's Creative Archive, various Internet artworks and the Internet Archive. I furthermore introduce the copyright system Creative Commons in order to suggest legal, widely...

  8. Membrane accessibility of glutathione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Alvaro; Eljack, Nasma D; Sani, Marc-Antoine;

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of the ion pumping activity of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is crucial to the survival of animal cells. Recent evidence has suggested that the activity of the enzyme could be controlled by glutathionylation of cysteine residue 45 of the β-subunit. Crystal structures so far available indicate...... that this cysteine is in a transmembrane domain of the protein. Here we have analysed via fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy as well as molecular dynamics simulations whether glutathione is able to penetrate into the interior of a lipid membrane. No evidence for any penetration of glutathione into the...... membrane was found. Therefore, the most likely mechanism whereby the cysteine residue could become glutathionylated is via a loosening of the α-β subunit association, creating a hydrophilic passageway between them to allow access of glutathione to the cysteine residue. By such a mechanism...

  9. Accessibility Long Term Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Axhausen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Improved accessibility and its correlate lower generalized cost of contact, travel and transport have been sought by dynamic human societies for their economic and social benefits through- out recorded history. The paper will reflect about this process at a number of different spatial and temporal scales based on a conceptual model. Looking back at European history, it will trace the interaction between Christaller's logic of local market areas and the idea of (low contact cost network cities. Focusing on Switzerland since 1950 it will show how network investment changed the relative distribution of population and employment and how this interacted with changes in the preferences of the travelers. Using a recent snapshot of how a substantial sample of Swiss maintain their social networks over often very large areas, it will try to answer the question of what will happen in the future, if the current trend of ever lower costs of contact will persist.

  10. A quantum access network

    CERN Document Server

    Fröhlich, Bernd; Lucamarini, Marco; Sharpe, Andrew W; Yuan, Zhiliang; Shields, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The theoretically proven security of quantum key distribution (QKD) could revolutionise how information exchange is protected in the future. Several field tests of QKD have proven it to be a reliable technology for cryptographic key exchange and have demonstrated nodal networks of point-to-point links. However, so far no convincing answer has been given to the question of how to extend the scope of QKD beyond niche applications in dedicated high security networks. Here we show that adopting simple and cost-effective telecommunication technologies to form a quantum access network can greatly expand the number of users in quantum networks and therefore vastly broaden their appeal. We are able to demonstrate that a high-speed single-photon detector positioned at the network node can be shared between up to 64 users, thereby significantly reducing the hardware requirements for each user added to the network. This shared receiver architecture removes one of the main obstacles restricting the widespread application...

  11. AccessCulture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtysson, Bjarki

    the European Union, and how its cultural policy responds to the changes that the digital paradigm has brought upon the field. The self-publishing features of various Web 2.0 platforms, along with the interactive and distributional potentials that the Internet offers, have given rise to what is...... Flickr indicates changes in cultural production and consumption. The first part of this works looks at how these changes respond to the field of cultural policy, as well as suggesting a possible culturepolitical reaction in a model which I refer to as access culture. In terms of theoretical approach, the...... prosumers, I analyse the well-known examples of YouTube, MySpace, Facebook and Flickr, along with lesser known platforms such as the animated short film Elephants Dream, the BBC's Creative Archive, various Internet artworks and the Internet Archive. I furthermore introduce the copyright system Creative...

  12. Chemists, Access, Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    2000-06-01

    New JCE Internet Feature at JCE Online Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists is a new JCE Internet feature on JCE Online. Edited by Barbara Burke, this feature provides biographical information on leading chemists, especially women and minority chemists, fostering the attitude that the practitioners of chemistry are as human as those who endeavor to learn about it. Currently, the column features biographical "snapshots" of 30 chemists. Each snapshot includes keywords and bibliography and several contain links to additional online information about the chemist. More biographical snapshots will appear in future installments. In addition, a database listing over 140 women and minority chemists is being compiled and will be made available online with the snapshots in the near future. The database includes the years of birth and death, gender and ethnicity, major and minor discipline, keywords to facilitate searching, and references to additional biographical information. We welcome your input into what we think is a very worthwhile resource. If you would like to provide additional biographical snapshots, see additional chemists added to the database, or know of additional references for those that are already in the database, please contact JCE Online or the feature editor. Your feedback is welcome and appreciated. You can find Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists starting from the JCE Online home page-- click the Features item under JCE Internet and then the Chemist Bios item. Access JCE Online without Name and Password We have recently been swamped by libraries requesting IP-number access to JCE Online. With the great benefit IP-number authentication gives to librarians (no user names and passwords to administer) and to their patrons (no need to remember and enter valid names and passwords) this is not surprising. If you would like access to JCE Online without the need to remember and enter a user name and password, you should tell your librarian about our

  13. Access Request Trustworthiness in Weighted Access Control Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lun-wei; LIAO Xiang-ke; WANG Huai-min

    2005-01-01

    Weighted factor is given to access control policies to express the importance of policy and its effect on access control decision. According to this weighted access control framework, a trustworthiness model for access request is also given. In this model, we give the measure of trustworthiness factor to access request, by using some idea of uncertainty reasoning of expert system, present and prove the parallel propagation formula of request trustworthiness factor among multiple policies, and get the final trustworthiness factor to decide whether authorizing. In this model, authorization decision is given according to the calculation of request trustworthiness factor, which is more understandable, more suitable for real requirement and more powerful for security enhancement than traditional methods. Meanwhile the finer access control granularity is another advantage.

  14. Study of neutrino production in the Cannonball model of Gamma ray bursts: possibility of observation of these neutrinos with the Antares neutrinos telescope, and study of the optical background recorded with the prototype sector line; Etude de la production de neutrinos associes aux Sursauts Gamma dans le modele du Boulet de canon: possibilite d'observation de ces neutrinos par le detecteur ANTARES, et etude du bruit de fond optique enregistre par le prototype d'un secteur de ligne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, S

    2004-09-15

    ANTARES is a future neutrino telescope which will be build at 40 km off the french coast (Toulon), at a 2500 m depth. The interaction of a neutrino with matter produces a muon which emits Cerenkov light while propagating in water. This light is detected with 900 photomultipliers distributed over 12 lines. Gamma ray bursts (GRB) are violent cosmological phenomenon observed once per day. In the Cannonball Model, bursts are produced by the interaction of a jet made of cannonballs (CB) with a supernova remnant (SNR). Forward shocks propagate in the SNR, reverse ones in the CB and neutrinos are produced at the shock fronts. An estimation of the neutrino production is given and is studied over a large parameter range. For a typical GRB, 0.002 to 0.3 v{sub {mu}}, cm{sup -2} can be produced. Depending on the viewing angle, ANTARES could detect 1 to 10 v{sub {mu}} per year in correlation with GRBs. The ambient optical background has been recorded by the ANTARES prototype sector line. The analysis is about the background influence on the detector performance and about the organisms activity which produces it. For example, it appears a 17.6 to 20.4 h periodicity which is compatible with the liquid masses movement imposed by the Coriolis force at the ANTARES latitude. (author)

  15. A velocity map imaging study of gold-rare gas complexes: Au-Ar, Au-Kr, and Au-Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, W. Scott; Woodham, Alex P.; Plowright, Richard J.; Wright, Timothy G.; Mackenzie, Stuart R.

    2010-06-01

    The ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of the gold-rare gas atom van der Waals complexes (Au-RG, RG=Ar, Kr, and Xe) have been studied by velocity map imaging. Photofragmentation of Au-Ar and Au-Kr at several wavelengths permits extrapolation to zero of the total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra as monitored in the Au(P23/2∘[5d106p]) fragment channel, facilitating the determination of ground state dissociation energies of D0″(Au-Ar)=149±13 cm-1 and D0″(Au-Kr)=240±19 cm-1, respectively. In the same spectral region, transitions to vibrational levels of an Ω'=1/2 state of the Au-Xe complex result in predissociation to the lower Au(P21/2∘[5d106p])+Xe(S10[5p6]) fragment channel for which TKER extrapolation yields a value of D0″(Au-Xe)=636±27 cm-1. Asymmetric line shapes for transitions to the v'=14 level of this state indicate coupling to the Au(P23/2∘[5d106p])+Xe(S10[5p6]) continuum, which allows us to refine this value to D0″(Au-Xe)=607±5 cm-1. The dissociation dynamics of this vibrational level have been studied at the level of individual isotopologues by fitting the observed excitation spectra to Fano profiles. These fits reveal a remarkable variation in the predissociation dynamics for different Au-Xe isotopologues. For Au-Ar and Au-Xe, the determined ground state dissociation energies are in good agreement with recent theoretical calculations; the agreement of the Au-Kr value with theory is less satisfactory.

  16. Validation d’un dispositif en ligne d’aide à la persévérance aux études postsecondaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Wright

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available [Français] De plus en plus d’universités mettent en place des dispositifs de soutien à la persévérance aux études universitaires. Ce texte fait état du contexte de recherche justifiant la mise en ligne d’un dispositif d’aide à la persévérance aux études. SAMI-Persévérance signifie : système d’aide multimédia interactif à la persévérance aux études postsecondaires. Les difficultés éprouvées par les étudiants universitaires auxquelles SAMI-Persévérance répond, la méthodologie pour valider le dispositif auprès de 103 étudiants et les résultats sur les plans de la convivialité, de la pertinence et de l’utilité du dispositif également présentés. [English] An increasing number of universities are creating instruments to support student perseverance. This paper describes the context which leads to the creation of an online system supporting student perseverance. SAMI-Perseverance is an interactive, multi-media system supporting student perseverance in post-secondary education. The results of an instrument validation study undertaken with a sample of 103 individuals from the target population are presented. This article describes the nature of the student difficulties addressed, as well as the methodology used in the validation study. The study’s findings with regard to measures of userfriendliness, relevance, and usefulness of the instrument are described.

  17. Decision from the Commission of Electricity Regulation (CRE) dated from May 2, 2002 about a dispute between the manager of the power transportation network (RTE) and the autonomous administration of Parisian transports (RATP) relative to the conditions of consideration of the multiplicity of power supply points in the contractual system of access to the power grid; Decision de la Commission de Regulation de l'Electricite (CRE) en date du 2 mai 2002 sur un different qui oppose le gestionnaire du Reseau de Transport d'Electricite (RTE) et la Regie Autonome des Transports Parisiens (RATP) relatif aux conditions de prise en compte de la multiplicite des points de livraison dans le dispositif contractuel d'acces au reseau electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    This document is the analysis made by the French commission of electricity regulation (CRE) about a dispute between the French manager of the power transportation grid (RTE) and the autonomous administration of Parisian transports (RATP) about its contract of access to the grid for the power supply of the underground railway of Paris. The RATP requested a regrouping of all its 7 supply points in a single contract. After analysis of the hearings, the CRE considers that no discrimination exists in the contractual system proposed by the RTE and thus the RATP request has been rejected. (J.S.)

  18. Study of High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Plutonium. Part I. Contribution to the Classification of the Arc Spectrum. Part II. Determination of the Magnetic Moment of {sup 239}Pu; Etude du plutonium par spectroscopie a haute resolution: contribution a la classification du spectre d'arc et determination du moment magnetique de {sup 239}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenkorn, S

    1962-07-01

    The study of the hyperfine structure and isotope shift enabled the positions of the first five levels of the multiplet {sup 7}F{sub 0-6} belonging to the fundamental configuration 5f{sup 6}7s{sup 2} to be determined. The classification of the arc spectrum begun in this way led to 25 odd levels, the number of classified lines (70) representing about 30 p. 100 of the light emitted by this hollow cathode in the visible. In addition, the isotope shifts of many lines and the data given by the King furnace show that the first levels of the configuration 5f{sup 5}6d7s{sup 2} are also low less than 8000 cm{sup -1} above the fundamental level {sup 7}F{sub 0}. The proximity of the configuration f{sup 6}s{sup 2} and f{sup 5}ds{sup 2} shows that the bonding energies of the 5f and 6d electrons are of the same order of magnitude and this fact must be responsible for the multiple valences belonging to plutonium. From the hyperfine structure of spark lines (Pu II) the interval factor a{sub 7} for the electron was deduced giving for the calculated nuclear moment of {sup 239}Pu a value of +0.21 {+-}0.06 {mu}{sub N}. The position of the hyperfine components show that the nuclear moment is positive, although the theoretical value given by B. R. Mottelson and S. Nillson is negative and equal to -0.1 {mu}{sub N}. (author) [French] Partie 1 - L'etude des structures hyperfines et du deplacement isotopique des raies du spectre d'arc du plutonium a permis de determiner la position des cinq premiers niveaux du multiplet {sup 7}F{sub 0-6} correspondant a la configuration fondamentale 5f{sup 6}7s{sup 2}. Des lors, la classification du spectre d'arc du plutonium pouvait etre amorcee: 25 niveaux impairs ont ete mis en evidence et le nombre de raies classees (70) represente environ 30 p. 100 de l'intensite totale du spectre d'arc emis par une cathode creuse dans le visible. D'autre part, le deplacement isotopique de certaines raies, joint aux renseignements donnes

  19. Exposition aux endotoxines aéroportées et allergènes dans les animaleries et risques pour la santé

    OpenAIRE

    SCHWERY M.

    2014-01-01

    L'exposition aux endotoxines peut présenter des effets bénéfiques sur la santé. En effet, plusieurs études démontrent leur importance dans la théorie hygiéniste ainsi que leur effet négatif sur la croissance de certaines tumeurs. Toutefois, dans divers secteurs professionnels, l'environnement de travail favorise la présence d'endotoxines aéroportées et peut exposer le personnel à des risques sanitaires. C'est le cas...

  20. ESTIMATION DES PERTES FER DANS LES MACHINES ELECTRIQUES.
    MODELE D'HYSTERESIS LOSS SURFACE ET APPLICATION AUX MACHINES SYNCHRONES A AIMANTS.

    OpenAIRE

    Gautreau, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    Suite aux directives européennes incitant les constructeurs de moteurs électriques à supprimerde leur offre, les moteurs à faible rendement, une politique de conception de moteurs à hautrendement est engagée. Toutefois, l'évaluation préalable, en simulation, de ce paramètre, etnotamment des pertes fer de la machine reste aujourd'hui un problème difficile. Dans cetteoptique, depuis quelques années, un modèle, nommé « Loss Surface », de calcul a posteriorides pertes fer sous le logiciel élément...

  1. L'intervenant face aux objectifs de mission: entre tensions vécues et régulations tentées

    OpenAIRE

    Verstraeten, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Lorsqu’on s’intéresse aux récits de missions de conseil, on constate que les objectifs de mission qui sont proposés à l’intervenant suscitent souvent chez lui des questions délicates :faut-il poursuivre ce travail avec lequel je ne me sens pas en accord ?dans quelle voie faut-il s'engager face à une incompatibilité entre les souhaits du commanditaire et les objectifs contractualisés ?faut-il aller jusqu'au bout de la réalisation des objectifs contractualisés alors que le commanditaire semble ...

  2. Cartographie de la vulnérabilité globale d'une population citadine face aux risques naturels: le cas de Manizales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Catherine CHARDON

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette méthode cartographique sert à évaluer la vulnérabilité de la population d’une grande ville andine (Manizales, Colombie, exposée aux séismes et à de fréquents glissements de terrain. Sept facteurs naturels et huit facteurs socio-économiques, mesurés à l’échelle du quartier, sont intégrés, avec d’autre facteurs géographiques, dans une carte de vulnérabilité globale.

  3. La participation des personnes utilisatrices aux exercices de planification et d'organisation des services de santé mentale au Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Clément

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article documente la manière dont s'est renouvelé et s'est transformé au fil du temps le projet de faire participer les usagers aux exercices de planification et d'organisation des services de santé mentale au Québec (Canada. Pour ce faire, les auteurs reviennent sur l'ensemble des documents ministériels qui ont traité de cette question et dégage, pour les principaux moment-clés, les principales modalités de participation des usagers.

