WorldWideScience

Sample records for access route fast

  1. Basic cable routing guidelines for a fast reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the guidelines evolved for cable routing in 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) are presented. Safety related redundant system cables in a nuclear plant shall not become unavailable due to cable fire. This is ensured by proper cable routing in the plant in addition to the other general fire protection measures

  2. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: the transfemoral access route is the default access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stortecky, Stefan; O'Sullivan, Crochan J; Buellesfeld, Lutz; Windecker, Stephan; Wenaweser, Peter

    2013-09-10

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a widely accepted alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) among non-operable patients or selected high-risk patients with degenerative, severe aortic stenosis. TAVI is considered less invasive when compared with SAVR; however, there remain significant differences between different TAVI access routes. The transfemoral approach is considered the least invasive access route, and can be performed as a fully percutaneous procedure in a spontaneously breathing patient under local anaesthesia and mild sedation only. Moreover, transfemoral TAVI patients are typically transferred to coronary care rather than to an intensive care unit after the procedure, and benefit from early ambulation and a reduction in overall length of hospital stay. Considering these patient-specific and health-economic advantages, several TAVI centres follow the least invasive strategy for their patients and have implemented the transfemoral access route as the default access in their institutions. This article provides an overview on the prerequisites for a successful transfemoral TAVI procedure, describes the procedural advantages compared to alternative access routes, and highlights differences in clinical outcomes. PMID:24025952

  3. 76 FR 27287 - Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... of Study and request for comments for the Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait (75 FR 68568..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). This notice is issued under authority of 33 U.S.C... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 167 Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait; Extension of...

  4. FAST UPDATE ALGORITHM FOR TCAM-BASED ROUTING LOOKUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志恒; 叶强; 白英彩

    2002-01-01

    Routing technology has been forced to evolve towards higher capacity and per-port packet processing speed. The ability to achieve high forwarding speed is due to either software or hardware technology. TCAM (Ternary Content Addressable Memory) provides a performance advantage over other software or hardware search algorithms, often resulting in an order-of-magnitude reduction of search time. But slow updates may affect the performance of TCAM-based routing lookup. So the key is to design a table management algorithm, which supports high-speed updates in TCAMs. This paper presented three table management algorithms, and then compared their performance. Finally, the optimal one after comparing was given.

  5. Price Dispersion and Accessibility: A Case study of Fast Food

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Hayden; David E. Davis

    2005-01-01

    This study examines spatial variation in the price and accessibility of fast food across a major urban area. We use novel data on the price of a representative fast food meal and the location of fast food restaurants belonging to one of three major chains in the District of Columbia and its surrounding suburbs. These data are used to test a structural model of spatial competition. The results of this study are easily interpreted and compared with a past analysis. We find that spatial differen...

  6. 76 FR 27288 - Port Access Route Study: The Atlantic Coast From Maine to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... records notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR...'' column. If you do not have access to the Internet, you may view the docket online by visiting the Docket.... Deep-water route means a route within defined limits, which has been accurately surveyed for...

  7. WIRELESS ADHOC MULTI ACCESS NETWORKS OPTIMIZATION USING OSPF ROUTING PROTOCOL BASED ON CISCO DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Khedr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most attractive field for research for researchers and authors so the Wireless adhoc networks. So, this paper will describe the background and basic features of Open Short Path First (OSPF routing protocol due to multi-access networks. Explaining and practice on the OSPF configuration commands. Describe, modify and calculate the metric (Cost used by OSPF due to adhoc networks. Illustrating the Election parameters made by DR/BDR (Designated and Back Designated Routers used in multi-access wireless networks. This paper will use OSPF routing protocol because of its average administrative distance with all routing protocols.

  8. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavanagh Anne M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES – a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. Methods The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut. Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant. Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Results Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 – 1.25 after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio

  9. Route to nonlocality and observation of accessible solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Claudio; Peccianti, Marco; Assanto, Gaetano

    2003-01-01

    We develop a general theory of spatial solitons in a liquid crystalline medium exhibiting a nonlinearity with an arbitrary degree of effective nonlocality. The model accounts the observability of "accessible solitons" and establishes an important link with parametric solitons.

  10. A fast IPv6 route lookup scheme for high-speed optical link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xingmiao; Li, Lemin

    2004-05-01

    A fast IPv6 route lookup scheme implemented by hardware is proposed in this paper. It supports a fast IP address lookup and can insert and delete the prefixes effectively. A novel compressed multibit trie algorithm that decreases the memory space occupied and the average searching time is applied. The scheme proposed in this paper is superior to other IPV6 route lookup ones, for example, by using SRAM pipeline, a lookup speed of 125 x 106 per second can be realized to satisfy 40Gbps optical link rate with only 1.9Mbyte consumption of memory space. As there is no actual IPv6 route prefix, we generate various simulation databases in which prefix length distribution is different. Simulation results show that our scheme has reasonable lookup time, memory space for all the prefix length distribution.

  11. Fast Emergency Paths Schema to Overcome Transient Link Failures in OSPF Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Nacamura Jr

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A reliable network infrastructure must be able to sustain traffic flows, even when a failure occurs and changes the network topology. During the occurrence of a failure, routing protocols, like OSPF, take from hundreds of milliseconds to various seconds in order to converge. During this convergence period,packets might traverse a longer path or even a loop. An even worse transient behaviour is that packetsare dropped even though destinations are reachable. In this context, this paper describes a proactive fast rerouting approach, named Fast Emergency Paths Schema (FEP-S, to overcome problems originating from transient link failures in OSPF routing. Extensive experiments were done using several network topologies with different dimensionality degrees. Results show that the recovery paths, obtained by FEPS, are shorter than those from other rerouting approaches and can improve the network reliability by reducing the packet loss rate during the routing protocols convergence caused by a failure.

  12. Fast emergency paths schema to overcome transient link failures in ospf routing

    CERN Document Server

    Barreto, Fernando; Nacamura, Luiz; 10.5121/ijcnc.2012.4202

    2012-01-01

    A reliable network infrastructure must be able to sustain traffic flows, even when a failure occurs and changes the network topology. During the occurrence of a failure, routing protocols, like OSPF, take from hundreds of milliseconds to various seconds in order to converge. During this convergence period, packets might traverse a longer path or even a loop. An even worse transient behaviour is that packets are dropped even though destinations are reachable. In this context, this paper describes a proactive fast rerouting approach, named Fast Emergency Paths Schema (FEP-S), to overcome problems originating from transient link failures in OSPF routing. Extensive experiments were done using several network topologies with different dimensionality degrees. Results show that the recovery paths, obtained by FEPS, are shorter than those from other rerouting approaches and can improve the network reliability by reducing the packet loss rate during the routing protocols convergence caused by a failure.

  13. A Combined Solution for Routing and Medium Access Control Layer Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    R. Murugan; Shanmugam, A.

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: In Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), both the routing layer and the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer are vulnerable to several attacks. There are very few techniques to detect and isolate the attacks of both these layers simultaneously. In this study, we developed a combined solution for routing and MAC layer attacks. Approach: Our approach, makes use of three techniques simultaneously which consists of a cumulative frequency based detection technique for&...

  14. 49 CFR 37.185 - Fleet accessibility requirement for OTRB fixed-route systems of large operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fleet accessibility requirement for OTRB fixed....185 Fleet accessibility requirement for OTRB fixed-route systems of large operators. Each large... percent of the buses in its fleet with which it provides fixed-route service are readily accessible to...

  15. Enhanced Multiple Routing Configurations For Fast IP Network Recovery From Multiple Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Anji Kumar & Dr MHM Krishna Prasad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Now a days, Internet plays a major role in our day to day activities e.g., for online transactions,online shopping, and other network related applications. Internet suffers from slow convergenceof routing protocols after a network failure which becomes a growing problem. Multiple RoutingConfigurations [MRC] recovers network from single node/link failures, but does not supportnetwork from multiple node/link failures. In this paper, we propose Enhanced MRC [EMRC], tosupport multiple node/link failures during data transmission in IP networks without frequent globalre-convergence. By recovering these failures, data transmission in network will become fast.

  16. Enhanced Multiple Routing Configurations for Fast IP Network Recovery from Multiple Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anji Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Now a days, Internet plays a major role in our day to day activities e.g., for online transactions, online shopping, and other network related applications. Internet suffers from slow convergence of routing protocols after a network failure which becomes a growing problem. Multiple Routing Configurations [MRC] recovers network from single node/link failures, but does not support network from multiple node/link failures. In this paper, we propose Enhanced MRC [EMRC], to support multiple node/link failures during data transmission in IP networks without frequent global re-convergence. By recovering these failures, data transmission in network will become fast.

  17. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh Anne M; Bentley Rebecca J; Thornton Lukar E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES) – a cross-sectional multilevel study con...

  18. The TARDis Route Map to Open Access: Developing an Institutional Repository Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hey, J.; Simpson, P.; L.A. Carr

    2005-01-01

    Extended abstract: Open access to peer reviewed journal articles is one of the key messages of the current international movement that is changing the paradigm of scholarly communication. Creating open access journals is one such route and creating institutional repositories containing author generated electronic text is another complementary alternative. Pioneering subject based repositories, such as arXiv, have shown the way in specific disciplines but a joined up approach is required f...

  19. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  20. Energy equalizing routing for fast data gathering in wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jie; GUO Shu-jie; QU Yu-gui; ZHAO Bao-hua

    2007-01-01

    Energy saving and fast responding of data gathering are two crucial factors for the performance of wireless sensor networks. A dynamic tree based energy equalizing routing scheme (DTEER) was proposed to make an effort to gather data along with low energy consumption and low time delay. DTEER introduces a dynamic multi-hop route selecting scheme based on weight-value and height-value to form a dynamic tree and a mechanism similar to token passing to elect the root of the tree. DTEER can simply and rapidly organize all the nodes with low overhead and is robust enough to the topology changes. When compared with power-efficient gathering in sensor information systems (PEGASIS) and the hybrid, energy- efficient, distributed clustering approach (HEED), the simulation results show that DTEER achieves its intention of consuming less energy, equalizing the energy consumption of all the nodes, alleviating the data gathering delay, as well as extending the network lifetime perfectly.

  1. Cross-layer rate control, medium access control and routing design in cooperative VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Liang; Zheng, Baoyu; Geller, Benoit; Wei, Anne; Xu, Shan; Li, Yajun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we address the rate control, the Medium Access Control (MAC) and the routing problem for cooperative Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) in the framework of cross-layer design. At first, we introduce the cooperative communication conception to VANET, and propose an opportunistic cooperation strategy to improve the system performance. And then, we develop a cross-layer solution which consists of the link capacity detection with adjusting persistence probability at the MAC Layer, th...

  2. Accessibility of a cadeirante in a public institution of higher education: routes and routines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Silveira Cambruzzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The physical disability is group is heterogeneous, even within a “category”, since that covers a diversity, because each has a mechanism to organize in spaces in which attends but all participate of the same challenges. However, due to the challenges encountered by persons with disabilities in establishing routes and routines within a University is that we have developed this research. We chose search access of physically disabled person in your external displacement of student housing to the classroom and the classroom until the Secretariat Department that frequents. Research whose goal is the identification and analysis of routes as its accessibility, on the campus of a public institution of higher education. The survey was submitted to the Ethics Committee that approves their implementation. Direct observations were performed, as well as records via photos and footage, which were authorized by the University. The information collected were analyzed qualitatively as the standards of the Brazilian Association of technical norms and the guiding document for the Regional Council of engineering and architecture, Rio Grande do Sul, titled: Roadmap survey. In data analysis, we see that there are needs for providing accessibility with safety and convenience, as well as establish mechanisms for the community library and the University restaurant part of living as part of the University community and also, in the exercise of their constitutional rights.

  3. Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Oral Film of Dicyclomine as potential route of Buccal Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Tomar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Buccal delivery is considered to be an important alternative to the peroral route for the systemic administration of drugs, as it considered the most convenient, easy, safest route of administration. Oral mucosa has rich vasculization, offers better permeability to many drugs & it act as an excellent site for the absorption of drugs. Fast dissolving oral film (FDOF is used as a novel approach, as it dissolve rapidly in mouth and directly reaches to the systemic circulation. Oral film technology fulfills all the requirements of potential solid dosage form. The aim of this study is to formulate and evaluate the (FDOF of an anticholinergic drug (Dicyclomine and improved bioavailability of drugs as compared to conventional solid oral dosage forms. Oral films were prepared by using HPMC (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, PVA (polyvinylalcohol, Eudragid RL-100, combination of two polymers and other excipients. Films were prepared by the solvent casting method. Films were evaluated for mechanical properties, Morphology study, swelling properties, disintegration time, dissolution time and in- vitro drug release. X1 formulation shows maximum in- vitro drug release 93.88%, following first order kinetics (r2 =0.9915. The release exponent ‘n’ was found to be for X1 is 0.4487, which appears to indicate a Fickian diffusion and may indicate that the drug release was controlled by first order release.

  4. CONVENIENCE, ACCESSIBILITY, AND THE DEMAND FOR FAST FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Jekanowski, Mark D.; Binkley, James K.; Eales, James S.

    2001-01-01

    This study explores the growth in demand for fast food. A distinguishing characteristic of fast food is its convenience; in today's pervasive marketplace, consumers need not travel far to find a fast food outlet. This greater availability translates into a decrease in the full price of obtaining a meal, which contributes to greater consumption. Market-level data are used to estimate demand equations in two time periods, incorporating changes in availability as well as prices, income, and vari...

  5. An accessibility graph-based model to optimize tsunami evacuation sites and routes in Martinique, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péroche, M.; Leone, F.; Gutton, R.

    2014-01-01

    The risk of tsunami threatens the whole Caribbean coastline especially the Lesser Antilles. The first available models of tsunami propagation estimate that the travel time from the closest seismic sources would only take few minutes to impact the Martinique Island. Considering this threat, the most effective measure is a planned and organized evacuation of the coastal population. This requires an efficient regional warning system, estimation of the maximum expected tsunami flood height, preparation of the population to evacuate, and drawing up of local and regional emergency plans. In order to produce an efficient evacuation plan, we have to assess the number of people at risk, the potential evacuation routes, the safe areas and the available time to evacuate. However, this essential information is still lacking in the French West Indies emergency plans. This paper proposes a model of tsunami evacuation sites accessibility for Martinique directly addressed to decision makers. It is based on a population database at a local scale, the development of connected graphs of roads, the identification of potential safe areas and the velocity setting for pedestrians. Evacuation routes are calculated using the Dijkstra's algorithm which gives the shortest path between areas at risk and designated evacuation sites. The first results allow us to map the theoretical times and routes to keep the exposed population safe and to compare these results with a tsunami travel time scenario.

  6. A Reinforcement Routing Algorithm with Access Selection in the Multi-Hop Multi-Interface Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Amir Hosein; Shahhoseini, Hadi Shahriar

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a routing algorithm is proposed for access selection in a network to find the optimal paths among intermediate nodes with multiple interfaces. Markov Decision Process is applied in each node to find optimal policy and select proper paths to the best access point in a dynamic environment. A reward function is defined as environment feedback to optimize and adapt routing behavior of nodes based on the local information. Selection metrics in each node are interface load, link quality and destination condition. It is shown, by using the proposed algorithm, there are better management in the node which decreases interference and collision and selects links with better quality toward the best possible destination. The performance of the method is exemplified and it is shown how the throughput and average delay of the network with more interface in its nodes, improved while packet loss degrades. As an example a two-interface and a one-interface network are studied. It is shown when network load is increased, interface management will improve the throughput, in the network with two-interface nodes. Also, by considering the link quality factor in the reward function, packet dropping becomes less but average delay increases.

  7. Underwater acoustic sensor networks: Medium access control, routing and reliable transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peng

    Recently there have been growing interests in monitoring aquatic environments for scientific exploration, commercial exploitation and coastline protection. The ideal vehicle for this type of extensive monitoring is a mobile underwater sensor network (M-UWSN), consisting of a large number of low cost underwater sensors that can move with water currents and dispersion. M-UWSNs are significantly different from terrestrial sensor networks: (1) Radio channels do not work well under water. They must be replaced by acoustic channels, which feature long propagation delays, low communication bandwidth and high channel error rates; (2) While most ground sensors are static, underwater sensor nodes may move with water currents (and other underwater activities), as introduces passive sensor mobility. Due to the very different environment properties and the unique characteristics of acoustic channels, the protocols developed for terrestrial sensor networks are not applicable to M-UWSNs, and new research at every level of the protocol suite is demanded. In this dissertation work, we investigate three fundamental networking problems in M-UWSN design: medium access control, multi-hop routing and reliable data transfer. (1) Medium access control (MAC): the long propagation delays and narrow communication bandwidth of acoustic channels pose the major challenges to the energy-efficient MAC design in M-UWSNs. For the first time, we formally investigate the random access and RTS/CTS techniques in networks with long propagation delays and low communication bandwidth (as in M-UWSNs). Based on this study, we propose a novel reservation-based MAC approach, called R-MAC, for dense underwater sensor networks with unevenly distributed (spatially and temporally) traffic. Simulation results show that R-MAC is not only energy efficient but also supports fairness. (2) Multi-hop routing: In M-UWSNs, energy efficiency and mobility handling are the two major concerns for multi-hop routing, which have

  8. A Combined Solution for Routing and Medium Access Control Layer Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Murugan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET, both the routing layer and the Medium Access Control (MAC layer are vulnerable to several attacks. There are very few techniques to detect and isolate the attacks of both these layers simultaneously. In this study, we developed a combined solution for routing and MAC layer attacks. Approach: Our approach, makes use of three techniques simultaneously which consists of a cumulative frequency based detection technique for detecting MAC layers attacks, data forwarding behavior based detection technique for detecting packet drops and message authentication code based technique for packet modification. Results: Our combined solution presents a reputation value for detecting the malicious nodes and isolates them from further network participation till its revocation. Our approach periodically checks all nodes, including the isolated nodes, at regular time period λ. A node which recovers from its misbehaving condition is revoked to its normal condition after the time period λ. Conclusion/Recommendations: By simulation results, we show that our combined solution provides more security by increased packet delivery ratio and reduced packet drops. We also shown that our approach has less overhead compared to the existing technique.

  9. Fast Energy-Efficient Secure Dynamic Address Routing For Scalable WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ravi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Secure Routing is one of the important issues in wireless sensor networks. A number of approaches have been proposed for secure routing in wireless sensor networks, but there is a lack of sufficient support for quick secure routing in large-scale sensor networks. We consider the dynamic address routing for wireless sensor networks. We consider two security algorithms namely RSA (Rivest, Shamir Adleman, Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC as an initial test for dynamic address routing protocol for wireless sensor networks. We consider five routing attacks such as Directory attack, Brutal attack, Wormhole attack, Sinkhole attack and Sybil attack against dynamic address routing in wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a common key cryptographic security algorithm named Random Number Addressing Cryptography (RAC for providing energy efficient secure dynamic address routing protocol for scalable wireless sensor networks. RAC security algorithm works energy-efficiently and provides better security than RSA and ECC.

  10. Study and Evaluation of Innovative Fuel Handling Systems for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors: Fuel Handling Route Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Franck Dechelette; Franck Morin; Guy Laffont; Gilles Rodriguez; Emmanuel Sanseigne; Sébastien Christin; Xavier Mognot; Aurélien Morcillo

    2014-01-01

    International audience The research for technological improvement and innovation in sodium-cooled fast reactor is a matter of concern in fuel handling systems in a view to perform a better load factor of the reactor thanks to a quicker fuelling/defueling process. An optimized fuel handling route will also limit its investment cost. In that field, CEA has engaged some innovation study either of complete FHR or on the optimization of some specific components. This paper presents the study of...

  11. Sleeping Cluster based Medium Access Control Layer Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Rangaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks play a vital role in remote area applications, where human intervention is not possible. In a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN each and every node is strictly an energy as well as bandwidth constrained one. Problem statement: In a standard WSN, most of the routing techniques, move data from multiple sources to a single fixed base station. Because of the greater number of computational tasks, the existing routing protocol did not address the energy efficient problem properly. In order to overcome the problem of energy consumption due to more number of computational tasks, a new method is developed. Approach: The proposed algorithm divides the sensing field into three active clusters and one sleeping cluster. The cluster head selection is based on the distance between the base station and the normal nodes. The Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA mechanism is used to make the cluster remain in the active state as well as the sleeping state. In an active cluster 50% of nodes will be made active and the remaining 50% be in sleep state. A sleeping cluster will be made active after a period of time and periodically changes its functionality. Results: Due to this periodic change of state, energy consumption is minimized. The performance of the Low Energy Adaptive and Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH algorithm is also analyzed, using a network simulator NS2 based on the number of Cluster Heads (CH, Energy consumption, Lifetime and the number of nodes alive. Conclusion: The simulation studies were carried out using a network simulation tool NS2, for the proposed method and this is compared with the performance of the existing protocol. The superiority of the proposed method is highlighted.

  12. Remote I/O : fast access to distant storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.; Kohr, D., Jr.; Krishnaiyer, R.; Mogill, J.

    1997-12-17

    As high-speed networks make it easier to use distributed resources, it becomes increasingly common that applications and their data are not colocated. Users have traditionally addressed this problem by manually staging data to and from remote computers. We argue instead for a new remote I/O paradigm in which programs use familiar parallel I/O interfaces to access remote file systems. In addition to simplifying remote execution, remote I/O can improve performance relative to staging by overlapping computation and data transfer or by reducing communication requirements. However, remote I/O also introduces new technical challenges in the areas of portability, performance, and integration with distributed computing systems. We propose techniques designed to address these challenges and describe a remote I/O library called RIO that we have developed to evaluate the effectiveness of these techniques. RIO addresses issues of portability by adopting the quasi-standard MPI-IO interface and by defining a RIO device and RIO server within the ADIO abstract I/O device architecture. It addresses performance issues by providing traditional I/O optimizations such as asynchronous operations and through implementation techniques such as buffering and message forwarding to off load communication overheads. RIO uses the Nexus communication library to obtain access to configuration and security mechanisms provided by the Globus wide area computing tool kit. Microbenchmarks and application experiments demonstrate that our techniques achieve acceptable performance in most situations and can improve turnaround time relative to staging.

  13. 快速移动环境中上下文感知优化链路状态路由协议%Context-aware Optimized Link State Routing Protocol for Fast Movement Scene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张可; 张伟; 李炜; 曾家智

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种应用于快速移动环境的上下文感知优化链路状态协议CAOLSR(Context-aware Optimized Link State Routing Protocol).CAOLSR采用了一种上下文信息机制,将节点间相对移动预测、前后访问时间以及节点连接度情况引入MPR(Multi Point Relays)选择,并设计了CAOLSR-MPR算法.此外,CAOLSR通过引入Fisheye减少了移动性对路由精度的影响.模拟实验表明,在节点快速移动与拓扑快速变化环境下与HOLSR(Hierarchical Optimized Link State Routing Protocol),OLSR(Optimized Link State Routing Protocol),DSDV(Destination Sequenced Distance Vector)相比,CAOLSR具有更为良好的性能.%An Context-aware optimized link state routing protocol for networks with fast-moving nodes was proposed CAOLSR (Context-aware Optimized Link State Routing Protocol) adopts a context-aware mechanism,and selects MPR (Multi Point Relays) based on relative movement of nodes, recent access-time and connection number of nodes, and adopts a special flow of MPR selection. In addition, by the introduction of Fisheye, reduces the influence from mobility on the routing accuracy. Experimental results show that CAOLSR can achieve good performance and outperform HOLSR (Hierarchical Optimized Link State Routing Protocol), OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing Protocol) and DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector) in networks with fast-moving nodes.

  14. Impairments Computation for Routing Purposes in a Transparent-Access Optical Network Based on Optical CDMA and WDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Optical access networks are becoming more widespread and the use of multiple services might require a transparent optical network (TON). Multiplexing and privacy could benefit from the combination of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and optical coding (OC) and wavelength conversion in optical switches. The routing process needs to be cognizant of different resource types and characteristics such as fiber types, fiber linear impairments such as attenuation, dispersion, etc. as well as fiber nonlinear impairments such as four-wave mixing, cross-phase modulation, etc. Other types of impairments, generated by optical nodes or photonic switches, also affect the signal quality (Q) or the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR), which is related to the bit error rate (BER). Therefore, both link and switch impairments must be addressed and somehow incorporated into the routing algorithm. However, it is not practical to fully integrate all photonic-specific attributes in the routing process. In this study, new routing parameters and constraints are defined that reflect the distinct characteristics of photonic networking. These constraints are applied to the design phase of TON and expressed as a cost or metric form that will be used in the network routing algorithm.

  15. Superconducting Switch for Fast On-Chip Routing of Quantum Microwave Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechal, M.; Besse, J.-C.; Mondal, M.; Oppliger, M.; Gasparinetti, S.; Wallraff, A.

    2016-08-01

    A switch capable of routing microwave signals at cryogenic temperatures is a desirable component for state-of-the-art experiments in many fields of applied physics, including but not limited to quantum-information processing, communication, and basic research in engineered quantum systems. Conventional mechanical switches provide low insertion loss but disturb operation of dilution cryostats and the associated experiments by heat dissipation. Switches based on semiconductors or microelectromechanical systems have a lower thermal budget but are not readily integrated with current superconducting circuits. Here we design and test an on-chip switch built by combining tunable transmission-line resonators with microwave beam splitters. The device is superconducting and as such dissipates a negligible amount of heat. It is compatible with current superconducting circuit fabrication techniques, operates with a bandwidth exceeding 100 MHz, is capable of handling photon fluxes on the order of 1 05 μ s-1 , equivalent to powers exceeding -90 dBm , and can be switched within approximately 6-8 ns. We successfully demonstrate operation of the device in the quantum regime by integrating it on a chip with a single-photon source and using it to route nonclassical itinerant microwave fields at the single-photon level.

  16. Symptomatic radial artery thrombosis successfully treated with endovascular approach via femoral access route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasha, Ahmed Khurshid [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Arizona (United States); Elder, Mahir D. [Heart and Vascular Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Division of Cardiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Malik, Umer Ejaz [Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Science Center at Permian Basin, TX (United States); Khalid, Abdullah Mian [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburg Medical Center, Mercy Hospital, Pittsburg, PA (United States); Noor, Zeeshan [Department of Internal Medicine, St. Joseph Mercy Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Movahed, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: rmova@aol.com [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Arizona (United States); Sarver Heart Center, University of Arizona (United States); CareMore HealthCare, AZ (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Radial access has been increasingly utilized for coronary intervention due to higher safety profile in comparison to femoral access site with lower bleeding rate. Radial artery occlusion is not uncommon with radial access site. This usually does not lead to any harm due to ulnar artery collaterals that are sufficient to prevent hand ischemia and is usually left alone. However, in the case of significant hand ischemia, treatment is often necessary. We are reporting an interesting case of symptomatic radial artery thrombosis leading to arm ischemia that was successfully treated percutaneously using femoral access. Using femoral access for radial artery intervention has not been reported previously. This case is followed by review of the literature.

  17. Study and Evaluation of Innovative Fuel Handling Systems for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors: Fuel Handling Route Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Dechelette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research for technological improvement and innovation in sodium-cooled fast reactor is a matter of concern in fuel handling systems in a view to perform a better load factor of the reactor thanks to a quicker fuelling/defueling process. An optimized fuel handling route will also limit its investment cost. In that field, CEA has engaged some innovation study either of complete FHR or on the optimization of some specific components. This paper presents the study of three SFR fuel handling route fully described and compared to a reference FHR option. In those three FHR, two use a gas corridor to transfer spent and fresh fuel assembly and the third uses two casks with a sodium pot to evacuate and load an assembly in parallel. All of them are designed for the ASTRID reactor (1500 MWth but can be extrapolated to power reactors and are compatible with the mutualisation of one FHS coupled with two reactors. These three concepts are then intercompared and evaluated with the reference FHR according to four criteria: performances, risk assessment, investment cost, and qualification time. This analysis reveals that the “mixed way” FHR presents interesting solutions mainly in terms of design simplicity and time reduction. Therefore its study will be pursued for ASTRID as an alternative option.

  18. A facile and fast route to prepare antimony (Sb) nanostructures without additives

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, M.A.

    2011-12-01

    Herein, we report a safe, low cost and reproducible approach for the synthesis of antimony (Sb) nanostructures with most of them having prism like morphology and having well defined faces in the range of ∼70210 nm. The organics free approach is based on a reaction of antimony powder and pure water at ∼210 °C without using any harmful additives and amines. The XRD pattern confirmed the composition and crystallinity of the grown nanostructures. The reported method besides being organics free is economical, fast and free of pollution, which will make it suitable for large scale production. Furthermore, it is well expected that such a technique could be extended to prepare many other important metal and metal oxide nanostructures. The prospects of the process are bright and promising. © 2012 Sharif University of Technology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Le code de la route reste peu accessible à un grand nombre de personnes sourdes

    OpenAIRE

    Paire-Ficout, Laurence; BORGETTO, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Actuellement, l’examen du code de la route est difficile d’accès à un nombre important de jeunes sourds. Cela peut constituer un véritable obstacle à l’intégration sociale, personnelle et professionnelle. Les motifs des nombreux échecs à l’examen sont : 1) le faible niveau de français écrit d’un grand nombre de jeunes sourds spécialement ceux qui présentent une surdité sévère ou profonde 2) le nombre réduit de centres ressources de formation disposant d’un...

  20. Fast distributed strategic learning for global optima in queueing access games

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2014-08-24

    In this paper we examine combined fully distributed payoff and strategy learning (CODIPAS) in a queue-aware access game over a graph. The classical strategic learning analysis relies on vanishing or small learning rate and uses stochastic approximation tool to derive steady states and invariant sets of the underlying learning process. Here, the stochastic approximation framework does not apply due to non-vanishing learning rate. We propose a direct proof of convergence of the process. Interestingly, the convergence time to one of the global optima is almost surely finite and we explicitly characterize the convergence time. We show that pursuit-based CODIPAS learning is much faster than the classical learning algorithms in games. We extend the methodology to coalitional learning and proves a very fast formation of coalitions for queue-aware access games where the action space is dynamically changing depending on the location of the user over a graph.

  1. 76 FR 76927 - Port Access Route Study: The Atlantic Coast From Maine to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... they be located? (6) What are the pros and cons to the Coast Guard designating coastwise fairways or...'' column. If you do not have access to the internet, you may view the docket online by visiting the Docket... records notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73...

  2. Unsynchronized Energy-Efficient Medium Access Control and Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, Philipp

    This master thesis investigates optimizations on recently proposed fully unsynchronized power saving sensor MAC protocols. In contrast to many other sensor MAC protocols, unsynchronized sensor MAC protocols renounce on any kind of network- or cluster-wide synchronization for channel access coordination and maintenance of a common wake-sleep pattern, because in wireless sensor networks with low traffic requirements, the overhead for maintaining synchronization is likely to exceed the energy spent for the actual data traffic.

  3. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment - SAFIRE - on Store Glacier, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, P.; Hubbard, B. P.; Doyle, S. H.; Young, T. J.; Hofstede, C. M.; Bougamont, M. H.; Todd, J.; Toberg, N.; Nicholls, K. W.; Box, J.; Walter, J. I.; Hubbard, A.

    2015-12-01

    Marine-terminating outlet glaciers drain 90 percent of the Greenland Ice Sheet and are responsible for about half of the ice sheet's net annual mass loss, which currently raises global sea level by 1 mm per year. The basal controls on these fast-flowing glaciers are, however, poorly understood, with the implication that numerical ice sheet models needed to predict future dynamic ice loss from Greenland relies on uncertain and often untested basal parameterizations. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment - SAFIRE - is addressing this paucity of observational constraints by drilling to the bed of Store Glacier, a fast-flowing outlet glacier terminating in Uummannaq Fjord, West Greenland. In 2014, we gained access to the bed in four boreholes drilled to depths of 603-616 m near the center of the glacier, 30 km inland from the calving terminus where ice flows at a rate of 700 m/year. A seismic survey showed the glacier bed to consist of water-saturated, soft sediment. The water level in all four boreholes nevertheless dropped rapidly to 80 m below the ice surface when the drill connected with a basal water system, indicating effective drainage over a sedimentary bed. We were able to install wired sensor strings at the bed (water pressure, temperature, electrical conductivity and turbidity) and within the glacier (temperature and tilt) in three boreholes. The sensors operated for up to 80+ days before cables stretched and ultimately snapped due to high internal strain. The data collected during this sensor deployment show ice as cold as -21 degrees Celcius; yet, temperature of water in the basal water system was persistently above the local freezing point. With diurnal variations detected in several sensor records, we hypothesise that surface water lubricates the ice flow while also warming basal ice. The fast basal motion of Store Glacier not only occurs by basal sliding, but from high rates of concentrated strain in the bottom third of the glacier

  4. Fertility tourism: circumventive routes that enable access to reproductive technologies and substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Sven

    2011-01-01

    “Fertility tourism” is a journalistic eye‐catcher focusing on the phenomenon of patients who search for a reproductive treatment in another country in order to circumvent laws, access restrictions, or waiting lists in their home country. In Europe, the reasons why people seek reproductive treatments outside their national boundaries are quite diverse, in part because regulations differ so much among countries. Beginning with four examples of people who crossed borders for an in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment with gamete donation, this article provides some insight into these transnational circumvention practices based on material from ethnographic fieldwork and interviews in Spain, Denmark, and the Czech Republic. In all three countries, gamete donation is made strictly anonymous. Clinical practices such as egg donor recruitment and phenotypical matching between donors and recipients serve to naturalize the substitution of gametes and to install social legitimacy through resemblance markers with the prospective child. In comparison to other areas of medical tourism, which are subjects of debate as a consequence of neoliberal health politics and international medical competition, mobility in the area of reproductive technologies is deeply intertwined with new forms of doing kinship. For prospective parents, it holds a promise of generating offspring who could pass as biogenetically conceived children. Therefore, IVF with gamete donation is mostly modeled after conceptions of nature. Through anonymity and concealment it creates forms of nonrelatedness that leave space for future imaginings and traces of transnational genetic creators.

  5. SPSmart: adapting population based SNP genotype databases for fast and comprehensive web access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carracedo Ángel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last five years large online resources of human variability have appeared, notably HapMap, Perlegen and the CEPH foundation. These databases of genotypes with population information act as catalogues of human diversity, and are widely used as reference sources for population genetics studies. Although many useful conclusions may be extracted by querying databases individually, the lack of flexibility for combining data from within and between each database does not allow the calculation of key population variability statistics. Results We have developed a novel tool for accessing and combining large-scale genomic databases of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in widespread use in human population genetics: SPSmart (SNPs for Population Studies. A fast pipeline creates and maintains a data mart from the most commonly accessed databases of genotypes containing population information: data is mined, summarized into the standard statistical reference indices, and stored into a relational database that currently handles as many as 4 × 109 genotypes and that can be easily extended to new database initiatives. We have also built a web interface to the data mart that allows the browsing of underlying data indexed by population and the combining of populations, allowing intuitive and straightforward comparison of population groups. All the information served is optimized for web display, and most of the computations are already pre-processed in the data mart to speed up the data browsing and any computational treatment requested. Conclusion In practice, SPSmart allows populations to be combined into user-defined groups, while multiple databases can be accessed and compared in a few simple steps from a single query. It performs the queries rapidly and gives straightforward graphical summaries of SNP population variability through visual inspection of allele frequencies outlined in standard pie-chart format. In addition, full

  6. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Daikwon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1 distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2 coverage (number of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Methods Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food restaurants, and neighborhood characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census for the 197 census block group (CBG study area. Neighborhood deprivation and vehicle availability were calculated for each CBG. Minimum distance was determined by calculating network distance from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supercenter, supermarket, grocery, convenience store, dollar store, mass merchandiser, and fast food restaurant. Coverage was determined by calculating the number of each type of food store and fast food restaurant within a network distance of 1, 3, and 5 miles of each population-weighted CBG center. Neighborhood need and access were examined using Spearman ranked correlations, spatial autocorrelation, and multivariate regression models that adjusted for population density. Results Overall, neighborhoods had best access to convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and dollar stores. After adjusting for population density, residents in neighborhoods with increased deprivation had to travel a significantly greater distance to the nearest supercenter or supermarket, grocery store, mass merchandiser, dollar store, and pharmacy for food items. The results were quite different for association of need with the number of stores within 1 mile. Deprivation was only associated with fast food restaurants; greater deprivation was associated with fewer fast food restaurants within 1 mile. CBG with greater lack of vehicle availability had slightly better

  7. 基于路由和远程访问的网络安全%Network Security Based on Routing and Remote Access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪瑞安; 黄毅; 吴雅云; 蔡守玮

    2014-01-01

    目的:基于路由和远程访问技术,保护医院网络安全。方法利用路由解析设备对Windows server 2003自带的路由和远程访问服务进行配置,建立医院网络的“防火墙”。结果有效地隐藏了互联网网站服务器与医院业务网站服务器直连网段。结论对路由和远程访问服务进行配置,在一定程度上保障了医院业务网站服务器的安全。%Objective To protect hospital network security based on routing and remote access.Methods The configuration of the routing and remote access service affiliated to Windows server 2003 was conducted with routing parsing equipment to establish the firewall of hospital network.Results The directly connected network segments of servers of Internet website and hospital business website have been hided effectively.Conclusion To some extent, the conifguration of the routing and remote access service has ensured the security of hospital business website server.