  4. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  5. ACCESSIBILITY AND CRYSTALLINITY OF CELLULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ioelovich

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The accessibility of cellulose samples having various degrees of crystallinity was studied with respect to molecules of water, lower primary alcohols, and lower organic acids. It was found that small water molecules have full access to non-crystalline domains of cellulose (accessibility coefficient α = 1. Molecules of the lowest polar organic liquids (methanol, ethanol, and formic acid have partial access into the non-crystalline domains (α<1, and with increasing diameter of the organic molecules their accessibility to cellulose structure decreases. Accessibility of cellulose samples to molecules of various substances is a linear function of the coefficient α and the content of non-crystalline domains. The relationship between crystallinity (X and accessibility (A of cellulose to molecules of some liquids has been established as A = α (1-X. The water molecules were found to have greater access to cellulose samples than the molecules of the investigated organic liquids. The obtained results permit use of accessibility data to estimate the crystallinity of cellulose, to examine the structural state of non-crystalline domains, and to predict the reactivity of cellulose samples toward some reagents.

  6. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  7. Resistance random access memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Chang Chang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-volatile memory (NVM will play a decisive role in the development of the next-generation of electronic products. Therefore, the development of next-generation NVM is urgent as widely applied flash memory is facing its physical limit. Among various next-generation NVMs, Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM is a promising candidate for future memory due to its high-efficiency, high-speed and energy-saving characteristics. In recent years, continuous improvement and in-depth investigation in both materials and electrical switching mechanisms have not only lead to a breakthrough in the performance of digital NVM, but also lead to other possible memory functionality. This paper describes new findings and perspectives on various RRAM devices with different laminated structures and materials, and classifies RRAM into four categories according to different resistive switching mechanisms, from which the four elements are (1 anion-type RRAM: redox reaction and migration of oxygen ions, (2 cation-type RRAM: redox reaction and migration of cation ions, (3 carbon-based RRAM: the stretch of CC bond lengths due to oxygen and hydrogen dual ions, (4 oxide-based electrode: oxygen accumulation in oxide-based electrode.

  8. Ferroelectric random access memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwara, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    Ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) is a nonvolatile memory, in which data are stored using hysteretic P-E (polarization vs. electric field) characteristics in a ferroelectric film. In this review, history and characteristics of FeRAMs are first introduced. It is described that there are two types of FeRAMs, capacitor-type and FET-type, and that only the capacitor-type FeRAM is now commercially available. In chapter 2, properties of ferroelectric films are discussed from a viewpoint of FeRAM application, in which particular attention is paid to those of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, SrBi2Ta2O9, and BiFeO3. Then, cell structures and operation principle of the capacitor-type FeRAMs are discussed in chapter 3. It is described that the stacked technology of ferroelectric capacitors and development of new materials with large remanent polarization are important for fabricating high-density memories. Finally, in chapter 4, the optimized gate structure in ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistors is discussed and experimental results showing excellent data retention characteristics are presented. PMID:23421123

  9. Making Astronomy Accessible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Noreen A.

    2011-05-01

    A new semester begins, and your students enter the classroom for the first time. You notice a student sitting in a wheelchair or walking with assistance from a cane. Maybe you see a student with a guide dog or carrying a Braille computer. Another student gestures "hello” but then continues hand motions, and you realize the person is actually signing. You wonder why another student is using an electronic device to speak. Think this can't happen in your class? According to the U.S. Census, one out of every five Americans has a disability. And some disabilities, such as autism, dyslexia and arthritis, are considered "invisible” disabilities. This means you have a high probability that one of your students will have a disability. As an astronomy instructor, you have the opportunity to reach a wide variety of learners by using creative teaching strategies. I will share some suggestions on how to make astronomy and your part of the universe more accessible for everyone.

  10. Access to postacute rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes

    2007-11-01

    Each year, more than 10 million Medicare beneficiaries are discharged from acute care hospitals into postacute care (PAC) settings, including inpatient rehabilitation facilities, skilled nursing facilities, and homes with services from home health agencies. These beneficiaries include very frail and vulnerable elders, many of whom have suffered from an acute event such as a stroke or a fall resulting in hip fracture, all of whom are judged unable to return to their homes without further care. Whether beneficiaries receive PAC and the type and intensity of care they receive is influenced not only by clinical factors, but by nonclinical factors including provider supply and financing, especially Medicare's methods of payment. This article provides a definition of PAC and discusses the wide cross-sectional variation in the use of postacute rehabilitation. It then discusses recent changes to PAC provider payment that have raised concerns about access to postacute rehabilitation, trends in the use of PAC, and what these trends imply about the appropriateness of PAC as it is now delivered. It concludes by identifying issues about the policy and research implications of recent developments and the PAC literature reviewed.

  11. Radio access selection in multi-radio access systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorgušeski, L.; Litjens, R.; Zhiyi, C.; Nikookar, H.

    2007-01-01

    Future wireless access systems will be characterized by their heterogeneity from technological point of view. It is envisaged that in certain areas end-users will have a choice between various radio accesses (RAs) such as e.g. classical cellular networks (GSM, UMTS, WiMAX, etc), WLAN hot-spots, or o

  12. La défense face aux défis du dérèglement climatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Alex

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans un rapport rédigé il y a plus de dix ans, le Pentagone établissait un lien entre sécurité et changement climatique. Depuis lors, l’étude du potentiel crisogène du phénomène s’est approfondie. Du fait de sa propension à renforcer le pouvoir de nuisance des aléas naturels et à, indirectement, produire de nouveaux risques, il est désormais considéré comme un « multiplicateur de menace » (Center for Naval Analyses 2007. Le changement climatique est ainsi un enjeu de premier plan pour les acteurs de la défense, institutionnels, militaires et industriels, et soulève plusieurs problématiques. Dans un premier temps se pose évidemment la question des risques et menaces sécuritaires découlant des manifestations des changements climatiques (modification du régime des précipitations, hausse du niveau des mers et océans, multiplication des phénomènes climatiques exceptionnels et l’étude de leur propension à générer de l’insécurité. Dans un deuxième temps se pose celle des réponses à y apporter en matière doctrinale (réflexion stratégique, opérationnelle (gestion de crise mais aussi en termes capacitaires (impacts sur l’outil militaire. Enfin, il convient d’étudier dans un troisième temps, et c’est là un paradoxe, les conséquences sur la sécurité internationale des politiques et stratégies d’adaptation qui seront développées par les Etats ou d’autres acteurs pour faire face aux défis posés par le dérèglement climatique.

  13. Élaboration de couches minces de carbone par ablation laser femtoseconde pour application aux biomatériaux implantables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loir, A.-S.; Garrelie, F.; Donnet, C.; Subtil, J.-L.; Belin, M.; Forest, B.; Rogemond, F.; Laporte, P.

    2005-06-01

    Des films de tetrahedral amorphous-Carbon (ta-C) ont été déposés, sous vide poussé, par ablation d'une cible de graphite avec un laser Ti : saphir (durée d'impulsion 170 fs, fréquence de répétition 1 kHz, énergie maximale par impulsion 1,5 mJ, longueur d'onde 800 nm) sur substrats standard et sur biomatériaux (acier AISI 316L, polyéthylène à très haut poids moléculaire). Les propriétés de ces couches (structure, propriétés nanomécaniques et tribologiques) ont été caractérisées, en fonction des conditions d'élaboration, en examinant l'intérêt de l'utilisation d'un laser femtoseconde et leur capacité à satisfaire aux exigences spécifiques du domaine biomédical. Les propriétés d'adhérence des films ont été considérablement améliorées lors du dépôt sur des substrats en acier inoxydable préalablement préparés par décapage ionique in situ sous atmosphère d'argon. La surface hémisphérique d'une tête fémorale, en acier inoxydable, de prothèse de hanche de diamètre 22,2 mm a été revêtue d'un film de DLC adhérent et homogène en épaisseur. La résistance à l'usure de ce revêtement sera quantifiée à l'aide d'un simulateur de marche durant un million de cycles (correspondant à une année d'activité physique d'un être humain).

  14. Etude dynamique de l’environnement des villages romano-byzantins de Syrie du Nord ; localisation des structures parcellaires et cadastrales qui leurs sont liées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Tate

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available L’étude porte sur une région de 30.000 km2, allant de la frontière turque à Homs, et communément appelé "le Plateau Calcaire". Sept cents villages, d’époque romaine et byzantine y ont été recensés. Les objectifs Ils sont de deux types : comprendre l’histoire du peuplement, en particulier l’abondon progressif de très nombreux villages entre le 8éme et le 10ème siècle. A cette fin sont notamment indispensables les connaissances relatives, aux terroirs et aux terres arables effectivement disponi...

  15. Etude et fonctionnalisation de protéines végétales en vue de leur application en microencapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nesterenko, Alla

    2012-01-01

    Les protéines extraites des végétaux sont des matériaux relativement peu coûteux, non toxiques, biocompatibles et biodégradables. Elles représentent une bonne alternative aux protéines d’origine animale et aux polymères dérivés du pétrole. Dans le cadre de cette étude, les protéines extraites de graines de soja et de tournesol ont été utilisées en tant que matériaux enrobants pour la microencapsulation de la matière active hydrophobe (α-tocophérol) ou hydrophile (acide ascorbique) par le proc...

  16. La chasse aux axions

    CERN Multimedia

    Robilliard, Cécile

    2009-01-01

    Since three years, physicists double efforts to catch an hypothetical particle that would not interact - or little - with the matter. Its detection would resolve a lot of problems in the filed of particle physics and cosmology. (4 pages)

  17. Onomastique basque aux Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Morvan, Michel

    2010-01-01

    En l'an de grâce 1521, le 16 mars, le célèbre navigateur conquérant portugais au service de l'Espagne, Ferdinand Magellan, aborde par l'est cet ensemble d'îles innombrables (près de sept mille !) de l'Océan Pacifique qui prendra bientôt le nom de Philippines. L'ensemble en question était peuplé de Negritos de type mélanésien (sans aucun doute les plus anciennes ethnies) et de Philippins asiatiques proprement dits venus par la suite de Malaisie et d'Indonésie. Les Musulmans avaient déjà pris p...

  18. Des millets aux nations

    OpenAIRE

    Pitsos, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    L’auteur de ce roman construit son intrigue sur l’histoire de plusieurs familles d’une part au moment de l’effondrement d’un monde, celui des millets de l’Empire ottoman fondé sur le principe de l’identification des individus en fonction de leurs croyances religieuses et, d’autre part, lors de la mise en place d’une nouvelle organisation politique, celle des États-nations obsédés par l’idée de la définition de l’individu sur la base de critères nationaux. L'exemple narratif dominant est celui...

  19. Dépendance économique aux produits forestiers non ligneux : cas des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé, au Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouédraogo, M; Ouédraogo, D; Thiombiano, T;

    2013-01-01

    forêts. Les résultats montrent que le revenu moyen annuel par ménage est de 846 800 F CFA avec une contribution de 60% du revenu des cultures et 12% du revenu d’élevage. Les PFNL procurent en moyenne 72 479 F CFA par ménage et par an à près de 93% des ménages enquêtés. La dépendance économique des...... ménages aux PFNL est estimée à 12%. Elle diminue avec le revenu, traduisant une plus grande dépendance des ménages pauvres aux PFNL. Par ailleurs, les hommes sont économiquement moins dépendants des PFNL que les femmes. Les autres déterminants de la dépendance aux PFNL sont le statut d’autochtone, la...

  20. Détermination de quelques paramètres hématologiques chez les agriculteurs exposés aux pesticides dans la région de Tlemcen

    OpenAIRE

    SAIDI, Fatima Zohra

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Les pesticides représentent une large gamme de produits utilisés de façon très variable. Les agriculteurs sont aujourd'hui le groupe le plus exposé aux risques de contact avec les pesticides. L'objectif de notre travail consiste à mettre en évidence les altérations hématologiques chez les hommes agriculteurs disposés aux pesticides comparés aux hommes témoins. Un prélèvement sanguin est réalisé afin de déterminer quelques paramètres hématologiques (FNS, numérations cellu...

  1. Open access and medicinal chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Swain Chris

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Chemistry Central is a new open access website for chemists publishing peer-reviewed research in chemistry from a range of open access journals. A new addition, Chemistry Central Journal, will cover all of chemistry and will be broken down into discipline-specific sections, and Im delighted that Medicinal Chemistry will be a key discipline in this new journal.

  2. Editorial: Next Generation Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Marco; Cincotti, Gabriella; Pizzinat, Anna; Vetter, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade we have seen an increasing number of operators deploying Fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) solutions in access networks, in order to provide home users with a much needed network access upgrade, to support higher peak rates, higher sustained rates and a better and more uniform broadband coverage of the territory.

  3. Accessible Information and Quantum operations

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-yu

    2003-01-01

    The accessible information decreases under quantum operations. We analyzed the connection between quantum operations and accessible information. We show that a general quantum process cannot be operated accurately. Futhermore, an unknown state of a closed quantum system can not be operated arbitrarily by a unitary quantum operation.

  4. IV access in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, J J

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.

  5. Justice: greater access, lower costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Saraceno

    2014-01-01

    Litigation imposes large costs on society; this justifies settlement considerations. In any case, access to justice is critical to socioeconomic development; as such, it needs to be balanced with litigation minimization. This study examines the tradeoff between litigation and access to justice and e

  6. Digital Image Representation and Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Javed

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the literature relating to the development and application of modern imaging technology between 1987 and 1993. Highlights include image representation, including image data, compression, and image formats; and image access, including indexing and modeling, user interface design, and distributed access. (143 references) (LRW)

  7. Decision from the Commission of Electricity Regulation (CRE) dated from June 27, 2002 about a disagreement between Semmaris company and Electricite de France, as manager of the public power distribution grid, relative to the conditions of consideration of the multiplicity of delivery points in the contractual system of access to the grid; Decision de la Commission de Regulation de l'Electricite (CRE) en date du 27 juin 2002 sur un different, qui oppose la societe Semmaris a Electricite de France, en tant que gestionnaire du reseau public de distribution d'electricite, relatif aux conditions de prise en compte de la multiplicite des points de livraison dans le dispositif contractuel d'acces au reseau electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    This document presents the analysis made by the French commission of electricity regulation (CRE) about a disagreement between Semmaris company (Rungis, France) and Electricite de France (EdF) concerning the request by Semmaris for the subscription of a single contract of access to the grid for its 18 supply points instead of 9 contracts as proposed by EdF after acceptation of a partial regrouping of some supply points under the same contracts. After examination of the hearings, the CRE requested EdF to establish non-discriminatory objective criteria for the regrouping of different delivery points in a same contract before making a new examination of the disagreement between Semmaris and EdF. (J.S.)

  8. Get the right access rights!

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2015-01-01

    On 11 May, a major change concerning the requirements to access the CERN beam facilities was put in place and implemented in ADaMS in order to reduce the number of courses that people who need access to multiple installations have to follow. This revision includes dedicated safety training courses that replace, in particular, the “Safety during LS1” e-learning course, which is now to be considered obsolete.   CERN’s Access Distribution and Management System (ADaMS). As of 11 May, an important improvement was implemented in ADaMS (CERN’s Access Distribution and Management System) regarding the requisites to access safety zones. This change is closely related to the introduction of a generic e-learning course ("CERN Beam Facilities") covering the common risks and systems present in CERN's beam facilities. Two e-learning courses are no longer valid, nor available on the SIR (Safety Information Registration) catalogue: the &ld...

  9. Endosidin1 defines a compartment involved in endocytosis of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 and the auxin transporters PIN2 and AUX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Stéphanie; Chary, S Narasimha; Drakakaki, Georgia; Li, Shundai; Yang, Zhenbiao; Raikhel, Natasha V; Hicks, Glenn R

    2008-06-17

    Although it is known that proteins are delivered to and recycled from the plasma membrane (PM) via endosomes, the nature of the compartments and pathways responsible for cargo and vesicle sorting and cellular signaling is poorly understood. To define and dissect specific recycling pathways, chemical effectors of proteins involved in vesicle trafficking, especially through endosomes, would be invaluable. Thus, we identified chemicals affecting essential steps in PM/endosome trafficking, using the intensely localized PM transport at the tips of germinating pollen tubes. The basic mechanisms of this localized growth are likely similar to those of non-tip growing cells in seedlings. The compound endosidin 1 (ES1) interfered selectively with endocytosis in seedlings, providing a unique tool to dissect recycling pathways. ES1 treatment induced the rapid agglomeration of the auxin translocators PIN2 and AUX1 and the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 into distinct endomembrane compartments termed "endosidin bodies"; however, the markers PIN1, PIN7, and other PM proteins were unaffected. Endosidin bodies were defined by the syntaxin SYP61 and the V-ATPase subunit VHA-a1, two trans-Golgi network (TGN)/endosomal proteins. Interestingly, brassinosteroid (BR)-induced gene expression was inhibited by ES1 and treated seedlings displayed a brassinolide (BL)-insensitive phenotype similar to a bri1 loss-of-function mutant. No effect was detected in auxin signaling. Thus, PIN2, AUX1, and BRI1 use interactive pathways involving an early SYP61/VHA-a1 endosomal compartment.

  10. Application De Methodes Nucleaires Et Physico-chimiques D'analyse A L'etude, Apres Implantation, D'un Depot De Bioverre Sur Un Alliage De Titane, En Vue D'une Optimisation De La Biocompatibilite Et De La Fonctionnalite A Long Terme

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, V

    1999-01-01

    Application De Methodes Nucleaires Et Physico-chimiques D'analyse A L'etude, Apres Implantation, D'un Depot De Bioverre Sur Un Alliage De Titane, En Vue D'une Optimisation De La Biocompatibilite Et De La Fonctionnalite A Long Terme

  11. Etude des mécanismes des réactions induites par les noyaux à halo de neutrons $^{11}Be$ (49,2 MeV/nucléon) et $ ^{6}He$ (41,5 MeéV/nucléon) sur le plomb en fonction de l'inélasticité des collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Patois, Y

    2001-01-01

    Etude des mécanismes des réactions induites par les noyaux à halo de neutrons $^{11}Be$ (49,2 MeV/nucléon) et $ ^{6}He$ (41,5 MeéV/nucléon) sur le plomb en fonction de l'inélasticité des collisions

  12. Access to health services in Western Newfoundland, Canada: Issues, barriers and recommendations emerging from a community-engaged research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle Hippe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that people living in rural and remote areas of Canada face challenges to accessing health services. This article reports on a community-engaged research project conducted by investigators at Memorial University of Newfoundland in collaboration with the Rural Secretariat Regional Councils and Regional Partnership Planners for the Corner Brook–Rocky Harbour and Stephenville–Port aux Basques Rural Secretariat Regions of Newfoundland and Labrador. The aim of this research was to gather information on barriers to accessing health services, to identify solutions to health services’ access issues and to inform policy advice to government on enhancing access to health services. Data was collected through: (1 targeted distribution of a survey to communities throughout the region, and (2 informal ‘kitchen table’ discussions to discuss health services’ access issues. A total of 1049 surveys were collected and 10 kitchen table discussions were held. Overall, the main barriers to care listed in the survey included long wait times, services not available in the area and services not available at time required. Other barriers noted by survey respondents included transportation problems, financial concerns, no medical insurance coverage, distance to travel and weather conditions. Some respondents reported poorer access to maternal/child health and breast and cervical screening services and a lack of access to general practitioners, pharmacy services, dentists and nurse practitioners. Recommendations that emerged from this research included improving the recruitment of rural physicians, exploring the use of nurse practitioners, assisting individuals with travel costs,  developing specialist outreach services, increasing use of telehealth services and initiating additional rural and remote health research. Keywords: rural, remote, healthcare, health services, social determinants of health

  13. A study of the conformation and stability of nitroxide free radicals; Etude de la conformation et de la stabilite de radicaux libres nitroxydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briere, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-03-01

    les constantes de couplage des protons situes en {gamma} de l'azote ont une dependance spatiale tres marquee au meme titre que les protons situes en {beta}, ce que les etudes anterieures n'avaient pu preciser. Une analyse conformationnelle est effectuee par RMN a 310 MHz, en temperature variable. La synthese du di-t-butyl nitroxyde marque au carbone 13 en position {alpha} du groupement nitroxyde a permis de determiner avec certitude la constante d'interaction hyperfine electron carbone 13 quaternaire, grandeur qui n'avait pas ete mesuree jusqu'alors. Les constantes de couplage mesurees dans les radicaux piperidiniques tetramethyles en 2,2,6,6 ont pu etre ensuite attribuees a des carbones 13 situes en {beta} de l'azote, et leur variation a pu etre reliee a la conformation des cycles. C'est l'objet de la seconde partie. Dans un dernier chapitre, l'etude cinetique d'un radical nitroxyde instable, ayant un hydrogene en {beta}, met en evidence une decomposition bimoleculaire qui met en jeu la rupture de la liaison C-H; ceci est demontre par effet isotopique primaire. On peut conclure de cette etude qu'un nitroxyde est stable lorsque les differents groupes attaches a l'atome d'azote ne peuvent provoquer une decomposition du radical, soit intramoleculairement, si la geometrie de la molecule le permet, soit intermoleculairement par dimerisation sur un autre centre d'une molecule voisine, conduisant ainsi a une fragmentation ou a une disproportionation. (auteur)

  14. Random Access Game and Medium Access Control Design

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lijun; Low, Steven H.; Doyle, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Motivated partially by a control-theoretic viewpoint, we propose a game-theoretic model, called random access game, for contention control. We characterize Nash equilibria of random access games, study their dynamics, and propose distributed algorithms (strategy evolutions) to achieve Nash equilibria. This provides a general analytical framework that is capable of modeling a large class of system-wide quality-of-service (QoS) models via the specification of per-node util...

  15. The Accessibility Quotient: A New Measure of Open Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew A. Willmott

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The Accessibility Quotient (AQ, a new measure for assisting authors and librarians in assessing and characterizing the degree of accessibility for a group of papers, is proposed and described. The AQ offers a concise measure that assesses the accessibility of peer-reviewed research produced by an individual or group, by incorporating data on open availability to readers worldwide, the degree of financial barrier to access, and journal quality. The paper reports on the context for developing this measure, how the AQ is calculated, how it can be used in faculty outreach, and why it is a useful lens to use in assessing progress towards more open access to research. METHODS Journal articles published in 2009 and 2010 by faculty members from one department in each of MIT’s five schools were examined. The AQ was calculated using economist Ted Bergstrom’s Relative Price Index to assess affordability and quality, and data from SHERPA/RoMEO to assess the right to share the peer-reviewed version of an article. RESULTS The results show that 2009 and 2010 publications by the Media Lab and Physics have the potential to be more open than those of Sloan (Management, Mechanical Engineering, and Linguistics & Philosophy. DISCUSSION Appropriate interpretation and applications of the AQ are discussed and some limitations of the measure are examined, with suggestions for future studies which may improve the accuracy and relevance of the AQ. CONCLUSION The AQ offers a concise assessment of accessibility for authors, departments, disciplines, or universities who wish to characterize or understand the degree of access to their research output, capturing additional dimensions of accessibility that matter to faculty.

  16. Du karma aux planètes From the Karma to the Planets: Arakanese Healers and their Heterogeneous Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Coderey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En Arakan, les conceptions de la maladie et les pratiques thérapeutiques relevant du bouddhisme theravāda, de l’astrologie, du culte des esprits, de la médecine et de bien d’autres domaines forment un ensemble signifiant et hiérarchisé. Ensemble signifiant parce que malades et thérapeutes considèrent ces conceptions et pratiques comme indissociables les unes des autres et devant donc être combinées afin de mener à bien le processus de guérison. Ensemble hiérarchisé car, à l’intérieur de celui-ci, le bouddhisme occupe une place hégémonique au niveau des valeurs. Néanmoins, dans le domaine thérapeutique, son apport est limité. Ce n’est que combinées aux pratiques astrologiques, médicales, etc. que les pratiques bouddhiques peuvent contribuer à la prévention et au soin des maladies. L’attention est ici portée sur la manière dont laquelle cette totalité signifiante et hiérarchisée s’exprime dans les pratiques des thérapeutes. Sur la base d’une étude de cas, l’article montre que souvent les thérapeutes cumulent plusieurs formations et pratiques plus ou moins hétérogènes afin de pouvoir intervenir sur le plus grand nombre possible de facteurs de la maladie : déséquilibre des éléments corporels, mauvais karma, influences planétaires néfastes, agressions par des puissances maléfiques.In Arakan, sickness-related conceptions and therapeutic practices issuing from Theravada Buddhism, astrology, spirits cult and medicine form a meaningful and hierarchical whole. This whole is meaningful because patients and healers consider that it is the combination of various conceptions and various practices which makes sense and which guarantees the succes of the healing treatement. The whole is hierarchical because conceptions and practices are organised into a hierarchy where Buddhism occupies an hegemonic position. Nevertheless, in the healing field its contribution is limited. Only if combined with

  17. La « brutalisation » de la guerre. Des guerres d’Italie aux guerres de Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Fournel

    2005-04-01

    avait fait ses premières armes sur les champs de bataille italiens et des réactions face aux atrocités de la guerre civile, permettrait peut-être tout à la fois d’inscrire la barbarie dans le présent des conflits, de permettre un nouveau discours pacifiste, de confier paradoxalement au souverain comme instance laïque, au-dessus des choix religieux personnels, le rôle d’arbitre et de régulateur des guerres (cf. les politiques, et, enfin, de relancer la question du jus in bello (le jus ad bellum n’étant plus vraiment opératoire, pas plus que le rôle d’arbitre du pape qui s’effondrera bientôt définitivement dans l’Europe née du traité de Westphalie.

  18. L’évolution de l’affirmative action aux États-Unis sous la présidence de George W. Bush Evolution of Affirmative Action in the United States during the Presidency of George W. Bush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine Pauwels

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available L’offensive contre l’affirmative action engagée depuis les années 1980 s’est accrue pendant les deux mandats de la présidence Bush, et l’opinion publique s’est radicalisée, percevant désormais de plus en plus fréquemment ces programmes comme une série d’avantages indûment octroyés à un certain nombre de « privilégiés ». Tout programme d’affirmative action doit désormais être étayé par des disparity studies démontrant la réalité de la discrimination, et seules des mesures très ciblées (narrowly tailored sont autorisées pour y remédier. La charge de la preuve a été en quelque sorte inversée. Mais contrairement aux idées reçues, l’affirmative action n’est pas sur le point de disparaître aux États-Unis et malgré son hostilité de principe, le gouvernement Bush n’a pris aucune mesure concrète pour démanteler ces programmes. L’affirmative action connaît aujourd’hui plusieurs transformations majeures, l’évolution la plus marquante étant l’effacement du critère ethno-racial au profit de critères plus neutres et moins idéologiquement polarisants, essentiellement d’ordre géographique et territorial. Dans l’enseignement supérieur par exemple, des procédures d’admission codées ont vu le jour pour favoriser l’accès des minorités ethniques sous-représentées aux campus d’élite, et diverses stratégies de contournement ont été mises en place dans l’adjudication des marchés publics. Ces transformations sont également intéressantes à analyser d’un point de vue transnational, puisque l’on observe une convergence croissante avec le modèle français de discrimination positive, lui aussi fondé sur le camouflage et l’euphémisation de l’identité ethno-raciale et sur une logique de territoire.This article examines the fate of affirmative action in the United States during the eight years of the Bush administration. After a brief reminder of the major landmarks

  19. Network Access Control For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, Jay; Wessels, Denzil

    2009-01-01

    Network access control (NAC) is how you manage network security when your employees, partners, and guests need to access your network using laptops and mobile devices. Network Access Control For Dummies is where you learn how NAC works, how to implement a program, and how to take real-world challenges in stride. You'll learn how to deploy and maintain NAC in your environment, identify and apply NAC standards, and extend NAC for greater network security. Along the way you'll become familiar with what NAC is (and what it isn't) as well as the key business drivers for deploying NAC.Learn the step

  20. Access control system for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An access system based on the one now in operation at the CERN ISR is recommended. Access doors would presumably be located at the entrances to the utility tunnels connecting the support buildings with the ring. Persons requesting access would insert an identity card into a scanner to activate the system. The request would be autologged, the keybank adjacent to the door would be unlocked and ISABELLE operations would be notified. The operator would then select the door, activating a TV-audio link. The person requesting entry would draw a key from the bank, show it and his film badge to the operator who would enable the door release

  1. SM18 Visits and Access

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

      VISITS The rules and conditions to be followed for visits in the SM18 Hall are laid out in the EDMS 1205328 document. No visit is allowed without prior reservation.   ACCESS Special access right is needed ONLY from 7 p.m. to 7 a.m. and during week-ends. From 1 December, the current SM18 access database will be closed and a new one “SM18-OWH outside normal hours” started from scratch. Requests, via EDH SM18-OWH, will have to be duly justified.   For further information, please contact Evelyne Delucinge.

  2. Clinical and symptomatological study of pigs subjected to a lethal dose of integral gamma irradiation; Etude clinique et symptomatologique chez le porc soumis a une irradiation gamma totale a dose letale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaiman, M.; Guenet, J.-L.; Maas, J.; Nizza, P

    1966-05-01

    Results are reported from a clinical and haematological study on a Corsican species of pigs wholly exposed to an approximately lethal dose of {gamma} radiation. The aim of this work was to examine the changes in the irradiation syndrome of irradiation for pigs to make it thus possible to devise further experiments, in particular in the therapeutic field. The dose received was 285 rads (measured as the absorption in the vertical antero-posterior medial plane). Data are presented on cyto-haematological changes in the blood circulating immediately after irradiation, and followed up to death, and changes in the medullary cytology after irradiation. The clinical picture of lethal radiation injury in swine is described. (authors) [French] Les auteurs rapportent les resultats d'une etude clinique et hematologique chez des porcs de race corse irradies in toto a dose sensiblement letale. Le but de cette etude etait de connaitre l'evolution du syndrome aigu d'irradiation chez le porc et de permettre ainsi le developpement d'experimentations ulterieures, en particulier dans le domaine therapeutique. La dose delivree etait de 285 rad (en dose absorbee au niveau du plan median vertical anteroposterieur. L'etude a porte essentiellement: 1. Sur les modifications cyclo-hematologiques du sang circulant immediatement apres l'irradiation, pour les differentes lignees cellulaires; l'evolution de ces modifications a ete notee jusqu'a la mort; 2. Sur les modifications de la cytologie medullaire apres irradiation (evolution du myelogramme et essai d'evaluation de la cellularite de la moelle osseuse);: 3. Sur les signes cliniques, d'ailleurs tres discrets, observes chez les porcs apres irradiation. (auteurs)

  3. Etude des phenomenes de penetration des especes chimiques dans les revetements cathodiques des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Pierre-Yves

    Cette these decrit l'etude effectuee sur les phenomenes d'insertion du sodium et de penetration du bain electrolytique dans les revetements cathodiques des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium. L'etude fut effectuee a l'aide d'un montage permettant d'effectuer l'electrolyse en laboratoire. Trois types de revetement cathodiques furent etudies : des blocs semi-graphitique, des blocs graphitiques et des blocs graphitises. L'insertion du sodium dans les trois differents types de blocs fut etudiee a l'aide de la spectrometrie des photoelectrons X (XPS). L'analyse a permis de mettre en evidence deux formes de sodium dans l'anthracite et la phase liante des materiaux semi-graphitiques et graphitiques, indiquant qu'une fraction du sodium se retrouve sous forme adsorbee dans les micropores des materiaux alors que l'autre fraction est inseree dans la structure cristalline du carbone. Dans les phases graphitiques (materiaux graphitises et graphitiques), seuls les micropores sont occupes par le sodium Ce resultat explique la tendance observee selon laquelle l'ajout de graphite dans les blocs permet d'abaisser le gonflement sodique. Les mecanismes de penetration du bain dans le reseau poreux des materiaux furent etudies en microscopie electronique et en diffraction des rayons X sur des echantillons apres differents temps d'electrolyses et en variant l'atmosphere (soit sous argon ou sous azote). Ces analyses ont permis d'identifier le mecanisme conduisant a la mouillabilite du bain sur le carbone en fonction de l'atmosphere entourant l'electrolyse. Ainsi, sous azote, la formation de NaCN dans les pores des materiaux par reactions entre le sodium et l'azote permet une mouillabilite accrue du bain alors qu'en absence d'azote (sous argon), le carbure d'aluminium, formes a la surface des pores, joue un role similaire. Dans ce dernier cas, la penetration du bain est moins rapide etant donnee la necessite de toujours amener des especes contenant de l'aluminium en tete du front de