  8. Fast-track access to urologic care for patients with macroscopic haematuria is efficient and cost-effective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liedberg, Fredrik; Gerdtham, Ulf; Gralén, Katarina;

    2016-01-01

    in the intervention and the control group, respectively (P=0.03). The median health-care costs were lower in the intervention group (655 (IQR 655-655) EUR) than in the control group (767 (IQR 490-1096) EUR) (P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Direct access to urologic expertise and fast-track diagnostics is motivated...

  9. Lossless compression of very large volume data with fast dynamic access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rongkai; Tao, Tao; Gabriel, Michael; Belford, Geneva

    2002-09-01

    The volumetric data set is important in many scientific and biomedical fields. Since such sets may be extremely large, a compression method is critical to store and transmit them. To achieve a high compression rate, most of the existing volume compression methods are lossy, which is usually unacceptable in biomedical applications. We developed a new context-based non-linear prediction method to preprocess the volume data set in order to effectively lower the prediction entropy. The prediction error is further encoded using Huffman code. Unlike the conventional methods, the volume is divided into cubical blocks to take advantage of the data's spatial locality. Instead of building one Huffman tree for each block, we developed a novel binning algorithm that build a Huffman tree for each group (bin) of blocks. Combining all the effects above, we achieved an excellent compression rate compared to other lossless volume compression methods. In addition, an auxiliary data structure, Scalable Hyperspace File (SHSF) is used to index the huge volume so that we can obtain many other benefits including parallel construction, on-the-fly accessing of compressed data without global decompression, fast previewing, efficient background compressing, and scalability etc.

  10. Fast adaptive backup routing for mobile Ad Hoc network%移动Ad Hoc网快速自适应后备路由协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鹏

    2012-01-01

    移动Ad Hoc网拓扑结构经常变化.自适应后备路由局部修复AODV协议AODV-ABL通过监听RREP包和数据包来产生后备路由,并存于后备路由表中.仅当链路错误时,AODV-ABL才试图利用后备路由表进行局部修复.为提高对网络拓扑变化的自适应性,在AODV-ABL基础上,提出了一种快速自适应后备AODV路由协议AODV-FABL.AODV-FABL合并主路由表和后备路由表,在监听包时同步更新路由,路由能尽快地得到优化.实验结果表明,AODV-FABL取得了比AODV-LR、AODV-ABL更好的包投递率、端对端时延、控制开销和对流量负载变化的适应性.%The network topology changes frequently in mobile Ad Hoc networks. In AODV-Adaptive Backup with Local repair routing (AODV-ABL) protocol, the backup route can be created by overhearing RREP packets and data packets and can be stored in alternate route table. Only when the link error occurs, AODV-ABL tries to start a local repair process by using alternate route table. In order to improve the adaptability to the network topology changing, a Fast AODV-ABL routing (AODV-FABL) protocol, which based on AODV-ABL, is proposed. AODV-FABL merges the primary route table with the alternate route table, and updates routes when overhearing packets, thus the routes can be optimized as soon as possible. Experimental results show that AODV-FABL has better packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, control overhead and adaptability to the variational traffic load than AODV-LR and AODV-ABL.

  11. Performance assessment of flexible time-wavelength routing for a self-aggregating transparent Metro-access interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieckowski, M.; Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Turkiewicz, J. P.;

    2009-01-01

    A time-WDM architecture with on-the-fly wavelength routing and traffic self-aggregation is proposed. Metro-accesss ligthpaths are established using ONUs with reflective modulators. Simulations results show the advantages of the proposed architecture......A time-WDM architecture with on-the-fly wavelength routing and traffic self-aggregation is proposed. Metro-accesss ligthpaths are established using ONUs with reflective modulators. Simulations results show the advantages of the proposed architecture...

  12. FAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections...... with aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused...... by a single major allergen, parvalbumin (Cyp c 1) and lipid transfer protein (Pru p 3), respectively. Two approaches are being evaluated for achieving hypoallergenicity, i.e. site-directed mutagenesis and chemical modification. The most promising hypoallergens will be produced under GMP conditions. After pre...

  13. Supermarket and fast food accessibility in Copenhagen: associations with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Nordahl Jensen, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte;

    Purpose: To investigate whether fast food outlets and supermarkets are socially patterned in the city of Copenhagen. Methods: The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast food outlets, supermarkets, and neighborhood level socio......-economic indicators in 2006. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators for all neighborhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n = 400). We applied area-level socio-economic and demographic information from Statistics Denmark. Counts of fast food outlets and supermarkets were......, but not with supermarket exposure. Using backwise deletion from the fully adjusted models, low income, in the presence of populations under 35 yrs of age, remained a significant predictor for fast food outlet exposure (IRR = 0.66-0.80) in the final model. Conclusions: In the city of Copenhagen, low-income neighborhoods...

  14. Comparison of routes for achieving parenteral access with a focus on the management of patients with Ebola virus disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ker, Katharine; Tansley, Gavin; Beecher, Deirdre;

    2015-01-01

    of interest were success of insertion; time required for insertion; number of insertion attempts; number of dislodgements; time period with functional access; local site reactions; clinicians' perception of ease of administration; needlestick injury to healthcare workers; patients' discomfort; and mortality....... For trials involving the administration of fluids we also collected data on the volume of fluid infused, changes in serum electrolytes and markers of renal function. We rated the quality of the evidence as 'high', 'moderate', 'low' or 'very low' according to the GRADE approach for the following outcomes...... patients with EVD. Intravenous and intraosseous access was compared in four trials; intravenous and subcutaneous access in 11; peripheral intravenous and intraperitoneal access in one; saphenous vein cutdown and intraosseous access in one; and intraperitoneal with subcutaneous access in one. All...

  15. Availability and accessibility of healthier options and nutrition information at New Zealand fast food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Ashmita; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the availability of healthier options and nutrition information at major New Zealand fast food chains. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at 24 fast food stores (two from each of 12 major chains) using on-site visits, telephone calls, and website searches. Of available products, only 234/1126 (21%) were healthier options. Healthier options were generally cheaper and lower in energy, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium per serve than their regular counterparts. Regular options were commonly high in sugar or sodium per serve (mean sugar content of beverages=56 g (11 teaspoons) and sodium content of burgers and pasta=1095 mg and 1172 mg, respectively). Nutrition information was available at 11/12 (92%) restaurant chains (range=0% at Tank Juice to 99% at Domino's Pizza). However, <1% of this information was available at the point-of-purchase. Therefore, there is huge potential for improving nutrition in the New Zealand fast food restaurant setting. Implications of these findings for policy and food industry include: consideration of mandatory menu labelling, increasing the percentage of healthier options available, and improving the nutrient content of regular options at New Zealand fast food restaurants.

  16. Availability and accessibility of healthier options and nutrition information at New Zealand fast food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Ashmita; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the availability of healthier options and nutrition information at major New Zealand fast food chains. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at 24 fast food stores (two from each of 12 major chains) using on-site visits, telephone calls, and website searches. Of available products, only 234/1126 (21%) were healthier options. Healthier options were generally cheaper and lower in energy, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium per serve than their regular counterparts. Regular options were commonly high in sugar or sodium per serve (mean sugar content of beverages=56 g (11 teaspoons) and sodium content of burgers and pasta=1095 mg and 1172 mg, respectively). Nutrition information was available at 11/12 (92%) restaurant chains (range=0% at Tank Juice to 99% at Domino's Pizza). However, <1% of this information was available at the point-of-purchase. Therefore, there is huge potential for improving nutrition in the New Zealand fast food restaurant setting. Implications of these findings for policy and food industry include: consideration of mandatory menu labelling, increasing the percentage of healthier options available, and improving the nutrient content of regular options at New Zealand fast food restaurants. PMID:22019449

  17. Religious Broadcasting. Focused Access to Selected Topics (FAST) Bibliography No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermis, Michael

    This annotated bibliography on religious broadcasting contains 23 references of articles in the ERIC database. The first section of this FAST Bib lists sources which relate to the historical development of religious broadcasting. The next section looks at the role that television plays in religious broadcasting. A section on the Christian Right…

  18. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias

    OpenAIRE

    Han Daikwon; Horel Scott; Sharkey Joseph R; Huber John C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Methods Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food rest...

  19. 基于业务的光接入网路由选择算法%Algorithm of optical access network routing selection based on transmission business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立炜; 林峰

    2012-01-01

    Unlike optical backbone network, optical access network has its own characteristics and routing algorithms. An optical access network routing algorithm based on transmission business is proposed. Weighted graph model and sub-algorithm are made according to the style and importance of transmission business, by which the network resources is deployed appropriately. The results of engineering application demonstrate that the algorithm can enhance transmission quality.%光接入网有着不同于光骨干网的特点和问题,不能直接套用光骨干网的路由选择算法.提出了一种基于业务的光接入网的路由选择算法.其思想是根据业务类型和重要性构建不同的带权图模型,每一种模型采用相应的子算法,使整体资源得到合理配置.实践证明,该算法能够改善网络的传输质量.

  20. Fast access and early ligation of the renal pedicle significantly facilitates retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy procedures: modified laparoscopic radical nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop a modified retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy and compare its results with the previous technique. Methods One hundred retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomies were performed from February 2007 to October 2011. The previous technique was performed in 60 cases (Group 1. The modified technique (n = 40 included fast access to the renal pedicle according to several anatomic landmarks and early ligation of renal vessels (Group 2. The mean operation time, mean blood loss, duration of hospital stay conversion rate and complication rate were compared between the groups. Results No significant differences were detected regarding mean patient age, mean body mass index, and tumor size between the two groups (P >0.05. The mean operation time was 59.5 ± 20.0 and 39.5 ± 17.5 minutes, respectively, in Groups 1 and 2 (P P P >0.05. Conclusions Early ligature using fast access to the renal vessels during retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy contributed to less operation time and intraoperative blood loss compared with the previous technique. In addition, the modified technique permits the procedure to be performed following the principles of open radical nephrectomy.

  1. Fast access to the CMS detector condition data employing HTML5 technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on using HTML version 5 (HTML5) for accessing condition data for the CMS experiment, evaluating the benefits and risks posed by the use of this technology. According to the authors of HTML5, this technology attempts to solve issues found in previous iterations of HTML and addresses the needs of web applications, an area previously not adequately covered by HTML. We demonstrate that employing HTML5 brings important benefits in terms of access performance to the CMS condition data. The combined use of web storage and web sockets allows increasing the performance and reducing the costs in term of computation power, memory usage and network bandwidth for client and server. Above all, the web workers allow creating different scripts that can be executed using multi-thread mode, exploiting multi-core microprocessors. Web workers have been employed in order to substantially decrease the web page rendering time to display the condition data stored in the CMS condition database.

  2. An integrated web environment for fast access and easy management of a synchrotron beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tired of all the time spent on the phone or sending emails to schedule beam time? Why not make your own schedule when it is convenient to you? The integrated web environment at the NIGMS East Coast Structural Biology Research Facility allows users to schedule their own beam time as if they were making travel arrangements and provides staff with a set of toolkits for management of routine tasks. These unique features are accessible through the MediaWiki-powered home pages. Here we describe the main features of this web environment that have shown to allow for an efficient and effective interaction between the users and the facility

  3. Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation As Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Echazú

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are a public health problem in resource-limited settings worldwide. Chronic STH infection impairs optimum learning and productivity, contributing to the perpetuation of the poverty-disease cycle. Regular massive drug administration (MDA is the cardinal recommendation for its control; along with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH interventions. The impact of joint WASH interventions on STH infections has been reported; studies on the independent effect of WASH components are needed to contribute with the improvement of current recommendations for the control of STH. The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home.Cross-sectional study, conducted in Salta province, Argentina. During a deworming program that enrolled 6957 individuals; 771 were randomly selected for stool/serum sampling for parasitological and serological diagnosis of STH. Bivariate stratified analysis was performed to explore significant correlations between risk factors and STH infections grouped by mechanism of entry as skin-penetrators (hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis vs. orally-ingested (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6-5.9. Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7.Lack of safe water and proper sanitation pose a risk of STH infections that is distinct according to the route of entry to the human host used by each of the STH species. Interventions aimed to improve water and sanitation access should be highlighted in the recommendations

  4. A Fairness-Based Access Control Scheme to Optimize IPTV Fast Channel Changing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyu Lai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IPTV services are typically featured with a longer channel changing delay compared to the conventional TV systems. The major contributor to this lies in the time spent on intraframe (I-frame acquisition during channel changing. Currently, most widely adopted fast channel changing (FCC methods rely on promptly transmitting to the client (conducting the channel changing a retained I-frame of the targeted channel as a separate unicasting stream. However, this I-frame acceleration mechanism has an inherent scalability problem due to the explosions of channel changing requests during commercial breaks. In this paper, we propose a fairness-based admission control (FAC scheme for the original I-frame acceleration mechanism to enhance its scalability by decreasing the bandwidth demands. Based on the channel changing history of every client, the FAC scheme can intelligently decide whether or not to conduct the I-frame acceleration for each channel change request. Comprehensive simulation experiments demonstrate the potential of our proposed FAC scheme to effectively optimize the scalability of the I-frame acceleration mechanism, particularly in commercial breaks. Meanwhile, the FAC scheme only slightly increases the average channel changing delay by temporarily disabling FCC (i.e., I-frame acceleration for the clients who are addicted to frequent channel zapping.

  5. Acesso vascular por via intraóssea em emergências pediátricas Vascular access through the intraosseous route in pediatric emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Américo Ribeiro de Sá

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A obtenção do acesso venoso em crianças gravemente enfermas é um procedimento essencial para o restabelecimento da volemia e a administração de fármacos nas emergências pediátricas. A primeira opção para obtenção de acesso vascular é pela punção de uma veia periférica. Quando essa via não pode ser utilizada ou sua obtenção se torna demorada, a via intraóssea consiste em efetiva opção para obtenção de um acesso venoso rápido e seguro. O presente estudo possui caráter descritivo e exploratório, realizado por meio de pesquisa bibliográfica, com o objetivo de descrever os princípios técnicos, as atribuições profissionais e os cuidados relacionados à obtenção do acesso venoso pela via intraóssea em emergências pediátricas. Foram selecionados 22 artigos disponibilizados nas bases de dados LILACS e MEDLINE e na biblioteca eletrônica SciELO, publicados entre o período de 2000 a 2011, além do protocolo vigente de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar da American Heart Association, de 2010. Após a leitura das publicações, os dados foram agrupados, possibilitando a construção de cinco categorias de análise: aspectos históricos e princípios fisiológicos; indicações, vantagens e contraindicações; atribuições dos profissionais; princípios técnicos; cuidados com o acesso; e possíveis complicações. Os resultados desse estudo mostraram que a via intraóssea consolida-se, hoje, como uma segunda opção de acesso vascular no atendimento a emergências, por ser uma técnica de fácil e rápida execução, apresentar vários sítios de punção não colapsáveis e permitir que a administração de fármacos e a reposição volêmica sejam rápidas e eficazes.Obtaining venous access in critically ill children is an essential procedure to restore blood volume and administer drugs during pediatric emergencies. The first option for vascular access is through a peripheral vein puncture. If this route cannot be used

  6. Fast-Forward on the Green Road to Open Access: The Case Against Mixing Up Green and Gold

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2005-01-01

    This article is a critique of: "The 'Green' and 'Gold' Roads to Open Access: The Case for Mixing and Matching" by Jean-Claude Guedon (in Serials Review 30(4) 2004). Open Access (OA) means: free online access to all peer-reviewed journal articles. Jean-Claude Guedon argues against the efficacy of author self-archiving of peer-reviewed journal articles (the "Green" road to OA). He suggests instead that we should convert to Open Access Publishing (the "Golden" road to OA) by "mixing and matching...

  7. Microwave-assisted 1T to 2H phase reversion of MoS2 in solution: a fast route to processable dispersions of 2H-MoS2 nanosheets and nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Danyun; Zhu, Yuanzhi; Liu, Jiapeng; Li, Yang; Peng, Wenchao; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengbao; Fan, Xiaobin

    2016-09-01

    Exfoliated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has unique 2H phase and semiconductor properties and potential applications across a wide range of fields. However, the chemically exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets from Li x MoS2 have a 1T phase, and searching for a fast route to get processable 2H-MoS2 nanosheets and its nanocomposites is still an urgent task. This study reports on a simple, fast and efficient microwave strategy to achieve the 1T to 2H phase conversion of MoS2 and the successful preparation of processable 2H-MoS2 nanosheets and their nanocomposites. The method here may be easily changed to achieve the phase change of other exfoliated TMDs.

  8. Towards transparent all-optical label-swapped networks: 40 Gbit/s ultra-fast dynamic wavelength routing using integrated devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seoane, Jorge; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva; Jeppesen, Palle;

    2006-01-01

    All-optical routing of 40 Gbit/s 1.6 ns packets is demonstrated employing integrated devices based on SOA-MZIs. The scheme allows wavelength transparent operation and sub-nanosecond dynamic wavelength selection for future packet/label switched networks....

  9. Access to fast food and food prices: relationship with fruit and vegetable consumption and overweight among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Auld, M Christopher; Chaloupka, Frank J; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2007-01-01

    We examine the extent to which food prices and restaurant outlet density are associated with adolescent fruit and vegetable consumption, body mass index (BMI), and the probability of overweight. We use repeated cross-sections of individual-level data on adolescents from the Monitoring the Future Surveys from 1997 to 2003 combined with fast food and fruit and vegetable prices obtained from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association and fast food and full-service restaurant outlet density measures obtained from Dun & Bradstreet. The results suggest that the price of a fast food meal is an important determinant of adolescents' body weight and eating habits: a 10% increase in the price of a fast food meal leads to a 3.0% increase in the probability of frequent fruit and vegetable consumption, a 0.4% decrease in BMI, and a 5.9% decrease in probability of overweight. The price of fruits and vegetables and restaurant outlet density are less important determinants, although these variables typically have the expected sign and are often statistically associated with our outcome measures. Despite these findings, changes in all observed economic and socio-demographic characteristics together only explain roughly one-quarter of the change in mean BMI and one-fifth of the change in overweight over the 1997-2003 sampling period. PMID:19548547

  10. MP-RCP:ACHIEVING FAST RECOVERY OF iBGP USING ROUTE CONTROL PLATFORM%MP-RCP:基于RCP的快速恢复iBGP协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程柏林; 胡乔林; 陈新; 吕树君

    2014-01-01

    Mechanism of iBGP single best path propagation may prevent the router from acquiring diverse paths,which results in connection disruption and inter-domain churn in the scene of transient link.MP-RCP optimises the route control platform (RCP)to reduce the session numbers and configuration complexity,makes use of global visible routes to compute and disseminate multiple paths for each router.When a router detects the failure in best path,the router encapsulates the packets and forwards them to the backup path to avoid the connection disruption.MP-RCP also separates the failure detection and processing in order to prevent the frequent convergence triggered by transient failures,which reduces the inter-domain disturbance.It is proved through Abilene topology and the experiment of topology generation that the MP-RCP structure reduces the forwarding disruption and inter-domain churn effectively.%iBGP 传播单条最佳路径机制不能保证路由器获得多样性路径,造成链路瞬时故障场景下连接中断及域间扰动。MP-RCP(MultiPath Route Control Platform)优化路由控制平台RCP以降低会话数量及配置复杂性,利用全局可视路由对每台路由器计算、分发多路径。当路由器检测到最佳路径失效后,将报文封装转发到备份路径中避免连接中断;MP-RCP中将失效检测、处理进行分离以避免瞬时故障引起的频繁收敛,从而降低了域间扰动。通过使用Abilene拓扑以及生成拓扑的实验证明了MP-RCP结构能有效避免转发中断和域间扰动。

  11. Fast generating algorithm of radar detection blind region in defense penetration route planning%突防航迹规划中雷达探测盲区的快速生成算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟文武; 周新力; 金慧琴; 张烨

    2015-01-01

    Low altitude defense penetration utilizing radar detection blind region can improve the survival probability of air-crafts effectively,and is an offensive means adopted widely in aircrafts defense penetration combat. The blind region models of earth curvature and terrain masking are analyzed. A fast generating algorithm of radar detection blind region is proposed,which is combined with DEM. Based on this,the generated radar detection blind region is applied to the route planning of aircrafts de-fense penetration by adopting A* algorithm. The simulation results show that the algorithm is quick and effective,and can be used in defense penetration route planning of aircrafts.%利用雷达探测盲区进行低空突防,能有效提高飞机生存概率,是飞机突防作战广泛采用的进攻手段.研究了地球曲率盲区和地形遮蔽盲区模型,提出了一种结合DEM的雷达探测盲区快速生成算法,并在此基础上采用A*算法将生成的雷达探测盲区用于飞机突防航迹规划.仿真结果表明了算法的快速有效,能直接应用于突防飞机航迹规划.

  12. 基于消息侦听的高效快速发布/订阅路由算法%Fast and efficient publish/subscribe routing algorithm based on message listening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建玲; 彭晨; 谢超杰; 任智

    2016-01-01

    针对MANET环境中密度驱动的发布/订阅路由算法在相邻 Hill间转发消息过程中存在较大时延和冗余控制开销问题,提出一种消息侦听的高效快速发布/订阅路由算法(FEPM L )。该算法通过边缘节点侦听机制,快速构建相邻 H ill之间的双向传输路径,提高内容匹配的效率;利用心跳消息转发时的捎带信息,避免向边缘状态的 H ill转发消息,减少绕路;同时压缩消息头部字段,减少冗余开销。仿真结果显示:与现有的典型相关算法相比,FEPM L可以有效地降低数据传输开销,快速实现发布消息和订阅节点的匹配,降低平均端到端时延。%To reduce the time delay and redundancy control overhead in the message forwarding be‐tween Hills in density driven publish/subscribe routing algorithm in mobile Ad‐Hoc network (MANET) ,a fast and efficient publish/subscribe routing algorithm based on message listening , FEPM L (fast and efficient publish/subscribe routing algorithm based on message listening )‐Pub/Sub , was proposed . A bidirectional transmission path between adjacent Hill was quickly established through the edge node listens for neighbor Hill ,and thus the efficiency of content matching was im‐proved .The heartbeat message piggybacked information of edge status to the Hilltop node ,then Hill‐top node choosed to avoid of forwarding message to edge state Hill ,and messages of turn‐back trans‐mission was avoided accordingly .In addition ,the protocol compressed message header fields ,thus re‐duced the cost .Also ,simulation results show that FEPM L can effectively decrease the overhead of data forwarding ,and reach a rapidly matching between published messages and subscribed nodes ,and also reduce the average end‐to‐end delay ,as compared to the existing classic algorithms .

  13. Dilemma with the route of venous access for hemodialysis catheter insertion in a patient with dilated ischemic cardiomyopathy treated by cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanahalli Ashokananda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 68 year old patient requiring urgent dialysis due to raising potassium was referred to our center. He had 3 indwelling catheters in his heart via right subclavian vein. His left subclavian and interngal jugular veins were thrombosed possibly due to earlier indwelling catheters. The dilemma was if right internal jugular venous route could be used for insertion of dialysis catheter. Under fluoroscopic guidance, right internal jugular vein was cannulated with the dialysis catheter without problems. This case is being presented to highlight the need for imaging both by ultrasound and radiography during the procedure.

  14. HCUP Fast Stats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — HCUP Fast Stats provides easy access to the latest HCUP-based statistics for health information topics. HCUP Fast Stats uses visual statistical displays in...

  15. 基于MPLS的快速重路由故障恢复综合模型%Fast Re-routing Fault-recovery Synthetic Model Based on MPLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任韬松; 余江; 常俊; 施继红; 罗忠成

    2012-01-01

    The problems of packet delay, disorder and long recover time are widespread in traditional Multi-protocol Label Switching(MPLS) fast re-routing fault-recovery model. In order to solve the problems, a fast re-router fault-recovery synthetic mode! based on MPLS through expanding the MPLS message is presented. In this model, the LDP message is expanded, combined with global strategy and local strategy, and a new method to establish temporary path is put forward. The conclusion that this multiple model shows better performance on reducing fault-recover time is proved by OPNET network simulation.%传统的多协议标签交换(MPLS)快速重路由故障恢复算法存在报文延迟、失序、故障修复时间过长等问题.为此,提出一种基于MPLS的快速重路由故障恢复综合模型,对LDP消息进行扩展、使用全局恢复机制和局部恢复机制相结合的综合策略,采用新型临时路径计算方法.仿真结果证明,该故障恢复综合模型可以降低丢包率,缩短故障恢复时间.

  16. Living in a 'fat swamp': exposure to multiple sources of accessible, cheap, energy-dense fast foods in a deprived community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Patrick; Saunders, Annie; Middleton, John

    2015-06-14

    This study assesses the levels of fats, including trans-fatty acids, and salt in common takeaway fast foods in a deprived urban municipality in the West Midlands, England, and implications in the context of the spatial distribution of fast food takeaways. The results of the compositional analysis of over 250 take-out foods were compared with established and derived standards. About 70% of products exceeded the recommendation that a meal should contain less than 30% of a Guideline Daily Amount (GDA). More than half of them exceeded 50% GDA for at least one metric, including 81% of all analyses for SFA. And 17% of samples exceeded the GDA for SFA, including each of two meals that contained about twice the GDA. Over 30% samples exceeded the children's GDA for total fat or SFA. 27% of salt analyses exceeded the GDA. People in Sandwell are exposed to large portion sizes and high levels of fats and salt in takeaway foods, with levels in some foods having increased since 2010. Given this population's limited options to break out of a highly compromising environment of living simultaneously in a 'swamp' of unhealthy, readily accessible and cheap takeaways, and a 'desert' of healthy options, an immediate and innovative package of interventions is required. PMID:25885785

  17. Optimising locational access of deprived populations to farmers' markets at a national scale: one route to improved fruit and vegetable consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Wilson, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Background. Evidence suggests that improved locational access to farmers' markets increases fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption, particularly for low-income groups. Therefore, we modelled potential alternative distributions of farmers' markets in one country (New Zealand) to explore the potential impact for deprived populations and an indigenous population (Māori). Methods. Data were collected on current farmers' markets (n = 48), population distributions, area deprivation, and roads. Geographic analyses were performed to optimize market locations for the most deprived populations. Results. We found that, currently, farmers' markets provided fairly poor access for the total population: 7% within 12.5 km (15 min driving time); 5% within 5 km; and 3% within 2 km. Modelling the optimal distribution of the 48 markets substantially improved access for the most deprived groups: 9% (vs 2% currently) within 12.5 km; 5% (vs 1%) within 5 km; and 3% (vs 1%) within 2 km. Access for Māori also improved: 22% (vs 7%) within 12.5 km; 12% (vs 4%) within 5 km; and 6% (vs 2%) within 2 km. Smaller pro-equity results arose from optimising the locations of the 18 least pro-equity markets or adding 10 new markets. Conclusion. These results highlight the potential for improving farmers' market locations to increase accessibility for groups with low FV consumption. Given that such markets are easily established and relocated, local governments could consider these results to inform decisions, including subsidies for using government land and facilities. Such results can also inform central governments planning around voucher schemes for such markets and exempting them from taxes (e.g., VAT/GST). PMID:23862107

  18. Optimising locational access of deprived populations to farmers’ markets at a national scale: one route to improved fruit and vegetable consumption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber L. Pearson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence suggests that improved locational access to farmers’ markets increases fruit and vegetable (FV consumption, particularly for low-income groups. Therefore, we modelled potential alternative distributions of farmers’ markets in one country (New Zealand to explore the potential impact for deprived populations and an indigenous population (Māori. Methods. Data were collected on current farmers’ markets (n = 48, population distributions, area deprivation, and roads. Geographic analyses were performed to optimize market locations for the most deprived populations. Results. We found that, currently, farmers’ markets provided fairly poor access for the total population: 7% within 12.5 km (15 min driving time; 5% within 5 km; and 3% within 2 km. Modelling the optimal distribution of the 48 markets substantially improved access for the most deprived groups: 9% (vs 2% currently within 12.5 km; 5% (vs 1% within 5 km; and 3% (vs 1% within 2 km. Access for Māori also improved: 22% (vs 7% within 12.5 km; 12% (vs 4% within 5 km; and 6% (vs 2% within 2 km. Smaller pro-equity results arose from optimising the locations of the 18 least pro-equity markets or adding 10 new markets. Conclusion. These results highlight the potential for improving farmers’ market locations to increase accessibility for groups with low FV consumption. Given that such markets are easily established and relocated, local governments could consider these results to inform decisions, including subsidies for using government land and facilities. Such results can also inform central governments planning around voucher schemes for such markets and exempting them from taxes (e.g., VAT/GST.

  19. A capacitive DAC with custom 3-D 1-fF MOM unit capacitors optimized for fast-settling routing in high speed SAR ADCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chixiao, Chen; Jixuan, Xiang; Huabin, Chen; Jun, Xu; Fan, Ye; Ning, Li; Junyan, Ren

    2015-05-01

    Asynchronous successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converters (ADC) feature high energy efficiency but medium performance. From the point of view of speed, the key bottleneck is the unit capacitor size. In this paper, a small size three-dimensional (3-D) metal—oxide—metal (MOM) capacitor is proposed. The unit capacitor has a capacitance of 1-fF. It shapes as an umbrella, which is designed for fast settling consideration. A comparison among the proposed capacitor with other 3-D MOM capacitors is also given in the paper. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the MOM capacitor, a 6-b capacitive DAC is implemented in TSMC 1P9M 65 nm LP CMOS technology. The DAC consumes a power dissipation of 0.16 mW at the rate of 100 MS/s, excluding a source-follower based output buffer. Static measurement result shows that INL is less than ±1 LSB and DNL is less than ±0.5 LSB. In addition, a 100 MS/s 9-bit SAR ADC with the proposed 3-D capacitor is simulated.

  20. A capacitive DAC with custom 3-D 1-fF MOM unit capacitors optimized for fast-settling routing in high speed SAR ADCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asynchronous successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converters (ADC) feature high energy efficiency but medium performance. From the point of view of speed, the key bottleneck is the unit capacitor size. In this paper, a small size three-dimensional (3-D) metal—oxide—metal (MOM) capacitor is proposed. The unit capacitor has a capacitance of 1-fF. It shapes as an umbrella, which is designed for fast settling consideration. A comparison among the proposed capacitor with other 3-D MOM capacitors is also given in the paper. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the MOM capacitor, a 6-b capacitive DAC is implemented in TSMC 1P9M 65 nm LP CMOS technology. The DAC consumes a power dissipation of 0.16 mW at the rate of 100 MS/s, excluding a source-follower based output buffer. Static measurement result shows that INL is less than ±1 LSB and DNL is less than ±0.5 LSB. In addition, a 100 MS/s 9-bit SAR ADC with the proposed 3-D capacitor is simulated. (paper)

  1. Speed limit on the Route de l’Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Construction work to create a cycle path is under way on the Route de l’Europe, between CERN’s Meyrin and Prévessin sites. The new cycle path is expected to be ready for use in August.   On the part of the road under construction, only one lane is open and the speed limit is 30 km/h. Unfortunately, drivers frequently exceed this limit. Those who drive too fast put their own lives at risk as well as those of the people working on the site.  Please respect the speed limit.  In addition, access to the Route de l’Europe from the SM18, SM19 and BA1 areas and from the tunnel may be in the part of the road where only one lane is open. In this case, please join the road only when the traffic lights allow travel in the relevant direction.

  2. A dual-route approach to orthographic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eGrainger

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present theoretical note we examine how different learning constraints, thought to be involved in optimizing the mapping of print to meaning during reading acquisition, might shape the nature of the orthographic code involved in skilled reading. On the one hand, optimization is hypothesized to involve selecting combinations of letters that are the most informative with respect to word identity (diagnosticity constraint, and on the other hand to involve the detection of letter combinations that correspond to pre-existing sublexical phonological and morphological representations (chunking constraint. These two constraints give rise to two different kinds of prelexical orthographic code, a coarse-grained and a fine-grained code, associated with the two routes of a dual-route architecture. Processing along the coarse-grained route optimizes fast access to semantics by using minimal subsets of letters that maximize information with respect to word identity, while coding for approximate within-word letter position independently of letter contiguity. Processing along the fined-grained route, on the other hand, is sensitive to the precise ordering of letters, as well as to position with respect to word beginnings and endings. This enables the chunking of frequently co-occurring contiguous letter combinations that form relevant units for morpho-orthographic processing (prefixes and suffixes and for the sublexical translation of print to sound (multi-letter graphemes.

  3. The impact of the Medicines Control Council backlog and fast-track review system on access to innovative and new generic and biosimilar medicines of public health importance in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Henry Martin John; Pollock, Allyson M; Sanders, David

    2016-04-01

    The fast-track registration policy of the South African National Department of Health allows for rapid registration of new medicines of public health importance and of all medicines on the Essential Medicines List, most of which are generics. No limit is placed on the number of generic brands of a medicine that can be submitted for fast-track registration. This, together with resource constraints at the regulator, may delay access to important new medicines, new fixed-dose combinations of critical medicines or affordable versions of biological medicines (biosimilars). One reason for not limiting the number of fast-track generic applications was to promote price competition among generic brands. We found this not to be valid, since market share correlated poorly with price. Generic brands with high market share were, mostly, those that were registered first. We propose that the number of generic brands accepted for fast-tracking be limited to not more than seven per medicine. PMID:27032846

  4. Fast Access to Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favata', P.; Martineau, N.

    2002-01-01

    creating a revolutionary space-orbiting habitat dedicated to tourism. Up to now, such proposals have focused on two approaches. The first accounts for financial and technological constraints on space flight and living, and sacrifices creativity for practicality. The second is more utopic in nature and proposes projects, which are imaginative but unfeasible in the near future. This proposal is innovative because it considers the current obstacles to space tourism and utilizes existing technologies and infrastructures, but also includes the forethinking of futuristic commercial projects. Project Objectives: NASA claims that commercialization of space activities is so difficult that it will require decades more funding of so-called space-technology development. The benefits of this project show that this is not true. First, safety has been addressed because this proposal utilizes already space tested and assured technologies. Second, the project demonstrates potential for significant economic profit within the near future. Because we are using the least expensive technology available, we have limited start up costs. We forecast up to forty flights per year, with a potential capacity of eighty tourists. The design objectives focus on the proposal of a new approach to space tourism. These include: the expansion of the living space in the interiors, innovative and creative interior design, increased concern for the physiological and psychological comfort of tourists, and attention to entertainment possibilities. Project Content: The efficiency of the launch and configuration phase is one of the strengths of the proposed project. We propose the use of the Zenith 2 launcher, a large two-stage vehicle developed in the Soviet Union in the early 1980s, for the configuration of the orbiting platform. Following the Russian outfitting philosophy, once in orbit, the platform is already functional. The interior design is based on advanced lightweight inflatable technologies which are characterized by high packing density performance, and which decrease the mass of the module and the manufacturing costs. This reduces the overall cost, time and complexity of the configuration phase. for up to two weeks. They will be transported by two Soyuz flights. Supplies and fuel will be delivered by the Progress vehicle. The lowering of the module mass will allow extra storage volume and therefore the reduction of one logistic flight per month. production capacity. By stimulating a market use for the Soyuz and Progress, our project will increase production demand, thus, exponentially decreasing production costs over time. This private-public venture will offer Russia both significant employment opportunities as well as the investment of capital. project includes significant technological and design modifications. It utilizes traditional rigid structure but revolutionizes the interiors. In terms of engineering, the present homogeneous distribution of subsystems is replaced by a concentrated model. At the same time, we assure the facilitation of maintenance and eventual substitution of parts, through the use of mobile, modular components. Architecturally, the project is focused on the physiological and psychological needs of tourists, with particular attention paid to: circadian rhythms, and therefore, illumination, the variety of compatible materials and shapes, and noise and vibration reduction. Interchangeable and mobile furniture creates multi-functional areas, with innovative colors and details. This also guarantees the enlargement of the habitable volume in order to provide innovative tourist activities. Contributions: As stated earlier, this project, which is the result of collaboration between an engineer and an architect, reconciles the realities of current space exploration with new ideas for opening space tourism in the near future, responding to an emerging market. The project suggests a new way to utilize current technologies for commercial purposes. This facilitates cooperation between space agencies and business sectors. Such an approach benefits the private sector by decreasing the time horizon for feasible space tourism. In addition to the use of existing state technology, such collaboration may help overcome the legal and policy obstacles to space tourism presented by most western space agencies. Finally, the project promotes international cooperation between the private companies of advanced industrial states, and Russia. Also, because the module can be utilized for other commercial purposes, in addition to space tourism (i.e. broadcasting, advertisement, etc.) revenues will be gained in other activities. Even though the initial costs of space tourism are high, investment returns can be measured in many ways. Throughout Eastern Europe, companies such as Coca-Cola and Volkswagen are currently investing despite diminished initial returns because they want to open new markets, which will be profitable in the long run and build their image worldwide. This project, which does foresee profitable returns, follows a similar strategy by starting in Russia.

  5. Routing Protocols in MANET: Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanti; Vikram Nandal

    2014-01-01

    A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is composed of mobile nodes without any infrastructure like wireless access points or base stations. MANET describes wireless, mobile and multi-hop networks that operate without the benefit of any existing infrastructure except for the nodes themselves. The main goal of an ad hoc network routing protocol is to establish correct and efficient route between a pair of mobile nodes so that messages delivered within the active route timeout interval. Several protoco...

  6. The Fast Route to Modified Gravitational Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Tessa; Skordis, Constantinos

    2013-01-01

    The growth rate of the large-scale structure of the universe has been advocated as the observable par excellence for testing gravity on cosmological scales. By considering linear-order deviations from General Relativity, we show that corrections to the growth rate, f, can be expressed as an integral over a `source' term, weighted by a theory-independent `response kernel'. This leads to an efficient and accurate `plug-and-play' expression for generating growth rates in alternative gravity theories, bypassing lengthy theory-specific computations. We use this approach to explicitly show that f is sensitive to a degenerate combination of modified expansion and modified clustering effects. Hence the growth rate, when used in isolation, is not a straightforward diagnostic of modified gravity.

  7. Via de acesso cirúrgico posterossuperior para o tratamento das luxações acromioclaviculares: resultados de 84 casos operados Posterosuperior surgical access route for treatment of acromioclavicular dislocations: results from 84 surgical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Canesin Dal Molin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados do tratamento cirúrgico de 84 luxações acromioclaviculares agudas com a utilização da via de acesso posterossuperior do ombro. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 84 casos de luxações acromioclaviculares agudas grau III da classificação de Allman-Tossy operados de novembro de 2002 a maio de 2010. A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 34 anos. O diagnóstico foi realizado por avaliação clínica e radiográfica. Os pacientes foram operados pela mesma equipe cirúrgica em até três semanas da data do trauma realizando-se a via de acesso posterossuperior do ombro com acesso ao topo da base do processo coracoide para colocação de duas âncoras utilizadas na redução da luxação. O seguimento mínimo foi de 12 meses. A avaliação clínica-radiográfica pós-operatória foi realizada pelos critérios de Karlsson modificados e do escore da Universidade da Califórnia em Los Angeles (UCLA. RESULTADOS: Dos 84 pacientes operados, 92,8% apresentavam resultados bons ou excelentes e 7,2% de resultados regulares ou fracos pelo escore de avaliação da UCLA. Pelos critérios de Karlsson modificados 76,2% foram avaliados como grau A, 17,9% como grau B e 5,9% como grau C. CONCLUSÃO: A VIA de acesso posterossuperior do ombro é uma nova opção para acesso ao processo coracoide e tratamento das luxações acromioclaviculares, com resultados clínicos e radiográficos equivalentes aos da literatura.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results from surgical treatment of 84 cases of acute acromioclavicular dislocation, using a posterosuperior access route. METHODS: Eighty-four cases of acute acromioclavicular dislocation (grade III in the Allman-Tossy classification operated between November 2002 and May 2010 were evaluated. The patients' mean age was 34 years. The diagnoses were made using clinical and radiographic evaluations. The patients were operated by the same surgical team, within three weeks of the date of the trauma, using a

  8. Network Resilience through Multiple Routing Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Raju Pamidi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose the use of multi-topology (MT routing for network resilience against link and node failures. We describe the multi-topologies by an n-dimensional vector of different link costs for all links in the network. It is the base for the calculation of n shortest path trees from any node to all other destinations, i.e. for n virtual routing topologies. We define the link costs in such a way that the routing topologies complement each other in the sense that at least one valid route remains in a single link or node failure scenario for each pair of nodes in at least one routing topology. In such a failure case, packets are rather deviated over the intact routing topology than discarded. The recovery speed of the presented mechanism is very fast and can be compared to fast rerouting mechanisms in MPLS, which reduce packet, drops to a minimum. In contrast to MPLS, MT routing is still a pure IP-based solution that retains the scalability and the robustness of IP routing. As the Internet takes an increasingly central role in our communications infrastructure, the slow convergence of routing protocols after a network failure becomes a growing problem. To assure fast recovery from link and node failures in IP networks, we present a new recovery scheme called Multiple Routing Configurations (MRC. Our proposed scheme guarantees recovery in all single failure scenarios, using a single mechanism to handle both link and node failures, and without knowing the root cause of the failure. MRC is strictly connectionless, and assumes only destination based hop-by-hop forwarding. MRC is based on keeping additional routing information in the routers, and allows packet forwarding to continue on an alternative output link immediately after the detection of a failure. It can be implemented with only minor changes to existing solutions.

  9. A new automatic SAR-based flood mapping application hosted on the European Space Agency's grid processing on demand fast access to imagery environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostache, Renaud; Chini, Marco; Matgen, Patrick; Giustarini, Laura

    2013-04-01

    There is a clear need for developing innovative processing chains based on earth observation (EO) data to generate products supporting emergency response and flood management at a global scale. Here an automatic flood mapping application is introduced. The latter is currently hosted on the Grid Processing on Demand (G-POD) Fast Access to Imagery (Faire) environment of the European Space Agency. The main objective of the online application is to deliver flooded areas using both recent and historical acquisitions of SAR data in an operational framework. It is worth mentioning that the method can be applied to both medium and high resolution SAR images. The flood mapping application consists of two main blocks: 1) A set of query tools for selecting the "crisis image" and the optimal corresponding pre-flood "reference image" from the G-POD archive. 2) An algorithm for extracting flooded areas using the previously selected "crisis image" and "reference image". The proposed method is a hybrid methodology, which combines histogram thresholding, region growing and change detection as an approach enabling the automatic, objective and reliable flood extent extraction from SAR images. The method is based on the calibration of a statistical distribution of "open water" backscatter values inferred from SAR images of floods. Change detection with respect to a pre-flood reference image helps reducing over-detection of inundated areas. The algorithms are computationally efficient and operate with minimum data requirements, considering as input data a flood image and a reference image. Stakeholders in flood management and service providers are able to log onto the flood mapping application to get support for the retrieval, from the rolling archive, of the most appropriate pre-flood reference image. Potential users will also be able to apply the implemented flood delineation algorithm. Case studies of several recent high magnitude flooding events (e.g. July 2007 Severn River flood

  10. FAST: FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J. Lawrence

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available FAST (FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox provides simple, powerful open source command-line tools to filter, transform, annotate and analyze biological sequence data. Modeled after the GNU (GNU’s Not Unix Textutils such as grep, cut, and tr, FAST tools such as fasgrep, fascut, and fastr make it easy to rapidly prototype expressive bioinformatic workflows in a compact and generic command vocabulary. Compact combinatorial encoding of data workflows with FAST commands can simplify the documentation and reproducibility of bioinformatic protocols, supporting better transparency in biological data science. Interface self-consistency and conformity with conventions of GNU, Matlab, Perl, BioPerl, R and GenBank help make FAST easy and rewarding to learn. FAST automates numerical, taxonomic, and text-based sorting, selection and transformation of sequence records and alignment sites based on content, index ranges, descriptive tags, annotated features, and in-line calculated analytics, including composition and codon usage. Automated content- and feature-based extraction of sites and support for molecular population genetic statistics makes FAST useful for molecular evolutionary analysis. FAST is portable, easy to install and secure thanks to the relative maturity of its Perl and BioPerl foundations, with stable releases posted to CPAN. Development as well as a publicly accessible Cookbook and Wiki are available on the FAST GitHub repository at https://github.com/tlawrence3/FAST. The default data exchange format in FAST is Multi-FastA (specifically, a restriction of BioPerl FastA format. Sanger and Illumina 1.8+ FastQ formatted files are also supported. FAST makes it easier for non-programmer biologists to interactively investigate and control biological data at the speed of thought.

  11. Compressed Transmission of Route Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Batz, Gernot Veit; Luxen, Dennis; Sanders, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We present two methods to compress the description of a route in a road network, i.e., of a path in a directed graph. The first method represents a path by a sequence of via edges. The subpaths between the via edges have to be unique shortest paths. Instead of via edges also via nodes can be used, though this requires some simple preprocessing. The second method uses contraction hierarchies to replace subpaths of the original path by shortcuts. The two methods can be combined with each other. Also, we propose the application to mobile server based routing: We compute the route on a server which has access to the latest information about congestions for example. Then we transmit the computed route to the car using some mobile radio communication. There, we apply the compression to save costs and transmission time. If the compression works well, we can transmit routes even when the bandwidth is low. Although we have not evaluated our ideas with realistic data yet, they are quite promising.

  12. Routing Proposals for Multipath Interdomain Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal, Sardar M.; Dilber, Muhammad Naveed; Khan, Atta ur Rehman

    2013-01-01

    Internet is composed of numbers of independent autonomous systems. BGP is used to disseminate reachability information and establishing path between autonomous systems. Each autonomous system is allowed to select a single route to a destination and then export the selected route to its neighbors. The selection of single best route imposes restrictions on the use of alternative paths during interdomain link failure and thus, incurred packet loss. Packet loss still occurs even when multiple pat...

  13. Sea ice meiofauna abundance in coastal fast ice off Barrow, Alaska, with a focus on Scolelepis squamata (Polychaeta), July 12, 2005 - April 4, 2006 (NODC Accession 0064869)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The fast ice along the Alaskan coastline forms in November/December and reaches a thickness of 1.5-1.8m by April. Break-up usually occurs between late June and...

  14. A SURVEY ON THE ALGORITHMIC APPROACH USED IN ROUTING FOR PLACEMENT AND ROUTING FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOMAL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Routing is one of the long-drawn-out processes after placement in VLSI design. The routing provides the path for nets on chip to interconnect the pins on the pads or blocks at the chip boundary. This paper provides a systematic insight of interconnect of nets in ‘Placement and Routing Flow’ based on various methods (global routing and detailed routing. Further, the work reported so far has been compared with a multiple techniques for multiple factors such as reduction in wire-length, short execution time, fast and accurate congestion, improvement in complexity, signal integrity and crosstalk. Here the methodologies adopts are the Routing congestion estimator algorithm, Ant Colony Optimization. Firefly Algorithm, Monotonic Staircase Routing and so on. It is also observed that Pattern Based Routing is much faster than the Maze Routing, and the improved parameters are there is no over-congestion and 100% routablity with Monotonic Staircase Channels. zero overflow by Simulated-Evolution(Sim-E, and Complexity improved by a Fuzzified Approach Towards Global Routing.

  15. Visualizing Internet routing changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Mohit; Massey, Dan; Zhang, Lixia

    2006-01-01

    Today's Internet provides a global data delivery service to millions of end users and routing protocols play a critical role in this service. It is important to be able to identify and diagnose any problems occurring in Internet routing. However, the Internet's sheer size makes this task difficult. One cannot easily extract out the most important or relevant routing information from the large amounts of data collected from multiple routers. To tackle this problem, we have developed Link-Rank, a tool to visualize Internet routing changes at the global scale. Link-Rank weighs links in a topological graph by the number of routes carried over each link and visually captures changes in link weights in the form of a topological graph with adjustable size. Using Link-Rank, network operators can easily observe important routing changes from massive amounts of routing data, discover otherwise unnoticed routing problems, understand the impact of topological events, and infer root causes of observed routing changes.

  16. Routing in opportunistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dhurandher, Sanjay; Anpalagan, Alagan; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive guide to selected topics, both ongoing and emerging, in routing in OppNets. The book is edited by worldwide technical leaders, prolific researchers and outstanding academics, Dr. Isaac Woungang and co-editors, Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher, Prof. Alagan Anpalagan and Prof. Athanasios Vasilakos. Consisting of contributions from well known and high profile researchers and scientists in their respective specialties, the main topics that are covered in this book include mobility and routing, social-aware routing, context-based routing, energy-aware routing, incentive-aware routing, stochastic routing, modeling of intermittent connectivity, in both infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Key Features: Discusses existing and emerging techniques for routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Provides a unified covering of otherwise disperse selected topics on routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets.  Includes a set of PowerPoint slides and g...

  17. Routing on Metacyclic Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjun Xiao

    2002-01-01

    Wu, Lakshmivarahan and Dhall[5] recently described a deterministic, distributed routing scheme for some special classes of metacyclic graphs. However they have no proof of correctness that the scheme is a shortest path routing algorithm. In the note we give a suboptimal, deterministic routing algorithm.

  18. Secure Routing and Identifying Hacking In P2p System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowsiga Subramaniam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Packet forwarding is the procedure to route the packet from source to destination via routers. Getting the systems ip address in a LAN and decides the source, destination and the intermediate systems for our routing process. Using any database form the routing table with columns like source address, destination address and router addresses. After creating the routing table enters the ip address in the respective columns. As per this procedure by comparing ip addresses in the routing table the packet will be forward to next ip address. The ip addresses in the routing table, are the path selected by the user according to the respective path the packet will be forward and finally reach destination. Source generate a packet and forward to ip address which is in router ip as per in routing table. Source need to know whether the packet received by authenticated router or not thus each router send an acknowledgement packet to the source. Thus each and every router follows the same procedure to avoid unauthenticated router access in a routing process. As per acknowledgement received from each router source finds out the unauthenticated router access. As per security concern added the signature scheme in a routing process. Before send the packet, source generates the signature with peer ID of destination then forwards the packet to the ip address as per routing table. The packet will be decrypted only the system matched with the signature otherwise just forwards the packet to the next system. Tracer routing is to find out the unauthorized router access in a routing process. This is verifying by getting acknowledgment from each and every router in the routing process by a source. Then source compare the acknowledgement with the predefined routing table if any ip mismatch then it will be consider as unauthorized ip.

  19. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  20. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  1. Hyperview-fast, economical access to large data sets: a system for the archiving and distribution of hyperspectral data sets and derived products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Joan B.

    1996-12-01

    TRW, under a Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI) contract, is building the Lewis satellite. The principal sensor on Lewis is a hyperspectral imaging spectrometer. Part of the SSTI mission is to establish the commercial and educational utility of this data and the hyperspectral data already being acquired on airborne platforms. Essential requirements are rapid availability (after data acquisition) and easy accessibility to a catalog of images and imagery products. Each image is approximately 256 by 512 pixels with 384 bands of data acquired at each pixel. For some applications, some users will want the entire data sets; in other cases partial data sets (e.g. three band images) will be all that a user can handle or need for a given application. In order to make the most effective use of this new imagery and justify the cost of collecting it, we must find ways to make the information it contains more readily accessible to an ever broadening community of potential users. Tools are needed to store, access, and communicate the data more efficiently, to place it in context, and to derive both qualitative and quantitative information from it. A variety of information products which address the specific needs of particular user communities will be derived from the imagery. The data is unique in its ability to provide high spatial and spectral resolution simultaneously, and shows great promise in both military and civilian applications. A data management and analysis system has been built at TRW. This development has been prompted by the business opportunities, by the series of instruments built here and by the availability of data from other instruments. The products of the processing system have been shown to prospective customers in the U.S. and abroad. The system has been used to process data produced by TRW sensors and other instruments. This paper provides an overview of the TRW hyperspectral collection, data handling and exploitation capability.

  2. Route Scherrer and Route Einstein closed for construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that Route Scherrer will be inaccessible for two and a half months from the beginning of March and that part of Route Einstein will be closed for two weeks from the end of February.   Figure 1. The part of Route Scherrer between Building 510 and Building 53 (see Figure 1) will be closed from the beginning of March until mid-May for civil engineering works.   The superheated water pipes supplying the buildings in this area date back to 1959 and therefore present a significant risk of leakage. In order to ensure the reliable supply of superheated water, and, by extension, heating, to all premises near the Main Building (i.e. Buildings 500, 501, 503, 60, 62, 63 and 64), a new buried service duct will be installed between the basements of Buildings 53 and 61 to house a new superheated water pipe. Figure 2. The following car parks will, however, remain accessible for the duration of the works: the Cèdres car park, the car park for Buildings 4 and 5, and the ca...

  3. FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS: NEEDS TO ENHANCE BIOAVAILABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Kumari; Chandel Priya; Kapoor Ankita

    2013-01-01

    Oral route is the most important and preferred route for drug administration due to the convenience, ease of administration and patient compliance. Tablet is the most preferred conventional oral unit dosage form. During tablet administration dysphasia is the main problem. Fast dissolving tablets can reduce this problem by dissolving and disintegrating rapidly within few seconds in mouth without water. Fast dissolving tablets become advantageous for those patients which have swallowing problem...

  4. A wide dynamics and fast scan interrogating method for a fiber Bragg grating sensor network implemented using code division multiple access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngbok; Jeon, Sie-Wook; Kwon, Won-Bae; Park, Chang-Soo

    2012-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network employing the code division multiple access (CDMA) technique to identify information from individual sensors. To detect information without considering time delays between sensors, a sliding correlation method is applied, in which two different signals with the same pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) pattern, but slightly different frequencies, are applied to the source and detector sides. Moreover, for time domain detection, a wavelength-to-time conversion technique using a wavelength dispersive medium is introduced. The experimental results show that the proposed sensor network has a wide strain dynamic range of 2,400 με and a low crosstalk of 950:1. PMID:22778619

  5. A Wide Dynamics and Fast Scan Interrogating Method for a Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Network Implemented Using Code Division Multiple Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Soo Park

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate a fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor network employing the code division multiple access (CDMA technique to identify information from individual sensors. To detect information without considering time delays between sensors, a sliding correlation method is applied, in which two different signals with the same pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS pattern, but slightly different frequencies, are applied to the source and detector sides. Moreover, for time domain detection, a wavelength-to-time conversion technique using a wavelength dispersive medium is introduced. The experimental results show that the proposed sensor network has a wide strain dynamic range of 2,400 μe and a low crosstalk of 950:1.

  6. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE): 2. High magnitude englacial strain detected with autonomous phase-sensitive FMCW radar on Store Glacier, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tun Jan; Christoffersen, Poul; Nicholls, Keith; Bun Lok, Lai; Doyle, Samuel; Hubbard, Bryn; Stewart, Craig; Hofstede, Coen; Bougamont, Marion; Todd, Joseph; Brennan, Paul; Hubbard, Alun

    2016-04-01

    Fast-flowing outlet glaciers terminating in the sea drain 90% of the Greenland Ice Sheet. It is well-known that these glaciers flow rapidly due to fast basal motion, but its contributing processes and mechanisms are, however, poorly understood. In particular, there is a paucity of data to quantify the extent to which basal sliding and internal ice deformation by viscous creep contribute to the fast motion of Greenland outlet glaciers. To study these processes, we installed a network of global positioning system (GPS) receivers around an autonomous phase-sensitive radio-echo sounder (ApRES) capable of imaging internal reflectors and the glacier bed. The ApRES system, including antennas, were custom-designed to monitor and image ice sheets and ice shelves in monostatic and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) modes. Specifically, the system transmits a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) that increases linearly from 200 to 400 MHz over a period of 1 second. We installed this system 30 km up-flow of the tidewater terminus of Store Glacier, which flows into Uummannaq Fjord in West Greenland, and data were recorded every hour from 06 May to 16 July 2014 and every 4 hours from 26 July to 11 December 2014. The same site was used to instrument 600 m deep boreholes drilled to the bed as part of the SAFIRE research programme. With range and reflector distances captured at high temporal (hourly) and spatial (millimetre) resolutions, we obtained a unique, 6-month-long time series of strain through the vertical ice column at the drill site where tilt was independently recorded in a borehole. Our results show variable, but persistently high vertical strain. In the upper three-fourths of the ice column, we have calculated strain rates on the order of a few percent per year, and the strain regime curiously shifts from vertical thinning in winter to vertical thickening at the onset of summer melt. In the basal ice layer we observed high-magnitude vertical strain rates on

  7. A hybrid routing model for mitigating congestion in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kun; Xu, Zhongzhi; Wang, Pu

    2015-08-01

    Imbalance between fast-growing transport demand and limited network supply has resulted in severe congestion in many transport networks. Increasing network supply or reducing transport demand could mitigate congestion, but these remedies are usually associated with high implementation cost. Combining shortest path (SP) routing and minimum cost (MC) routing, we developed a hybrid routing model to alleviate congestion in networks. This model requires only a small fraction of the total number of agents to use MC routes, and effectively mitigates congestion in networks under homogeneous or heterogeneous transport demand, offering new insights for improving the efficiency of practical transport networks.

  8. Routing and scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    of a connection between two locations. This could be an urban bus schedule where busses are routed and this routing creates a bus schedule which the passengers between locations use. In this thesis various routing and scheduling problems will be presented. The topics covered will be routing from an origin...... set cost making the cost of the individual vehicle routes inter-dependant. Depending on the problem type, the size of the problems and time available for solving, different solution methods can be applicable. In this thesis both heuristic methods and several exact methods are investigated depending...... on the problems needed to be solved. The solution methods applied to the problems cover dynamic programming for multi constrained shortest paths, Branch-and-cut for liner shipping, Simulated annealing for transporting assisted passengers in airports, branch-cut-and-price for vehicle routing with time windows...

  9. Traffic-Adaptive Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Kammenhuber, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Despite the bursty and highly volatile traffic, routing in the Internet today is optimised only on coarse time scales, as load-adaptive routing is known to induce performance deterioration by causing massive oscillations. We describe ReplEx, an universally applicable distributed algorithm for dynamic routing/traffic engineering, which is based on game theory. We show through extensive realistic simulations that ReplEx does not oscillate, and that it achieves performance gains comparable to tr...

  10. Comparing the efficiency of transport routes and corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Gabriel GHIŢULEASA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the broader context of the importance granted to accessibility by the European spatial planning policies, comparing the efficiency of European and national transportation routes and corridors constitutes an issue of particular relevance for Romania. In order to resolve it, this paper proposes a methodology based on potential accessibility, determined by the total population served, and the efficiency of the path, by analogy with the least squares method. Both approaches were applied to internal and European routes.

  11. Contact Graph Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  12. Genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volna, Eva

    2016-06-01

    The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the most challenging combinatorial optimization tasks. This problem consists in designing the optimal set of routes for fleet of vehicles in order to serve a given set of customers. Evolutionary algorithms are general iterative algorithms for combinatorial optimization. These algorithms have been found to be very effective and robust in solving numerous problems from a wide range of application domains. This problem is known to be NP-hard; hence many heuristic procedures for its solution have been suggested. For such problems it is often desirable to obtain approximate solutions, so they can be found fast enough and are sufficiently accurate for the purpose. In this paper we have performed an experimental study that indicates the suitable use of genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem.

  13. The impact of the migration processes on the low cost airlines’ routs between EU countries and Poland after its accession to the EU, and on the territorial cohesion of Polish regions.

    OpenAIRE

    Olipra, Lukasz; Pancer-Cybulska, Ewa; Szostak, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    After the accession of Poland to the European Union in 2004 we could observe two phenomena: huge emigration of Poles to the old member states of the EU (mainly to United Kingdom and Ireland) and on the second hand a very dynamic increase in the number of flight destinations from regional airports served by low cost carriers (what meant also increase in the number of passengers). The aim of this article is to answer the question, whether directions of the emigration after accession of Poland t...

  14. Improving Reactive Ad Hoc Routing Performance by Geographic Route Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yuan-da; YU Yan-bing; LU Di

    2005-01-01

    In order to help reactive ad hoc routing protocols select better-performance routes, a novel metric named geographic route length (GRL) is proposed. The relationship between GRL metric and routing performance is analyzed in detail. Combined with hop metric, GRL is applied into the original ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) to demonstrate its effectiveness. Simulation experiments have shown that GRL can effectively reduce packet delay and route discovery frequency, thus can improve reactive ad hoc routing performance.

  15. A New Route Maintenance in Dynamic Source Routing Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is infrastructureless, self-organizable, multi hop packet switched network. A number of routing protocols for MANETs have been proposed in recent years. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol is one of the most popular routing protocol for ad hoc networks. This paper presents a novel method to enhance route maintenance part of DSR protocol. Our proposed route maintenance significantly increases the efficiency of the protocol at the time of route failures.

  16. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

  17. Dahomey Breeding Bird Survey Route

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Document contains route directions and map for the naitonal Dahomey BBS route. Includes milage for where specific listening stations are located along the route...

  18. Sleep-Route: Routing through Sleeping Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Chayan; Rao, Vijay S.; Prasad, R. Venkatesha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose an energy-efficient data gathering scheme for wireless sensor network called Sleep-Route, which splits the sensor nodes into two sets - active and dormant (low-power sleep). Only the active set of sensor nodes participate in data collection. The sensing values of the dormant sensor nodes are predicted with the help of an active sensor node. Virtual Sensing Framework (VSF) provides the mechanism to predict the sensing values by exploiting the data correlation among ...

  19. GIS for the Valorization of Hardly Accessible Alpine Areas with Complex Potentials for Tourism, with a View to Their Inclusion in Tourist Routes. Development of the Valleys of Lotru and Olteţ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available VALOT originates in the experience of European countries from the Alpine Space that succeeded to establish three top priorities for hardly accessible mountain areas based on communitarian programs (Natura 2000, Interreg IIIB – AlpNa Tour, VIADVENTURE, RegioMarket, etc.: competitiveness and attractiveness of the Alpine Space, accessibility and connectivity between high altitude settlements, environmental protection and prevention of natural hazards and disasters (snow falls, land slides, etc.. Starting from the project of Law on Approving the National Spatial Plan – Section VI – Tourism, the project aims at evaluating the current resources of hardly accessible mountain areas with complex potentials for tourism according to the experience of the European Union. GIS analysis will underline national/regional disparities of these areas, leading to conclusions on their typology and intervention proposals. The second part will focus on a case study of a hardly accessible area with a high landscape value and still un-valorized potentials for tourism. The existing situation of the area between the Lotru and Parâng mountains, consisting of the territories of four communes and a city, belonging to the counties of Vâlcea and Gorj, will be analyzed. Based on a spatial development scenario using selected statistical and geographic indicators, intervention priorities will be analyzed with the SPATIAL ANALYST, as well as funding possibilities for the creation of a cluster of mountain resorts (Rânca, Vidra, Voineasa in order to valorize the recreational and balneary patrimony of the area, observing principles and objectives of sustainable development in mountain areas. The project will create a methodology for diagnosing problems and dysfunctions of such areas, development possibilities based on the experience of the pilot study, proposals for improving the institutional framework for implementing, monitoring and evaluating the results and (last but not

  20. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  1. A Fast Algorithm for Railway Route Planning on Restricted Network%限制网络上的铁路旅程规划快速求解算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林冬梅; 刘军

    2013-01-01

    以服务网络设计理论为指导,构建基于铁路列车网的换乘服务网络.以出行方案目标权重值最小为目标函数,在旅客指定始发站、终到站、不限定中转地点的条件下,建立铁路旅程规划问题模型.提出换乘节点匹配法,通过匹配列车发到站的衔接关系,得出始发终到车站间的所有可行出行方案,然后按一定的筛选原则剔除明显不合理方案,最终根据目标权值对方案进行排序,得到K优解.算法用Python语言编程实现,以2010年我国铁路客票系统的数据验算,可实现不指定换乘地点条件下的同城换乘方案计算,向旅客提供出行方案参考.算法不仅适合高速计算设备,也适用于有限计算能力的移动设备.%According to Service Network Design theories, a railway transit service network was constructed out of train timetables. Taking the minimum of the travel plan's weight as the objective function, given a specific origin and destination without designated transfer nodes, a model for railway route planning was established. Transfer node matching was proposed to acquire all feasible travel plans by searching connecting trains arriving at and depart from a same transfer node. Then according to certain filters, a considerable amount of unfavorable travel plans were removed. K optimal travel plans were obtained by ordering the remaining travel plans by objective weights. The algorithm was implemented using Python programming language with the 2010 data of the China Railway Ticketing System. Results show that without designating transfer nodes, travel plans with co-terminal transfer(s) can be calculated and provided as references for passengers. Efficiency of this algorithm is notably improved compared to existing researches. The algorithm can be applied in both high-speed computing devices and mobile devices with computing limits.

  2. Routed planar networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Aldous

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling a road network as a planar graph seems very natural. However, in studying continuum limits of such networks it is useful to take {\\em routes} rather than {\\em edges} as primitives. This article is intended to introduce the relevant (discrete setting notion of {\\em routed network} to graph theorists. We give a naive classification of all 71 topologically different such networks on 4 leaves, and pose a variety of challenging research questions.

  3. Estudo anatômico da via de acesso suprapatelar lateral para a haste intramedular bloqueada na fratura da tíbia Anatomical study on the lateral suprapatellar access route for locked intramedullary nails in tibial fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Scanavini Cerqueira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A haste intramedular (HIM é o padrão ouro no tratamento das fraturas diafisárias da tíbia. Uma das complicações frequentes é a dor no joelho após o procedimento. MÉTODOS: Vias alternativas, como a suprapatelar para a introdução da haste como opção para evitar a dor no joelho no período pós-operatório tardio, têm sido estudadas. A questão é se nesta nova via ocorre alguma lesão às estruturas intra-articulares do joelho. RESULTADOS: Este estudo analisa a via suprapatelar e o risco para as estruturas adjacentes através da sua reprodução em 10 joelhos de cinco cadáveres. CONCLUSÃO: Foi visto facilidade para a localização do ponto de entrada por esta via, lesando apenas a gordura de Hoffa. Em três dos nossos casos houve lesão da superfície condral, sendo um obstáculo de difícil transposição e indicando necessidade de fabricação de material específico para minimizar a lesão das estruturas intra-articulares por essa via.OBJECTIVE: Intramedullary nails are the gold standard for treating tibial shaft fractures. Knee pain is a frequent complication after the procedure. Alternative routes such as the suprapatellar approach for nail insertion are seen as an option for avoiding late postoperative knee pain. The question is whether this approach might give rise to any injury to intra-articular structures of the knee. METHODS: This study analyzed the suprapatellar approach and the risk to adjacent structures by reproducing it in 10 knees of five cadavers. RESULTS: This approach was seen to make it easy to locate the entry point, with lesions only occurring in the Hoffa fat. In three of our cases, there were lesions of the chondral surface, which is an obstacle that is difficult to overcome. CONCLUSION: There is a need to develop specific material to minimize injury to intra-articular structures when using this route.

  4. Routing Service Quality—Local Driver Behavior Versus Routing Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    of the quality of one kind of location-based service, namely routing services. Specifically, the paper presents a framework that enables the comparison of the routes provided by routing services with the actual driving behaviors of local drivers. Comparisons include route length, travel time, and also route...... experiments with real vehicle trajectory data and an existing online navigation service. It is found that the availability of information about previous trips enables better prediction of route travel time and makes it possible to provide the users with more popular routes than does a conventional navigation...

  5. Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Proactive Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, Nadeem; Javaid, Akmal; Malik, Shahzad A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed framework consisting of modeling of routing overhead generated by three widely used proactive routing protocols; Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). The questions like, how these protocols differ from each other on the basis of implementing different routing strategies, how neighbor estimation errors affect broadcast of route requests, how reduction of broadcast overhead achieves bandwidth, how to cope with the problem of mobility and density, etc, are attempted to respond. In all of the above mentioned situations, routing overhead and delay generated by the chosen protocols can exactly be calculated from our modeled equations. Finally, we analyze the performance of selected routing protocols using our proposed framework in NS-2 by considering different performance parameters; Route REQuest (RREQ) packet generation, End-to-End Delay (E2ED) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL) with respect to varyi...

  6. Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Reactive Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, Nadeem; Javaid, Akmal; Malik, Shahzad A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have modeled the routing over- head generated by three reactive routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DYnamic MANET On-deman (DYMO). Routing performed by reactive protocols consists of two phases; route discovery and route maintenance. Total cost paid by a protocol for efficient routing is sum of the cost paid in the form of energy consumed and time spent. These protocols majorly focus on the optimization performed by expanding ring search algorithm to control the flooding generated by the mechanism of blind flooding. So, we have modeled the energy consumed and time spent per packet both for route discovery and route maintenance. The proposed framework is evaluated in NS-2 to compare performance of the chosen routing protocols.

  7. Advanced routing protocols for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Campista , Miguel Elias Mitre

    2014-01-01

    This text introduces the principles of routing protocols and metrics as they affect wireless networking environments, specifically in urban areas. Timely because of the recent rise in small city life, this topic includes the consideration of ad hoc, mesh, vehicular, sensor, and delay tolerant networks. These approaches are each unique, and author Miguel Mitre Campista provides a thorough, but accessible, explanation of their individual characteristics for engineers, computer scientists, IT professionals, and curious Internet users.

  8. Multihop Wireless Networks Opportunistic Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Kai; Li, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to opportunistic routing an emerging technology designed to improve the packet forwarding reliability, network capacity and energy efficiency of multihop wireless networks This book presents a comprehensive background to the technological challenges lying behind opportunistic routing. The authors cover many fundamental research issues for this new concept, including the basic principles, performance limit and performance improvement of opportunistic routing compared to traditional routing, energy efficiency and distributed opportunistic routing protocol desig

  9. Collective network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  10. Roots and routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Jensen, Sune Qvotrup

    2011-01-01

    arguing that there is a dynamic interplay between roots and routes in people's lives. The empirical point of departure is narratives about roots and routes by ethnic minorities settled in Aalborg East, an underprivileged neighbourhood in northern Denmark. One of the main findings is a gap between the...... somewhat paradoxical finding is that it appears to be more difficult for transnational migrants to maintain their roots in the country of origin when they go back than it was to establish new roots in the host country...

  11. Torch Route Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    San Francisco changes Olympic flame route due to security fears The city of San Francisco,the only North American stop for the 2008 Beijing Olympic torch,surprised thousands of supporters,demon- strators and visitors on April 9,by com- pletely changing the planned torch route at the last minute without notification. As scheduled,the torch was expected to start from the McCovey Cove in the south- east of the city at 1:00 p.m.before heading along the waterfront northbound to famous tourist spot Fisherman’s Wharf and finally

  12. Whirlpool routing for mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Woo

    2010-01-01

    We present the Whirlpool Routing Protocol (WARP), which efficiently routes data to a node moving within a static mesh. The key insight in WARP\\'s design is that data traffic can use an existing routing gradient to efficiently probe the topology, repair the routing gradient, and communicate these repairs to nearby nodes. Using simulation, controlled testbeds, and real mobility experiments, we find that using the data plane for topology maintenance is highly effective due to the incremental nature of mobility updates. WARP leverages the fact that converging flows at a destination make the destination have the region of highest traffic. We provide a theoretical basis for WARP\\'s behavior, defining an "update area" in which the topology must adjust when a destination moves. As long as packets arrive at a destination before it moves outside of the update area, WARP can repair the topology using the data plane. Compared to existing protocols, such as DYMO and HYPER, WARP\\'s packet drop rate is up to 90% lower while sending up to 90% fewer packets.

  13. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

    2008-01-01

    Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

  14. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Document Server

    CERN audiovisual service

    2009-01-01

    The SET-Routes programme, launched in 2007 with the goal of attracting girls and young women to careers in science, came to an end in April this year. The result of a collaboration between EMBL, EMBO and CERN, the programme established a network of "ambassadors", women scientists who went out to talk about their careers in science at schools and universities across Europe.

  15. A Genetic Algorithm for Delay-constrained Least-cost Multicast Routing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The delay-constrained least-cost multicast routing problem is introduced and then a related genetic algorithm is proposed. Finally, simulation results are shown to prove that the genetic algorithm is fast and effective.

  16. Route Repetition and Route Retracing: Effects of Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Malte Wiener

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Retracing a recently traveled route is a frequent navigation task when learning novel routes or exploring unfamiliar environments. In the present study we utilized virtual environments technology to investigate age-related differences in repeating and retracing a learned route. In the training phase of the experiment participants were guided along a route consisting of multiple intersections each featuring one unique landmark. In the subsequent test phase, they were guided along short sections of the route and asked to indicate overall travel direction (repetition or retracing, the direction required to continue along the route, and the next landmark they would encounter. Results demonstrate age-related deficits in all three tasks. More specifically, in contrast to younger participants, the older participants had greater problems during route retracing than during route repetition. While route repetition can be solved with egocentric response or route strategies, successfully retracing a route requires allocentric processing. The age-related deficits in route retracing are discussed in the context of impaired allocentric processing and shifts from allocentric to egocentric navigation strategies as a consequence of age-related hippocampal degeneration.

  17. Bionic Optimization Based Stability and Congestion Aware Routing Algorithm for Airborne Highly Dynamic Network

    OpenAIRE

    Yunlong Yu; Le Ru; Sheng Mao; Kangning Sun; Qiangqiang Yu; Kun Fang

    2016-01-01

    Airborne highly dynamic ad hoc UAV network has features of high node mobility, fast changing network topology, and complex application environment. The performance of traditional routing algorithms is so poor over aspects such as end to end delay, data packet delivery ratio, and routing overhead that they cannot provide efficient communication for multi-UAVs carrying out missions synergistically. A bionic optimization based stability and congestion aware routing algorithm—BSCAR algorithm—is p...