  4. Contribution to the micrographic study of uranium and its alloys; Contribution a l'etude micrographique de l'uranium et de ses alliages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-06-15

    The present report is the result of research carried out by the radio metallurgy section, to perfect micrographic techniques applicable to the study of samples of irradiated uranium. In the first part of this work, two polishing baths are developed, having the qualities with a minimum of disadvantages inherent in their respective compositions: they are, on the one hand perchloric acid-ethanol mixtures, and on the other hand a phospho-chromic-ethanol bath. In the chapter following, the micrographic attack of uranium is studied. The only satisfactory process is oxidation by cathode bombardment forming epitaxic layers. In the third chapter, an attempt is made to characterise the different surface states of the uranium by dissolution potential measurements and electronic diffraction. In the fourth chapter are given some examples of the application of these techniques to the micrographic study of various uranium alloys. In an appendix, it is shown how the chemical oxidation after phospho-chromic-alcohol polishing allows the different inclusions present in the molten uranium to be distinguished. By X-ray diffraction, uranium monocarbide and mononitride inclusions in particular are characterised. (author) [French] Le present rapport est le resultat de recherches effectuees au service de radiometallurgie pour la mise au point de techniques micrographiques applicables a l'etude d'echantillons d'uranium irradie. Dans la premiere partie de ce travail, nous mettons au point deux bains de polissage qui presentent les qualites inherentes a leur composition respective, avec le minimum d'inconvenients: ce sont d'une part des melanges acide perchlorique-ethanol, et d'autre part un bain phospho-chromique-ethanol. Dans le chapitre suivant, nous etudions l'attaque micrographique de l'uranium. Seul le procede d'oxydation par bombardement cathodique formant des couches epitaxiques, est satisfaisant. Dans le troisieme chapitre, nous essayons

  5. Etude Climat no. 32 'Financing climate actions in developing countries: what role is there for NAMAs?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    financed. They can also make it possible to correct some of the defects in the current mechanisms, such as the unbalanced geographical distribution of the CDM projects or the traceability of the aid given to developing countries. Access to quality information in order to monitor the progress and the results of the measures is also central to the implementation of NAMAs and the search for financing for them

  6. Study and installation of concrete shielding in the civil engineering of nuclear construction (1960); Etude et mise en place des betons de protection dans le genie civil des ouvrages nucleaires (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The object of this report is to give technical information about high density concretes which have become very important for radiation biological shielding. The most generally used heavy aggregates (barytes, ilmenite, ferrophosphorus, limonite, magnetite and iron punching) to make these concretes are investigated from the point of view prospecting and physical and chemical characteristics. At first, a general survey of shielding concretes is made involving the study of components, mixing and placing methods, then, a detailed investigation of some high density concretes: barytes concrete, with incorporation of iron punching or iron shot, ferrophosphorus concrete, ilmenite concrete and magnetite concrete, more particularly with regard to grading and mix proportions and testing process. To put this survey in concrete form, two practical designs are described such as they have been carried out at the Saclay Nuclear Station. Specifications are given for diverse concretes and for making the proton-synchrotron 'Saturne' shielding blocks. (author) [French] Ce rapport a pour objet de donner des precisions techniques au sujet des betons a haute densite qui ont pris une grande importance pour la protection biologique contre les rayonnements. Les agregats lourds les plus couramment utilises (barytine, ilmenite, ferrophosphore, limonite, magnetite et riblons) pour la fabrication de ces betons, sont examines du point de vue prospection et caracteristiques physiques et chimiques. On procede d'abord a une etude generale des betons de protection comprenant l'etude des constituants, de la confection et de la mise en place, ensuite, a un examen detaille de quelques betons a haute densite: betons a base de barytine, avec incorporation de riblons ou de grenaille de fonte, betons au ferrophosphore, a base d'ilmenite ou de magnetite, notamment en ce qui concerne la granulometrie, la composition, le dosage et les processus d'essais. Pour concretiser ces

  7. Computer access security code system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A security code system for controlling access to computer and computer-controlled entry situations comprises a plurality of subsets of alpha-numeric characters disposed in random order in matrices of at least two dimensions forming theoretical rectangles, cubes, etc., such that when access is desired, at least one pair of previously unused character subsets not found in the same row or column of the matrix is chosen at random and transmitted by the computer. The proper response to gain access is transmittal of subsets which complete the rectangle, and/or a parallelepiped whose opposite corners were defined by first groups of code. Once used, subsets are not used again to absolutely defeat unauthorized access by eavesdropping, and the like.

  8. Computer Security Systems Enable Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggen, Gary

    1989-01-01

    A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)

  9. Charter Halibut Limited Access Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This limited access system limits the number of charter vessels that may participate in the guided sport fishery for halibut in area 2C and 3A. NMFS issues a...

  10. Assuring Access to Affordable Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under the Affordable Care Act, millions of uninsured Americans will gain access to affordable coverage through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and improvements in...

  11. MCBS Access to Care PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MCBS 2013 Access to Care public use file (MCBS PUF) provides the first publically available MCBS file for researchers interested in the health, health care use,...

  12. Open Access Publishing in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.

    2012-08-01

    Open Access (OA) in scholarly literature means the "immediate, free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full text of these articles". The Open Access movement has been made possible thanks to the wide-spread availability of internet access and has received increasing interest since the 1990s, mostly due to the fast rising journal subscription prices. This presentation will review the current situation of Open Access in astronomy. It will answer the question why it makes sense to publish in an OA journal and will provide criteria to judge the quality of OA journals and publishers, along with suggestions how to identify so-called predatory publishers.

  13. Water Access Sites in Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data shows the approximate locations of boat accesses in the state. This is not a comprehensive list but one that was generated through a cooperative effort....

  14. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.32 Access. (a) No access on, across or through lands or waters... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  15. Personalizing Access to Learning Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dolog, Peter; Simon, Bernd; Nejdl, Wolfgang; Klobucar, Tomaz

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe a Smart Space for Learning™ (SS4L) framework and infrastructure that enables personalized access to distributed heterogeneous knowledge repositories. Helping a learner to choose an appropriate learning resource or activity is a key problem which we address in this framework, enabling personalized access to federated learning repositories with a vast number of learning offers. Our infrastructure includes personalization strategies both at the query and the query re...

  16. Textual information access statistical models

    CERN Document Server

    Gaussier, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This book presents statistical models that have recently been developed within several research communities to access information contained in text collections. The problems considered are linked to applications aiming at facilitating information access:- information extraction and retrieval;- text classification and clustering;- opinion mining;- comprehension aids (automatic summarization, machine translation, visualization).In order to give the reader as complete a description as possible, the focus is placed on the probability models used in the applications

  17. Analyse des statistiques de pêche aux engins dans le bassin du Rhône. Deuxième partie : étude des captures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANGEUX T.

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available En confrontant les captures déclarées et les autorisations délivrées sur le Rhône et la Saône en 1988 et 1989, on estime pour ces deux années les prélèvements de la pêche aux engins à 238 t/an et 273 t/an. Les captures sont essentiellement constituées de grands cyprinidés (Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna, Rutilus rutilus et Chondrostoma nasus et de poissons amphihalins comme les muges (Liza ramada en majorité ou l'anguille (Anguilla anguilla. La pêche professionnelle fluviale représente en moyenne 72 % des captures. Pour certaines espèces comme les aloses (Alosa fallax en majorité, le brochet (Esox lucius, le sandre (Stizostedion lucioperca et le poisson-chat (ictalurus mêlas, les pêcheurs amateurs aux engins et filets prélèvent des quantités comparables à celles des professionnels. De plus, les amateurs sont majoritaires dans les productions de la Saône amont. La biomasse totale des captures du Rhône deltaïque arrive en seconde position derrière celle de la Saône aval, située au centre du bassin. Ce secteur apparaît comme une zone de première importance pour la pratique de la pêche aux engins strictement fluviale en France. Les captures déclarées suivent un rythme saisonnier en relation avec le cycle de l'effort de pêche mis en évidence dans la première partie de l'article (CHANGEUX et ZYLBERBLAT, ce numéro. Les aloses sont capturées pendant la fermeture des autres pêches, au mois de mai. Les muges sont capturés pendant la saison "froide" et la friture de petits cyprinidés (Alburnus alburnus, en majorité pendant la "saison chaude". Dans la Saône aval, l'analyse des Captures par Unité d'Effort (CPUE valide la distinction des métiers définis dans la première partie de l'article. L'utilisation des CPUE est envisagée pour suivre les stocks des principales captures du secteur.

  18. Combining histology, stable isotope analysis and ZooMS collagen fingerprinting to investigate the taphonomic history and dietary behaviour of extinct giant tortoises from the Mare aux Songes deposit on Mauritius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. van der Sluis; H.I. Hollund; M. Buckley; P.G.B. de Louw; K.F. Rijsdijk; H. Kars

    2014-01-01

    Taphonomic research of bones can provide additional insight into a site's formation and development, the burial environment and ongoing post-mortem processes. A total of 30 tortoise (Cylindraspis) femur bone samples from the Mare aux Songes site (Mauritius) were studied histologically, assessing par

  19. Expression of PIN and AUX1 genes encoding putative carrier proteins for auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls [correction of epicotyles] under simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    2003-10-01

    Etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat showed automorphosis-like growth and development similar to that observed in true microgravity conditions in space. Application of inhibitors of auxin polar transport phenocopied automorphosis-like growth on 1 g conditions, suggesting that automorophosis is closely related to auxin polar transport. Strenuous efforts to know the relationships between automorphosis and auxin polar transport in pea seedlings at molecular bases resulted in successful identification of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 encoding putative auxin efflux and influx carrier protein, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 and AtPINs, and between PsAUX1 and AtAUX1. Expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 genes in etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were substantially affected, but that of PsPIN2 was not. Roles of these genes in auxin polar transport and automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings are also described. PMID:14676360

  20. Stress, microstructure and evolution under ion irradiation in thin films grown by ion beam sputtering: modelling and application to interfacial effects in metallic multilayers; Contraintes, microstructure et sollicitation sous irradiation aux ions de films minces elabores par pulverisation ionique: modelisation et application a l'etude des effets interfaciaux dans des multicouches metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelle, A

    2006-09-15

    We have investigated the formation of the interfacial chemical mixing in Mo/Ni multilayers, and particularly the influence of ballistic effects during the growth. For this purpose, hetero-epitaxial b.c.c./f.c.c. Mo(110)/Ni(111) multilayers were grown by two deposition methods: thermal evaporation and direct ion beam sputtering. As a preliminary, an accurate description of the stress state in pure sputtered Mo thin films was required. Microstructural and stress state analyses were essentially carried out by X-ray diffraction, and ion irradiation was used as a powerful tool to control the stress level. We showed that thermal evaporated thin films exhibit a weak tensile growth stress ({approx} 0.6 GPa) that can be accounted for by the grain boundary relaxation model, whereas sputtered thin films develop large compressive growth stress (- 2 to - 4 GPa). This latter results from the bombardment of the growing film by the energetic particles involved during the sputtering process (atomic peening phenomenon), which induces the formation of defects in the layers, generating volume distortions. We thus developed a stress model that includes a hydrostatic stress component to account for these volume strains. This model allowed us to determine the 'unstressed and free of defects lattice parameter' a{sub 0}, solely linked to chemical effects. For epitaxial Mo layers, it was possible to separate coherency stress from growth stress due to their distinct kinetic evolution during ion irradiation. Therefore, the stress analysis enabled us to determine the a{sub 0} values in Mo sub-layers of Mo/Ni superlattices. A tendency to the formation of an interfacial alloy is observed independently of the growth conditions, which suggests that thermodynamic forces favour the exchange mechanism. However, the extent of the intermixing effect is clearly enhanced by ballistic effects. (author)

  1. Experimental and theoretical study of Bragg-Fresnel focalizing optical systems engraved on multi layers interferential mirrors adapted to X and X-UV fields; Etude experimentale et theorique d`optiques focalisantes de type Bragg-Fresnel gravees sur des miroirs interferentiels multicouches adaptes aux domaines X et X-UV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idir, M.

    1995-02-01

    This work concerns the study of a particular type of X-ray focusing optics known as Bragg-Fresnel lenses, formed through ion-etching of multilayered structures. Using the Super-ACO (LURE/Orsay) synchrotron storage ring, we tested several Bragg-Fresnel lenses having either linear or elliptical geometries (producing a line or a point focus, respectively). Diffraction profiles were first obtained for the linear lenses ion-etched on W/Si multilayers of nano-metric period. The experimental results were compared with our theoretical predictions. We next proposed and tested a solution to the problem superposing the different diffraction orders in the focal plane, that of fabricating Bragg-Fresnel lenses with an off-axis configuration, first for the linear and then the elliptical geometry. An experimental application, for an off-axis elliptical lens produced a focused X-ray spot of 5 x 10 microns{sup 2} for the Super-ACO synchrotron source. The same lens also produced a 1/3-size X-ray image of a grid-like object at 1750 eV using the first and third diffraction orders. (author).

  2. Theoretical and experimental study of high strain, high strain rate materials viscoplastic behaviour. Application to Mars 190 steel and tantalum; Etude theorique et experimentale du comportement viscoplastique des materiaux aux grandes deformations et grandes vitesses de deformations. Application a l'acier mars 190 et au tantale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juanicotena, A

    1998-07-01

    This work enters in the general framework of the study and modelling of metallic materials viscoplastic behaviour in the area of high strain and high strain rate, from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} s{sup -1}. We define a methodology allowing to describe the behaviour of armor steel Mars 190 and tantalum in the initial area. In a first time, the study of visco-plasticity physical mechanisms shows the necessity to take into account some fundamental processes of the plastic deformation. Then, the examination of various constitutive relations allows to select the Preston-Tonks-Wallace model, that notably reproduce the physical phenomenon of the flow stress saturation. In a second part, a mechanical characterization integrating loading direction, strain rate and temperature effects is conducted on the two materials. Moreover, these experimental results allow to calculate associated constants to Preston-Tonks-Wallace, Zerilli-Armstrong and Johnson-Cook models for each material. In a third time, in order to evaluate and to validate these constitutive laws, we conceive and develop an experimental device open to reach the area of study: the expanding spherical shell test. It concerns to impose a free radial expanding to a thin spherical shell by means a shock wave generated by an explosive. By the radial expanding velocity measure, we can determine stress, strain rate and strain applied on the spherical shell at each time. In a four and last part, we evaluate constitutive models out of their optimization area's. This validation is undertaken by comparisons 'experimental results/calculations' with the help of global experiences like expanding spherical shell test and Taylor test. (author)

  3. Study of the sensibility of the Antares neutrino telescope to very high energy photons: Contribution to the time calibration of the detector; Etude de la sensibilite du telescope a neutrinos Antares aux photons de tres haute energie: Contribution a l'etalonnage en temps du detecteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillard, G.