  18. Issues of Routing in VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Raja, Umar Waqas; Mustafa, Bilal

    2010-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) is a sub class of mobile ad hoc networks. VANET provides wireless communication among vehicles and vehicle to road side equipments. The communication between vehicles is used for safety, comfort and for entertainment as well. The performance of communication depends on how better the routing takes place in the network. Routing of data depends on the routing protocols being used in network. In this study we investigated about different ad hoc routing protocols ...

  19. Alternative iron making routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, P.; Sharma, T. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India)

    2002-07-01

    The versatile route of iron production 'blast furnace' technique is being replaced by widely accepted Corex technology, Midrex process using Fastmelt ironmaking, eco-friendly Romelt process, more innovative Ausmelt & Hismelt technology, TATA KORF Mini blast furnace improvement, 'quickest iron through Orbiting Plasma', Direct iron ore smelting process, Conred, AISI-Hyl, Inred processes, Direct iron ore reduction methods, their comparison and proposed modifications. 18 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Electronic route information panels (DRIPs).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Also in the Netherlands, the term Dynamic Route Information Panel (DRIP) is used for an electronic route information panel. A DRIP usually indicates whether there are queues on the various routes to a particular destination and how long they are. On certain locations DRIPS also give the estimated tr

  1. Safe Trust Alert Routing in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Meda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  The main characteristic of the ad-hoc network is dynamic topology. In this, nodes modifications its position usually and these nodes have to be compelled to be compelled to adapt for the topology amendment. Nodes can amendment position quite frequently that mean the standard of the network. For quick info transmission, we'd sort of a routing protocol that adapts to topology changes. For our convenience, we've projected a fast and secure protocol that's proactive and reactive in nature. Proactive nature used for adding the node into list, as a results of it taking a short while to line the selection relating to node. And reactive nature used for locating the path for providing fast transmission.

  2. Effective local dynamic routing strategy for air route networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Wenjun; Zhao Lingxi

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of air transportation, network service ability has attracted a lot of attention in academe. Aiming to improve the throughput of the air route network (ARN), we propose an effective local dynamic routing strategy in this paper. Several factors, such as the rout-ing distance, the geographical distance and the real-time local traffic, are taken into consideration. When the ARN is in the normal free-flow state, the proposed strategy can recover the shortest path routing (SPR) strategy. When the ARN undergoes congestion, the proposed strategy changes the paths of flights based on the real-time local traffic information. The throughput of the Chinese air route network (CARN) is evaluated. Results confirm that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the throughput of CARN. Meanwhile, the increase in the average flying distance and time is tiny. Results also indicate the importance of the distance related factors in a routing strategy designed for the ARN.

  3. ZERO: Probabilistic Routing for Deploy and Forget Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Pacho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As Wireless Sensor Networks are being adopted by industry and agriculture for large-scale and unattended deployments, the need for reliable and energy-conservative protocols become critical. Physical and Link layer efforts for energy conservation are not mostly considered by routing protocols that put their efforts on maintaining reliability and throughput. Gradient-based routing protocols route data through most reliable links aiming to ensure 99% packet delivery. However, they suffer from the so-called ”hot spot” problem. Most reliable routes waste their energy fast, thus partitioning the network and reducing the area monitored. To cope with this ”hot spot” problem we propose ZERO a combined approach at Network and Link layers to increase network lifespan while conserving reliability levels by means of probabilistic load balancing techniques.

  4. THE IMPACT OF USING THE ARCTIC ROUTE ON TRADE IN CHINA AND ITS ACCESSIBLE AREAS%“北极航道”开通与中国及其受影响区域的贸易增长潜力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珍; 胡麦秀

    2015-01-01

    This study used a modified gravity model to investigate the impact of waiting time and sea ice cover on shipping in terms of trade potential in China and the impact of using Arctic navigation .In this model , sailing time was sub-stituted for shipping distance to quantitatively evaluate the impact of using the Arctic route .The model results showed a negative correlation between sailing time and the total value of imports and exports .If sailing time was re-duced by 1%, the total volume of imports and exports was increased by 0 .659 0%.The presence of sea ice has a great impact on trade potential .With the present levels of sea ice , using the Arctic route could increase the trade potential of China by an average of 10.95%, and the area accessible for trade could be increased by 12.02%for the northern coastal area and 11.22%for the eastern coastal area .If the sea ice continues to decline as expected and results in complete opening of the Arctic route , China ’ s trade potential will likely increase by 20%or more in terms of accessible areas .%在考虑船舶等待时间和海冰因素的基础上,以航行时间替代航运距离,对传统的贸易引力模型进行修正,量化评估了“北极航道”开通对中国及其受影响区域的贸易增长潜力。结果表明:(1)航行时间与进出口总额之间呈负相关关系,航行时间每减少1%,将使中国的进出口贸易总额增加0.6590%;(2)海冰因素会对贸易潜力的提升产生较大影响。在存在海冰的情况下,由于“北极航道”在航运距离上的天然优势,将使中国的贸易潜力增长10.95%,使中国受影响的北部沿海地区和东部沿海地区的贸易潜力分别增长12.02%和11.22%;一旦海冰消融、“北极航道”全面通航,中国及其受影响的北部沿海地区和东部沿海地区的贸易潜力则会得到进一步提升,提升效应将达到20%以上。

  5. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  6. Personal continuous route pattern mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian YE; Ling CHEN; Gen-cai CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In the daily life, people often repeat regular routes in certain periods. In this paper, a mining system is developed to find the continuous route patterns of personal past trips. In order to count the diversity of personal moving status, the mining system employs the adaptive GPS data recording and five data filters to guarantee the clean trips data. The mining system uses a client/server architecture to protect personal privacy and to reduce the computational load. The server conducts the main mining procedure but with insufficient information to recover real personal routes. In order to improve the scalability of sequential pattern mining, a novel pattern mining algorithm, continuous route pattern mining (CRPM), is proposed. This algorithm can tolerate the different disturbances in real routes and extract the frequent patterns. Experimental results based on nine persons' trips show that CRPM can extract more than two times longer route patterns than the traditional route pattern mining algorithms.

  7. Acesso venoso trans-hepático percutâneo para hemodiálise: uma alternativa para pacientes portadores de insuficiência renal crônica Percutaneous transhepatic venous access for hemodialysis: an alternative route for patients with end-stage renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Maurício da Motta-Leal-Filho

    2010-09-01

    . OBJECTIVES: To present a small sample regarding the possibility and the functionality of transhepatic implantation of long-term catheters for hemodialysis in patients with no other possible access routes. METHODS: Retrospective observational analysis was made of the charts of six patients in which nine tunneled dialysis catheters were implanted by the percutaneous transhepatic route. Transhepatic catheters were placed in the absence of an available peripheral venous site. Patients were monitored to evaluate technical success, the complication rate, the infection rate and the duration of catheter patency. RESULTS: Four men and two women aged 31 to 85 years (mean age: 55 years. Technical success was 100%. The mean duration of catheter function was 300.5 days (range: 2 to 814 days. Means of primary and secondary patency were 179.60 and 328.33 days, respectively. The catheter thrombosis rate was 0.05 per 100 catheter-days as the infection rate. There were three early complications (within the first 30 days of catheter implantation: two catheter displacement and one infection. Two late complications were observed: one thrombosis and one migration. Three patients (50% needed to have their catheters changed. The 30-day mortality rate was 33% but with no relation to the procedure. CONCLUSION: It may be suggested that this technique is safe, however transhepatic hemodialysis catheters may be used in patients with no other options for deep venous access for hemodialysis, albeit as a last resort access route.

  8. Aerial surveys of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) on fast and pack ice in the central Beaufort Sea of Alaska, 1985-1987 and 1996-1999 (NODC Accession 0000931)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These datasets include counts of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and other marine mammals made during aerial surveys of ringed seals on fast and pack ice of the...

  9. Linear Network Fractional Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.ASOKAN,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A Network is a finite directed acyclic graph with source messages from a fixed alphabet and message demands at sink nodes. Linear Programming is an algorithm design method. It can be used whenthe solution to a problem can be viewed as the result of a sequence of decisions. The Linear Programming model for the network problem where in every variable has a value one or zero. The problem is todetermine a method of transmitting the messages through the network such that all sink demands are satisfied. We will prove fractional routing capacity for some solvable network using Linear Programmingmodel.

  10. Effective ANT based Routing Algorithm for Data Replication in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J. Nithya Nandhini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc network, the nodes often move and keep on change its topology. Data packets can be forwarded from one node to another on demand. To increase the data accessibility data are replicated at nodes and made as sharable to other nodes. Assuming that all mobile host cooperative to share their memory and allow forwarding the data packets. But in reality, all nodes do not share the resources for the benefits of others. These nodes may act selfishly to share memory and to forward the data packets. This paper focuses on selfishness of mobile nodes in replica allocation and routing protocol based on Ant colony algorithm to improve the efficiency. The Ant colony algorithm is used to reduce the overhead in the mobile network, so that it is more efficient to access the data than with other routing protocols. This result shows the efficiency of ant based routing algorithm in the replication allocation.

  11. The Adversarial Route Analysis Tool: A Web Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casson, William H. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-02

    The Adversarial Route Analysis Tool is a type of Google maps for adversaries. It's a web-based Geospatial application similar to Google Maps. It helps the U.S. government plan operations that predict where an adversary might be. It's easily accessible and maintainble and it's simple to use without much training.

  12. Quantitative analysis of access strategies to remoteinformation in network services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2006-01-01

    Remote access to dynamically changing information elements is a required functionality for various network services, including routing and instances of context-sensitive networking. Three fundamentally different strategies for such access are investigated in this paper: (1) a reactive approach in......, network delay characterization) and specific requirements on mismatch probability, traffic overhead, and access delay. Finally, the analysis is applied to the use-case of context-sensitive service discovery.......Remote access to dynamically changing information elements is a required functionality for various network services, including routing and instances of context-sensitive networking. Three fundamentally different strategies for such access are investigated in this paper: (1) a reactive approach...

  13. Evaluation of Integrated Routing/MAC Solutions for the Diffusion of Warning Messages in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Campelli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of routing protocols in general mobile ad hoc networks may be highly affected by the specific Medium Access Control scheme the routing relies upon and by the mobility of the wireless nodes. In this work, we address the design of position based routing solutions for the support of safety oriented applications in Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs by focusing on the impact of the MAC layer on the performances of the routing strategies. Namely, we propose a simulation analysis in highway scenarios to assess the routing performance in the two cases where standard IEEE 802.11 technology and a dynamic TDMA scheme are adopted at layer 2 respectively. We discuss on the dimensioning of the routing parameters in both cases and we provide a comparative analysis of the two MAC/routing integrated solutions.

  14. Geographic Routing on Improved Coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Brandes, Ulrik; Fleischer, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    We consider routing methods for networks when geographic positions of nodes are available. Instead of using the original geographic coordinates, however, we precompute virtual coordinates using barycentric layout. Combined with simple geometric routing rules, this greatly reduces the lengths of routes and outperforms algorithms working on the original coordinates. Along with experimental results we proof properties such as guaranteed message delivery and worst-case optimality. Our methods app...

  15. Multi-layer Mechanism for Multicast Routing in Multihop Cognitive Radio Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mustafa Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Multicast routing is considered as one of the most important process in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) to enable video sharing and data dissemination. Multicast routing can be used without any difficulties if a medium can be accessed by any transmitter at any given time. Unfortunately, challenges such as the unexpected behavior of primary users (PUs) and their access priority as well as network heterogeneity may appear in cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In this thesis, we propose a multi-la...

  16. Alternative routes of insulin delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ranjith K. Krishnankutty; Aju Mathew; Saikiran K. Sedimbi; Shrikumar Suryanarayan; Carani B. Sanjeevi

    2009-01-01

    Parenteral route of insulin administration has been the mode of treatment for all Type 1 diabetics and Type 2 diabetics with complications. Patient compliance has really been a major concern for this route of administration. Several alternative routes of administration are under consideration for effective glycemic control, including oral, inhaled, buccal, nasal, and patch routes. One of the approaches involving inhaled insulin has now reached the market. Several other candidates may reach the market in the near future, the promising one being oral insulin.

  17. A Primer of Multicast Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Whereas unicast routing determines a path from one source node to one destination node, multicast routing determines a path from one source to many destinations, or from many sources to many destinations. We survey multicast routing methods for when the set of destinations is static, and for when it is dynamic. While most of the methods we review are tree based, some non-tree methods are also discussed. We survey results on the shape of multicast trees, delay constrained multicast routing, aggregation of multicast traffic, inter-domain multicast, and multicast virtual private networks. We focu

  18. "To Control Tibet, First Pacify Kham": Trade Routes and "Official Routes" (Guandao in Easternmost Kham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Booz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the trade routes in the western Sichuan borderlands that facilitated contact and trade between Chinese counties and Eastern Tibet. In particular, the article offers a description of “official routes” (guandao—which the Chinese emperor twice proclaimed to be the vital mode of access between China and Tibet—from Chengdu, Sichuan’s provincial capital, to Khampa areas, with Lhasa as the final destination. The exchange of goods in this region followed various routes during different periods. From the tenth to sixteenth centuries, transactions occurred primarily along the borders of Amdo (Tib. A mdo, Northeastern Tibet, but for political, economic, and practical reasons, such exchanges became more limited geographically and eventually focused along the Sichuan–Kham/Ngawa border. Many routes shifted to the towns of Kangding (Tib. Dartsedo and Songpan (Tib. Zungchu, the main sites of distribution, where rich opportunities for trade and a strictly limiting transport geography made them important entrepôts that evolved into centers of prosperity. The geographic range of this article reaches to these two towns and leaves the investigation of the routes that led to western centers such as Derge, Batang, Chamdo, and Jyekundo for future research.

  19. Secure Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip

    2011-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have emerged as a promising concept to meet the challenges in next-generation networks such as providing flexible, adaptive, and reconfigurable architecture while offering cost-effective solutions to the service providers. Unlike traditional Wi-Fi networks, with each access point (AP) connected to the wired network, in WMNs only a subset of the APs are required to be connected to the wired network. The APs that are connected to the wired network are called the Internet gateways (IGWs), while the APs that do not have wired connections are called the mesh routers (MRs). The MRs are connected to the IGWs using multi-hop communication. The IGWs provide access to conventional clients and interconnect ad hoc, sensor, cellular, and other networks to the Internet. However, most of the existing routing protocols for WMNs are extensions of protocols originally designed for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and thus they perform sub-optimally. Moreover, most routing protocols for WMNs are des...

  20. QoS-aware multicast routing protocol for Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Baolin; Li Layuan

    2006-01-01

    Ad hoc wireless networks consist of mobile nodes interconnected by multihop communication paths. Unlike conventional wireless networks, ad hoc networks have no fixed network infrastructure or administrative support. Due to bandwidth constraint and dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks, supporting Quality of Service (QoS) is an inherently complex, difficult issue and very important research issue. MAODV (Multicast Ad hoc Ondemand Distance Vector) routing protocol provides fast and efficient route establishment between mobile nodes that need to communicate with each other. MAODV has minimal control overhead and route acquisition latency. In addition to unicast routing, MAODV supports multicast and broadcast as well.The multicast routing problem with multiple QoS constraints, which may deal with the delay, bandwidth and packet loss measurements is discussed, and a network model for researching the ad hoc network QoS multicast routing problem is described. It presents a complete solution for QoS multicast routing based on an extension of the MAODV routing protocol that deals with delay, bandwidth and packet loss measurements. The solution is based on lower layer specifics. Simulation results show that, with the proposed QoS multicast routing protocol, end-to-end delay, bandwidth and packet loss on a route can be improved in most of cases. It is an available approach to multicast routing decision with multiple QoS constraints.

  1. A Reliable Routing Protocol for Wireless Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Madani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been paid to Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET. VANETs address direct communication between vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicles to roadside units (RSUs. They are similar to the Mobile and Ad hoc Networks (MANET in their rapid and dynamic network topology changes due to the fast motion of nodes. High mobility of nodes and network resources limitations have made the routing, one of the most important challenges in VANET researches. Therefore, guaranteeing a stable and reliable routing algorithm over VANET is one of the main steps to realize an effective vehicular communications. In this paper, a two-step AODV-based routing protocol is proposed for VANET networks. At first, node-grouping is done using their mobility information such as speed and movement direction. If the first step cannot respond efficiently, the algorithm enters the second step which uses link expiration time (LET information in the formation of the groups. The goal of the proposed protocol is increasing the stability of routing algorithm by selecting long-lived routes and decreasing link breakages. The comparison of proposed algorithm with AODV and DSR protocols is performed via the Network Simulator NS-2. It is shown that the proposed algorithm increases the delivery ratio and also decreases the routing control overhead.

  2. Route Elimination Heuristic for Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Csiszár

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a route elimination (RE algorithm for thevehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW. The problem has two objectives, oneof them is the minimal number of routes the other is the minimal cost. To cope with theseobjectives effectively two-phase solutions are often suggested in the relevant literature. Inthe first phase the main focus is the route elimination, in the second one it is the costreduction. The algorithm described here is a part of a complete VRPWT study. The methodwas developed by studying the graph behaviour during the route elimination. For thispurpose a model -called “Magic Bricks” was developed. The computation results on theSolomon problem set show that the developed algorithm is competitive with the best ones.

  3. Qos Routing Scheme and Route Repair in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Belghachi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, a new type of wireless network has evoked great interest among the scientific community; it is the wireless sensor networks (WSN. The WSN are used in various social activities, such as industrial processes, military surveillance applications, observation and monitoring of habitat, etc... This diversity of applications brings these networks to support different types of traffic and to provide services that must be both generic and adaptive for applications, the properties of the quality of service (QoS are different from one application to another. However, the need to minimize energy consumption has been the most important field of WSNs research. Few studies in the field are concerned with mechanisms for efficiently delivering QoS at the application level from network level metrics and connection such as delay or bandwidth, while minimizing the energy consumption of sensor nodes that are part of network. The idea is to ensure QoS through a routing process, which can detect paths that meet the QoS requirements based on ant colony optimization (ACOs, coupled with detected routes reservation process. However, it is necessary to integrate to this diagram the maintenance of route disrupted during communication. We propose a method that aims to improve the probability of success of a local route repair. This method based on the density of nodes in the vicinity of a route, as well as on the availability of this vicinity. Taking into account these parameters in the route selection phase (end of the routing process allows selecting among multiple routes, the one which is potentially the most easily repairable. In addition, we propose a method for early detection of the failure of a local route repair. This method can directly trigger a process of global re-routing that better fits to restore communication between the source and destination.

  4. Research on Innovating, Applying Multiple Paths Routing Technique Based on Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithm for Routing Messages in Service - Oriented Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Long

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available MANET (short for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network consists of a set of mobile network nodes, network configuration changes very fast. In content based routing, data is transferred from source node to request nodes is not based on destination addresses. Therefore, it is very flexible and reliable, because source node does not need to know destination nodes. If We can find multiple paths that satisfies bandwidth requirement, split the original message into multiple smaller messages to transmit concurrently on these paths. On destination nodes, combine separated messages into the original message. Hence it can utilize better network resources, causes data transfer rate to be higher, load balancing, failover. Service Oriented Routing is inherited from the model of content based routing (CBR, combined with several advanced techniques such as Multicast, multiple path routing, Genetic algorithm to increase the data rate, and data encryption to ensure information security. Fuzzy logic is a logical field study evaluating the accuracy of the results based on the approximation of the components involved, make decisions based on many factors relative accuracy based on experimental or mathematical proof. This article presents some techniques to support multiple path routing from one network node to a set of nodes with guaranteed quality of service. By using these techniques can decrease the network load, congestion, use network resources efficiently.

  5. Access Denied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  6. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.D.; Thomas, T.; Berkum, van E.C.; Arem, van B.

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  7. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Chee So

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air. Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2 without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper. Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation.

  8. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing Chee; Ching, Terence Han-Wei; Lim, Phoebe Elizabeth; Cheng, Xiaoqin; Ip, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air). Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2) without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper). Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing) recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation. PMID:25426624

  9. Security Consideration With Dynamic Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VISWESWARARAO BOLLA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues for data communication over wired and wireless networks is the security. the past work is on the designs of cryptography algorithms and system infrastructures. Dynamic routing algorithm called improved dynamic routing with security consideration, which is based on the concept of Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP that could randomize delivery paths for data transmission. The algorithm is easy to implement and compatible with popular routing protocols, such as the Routing Information Protocol (RIP in wired networks and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV protocol in wireless networks, without introducing extra control messages. This algorithm is mainly proposed to improve the and to overcome the limitations existing with the present cryptographic algorithms and protocols. Although some designs like IP security, Secure Socket Layer provide essential security, E-Mail security they unavoidably introduce substantial overheads in the Gateway/Host performance and effective network bandwidths.

  10. Stochastic Vehicle Routing with Recourse

    CERN Document Server

    Goertz, Inge Li; Saket, Rishi

    2012-01-01

    We study the classic Vehicle Routing Problem in the setting of stochastic optimization with recourse. StochVRP is a two-stage optimization problem, where demand is satisfied using two routes: fixed and recourse. The fixed route is computed using only a demand distribution. Then after observing the demand instantiations, a recourse route is computed -- but costs here become more expensive by a factor lambda. We present an O(log^2 n log(n lambda))-approximation algorithm for this stochastic routing problem, under arbitrary distributions. The main idea in this result is relating StochVRP to a special case of submodular orienteering, called knapsack rank-function orienteering. We also give a better approximation ratio for knapsack rank-function orienteering than what follows from prior work. Finally, we provide a Unique Games Conjecture based omega(1) hardness of approximation for StochVRP, even on star-like metrics on which our algorithm achieves a logarithmic approximation.

  11. QUANTIFIED COST-BALANCED ROUTING SCHEME FOR OVERLAY MULTICAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jun; Ruan Qiuqi

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the quantitative analysis issue of the routing metrics tradeoff problem, and presents a Quantified Cost-Balanced overlay multicast routing scheme (QCost-Balanced) to the metric tradeoff problem between overlay path delay and access bandwidth at Multicast Server Nodes (MSN) for real-time applications over Internet. Besides implementing a dynamic priority to MSNs by weighing the size of its service clients for better efficiency, QCost-Balanced tradeoffs these two metrics by a unified tradeoff metric based on quantitative analysis. Simulation experiments demonstrate that the scheme achieves a better tradeoff gain in both two metrics, and effective performance in metric quantitative control.

  12. Reliable Point to Multipoint Hierarchical Routing in Scatternet Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Dhaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent development of communication, Bluetooth Scatternet wireless is a technology developed for wideband local accesses. Bluetooth technology is very popular because of its low cost and easy deployment which is based on IEEE 802.11standards. On the other hand Wireless Sensor Network (WSN consists of large number of sensor nodes distributed to monitor an environment and each node in a WSN consists of a small CPU, a sensing device and battery. Mostly, the sensor networks are distributed in an inconvenient location and it is difficult to recharge often. So routing in WSN is an important issue to consume energy and as well as to increase the life of the network, since a routing protocol finds the path between sources and sink. Moreover it is a challenging task to schedule the data between nodes in a scatternet in a congestive environment. Here this paper presents a new scheduling method for point to multi- point routing in Scatternet sensor network and the new dynamic routing method designed is cluster-based with hierarchical routing. The efficiency of this method is also compared in terms of energy consumption and the results show that the proposed routing is an energy efficient one which simultaneously increases the lifetime of the network.

  13. Social dilemma structure hidden behind traffic flow with route selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Nakamura, Kousuke

    2016-10-01

    Several traffic flows contain social dilemma structures. Herein, we explored a route-selection problem using a cellular automaton simulation dovetailed with evolutionary game theory. In our model, two classes of driver-agents coexist: D agents (defective strategy), which refer to traffic information for route selection to move fast, and C agents (cooperative strategy), which are insensitive to information and less inclined to move fast. Although no evidence suggests that the social dilemma structure in low density causes vehicles to move freely and that in high density causes traffic jams, we found a structure that corresponds to an n-person (multiplayer) Chicken (n-Chicken) game if the provided traffic information is inappropriate. If appropriate traffic information is given to the agents, the n-Chicken game can be solved. The information delivered to vehicles is crucial for easing the social dilemma due to urban traffic congestion when developing technologies to support the intelligent transportation system (ITS).

  14. Photonic-assisted ultrafast THz wireless access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Chen, Ying; Galili, Michael;

    THz technology has been considered feasible for ultrafast wireless data communi- cation, to meet the increasing demand on next-generation fast wireless access, e.g., huge data file transferring and fast mobile data stream access. This talk reviews recent progress in high-speed THz wireless...... communications enabled by photonics technologies, as well as the needed technical breakthroughs for achieving ultrafast data rates beyond 100Gbit/s...

  15. Fast breeder reactors an engineering introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, A M

    1981-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors: An Engineering Introduction is an introductory text to fast breeder reactors and covers topics ranging from reactor physics and design to engineering and safety considerations. Reactor fuels, coolant circuits, steam plants, and control systems are also discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with a brief summary of the history of fast reactors, with emphasis on international and the prospect of making accessible enormous reserves of energy. The next chapter deals with the physics of fast reactors and considers calculation methods, flux distribution,

  16. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults

    OpenAIRE

    Horel Scott A; Dean Wesley R; Johnson Cassandra M; Sharkey Joseph R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Methods Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environmen...

  17. Dynamic Routing of Short Transfer Baggage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    We consider a variant of the Vehicle Routing Problem that arises in airports when transporting baggage for passengers with connecting flights. Each bag can be delivered in two locations with disjunctive time windows. The task is to define multiple trips for the vehicles in order to deliver bags...... that arrive continuously during the day. We present an IP model of the problem and describe the problem as a case study from a real life setting. We present a weighted greedy algorithm for dispatching vehicles that works in an dynamic context, meaning that it only considers bags available at the time...... of dispatch. Computational results are presented for real-life passenger data with stochastic bag arrival times and travel times. The results indicate that the algorithm is able to dispatch the baggage considerably better than the manual delivery plans reported in the case study, and due to its fast running...

  18. Securing AODV Routing Protocol in MANET Based on Cryptographic Authentication Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Sachan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc wireless network (MANET, secure communication is morechallenging task due to its fundamental characteristics like infrastructure less, wirelesslink, distributed cooperation, dynamic topology, lack of association, resource constrainedand physical vulnerability of node. In MANET, attacks can be broadly classified in twocategories: routing attacks and data forwarding attacks. Any action not following rules ofrouting protocols belongs to routing attacks. The main objective of routing attacks tomislead or disrupt normal functioning of network by advertising false routing updates. Onthe other hand data forwarding attacks include actions such as modification or droppingof data packet that does not disrupt routing protocol. In this thesis work, we proposed amethod to secure ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV routing protocol. Theproposed method provides security for routing packets and can efficiently prevent theattacks such as black hole, modifying routing information and impersonation. Theproposed method uses hashed message authentication code (HMAC function whichprovides fast message verification and sender as well as intermediate nodesauthentication. We simulate and compare the proposed method with original AODV andsecure AODV (SAODV protocol using network simulator tool (NS2. Simulation resultshows that proposed method minimizes the time delay and network routing load involvedin computation and verification of security fields during route discovery process andperforms better than the original AODV protocol in the presence of malicious nodesperforming black hole attack.

  19. Road Routes for Waste Disposal - MDC_RecyclingRoute

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This CURBSIDE RECYCLING ROUTES BOUNDARIES LAYER IS A polygon feature class created for the Miami-Dade Department of Solid Waste Management (DSWM). It contains the...

  20. Critical Route Network for Earthquake Response and Dynamic Route Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Peeta, Srinivas; Kalafatas, Georgios

    2007-01-01

    Earthquakes can significantly disrupt societal functioning, cause ecological damage, and lead to loss of human lives and property, warranting a coordinated and efficient response to mitigate their negative impacts. Preparedness against earthquakes entails a pre-disaster planning aspect and a post disaster operational aspect. In the JTRP study “Emergency Earthquake Routes for the State of Indiana; Part I: Criteria for Selection of Primary Routes: Transportation Aspects”, a multicommodity maxim...

  1. Capacity Constrained Routing Algorithms for Evacuation Route Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Shekhar, Shashi; George, Betsy; Lu, Qingsong

    2010-01-01

    Efficient tools are needed to identify routes and schedules to evacuate affected populations to safety in face of natural disasters or terrorist attacks. Challenges arise due to violation of key assumptions (e.g. stationary ranking of alternative routes, Wardrop equilibrium) behind popular shortest path algorithms (e.g. Dijktra's, A*) and microscopic traffic simulators (e.g. DYNASMART). Time-expanded graphs (TEG) based mathematical programming paradigm does not scale up to large urban scenari...

  2. Protocol Independent Adaptive Route Update for VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Asim Rasheed; Sana Ajmal; Amir Qayyum

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptiv...

  3. Implementation of a Locator-Based Route Switching Scheme for Improved Routing in Proxy Mobile IPv6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Okwori

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6 is a promising IP mobility protocols that is being deployed in emerging wireless technologies. This however has a non-optimal packet route as a result of the triangular routing problem. This creates a bottle neck at the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA thereby increasing packet delays. This paper presents the implementation of a locator-based route switching scheme on OPNET Modeler. The Mobility Access Gateway (MAG and the LMA were enhanced by making them intelligent. This enables them to be able to check the position of the Corresponding Node (CN with respect to the Mobile Node (MN and also determine the available bandwidth on each link. From the checks made, a three-stage decision process is used to switch routing to the most optimal route that guarantees the best QoS. Node Models were developed for the MAG and LMA, network models were deployed and simulation tests were carried out. The results show that the developed scheme switched packets to a more optimal route according to the designed algorithm. The impact of this switching on differences between transmitted throughput at MN and the received throughput at CN was also evaluated. The receiver activity result shows a reduction in the bottleneck at the LMA-MAG link. The end-to-end delay results show over 50 milliseconds drop in packet delay as a result of the switching to a more optimal route. This shows that the packet delays result from the congestion at the LMA-MAG interface due to suboptimal routing.

  4. SECURE ROUTING IN WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Haboub

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing diffusion of wireless sensors and the recent advances in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNsopen new scenarios where sensors can be rapidly deployed without any existing infrastructure. Suchnetworks are useful in many fields, such as emergency rescue, disaster relief, smart homes systems,patient monitoring, industrial applications, health monitoring, environmental control, militaryapplications, etc. However WSN presents many challenges. These networks are prone to malicious usersattack, because any device within the frequency range can get access to the WSN. There is a need forsecurity mechanisms aware of the sensor challenges (low energy, computational resources, memory,etc.. Thus, this work aims to provide a secure WSN by changing the frequency of data transmission. Thissecurity approach was tested, and the results shows an interesting decreased of throughput frommalicious node when the number of frequency used is increased, that way the WSN will not waste it’sresources treating malicious packets.

  5. A Study on Spatial Reconstruction Routes and Patterns of Rural Residential Areas in Fast Urbanization Regions--- An Empirical Study of Changshou District,Chongqing City%城镇化快速发展区域农村居民点空间重构路径及模式研究--重庆市长寿区实证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨庆媛; 潘菲; 李元庆

    2015-01-01

    Population mobility and accelerating reorganization of key economic elements in rapid urbaniza‐tion regions lead to fast transformation of rural spaces ,and this situation results in the problems of the hollowing of rural residential areas and the weakening of their core functions ,which needs to be solved by innovative ideas .Based on an analysis of the current rural residential areas in the process of rapid urbaniza‐tion ,plus the surveying data on agricultural households in Changshou District ,Chongqing ,this paper dis‐cusses the routes of spatial reconstruction of rural residential areas from three aspects :the systemic struc‐ture of rural residential areas ,land‐use structure and industrial structure .The research shows that a hier‐archical system called “central town‐ordinary town‐central village‐basic village” can be shaped according to the rank‐size of villages and small towns in Changshou District ;that according to the migration patterns and the demand for land development in rural residential areas ,clustering settlements are to be constructed for the sake of land‐use intensity ;that as the reconstruction of industrial structure has a significant influ‐ence on the reconstruction of rural residential areas ,a reasonable industrial layout should be shaped based mainly on four industrial types :integrated type ,industry‐and‐trade type ,agriculture‐and‐trade type ,and tourism type ;and that there are four patterns of spatial reconstruction in rural residential areas ,i.e. “ur‐baniz ation‐guided” promoted by urbanization and industralization development ,“internal‐transformation‐al” and “central‐village integrating” promoted by industrial development ,as well as “ecological‐migrating”promoted by government guidance.%在对重庆市长寿区农村居民点现状特点进行分析基础上,从农村居民点体系结构、用地结构和产业结构3个方面的重组入手,探讨农村居民

  6. Design-Rule-Aware Congestion Model with Explicit Modeling of Vias and Local Pin Access Paths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Dong Qi; Yi-Ci Cai; Qiang Zhou

    2015-01-01

    As technology advances, there is a considerable gap between the congestion model used in global routing and the routing resource consumption in detailed routing. The new factors contributing to congestion include local pin access paths, vias, and various design rules. In this paper, we propose a practical congestion model with measurement of the impact of design rules, and resources consumed by vias and local pin access paths. The model is compatible with path search algorithms commonly used in global routing. Validated by full-flow routing, this congestion model correlates better with real resource consumption situation in detailed routing, compared with previous work. It leads to better solution quality and shorter runtime of detailed routing when it is used in the layer assignment phase of global routing stage.

  7. Secure Multicast Routing Algorithm for Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Matam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicast is an indispensable communication technique in wireless mesh network (WMN. Many applications in WMN including multicast TV, audio and video conferencing, and multiplayer social gaming use multicast transmission. On the other hand, security in multicast transmissions is crucial, without which the network services are significantly disrupted. Existing secure routing protocols that address different active attacks are still vulnerable due to subtle nature of flaws in protocol design. Moreover, existing secure routing protocols assume that adversarial nodes cannot share an out-of-band communication channel which rules out the possibility of wormhole attack. In this paper, we propose SEMRAW (SEcure Multicast Routing Algorithm for Wireless mesh network that is resistant against all known active threats including wormhole attack. SEMRAW employs digital signatures to prevent a malicious node from gaining illegitimate access to the message contents. Security of SEMRAW is evaluated using the simulation paradigm approach.

  8. Local Routing in Convex Subdivisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Prosenjit; Durocher, Stephane; Mondal, Debajyoti;

    2015-01-01

    In various wireless networking settings, node locations determine a network’s topology, allowing the network to be modelled by a geometric graph drawn in the plane. Without any additional information, local geometric routing algorithms can guarantee delivery to the target node only in restricted...... classes of geometric graphs, such as triangulations. In order to guarantee delivery on more general classes of geometric graphs (e.g., convex subdivisions or planar subdivisions), previous local geometric routing algorithms required Θ(logn) state bits to be stored and passed with the message. We present...... the first local geometric routing algorithm using only one state bit to guarantee delivery on convex subdivisions and the first local geometric memoryless routing algorithm that guarantees delivery on edge-augmented monotone subdivisions (including all convex subdivisions) when the algorithm has knowledge...

  9. Route Optimization in Network Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hasan Tareque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NEtwork MObility (NEMO controls mobility of a number of mobile nodes in a comprehensive way using one or more mobile routers. To choose a route optimization scheme, it is very important to have a quantitative comparison of the available route optimization schemes. The focus of this paper is to analyze the degree of Route Optimization (RO, deploy-ability and type of RO supported by each class in general. The comparison shows the differences among the schemes in terms of issues, such as additional header, signaling and memory requirement. We classify the schemes established on the basic method for route optimization, and equal the schemes based on protocol overhead, such as header overhead, amount of signaling, and memory requirements. Lastly the performance of the classes of different schemes has to be estimated under norms such as available bandwidth, topology of the mobile network and mobility type.

  10. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  11. Dynamic Routing with Security Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Murali

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days one of the major issues for data communication over wired and wireless networks is the security. the past work is on the designs of cryptography algorithms and system infrastructures. Apart from that we will propose a dynamic routing algorithm that could randomize delivery paths for data transmission. The algorithm is easy to implement and compatible with popular routing protocols, such as the Routing Information Protocol(RIP in wired networks and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector(DSDV protocol in wireless networks, without introducing extra control messages. A clear study on the proposed algorithm is presented, and a series of simulation experiments are conducted to verify the results and to show the capability of the proposed algorithm. This algorithm is mainly proposed to improve the security and to overcome the limitations existing with the present cryptographic algorithms and protocols. Although some designs like IP security, Secure Socket Layer provide essential security, they unavoidably introduce substantial overheads in the Gateway/Host performance and effective network bandwidths. This routing protocol is compatible with the Routing Information Protocol which uses hop-count as its Routing metric. So there will be a limited number of hops and data transmissions are done by selecting hops randomly in a network. This improves security as well as controls traffic in the network. So, the procedure also includes using the multipath routing to select the paths to be followed. It uses the randomization process for selecting the number of hops to be selected for transforming the data. The routing table in this algorithm is based on the well-known Bellman-Ford algorithm. So, this overcomes the problems with security and traffic occurred with increase in the number of networks in these days

  12. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  13. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  14. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Teranovi Technologies, Inc., has developed innovative network architecture, protocols, and algorithms for both lunar surface and orbit access networks. A key component of the overall architecture is a medium access control (MAC) protocol that includes a novel mechanism of overlaying time division multiple access (TDMA) and carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA), ensuring scalable throughput and quality of service. The new MAC protocol is compatible with legacy Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 networks. Advanced features include efficiency power management, adaptive channel width adjustment, and error control capability. A hybrid routing protocol combines the advantages of ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing and disruption/delay-tolerant network (DTN) routing. Performance is significantly better than AODV or DTN and will be particularly effective for wireless networks with intermittent links, such as lunar and planetary surface networks and orbit access networks.

  15. Protocol independent adaptive route update for VANET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Asim; Ajmal, Sana; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  16. Vehicle Routing With User Generated Trajectory Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    Rapidly increasing volumes of GPS data collected from vehicles provide new and increasingly comprehensive insight into the routes that drivers prefer. While routing services generally compute shortest or fastest routes, recent studies suggest that local drivers often prefer routes that are neither...... shortest nor fastest, indicating that drivers value route properties that are diverse and hard to quantify or even identify. We propose a routing service that uses an existing routing service while exploiting the availability of historical route usage data from local drivers. Given a source and destination......, the service recommends a corresponding route that is most preferred by local drivers. It uses a route preference function that takes into account the number of distinct drivers and the number of trips associated with a route, as well as temporal aspects of the trips. The paper provides empirical studies...

  17. Route Scherrer closed for construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that Route Scherrer will be inaccessible for two and a half months from the beginning of March.   The part of Route Scherrer between Building 510 and Building 53 (see Figure) will be closed from the beginning of March until mid-May for civil engineering works. The superheated water pipes supplying the buildings in this area date back to 1959 and therefore present a significant risk of leakage. In order to ensure the reliable supply of superheated water, and, by extension, heating, to all premises near the Main Building (i.e. Buildings 500, 501, 503, 60, 62, 63 and 64), a new buried service duct will be installed between the basements of Buildings 53 and 61 to house a new superheated water pipe. The following car parks will, however, remain accessible for the duration of the works: the Cèdres car park, the car park for Buildings 4 and 5, and the car park situated between Buildings 32, 38 and 168.

  18. Impact of Flooding on Traffic Route Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic route choice using road network modelling can play a key role in preventing and minimizing traffic problems during disasters. Using road network modelling, real road conditions during flooding are simulated in order to produce a response plan for road users to evacuate based on the roads' real risks and situation. Using a Geographical Information System (GIS we can forecast and provide road users with available alternatives when certain access roads or links need to be closed due to catastrophic hazards such as floods. This study focuses on floods as it is the most common form of natural disaster occurring in Malaysia, and due to the fact that the chance and risk of a flood occurring cannot be accurately predicted nor measured. Therefore, as a response to this problem, the outcome of this study is highly useful for the retrieval of information on flooded roads and the impacts on road users. Using GIS's capability to display both spatial and attributive information, we have provided an attractive alternative to conventional methods in order to show available traffic route choices and a transportation network plan.

  19. Hemodialysis access - self care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  20. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  1. A SURVEY ON PROTOCOLS & ATTACKS IN MANET ROUTING

    OpenAIRE

    Meenakshi; Rishabh Jain; Charul Deewan

    2012-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a dynamic wirelessnetwork that can be formed without any pre-existinginfrastructure in which each node can act as a router.MANET has no clear line of defense, so, it is accessible toboth legitimate network users and malicious attackers. Inthe presence of malicious nodes, one of the main challengesin MANET is to design the robust security solution that canprotect MANET from various routing attacks. Differentmechanisms have been proposed using variouscryptogra...

  2. A High-Speed Active Switch Routing Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, combining with active networks, we design a new kind of programmable routing switch architecture to provide a common intelligent switch platform for multi-protocol switching and multi-service accessing. We elaborate how programmable switch and network intelligence are achieved, and how packets are classified, queued and scheduled. We point out that edge intelligence and network software are the tendency for the development of future networks.

  3. Do Adolescents Who Live or Go to School Near Fast Food Restaurants Eat More Frequently From Fast Food Restaurants?

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Ann; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    This population-based study examined whether residential or school neighborhood access to fast food restaurants is related to adolescents’ eating frequency of fast food. A classroom-based survey of racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (n=2,724) in 20 secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota was used to assess eating frequency at five types of fast food restaurants. Black, Hispanic, and Native American adolescents lived near more fast food restaurants than white and Asian adoles...

  4. Valiant load-balanced robust routing under hose model for WDM mesh networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoning; Li, Lemin; Wang, Sheng

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, we propose Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing scheme for WDM mesh networks under the model of polyhedral uncertainty (i.e., hose model), and the proposed routing scheme is implemented with traffic grooming approach. Our Objective is to maximize the hose model throughput. A mathematic formulation of Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing is presented and three fast heuristic algorithms are also proposed. When implementing Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing scheme to WDM mesh networks, a novel traffic-grooming algorithm called MHF (minimizing hop first) is proposed. We compare the three heuristic algorithms with the VPN tree under the hose model. Finally we demonstrate in the simulation results that MHF with Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing scheme outperforms the traditional traffic-grooming algorithm in terms of the throughput for the uniform/non-uniform traffic matrix under the hose model.

  5. Network Coding Based Security for Routing Attacks in WRN: Frechet Interference and Rayleigh Outage Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Villalpando-Hernández

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a network coding security method capable of detecting several routing attacks in wireless reconfigurablenetworks. Routing security attacks include selective forwarding, black holes, and wormholes. The proposed methodperforms linear network coding over intermediate nodes composing a given route, not only to distribute content, butalso to provide data confidentiality by cooperation as a mechanism of detection. The method presents a robust,accurate and fast response under security attacks for varying network conditions, such as interference and outagedue to channel fading. It also provides a gain in network throughput by increasing the number of successfully receivedpackets without a significant increase of the bandwidth usage.

  6. Hybridization of Meta-heuristics for Optimizing Routing protocol in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R Sedamkar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of VANET is to establish a vehicular communication system which is reliable and fast which caters to road safety and road safety. In VANET where network fragmentation is frequent with no central control, routing becomes a challenging task. Planning an optimal routing plan for tuning parameter configuration of routing protocol for setting up VANET is very crucial. This is done by defining an optimization problem where hybridization of meta-heuristics is defined. The paper contributes the idea of combining meta-heuristic algorithm to enhance the performance of individual search method for optimization problem

  7. Dynamic routing using maximal road capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Current routing devices route an individual car driver from start to destination in the shortest time. In this paper we propose a routing algorithm, routing the whole population of car drivers in the shortest time. The algorithm is an adapted dynamic version of the shortest path algorithm of Dijkstr

  8. Fast food tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000105.htm Fast food tips To use the sharing features on this ... fast food. When You Go to a Fast Food Restaurant Knowing the amount of calories, fat, and ...

  9. Open Access Publishing in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.

    2012-08-01

    Open Access (OA) in scholarly literature means the "immediate, free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full text of these articles". The Open Access movement has been made possible thanks to the wide-spread availability of internet access and has received increasing interest since the 1990s, mostly due to the fast rising journal subscription prices. This presentation will review the current situation of Open Access in astronomy. It will answer the question why it makes sense to publish in an OA journal and will provide criteria to judge the quality of OA journals and publishers, along with suggestions how to identify so-called predatory publishers.

  10. Optimization of OSPF Routing in IP Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Andreas; Fortz, Bernard; Gourdin, Eric; Holmberg, Kaj; Klopfenstein, Olivier; Pióro, Michał; Tomaszewski, Artur; Ümit, Hakan

    The Internet is a huge world-wide packet switching network comprised of more than 13,000 distinct subnetworks, referred to as Autonomous Systems (ASs) autonomous system AS . They all rely on the Internet Protocol (IP) internet protocol IP for transport of packets across the network. And most of them use shortest path routing protocols shortest path routing!protocols , such as OSPF or IS-IS, to control the routing of IP packets routing!of IP packets within an AS. The idea of the routing is extremely simple — every packet is forwarded on IP links along the shortest route between its source and destination nodes of the AS. The AS network administrator can manage the routing of packets in the AS by supplying the so-called administrative weights of IP links, which specify the link lengths that are used by the routing protocols for their shortest path computations. The main advantage of the shortest path routing policy is its simplicity, allowing for little administrative overhead. From the network engineering perspective, however, shortest path routing can pose problems in achieving satisfactory traffic handling efficiency. As all routing paths depend on the same routing metric routing!metric , it is not possible to configure the routing paths for the communication demands between different pairs of nodes explicitly or individually; the routing can be controlled only indirectly and only as a whole by modifying the routing metric. Thus, one of the main tasks when planning such networks is to find administrative link weights that induce a globally efficient traffic routing traffic!routing configuration of an AS. It turns out that this task leads to very difficult mathematical optimization problems. In this chapter, we discuss and describe exact integer programming models and solution approaches as well as practically efficient smart heuristics for such shortest path routing problems shortest path routing!problems .

  11. ACO based routing for MANETs

    CERN Document Server

    Arif, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes. It dynamically forms a temporary network without using any pre existing network infrastructure or centralized administration i.e. with minimal prior planning. All nodes have routing capabilities and forward data packets to other nodes in multi-hop fashion. As the network is dynamic, the network topology continuously experiences alterations during deployment. The biggest challenge in MANETs is to find a path between communicating nodes. The considerations of the MANET environment and the nature of the mobile nodes create further complications which results in the need to develop special routing algorithms to meet these challenges. Swarm intelligence, a bio-inspired technique, which has proven to be very adaptable in other problem domains, has been applied to the MANET routing problem as it forms a good fit to the problem. In ant societies the activities of the individuals are not regulated by any explicit form of centralized control but ar...

  12. Routing Algorithm Exploits Spatial Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino, Clayton; Jennings, Esther

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed routing algorithm for broadcasting in an ad hoc wireless communication network takes account of, and exploits, the spatial relationships among the locations of nodes, in addition to transmission power levels and distances between the nodes. In contrast, most prior algorithms for discovering routes through ad hoc networks rely heavily on transmission power levels and utilize limited graph-topology techniques that do not involve consideration of the aforesaid spatial relationships. The present algorithm extracts the relevant spatial-relationship information by use of a construct denoted the relative-neighborhood graph (RNG).

  13. le programme SET-Routes

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2009-01-01

    Les routes de la science sont plus escarpées pour les femmes Le programme SET-Routes, qui visait à sensibiliser les jeunes filles à l’intérêt des carrières scientifiques, a pris fin en avril. Porté par l’EMBL, l’EMBO et le CERN, il a mis en place un réseau de femmes scientifiques, des ambassadrices qui se sont rendues dans les établissements scolaires européens pour parler de leur parcours scientifique.

  14. Stochastic vehicle routing with recourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Saket, Rishi

    2012-01-01

    instantiations, a recourse route is computed - but costs here become more expensive by a factor λ. We present an O(log2n ·log(nλ))-approximation algorithm for this stochastic routing problem, under arbitrary distributions. The main idea in this result is relating StochVRP to a special case of submodular...... orienteering, called knapsack rank-function orienteering. We also give a better approximation ratio for knapsack rank-function orienteering than what follows from prior work. Finally, we provide a Unique Games Conjecture based ω(1) hardness of approximation for StochVRP, even on star-like metrics on which our...

  15. Automated Computer Access Request System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Automated Computer Access Request (AutoCAR) system is a Web-based account provisioning application that replaces the time-consuming paper-based computer-access request process at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Auto- CAR combines rules-based and role-based functionality in one application to provide a centralized system that is easily and widely accessible. The system features a work-flow engine that facilitates request routing, a user registration directory containing contact information and user metadata, an access request submission and tracking process, and a system administrator account management component. This provides full, end-to-end disposition approval chain accountability from the moment a request is submitted. By blending both rules-based and rolebased functionality, AutoCAR has the flexibility to route requests based on a user s nationality, JSC affiliation status, and other export-control requirements, while ensuring a user s request is addressed by either a primary or backup approver. All user accounts that are tracked in AutoCAR are recorded and mapped to the native operating system schema on the target platform where user accounts reside. This allows for future extensibility for supporting creation, deletion, and account management directly on the target platforms by way of AutoCAR. The system s directory-based lookup and day-today change analysis of directory information determines personnel moves, deletions, and additions, and automatically notifies a user via e-mail to revalidate his/her account access as a result of such changes. AutoCAR is a Microsoft classic active server page (ASP) application hosted on a Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).

  16. Price-Based Information Routing in Complex Satellite Networks for

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, I.; Su, J.; Wang, Y.; Wyglinski, A.

    Future space-based situational awareness and space surveillance systems are envisioned to include a large array of satellites that seek to cooperatively achieve full awareness over given space and terrestrial domains. Given the complexity of the communication network architecture of such a system, in this paper we build on the system architecture that was proposed by the presenting author in the 2008 AMOS conference and propose an efficient, adaptable and scalable price-based routing and bandwidth allocation algorithm for the generation, routing and delivery of surveillance information in distributed wireless satellite networks. Due to the potentially large deployments of these satellites, the access points employed in a centralized network control scheme would easily be overwhelmed due to lack of spectral bandwidth, synchronization issues, and multiple access coordination. Alternatively, decentralized schemes could facilitate the flow and transference of information between data gatherers and data collectors via mechanisms such as (multi-hop) routing, allocation of spectral bandwidths per relaying node, and coordination between adjacent nodes. Although there are numerous techniques and concepts focusing on the network operations, control, and management of sensor networks, existing solution approaches require the use of information for routing, allocation, and decision-making that may not be readily available to the satellites in a timely fashion. This is especially true in the literature on price-based routing, where the approach is almost always game theoretic or relies on optimization techniques. Instead of seeking such techniques, in this paper we present algorithms that will (1) be energy-aware, (2) be highly adaptable and responsive to demands and seek delivery of information to desired nodes despite the fact that the source and destination are not globally known, (3) be secure, (4) be efficient in allocating bandwidth, (5) be decentralized and allow for

  17. Construction of a new waste-water treatment plant, building 676, route Maxwell

    CERN Document Server

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A new waste-water treatment plant is being constructed on Route Maxwell to treat the effluents from the TS/MME/CCS surface treatment workshops. For this purpose, excavation work is being performed in two separate locations along Route Maxwell, causing a slight disruption to traffic in these areas. Site access through Gate C should, however, be maintained. The work is scheduled to continue until February 2009.

  18. Construction of a new wastewater treatment plant, building 676, route Maxwell

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A new wastewater treatment plant is being constructed on Route Maxwell to treat the effluents from the TS/MME/CCS surface treatment workshops. For this purpose, excavation work is being performed in two separate locations along Route Maxwell, causing a slight disruption to traffic in these areas. Site access through Gate C should, however, be maintained. The work is scheduled to continue through until February 2009.

  19. Estimated transportation routes to a candidate salt repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary analysis of possible highway and rail transportation routes within Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico for shipments of spent fuel to the candidate repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Two cases are examined for highway shipments. The initial case analyzes shipments following the Department of Transportation's HM-164 regulations for shipment of spent fuel. The second case analyzes normal commercial routes. Three rail cases are also examined. Each case analyzes potential routes that would be used based for different access spurs into the repository site. Two appendices are included which examine additional scenarios generated by restricting routes from passing through various metropolitan areas. The major finding is that most shipments to the Deaf Smith site will pass through Amarillo, Texas. There are few, if any, feasible alternative routes which would significantly reduce the amount of traffic passing through Amarillo.

  20. High throughput route selection in multi-rate wireless mesh networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yi-fei; GUO Xiang-li; SONG Mei; SONG Jun-de

    2008-01-01

    Most existing Ad-hoc routing protocols use the shortest path algorithm with a hop count metric to select paths. It is appropriate in single-rate wireless networks, but has a tendency to select paths containing long-distance links that have low data rates and reduced reliability in multi-rate networks. This article introduces a high throughput routing algorithm utilizing the multi-rate capability and some mesh characteristics in wireless fidelity (WiFi) mesh networks. It uses the medium access control (MAC) transmission time as the routing metric, which is estimated by the information passed up from the physical layer. When the proposed algorithm is adopted, the Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing can be improved as high throughput AODV (HT-AODV). Simulation results show that HT-AODV is capable of establishing a route that has high data-rate, short end-to-end delay and great network throughput.

  1. Hemodialysis access procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic-dialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-dialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency-dialysis access; Chronic kidney failure-dialysis access; Chronic renal failure-dialysis access

  2. Easing access for lifelong learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Romina; Remdisch, Sabine; Köhler, Katharina;

    2015-01-01

    Easing access to higher education (HE) for those engaging in lifelong learning has been a common policy objective across the European Union since the late 1990s. To reach this goal, the transition between vocational and academic routes must be simplified, but European countries are at different...... learning. The cases are at widely different stages, but the following factors were considered essential in all countries for opening universities: the establishment of transition paths from secondary education and working life into HE and links between HE, businesses and adult education from a national...

  3. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horel Scott A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location and coverage (number of different locations, and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Methods Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project were linked with individual participants (n = 1409 who completed the nutrition module in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Results Increased age, poverty, increased distance to the nearest fast food, and increased number of different traditional fast-food restaurants, non-traditional fast-food outlets, or fast-food opportunities were associated with less frequent weekly consumption of fast-food meals. The interaction of gender and proximity (distance or coverage (number indicated that the association of proximity to or coverage of fast-food locations on fast-food consumption was greater among women and opposite of independent effects. Conclusions Results provide impetus for identifying and understanding the complex relationship between access to all fast-food opportunities, rather than to traditional fast-food restaurants alone, and fast-food consumption. The results indicate the importance of further examining the complex interaction of gender and distance in rural areas and particularly in fast-food consumption. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the need for health promotion and policy efforts to consider all sources of fast-food as part of promoting healthful food choices.

  4. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  5. Genetic algorithms for route discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelenbe, Erol; Liu, Peixiang; Lainé, Jeremy

    2006-12-01

    Packet routing in networks requires knowledge about available paths, which can be either acquired dynamically while the traffic is being forwarded, or statically (in advance) based on prior information of a network's topology. This paper describes an experimental investigation of path discovery using genetic algorithms (GAs). We start with the quality-of-service (QoS)-driven routing protocol called "cognitive packet network" (CPN), which uses smart packets (SPs) to dynamically select routes in a distributed autonomic manner based on a user's QoS requirements. We extend it by introducing a GA at the source routers, which modifies and filters the paths discovered by the CPN. The GA can combine the paths that were previously discovered to create new untested but valid source-to-destination paths, which are then selected on the basis of their "fitness." We present an implementation of this approach, where the GA runs in background mode so as not to overload the ingress routers. Measurements conducted on a network test bed indicate that when the background-traffic load of the network is light to medium, the GA can result in improved QoS. When the background-traffic load is high, it appears that the use of the GA may be detrimental to the QoS experienced by users as compared to CPN routing because the GA uses less timely state information in its decision making. PMID:17186801

  6. Genetic algorithms for route discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelenbe, Erol; Liu, Peixiang; Lainé, Jeremy

    2006-12-01

    Packet routing in networks requires knowledge about available paths, which can be either acquired dynamically while the traffic is being forwarded, or statically (in advance) based on prior information of a network's topology. This paper describes an experimental investigation of path discovery using genetic algorithms (GAs). We start with the quality-of-service (QoS)-driven routing protocol called "cognitive packet network" (CPN), which uses smart packets (SPs) to dynamically select routes in a distributed autonomic manner based on a user's QoS requirements. We extend it by introducing a GA at the source routers, which modifies and filters the paths discovered by the CPN. The GA can combine the paths that were previously discovered to create new untested but valid source-to-destination paths, which are then selected on the basis of their "fitness." We present an implementation of this approach, where the GA runs in background mode so as not to overload the ingress routers. Measurements conducted on a network test bed indicate that when the background-traffic load of the network is light to medium, the GA can result in improved QoS. When the background-traffic load is high, it appears that the use of the GA may be detrimental to the QoS experienced by users as compared to CPN routing because the GA uses less timely state information in its decision making.

  7. How to choose the route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Choosing the route for nutrition support delivery is one of the main steps in the algorithm of providing successful nutrition to the critically ill, but it is certainly not an easy process. The rationale should be guided not only by principles like physiology and benefit versus harm, but also by individual patient factors like feasibility, contraindications, predicted versus actual tolerance, and (most important) the timing for starting food delivery. Although oral nutrition is the more physiological route for feeding, it is seldom possible or sufficient in critically ill patients. Enteral nutrition, in the form of tube feeding, remains the best option in the absence of absolute contraindications, but many other factors should be taken into account. These include the importance of starting early and trying to achieve target nutrients delivery early, especially in previously undernourished or in most severely ill patients, as well as the gastrointestinal intolerance present in the majority of critically ill patients. Parenteral nutrition is an alternative route for nutrition delivery when the enteral one is impossible or insufficient. The most common complication when choosing this route is overfeeding, which has been associated with increased complications rate. On the other hand, the most common complication of enteral nutrition is underfeeding, which has also been associated with worse outcome and even increased mortality. Combining enteral with supplemental parenteral nutrition is therefore a rational approach for providing early and adequate nutritional support in the most severely ill patients.

  8. The routed inventory pooling problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Harmen Willem

    2013-01-01

    In supply chains vloeit een groot deel van de kosten voort uit voorraden en transport. Om deze reden wordt veel onderzoek gedaan naar technieken en concepten die de voorraad- en transportkosten helpen te verlagen. Twee populaire onderzoeksgebieden zijn Inventory Routing, waarbij het doel is optimale

  9. ACO Based Routing for MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arif

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile nodes. It dynamically forms atemporary network without using any pre existing network infrastructure or centralized administrationi.e. with minimal prior planning. All nodes have routing capabilities and forward data packets to othernodes in multi-hop fashion. As the network is dynamic, the network topology continuously experiencesalterations during deployment. The biggest challenge in MANETs is to find a path betweencommunicating nodes. The considerations of the MANET environment and the nature of the mobile nodescreate further complications which results in the need to develop special routing algorithms to meet thesechallenges. Swarm intelligence, a bio-inspired technique, which has proven to be very adaptable in otherproblem domains, has been applied to the MANET routing problem as it forms a good fit to the problem.In ant societies the activities of the individuals are not regulated by any explicit form of centralizedcontrol but are the result of self-organizing dynamics driven by local interactions and communicationsamong a number of relatively simple individuals. This unique characteristic has made ant societies anattractive and inspiring model for building new algorithms and new multi-agent systems. In this paper,we have studied and reviewed Ant Colony based routing algorithms and its variants. Finally, aperformance evaluation of the original ARA and the EARA is carried out with respect to each other.

  10. Energy efficient routing in mobile ad-hoc networks for Healthcare Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Abid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern and innovative medical applications based on wireless network are being developed in the commercial sectors as well as in research. The emerging wireless networks are rapidly becoming a fundamental part of medical solutions due to increasing accessibility for healthcare professionals/patients reducing healthcare costs. Discovering the routes among hosts that are energy efficient without compromise on smooth communication is desirable. This work investigates energy efficiency of some selected proactive and reactive routing protocols in wireless network for healthcare environments. After simulation and analysis we found that DSR is best energy efficient routing protocol among DSR, DSDV and AODV, because DSR has maximum remaining energy.

  11. A BROADCAST BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR INTER-CLUSTER DATA DISSEMINATION IN VEHICULAR COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auxeeliya Jesudoss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular communication is one of the fast growing and promising technologies for a safe and comfortable driving environment. These technologies do not end up with economic and safety ramifications, but also extended with other informational and entertainment oriented services. Data are being propagated multi-hop between source and destination vehicles for many real-life applications. Clustering is one of the effective and scalable solutions for data dissemination in wireless ad hoc networks. Though many cluster-based methods have been proposed for multi-hop data delivery in vehicular ad hoc networks, most of them do not consider the real-time changes in the network topology or imposes large penalties in routing such as unstable clusters, broken links, updating route tables. In order to address these issues, we propose a broadcast based routing protocol for inter-cluster data dissemination in this study that works on real-time vehicle information. Unlike, most existing routing algorithms, it only uses hello messages to obtain routing information without many other control messages. In addition, it alleviates the storage of routing information in every node, which largely reduces the overheads in routing. We performed extensive simulation to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed routing protocol. Results show that the proposed protocol outperforms other approaches in terms of average delay, average delivery ratio and average number of hops.

  12. An embedded route finder and tracing system for a stepped robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangjun; Li, Zhi; Zhou, Xinling

    2003-09-01

    The paper presents a new embedded sensor method of non-contact automatic route-finding and route-tracing for stepped robot. The final system is designed and integrated into a single hardware PCB with size of 30x30x15 mm3. A line scanning charge couple device (CCD) with 1024 pixels is used to obtain the plane scene of route, and a pair of infrared LED is employed to provide the illumination of the route-finder. Moreover, this route-finder still includes a micro lens, CCD driver, instrumentation pre-amplifier, edge extracting circuit, FPGA circuit for position measure and logic control, direction and state display of the route-finder by LED, moving direction control pins output and power manage circuits. The router-finder for stepped robot has the advantages of simple and fast operation, easy assembly with robot, small volume, high sensitivity and precision for route-finding and tracing. The paper outlines in detail the principle of the route-finding and tracing by edge extraction and edge position measure using a CCD image sensor with a micro lens assisted by infrared illumination and a FPGA circuit. Some relational edge extraction and measure algorithms suitable for embedded system with FPGA are introduced in the paper too. Finally, the actual experiment results are given.

  13. An integrated approach to route selection in slurry pipeline design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy G.; Altmann, Nara [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    The pressure to get engineering projects done and constructed as fast as possible in order to take advantage of the high prices in metals and petrochemicals has been driving companies to skip the conceptual phase and go straight into basic engineering with cost estimates in the level of 15% accuracy. By-passing early engineering and demanding higher cost estimating accuracy is a contradiction. In most cases, savings made on capital investment is much higher had money been spent in conceptual studies which allow for the optimal solution to be found. This paper reviews one of the key aspects in conceptual engineering of slurry pipeline designs: route selection. This activity is often overlooked, causing capital cost and operating difficulties to rise unnecessarily. This paper describes and gives example on how an integrated client/engineering company's approach to route selection can produce significant savings in pipeline construction and operating costs. (author)

  14. Operational Optimal Ship Routing Using a Hybrid Parallel Genetic Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Kosmas, O T; Vlachos, D S; Simos, T E

    2008-01-01

    Optimization of ship routing depends on several parameters, like ship and cargo characteristics, environmental factors, topography, international navigation rules, crew comfort etc. The complex nature of the problem leads to oversimplifications in analytical techniques, while stochastic methods like simulated annealing can be both time consuming and sensitive to local minima. In this work, a hybrid parallel genetic algorithm - estimation of distribution algorithm is developed in the island model, to operationally calculate the optimal ship routing. The technique, which is applicable not only to clusters but to grids as well, is very fast and has been applied to very difficult environments, like the Greek seas with thousands of islands and extreme micro-climate conditions.

  15. OPTIMIZING LOCALIZATION ROUTE USING PARTICLE SWARM-A GENETIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lakshmanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most key problems in wireless sensor networks is finding optimal algorithms for sending packets from source node to destination node. Several algorithms exist in literature, since some are in vital role other may not. Since WSN focus on low power consumption during packet transmission and receiving, finally we adopt by merging swarm particle based algorithm with genetic approach. Initially we order the nodes based on their energy criterion and then focusing towards node path; this can be done using Proactive route algorithm for finding optimal path between Source-Destination (S-D nodes. Fast processing and pre traversal can be done using selective flooding approach and results are in genetic. We have improved our results with high accuracy and optimality in rendering routes.

  16. Optimum Route Selection for Vehicle Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of Optimum Route Selection for Vehicle Navigation System (ORSVNS article is to develop a system, which provides information about real time alternate routes to the drivers and also helps in selecting the optimal route among all the alternate routes from an origin to destination. Two types of query systems, special and general, are designed for drivers. Here, the criterion for route selection is introduced using primary and secondary road attributes. The presented methodology helps the drivers in better decision making to choose optimal route using fuzzy logic. For experimental results ORSVNS is tested over 220 km portion of Haryana state in India.

  17. Energy Efficient Location Aided Routing Protocol for Wireless MANETs

    CERN Document Server

    Mikki, Mohammad A

    2009-01-01

    A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes forming a temporary network without using any centralized access point, infrastructure, or centralized administration. In this paper we introduce an Energy Efficient Location Aided Routing (EELAR) Protocol for MANETs that is based on the Location Aided Routing (LAR). EELAR makes significant reduction in the energy consumption of the mobile nodes batteries by limiting the area of discovering a new route to a smaller zone. Thus, control packets overhead is significantly reduced. In EELAR a reference wireless base station is used and the network's circular area centered at the base station is divided into six equal sub-areas. At route discovery instead of flooding control packets to the whole network area, they are flooded to only the sub-area of the destination mobile node. The base station stores locations of the mobile nodes in a position table. To show the efficiency of the proposed protocol we present simulations using NS-2. Simulation...

  18. An Efficient Agent-Based AODV Routing Protocol in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bhati,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A MANET (Mobile Adhoc Network consists of a collection of mobile nodes communicating with each other without any fixed infrastructure such as access points or base stations. MANETS are self organizing or self restoring. Network topology in MANETS is subject to continuous and precipitous (unpredictable change. The limited bandwidth availability, energy constraints and highly dynamic topology make the routing process as exigent. The routing process in MANET relies (based on the cooperation of individual nodes which constitute the network. In this paper, we have tried to remove the existence of misbehaving nodes that may paralyze or slows down the routing operation in MANET. This increases the efficiency of a network. Efficiency can be calculated by the parameters or factors such astransmission capacity, battery power and scalability. Here we are considering the most crucial factor named as transmission capacity of a node. In MANET, as the network size increases complexity of anetwork also increases. To overcome this we make network as modular. So the network becomes task specific which refer to a particular work only. This is the reason of infusing the concept of agents in anefficient network. This proposed protocol provides the most efficient and reliable route which may or may not be minimum hop count.

  19. Route activity tracking and management using available technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Yousef Khoury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small organizations that maintain their own fleet and make their own deliveries are responsible for ensuring their drivers are utilizing the most efficient routes while delivering products to their customers. Furthermore, efficient delivery requires that drivers spend as little time as possible dropping off and picking up products, since these activities are referred to as “non-value added activities,” although they are necessary tasks in the order cycle process. To aid in reducing order cycle times, large organizations that can afford it have employed transportation management systems. Unfortunately, small organizations with limited resources are less likely to adopt transportation management systems, despite the need for such automation. One solution is to use available productivity software to track and manage driver route activity in an effort to improve and maintain driver productivity by reducing non-value time and identifying optimal routes. This paper will outline how office productivity software such as Microsoft® Access can meet the needs of small organizations with limited resources by describing the development and use of a route activity database that employs an easy-to-use multi-user interface. This paper also includes the details of the underlying infrastructure and the user interface.

  20. Highway route controlled quantity shipment routing reports - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations require a postnotification report from the shipper for all shipments of radioactive materials categorized as a Highway Route Controlled Quantity. These postnotification reports, filed in compliance with 49 CFR 172.203(d), have been compiled by the DOT in a database known as the Radioactive Materials Routing Report (RAMRT) since 1982. The data were sorted by each of its elements to establish historical records and trends of Highway Route Controlled Quantity shipments from 1982 through 1987. Approximately 1520 records in the RAMRT database were compiled for this analysis. Approximately half of the shipments reported for the study period were from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, with the others being commercial movements. Two DOE installations, EG and G Idaho and Oak Ridge, accounted for nearly half of the DOE activities. Similarly, almost half of the commercial movements were reported by two vendors, Nuclear Assurance Corporation and Transnuclear, Incorporated. Spent fuel from power and research reactors accounted for approximately half of all shipments

  1. Fast setup time characterization of static random access memory based on search-delay%基于时延搜索的SRAM建立时间快速提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雪维; 张培勇; 吕冬明; 郑丹丹; 严晓浪

    2011-01-01

    The amount of embedded memory in system-on-chip designs has been increasing rapidly, which demands faster and more accurate characterization of static random access memory (SRAM) setup time.Traditional approach (search based for setup time, sbSetup) affects the time to market since the simulation consumes too much time.A novel methodology was proposed to characterize setup time for SRAM-sdbSetup(search-delay-based-setup-time).The methodology analyzes and extractes partial circuits that have great impact on setup time for simulation instead of the traditional entire circuit topology simulation approach, thereby determines more precise timing window for dichotomizing characterization of setup time based on the path delay calculation methodology.Moreover, this work characterized the setup time for SRAM, aside from an accurate setup time, sdbSetup also improves run-time 60 times comparing with the traditional approach.%片上系统包含的嵌入式存储器数量在迅速增加,这需要高速的提取静态随机存储器(SRAM)时序的方法.传统的SRAM建立时间提取方法(search based for setup time,sbSetup)耗时过大,严重影响了定制电路SRAM的设计周期.针对该问题提出一种基于时延搜索的SRAM建立时间快速提取方法(search delay based for setup time,sdbSetup)+该方法通过仿真影响建立时间的局部电路,并利用基于路径延时方法(delay based for setup time,dbSetup)来确定比较精确的时间窗,再运用二分迭代法来提取建立时间.该方法从减少仿真电路的规模和确定精确的时间窗两个方面来优化提取时间.仿真实验表明:与sbSetup方法相比,sdbSetup方法不仅能提供准确的建立时间,而且提取速度平均提高了60倍.

  2. Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks: advances and future trends in physical, MAC and routing layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, Salvador; Sanchez, Antonio; Capella, Juan Vicente; Meratnia, Nirvana; Serrano, Juan Jose

    2014-01-01

    This survey aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current research on underwater wireless sensor networks, focusing on the lower layers of the communication stack, and envisions future trends and challenges. It analyzes the current state-of-the-art on the physical, medium access control and routing layers. It summarizes their security threads and surveys the currently proposed studies. Current envisioned niches for further advances in underwater networks research range from efficient, low-power algorithms and modulations to intelligent, energy-aware routing and medium access control protocols.

  3. Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks: advances and future trends in physical, MAC and routing layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, Salvador; Sanchez, Antonio; Capella, Juan Vicente; Meratnia, Nirvana; Serrano, Juan Jose

    2014-01-01

    This survey aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current research on underwater wireless sensor networks, focusing on the lower layers of the communication stack, and envisions future trends and challenges. It analyzes the current state-of-the-art on the physical, medium access control and routing layers. It summarizes their security threads and surveys the currently proposed studies. Current envisioned niches for further advances in underwater networks research range from efficient, low-power algorithms and modulations to intelligent, energy-aware routing and medium access control protocols. PMID:24399155

  4. IP lookup with low memory requirement and fast update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an IP address lookup algorithm with low memory requirement and fast updates. The scheme, which is denoted prefix-tree, uses a combination of a trie and a tree search, which is efficient in memory usage because the tree contains exactly one node for each prefix in the routing...

  5. Multipath Routing Protocol for Effective Local Route Recovery in Mobile Ad hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Srivatsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In mobile ad hoc networks, frequent mobility during the transmission of data causes route failure which results in route rediscovery. In this, we propose multipath routing protocol for effective local route recovery in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET. In this protocol, each source and destination pair establishes multiple paths in the single route discovery and they are cached in their route caches. Approach: The cached routes are sorted on the basis of their bandwidth availability. In case of route failure in the primary route, a recovery node which is an overhearing neighbor, detects it and establishes a local recovery path with maximum bandwidth from its route cache. Results: By simulation results, we show that the proposed approach improves network performance. Conclusion: The proposed route recovery management technique prevents the frequent collision and degradation in the network performance.

  6. Efficient Routing using Geographical information and directional spreading in VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Transmit Data Packet in Vanet using flooding from source to destination. When the packet transmit using nearest node and they use their nearest node cache table in next hop actually generate a lot of redundancy with the the area coverage. One node use the network channel and create a cause of collision to other which create a worst routing with the congested network . With the gps position locator system with some node processing we limit the path of the packet to the real direction of the destination by which we over come the channel collision and redundancy of packet .hence result a fast delivery of message.

  7. Comparison of on Demand Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhushan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A routing protocol is used to facilitate communication in ad hoc network. The primary goal of such a routing protocol is to provide an efficient and reliable path between a pair of nodes. The routing protocols for ad hoc network can be categorized into three categories: table driven, on demand and hybrid routing. The table driven and hybrid routing strategies require periodic exchange of hello messages between nodes of the ad hoc network and thus have high processing and bandwidth requirements. On the other hand on demand routing strategy creates routes when required and hence is very much suitable for ad hoc network. This paper therefore examines the performance of three on demand routing protocols at application layer using QualNet-5.01 simulator.

  8. The Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    This paper introduces the Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the Pyramidal Traveling Salesman Problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...... of a pyramidal route is such that its traversal can be divided in two parts, where on the first part of the route, customers are visited in nondecreasing distance from the depot, and on the remaining part of the route, customers are visited in nonincreasing distance from the depot. Such a route shape is indeed...... found in many optimal solutions to CVRP instances. An optimal solution to the PCVRP may therefore be useful in itself as a heuristic solution to the CVRP. Further, an attempt can be made to find an even better CVRP solution by solving a TSP, possibly leading to a non-pyramidal route, for each...