    2010-10-15

    From the sea-floor, the 900-odd photomultiplier tubes of the Antares neutrino telescope scrutinize the abysses attempting to discern, amid bioluminescence and marine radioactivity, Cerenkov photons emitted by muons from astrophysical neutrinos, and to distinguish these muons from those generated by air showers produced by cosmic rays. Antares has been collecting data since 2006; this feat of engineering has paved the way for submarine neutrino astronomy: Antares is expected to be the forerunner of a larger instrument, KM3NeT. Telescope's performance is characterized in part by its angular resolution. In the case of Antares, the angular resolution is directly related to the time resolution of the detector's elements. This manuscript presents a correction for one of the main sources of deterioration of this time resolution, the walk effect induced by the set up of a fixed threshold for triggering the photomultiplier tubes signal. This correction, implemented in the official software chain of the Antares collaboration, improves in particular the events reconstruction quality estimator. This implementation allows further optimizations. The author also attempts to evaluate, using a complete Monte-Carlo simulation, the possibility of using very high energy photon sources as calibrated muon beams in order to estimate the absolute pointing and the angular resolution of the telescope. Although limited by large uncertainties, it is demonstrated that the possibility to detect such sources is extremely small. In addition, it is shown that the atmospheric neutrino background induced by very high-energy photons is negligible. (author)

  4. Resonant ionization by laser beams: application to ions sources and to study the nuclear structure of radioactive tellurium isotopes; Ionisation resonante par faisceaux laser: application aux sources d'ions et a l'etude de la structure des noyaux radioactifs de tellure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifi, R

    2007-07-15

    The radioactive ion beams that are produced through current isotope separators are well separated according to the A mass but not according to the Z parameter. The resonant ionization through laser beams applied to ion sources allows the production of radioactive ion beam in a very selective and efficient way by eliminating the isobaric contamination. The first chapter is dedicated to the resonant ionization by laser beams, we describe the principle, the experimental setting, the lasers used, the ionization schemes and the domain of application. The second chapter deals with the application of resonant ionization to laser ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams. We present experimental tests performed for getting copper ion beams. Resonant ionization through laser is also used in the spectroscopy experiments performed at the Isolde (isotope separation on-line device) installation in CERN where more than 20 elements are ionized very efficiently. The technique is based on a frequency scanning around the excitation transition of the atoms in order to probe the hyperfine structure. Laser spectroscopy allows the determination of the hyperfine structure as well as the isotopic shift of atoms. In the third chapter the method is applied to the spectroscopy of tellurium atoms. First, we define the 2 parameters on which the extraction is based: charge radius and nuclear moments, then we present several theoretical models that we have used to assess our experimental results. (A.C.)

  5. Study of ultra-energetic cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory from particle detection to anisotropy measurement; Etude des rayons cosmiques ultra-energetiques avec l'Observatoire de Pierre Auger: de l'acceptance du detecteur a la nature des particules primaires et aux mesures d'anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aublin, J

    2006-09-15

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, still under construction in Argentina, is designed to study the cosmic rays with energies above a few EeV. The experiment combines two complementary techniques: the fluorescence light detection and the sampling of the shower with an array of detectors at ground, covering a surface of 3000 square kilometers. The calculation of the acceptance of the detector, which is of utmost importance to establish the energy spectrum, has been achieved. The method of computation of the acceptance is simple and reliable. The detection efficiency depends on the nature of primary cosmic rays, allowing to study the cosmic rays composition with the surface detector. The calculation of the cosmic rays energy spectrum has been performed, using different methods to estimate the energy of the events. A cross calibration between the fluorescence and the surface detector provides an estimation of the energy almost independent of hadronic interaction models. The study of large scale anisotropies in the cosmic rays angular distribution provides useful informations about the cosmic rays sources and the conditions of propagation. A new analysis method is presented, allowing to estimate the parameters of an underlying dipolar and quadrupolar anisotropy in the data. The method is applied to a preliminary Auger data set. (author)

  6. Physiological and molecular studies of the resistance to ionizing radiations of hyper-thermophilic archaea isolated from deep ocean hydrothermal sources; Etudes physiologiques et moleculaires de la resistance aux rayonnements ionisants d'archaea hyperthermophiles isolees de sources hydrothermales oceaniques profondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolivet, E

    2002-10-15

    In this study, we have first tested in vivo the effect of gamma irradiation on Pyrococcus abyssi, a hyper-thermophilic archaeon, isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. We have shown that this strain was as radioresistant as P. furiosus but less than Deinococcus radiodurans. The rates of double stranded breaks provoked into DNA following irradiation were monitored by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis technique (P.F.G.E.) with P. abyssi, P. furiosus, D. radiodurans and Escherichia coli. Results clearly showed that all these rates were similar suggesting that no specific DNA protection system exits in Pyrococcus species. The growth of P. abyssi was efficiently recovered within two hours following the exposure to 2.5 kGy of gamma irradiation. As revealed by P.F.G.E., genomic DNA of P. abyssi totally fragmented after irradiation was efficiently restored within two hours presumably by inter chromosomal homologous recombination. The DNA replication in P. abyssi cells following irradiation at 2.5 kGy was blocked for 90 minutes that corresponds to the decay for repairing damaged DNA. Moreover, following irradiation P. abyssi actively expulse damaged DNA material before DNA replication resumes, preventing the amplification of genetic mutations. We have also showed that at least a subset cf P. abyssi DNA repair and replication proteins, such as RadA, RPA-41 and RFC-S. were constitutively expressed in chromatin bound forms in stationary phase cells. Our results were in agreement with the view that P. abyssi contains a very efficient DNA repair system, which is continuously ready to counteract the DNA damaged caused by the high temperature and/or ionizing radiation. For the first time, three novel hyper-thermophilic archaea species from deep-sea hydrothermal vents more radioresistant than P. abyssi were isolated and characterized, after 'y-irradiation exposures of some enrichment cultures. Thermococcus marinus, Thermococcus radiophilus and Thermococcus gammafolerans were able to survive to elevated doses of {gamma}-irradiation from around 20 to 40 kGy which make them the most radioresistant hyper-thermophilic archaea isolated so far. Likewise, no specific DNA protection system was shown and their chromosomal damaged DNA following exposure to 2.5 kGy of {gamma}-irradiation were fully restored within two hours incubation under optimal growth conditions. (author)

  7. Study of deuterons induced nuclear reactions on light elements (N, Al and Si): Application to containment materials of radioactive wastes; Etude des reactions nucleaires induites par des deuterons sur des elements legers (N, Al, Si): application aux materiaux de confinement des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrino, St

    2004-03-01

    Nuclear reaction analysis is well adapted to the quantification of light element. Profiles of concentration in order to follow elements migration into materials can be undertaken. This technique is used to study the behavior of the future matrices for nuclear waste containment. This technique is isotopic, characterized by a good signal-to-background ratio and a very low detection limit. The probability of a nuclear reaction is linked to a parameter called 'cross section' we have to know in order to carry out quantitative analysis. We have determined excitation curves for nitrogen, aluminium and silicon. These experiments were done with deuterons from 0.5 to 2 MeV. Two methods for the cross section characterization are presented and are in agreement with each other. The second one reduces uncertainty. Data are incorporated in the simulation software SIMNRA. We have compared the results obtained on different samples when we use data in literature or data of the study. We have noticed a great fit improvement with the data of this study. The new cross sections of this work will be integrated in the general data base SIGMABASE. Applications on materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, nano-metric powders, WCN and nuclear glass YLaMgSiAlON studied for radioactive waste containment are also presented. (author)

  8. Study of the signal H{sup 0}/A{sup 0} {yields} {tau}{mu} in hadron colliders and inter-calibration of the Ddiameter calorimeter with RUN 2 of Tevatron; Etude du signal H{sup 0}/A{sup 0} {yields} {tau}{mu} aux collisionneurs hadroniques et intercalibration du calorimetre de Ddiametre au RUN 2 du Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delsart, P.A

    2003-10-01

    D0 is one of the 2 detectors settled on the Tevatron at Fermilab. This thesis has been made in collaboration with the 'theory' group and the D0 group of IPNL (nuclear physics institute of Lyon). Within the D0 group we have worked on the calibration of the detector's calorimeter: intercalibration. Using the fact that the physics is phi-symmetric in D0 we have created and applied statistical methods for a relative calibration of some phi-symmetric parts of the calorimeter. Work on particle physics concerned the two Higgs doublet model. In such models leptonic number violation is possible: we have simulated the H{sup 0}/A{sup 0} {yields} {tau}{mu} signal in order to study the discovery potential and the constraints on the coupling responsible for this decay. (author)

  9. Development and validation of an experimental procedure for studying the biaxial stress corrosion. Application to the systems: alloy-600/air and 316L/MgCl{sub 2}; Developpement et validation d'une procedure experimentale pour l'etude de la corrosion sous contrainte biaxiale. Application aux couples alliage 600 / air et 316L / MgCl{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farre, M.Th

    1998-07-15

    One of the main preoccupation for maintaining EdF's nuclear pressurised water reactors is intergranular stress corrosion cracking of steam generator tubing (alloy 600: NC 15Fe). The most affected areas (first row U-bend and roll transition zone) are in biaxial stress state. The crack propagation is often axial and sometimes circumferential. The actual life prediction criterion for these structures depends on the maximal principal stress. The purpose of this study is to determine whether it is safe to use such a criterion in a case of biaxial stress state. A procedure is proposed and experimentally validated for designing specimen in a controlled biaxial stress state when submitted to traction. Quadrants I an IV of the stress space are the only ones explored. The aim is to use these specimens in order to realize stress corrosion tests in primary water with alloy 600. The procedure involves studying the biaxial behavior of the material. This shows the effect of hardening on the shape of the yield stress surface. The hardening of alloy 600 is mainly kinematic. The yield stress surface becomes concave in the hardening stress direction and flat in the opposite direction. The geometry of the specimen stems from parameterized shape optimisation. An elasto-viscoplastic behavior law is identified for alloy 600. Use of the law for calculating the strain state of one specimen is experimentally validated. This entire procedure has been successfully validated with biaxial stress corrosion cracking tests, using 316L and MgCl{sub 2} boiling at 154 deg C. In this case it is difficult to determine a life time criterion. It is shown that the criterion of the maximal principal stress is invalid in case of a biaxial stress state. (author)

  10. Study of charge correlation for Z {<=} 2 obtained in Au+Au collisions with incident energy from 150 up to 400 MeV/A. FOPI detector is used; Etude des correlations des charges Z {<=} 2 obtenues lors des collisions Au+Au aux energies incidentes de 150 a 400 MeV/A avec le detecteur fopi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pras, Ph

    1997-01-24

    In the first part of this work we present what information can be driven from heavy ion collision studies and what can be expected from the state equation of nuclear matter. We introduce the notion of centrality and the concept of spectator-participant. The different models of collisions are reviewed. The theory of correlations between light particles is used as a tool to predict some results about the shape and population density of theoretical spectra.The Coulomb model which implies a thermal interpretation of heavy ion collisions is modified in order to take excited states into account and to reproduce the collective phenomena of flow and squeeze-out. Within the frame of this modified Coulomb model 3 notions of nuclear temperature are compared. A discussion is lead to find out the temperature of nuclear matter at the very moment of fragmentation. (A.C.) 134 refs.

  11. Radio-induced neuropathology: from early effects to late sequelae. Rat behavioural and metabolic studies after sublethal total body irradiation; Neuropathologie radio-induite: des effets precoces aux sequelles tardives. Etudes comportementales et metaboliques chez le rat apres irradiation globale subletale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martigne, A.P.

    2010-05-15

    The radioresistance dogma of Central Nervous System (CNS) is now obsolete. Recent progress in neuroscience allow us to reconsider the radiation-induced cognitive dysfunctions observed after radiation therapy or after a nuclear accident, and to devise appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic means. We have developed a Rat model to study the effects of total body irradiation at a sublethal dose (4.5 Gy). This leads to impaired learning and memory of a task being acquired during the first month - which is prevented by administration of a radioprotector (amifostine) - while it does not appear to affect retrograde memory. Early, an apoptotic wave occurs in the sub-ventricular zone, 5 to 9 hours after exposure, while neuro-genesis is suppressed. Two days after irradiation, the metabolic study conducted by NMR HRMAS (High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning) suggests the presence of cerebral oedema and the study of brain lipids in liquid NMR confirms the membrane damages (elevated cholesterol and phospholipids). The lipid profile is then normalized while a gliosis appears. Finally, 1 month post-irradiation, the elevation of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, in 2 separate brain structures, occurs simultaneously with a taurine decrease in the hippocampus that lasts 6 months. Our integrated model allows validating bio-markers measurable in vivo NMR spectroscopy - the next experimental stage - and testing new radiation-protective agents. (author)

  12. A contribution to the study of the extraction of mineral acids and of actinide (IV) and (VI) cations by N,N-dialkylamides; Contribution a l'etude de l'extraction d'acides mineraux et de cations actinides aux degres d'oxydation (IV) et (VI) par des N,N-dialkylamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condamines, N.

    1990-03-15

    N,N-dialkylamides are alternate extractants to tributylphosphate, TBP, for the actinides separation in nuclear fuel reprocessing. N,N-di (2-ethyl hexyl) butyramide and N,N-di (2 ethyl hexyl) isobutyramide are selected for their sufficient extraction and partition ability towards actinides (IV) and (VI) without coextracting fission products. Mechanisms of HNO{sub 3}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, Pu{sup 4+}, Th{sup 4+} are investigated. Nitric acid extraction is due to the competitive formation of the species (HNO{sub 3})L{sub 2}, (HNO{sub 3})L, (HNO{sub 3}){sub 2}L (L: DOBA or DOiBA). An hydrogen bond is the driving force of the transfer. For low acidity media, amides are neutral extractants. Physical interactions, between free ligand and metallic complex, arise for high amide concentrations. Taking into account the non-ideality of the organic medium by a hard spheres mixture model, we estimate that such interactions are far from negligible and very specific to the amide group. Unlike TBP, when increasing acidity, amides behave as anionic extractants. DOBA and DOiBA appear to be satisfactory extractants for fuel reprocessing.

  13. Dosimetric study of tips exposure during preparations and injections of {sup 18}F.D.G. in usual situation and degraded mode; Etude dosimetrique des expositions aux extremites lors des preparations et injections de 18FDG en situation normale et en mode degrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halley, A.; Lortal, B.; Dejean, C.; Buj, S.; Bouquey, C.; Clement, R.; Lecamus, S.; Bonichon, F.; Cazeau, A.L.; Caron, J. [Institut Bergonie, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: to evaluate tips exposure of manipulators in electro radiology in usual and degraded situation of radiation protection during the preparation and injection of {sup 18}F.D.G. solutions. indeed, during dysfunction of high energy shielded enclosure and/or automatic injector of F.D.G., an operation in manual mode is established. Conclusions: As expected, the phase of manual preparation in case of dysfunction of high energy shielded enclosure is the most irradiating because of possible successive sampling in order to adjust activity to inject. The derivative use of syringe-guard of automatic injector shows its efficiency for manual injection in degraded situation, even if irradiation stay more important comparatively to an automatic injection. (N.C.)

  14. Etude d’un procédé de type « rejet zéro » appliqué aux effluents chargés en métaux lourds et radionucléides par couplage nanofiltration et électro-élution contrôlée

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Esmi, Caue

    2014-01-01

    L’objectif de ce travail de thèse est d’étudier un procédé pour l’élimination du nickel et du cobalt présents à faibles teneurs dans un effluent final issu d’une usine de retraitement du combustible nucléaire. Ce procédé associe la nanofiltration à une étape de sorption sur un matériau conducteur (feutre de carbone) capable d’être régénéré par voie électrique. Chaque étape est étudiée séparément et le couplage des techniques est évalué.L’étape de nanofiltration est étudiée par l’intégration d...