  9. Chemical Routes to Colloidal Chalcogenide Nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaak, Raymond

    2015-02-19

    This project sought to develop new low-temperature synthetic pathways to intermetallic and chalcogenide nanostructures and powders, with an emphasis on systems that are relevant to advancing the synthesis, processing, and discovery of superconducting materials. The primary synthetic routes involved solution chemistry methods, and several fundamental synthetic challenges that underpinned the formation of these materials were identified and investigated. Methods for incorporating early transition metals and post transition metals into nanoscale and bulk crystals using low-temperature solution chemistry methods were developed and studied, leading to colloidal nanocrystals of elemental indium, manganese, and germanium, as well as nanocrystalline and bulk intermetallic compounds containing germanium, gallium, tin, indium, zinc, bismuth, and lithium. New chemical tools were developed to help target desired phases in complex binary intermetallic and metal chalcogenide systems that contain multiple stable phases, including direct synthesis methods and chemical routes that permit post-synthetic modification. Several phases that are metastable in bulk systems were targeted, synthesized, and characterized as nanocrystalline solids and bulk powders, including the L12-type intermetallic compounds Au3Fe, Au3Ni, and Au3Co, as well as wurtzite-type MnSe. Methods for accessing crystalline metal borides and carbides using direct solution chemistry methods were also developed, with an emphasis on Ni3B and Ni3C, which revealed useful correlations of composition and magnetic properties. Methods for scale-up and nanoparticle purification were explored, providing access to centimeter-scale pressed pellets of polyol-synthesized nanopowders and a bacteriophage-mediated method for separating impure nanoparticle mixtures into their components. Several advances were made in the synthesis of iron selenide and related superconducting materials, including the production of colloidal Fe

  10. Quantitative analysis of access strategies to remote information in network services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2006-01-01

    Remote access to dynamically changing information elements is a required functionality for various network services, including routing and instances of context-sensitive networking. Three fundamentally different strategies for such access are investigated in this paper: (1) a reactive approach in......, network delay characterization) and specific requirements on mismatch probability, traffic overhead, and access delay. Finally, the analysis is applied to the use-case of context-sensitive service discovery.......Remote access to dynamically changing information elements is a required functionality for various network services, including routing and instances of context-sensitive networking. Three fundamentally different strategies for such access are investigated in this paper: (1) a reactive approach...

  11. A Neural Networks-Based Hybrid Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Kojić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The networking infrastructure of wireless mesh networks (WMNs is decentralized and relatively simple, but they can display reliable functioning performance while having good redundancy. WMNs provide Internet access for fixed and mobile wireless devices. Both in urban and rural areas they provide users with high-bandwidth networks over a specific coverage area. The main problems affecting these networks are changes in network topology and link quality. In order to provide regular functioning, the routing protocol has the main influence in WMN implementations. In this paper we suggest a new routing protocol for WMN, based on good results of a proactive and reactive routing protocol, and for that reason it can be classified as a hybrid routing protocol. The proposed solution should avoid flooding and creating the new routing metric. We suggest the use of artificial logic—i.e., neural networks (NNs. This protocol is based on mobile agent technologies controlled by a Hopfield neural network. In addition to this, our new routing metric is based on multicriteria optimization in order to minimize delay and blocking probability (rejected packets or their retransmission. The routing protocol observes real network parameters and real network environments. As a result of artificial logic intelligence, the proposed routing protocol should maximize usage of network resources and optimize network performance.

  12. A neural networks-based hybrid routing protocol for wireless mesh networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojić, Nenad; Reljin, Irini; Reljin, Branimir

    2012-01-01

    The networking infrastructure of wireless mesh networks (WMNs) is decentralized and relatively simple, but they can display reliable functioning performance while having good redundancy. WMNs provide Internet access for fixed and mobile wireless devices. Both in urban and rural areas they provide users with high-bandwidth networks over a specific coverage area. The main problems affecting these networks are changes in network topology and link quality. In order to provide regular functioning, the routing protocol has the main influence in WMN implementations. In this paper we suggest a new routing protocol for WMN, based on good results of a proactive and reactive routing protocol, and for that reason it can be classified as a hybrid routing protocol. The proposed solution should avoid flooding and creating the new routing metric. We suggest the use of artificial logic-i.e., neural networks (NNs). This protocol is based on mobile agent technologies controlled by a Hopfield neural network. In addition to this, our new routing metric is based on multicriteria optimization in order to minimize delay and blocking probability (rejected packets or their retransmission). The routing protocol observes real network parameters and real network environments. As a result of artificial logic intelligence, the proposed routing protocol should maximize usage of network resources and optimize network performance. PMID:22969360

  13. Algorithmic generation of railroad and highway routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, J. T.; Bushnell, R. C.; Shannon, R.; Borsos, R.; Graham, J.; Sherry, R.

    1979-01-01

    A minimum-time algorithm can be used to generate realistic highway routes between specific origins and destinations. Minimizing distances on links will not produce realistic railroad routes if links bear any resemblance to physical trackage. There are also multiple routes between two points since each carrier has its own philosophy. This paper outlines a systematic method of preparing information such that a computer algorithm can generate realistic routes for single- or multiple-carrier movements.

  14. Visual perception aspects of excursion route composition

    OpenAIRE

    Antonets, Margaryta

    2013-01-01

    Research dedicated to the influence of visual perception on landscape excursion routes composition should be based on the characteristics of human perception of the environment. During forming of excursion route an important part is design of visual frames as the primary compositional elements of visual impressions. The general visual impression of the route is characterized by two parameters: the level of attractiveness of objects and the level of attractiveness of route.

  15. VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Bijan; Ibrahim, Md.; Bikas, Md. Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is a new technology which has taken enormous attention in the recent years. Due to rapid topology changing and frequent disconnection makes it difficult to design an efficient routing protocol for routing data among vehicles, called V2V or vehicle to vehicle communication and vehicle to road side infrastructure, called V2I. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol h...

  16. Routing Data Authentication in Wireless Networks; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we discuss several specific threats directed at the routing data of an ad hoc network. We address security issues that arise from wrapping authentication mechanisms around ad hoc routing data. We show that this bolt-on approach to security may make certain attacks more difficult, but still leaves the network routing data vulnerable. We also show that under a certain adversarial model, most existing routing protocols cannot be secured with the aid of digital signatures

  17. Blind Alley Aware ACO Routing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masaya; Otani, Kazuo

    2010-10-01

    The routing problem is applied to various engineering fields. Many researchers study this problem. In this paper, we propose a new routing algorithm which is based on Ant Colony Optimization. The proposed algorithm introduces the tabu search mechanism to escape the blind alley. Thus, the proposed algorithm enables to find the shortest route, even if the map data contains the blind alley. Experiments using map data prove the effectiveness in comparison with Dijkstra algorithm which is the most popular conventional routing algorithm.

  18. A route towards immune protection

    OpenAIRE

    Groot Nibbelink, Milou

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a route towards an immune protective device for islet of Langerhans transplantation. We developed a protocol to use MIN6 β cells aggregates as pseudo-islets to overcome the donor shortage issue (chapter 3). In this thesis we explored two different immune protective strategies; a multibore hollow fiber and flat microwell membranes. In chapter 4 we investigated the possibility to use a commercial multibore hollow fiber. In this chapter we showed that we were capable to physi...

  19. On board processing for future satellite communications systems: Comparison of FDM, TDM and hybrid accessing schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, G.; Jean, P. N.; Rotholz, E.

    1982-01-01

    Several satellite uplink and downlink accessing schemes for customer premises service are compared. Four conceptual system designs are presented: satellite-routed frequency division multiple access (FDMA), satellite-switched time division multiple access (TDMA), processor-routed TDMA, and frequency-routed TDMA, operating in the 30/20 GHz band. The designs are compared on the basis of estimated satellite weight, system capacity, power consumption, and cost. The systems are analyzed for fixed multibeam coverage of the continental United States. Analysis shows that the system capacity is limited by the available satellite resources and by the terminal size and cost.

  20. Verkeersveiligheidseffecten van Dynamische Route Informatie Panelen (DRIP's).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The term Dynamic Route Information Panel (DRIP) is, also in the Netherlands, used for an electronic route information panel. A DRIP usually indicates if there are queues on the various routes to a particular destination, how long they are, and sometimes what the estimated journey time is. This is in

  1. On line routing per mobile phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieding, Thomas; Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    On-line routing is concerned with building vehicle routes in an ongoing fashion in such a way that customer requests arriving dynamically in time are efficiently and effectively served. An indispensable prerequisite for applying on-line routing methods is mobile communication technology. Addition...

  2. Cultural Routes and Intangible Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Zabbini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical interpretation of thematic routes helps to predict the effects on the territories visited by cultured tourists who want to enrich their cultural and emotional baggage. After the analysis of some interpretations, this paper will examine how the practical implementation of an itinerary approved by the Council of Europe has evolved over the years. And it will also reflect on the practical results in the areas involved in that project. "The Hannibal Pathway ", the main overland walk on the "Phoenician Route - Cultural Route recognized by the Council of Europe" – represents a case of study that allows to reflect over the impact of cultural tourism based on immaterial heritage. In fact, in the areas where the battle of 21 June 217 BC took place, nothing tangible is left, except the landscape that has kept its conformation intact. In these areas, thanks to the foresight of the local governments in the last three decades, the landscape of the plain has been preserved. This makes possible today to propose an historical path precisely based on the landscape and on the new techniques for the valorization of the heritage. In the Tuoro plain it is possible to see the battlefields, thus retracing the various stages of the battle, supported by the Documentation Centre of the Capra Palace and virtual reconstructions of high technical quality.

  3. A SURVEY ON PROTOCOLS & ATTACKS IN MANET ROUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a dynamic wirelessnetwork that can be formed without any pre-existinginfrastructure in which each node can act as a router.MANET has no clear line of defense, so, it is accessible toboth legitimate network users and malicious attackers. Inthe presence of malicious nodes, one of the main challengesin MANET is to design the robust security solution that canprotect MANET from various routing attacks. Differentmechanisms have been proposed using variouscryptographic techniques to countermeasure the routingattacks against MANET. However, these mechanisms arenot suitable for MANET resource constraints, i.e., limitedbandwidth and battery power, because they introduce heavytraffic load to exchange and verifying keys. In this paper,the current security issues in MANET are investigated.Particularly, we have examined different routing attacks,such as flooding, blackhole, link spoofing, wormhole, andcolluding misrelay attacks, as well as existing solutions toprotect MANET protocols.

  4. Optimal migration route of Cu in HfO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The movement of Cu in a HfO2-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is investigated in depth by first-principle calculations. Thermodynamics analysis shows that the dominant motion of Cu tends to be along the [001] orientation with a faster speed. The migration barriers along different routes are compared and reveal that the [001] orientation is the optimal migration route of Cu in HfO2, which is more favorable for Cu transportation. Furthermore, the preferable HfO2 growth orientation along [100], corresponding to Cu migration along [001], is also observed. Therefore, it is proposed that the HfO2 material should grow along [100] and the operating voltage should be applied along [001], which will contribute to the improvement of the response speed and the reduction of power consumption of RRAM. (semiconductor materials)

  5. Roman digit naming: evidence for a semantic route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyck, Wouter; Lagrou, Evelyne; Gevers, Wim; Fias, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Earlier research with monolinguals and bilinguals showed that numbers may be named through both a semantic and a phonological route, depending on the number's language and format (Arabic or verbal), task demands, and naming language. The present study investigated the importance of the semantic route for the processing of a third representation of magnitude, namely Roman digits. Using an interference paradigm, we showed that the processing of Roman target digits is influenced by Arabic digit distractors, both in a naming task and a parity judgment task. Roman digits were processed faster if the target and distractor were of the same magnitude. If this was not the case, processing speed slowed down as the numerical distance between target and distractor increased. This strongly suggests that semantic access is mandatory when naming Roman digits. Implications are discussed for the number processing domain and for models of translation in bilinguals. PMID:18444517

  6. Using Fast Food Nutrition Facts to Make Healthier Menu Selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This teaching idea enables students to (1) access and analyze fast food nutrition facts information (Calorie, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sugar, and sodium content); (2) decipher unhealthy and healthier food choices from fast food restaurant menus for better meal and diet planning to reduce obesity and minimize…

  7. Projections and predictability of Arctic shipping accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Nathanael; Haines, Keith; Hawkins, Ed

    2016-04-01

    The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice opens up the potential for shorter shipping routes across the Arctic Ocean, leading to potentially significant global economic savings. We demonstrate, using bias-corrected global climate models, that the projected sea ice melt through the 21st century increases opportunities for ships to sail through the Arctic between North Atlantic and East Asian ports. Transit potential for Open Water vessels doubles from early to mid-century and coincides with the opening of the trans-polar sea route. Although seasonal, routes become more reliable with an overall increased shipping season length, but with considerable variability from year-to-year. We also demonstrate that there is potential predictability for whether a particular season will be relatively open or closed to shipping access from a few months ahead.

  8. A differential evolution-based routing algorithm for environmental monitoring wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofang; Xu, Lizhong; Wang, Huibin; Song, Jie; Yang, Simon X

    2010-01-01

    The traditional Low Energy Adaptive Cluster Hierarchy (LEACH) routing protocol is a clustering-based protocol. The uneven selection of cluster heads results in premature death of cluster heads and premature blind nodes inside the clusters, thus reducing the overall lifetime of the network. With a full consideration of information on energy and distance distribution of neighboring nodes inside the clusters, this paper proposes a new routing algorithm based on differential evolution (DE) to improve the LEACH routing protocol. To meet the requirements of monitoring applications in outdoor environments such as the meteorological, hydrological and wetland ecological environments, the proposed algorithm uses the simple and fast search features of DE to optimize the multi-objective selection of cluster heads and prevent blind nodes for improved energy efficiency and system stability. Simulation results show that the proposed new LEACH routing algorithm has better performance, effectively extends the working lifetime of the system, and improves the quality of the wireless sensor networks. PMID:22219670

  9. DARAL: A Dynamic and Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Francisco José; Glösekötter, Peter; González, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of Smart City projects is pushing researchers and companies to develop more efficient embedded hardware and also more efficient communication technologies. These communication technologies are the focus of this work, presenting a new routing algorithm based on dynamically-allocated sub-networks and node roles. Among these features, our algorithm presents a fast set-up time, a reduced overhead and a hierarchical organization, which allows for the application of complex management techniques. This work presents a routing algorithm based on a dynamically-allocated hierarchical clustering, which uses the link quality indicator as a reference parameter, maximizing the network coverage and minimizing the control message overhead and the convergence time. The present work based its test scenario and analysis in the density measure, considered as a node degree. The routing algorithm is compared with some of the most well known routing algorithms for different scenario densities. PMID:27347962

  10. Multi-constraint quality of service routing algorithm for dynamic topology networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive multi-QoS routing algorithm called AMQRA is proposed for dynamic topology networks,such as satellite networks and Ad-hoc networks.The AMQRA is a distributed and mobile-agents-based routing algorithm,which combines ant quantity system (AQS) with ant colony optimization (ACO) that is used in AntNet routing algorithm.In dynamic topology networks,the AMQRA achieves timely optimization for concave metric QoS constraint and fast convergence.The proposed routing algorithm is simulated in Iridium satellite constellation on OPNET.The results show that AMQRA not only outperforms the AntNet in convergence rate in dynamic topology networks but also can optimize concave metric QoS constraint and reasonably allot bandwidth to the load to avoid networks congestion.

  11. DARAL: A Dynamic and Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Francisco José; Glösekötter, Peter; González, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of Smart City projects is pushing researchers and companies to develop more efficient embedded hardware and also more efficient communication technologies. These communication technologies are the focus of this work, presenting a new routing algorithm based on dynamically-allocated sub-networks and node roles. Among these features, our algorithm presents a fast set-up time, a reduced overhead and a hierarchical organization, which allows for the application of complex management techniques. This work presents a routing algorithm based on a dynamically-allocated hierarchical clustering, which uses the link quality indicator as a reference parameter, maximizing the network coverage and minimizing the control message overhead and the convergence time. The present work based its test scenario and analysis in the density measure, considered as a node degree. The routing algorithm is compared with some of the most well known routing algorithms for different scenario densities. PMID:27347962

  12. Korean adolescents' perceptions of nutrition and health towards fast foods in Busan area

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Ji-Young; Lyu, Eun-Soon; Lee, Kyung-A

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents in Busan area were asked in a survey about their perception and attitudes towards fast food. Most respondents answered that they consume fast food once a month because it is fast, easily accessible and tasty. Although they perceived fast food as unhealthy and less nutritious, they were less aware of its effect on their health and nutritional status. The more knowledgeable respondents were about nutrition and health the less likely they were to choose fast food over other meals. Ho...

  13. Fast food (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  14. Fast food tips (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

  15. Real-time routing control design for traffic networks with multi-route choices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗莉华; 葛颖恩; 陈继红; 张方伟

    2016-01-01

    This work considers those road networks in which there are multi-route choices for bifurcation-destination (or origin-destination) pairs, and designs a real-time variable message sign (VMS)-based routing control strategy in the model predictive control (MPC) framework. The VMS route recommendation provided by the traffic management authority is directly considered as the control variable, and the routing control model is established, in which a multi-dimensional control vector is introduced to describe the influence of route recommendations on flow distribution. In the MPC framework, a system optimum routing strategy with the constraints regarding drivers’ acceptability with recommended routes is designed, which can not only meet the traffic management authority’s control requirement but also improve drivers’ satisfaction with the route guidance system. The simulation carried out shows that the proposed routing control can effectively mitigate traffic congestion, reduces followers’ time delay, and improves drivers’ satisfaction with routing control in road networks.

  16. The pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the pyramidal traveling salesman problem (PTSP). A pyramidal....... A main feature of the algorithm is that exact pricing over elementary routes are done in pseudo-polynomial time. Computational results suggest that PCVRP solutions are highly useful for obtaining near-optimal solutions to the CVRP. Furthermore, pricing of pyramidal routes may prove to be very useful...

  17. Risk-minimal routes for emergency cars

    OpenAIRE

    Woelki, Marko; Nippold, Ronald; Bonert, Michael; Ruppe, Sten

    2013-01-01

    The computation of an optimal route for given start and destination in a static transportation network is used in many applications of private route planning. In this work we focus on route planning for emergency cars, such as for example police, fire brigade and ambulance. In case of private route planning typical quantities to be minimized are travel time or route length. However, the idea of this paper is to minimize the risk of a travel time exceeding a certain limit. This is inspired by ...

  18. Classification of Dynamic Vehicle Routing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Solomon, Marius M.

    2007-01-01

    to classify dynamic vehicle routing systems. Methods for evaluation of the performance of algorithms that solve on-line routing problems are discussed and we list some of the most important issues to include in the system objective. Finally, we provide a three-echelon classification of dynamic vehicle routing......This chapter discusses important characteristics seen within dynamic vehicle routing problems. We discuss the differences between the traditional static vehicle routing problems and its dynamic counterparts. We give an in-depth introduction to the degree of dynamism measure which can be used...

  19. Routing for wireless multi-hop networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hamid, Sherin Abdel; Takahara, Glen

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this brief is to identify what unifies and what distinguishes the routing functions in four wireless multi-hop network paradigms. The brief introduces a generic routing model that can be used as a foundation of wireless multi-hop routing protocol analysis and design. It demonstrates that such model can be adopted by any wireless multi-hop routing protocol. Also presented is a glimpse of the ideal wireless multi-hop routing protocol along with several open issues.

  20. Submarine Pipeline Routing Risk Quantitative Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧; 于莉; 胡云昌; 王金英

    2004-01-01

    A new method for submarine pipeline routing risk quantitative analysis was provided, and the study was developed from qualitative analysis to quantitative analysis.The characteristics of the potential risk of the submarine pipeline system were considered, and grey-mode identification theory was used. The study process was composed of three parts: establishing the indexes system of routing risk quantitative analysis, establishing the model of grey-mode identification for routing risk quantitative analysis, and establishing the standard of mode identification result. It is shown that this model can directly and concisely reflect the hazard degree of the routing through computing example, and prepares the routing selection for the future.

  1. A robust cross-layer metric for routing protocol in mobile wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucchi, Lorenzo; Chisci, Luigi; Fabbrini, Luca; Giovannetti, Giulio

    2012-12-01

    In a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) where Mobile Nodes (MNs) self-organize to ensure the communication over radio links, routing protocols clearly play a significant role. In future MANETs, protocols should provide routing under full mobility, power constraints, fast time-varying channels, and nodes subject to high loading. In this article, a novel robust routing protocol, named distributed X-layer fastest path (DXFP), is proposed. The protocol is based on a cross-layer metric which is robust against the time-variations of the network as far as topology (mobility), congestion of the nodes and channel quality (fading, power constraints) are concerned. All these features are integrated in a single physical cost, i.e., the network crossing time, which has to be minimized. Furthermore, several routes from source to destination are stored for a given data flow to efficiently face the disconnections which frequently occur in MANETs. It is shown that the DXFP protocol, though locally operating in a fully distributed way within the MNs, provides, for each data flow, the optimum routes according to the considered metric. The DXFP protocol has been compared with two of the most commonly used routing protocols for MANETs, i.e., dynamic source routing and ad hoc on-demand distance vector, showing significant improvements in performance and robustness.

  2. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted ...

  3. Towards Service Sontinuity in IMS Heterogeneous Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed BOUTABIA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tackle the mobility issue in IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS. Although IMS was designedto integrate different access networks, mobility management among these networks is still unresolved. We propose a novel hybrid mobility management scheme, based on tight cooperation between fast handovers for mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6 and session initiation protocol (SIP to ensure an uninterrupted real-time service. Moreover, the new Media Independent Handover (MIH service is integrated into IMS architecture in order to perform intelligent and accurate horizontal and vertical handovers. We investigate two handover cases: selected handover and forced handover. Selected handover takes place when user equipment (UE is connected to the network via two interfaces at the same time and decides to upgrade the quality of its connection following a given criterion (i.e. cost, bandwidth…etc without having any difficulty in the previous link. As far as forced handover is concerned, it occurs when thesignal reaches a critical level and UE is forced to make a handover in order to maintain the ongoing communication. This case is managed in two phases. The first one or the fast phase is handled by FMIPv6 protocol to preserve as soon as possible packets of the ongoing communication. The second one or the slow phase is handled by SIP protocol to optimize packet delivery route. By doing so, we exploit the benefits of both network layer and application mobility protocols to ensure a continuous session over the two networks without imposing new elements to the network. Through a comparison with other mobility mechanisms, we show in the analytic analysis that our hybrid scheme presents better results in terms of handover latency and packet loss.

  4. LINK STABILITY WITH ENERGY AWARE AD HOC ON DEMAND MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Murugan Tamilarasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Network is one of the wireless network in which mobile nodes are communicate with each other and have no infrastructure because no access point. The MANET protocols can be classified as proactive and reactive routing protocol. The proactive routing protocols, all nodes which participated in network have routing table. This table updated periodically and is used to find the path between source and destination. The reactive routing protocol, nodes are initiate route discovery procedure when on-demand routes. In order to find the better route in MANET, many routing protocols are designed in the recent years. But those protocols are not concentrating about communication links and battery energy. Communication links between nodes and energy of nodes are very important factor for improving quality of routing protocols. This study presents innovative Link Stability with Energy Aware (LSEA multipath routing protocol. The key idea of the protocol is find the link quality, maximum remaining energy and lower delay. Reflections of these factors are increasing the qualities like packet delivery ratio, throughputs and reduce end-to-end delay. The LSEAMRP was simulated on NS-2 and evaluation results also shown.

  5. Ramadan, faste og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Urfan Zahoor; Lykke, Jacob Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In Islam, the month of Ramadan is a period of fasting lasting 29 or 30 days. Epidemiological studies among Muslims in Denmark have not been conducted, but studies show, that fasting among pregnant Muslim women is common. Fasting does not increase the risk of growth restriction or preterm delivery...... month of Ramadan to a later period....

  6. Ramadan, fasting and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Urfan Zahoor; Lykke, Jacob Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In Islam, the month of Ramadan is a period of fasting lasting 29 or 30 days. Epidemiological studies among Muslims in Denmark have not been conducted, but studies show, that fasting among pregnant Muslim women is common. Fasting does not increase the risk of growth restriction or preterm delivery...

  7. VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Bijan; Bikas, Md Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is a new technology which has taken enormous attention in the recent years. Due to rapid topology changing and frequent disconnection makes it difficult to design an efficient routing protocol for routing data among vehicles, called V2V or vehicle to vehicle communication and vehicle to road side infrastructure, called V2I. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol has taken significant attention. So, it is very necessary to identify the pros and cons of routing protocols which can be used for further improvement or development of any new routing protocol. This paper presents the pros and cons of VANET routing protocols for inter vehicle communication.

  8. MILITARY MULTI-HOP ROUTING PROTOCOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Military tactical network is one of the most important applications of ad hoc network. Currently the existing routing protocols are put forward based on the simple and universal network model which has the ability of multi-hop routing but cannot work efficiently in the special military applications. The narrow bandwidth and limited energy of the wireless network make general routing protocols seem to be more redundant.In order to satisfy military needs properly, this letter makes a detailed analysis of physical nodes and traffic distribution in military network, uses cross-layer design concept for reference, combines traffic characteristic of application layer with routing protocol design. It categorized routing problem as crucial routes and non-crucial routes which adopted separate maintenance methods. It not only realizes basic transmission function but also works efficiently. It is quite fit for military application.

  9. A Genetic Algorithm on Inventory Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Aydın

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inventory routing problem can be defined as forming the routes to serve to the retailers from the manufacturer, deciding on the quantity of the shipment to the retailers and deciding on the timing of the replenishments. The difference of inventory routing problems from vehicle routing problems is the consideration of the inventory positions of retailers and supplier, and making the decision accordingly. Inventory routing problems are complex in nature and they can be solved either theoretically or using a heuristics method. Metaheuristics is an emerging class of heuristics that can be applied to combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, we provide the relationship between vendor-managed inventory and inventory routing problem. The proposed genetic for solving vehicle routing problem is described in detail.

  10. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-04-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function.

  11. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-01-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function. PMID:27067257

  12. Research on Routing Protocol of Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Tuo Ming Fu; Che Min

    2016-01-01

    Routing protocol is an important content of mobile Ad Hoc. The typical mobile Ad Hoc network routing protocols is introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of these routing protocols are analyzed. A hybrid routing protocol is put forward based on this.

  13. ATLAS Fast Physics Monitoring: TADA

    CERN Document Server

    Elsing, Markus; The ATLAS collaboration; Sabato, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment at the LHC is recording data from proton-proton collisions with 13 TeV center-of-mass energy since spring 2015. The collaboration is using a fast physics monitoring framework (TADA) to automatically perform a broad range of fast searches for early signs of new physics and to monitor the data quality across the year with the full analysis level calibrations applied to the rapidly growing data. TADA is designed to provide fast feedback directly after the collected data has been fully calibrated and processed at the Tier-0. The system can monitor a large range of physics channels, offline data quality and physics performance quantities nearly final analysis level object calibrations. TADA output is available on a website accessible by the whole collaboration that gets updated twice a day with the data from newly processed runs. Hints of potentially interesting physics signals or performance issues identified in this way are reported to be followed up by physics or combined performance groups...

  14. The digital backend of FAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinying; Zhang, Xia; Duan, Ran; li, di; Hao, Jie

    2015-08-01

    The receiver system is an important part of FAST (Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope) and plays a key role in determining the performance of the telescope.This research covers three major aspects: establishment of system synchronization and timestamps, field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based data transmission and analysis, and the rear receiver monitoring system. We intend to combine the use of GPS and a frequency standard instrument with network access to Unix timestamps to form actual timestamps. The data are stored with timestamps that contain integer and fractional seconds to be precise and headers, which are primarily intended to distinguish the data from each other.The data analysis procedures includes converting the timestamp information to real-time information, and merging the 8 channels’ data conversion results into frequency and energy data using corresponding conversion formulae. We must develop tailored monitoring software for the FAST receiver to customize the data format and perform data transmission. Signals on the front-end and back-end of the receiver can be monitored and controlled by adjusting the parameters on the software to increase the flexibility of the receiver.Most operations are performed on FPGA board, which can be shown from the figure, including the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC), fast Fourier transform (FFT), and pulse per second (1PPS) and Unix timestamp access operations.When analog data arrive, we initialize two ADCs at a sampling rate of 3Gsps, following by 8-channel FFT parallel processing.In collaboration with the Institute of Automation, we have developed a custom FPGA board which we call "FDB"("FAST Digital Backend"). The board is integrated with two Virtex-6 and one Virtex-5 high-speed Xilinx chips. The main function of the two Virtex-6 devices is to run the FFT and PFB programs, whereas the main function of Virtex-5 is configuration of the board.This research is indispensable for realizing the

  15. Potential Routes for Thermochemical Biorefineries

    OpenAIRE

    García Haro, Pedro; Ollero de Castro, Pedro Antonio; Vidal-Barrero, José Fernando; Villanueva Perales, Ángel Luis

    2013-01-01

    This critical review focuses on potential routes for the multi-production of chemicals and fuels in the framework of thermochemical biorefineries. The up-to-date research and development in this field has been limited to BTL/G (biomass-to-liquids/gases) studies, where biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas) is converted into a single product with/without the co-production of electricity and heat. Simultaneously, the interest on biorefineries is growing but mostly refers to the biochemical proc...

  16. Improving Operational Acceptability of Dynamic Weather Routes Through Analysis of Commonly Use Routings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Antony D.; Sridhar, Banavar; McNally, David

    2016-01-01

    The Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) tool is a ground-based trajectory automation system that continuously and automatically analyzes active in-flight aircraft in en route airspace to find simple modifications to flight plan routes that can save significant flying time, while avoiding weather and considering traffic conflicts, airspace sector congestion, special use airspace, and FAA routing restrictions. Trials of the DWR system have shown that significant delay savings are possible. However, some DWR advised routes are also rejected by dispatchers or modified before being accepted. Similarly, of those sent by dispatchers to flight crews as proposed route change requests, many are not accepted by air traffic control, or are modified before implementation as Center route amendments. Such actions suggest that the operational acceptability of DWR advised route corrections could be improved, which may reduce workload and increase delay savings. This paper analyzes the historical usage of different flight routings, varying from simple waypoint pairs to lengthy strings of waypoints incorporating jet routes, in order to improve DWR route acceptability. An approach is developed that can be incorporated into DWR, advising routings with high historical usage and savings potential similar to that of the nominal DWR advisory. It is hypothesized that modifying a nominal DWR routing to one that is commonly used, and nearby, will result in more actual savings since common routings are generally familiar and operationally acceptable to air traffic control. The approach allows routing segments with high historical usage to be concatenated to form routes that meet all DWR constraints. The relevance of a route's historical usage to its acceptance by dispatchers and air traffic control is quantified by analyzing historical DWR data. Results indicate that while historical usage may be less of a concern to flight dispatchers accepting or rejecting DWR advised route corrections, it may be

  17. Route Prediction Based Vehicular Mobility Management Scheme for VANET

    OpenAIRE

    DaeWon Lee; Yoon-Ho Kim; HwaMin Lee

    2014-01-01

    Since improvement of wireless communication, IP based mobility management protocols have been studied to provide seamless communication and mobility management. The vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is one of mobility management protocols, especially providing seamless connection with inter/intra/inner vehicle communication. However, each vehicle moves fast that causes short-lived connections with Access Router (AR). Based on vehicles’ characteristic, it is hard to provide the availability of ...

  18. Fast food: friendly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, S; McAllister, E J; Dhurandhar, N V

    2007-06-01

    Fast food is routinely blamed for the obesity epidemic and consequentially excluded from professional dietary recommendations. However, several sections of society including senior citizens, low-income adult and children, minority and homeless children, or those pressed for time appear to rely on fast food as an important source of meals. Considering the dependence of these nutritionally vulnerable population groups on fast food, we examined the possibility of imaginative selection of fast food, which would attenuate the potentially unfavorable nutrient composition. We present a sample menu to demonstrate that it is possible to design a fast food menu that provides reasonable level of essential nutrients without exceeding the caloric recommendations. We would like to alert health-care professionals that fast food need not be forbidden under all circumstances, and that a fresh look at the role of fast food may enable its inclusion in meal planning for those who depend on it out of necessity, while adding flexibility.

  19. Smart Order Routing Technology in the New European Equity Trading Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ende, Bartholomäus; Gomber, Peter; Lutat, Marco

    In Europe, fragmentation of execution venues has been triggered by increasing competition among markets and a new regulatory environment set up by MiFID. Against this background, IT-based sophisticated order routing systems (Smart Order Routing systems) promise to assure efficiency despite fragmented markets. This raises the question on the relevance and economic value of this technology in European equity trading. Based on order book data for EURO STOXX 50 securities of ten European electronic execution venues, this paper assesses the potential of Smart Order Routing technology by measuring the performance of actual executions in European order book trading relative to a Smart Order Router implementation that detects and accesses best European prices. We identify 6.71% full trade troughs and 6.45% partial trade-throughs in our dataset enabling for significant absolute and relative savings. This indicates that Smart Order Routing technology can provide business value by improving order executions in European cross-tradable equities.

  20. Wine routes as an element of the regional development of borderline regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Drozg

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role of winw routes in promoting the development of wine-growing regions. It focuses both on the criteria for tracing wine routes (landscape value of a region, distribution of tourist supply settlements and events, natural and cultural monuments, existing road netivorks and transport accessibility, supplemenlary activities along the wine routes and on the impact that wine exert on the landscape/region (an increased income of individual households, better infrastructure equipment, recuttivation ol desert land lots, decreasing depopulalion and development of supplementary activities. The wine route through the Svečinske gorice region is presented as an example of countryside regulation.

  1. A Novel Linear Programming Formulation of Maximum Lifetime Routing Problem in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cetin, Bilge Kartal; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2011-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, one of the key challenge is to achieve minimum energy consumption in order to maximize network lifetime. In fact, lifetime depends on many parameters: the topology of the sensor network, the data aggregation regime in the network, the channel access schemes, the routing...... protocols, and the energy model for transmission. In this paper, we tackle the routing challenge for maximum lifetime of the sensor network. We introduce a novel linear programming approach to the maximum lifetime routing problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first mathematical programming...... of the maximum lifetime routing problem that considers the operation modes of the node. Solution of the linear programming gives the upper analytical bound for the network lifetime. In order to illustrate teh application of the optimization model, we solved teh problem for different parameter settings...

  2. COMPUTER REALIZATION OF SEARCH TASK OF THE SHORTEST ROUTE WITH THE HELP OF EXCEL AND VBA

    OpenAIRE

    Dorohov, А.

    2008-01-01

    The necessity of the development of simple and accessible to the final users of the applied software for the decision of local optimization tasks of transport technologies has been grounded with the help of the Excel and VBA facilities. The computer task decision and search of the shortest route has been described.

  3. FAST User Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Clucas, Jean; McCabe, R. Kevin; Plessel, Todd; Potter, R.; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Flow Analysis Software Toolkit, FAST, is a software environment for visualizing data. FAST is a collection of separate programs (modules) that run simultaneously and allow the user to examine the results of numerical and experimental simulations. The user can load data files, perform calculations on the data, visualize the results of these calculations, construct scenes of 3D graphical objects, and plot, animate and record the scenes. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) visualization is the primary intended use of FAST, but FAST can also assist in the analysis of other types of data. FAST combines the capabilities of such programs as PLOT3D, RIP, SURF, and GAS into one environment with modules that share data. Sharing data between modules eliminates the drudgery of transferring data between programs. All the modules in the FAST environment have a consistent, highly interactive graphical user interface. Most commands are entered by pointing and'clicking. The modular construction of FAST makes it flexible and extensible. The environment can be custom configured and new modules can be developed and added as needed. The following modules have been developed for FAST: VIEWER, FILE IO, CALCULATOR, SURFER, TOPOLOGY, PLOTTER, TITLER, TRACER, ARCGRAPH, GQ, SURFERU, SHOTET, and ISOLEVU. A utility is also included to make the inclusion of user defined modules in the FAST environment easy. The VIEWER module is the central control for the FAST environment. From VIEWER, the user can-change object attributes, interactively position objects in three-dimensional space, define and save scenes, create animations, spawn new FAST modules, add additional view windows, and save and execute command scripts. The FAST User Guide uses text and FAST MAPS (graphical representations of the entire user interface) to guide the user through the use of FAST. Chapters include: Maps, Overview, Tips, Getting Started Tutorial, a separate chapter for each module, file formats, and system

  4. Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Gopinath

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many energy-efficient routing protocols have been proposed. However, very little efforts have been taken in studying the energy consumption of individual node, overhead and route maintaining issues. While not considering the design of energy efficient routing protocol, it may perform very worst than the normal routing protocol. Here, we have proposed On Demand Based Energy Efficient Routing Protocol (ODBEERP. The main aim of proposed protocol is to discover the minimum power-limitation route. The power limitation of a route is decided by the node which has the minimum energy in that route. So compared with the minimum node energy in any other route, the minimum node energy in the minimum power-limitation route has more energy. We have also proposed a more accurate analysis to track the energy consumptions due to various factors, and improve the performance during path discovery and in mobility scenarios. The proposed protocol is evaluated with object oriented discrete event simulator environment. Simulation results shows that the ODBEERP achieves good throughput, less delay, high packet delivery ratio and good energy efficiency than the existing protocol PEER.