  15. Contribution to the study of the oxidation of cobalt and its protoxide in air at high temperatures; Contribution a l'etude de l'oxydation du cobalt et de son protoxyde dans l'air aux temperatures elevees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, M.G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-01-15

    The surface oxidation process of cobalt in air follows, a parabolic law and is characterized between 750 and 1350 deg. C by an activation energy of 41,000 cals/mole. Between 400 and 900 deg. C the oxide film is made up of two layers: CoO next to the metal and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} on the surface. Above 900 deg. C only CoO remains. The morphological properties of these films have been studied; growth anisotropy, crystallization facies, oxide grain growth, texture, nucleation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} on a CoO base round about 900 deg. C. The oxidation of cobalt protoxide between 700 and 910 deg. C results in the building up, on the outside surface of CoO discs, of a usually continuous layer of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Under certain conditions this surface reaction is accompanied by a reaction along the longitudinal symmetry plane of the sample where a layer of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} of very irregular thickness builds up. (author) [French] Le processus d'oxydation superficielle du cobalt dans l'air obeit a une loi parabolique et peut etre caracterise, entre 750 et 1350 deg. C, par une energie d'activation de 41 000 calorie s /mole. Entre 400 et 900 deg. C, la pellicule d'oxyde est constituee de deux couches superposees de CoO, au contact du metal et de Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} en surface. Au-dessus de 900 deg. C, seul subsiste CoO. On a etudie les proprietes morphologiques de ces pellicules: anisotropie de croissance, facies de cristallisation, croissance des grains d'oxyde, texture, germination de Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} sur un support de CoO au voisinage de 900 deg. C. L'oxydation du protoxyde de cobalt entre 700 et 910 deg. C se traduit par l'edification, sur la surface exterieure des plaquettes de CoO, d'une couche en general continue de Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Dans certaines conditions, a cette reaction superficielle se superpose parfois une reaction suivant le plan de symetrie longitudinal de l'echantillon ou s'edifie alors une couche de Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} d'epaisseur tres irreguliere. (auteur)

  16. Development of NbN Josephson junctions with Ta{sub x}N semi-metal barrier; application to RSFQ circuits; Etude et realisation de jonction Josephson en NbN a barriere semi-metallique en Ta{sub x}N; application aux circuits logiques RSFQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setzu, R

    2007-11-15

    This thesis research, brought to the development and optimization of SNS (Superconductor / Normal Metal / Superconductor) Josephson junctions with NbN electrodes and a high resistivity Ta{sub x}N barrier. We were able to point out Josephson oscillations for frequencies above 1 THz and operation temperatures up to 10 K, which constituted the original goal of the project. This property makes these junctions unique and well adapted for realizing ultra-fast RSFQ (Rapid Single Flux Quantum) logic circuits suitable for spatial telecommunications. We showed a good reproducibility of Ta{sub x}N film properties as a function of the sputtering parameters. The NbN/Ta{sub x}N/NbN tri-layers exhibit high critical temperature (16 K). The junctions showed a clear dependence of the R{sub n}I{sub c} product as a function of the partial nitrogen pressure inside the reactive plasma; the R{sub n}I{sub c} is the product between the junction critical current and its normal resistance, and indicates the upper limit Josephson frequency. We have also obtained some really high R{sub n}I{sub c} products, up to 3.74 mV at 4.2 K for critical current densities of about 15 kA/cm{sup 2}. Junctions show the expected Josephson behaviors, respectively Fraunhofer diffraction and Shapiro steps. up to 14 K. This allows expecting good circuit operations in a relaxed cryogenics environment (with respect to the niobium circuits limited at 4.2 K). The junctions appear to be self-shunted. The SNOP junctions J{sub c}-temperature dependence has been fitted by using the long SNS junction model in the dirty limit, which gives a normal metal coherence length of about 3.8 nm at 4.2 K. We have finally studied a multilayer fabrication process, including a common ground plane and bias resistors, suitable for RSFQ logic basic circuits. To conclude we have been able to show the performance superiority of NbN/Ta{sub x}N/NbN junctions over the actual niobium junctions, as well as their interest for realizing compact RSFQ logic circuits. In fact these junctions do not need external shunt-resistors as the Nb junctions, and can operate at clock frequencies above 150 GHz up to 10 K (against 50 GHz at 4.2 K for the Nb technology). (author)

  17. Study of the Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 resistance of selenite and selenate oxy-anions: accumulation, localisation and transformation of selenium; Etude de la resistance de Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 aux oxyanions selenite et seleniate: accumulation, localisation et transformation du selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avoscan, L

    2007-06-15

    Selenium is an essential trace element for the living organisms but it is very toxic at high concentration. Selenite and selenate oxides, soluble forms, highly toxic and bio-assimilable, are the most prevalent forms in the environment. Some soil micro-organisms play a dominant role and contribute to the natural cycle of selenium. Our study model, Cupriavidus (formerly Ralstonia) metallidurans CH34, a telluric bacterium characteristic of metal-contaminated biotopes, is known to resist selenite by reducing it into elemental selenium, an insoluble and less toxic form of selenium. In order to better understand the mechanisms of selenium reduction in the bacteria, three methods of speciation were combined (XAS (XANES and EXAFS), HPLC-ICP-MS and SDS-PAGEPIXE). They were completed by the direct quantification of selenium accumulated in the bacteria. Speciation analyses highlighted the existence of two mechanisms of reduction of selenium oxides in C. metallidurans CH34. Assimilation transforms selenite and selenate into organic selenium, identified as seleno-methionine and leads to its non-specific incorporation into bacterial proteins (presence of selenious proteins). Detoxication precipitates selenite in nano-particles of elemental selenium. This way of detoxication is not set up after an exposure to selenate although it is nevertheless possible to detect elemental selenium but in very small amount compared to the exposure of selenite. Seleno-diglutathion is detected in bacteria stressed by an exposure to selenate in medium limited in sulphate. Bacteria exposed to selenite accumulate 25 times more selenium than when they are exposed to selenate. The study of mutants resistant to selenite, which do not express the membrane protein DedA, showed that the accumulation of selenium after exposure to selenite is decreased compared with the wild strain meaning probable link between the transport of selenite and the DedA protein. Finally, selenate would use the sulphate permease pathway for entering C. metallidurans CH34. (author)

  18. Study, design and realization of a fault-tolerant and predictable synchronous communication protocol on off-the-shelf components; Etude, conception et mise en oeuvre d'un protocole de communication synchrone tolerant aux fautes et predictible sur des composants reseaux standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrol, D

    2006-06-15

    This PhD thesis contributes to the design and realization of safety-critical real-time systems on multiprocessor architectures with distributed memory. They are essential to compute systems that have to ensure complex and critical functions. This PhD thesis deals with communication media management. The communication management conditions strongly the capability of the system to fulfill the timeliness property and the dependability requirements. Our contribution includes: - The design of predictable and fault-tolerant synchronous communication protocol; - The study and the definition of the execution model to have a efficient and safe communications management; - The proposal of a method to generate automatically the communications scheduling. Our approach is based on a communication model that allows the analysis of the feasibility, before execution, of a distributed safe-critical real-time system with timeliness and safety requirements. This leads to the definition of an execution model based on a time-triggered and parallel communication management. A set of linear constraints system is generated automatically to compute the network scheduling and the network load with timeliness fulfillment. Then, the proposed communication interface is based on an advanced version of TDMA protocol which allows to use proprietary components (TTP, FlexRay) as well as standard components (Ethernet). The concepts presented in this thesis lead to the realisation and evaluation of a prototype within the framework of the OASIS project done at the CEA/List. (author)

  19. Cooperative photo-induced effects: from photo-magnetism under continuous irradiation to ultra-fast phenomena - study through optical spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction; Effets photo-induits cooperatifs: du photomagnetisme sous irradiation continue aux phenomenes ultrarapides - etude par spectroscopie optique et diffraction X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glijer, D

    2006-12-15

    The control with ultra-short laser pulses of the collective and concerted transformation of molecules driving a macroscopic state switching on an ultra-fast time scale in solid state opens new prospects in materials science. The goal is to realize at the material level what happens at the molecular level in femto-chemistry. These processes are highly cooperative and highly non-linear, leading to self-amplification and self-organization within the material, a so-called photo-induced phase transition with a new long range order (structural, magnetic, ferroelectric,...). Two families of molecular compounds have been studied here: first of all, spin transition materials changing from a diamagnetic state over to a paramagnetic state under the effect of temperature or under continuous laser excitation. It concerns photo-active molecular bi-stability prototype materials in solid state, whose switching has been studied during X-ray diffraction, optical reflectivity and magnetism experiments. Then we have studied charge-transfer molecular systems, prototype compounds for ultrafast photo-induced phase transitions: insulator-metal, neutral-ionic....As well as ultrafast optical experiments, time-resolved X ray crystallography is a key technique in order to follow at the atomic level the different steps of the photo-induced transformation and thus to observe the involved mechanisms. We have underlined a process of photo-formation of one-dimensional nano-domains of lattice-relaxed charge-transfer excitations, governing the photo-induced phase transition of the molecular charge-transfer complex TTF-CA by the first time-resolved diffuse scattering measurements. Moreover, a new femtosecond laser-plasma source and a optical pump-probe spectroscopy set-up with a highly sensitive detecting system have been developed in this work. The results presented here will be an illustration of the present scientific challenges existing on the one hand with the development of projects of major scale (new ultrafast sources) and on the other hand with ultrafast photo-switching. (author)

  20. Etude de l'efficacité de la fonctionnalisation des acides aminés au MTBSTFA après hydrolyse acide et dans différentes matrices minérales analogues martiennes : application aux expériences Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) et Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA)

    OpenAIRE

    Brault, Amaury

    2015-01-01

    Three main ways of study allow us to search for traces of life in the Universe: remote analysis, laboratory analysis of extraterrestrial material fallen or brought back to Earth, and in situ analysis. In association with chemical derivatization, Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is the method of predilection used for the separation and identification of organic compounds of astrobiological interest, whether on Earth or beyond. This work firstly deals with the impact of s...

  1. Incinerators and health. Exposure to dioxines of the population living near U.I.O.M. state of knowledge and protocol of an exposure study; Incinerateurs et sante. Exposition aux dioxines de la population vivant a proximite des UIOM. Etat des connaissances et protocole d'une etude d'exposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-15

    For several years, dioxines, very stable and ubiquitous pollutants that can be found in the food chain, have drawn continuous attention from actors implicated in waste management, from the general population and from scientists. Indeed, waste incineration is still a cause for concern for the general public in light of the significant emission of pollutants, specifically dioxines, emitted by certain waste incinerators that were recently shut down or brought up to standards. Between 1998 and 2003, the total number of incinerators in France decreased from 300 to 123, and their dioxin emissions were significantly reduced. Public health studies are nevertheless necessary because of the continued presence of dioxines in the environment. The Institut de veille sanitaire (National Institute of Public Health Surveillance) and the Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des aliments (French Food Safety Agency) convened a group of experts to better understand the dioxin exposure of people residing in close proximity to municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) as well as the determinants of this exposure, specifically the consumption of local products. This report gathers the existing data necessary for the production of a study protocol. It contains four parts dealing respectively with: - the contribution of MSWIs to dioxin exposure by air and food consumption while identifying relevant criteria to select MSWIs for the protocol and the method determining the area(s) of study; - the most adapted food study method to estimate dioxin exposure via food consumption, specifically the consumption of food commodities produced in the local atmospheric deposition area of a MSWI and the identification of the type of population most appropriate for the study; - a selection of the most relevant biological indicators of dioxin exposure and PCBs, their levels as recorded in various countries and their variation factors; - and a proposal for a multicenter study protocol. This study will be the first one to use French data on serum concentrations of dioxines and PCBs. It will also determine whether all or part of populations residing around MSWIs are more exposed or not to dioxines, and if so, why. (author)

  2. Study and development of solid fluxes for gas tungsten arc welding applied to titanium and its alloys and stainless steels; Etude et developpement des flux solides en vue d'application en soudage ATIG applique au titane et ses alliages ainsi qu'aux aciers inoxydables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, N

    2000-06-15

    Gas Tungsten Arc Welding uses an electric arc between the refractory tungsten electrode and the plates to be welded under an argon shielding gas. As a result, the joint quality is excellent, no pollution nor defects are to be feared, consequently this process is used in nuclear, aeronautic, chemical and food industries. Despite of this good qualities, GTAW is limited because of, on the one side, a poor penetrating weld pool and, on the other side, a week productivity rate. Indeed, up to 3 mm thick plates, machining and filler metal is needed. Multiple runs increase the defect's risks, the manufactory time and increase the deformations and the heat affected zone. The goal of this study is to break through this limits without any device investment. Active GTA welding (or ATIG) is a new technique with GTA device and an activating flux to be spread on the upper plate before welding. The arc, by plasma electrochemical equilibrium modifications, and the pool with the inner connective flows inversion, allow 7 mm thick joints in one run without edges machining or filler metal for both stainless steel and titanium alloys. This manuscript describes the development of these fluxes, highlights the several phenomena and presents the possibilities of this new process. This work, in collaboration with B.S.L. industries, leads to two flux formulations (stainless steel and titanium alloys) now in a commercial phase with CASTOLIN S.A. Moreover, B.S.L.industries produces a pressure device (nitrate column) with the ATIG process using more than 2800 ATIG welds. (author)

  3. Study of the generation of non-inductive current in Tore Supra and application to operational scenarios of a continuous tokamak; Etude de la generation de courant non inductive dans Tore Supra et application aux scenarios operationnels d`un tokamak continu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian-Vibert, F.

    1996-07-05

    Lower Hybrid Current Drive in tokamak plasma allows to obtain continuous operations, which constitute a necessary step towards a definition of a thermonuclear fusion reactor. The objectives of this work is to define and study fully non inductive steady-state scenarios on Tore Supra. The current diffusion equation is solved to determined precisely the inductive and non inductive current density profiles and their influence on the time evolution of a discharge. Then, a new operation mode is studied theoretically and experimentally. In this scenario, the transformer primary circuit voltage is controlled in such a way that the flux consumption vanishes. It allows to achieve full steady-state discharges in a fast and reproducible manner. A theoretical flux consumption scaling law during plasma current ramp-up assisted by Lower Hybrid waves is presented and validated by experimental data, in view to minimized this consumption. The influence of a non monotonic current density profile on the confinement and the transport of energy in the plasma is also clearly illustrated by experiments. (author). 155 refs.

  4. Study of the non inductive current generation in Tore Supra and application to the operational scenario of a continuous tokamak; Etude de la generation de courant non inductive dans Tore Supra et application aux scenarios operationnels d`un tokamak continu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian-Vibert, F.

    1996-07-05

    Lower Hybrid Current Drive in tokamak plasmas allows to obtain continuous operations, which constitute a necessary step towards a definition of a thermonuclear fusion reactor. The objectives of this work is to define and study fully non inductive steady-state scenarios on Tore Supra. The current diffusion equation is solved to determined precisely the inductive and non inductive current density profiles and their influence on thee time evolution of a discharge. Then, a new operation mode is studied theoretically and experimentally. In this scenario, the transformer primary circuit voltage is controlled in such a way that the flux consumption vanishes. It allows to achieve full steady-state discharges in a fast and reproducible manner. A theoretical flux consumption scaling law during plasma current ramp-up assisted by Lower-Hybrid waves is presented and validated by experimental data, in view to minimized this consumption. The influence of a non monotonic current profile on the confinement and the transport of energy in the plasma is also clearly illustrated by experiments. (author). 138 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Study of consequences of a ionizing radiation exposure on the health of persons having stay at the Marie Curie school of Nogent-sur-Marne (Val-de-Marne); Etude des consequences d'une exposition aux rayonnements ionisants sur la sante des personnes ayant sejourne a l'ecole Marie Curie de Nogent-sur-Marne (Val-de-Marne)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    This study follows two other ones about the same subject. No one could bring elements to the question of the exposure impact on the population having stayed in the school. The old pupils and personnel have been exposed to radiation doses higher to the limit values of public exposure especially before 1987. The scientific knowledge suggest that the eventual sanitary consequences are in the area of low risks. The lack of exhaustiveness in the inquiry realisation and the lack of statistical power did not allow to measure the sanitary impact of ionizing radiation exposure among the former pupils of the Marie Curie school of Nogent sur Marne. (N.C.)

  6. Commentaire sportif en direct : Etude des correspondances entre le rythme du jeu et le rythme de parole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathon Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available L’étude que nous présentons ici s’inscrit dans la lignée des études portant sur les genres de discours oraux, et notamment sur les analyses prosodiques qui ont pu être proposées afin de définir les particularités phonostylistiques de plusieurs genres de discours et les discriminer les uns par rapport aux autres. Nous proposons donc une étude sur le rythme de parole dans un genre de discours particulier, celui du commentaire sportif en direct. Ce genre de discours nous intéresse en ceci que les productions linguistiques et phonostylistiques en sont particulièrement contraintes. L’une de ces contraintes concerne le contenu du commentaire : celui-ci est dicté directement par la nature de l’événement commenté. En effet, une partie du commentaire doit faire référence à l’action commentée. L’objectif de notre étude est de spécifier cette contrainte et de montrer comment celle-ci influe de manière générale sur différents aspects de l’organisation du discours (répartition de la parole en fonction du jeu et type de commentaires, aussi bien que sur les productions phonostylistiques des deux locuteurs principaux qui interviennent dans le commentaire, le journaliste et l’expert. Au niveau prosodique, nous nous intéressons principalement ici au rythme de parole des locuteurs, débit de parole et débit d’élocution, de manière à montrer l’influence potentielle du rythme du jeu sur le rythme du commentaire.