  5. CluLoR: Clustered Localized Routing for FiWi Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Dashti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The integration of passive optical networks (PONs and wireless mesh networks (WMNs into Fiber- Wireless (FiWi networks can lead to effective access networks. Existing routing schemes for FiWi networks consider mainly hop-count and delay metrics over a flat WMN node topology and do not specifically prioritize the local network structure, i.e., the local wireless-optical network gateway. In this study, we explore a simple, yet effective routing algorithm for FiWi networks with a WMN organized into zones operating on different radio channels. We examine the effects of routing the traffic into and out of a zone through one or more cluster heads. We investigate the effectiveness of localized routing that prioritizes transmissions over the local gateway to the optical network and avoids wireless packet transmissions in zones that do not contain the packet source or destination. We find that this combination of clustered and localized routing (CluLoR gives good throughput-delay performance compared to routing schemes that transmit packets wirelessly through “transit zones” (that do not contain the packet source or destination following minimum hop-count routing.

  6. DYNAMIC K-MEANS ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMIZED ROUTING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zandieh Shirazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic K-means algorithm to improve the routing process in Mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANETs is presented. Mobile ad-hoc networks are a collocation of mobile wireless nodes that can operate without using focal access points, pre-existing infrastructures, or a centralized management point. In MANETs, the quick motion of nodes modifies the topology of network. This feature of MANETS is lead to various problems in the routing process such as increase of the overhead massages and inefficient routing between nodes of network. A large variety of clustering methods have been developed for establishing an efficient routing process in MANETs. Routing is one of the crucial topics which are having significant impact on MANETs performance. The K-means algorithm is one of the effective clustering methods aimed to reduce routing difficulties related to bandwidth, throughput and power consumption. This paper proposed a new K-means clustering algorithm to find out optimal path from source node to destinations node in MANETs. The main goal of proposed approach which is called the dynamic K-means clustering methods is to solve the limitation of basic K-means method like permanent cluster head and fixed cluster members. The experimental results demonstrate that using dynamic K-means scheme enhance the performance of routing process in Mobile ad-hoc networks.

  7. Closure of the Route de Meyrin as of 11 February 2008

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the work on the new Cornavin-Meyrin-CERN tramline, an underpass is to be cut into the hill of Meyrin village where the Route de Meyrin meets the Avenue de Vaudagne and the Avenue Virginio-Malnati. As a result, the Route de Meyrin will be closed to through traffic for a period of two years, starting on Monday 11 February 2008. The following traffic diversions will be in operation: Traffic travelling in the Geneva-France direction will be diverted along the Avenue de Mategnin and the Avenue Louis-Rendu or the Route du Nant-d’Avril and the Route du Mandement, Traffic travelling in the France-Geneva direction will be diverted along the Route du Mandement and the Route du Nant-d’Avril. There will also be special diversion routes in the centre of Meyrin reserved for access to shops, houses and flats and the La Tour hospital. Full details of the project (in French) can be consulted on the following website: http://w...

  8. Closure of the Route de Meyrin as of 11 February 2008

    CERN Document Server

    In the framework of the work on the new Cornavin-Meyrin-CERN tramline, an underpass is to be cut into the hill of Meyrin village where the Route de Meyrin meets the Avenue de Vaudagne and the Avenue Virginio-Malnati. As a result, the Route de Meyrin will be closed to through traffic for a period of two years, starting on Monday 11 February 2008. The following traffic diversions will be in operation: - Traffic travelling in the Geneva-France direction will be diverted along the Avenue de Mategnin and the Avenue Louis-Rendu or the Route du Nant-d'Avril and the Route du Mandement, - Traffic travelling in the France-Geneva direction will be diverted along the Route du Mandement and the Route du Nant-d'Avril. There will also be special diversion routes in the centre of Meyrin reserved for access to shops, houses and flats and the La Tour hospital. The map is available at the following link. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  9. Bicretieria Optimization in Routing Games

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Costas

    2008-01-01

    Two important metrics for measuring the quality of routing paths are the maximum edge congestion $C$ and maximum path length $D$. Here, we study bicriteria in routing games where each player $i$ selfishly selects a path that simultaneously minimizes its maximum edge congestion $C_i$ and path length $D_i$. We study the stability and price of anarchy of two bicriteria games: - {\\em Max games}, where the social cost is $\\max(C,D)$ and the player cost is $\\max(C_i, D_i)$. We prove that max games are stable and convergent under best-response dynamics, and that the price of anarchy is bounded above by the maximum path length in the players' strategy sets. We also show that this bound is tight in worst-case scenarios. - {\\em Sum games}, where the social cost is $C+D$ and the player cost is $C_i+D_i$. For sum games, we first show the negative result that there are game instances that have no Nash-equilibria. Therefore, we examine an approximate game called the {\\em sum-bucket game} that is always convergent (and ther...

  10. Comparative Analysis of Ad hoc Routing Unicast Protocols-Using WiMax Enviorment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Arora

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX is a technology that bridges the gap between fixed and mobile access and offer the same subscriber experience for fixed and mobile user. Demand for such type of mobile broadband servicesaccess, which is further extended to support portability and mobility based on IEEE 802.16e, also known as Mobile WiMAX. However, frequent topology changes caused by node mobility make routing in Mobile WiMAX networks a challenging problem. In this paper, we focus upon those routing protocols especially designed for wireless networks. Here, we study and compare the performance of four ad hoc routing protocols (AODV, DSR, and ZRP for Mobile WiMAX environment under the assumption that each of the subscriber station has routing capabilities within its own network. From our simulation, we found that ZRP and AODV protocols outperform DSR and applications are growing rapidly as it provides freedom to the subscribers to be online wherever they are at a competitive price and other significant facilities such as increasing amounts of bandwidth, using a variety of mobile and nomadic devices etc. [1][2]. The earliest version of WiMAX is based on IEEE 802.16 and is optimized for fixed and nomadic which is further extended to support portability and mobility based on IEEE 802.16e, also known as Mobile WiMAX. However, frequent topology changes caused by node mobility make routing in Mobile WiMAX networks a challenging problem. In this paper, we focus upon those routing protocols especially designed for wireless networks. Here, we study and compare the performance of four ad hoc routing protocols (AODV, DSR, and ZRP for Mobile WiMAX environment under the assumption that each of the subscriber station has routing capabilities within its own network. From our simulation, we found that ZRP and AODV protocols outperform DSR.

  11. Using Crowdsourced Indoor Geodata for the Creation of a Three-Dimensional Indoor Routing Web Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Goetz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Routing services for outdoor areas are omnipresent and also three-dimensional (3D visualization is quite common within this area. Recent research efforts are now trying to adapt well known outdoor routing services to complex indoor environments. However, most of the current indoor routing systems only focus on two-dimensional visualization, thus only one level can be depicted. Especially multi-level routes therefore lack visualization. Also, most of the (few existing 3D indoor routing services utilize proprietary software or plugins, thus a widespread accessibility for those services by using common computers or mobile devices is not feasible. Therefore this paper describes the development of a web-based 3D routing system based on a new HTML extension. The visualization of rooms as well as the computed routes is realized with XML3D. Since this emerging technology is based on WebGL and will likely be integrated into the HTML5 standard, the developed system is already compatible with most common browsers such as Google Chrome or Firefox. Another key difference of the approach presented in this paper is that all utilized data is actually crowdsourced geodata from OpenStreetMap (OSM. Such data is collaboratively collected by both amateurs and professionals and can be used at no charge under the Open Data Commons Open Database License (ODbL. Our research combines user-generated geo content of the Web 2.0 with future Internet technology for the provision of a ubiquitously accessible 3D indoor routing application.

  12. Mathoid: Robust, Scalable, Fast and Accessible Math Rendering for Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Schubotz, Moritz; Wicke, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Wikipedia is the first address for scientists who want to recap basic mathematical and physical laws and concepts. Today, formulae in those pages are displayed as Portable Network Graphics images. Those images do not integrate well into the text, can not be edited after copying, are inaccessible to screen readers for people with special needs, do not support line breaks for small screens and do not scale for high resolution devices. Mathoid improves this situation and converts formulae specif...

  13. Fast Transit Access to the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Jared; Bering, Edgar; Giambusso, Matthew; Carter, Mark; Ilin, Andrew; Diaz, Franklin R. Chang

    2015-11-01

    We explore the capability of a VASIMR® reusable probe “catapult” concept to send a 4000-5000 kg spacecraft to Jupiter on a Hohmann-like transfer orbit, arriving in just 36 months elapsed time. The VASIMR® performs a slingshot pass close to the Sun and uses the high level of available solar energy to produce a sustained burst of high thrust. Enough kinetic energy is provided to the probe to reach Jupiter orbit within 0.7-1.4 AU. The Catapult release the probe with enough speed to reach Jupiter in three years, and returns to Earth for another mission. This study identifies the important parameters in the probe ejector operation (power level, propellant mass, payload release point, distance of closest approach to the Sun), and scan these parameters to understand and optimize the capabilities of the proposed system. We assume that the Catapult and its payload begin at the Earth’s sphere of influence (SOI), and are coasting in the Earth’s orbit about the Sun. The VASIMR® engine’s power rating must match the peak power available when the spacecraft is closest to the Sun. The solar array is assumed to be a planar array rather than a concentrator since it will have to operate near the Sun, where a concentrator would overheat photovoltaic cells. The feasibility of not releasing the payload and using the VASIMR® to provide thrust for the duration of the transfer orbit will also be examined. In this scenario, the VASIMR® RF generators could serve double duty as radar RF sources.

  14. Access and closure of the left ventricular apex: state of play

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegelmueller, Johannes Amadeus; Lange, Rüdiger; Bleiziffer, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Calcific aortic stenosis is the most frequent manifestation of valvular heart disease. The preferred treatment for patients of all age groups is surgical aortic valve replacement. Recently, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become the standard of care for patients that are deemed to be at high risk for open heart surgery. The most common access route for TAVI is the retrograde transfemoral (TF) approach, followed by the antegrade transapical (TA) approach. Both access routes ...

  15. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  16. Predicting transportation routes for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in transportation logistics of radioactive wastes as part of the overall waste transportation program. A Spent Fuel Logistics Model (SFLM), was developed to predict overall material balances representing the flow of spent fuel assemblies from reactors to away-from-reactor storage facilities and/or to federal repositories. The transportation requirements to make these shipments are also itemized. The next logical step in the overall transportation project was the development of a set of computer codes which would predict likely transportation routes for waste shipments. Two separate routing models are now operational at ORNL. Routes for truck transport can be estimated with the HIGHWAY program, and rail and barge routes can be predicted with the INTERLINE model. This paper discusses examples of the route estimates and applications of the routing models

  17. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kirst, Christoph; Battaglia, Demian

    2015-01-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this generic mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyze how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs coact to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine non-local network-wide communication. These results help...

  18. Zone routing in a torus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer

    2013-01-29

    A system for routing data in a network comprising a network logic device at a sending node for determining a path between the sending node and a receiving node, wherein the network logic device sets one or more selection bits and one or more hint bits within the data packet, a control register for storing one or more masks, wherein the network logic device uses the one or more selection bits to select a mask from the control register and the network logic device applies the selected mask to the hint bits to restrict routing of the data packet to one or more routing directions for the data packet within the network and selects one of the restricted routing directions from the one or more routing directions and sends the data packet along a link in the selected routing direction toward the receiving node.

  19. Accessibility in the Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available FIABA is a cultural route for all, its aim is to promote a Global Accessibility and a Universal Usability through the removal of architectural, cultural, psychological and sensory barriers. FIABA is carrying out a real change and a cultural renewal in the name of equal opportunities. Respect for the environment in which we live is also a duty towards the younger generations to whom we must deliver a world in which free movement and the normal use of spaces are goals already achieved. There are millions of citizens who, because of their physical conditions are prisoners in their homes because there isn’t any elevator or any elevator maintenance. FIABA project aims at implementing “a Space for all” or “a landscape for all” following the path of the ONU Convention on the Rights of People with disabilities with an emphasis on architectural, cultural, and psychological barriers, the last ones in particular, create barriers to equal opportunities and they are often carriers of discrimination. The principle of accessibility is invoked in Article 9 of the Convention which confirms the principle that people have a right to live independently and participate fully in all spheres of life and thus States are required to take all necessary measures to ensure accessibility to physical environment, transport, information and communications, including systems and technologies of information and communication and other facilities and services open to the public, both in urban and rural areas.

  20. Choosing offshore pipeline routes: problems and solutions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowen, A.M.; Goetz, M.J.; Waitsman, I.M.

    1980-05-01

    The report discusses the environmental and fisheries problems associated with offshore pipelines. The report focuses on how these problems can be addressed during the pipeline planning and route selection process. Geologic hazards are highlighted as the major factors related to pipeline failure which can be addressed through the pipeline routing process. Habitats and ecosystems are particularly susceptible to installation-related disturbances. These areas as well as those where geologic hazards are most likely to be encountered are described. Fishing problems highlighted include loss of access to fishing areas due to pipelines both from platform to shore and between platforms. The effects of obstructions on bottom fishing gear are also considered. The concept of pipeline trenching for safety and stability is discussed. Finally, criteria to use in analyzing a proposed pipeline route are presented. Topics discussed include general industry siting criteria, geologic and environmental areas to avoid in pipeline siting and methods for minimizing unavoidable impacts. The report is designed to be used by scientists or engineers involved in offshore petroleum pipeline planning.

  1. Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward will take place during Long Shutdown 1. The work will begin on 18 March 2013 and is expected to last around 5 months.   Route Goward runs over the top of the PS tunnel and is the only access route to the inside of the ring. The layer of shielding backfill beneath this road is the thinnest anywhere on the PS ring. As the purpose of this shielding is to protect against the ionising radiation emitted by the accelerator when in operation, this road has been classified as a “supervised radiation area” according to radiation protection regulations. This classification was merely a temporary solution and, on the recommendation of the PS Radiation Working Group (PSRWG), the decision has been taken to raise the surface level permanently by around 2 m in order to increase the thickness of the shielding and thus lower the dose rate to that of a non-designated area. As the PS tunnel itself is unable to withstand the weight of t...

  2. Assessing Routing Strategies for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Suleiman; Fisal, Norsheila; Baguda, Yakubu S.; Saleem, Kashif

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) paradigm has gradually grown among researchers. This concept seeks to fuse the benefits of dynamic spectrum access into the sensor network, making it a potential player in the next generation (NextGen) network, which is characterized by ubiquity. Notwithstanding its massive potential, little research activity has been dedicated to the network layer. By contrast, we find recent research trends focusing on the physical layer, the link layer and the transport layers. The fact that the cross-layer approach is imperative, due to the resource-constrained nature of CRSNs, can make the design of unique solutions non-trivial in this respect. This paper seeks to explore possible design opportunities with wireless sensor networks (WSNs), cognitive radio ad-hoc networks (CRAHNs) and cross-layer considerations for implementing viable CRSN routing solutions. Additionally, a detailed performance evaluation of WSN routing strategies in a cognitive radio environment is performed to expose research gaps. With this work, we intend to lay a foundation for developing CRSN routing solutions and to establish a basis for future work in this area. PMID:24077319

  3. Assessing routing strategies for cognitive radio sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Suleiman; Fisal, Norsheila; Baguda, Yakubu S; Saleem, Kashif

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) paradigm has gradually grown among researchers. This concept seeks to fuse the benefits of dynamic spectrum access into the sensor network, making it a potential player in the next generation (NextGen) network, which is characterized by ubiquity. Notwithstanding its massive potential, little research activity has been dedicated to the network layer. By contrast, we find recent research trends focusing on the physical layer, the link layer and the transport layers. The fact that the cross-layer approach is imperative, due to the resource-constrained nature of CRSNs, can make the design of unique solutions non-trivial in this respect. This paper seeks to explore possible design opportunities with wireless sensor networks (WSNs), cognitive radio ad-hoc networks (CRAHNs) and cross-layer considerations for implementing viable CRSN routing solutions. Additionally, a detailed performance evaluation of WSN routing strategies in a cognitive radio environment is performed to expose research gaps. With this work, we intend to lay a foundation for developing CRSN routing solutions and to establish a basis for future work in this area. PMID:24077319

  4. Local Routing in Graphs Embedded on Surfaces of Arbitrary Genus

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Maia

    2012-01-01

    We present a local routing algorithm which guarantees delivery in all connected graphs embedded on a known surface of genus $g$. The algorithm transports $O(g\\log n)$ memory and finishes in time $O(g^2n^2)$, where $n$ is the size of the graph. It requires access to a homology basis for the surface. This algorithm, GFR, may be viewed as a suitable generalization of Face Routing (FR), the well-known algorithm for plane graphs, which we previously showed does {\\it not} guarantee delivery in graphs embedded on positive genus surfaces. The problem for such surfaces is the potential presence of homologically non-trivial closed walks which may be traversed by the right-hand rule. We use an interesting mathematical property of homology bases (proven in Lemma \\ref{lem:connectFaceBdr}) to show that such walks will not impede GFR. FR is at the base of most routing algorithms used in modern (2D) ad hoc networks: these algorithms all involve additional local techniques to deal with edge-crossings so FR may be applied. GFR...

  5. ANALYSIS OF ROUTING IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An ad-hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any standalone infrastructure or centralized administration. Routing in Ad hoc networks is a challenging problem because nodes are mobile and links are continuously being created and broken.In this model we not only improves the reputation of the network but also provide a routing approach for reliable data transmission and also avoid the loop occurs in the communication. The mobile network is the dynamicnetwork that provides the solution for the inclusion and exclusion of dynamic nodes in the network. AODV and DSR are the two most popular routing protocols for ad-hoc network that we discussed here. In this paper we describe the way to find the node having packet loss and to perform the elimination of node from the network withoutperforming the rerouting and provide the reliable data transfer over the network. In this paper, we design and evaluate cooperative caching techniques to efficiently support data access in the ad-hoc network.

  6. An Analysis of ASRP Secure Routing Protocol for MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Dalal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET can be defined as a collection of large number of mobile nodes that form temporary network without aid of any existing network infrastructure or central access point. Each node participating in the network, acts both as host and a router and must therefore is willing to forward packets for other nodes. The characteristics of MANET provides large amount of degree of freedom and self-organizing capability that make it completely different from other network. Due to this nature of MANET, design and development of secure routing is challenging task for researcher in an open and distributed communication environments. The main work of this paper is to address the security issue, because MANET is generally more vulnerable to various attacks, so we proposed a secure routing protocol for MANET, named ASRP (Authenticate Secure Routing Protocol based on DSDV (Destination- sequence distance vector. This protocol is designed to protect the network from malicious and selfish nodes. We are implementing Extended Public key Cryptography mechanism in ASRP in order to achieve security goals.

  7. Assessing Routing Strategies for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Saleem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN paradigm has gradually grown among researchers. This concept seeks to fuse the benefits of dynamic spectrum access into the sensor network, making it a potential player in the next generation (NextGen network, which is characterized by ubiquity. Notwithstanding its massive potential, little research activity has been dedicated to the network layer. By contrast, we find recent research trends focusing on the physical layer, the link layer and the transport layers. The fact that the cross-layer approach is imperative, due to the resource-constrained nature of CRSNs, can make the design of unique solutions non-trivial in this respect. This paper seeks to explore possible design opportunities with wireless sensor networks (WSNs, cognitive radio ad-hoc networks (CRAHNs and cross-layer considerations for implementing viable CRSN routing solutions. Additionally, a detailed performance evaluation of WSN routing strategies in a cognitive radio environment is performed to expose research gaps. With this work, we intend to lay a foundation for developing CRSN routing solutions and to establish a basis for future work in this area.

  8. Assessing routing strategies for cognitive radio sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Suleiman; Fisal, Norsheila; Baguda, Yakubu S; Saleem, Kashif

    2013-09-26

    Interest in the cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) paradigm has gradually grown among researchers. This concept seeks to fuse the benefits of dynamic spectrum access into the sensor network, making it a potential player in the next generation (NextGen) network, which is characterized by ubiquity. Notwithstanding its massive potential, little research activity has been dedicated to the network layer. By contrast, we find recent research trends focusing on the physical layer, the link layer and the transport layers. The fact that the cross-layer approach is imperative, due to the resource-constrained nature of CRSNs, can make the design of unique solutions non-trivial in this respect. This paper seeks to explore possible design opportunities with wireless sensor networks (WSNs), cognitive radio ad-hoc networks (CRAHNs) and cross-layer considerations for implementing viable CRSN routing solutions. Additionally, a detailed performance evaluation of WSN routing strategies in a cognitive radio environment is performed to expose research gaps. With this work, we intend to lay a foundation for developing CRSN routing solutions and to establish a basis for future work in this area.

  9. Centrality measures highlight proton traps and access points to proton highways in kinetic Monte Carlo trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Rachel A. [Department of Chemistry, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Haibach, Frederick G. [Confluent Science, Wilbraham, Massachusetts 01095 (United States); Fry, Dana L.; Gomez, Maria A., E-mail: magomez@mtholyoke.edu [Department of Chemistry, Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts 01075 (United States)

    2015-04-21

    A centrality measure based on the time of first returns rather than the number of steps is developed and applied to finding proton traps and access points to proton highways in the doped perovskite oxides: AZr{sub 0.875}D{sub 0.125}O{sub 3}, where A is Ba or Sr and the dopant D is Y or Al. The high centrality region near the dopant is wider in the SrZrO{sub 3} systems than the BaZrO{sub 3} systems. In the aluminum-doped systems, a region of intermediate centrality (secondary region) is found in a plane away from the dopant. Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) trajectories show that this secondary region is an entry to fast conduction planes in the aluminum-doped systems in contrast to the highest centrality area near the dopant trap. The yttrium-doped systems do not show this secondary region because the fast conduction routes are in the same plane as the dopant and hence already in the high centrality trapped area. This centrality measure complements kMC by highlighting key areas in trajectories. The limiting activation barriers found via kMC are in very good agreement with experiments and related to the barriers to escape dopant traps.

  10. Modified Rumor Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chiranjib Patra; Parama Bhaumik; Debina Chakroborty

    2010-01-01

    Due to the limited processing power, and finite power available to each sensor node, regular ad-hoc routing techniques cannot be directly applied to sensor networks domain. Thus, energy-efficient routing algorithms suitable to the inherent characteristics of these types of networks are needed. However highly efficient data centric model of routing will improve the longevity of the network. This paper describes a mechanism of improvisation through simulation of existing feature of Rumor routin...

  11. Routing in Wireless Networks with Position Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Chavez, Edgar; Mitton, Nathalie; Tejeda, Hector

    2007-01-01

    Sensor networks are wireless adhoc networks where all the nodes cooperate for routing messages in the absence of a fixed infrastructure. Non-flooding, guaranteed delivery routing protocols are preferred because sensor networks have limited battery life. Location aware routing protocols are good candidates for sensor network applications, nevertheless they need either an external location service like GPS or Galileo (which are bulky, energy consuming devices) or internal location services prov...

  12. Martel's routes in Mammoth cave, Kentucky, 1912.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw Trevor R.

    2003-01-01

    Martel’s own copy of the Hovey 1912 guidebook to Mammoth Cave has his routes marked faintly in pencil on the printed cave plans. These plans are reproduced here, with his routes indicated on them. He generally followed the four standard tourist routes which now included Kaemper’s 1908 discoveries to Violet City, but instead of visiting the Maelstrom he went to Hovey’s Cathedral and Gerta’s Grotto.

  13. Gender differences in virtual route learning

    OpenAIRE

    Larios, Hector

    2011-01-01

    Past studies have found evidence of gender differences in route-learning strategies, indicating that men rely on configurational strategies (e.g., cardinal directions) and women rely on topographic strategies (e.g., landmarks). Whether and how these gender differences in route-learning strategies extend to virtual environments is not fully known. In this dissertation, I investigated gender differences in learning virtual routes from two frames of reference- egocentric and allocentric. One hun...

  14. Advances in optimal routing through computer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, I. M.

    1977-01-01

    The optimal routing problem is defined. Progress in solving the problem during the previous decade is reviewed, with special emphasis on technical developments made during the last few years. The relationships between the routing, the throughput, and the switching technology used are discussed and their future trends are reviewed. Economic aspects are also briefly considered. Modern technical approaches for handling the routing problems and, more generally, the flow control problems are reviewed.

  15. Flood Routing Technique for Data Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jaihyung; Breen, James

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a new routing algorithm based on a flooding method is introduced. Flooding techniques have been used previously, e.g. for broadcasting the routing table in the ARPAnet [1] and other special purpose networks [3][4][5]. However, sending data using flooding can often saturate the network [2] and it is usually regarded as an inefficient broadcast mechanism. Our approach is to flood a very short packet to explore an optimal route without relying on a pre-established routing table, a...

  16. Performance of Conferencing over MANET Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim Abdullah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc network represents a system of wireless nodes that can freely and dynamically self-organize into arbitrary and temporary network topologies, allowing people and devices to seamlessly internet-work in areas without any preexisting communication infrastructure. The routing protocols of this network elapsed much time in route discovery and route maintenances. In this research work we have studied the performance of routing protocols DSR and AODV when the nodes involved in video conferencing. Simulation studies show that AODV is better than DSR in coverage area with acceptable delay and packet loss.

  17. Biocatalytic Route to Surface Active Lipid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Xu, Xuebing

    Lipid can be structurally modified in order to attain improved functional properties. This work look into the possibilities of developing surface active lipids with improved functional properties through biocatalytic route. Biocatalytic route to surface active lipid are usually complex involving...... a biphasic system as the substrates used may differs in polarity. In some instances, chemical synthetic route are used. Attempts are made to study the biocatalytic route to surface active lipid including various factors affecting synthesis of such compounds. The surface active lipids produced may have...

  18. Optical label-controlled transparent metro-access network interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich

    This thesis presents results obtained during the course of my PhD research on optical signal routing and interfacing between the metropolitan and access segments of optical networks. Due to both increasing capacity demands and variety of emerging services types, new technological challenges...... are arising for seamlessly interfacing metropolitan and access networks. Therefore, in this PhD project, I have analyzed those technological challenges and identified the key aspects to be addressed. I have also proposed and experimentally verified a number of solutions to metropolitan and access networks...... interfacing and signal routing. Equipment and infrastructure simplification was recognized as the path towards more efficient metropolitan and access networks providing a spectrum of high-bandwidth services to large number of users. Several approaches have been proposed and developed in order to enable...

  19. Collisions between Whales and Fast Ferries around Korean Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Jun Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is heavy maritime traffic around Korean waters, collisions between whales and fast ferries around Korean waters are nearly unknown. A ship strike that was associated with a minke whale occurred near the southeastern part of Tsushima Island along the sailing route of the fast ferry between Korea and Japan on December 16, 2004. It was associated with a fast ferry that runs at a speed of approximately 46.1 kn (83 km/h between Korea and Japan. This individual was certainly seriously injured or killed by this ship strike because large amounts of skin of this individual were attached to the surface of the fast ferry, and also large amounts of blood of this individual spread out in that area. However, fortunately, serious damage did not occur to the mariners and passengers of the ferry, although many passengers were knocked down to the floor of the fast ferry when the fast ferry collided with the minke whale. In addition, a total of 4 records of possible collisions between whales and fast ferries have occurred on the fast ferry route between Korea and Japan between 2004 and 2007. This study is the first formal report on collisions between whales and fast ferries around Korean waters. Although the effect of ship strikes on the survival of cetaceans distributed around Korean waters is not very high at present compared with that of other threats, such as entanglement in fishing gear, ship strikes can pose a significant potential threat to endangered cetaceans such as western gray whales. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare prevention measures for ship strikes for the conservation of cetaceans around Korean waters in the future.

  20. Fast wave current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities.

  1. Bus Routes, Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database, Published in unknown, City of Roswell, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  2. US Hazardous Materials Routes, Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [hazardous_material_routes_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Hazardous Material Routes were developed using the 2004 First Edition TIGER/Line files. The routes are...

  3. Evacuation route planning during nuclear emergency using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear industry the routing in case of any emergency is a cause of concern and of great importance. Even the smallest of time saved in the affected region saves a huge amount of otherwise received dose. Genetic algorithm an optimization technique has great ability to search for the optimal path from the affected region to a destination station in a spatially addressed problem. Usually heuristic algorithms are used to carry out these types of search strategy, but due to the lack of global sampling in the feasible solution space, these algorithms have considerable possibility of being trapped into local optima. Routing problems mainly are search problems for finding the shortest distance within a time limit to cover the required number of stations taking care of the traffics, road quality, population size etc. Lack of any formal mechanisms to help decision-makers explore the solution space of their problem and thereby challenges their assumptions about the number and range of options available. The Genetic Algorithm provides a way to optimize a multi-parameter constrained problem with an ease. Here use of Genetic Algorithm to generate a range of options available and to search a solution space and selectively focus on promising combinations of criteria makes them ideally suited to such complex spatial decision problems. The emergency response and routing can be made efficient, in accessing the closest facilities and determining the shortest route using genetic algorithm. The accuracy and care in creating database can be used to improve the result of the final output. The Genetic algorithm can be used to improve the accuracy of result on the basis of distance where other algorithm cannot be obtained. The search space can be utilized to its great extend

  4. Probabilistic models for access strategies to dynamic information elements

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Olsen, Rasmus L.; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2010-01-01

    In various network services (e.g., routing and instances of context-sensitive networking) remote access to dynamically changing information elements is a required functionality. Three fundamentally different strategies for such access are investigated in this paper: (1) a reactive approach initiated by the requesting entity, and two versions of proactive approaches in which the entity that contains the information element actively propagates its changes to potential requesters, either (2) per...

  5. Two Improved Access Methods on Compact Binary (CB) Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishibori, Masami; Koyama, Masafumi; Okada, Makoto; Aoe, Jun-ichi

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval and the use of binary trees as a fast access method for search strategies such as hashing. Proposes new methods based on compact binary trees that provide faster access and more compact storage, explains the theoretical basis, and confirms the validity of the methods through empirical observations. (LRW)

  6. [Medical aspects of fasting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrankapetanović, F

    1997-01-01

    Fasting (arabic-savm) was proclaimed through islam, and thus it is an obligation for Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s.-Peace be to Him-in the second year after Hijra (in 624 after Milad-born of Isa a.s.). There is a month of fasting-Ramadan-each lunar (hijra) year. So, it was 1415th fasting this year. Former Prophets have brought obligative messages on fasting to their people; so there are also certain forms of fasting with other religions i.e. with Catholics, Jews, Orthodox. These kinds of fasting above differ from muslim fasting, but they also appear obligative. All revelations have brought fasting as obligative. From medical point of view, fasting has two basical components: psychical and physical. Psychical sphere correlate closely with its fundamental ideological message. Allah dz.s. says in Quran: "... Fasting is obligative for you, as it was obligative to your precedents, as to avoid sins; during very few days (II, II, 183 & 184)." Will strength, control of passions, effort and self-discipline makes a pure faithfull person, who purify its mind and body through fasting. Thinking about The Creator is more intensive, character is more solid; and spirit and will get stronger. We will mention the hadith saying: "Essaihune humus saimun!" That means: "Travellers at the Earth are fasters (of my ummet)." The commentary of this hadith, in the Collection of 1001 hadiths (Bin bir hadis), number 485, says: "There are no travelling dervishs or monks in islam; thus there is no such a kind of relligousity in islam. In stead, it is changed by fasting and constant attending of mosque. That was proclaimed as obligation, although there were few cases of travelling in the name of relligousity, like travelling dervishs and sheichs." In this paper, the author discusses medical aspects of fasting and its positive characteristics in the respect of healthy life style and prevention of many sicks. The author mentions positive influence of fasting to certain system and organs of human

  7. What Is the Best Route? Route-Finding Strategies of Middle School Students Using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigglesivorth, John C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes a research project conducted to investigate the strategies developed by middle school students to solve a route-finding problem using Arc View GIS software. Three different types of route-finding strategies were identified. Some students were visual route-finders and used a highly visual strategy; others were logical route…

  8. An immune orthogonal learning particle swarm optimisation algorithm for routing recovery of wireless sensor networks with mobile sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yifan; Ding, Yongsheng; Hao, Kuangrong; Ren, Lihong; Han, Hua

    2014-03-01

    The growth of mobile handheld devices promotes sink mobility in an increasing number of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) applications. The movement of the sink may lead to the breakage of existing routes of WSNs, thus the routing recovery problem is a critical challenge. In order to maintain the available route from each source node to the sink, we propose an immune orthogonal learning particle swarm optimisation algorithm (IOLPSOA) to provide fast routing recovery from path failure due to the sink movement, and construct the efficient alternative path to repair the route. Due to its efficient bio-heuristic routing recovery mechanism in the algorithm, the orthogonal learning strategy can guide particles to fly on better directions by constructing a much promising and efficient exemplar, and the immune mechanism can maintain the diversity of the particles. We discuss the implementation of the IOLPSOA-based routing protocol and present the performance evaluation through several simulation experiments. The results demonstrate that the IOLPSOA-based protocol outperforms the other three protocols, which can efficiently repair the routing topology changed by the sink movement, reduce the communication overhead and prolong the lifetime of WSNs with mobile sink.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha Sunny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is an autonomous system that is composed of the mobile nodes which communicates through wireless links without any preexisting infrastructure. MANET is a collection of mobile nodes which can self-organize freely and dynamically into arbitrary and temporary network topologies. Mobile nodes in ad-hoc networks function as a router and can dynamically establish routes among themselves by means of a routing protocol. Routing protocols in mobile ad-hoc network helps node to send and receive packets. Therefore, selection of an appropriate routing protocol is an integral part of establishing a MANET. A suitable and effective routing mechanism helps to extend the successful deployment of mobile ad-hoc networks. An attempt has been made to compare the performance between on-demand reactive routing protocols namely AODV, DSR and proactive routing protocol namely DSDV for Constant Bit Rate (CBR traffic by varying network scope i.e. number of participating nodes as well as by varying the speed. The parameters used for evaluation are Packet delivery ratio (PDR, Normalized routing overhead, Average end to end delay (Delay, Throughput and Average Energy consumption. The simulations are carried out using Network Simulator NS2:34.

  10. TBRF: Trust Based Routing Framework for WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushal Gulaskar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The multi-hop routing in wireless sensor networks (WSNs offers little protection against identity deception through replaying routing information. An adversary can exploit this defect to launch various harmful or even devastating attacks against the routing protocols, including sinkhole attacks, wormhole attacks and Sybil attacks. The situation is further aggravated by mobile and harsh network conditions. Traditional cryptographic techniques or efforts at developing trust-aware routing protocols do not effectively address this severe problem. To secure the WSNs against adversaries misdirecting the multi-hop routing, we have designed and implemented TBRF, a robust trust-aware routing framework for dynamic WSNs. Without tight time synchronization or known geographic information, TBRF provides trustworthy and energy-efficient route. Most importantly, TBRF proves effective against those harmful attacks developed out of identity deception; the resilience of TBRF is verified through extensive evaluation with both simulation and empirical experiments on large-scale WSNs under various scenarios including mobile and RF-shielding network conditions. Further, we have implemented a low-overhead TBRF module in TinyOS; as demonstrated, this implementation can be incorporated into existing routing protocols with the least effort. Based on TBRF, we also demonstrated a proof-of-concept mobile target detection application that functions well against an anti-detection mechanism

  11. Using Collective Intelligence to Route Internet Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    DAVID H. WOLPERT; Tumer, Kagan; Frank, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    A COllective INtelligence (COIN) is a set of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms designed in an automated fashion so that their collective behavior optimizes a global utility function. We summarize the theory of COINs, then present experiments using that theory to design COINs to control internet traffic routing. These experiments indicate that COINs outperform all previously investigated RL-based, shortest path routing algorithms.

  12. ROUTE CHOICE MODELLING FOR BICYCLE TRIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Beheshtitabar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to find out which parameters have the highest influence on bicyclists’ route-choice-behaviour and how they contribute. There are many attributes considered throughout different studies that are favoured by cyclists. The attributes are the basis for generating a function which predicts the route choice of cyclists. The paper aims at making a comparison between distance-based routes and attribute-based routes. The model for creating the bicycle route choice program is based on the network model of Norrköping, Sweden. The preferred attributes of the model each assign a weight in the cost function of the model for each link of the urban network. The algorithm of the lowest cost function route searches the shortest path in terms of assigned link costs over the whole network. For comparing the results of the cost function and the shortest route (between an origin-destination, the model has a shortest path finding algorithm between different Origin and Destination pairs implemented. It has been viewed that around 25% of all cumulative routes do not show any distance differences between the shortest path distance and attributes based solution. With the used weights of the Standard scenario, it can be seen that the trade-off between shortest distance and safety respectively comfort can be optimized, fulfilling both criteria (distance and safety/comfort.