  7. Elaboration du Ge mesoporeux et etude de ses proprietes physico-chimiques en vue d'applications photovoltaiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutashkonko, Sergii

    Le sujet de cette these porte sur l'elaboration du nouveau nanomateriau par la gravure electrochimique bipolaire (BEE) --- le Ge mesoporeux et sur l'analyse de ses proprietes physico-chimiques en vue de son utilisation dans des applications photovoltaiques. La formation du Ge mesoporeux par gravure electrochimique a ete precedemment rapportee dans la litterature. Cependant, le verrou technologique important des procedes de fabrication existants consistait a obtenir des couches epaisses (superieure a 500 nm) du Ge mesoporeux a la morphologie parfaitement controlee. En effet, la caracterisation physico-chimique des couches minces est beaucoup plus compliquee et le nombre de leurs applications possibles est fortement limite. Nous avons developpe un modele electrochimique qui decrit les mecanismes principaux de formation des pores ce qui nous a permis de realiser des structures epaisses du Ge mesoporeux (jusqu'au 10 mum) ayant la porosite ajustable dans une large gamme de 15% a 60%. En plus, la formation des nanostructures poreuses aux morphologies variables et bien controlees est desormais devenue possible. Enfin, la maitrise de tous ces parametres a ouvert la voie extremement prometteuse vers la realisation des structures poreuses a multi-couches a base de Ge pour des nombreuses applications innovantes et multidisciplinaires grace a la flexibilite technologique actuelle atteinte. En particulier, dans le cadre de cette these, les couches du Ge mesoporeux ont ete optimisees dans le but de realiser le procede de transfert de couches minces d'une cellule solaire a triple jonctions via une couche sacrificielle en Ge poreux. Mots-cles : Germanium meso-poreux, Gravure electrochimique bipolaire, Electrochimie des semi-conducteurs, Report des couches minces, Cellule photovoltaique

  8. Effets Seebeck et Nernst dans les cuprates: Etude de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi sous champ magnetique intense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberte, Francis

    2010-06-01

    Ce memoire presente des mesures de transport thermoelectrique, les effets Seebeck et Nernst, dans une serie d'echantillons de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Des resultats obtenus recemment au Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses a Grenoble sur La1.7Eu0.2Sr0.1 CuO4, La1.675Eu0.2Sr0.125CuO 4, La1.64Eu0.2Sr0.16CuO4, La1.74Eu0.1Sr0.16CuO4 et La 1.4Nd0.4Sr0.2CuO4 sont analyses. Une attention particuliere est accordee aux equations de la theorie semi-classique du transport et leur validite est verifiee. La procedure experimentale et les materiaux utilises pour concevoir les montages de mesures sont expliques en detail. Enfin, un chapitre est dedie a l'explication et l'interpretation des resultats de transport thermoelectrique sur YBa2Cu3O6+delta publies au cours de l'hiver 2010 dans les revues Nature et Physical Review Letters. Les donnees d'effet Seebeck dans les echantillons de La 1.8-x,Eu0.2SrxCuO 4, ou un changement de signe est observe, permettent de conclure a la presence d'une poche d'electrons dans la surface de Fermi qui domine le transport a basse temperature dans la region sous-dopee du diagramme de phase. Cette conclusion est similaire a celle obtenue par des mesures d'effet Hall dans YBa 2Cu3O6+delta et elle cadre bien dans un scenario de reconstruction de la surface de Fermi. Les donnees d'effet Nernst recueillies indiquent que la contribution des fluctuations supraconductrices est limitee a un modeste intervalle de temperature au-dessus de la temperature critique.

  9. Rôles et actions des groupes dominants dans la ville : des outils aux processus historicisés. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Tellier

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit d’une journée d’étude organisée en mars 2008 par le programme de recherche ARC « Les élites dans la ville » de l’Université Libre de Bruxelles, ce numéro spécial regroupe une série d’articles qui s’intéressent aux modes opératoires de la « construction » de l’espace urbain par certains groupes sociaux, appelés ici « dominants ». Par « construction », nous n’entendons pas seulement les aspects matériels mais aussi, si pas davantage, les aspects sociaux et symboliques qui sont mis en œuvr...

  10. Fouille de données complexes : des relevés terrain aux données satellitaires pour la cartographie de paysages agricoles

    OpenAIRE

    Badra, F.; Vintrou, E; Bégué, A.; Teisseire, M.

    2010-01-01

    National audience; Dans cet article, nous présentons une approche préliminaire de caractérisation des paysages ruraux et de leurs systèmes de culture à partir de techniques de fouille de données (recherche d'itemsets fréquents). Cette méthode permet de coupler des données de relevé terrain aux indicateurs de texture extraits des images satellites. Sa mise en œuvre sur des données associées au Mali pose les premières bases d'une méthode originale d'extraction de motifs séquentiels à partir de ...

  11. Gestion de l’eau en Crau : comment s’adapter aux tensions sur la ressource en eau à l’échelle des exploitations agricoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÉROT, Anne ; BERGEZ, Jacques-Eric ; WALLACH, Daniel ; DURU, Michel ; CHARRON, François ; CAPILLON, Alain ; WERY, Jacques ; ISBERIE, Carole ; MAILHOL, Jean-Claude

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dans le contexte actuel d'augmentation de la pression sur la ressource en eau, quels sont les moyens pour économiser de l'eau en améliorant l'efficience d'irrigation d'une culture tout en préservant la production ? Le travail agronomique présenté ici combine expérimentation, enquête et modélisation pour évaluer l'efficience du mode d'irrigation gravitaire des prairies de la plaine de Crau et proposer de nouveaux scénarios de gestion adaptés aux différents usages et usagers de la ressource en eau.

  12. Nicole Fouché. Benjamin Franklin et Thomas Jefferson : Aux sources de l’amitié franco-américaine 1776-1808.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Caron

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Spécialiste des relations franco-américaines, Nicole Fouché propose une comparaison presque terme à terme entre deux Pères fondateurs de renom, Benjamin Franklin et Thomas Jefferson. Ce choix, comme la brièveté de l’ouvrage, le nombre limité de notes, la présence d’une courte bibliographie et l’absence d’index, répond aux exigences de la collection « Biographies américaines », dirigée par Annick Foucrier, dont l’objectif est de « présenter l’histoire des Etats-Unis à travers les vies de deux ...

  13. Les projets de Jacques Gondoin : première réponse aux rêves versaillais de Napoléon

    OpenAIRE

    Biraud, Émilie

    2012-01-01

    Résultats de la première commande faite par Napoléon Ier pour le château de Versailles, les projets réalisés par l’architecte Jacques Gondoin furent les plus complets parmi tous ceux proposés à l’Empereur entre 1806 et 1811, puisqu’ils englobaient l’ensemble du domaine versaillais. Étudié précédemment aux côtés des propositions de Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine et d’Alexandre Dufour, dans des publications consacrées au projet de Napoléon de faire du palais des rois de France sa propre résid...

  14. Contribution à la conception de circuits intégrés analogiques en technologie CMOS basse tension pour application aux instruments d'observation de la Terre

    OpenAIRE

    Standarovski, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Le présent mémoire de thèse s'inscrit dans la problématique d'intégration de chaînes pour traitement du signal vidéo issu d'un capteur CCD dédiées aux instruments d'observation de la Terre. La solution présentée à travers cette étude consiste à concevoir des circuits intégrés spécifiques (ASIC) analogiques avec des technologies CMOS sub-microniques basse-tension, principalement développées pour les circuits numériques complexes. Dans une première partie, nous présentons le contexte de l'étude...

  15. Des monastères aux funérailles. La construction d’une relation ethnographique avec des chrétiennes de Damas (Syrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Poujeau

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Des monastères aux funérailles. La construction d’une relation ethnographique avec des chrétiennes de Damas (Syrie. En juillet 2004, j’ai assisté aux funérailles d’un jeune homme de la famille au sein de laquelle je vivais à Damas. À l’époque, l’intense émotion suscitée par cet événement empêcha que je m’y intéresse de plus près. Ce n’est que deux ans plus tard, en juillet 2006, que j’ai décidé d’enquêter sur l’un des aspects majeurs de la cérémonie : les lamentations funèbres féminines. Lors de ce dernier terrain, les femmes de la famille que j’interrogeais, que j’accompagnais aux funérailles et dont j’enregistrais les chants m’assignèrent alors une place tout à fait particulière. Puisque, moi aussi, « je m’habillais en noir et je venais aux funérailles », je ne pouvais plus être considérée comme une étrangère. Dès lors, elles firent de moi la fille d’une de leur sœur émigrée à Paris et mariée avec un Français. Ce statut me fut par ailleurs confirmé lorsqu’elles m’attribuèrent une place dans leurs plaisanteries entre sœurs, tantes et neveux matrilatéraux.Dans cet article, je souhaite engager une double réflexion : sur la position et l’implication de l’ethnologue sur un terrain où l’émotion est au premier plan, ainsi que sur la façon dont être assignée à une place dans la parenté de ses informateurs donne enfin toute liberté d’action à l’ethnologue sur son terrain.From monasteries to funerals. The construction of ethnographical relations with the Christians of Damascus (Syria. In July 2004, I attended the funeral of a young man from the family with whom I was staying in Damascus. At the time, the intense emotion provoked by that event prevented me from immediately examining it more closely. It was only two years later, in July 2006, that I decided to study one of the main features of the ceremony: the women’s lamentations. During this

  16. La médiatisation des problématiques de la violence et de l'addiction aux jeux vidéo

    OpenAIRE

    Mauco, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Les problématiques de la violence et de l’addiction des jeux vidéo sont des thématiques récurrentes dans les médias généralistes. En étudiant la genèse du traitement médiatique de ces notions, dans une approche comparative et internationale, cet article suggère que la récurrence de ces thèmes est liée à la question de la sélection des experts du jeu vidéo. Leurs modes de sélections endogènes afin de répondre aux impératifs d’explication, produit une surreprésentation des professionnels de la p...

  17. Les compétences en littératie médiatique. De la définition aux nouveaux enjeux éducatifs.

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre FASTREZ; De Smedt, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    La littératie médiatique peut être décrite comme l’ensemble des compétences permettant à l’individu d’évoluer de façon critique et créative, autonome et socialisée dans l’environnement médiatique contemporain. Cet article présente une définition de la littératie médiatique sous la forme d’un inventaire structuré de ces compétences liées aux usages médiatiques. Cette définition constitue un outil diagnostique permettant au monde scolaire (et, par extension associatif, professionnel et familial...

  18. "Quels sont les facteurs qui peuvent donner aux élèves l'envie de pratiquer un sport en dehors du cadre scolaire ?"

    OpenAIRE

    Soos, Katia; Patelli, Gianpaolo

    2014-01-01

    Le sport est une activité physique qui apporte beaucoup aux élèves autant physiquement que mentalement. Il est recommandé de garder un certain équilibre grâce à une bonne hygiène de vie et par conséquent d’exercer une activité physique régulière. Aujourd’hui, les enfants sont sans cesse influencés ou attirés par des phénomènes nouveaux : internet, les jeux vidéos ou les séries télévisées. Ces distractions sont agréables, distrayantes et ne demandent pas beaucoup d’efforts physiques. C’e...

  19. Modélisation de dommages consécutifs aux séismes. Extension à d'autres risques naturels

    OpenAIRE

    CHIROIU, Lucian

    2004-01-01

    Les sujets que nous présentons abordent la question de la modélisation de dommages consécutifs aux séismes, avant et après l'événement. Cette approche a un caractère pluridisciplinaire, se situant entre les techniques propres au génie civil, à travers le calcul des structures, à la géographie, à travers l'analyse spatiale et à la télédétection, à travers l'utilisation de l'imagerie satellitaire. Le premier chapitre présente d'une part les objectifs, le fonctionnement et les principaux paramèt...

  20. Profils de virulence et de résistance aux B-lactamines de souches cliniques de Klebsiellapneumoniae isolées de sondes endotrachéales

    OpenAIRE

    BELAID, KHADIDJA

    2015-01-01

    La présence étude visait à détecter les facteurs de virulence et de résistance aux B-lactamines des souches cliniques de Kiebsiella pneumoniae isolées des prélèvements à partir des sondes d'aspiration trachéale. Au totale, 10 souches de K. pneumoniae ont été isolées, identifiées, et - testés leurs résistances vis-à-vis de 7 antibiotiques (B-Iactamine). Les antibiotiques qui présentent le plus d'efficacité sont: Imipenème et Cefoxitine. La résistance a l'Ampiciline et Ticarcilli...

  1. Adaptation aux impacts du changement climatique sur les écosystèmes aquatiques continentaux, conclusion de l'ARP ADAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdeaux, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Les écosystèmes d’eau douce sont d’importants réservoirs de biodiversité très sensibles au changement global. Outre leur intérêt propre, les enjeux qui s’y rattachent sont multiples : importance pour le maintien de la biodiversité terrestre, services écologiques (régulation et épuration de l’eau et énergie renouvelable) et engagements réglementaires. Aux conventions internationales et directives européennes protégeant certains types d’espèces et d’habitats, s’ajoute la DCE qui demande le reto...

  2. Le commentaire d’Alcuin sur l’Épître aux Hébreux et le thème du sacrifice

    OpenAIRE

    Savigni, Raffaele

    2006-01-01

    Le premier commentaire latin sur l’épître aux Hébreux, incomplet et transmis anonyme ou sous le nom d’« Ambroise » (c’est à dire de l’Ambrosiaster), a été rédigé par Alcuin, qui souligne le rôle sacerdotal de Jésus, le nouvel Melchisédech ; et présente le prêtre comme un nouvel Aaron, qui doit calmer la colère de Dieu. Il spiritualise la notion de sacrifice, mais il entrevoit aussi une continuité typologique entre les temples et les sacrifices de l’Ancien Testament et les églises chrétiennes,...

  3. Endogenous average cost based access pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Fjell, Kenneth; Foros, Øystein; Pal, Debashis

    2006-01-01

    We consider an industry where a downstream competitor requires access to an upstream facility controlled by a vertically integrated and regulated incumbent. The literature on access pricing assumes the access price to be exogenously fixed ex-ante. We analyze an endogenous average cost based access pricing rule, where both firms realize the interdependence among their quantities and the regulated access price. Endogenous access pricing neutralizes the artificial cost advantag...

  4. Accessibility in Teaching Assistant Training: A Critical Review of Programming from Ontario’s Teaching and Learning Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Vander Kloet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly understood that university education must be accessible to persons with disabilities. The responsibility to make the university accessible is arguably shared by all of us and yet, the extent to which it has become fully accessible is certainly suspect. By undertaking qualitative, discursive analysis of websites, online texts and other materials provided by Ontario’s teaching and learning centres, this paper seeks to do two things. First, it provides a critical overview of the types of training currently available at Ontario universities for teaching assistants on accessibility and teaching. This review will outline initiatives directed towards compliance with Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA requirements, those focused on education and advocacy (as well as areas of overlap and broader equity training which encompasses accessibility. Second, this paper, considering the content of the reviewed material and informed by critical disability studies, offers up an articulation of future directions for research, writing, advocacy, and training on teaching assistant development on accessible teaching. Il est de plus en plus accepté que l’éducation universitaire doit être accessible aux personnes handicapées. Certes, la responsabilité de rendre l’université accessible est partagée par tous et pourtant, la mesure dans laquelle celle-ci est devenue totalement accessible est sans nul doute suspecte. Après avoir entrepris des analyses qualitatives et discursives de sites web, de textes en ligne et d’autres documents fournis par des centres d’enseignement et d’apprentissage de l’Ontario, on cherche dans cet article à accomplir deux choses. Tout d’abord, l’article présente un aperçu critique des types de formation disponibles à l’heure actuelle dans les universités de l’Ontario à l’intention des enseignants auxiliaires sur l’accessibilité et l’enseignement. Cet examen va d

  5. Conserved and unique features of the homeologous maize Aux/IAA proteins ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1 and RUM1-like 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Marcon, Caroline; Tai, Huanhuan; von Behrens, Inga; Ludwig, Yvonne; Hey, Stefan; Berendzen, Kenneth W; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The maize (Zea mays L.) Aux/IAA protein RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1) is a key regulator of lateral and seminal root formation. An ancient maize genome duplication resulted in the emergence of its homeolog rum1-like1 (rul1), which displays 92% amino acid sequence identity with RUM1. Both, RUL1 and RUM1 exhibit the canonical four domain structure of Aux/IAA proteins. Moreover, both are localized to the nucleus, are instable and have similar short half-lives of ~23min. Moreover, RUL1 and RUM1 can be stabilized by specific mutations in the five amino acid degron sequence of domain II. In addition, proteins encoded by both genes interact in vivo with auxin response factors (ARFs) such as ZmARF25 and ZmARF34 in protoplasts. Although it was demonstrated that RUL1 and RUM1 can homo and heterodimerize in vivo, rul1 expression is independent of rum1. Moreover, on average rul1 expression is ~84-fold higher than rum1 in the 12 tested tissues and developmental stages, although the relative expression levels in different root tissues are very similar. While RUM1 and RUL1 display conserved biochemical properties, yeast-two-hybrid in combination with BiFC experiments identified a RUM1-associated protein 1 (RAP1) that specifically interacts with RUM1 but not with RUL1. This suggests that RUM1 and RUL1 are at least in part interwoven into different molecular networks. PMID:26672614

  6. « Les citoyens ordinaires face aux discours de l'énergie : l'appropriation d'un problème public »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillet Jérémy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available L'opinion publique sondée dans les grandes enquêtes témoigne de l'écart entre « pétitions de principe » et réalité au quotidien sur les questions d'énergie et d'environnement. Ce travail propose une explication de la manière dont les « citoyens ordinaires » intègrent des parties de discours sur les questions énergétiques, les ré-agencent et les prennent en compte ou non dans leur vie quotidienne, dans un jeu croisé de contraintes et de contradictions. Il exploite deux jeux de données liés à des forums en ligne organisés, l'un pendant la campagne présidentielle de 2012, moment politique par excellence, et l'autre au cours d'un moment de moindre politisation dans une région énergétiquement vulnérable : PACA. Un des intérêts de ces forums est de proposer aux enquêtés des scènes d'expression dont la publicité varie, faisant ainsi apparaître des écarts entre les principes défendus en « public » montrant ce que la norme doit être, et les pratiques routinières décrites en « privé »: de même ils permettent de faire apparaître des degrés de conflictualité liés aux divers aspects des enjeux énergétiques.

  7. Initiation of detonation by impact on granular explosives; Contribution a l'etude de la generation de la detonation provoquee par impact sur un explosif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-05-15

    A good number of experiments have shown up the particular behaviour of granular explosives when they are detonated by barrier transmitted shocks. Similar results can be obtained when the shock is induced by impact. In this case the pressure signal shape applied at the explosive is better known and both its intensity and duration can be varied. By using a mathematical model in which the law of chemical kinetics is a linear function of pressure, and different temperatures are used for solids and gases, it is possible to describe most of the behaviour of detonation initiation in solid granular explosives. (author) [French] De nombreuses etudes experimentales ont montre le comportement particulier des explosifs granulaires lors de la detonation provoquee par choc transmis a travers une barriere. Les memes resultats peuvent etre obtenus lorsque la detonation est engendree par impact. Dans ce cas, la forme du signal de pression induit dans l'explosif est mieux connue, et il est possible d'en faire varier l'intensite et la duree d'application. Un modele mathematique utilisant une loi de cinetique chimique fonction lineaire de la pression et ou les temperatures des etats solide et gazeux pendant la reaction sont differenciees, permet de retrouver la plupart des caracteres specifiques de la generation dans un explosif solide granulaire. (auteur)

  8. Early oesophageal cancer: results of a European multicentre survey. Group Européen pour l'Etude des Maladies de l'Oesophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonavina, L

    1995-01-01

    Early oesophageal cancer has been extensively studied in Far-Eastern countries, where its prevalence is high. A multicentre survey was conducted within the Groupe Européen pour l'Etude des Maladies de l'Oesophage to analyse results of surgical treatment in patients with disease staged as pTis-T1 N0 M0 according to the tumour node metastasis classification. Of 9743 patients with squamous cell oesophageal carcinoma observed since 1980, 4663 underwent resection; 253 (5.4 per cent) of these fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in the study. The overall mortality rate was 9.1 per cent (23 patients), and was higher after transthoracic than transhiatal oesophagectomy (10.7 versus 6 per cent, P not significant). Pathological examination showed an intraepithelial tumour in 46 patients (18.2 per cent), intramucosal carcinoma in 64 (25.3 per cent) and a submucosal lesion in 143 (56.5 per cent). The overall 5-year survival rate for patients with intraepithelial, intramucosal and submucosal tumours was 92.8, 72.8 and 44.3 per cent respectively. The 5-year survival rate was higher after transthoracic than transhiatal oesophagectomy (66 versus 52 per cent). No survival advantage was observed after either operation in patients with mucosal tumours. Of 21 patients with recurrent disease, 20 had a submucosal lesion. The 5-year survival rate in patients with submucosal tumour was higher after transthoracic than transhiatal oesophagectomy (54.2 versus 25.5 per cent).

  9. Electronic temperature measurement on the deca II plasma using the Bremsstrahlung; Mesure de la temperature electronique du plasma de deca II par etude du rayonnement de freinage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-01

    The electronic temperature of the DECA II machine's plasma is determined by studying the Bremsstrahlung. Two types of detectors are used for this measurement, a set scintillator-photo-multiplicator and a photoelectric effect detector with a massive silver target. The method used is the classical 'absorbent method', The absorbents used are thin formvar foils whose thickness is between 600 and 12 500 angstrom. The measurements done in two different working conditions of the DECA II machine have given: Te {approx_equal} 200 eV in the first case and Te {approx_equal} 70 eV in the second case. (author) [French] Nous avons determine la temperature electronique du plasma de la machine DECA II par l'etude du rayonnement de freinage. Pour cette mesure nous avons utilise deux types de detecteurs: des ensembles scintillateur-photomultiplicateur et un detecteur a effet photoelectrique a cible massive en argent. La methode utilisee pour cette mesure est la classique methode des absorbants. Nous avons utilise des feuilles de format tres mince (de 600 a 12 500 angstrom) comme absorbant. Les mesures faites dans deux regimes de travail differents de la machine DECA II nous ont conduit a: Te {approx_equal} 200 eV dans un cas et Te {approx_equal} eV dans l'autre cas. (auteur)

  10. Bioinformatic cis-element analyses performed in Arabidopsis and rice disclose bZIP- and MYB-related binding sites as potential AuxRE-coupling elements in auxin-mediated transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berendzen Kenneth W

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In higher plants, a diverse array of developmental and growth-related processes is regulated by the plant hormone auxin. Recent publications have proposed that besides the well-characterized Auxin Response Factors (ARFs that bind Auxin Response Elements (AuxREs, also members of the bZIP- and MYB-transcription factor (TF families participate in transcriptional control of auxin-regulated genes via bZIP Response Elements (ZREs or Myb Response Elements (MREs, respectively. Results Applying a novel bioinformatic algorithm, we demonstrate on a genome-wide scale that singular motifs or composite modules of AuxREs, ZREs, MREs but also of MYC2 related elements are significantly enriched in promoters of auxin-inducible genes. Despite considerable, species-specific differences in the genome structure in terms of the GC content, this enrichment is generally conserved in dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana and monocot (Oryza sativa model plants. Moreover, an enrichment of defined composite modules has been observed in selected auxin-related gene families. Consistently, a bipartite module, which encompasses a bZIP-associated G-box Related Element (GRE and an AuxRE motif, has been found to be highly enriched. Making use of transient reporter studies in protoplasts, these findings were experimentally confirmed, demonstrating that GREs functionally interact with AuxREs in regulating auxin-mediated transcription. Conclusions Using genome-wide bioinformatic analyses, evolutionary conserved motifs have been defined which potentially function as AuxRE-dependent coupling elements to establish auxin-specific expression patterns. Based on these findings, experimental approaches can be designed to broaden our understanding of combinatorial, auxin-controlled gene regulation.

  11. Three essays on access pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydee, Ahmed Nasim

    In the first essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price in the telecommunications industry. Determining the optimal access price is an important issue in the economics of telecommunications. Setting a high access price discourages potential entrants; a low access price, on the other hand, amounts to confiscation of private property because the infrastructure already built by the incumbent is sunk. Furthermore, a low access price does not give the incumbent incentives to maintain the current network and to invest in new infrastructures. Much of the existing literature on access pricing suffers either from the limitations of a static framework or from the assumption that all costs are avoidable. The telecommunications industry is subject to high stranded costs and, therefore, to address this issue a dynamic model is imperative. This essay presents a dynamic model of one-way access pricing in which the compensation involved in deregulatory taking is formalized and then analyzed. The short run adjustment after deregulatory taking has occurred is carried out and discussed. The long run equilibrium is also analyzed. A time path for the Ramsey price is shown as the correct dynamic price of access. In the second essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price for an infrastructure that is characterized by congestion and lumpy investment. Much of the theoretical literature on access pricing of infrastructure prescribes that the access price be set at the marginal cost of the infrastructure. In proposing this rule of access pricing, the conventional analysis assumes that infrastructure investments are infinitely divisible so that it makes sense to talk about the marginal cost of investment. Often it is the case that investments in infrastructure are lumpy and can only be made in large chunks, and this renders the marginal cost concept meaningless. In this essay, we formalize a model of

  12. Grossesse au travail. Le vécu et les obstacles rencontrés par les travailleuses en Belgique. Etude quantitative et qualitative

    OpenAIRE

    LEMBRECHTS, Lieve; Valgaeren, Elke

    2010-01-01

    Cette étude exploratoire a pour objectif d’établir un panorama de la situation belge face à la discrimination liée à la grossesse sur le lieu de travail. Elle part du vécu des femmes et tente de répondre aux questions suivantes : 1. Quelles sont les formes et l’ampleur des discriminations et des différences de traitement liées à la grossesse sur le lieu de travail? 2. Quelles sont les caractéristiques et les fonctions des travailleuses confrontées à des discriminations basées...

  13. Etude, conception et réalisation d'un capteur de micro et nano-forces. Application à la mesure d'élasticité des ovocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Boukallel, Mehdi

    2003-01-01

    Dans le domaine de la microrobotique, la manipulation d'objets de petites tailles (micromécanismes, cellules, etc...) est courante. Afin de caractériser les interactions aux dimensions de travail considérées, la mesure de force en microrobotique est nécessaire. Dans cette optique, nous avons développé un capteur de forces qui repose sur un principe de lévitation magnétique passive et ne nécessitant pas d'asservissement pour assurer la lévitation. Les dimensions globales du capteur n'excèdent ...

  14. Etude de la conservation de la terminaison de la transcription Rho-dépendante au sein de la biodiversité

    OpenAIRE

    Heygere, François d'

    2015-01-01

    Le facteur bactérien Rho est une ARN hélicase toroïdale utilisant l’énergie issue de l’hydrolyse d’ATP pour transloquer le long de brins ARN et dissocier les obstacles moléculaires se trouvant sur son chemin. La fonction majeure de Rho est de provoquer la terminaison de la transcription. Les nombreuses études du facteur Rho d’E. coli (EcRho) ont montré que l’enzyme se fixe aux régions nues des transcrits naissants au niveau de sites Rut (Rho utilization) et utilise son activité de translocase...

  15. Etude exploratoire des processus et modèles d'incubation en entrepreneuriat : cas des pépinières tunisiennes

    OpenAIRE

    Masmoudi, Mohamed Raef

    2007-01-01

    L'exploration du phénomène d'incubation a pour objectif de répondre aux questions qui portent sur les différentes étapes du processus d'incubation et sur l'évolution des configurations entrepreneuriales des incubés au cours de ce processus. La première partie de ce travail doctoral, porte sur l'émergence de la thématique d'incubation dans le champ de l'entrepreneuriat. Elle couvre les grandes questions concernant : l'éclatement des recherches en entrepreneuriat et le développement des travaux...

  16. Etude des effets du déficit hydrique sur le processus de germination chez le blé dur (Triticum durum Desf.)

    OpenAIRE

    ZEMOUR, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    Le déficit hydrique constitue le principal stress abiotique limitant considérablement la productivité du blé dur (Triticum durum Desf.) en Algérie. La phase de germination constitue l’une des étapes les plus sensibles aux effets engendrés par ce stress. Le travail présenté traite les impacts du déficit hydrique exprimés par l’abaissement du potentiel hydrique du milieu sur la réalisation des principales phases de la germination. Quatre niveaux de potentiel osmotique provoqués par des solution...

  17. Etude physico-chimique des bouteilles d'eau conditionnées en poly(éthylène téréphtalate)

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; David, Laurent; Etienne, Serge

    2011-01-01

    International audience Plusieurs études ont détecté certaines substances dans les eaux en bouteille PET. Leur présence est peu compatible avec une pollution des ressources. L'origine des ces substances est controversée. Une hypothèse possible est la diffusion des constituants de l'emballage (monomères, catalyseurs, additifs et néoformés) vers l'eau due à certaines conditions de stockage (temps, température, exposition aux UV...). D'une part, la migration de l'acétaldéhyde et de l'antimoine...

  18. Personalizing Access to Learning Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Simon, Bernd; Nejdl, Wolfgang;

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe a Smart Space for Learning™ (SS4L) framework and infrastructure that enables personalized access to distributed heterogeneous knowledge repositories. Helping a learner to choose an appropriate learning resource or activity is a key problem which we address in this fra......In this article, we describe a Smart Space for Learning™ (SS4L) framework and infrastructure that enables personalized access to distributed heterogeneous knowledge repositories. Helping a learner to choose an appropriate learning resource or activity is a key problem which we address...... in this framework, enabling personalized access to federated learning repositories with a vast number of learning offers. Our infrastructure includes personalization strategies both at the query and the query results level. Query rewriting is based on learning and language preferences; rule-based and ranking...

  19. Evaluating Web Accessibility Metrics for Jordanian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa Wahbi Kamal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available University web portals are considered one of the main access gateways for universities. Typically, they have a large candidate audience among the current students, employees, and faculty members aside from previous and future students, employees, and faculty members. Web accessibility is the concept of providing web content universal access to different machines and people with different ages, skills, education levels, and abilities. Several web accessibility metrics have been proposed in previous years to measure web accessibility. We integrated and extracted common web accessibility metrics from the different accessibility tools used in this study. This study evaluates web accessibility metrics for 36 Jordanian universities and educational institute websites. We analyze the level of web accessibility using a number of available evaluation tools against the standard guidelines for web accessibility. Receiver operating characteristic quality measurements is used to evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated accessibility metrics.

  20. Mechanisms that improve referential access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, M A

    1989-07-01

    Two mechanisms, suppression and enhancement, are proposed to improve referential access. Enhancement improves the accessibility of previously mentioned concepts by increasing or boosting their activation; suppression improves concepts' accessibility by decreasing or dampening the activation of other concepts. Presumably, these mechanisms are triggered by the informational content of anaphors. Six experiments investigated this proposal by manipulating whether an anaphoric reference was made with a very explicit, repeated name anaphor or a less explicit pronoun. Subjects read sentences that introduced two participants in their first clauses, for example, "Ann predicted that Pam would lose the track race," and the sentences referred to one of the two participants in their second clauses, "but Pam/she came in first very easily." While subjects read each sentence, the activation level of the two participants was measured by a probe verification task. The first two experiments demonstrated that explicit, repeated name anaphors immediately trigger the enhancement of their own antecedents and immediately trigger the suppression of other (nonantecedent) participants. The third experiment demonstrated that less explicit, pronoun anaphors also trigger the suppression of other nonantecedents, but they do so less quickly--even when, as in the fourth experiment, the semantic information to identify their antecedents occurs prior to the pronouns (e.g., "Ann predicted that Pam would lose the track race. But after winning the race, she..."). The fifth experiment demonstrated that more explicit pronouns--pronouns that match the gender of only one participant-trigger suppression more powerfully. A final experiment demonstrated that it is not only rementioned participants who improve their referential access by triggering the suppression of other participants; newly introduced participants do so too (e.g., "Ann predicted that Pam would lose the track race, but Kim..."). Thus, both