  13. Vessel Route Choice Theory and Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shu, Y.; Daamen, W.; Ligteringen, H.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    A new maritime traffic model describes vessel traffic in ports and inland waterways better. In this research, vessel behavior is categorized into a tactical level (route choice) and an operational level (dynamics of vessel behavior). This new maritime traffic model comprises two parts. The route cho

  14. Environmental factors along the Northern Sea Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Northern Sea Route runs ca 5,600 nautical miles across the top of Russia from Murmansk to Vladivostok, and includes half of the Arctic basin. An environmental impact assessment is needed for this route because of the potential for commercial shipping to disturb the vulnerable Arctic environment along the route. For example, Russian development of oil and gas resources in the area served by the route is expected to rise dramatically in the near future. Drilling in the route area offshore has already begun, and potential blowouts or tanker spills are of concern. A pilot study on the environment along this route was conducted in 1990/91, focusing on a study of the literature and communications with Russian scientists working on Arctic ecology. Existing data seem to be insufficient and generally only cover the westernmost and easternmost parts of the route. A five-year research plan is proposed to provide an inventory of Arctic species in the route area and levels of contaminants present, to assess the environmental sensitivity of the area, and analyze impacts that increased shipping might have on the environment. Protection measures will also be suggested. 1 fig

  15. Routing in Optical and Stochastic Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.

    2015-01-01

    In most types of networks (e.g., optical or transportation networks), finding one or more best paths from a source to a destination, is one of the biggest concerns of network users and providers. This process is known as routing. The routing problems differ accordingly depending on different applica

  16. Optimizing departure times in vehicle routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, E.W.; Schutten, J.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Most solution methods for the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) develop routes from the earliest feasible departure time. However, in practice, temporal traffic congestions make that such solutions are not optimal with respect to minimizing the total duty time. Furthermore, VRPTW sol

  17. Using Collective Intelligence to Route Internet Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.; Tumer, Kagan; Frank, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    A Collective Intelligence (COIN) is a community of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms designed so that their collective behavior maximizes a global utility function. We introduce the theory of COINs, then present experiments using that theory to design COINs to control internet traffic routing. These experiments indicate that COINs outperform previous RL-based systems for such routing that have previously been investigated.

  18. Secure Geographic Routing Protocols: Issues and Approaches

    CERN Document Server

    sookhak, Mehdi; Haghparast, Mahboobeh; ISnin, Ismail Fauzi

    2011-01-01

    In the years, routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been substantially investigated by researches. Most state-of-the-art surveys have focused on reviewing of wireless sensor network .In this paper we review the existing secure geographic routing protocols for wireless sensor network (WSN) and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

  19. Joint Route Planning under Varying Market Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Braysy, O.; Dullaert, W.; Fleuren, H.A.; Salomon, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - To provide empirical evidence on the level of savings that can be attained by joint route planning and how these savings depend on specific market characteristics.Design/methodology/approach - Joint route planning is a measure that companies can take to decrease the costs of their distribu

  20. Secure Geographic Routing Protocols: Issues and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi sookhak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the years, routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN have been substantially investigated by researches Most state-of-the-art surveys have focused on reviewing of wireless sensor network .In this paper we review the existing secure geographic routing protocols for wireless sensor network (WSN and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

  1. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  2. RFI Mitigation for FAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Nan, Rendong; Gan, Hengqian; Yue, Youling; Wu, Mingchang; Zhang, Zhiwei; Jin, Chengjin; Peng, Bo

    2015-08-01

    Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese mega-science project to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. The construction was officially commenced in March 2011. The first light of FAST is expected in 2016. Due to the high sensitivity of FAST, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) mitigation for the telescope is required to assure the realization of the scientific goals. In order to protect the radio environment of FAST site, the local government has established a radio quiet zone with 30 km radius. Moreover, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) designs and measurements for FAST have also been carried out, and some examples, such as EMC designs for actuator and focus cabin, have been introduced briefly.

  3. Access to the tracheal pulmonary pathway in small rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto S. A. Ribeiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The tracheal pulmonary route is used in diverse experimental models for the study of drugs, infectious agents, and diseases. In view of its importance and associated difficulties, the present article proposes to give research groups up-to-date information on techniques to access the tracheal pulmonary pathway of small rodents.

  4. Caspian producers contemplate excess of export routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fourth quarter of 2005 sees the commissioning of the latest oil export route from the Caspian: the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline from Azerbaijan to Turkey. BTC is one of a series of potential export routes from Central Asia and the Trans-Caucasus. The proposed capacity of all these routes, however, far exceeds the volume of oil likely to be available to fill it at any time in the foreseeable future. Turkey nevertheless continues to press for more export capacity in an attempt to reduce the number of tankers passing through the narrow waterways that connect the Black Sea with the Mediterranean. For their part, Caspian oil producers want their oil to be transported by the cheapest and most direct route, which appears to rule out pipelines designed to divert their exports away from the Black Sea-Mediterranean sea-route. (author)

  5. Individuality in bird migration: routes and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanis, Yannis; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas

    2011-08-23

    The exploration of animal migration has entered a new era with individual-based tracking during multiple years. Here, we investigated repeated migratory journeys of a long-distance migrating bird, the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, in order to analyse the variation within and between individuals with respect to routes and timing. We found that there was a stronger individual repeatability in time than in space. Thus, the annual timing of migration varied much less between repeated journeys of the same individual than between different individuals, while there was considerable variation in the routes of the same individual on repeated journeys. The overall contrast in repeatability between time and space was unexpected and may be owing to strong endogenous control of timing, while short-term variation in environmental conditions (weather and habitat) might promote route flexibility. The individual variation in migration routes indicates that the birds navigate mainly by other means than detailed route recapitulation based on landmark recognition.

  6. Highway and interline transportation routing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important issues to shippers, carriers, and the general public. Since transportation routes are a central characteristic in most of these issues, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward the resolution of these issues. In addition, US Department of Transportation requirements (HM-164) mandate specific routes for shipments of highway controlled quantities of radioactive materials. In response to these needs, two routing models have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These models have been designated by DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Transportation Management Division (DOE/EM) as the official DOE routing models. Both models, HIGHWAY and INTERLINE, are described

  7. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  8. Individuality in bird migration: routes and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanis, Yannis; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas

    2011-08-23

    The exploration of animal migration has entered a new era with individual-based tracking during multiple years. Here, we investigated repeated migratory journeys of a long-distance migrating bird, the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, in order to analyse the variation within and between individuals with respect to routes and timing. We found that there was a stronger individual repeatability in time than in space. Thus, the annual timing of migration varied much less between repeated journeys of the same individual than between different individuals, while there was considerable variation in the routes of the same individual on repeated journeys. The overall contrast in repeatability between time and space was unexpected and may be owing to strong endogenous control of timing, while short-term variation in environmental conditions (weather and habitat) might promote route flexibility. The individual variation in migration routes indicates that the birds navigate mainly by other means than detailed route recapitulation based on landmark recognition. PMID:21307045

  9. Research on Routing Algorithm Based on Limitation Arrangement Principle in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Lv

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the research on information consistency of the whole network under OSPF protocol has been insufficient in recent years, an algorithm based on limitation arrangement principle for routing decision is proposed and it is a permutation and combination problem in mathematical area. The most fundamental function of this algorithm is to accomplish the information consistency of the whole network at a relatively fast speed. Firstly, limitation arrangement principle algorithm is proposed and proved. Secondly, LAP routing algorithm in single link network and LAP routing algorithm in single link network with multiloops are designed. Finally, simulation experiments are worked by VC6.0 and NS2, which proves that LAPSN algorithm and LAPSNM algorithm can solve the problem of information consistency of the whole network under OSPF protocol and LAPSNM algorithm is superior to Dijkstra algorithm.

  10. StateGEN/StateNET - A structured method to perform route comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    StateGEN/StateNET is a modeling structure and routing algorithm designed expressly to address the needs of state and local governments to perform analyses of routing alternatives. StateGEN/StateNET is designed to permit the user to construct a network and assign attributes of interest to the network on a personal computer (PC). The completed network is then transferred via a modem to the TRANSNET system and the preferred route is determined based upon attribute weights assigned by the user. This modeling structure permits the state or local government to perform a routing analysis, such as that required by the US Department of Transportation (DOT) for Highway Route-Controlled Quantity shipments of radioactive materials, with a minimum of resources. StateGEN/StateNET provides a computerized version of the DOT guidelines or allows the user to structure their own network parameters. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the Department of Energy (DOE) lead organization for transportation research and development. The DOE Office of Defense Programs has been the prime sponsor of development of models and associated databases used to analyze the impacts of the transportation of radioactive materials. The routing algorithms used in StateGEN/StateNET were based on the existing models on TRANSNET, a system which was developed to enable outside users to access analytical codes and associated data developed for the DOE

  11. INTERLINE 5.0 -- An expanded railroad routing model: Program description, methodology, and revised user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rail routine model, INTERLINE, has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate potential routes for transporting radioactive materials. In Version 5.0, the INTERLINE routing algorithms have been enhanced to include the ability to predict alternative routes, barge routes, and population statistics for any route. The INTERLINE railroad network is essentially a computerized rail atlas describing the US railroad system. All rail lines, with the exception of industrial spurs, are included in the network. Inland waterways and deep water routes along with their interchange points with the US railroadsystem are also included. The network contains over 15,000 rail and barge segments (links) and over 13,000 stations, interchange points, ports, and other locations (nodes). The INTERLINE model has been converted to operate on an IBM-compatible personal computer. At least a 286 computer with a hard disk containing approximately 6 MB of free space is recommended. Enhanced program performance will be obtained by using arandom-access memory drive on a 386 or 486 computer

  12. Inter-Cluster Routing Authentication for Ad Hoc Networks by a Hierarchical Key Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueh-Min Huang; Hua-Yi Lin; Tzone-I Wang

    2006-01-01

    Dissimilar to traditional networks, the features of mobile wireless devices that can actively form a network without any infrastructure mean that mobile ad hoc networks frequently display partition due to node mobility or link failures. These indicate that an ad hoc network is difficult to provide on-line access to a trusted authority server. Therefore,applying traditional Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) security framework to mobile ad hoc networks will cause insecurities.This study proposes a scalable and elastic key management scheme integrated into Cluster Based Secure Routing Protocol (CBSRP) to enhance security and non-repudiation of routing authentication, and introduces an ID-Based internal routing authentication scheme to enhance the routing performance in an internal cluster. Additionally, a method of performing routing authentication between internal and external clusters, as well as inter-cluster routing authentication, is developed.The proposed cluster-based key management scheme distributes trust to an aggregation of cluster heads using a threshold scheme faculty, provides Certificate Authority (CA) with a fault tolerance mechanism to prevent a single point of compromise or failure, and saves CA large repositories from maintaining member certificates, making ad hoc networks robust to malicious behaviors and suitable for numerous mobile devices.

  13. Pricing strategy for products in the healthy fast food sector in Stockholm

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The demand of fast food is increasing in current food market worldwide. But fast food, as one of the unhealthy food types, cannot deny its impact as one of the causes of leading death in populations of most high income countries. Healthy fast food is called by governments, health organizations and societies, and desired by customers especially in Sweden because it is affordable, easy accessible, and most immortally, healthy. Companies are emerging based on the current fast food demand to prov...

  14. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. Methods The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities). Results Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO) was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR). The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Conclusions Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR. PMID:21266055

  15. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. Methods The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities. Results Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR. The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Conclusions Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR.

  16. Do Adolescents Who Live or Go to School Near Fast Food Restaurants Eat More Frequently From Fast Food Restaurants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Ann; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    This population-based study examined whether residential or school neighborhood access to fast food restaurants is related to adolescents’ eating frequency of fast food. A classroom-based survey of racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (n=2,724) in 20 secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota was used to assess eating frequency at five types of fast food restaurants. Black, Hispanic, and Native American adolescents lived near more fast food restaurants than white and Asian adolescents and also ate at fast food restaurants more often. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographics, adolescent males living near high numbers fast food restaurants ate more frequently from these venues compared to their peers. PMID:23064515

  17. New routes for allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Pål; von Moos, Seraina; Mohanan, Deepa; Kündig, Thomas M; Senti, Gabriela

    2012-10-01

    IgE-mediated allergy is a highly prevalent disease in the industrialized world. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) should be the preferred treatment, as it has long lasting protective effects and can stop the progression of the disease. However, few allergic patients choose to undergo SIT, due to the long treatment time and potential allergic adverse events. Since the beneficial effects of SIT are mediated by antigen presenting cells inducing Th1, Treg and antibody responses, whereas the adverse events are caused by mast cells and basophils, the therapeutic window of SIT may be widened by targeting tissues rich in antigen presenting cells. Lymph nodes and the epidermis contain high density of dendritic cells and low numbers of mast cells and basophils. The epidermis has the added benefit of not being vascularised thereby reducing the chances of anaphylactic shock due to leakage of allergen. Hence, both these tissues represent highly promising routes for SIT and are the focus of discussion in this review. PMID:23095873

  18. Drug targeting through pilosebaceous route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourasia, Rashmi; Jain, Sanjay K

    2009-10-01

    Local skin targeting is of interest for the pharmaceutical and the cosmetic industry. A topically applied substance has basically three possibilities to penetrate into the skin: transcellular, intercellular, and follicular. The transfollicular path has been largely ignored because hair follicles constitute only 0.1% of the total skin. The hair follicle is a skin appendage with a complex structure containing many cell types that produce highly specialised proteins. The hair follicle is in a continuous cycle: anagen is the hair growth phase, catagen the involution phase and telogen is the resting phase. Nonetheless, the hair follicle has great potential for skin treatment, owing to its deep extension into the dermis and thus provides much deeper penetration and absorption of compounds beneath the skin than seen with the transdermal route. In the case of skin diseases and of cosmetic products, delivery to sweat glands or to the pilosebaceous unit is essential for the effectiveness of the drug. Increased accumulation in the pilosebaceous unit could treat alopecia, acne and skin cancer more efficiently and improve the effect of cosmetic substances and nutrients. Therefore, we review herein various drug delivery systems, including liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, lipid nanocarriers, gene therapy and discuss the results of recent researches. We also review the drugs which have been investigated for pilosebaceous delivery.

  19. Drug targeting through pilosebaceous route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourasia, Rashmi; Jain, Sanjay K

    2009-10-01

    Local skin targeting is of interest for the pharmaceutical and the cosmetic industry. A topically applied substance has basically three possibilities to penetrate into the skin: transcellular, intercellular, and follicular. The transfollicular path has been largely ignored because hair follicles constitute only 0.1% of the total skin. The hair follicle is a skin appendage with a complex structure containing many cell types that produce highly specialised proteins. The hair follicle is in a continuous cycle: anagen is the hair growth phase, catagen the involution phase and telogen is the resting phase. Nonetheless, the hair follicle has great potential for skin treatment, owing to its deep extension into the dermis and thus provides much deeper penetration and absorption of compounds beneath the skin than seen with the transdermal route. In the case of skin diseases and of cosmetic products, delivery to sweat glands or to the pilosebaceous unit is essential for the effectiveness of the drug. Increased accumulation in the pilosebaceous unit could treat alopecia, acne and skin cancer more efficiently and improve the effect of cosmetic substances and nutrients. Therefore, we review herein various drug delivery systems, including liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, lipid nanocarriers, gene therapy and discuss the results of recent researches. We also review the drugs which have been investigated for pilosebaceous delivery. PMID:19663765

  20. Dynamic Route Shortening and Route Repairing Mechanism for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Rangaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ad hoc Networks are wireless networks without any fixed infrastructure. The network topology changes frequently and unpredictably due to the random movement of the nodes. The ad hoc on Demand Distant Vector Routing (AODV protocol works in a dynamic fashion, by establishing a route on demand and continues that route until it breaks. Due to the changing network topology of ad hoc networks, if other routes with less hop count become available, the network topology is not able to adapt until the route break occurs. Hence in the route shortening scheme is some redundant nodes in the active route is replaced with a node that is not on the active route. When there is any link failure between any two nodes, the alternative route with optimum route to be constructed and not sending RRER message to the source node to initiate the route discovery process again. Approach: This study proposes a new routing protocol called, Dynamic Route Shortening and Repairing mechanism (DRSR. The route shortening is incorporated with route repairing mechanism, to improve the performance of the AODV. The route shortening scheme works by replacing some redundant nodes in the active route, with a node that is not on the active route. If there is a link failure between the two nodes, the route repairing mechanism repairs the route, by using the nodes that are close enough to the route to overhear the message. Whenever the links go down, the DRSR replaces the failed links with the optimum route that is adjacent to the main route and not sending and RRER message to the source node to initiate the route discovery process again. The alternative route construction process could be initiated at any time, not just when a route has failed. The dynamically constructed alternative route’s information is passed on to the upstream nodes, which then determine by themselves when to direct their packets to the Normal 0 false false false EN-US X

  1. An Immune Cooperative Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Fault-Tolerant Routing Optimization in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fault-tolerant routing problem is important consideration in the design of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (H-WSNs applications, and has recently been attracting growing research interests. In order to maintain k disjoint communication paths from source sensors to the macronodes, we present a hybrid routing scheme and model, in which multiple paths are calculated and maintained in advance, and alternate paths are created once the previous routing is broken. Then, we propose an immune cooperative particle swarm optimization algorithm (ICPSOA in the model to provide the fast routing recovery and reconstruct the network topology for path failure in H-WSNs. In the ICPSOA, mutation direction of the particle is determined by multi-swarm evolution equation, and its diversity is improved by immune mechanism, which can enhance the capacity of global search and improve the converging rate of the algorithm. Then we validate this theoretical model with simulation results. The results indicate that the ICPSOA-based fault-tolerant routing protocol outperforms several other protocols due to its capability of fast routing recovery mechanism, reliable communications, and prolonging the lifetime of WSNs.

  2. CERN Access Cards and Access Authorisations

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From the 01/05/2003, all problems relating to access cards and refusal of access to any zone, building or experiment within CERN must be addressed to the Centrale de Surveillance des Accès (CSA building 120) on 78877 or send an e-mail to Access.Surveillance@cern.ch. The responsibles for CERN access control have put into place a procedure with the CSA, Service Enregistrement and the Technical Control Room, to make sure that all problems get resolved in a proper and timely manner.

  3. Clustering in ICT: From Route 128 to Silicon Valley, from DEC to Google, from Hardware to Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hulsink (Wim); D. Manuel; H. Bouwman (Harry)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOne of the pioneers in academic entrepreneurship and high-tech clustering is MIT and the Route 128/Boston region. Silicon Valley centered around Stanford University was originally a fast follower and only later emerged as a scientific and industrial hotspot. Several technology and innova

  4. Fast Selective Detection of Pyocyanin Using Cyclic Voltammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima AlZahra’a Alatraktchi; Sandra Breum Andersen; Helle Krogh Johansen; Søren Molin; Svendsen, Winnie E.

    2016-01-01

    Pyocyanin is a virulence factor uniquely produced by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The fast and selective detection of pyocyanin in clinical samples can reveal important information about the presence of this microorganism in patients. Electrochemical sensing of the redox-active pyocyanin is a route to directly quantify pyocyanin in real time and in situ in hospitals and clinics. The selective quantification of pyocyanin is, however, limited by other redox-active compounds existing in ...

  5. Leveraging MPLS Fast Reroute Paths for Distributed Green Traffic Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, F; Wang, N.; Moessner, K; Georgoulas, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new scheme called Green MPLS Fast ReRoute (GMFRR) for enabling energy aware traffic engineering. The scheme intelligently exploits bac kup label switched paths, originally used for failure protection, in order to achieve energy saving during the normal failure-free operation period. GMFRR works in an online and distributed fashion whe re each router periodically monitors its local traffic condition and cooperatively determines how to efficiently reroute traffic onto th...

  6. Influence of Microstructure and Sintering Routes on Transport Properties of Apatite Materials for Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Chesnaud; C.Estournes; G.Dezannau

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Oxy-apatite materials are thought as zirconia-substitutes in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells due to their fast ionic conduction. However, the well known difficulties related to their densification prevent them from being used as such. This study presents strategies to obtain oxy-apatite dense materials and the influence of elaboration route on transport properties. Particular emphasis is put on the microstructure effect on ion conduction. By the combined use of freeze-drying and conventional or spark p...

  7. The IRUV Protocol: Intelligent Routing Protocol In Urban Environment For Vanet

    OpenAIRE

    My Driss Laanaoui; Pr. Said RAGHAY

    2012-01-01

    Future Intelligent Transportation Systemsrequire fast and reliable communication between cars(vehicle-to-vehicle V2V) or between a car and a roadside unit (vehicle-to-infrastructure). The fundamentalcomponent for the success of Vehicular Ad-hocNetworks (VANET) applications is routing.In this paper we propose a VANET routingprotocol that is especially designed for cityenvironments. This protocol is based on thelocalization of the node, the cost assigned to thesection and score for each vehicle...

  8. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a new design concept; sensory accessibility. While acknowledging the importance of sensory experiences in architectural quality, as well as the importance of accommodating user needs the concept combines three equally important factors; architecture, the senses...... and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...

  9. Wave Height Incidence on Mediterranean Short Sea Shipping Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. X. Martínez de Osés

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the recent mid term review of the EU white paper on transport, Short Sea Shipping in EU waters is expected to grow from 2000 to 2020 at a rate of 59% in volume (metric tonnes. If we consider that the overall expected growth in freight exchanges is of 50% (also in volume, sea transport is one of the most feasible ways to reduce traffic congestion on European roads. High speed vessels are a possible way to compete with road transport in certain traffics; however these ships are highly affected by heavy weather. This paper is going to analyse the weather influence on several short sea shipping Mediterranean routes to be served by fast ships.

  10. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts

  11. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  12. An Investigation of Using Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Solving the Shortest Path Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Yussof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Shortest path routing is the type of routing widely used in computer network nowadays. Even though shortest path routing algorithms are well established, other alternative methods may have their own advantages. One such alternative is to use a GA-based routing algorithm. According to previous researches, GA-based routing algorithm has been found to be more scalable and insensitive to variations in network topologies. However, it is also known that GA-based routing algorithm is not fast enough for real-time computation. Approach: To improve the computation time of GA-based routing algorithm, this study proposes a coarse-grained parallel GA routing algorithm for solving the shortest path routing problem. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using simulation where the proposed algorithm is executed on networks with various topologies and sizes. The parallel computation is performed using an MPI cluster. Three different experiments were conducted to identify the best value for the migration rate, the accuracy and execution time with respect to the number of computing nodes and speedup achieved as compared to the serial version of the same algorithm. Results: The result of the simulation shows that the best result is achieved for a migration rate around 0.1 and 0.2. The experiments also show that with larger number of computing nodes, accuracy decreases linearly, but computation time decreases exponentially, which justifies the use parallel implementation of GA to improve the speed of GA-based routing algorithm. Finally, the experiments also show that the proposed algorithm is able to achieve a speedup of up to 818.11% on the MPI cluster used to run the simulation. Conclusion/Recommendations: We have successfully shown that the performance of GA-based shortest path routing algorithm can be improved by using a coarse-grained parallel GA implementation. Even though in this study the proposed algorithm is executed

  13. Integrated Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Verma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In opportunistic networks the existence of a simultaneous path is not assumed to transmit a message between a sender and a receiver. Information about the context in which the users communicate is a key piece of knowledge to design efficient routing protocols in opportunistic networks. But this kind of information is not always available. When users are very isolated, context information cannot be distributed, and cannot be used for taking efficient routing decisions. In such cases, context oblivious based schemes are only way to enable communication between users. As soon as users become more social, context data spreads in the network, and context based routing becomes an efficient solution. In this paper we design an integrated routing protocol that is able to use context data as soon as it becomes available and falls back to dissemination-based routing when context information is not available. Then, we provide a comparison between Epidemic and PROPHET, these are representative of context oblivious and context aware routing protocols. Our results show that integrated routing protocol is able to provide better result in term of message delivery probability and message delay in both cases when context information about users is available or not.

  14. mapFAST: A FAST Geographic Authorities Mashup with Google Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Bennett

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available When looking for information about a particular place, it is often useful to check surrounding locations as well. FAST geographic subjects provide clean access points to this material, and a Google Maps mashup allows users to see surrounding locations that are also FAST subjects. Moreover, the Web Service to the underlying data is also open and available for use. The map interface allows for simple selection of a location, with links to enter it directly as a search into either WorldCat.org or Google Books.

  15. FDA-Approved Natural Polymers for Fast Dissolving Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Tausif Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral route is the most preferred route for administration of different drugs because it is regarded as safest, most convenient, and economical route. Fast disintegrating tablets are very popular nowadays as they get dissolved or facilely disintegrated in mouth within few seconds of administration without the need of water. The disadvantages of conventional dosage form, especially dysphagia (arduousness in swallowing, in pediatric and geriatric patients have been overcome by fast dissolving tablets. Natural materials have advantages over synthetic ones since they are chemically inert, non-toxic, less expensive, biodegradable and widely available. Natural polymers like locust bean gum, banana powder, mango peel pectin, Mangifera indica gum, and Hibiscus rosa-sinenses mucilage ameliorate the properties of tablet and utilized as binder, diluent, and superdisintegrants increase the solubility of poorly water soluble drug, decrease the disintegration time, and provide nutritional supplement. Natural polymers are obtained from the natural origin and they are cost efficacious, nontoxic, biodegradable, eco-friendly, devoid of any side effect, renewable, and provide nutritional supplement. It is proved from the studies that natural polymers are more safe and efficacious than the synthetic polymers. The aim of the present article is to study the FDA-approved natural polymers utilized in fast dissolving tablets.

  16. Heuristics for Routing Heterogeneous Unmanned Vehicles with Fuel Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Levy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a multiple depot, multiple unmanned vehicle routing problem with fuel constraints. The objective of the problem is to find a tour for each vehicle such that all the specified targets are visited at least once by some vehicle, the tours satisfy the fuel constraints, and the total travel cost of the vehicles is a minimum. We consider a scenario where the vehicles are allowed to refuel by visiting any of the depots or fuel stations. This is a difficult optimization problem that involves partitioning the targets among the vehicles and finding a feasible tour for each vehicle. The focus of this paper is on developing fast variable neighborhood descent (VND and variable neighborhood search (VNS heuristics for finding good feasible solutions for large instances of the vehicle routing problem. Simulation results are presented to corroborate the performance of the proposed heuristics on a set of 23 large instances obtained from a standard library. These results show that the proposed VND heuristic, on an average, performed better than the proposed VNS heuristic for the tested instances.

  17. Vehicle routing for the last mile of power system restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coffrin, Carleton [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van Hentenryck, Pascal [BROWN UNIV.

    2010-11-23

    This paper studied a novel problem in power system restoration: the Power Restoration Vehicle Routing Problem (PRVRP). The goal of PRVRPs is to decide how coordinate repair crews effectively in order to recover from blackouts as fast as possible after a disaster has occurred. PRVRPs are complex problems that combine vehicle routing and power restoration scheduling problems. The paper proposed a multi-stage optimization algorithm based on the idea of constraint injection that meets the aggressive runtime constraints necessary for disaster recovery. The algorithms were validated on benchmarks produced by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, using the infrastructure of the United States. The disaster scenarios were generated by state-of-the-art hurricane simulation tools similar to those used by the National Hurricane Center. Experimental results show that the constraint-injection algorithms can reduce the blackouts by 50% or more over field practices. Moreover, the results show that the constraint-injection algorithm using large neighborhood search over a blackbox simulator provide competitive quality and scales better than using a MIP solver on the subproblems.

  18. Agent routing algorithm in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqing; Yang, Shuqun

    2013-03-01

    Wireless sensor networks are a new technology of information acquisition and processing, so they are widely used in all kinds of fields. In the paper we introduce Agent technology into the wireless sensor network, conduct a in-depth research on the four routing schemes, and propose a new improved routing scheme, which considers the energy consumption of both nodes and path. Furthermore, The scheme we proposed has efficient routing function, can balance the energy consumption of nodes and extends the lifetime of the network in a more efficient way.

  19. Effective Privacy-Preserving Online Route Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz Vicente, Carmen; Assent, Ira; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2011-01-01

    An online Route Planning Service (RPS) computes a route from one location to another. Current RPSs such as Google Maps require the use of precise locations. However, some users may not want to disclose their source and destination locations due to privacy concerns. An approach that supplies fake...... locations to an existing service incurs a substantial loss of quality of service, and the service may well return a result that may be not helpful to the user. We propose a solution that is able to return accurate route planning results when source and destination regions are used in order to achieve...

  20. Dynamic telecast Routing with Security Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BeerthiSahadev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Security has become one of the majorissues for data communication over wired and wireless networks. Different from the past work on the designs of network security algorithms and system infrastructures, we will propose a dynamic broadcast routing algorithm that could randomize delivery paths for data transmission. The algorithm is easy to implement and compatible with popular routing protocols, such as the Routing Information Protocol in wired networks and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector protocol in wireless networks , without introducing extra control messages. The simulation results have been verified from the proposed algorithm and it shows the capability of the proposed algorithm.

  1. Analysis of Enhanced Associativity Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said A. Shaar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces an analysis to the performance of the Enhanced Associativity Based Routing protocol (EABR based on two factors; Operation complexity (OC and Communication Complexity (CC. OC can be defined as the number of steps required in performing a protocol operation, while CC can be defined as the number of messages exchanged in performing a protocol operation[1]. The values represent the worst-case analysis. The EABR has been analyzed based on CC and OC and the results have been compared with another routing technique called ABR. The results have shown that EABR can perform better than ABR in many circumstances during the route reconstruction.

  2. Stability Analysis of Path-vector Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitri, Papadimitriou

    2012-01-01

    Most studies on path-vector routing stability have been conducted empirically by means of ad-hoc analysis of BGP data traces. None of them consider prior specification of an analytic method including the use of stability measurement metrics for the systematic analysis of BGP traces and associated meta-processing for determining the local state of the routing system. In this paper, we define a set of metrics that characterize the local stability properties of path-vector routing such as BGP (Border Gateway Protocol). By means of these stability metrics, we propose a method to analyze the effects of BGP policy- and protocol-induced instability on local routers.

  3. Partially dynamic vehicle routing - models and algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Solomon, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework for dynamic routing systems based on their degree of dynamism. Next, we consider its impact on solution methodology and quality. Specifically, we introduce the Partially Dynamic Travelling Repairman Problem and describe several dynamic policies to minimize...... routing costs. The results of our computational study indicate that increasing the dynamic level results in a linear increase in route length for all policies studied. Furthermore, a Nearest Neighbour policy performed, on the average, uniformly better than the other dispatching rules studied. Among these...

  4. Outward Accessibility in Urban Street Networks: Characterization and Improvements

    CERN Document Server

    Travençolo, Bruno Augusto Nassif

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of transportation through towns and cities is strongly affected by the topology of the connections and routes. The current work describes an approach combining complex networks and self-avoiding random walk dynamics in order to quantify in objective and accurate manner, along a range of spatial scales, the accessibility of places in towns and cities. The transition probabilities are estimated for several lengths of the walks and used to calculate the outward accessibility of each node. The potential of the methodology is illustrated with respect to the characterization and improvements of the accessibility of the town of Sao Carlos.

  5. FastStats: Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health FastStats Mobile Application Get Email Updates ... Links Ambulatory Health Care Data National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Health Interview Survey National Home ...

  6. FastStats: Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health FastStats Mobile Application Get Email Updates ... PDF - 241 KB] Related Links National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: ...

  7. CMS Fast Facts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has developed a new quick reference statistical summary on annual CMS program and financial data. CMS Fast Facts includes summary information on total program...

  8. Fast neutrons dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proton recoil technique has been developed for inducing thermoluminescence with incident fast neutrons. CaF2 was used as the TL phosphor, and cane sugar and polyethylene were used as proton radiators. The phosphor and the hydrogeneous material powders were well mixed, encapsulated in glass tubes and exposed to Am-Be sources, resulting in recoils from incident fast neutrons of energy between 0,25 and 11,25 MeV. The intrinsic response of pure CaF2 to fast neutrons without a hydrogeneous radiator was checked by using LiF (TLD-700). Glow curves were recorded from room temperature up to 3500C after different doses of neutrons and gamma rays of 60Co. First collision dose due to fast neutrons in tissue like materials such as cane sugar and polyethylene was also calculated

  9. Performance Analysis of Route Discovery by Cross Layer Routing Protocol- RDCLRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehajabeen Fatima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wired and wireless network is based on the TCP / IP architecture but it is not sufficient to cope with the dynamics of the MANET. Cross layer design can be an alternative architecture for MANET. Frequent route break is one of the major problems of mobile adhoc network (MANET. Path breaks due to less available battery power and mobility of nodes. Most of the battery power is consumed in flooding of control packets. A key challenge in the design of efficient routing protocol is to reduce link breakage and flooding of control packets. Route breakage can be reduced if the possibility of route breakage is predicted and a handoff is done without drop of data packets. If route breakage is reduced, the more battery power will be available with nodes. In turn it reduces the possibility of route breakage and the possibility of flooding. This is a cumulative effect. So a novel preemptive route repair algorithm is proposed named as RDCLRP- Route discovery by cross layer routing protocol to reduce frequency of control packet flooding and route breakage. Three variants of RDCLRP and their results are illustrated. In this paper, the impact of the number of nodes on performance of RDCLRP are investigated and analyzed. The results show 55.6% reduction in link breakage, 14.7% improvement in residual battery power and an average of 6.7% increase in throughput compared to basic AODV.

  10. Generating Heat Maps of Popular Routes Online from Massive Mobile Sports Tracking Application Data in Milliseconds While Respecting Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Sainio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The breakthrough of GPS-equipped smartphones has enabled the collection of track data from human mobility on massive scales that can be used in route recommendation, urban planning and traffic management. In this work we present a fast map server that can generate and visualize heat maps of popular routes online from massive sports track data based on client preferences, e.g., running routes lasting less than an hour. The heat maps shown respect user privacy by not showing routes with less than a predefined number of different users, for instance five. The results are represented to the client using a dynamic tile layer. The current implementation uses data collected by the Sports Tracker mobile application with over 800,000 different tracks and 2.8 billion GPS data points. Stress tests indicate that the server can handle hundreds of simultaneous client requests in a single server configuration.

  11. FAST Maser Surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. S. Zhang

    2014-09-01

    FAST, the Five-hundred meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope, will become the largest operating single-dish telescope in the coming years. It has many advantages: much better sensitivity for its largest collecting area; large sky coverage due to its innovative design of the active primary surface; extremely radio quiet from its unique location, etc. In this work, I will highlight the future capabilities of FAST to discover and observe both galactic and extragalactic masers.

  12. Discovery with FAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, P.

    2016-02-01

    FAST offers "transformational" performance well-suited to finding new phenomena - one of which might be polarised spectral transients. But discoveries will only be made if "the system" provides its users with the necessary opportunities. In addition to designing in as much observational flexibility as possible, FAST should be operated with a philosophy which maximises its "human bandwidth". This band includes the astronomers of tomorrow - many of whom not have yet started school or even been born.

  13. Fast Statistical Alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Robert K.; Adam Roberts; Michael Smoot; Sudeep Juvekar; Jaeyoung Do; Colin Dewey; Ian Holmes; Lior Pachter

    2009-01-01

    We describe a new program for the alignment of multiple biological sequences that is both statistically motivated and fast enough for problem sizes that arise in practice. Our Fast Statistical Alignment program is based on pair hidden Markov models which approximate an insertion/deletion process on a tree and uses a sequence annealing algorithm to combine the posterior probabilities estimated from these models into a multiple alignment. FSA uses its explicit statistical model to produce multi...

  14. Fast parametrized biorthogonal transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Puchala, Dariusz; Yatsymirsyy, Mykhaylo

    2011-01-01

    W pracy zaproponowano schemat syntezy szybkich parametryzowanych przekształceń biortogonalnych oparty o diagramy przepływowe dla szybkich przekształceń ortonormalnych i dwupunktowe biortogonalne operatory motylkowe. In this paper the authors propose the technique ot synthesis of fast parametrised biorthogonal transforms that takes advantage of data-flow graphs for calculation of fast orthonormal transforms and two-point biorthogonal butterfly operators.

  15. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  16. Fasting and urinary stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods:Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field  of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results:The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  17. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  18. An Efficient Quality of Service Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Godder

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc network is set up with multiple wireless devices without any infrastructure. Its employment is favored in many environments. Quality of Service (QoS is one of the main issues for any network and due to bandwidth constraint and dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks, supporting Quality of Service (QoS is extremely a challenging task. It is modeled as a multi-layer problem and is considered in both Medium Access Control (MAC and routing layers for ad hoc networks. Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV routing protocol is one of the most used and popular reactive routing protocols in ad-hoc networks. This paper proposed a new protocol QoS based AODV (QAODV which is a modified version of AODV.

  19. A Review of Current Routing Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Hafeez Khokhar

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a dynamic wireless network that can be formed without any pre-existing infrastructure in which each node can act as a router. MANET has no clear line of defense, so, it is accessible to both legitimate network users and malicious attackers. In the presence of malicious nodes, one of the main challenges in MANET is to design the robust security solution that can protect MANET from various routing attacks. Different mechanisms have been proposed using various cryptographic techniques to countermeasure the routing attacks against MANET. However, these mechanisms are not suitable for MANET resource constraints, i.e., limited bandwidth and battery power, because they introduce heavy traffic load to exchange and verifying keys. In this paper, the current security issues in MANET are investigated. Particularly, we have examined different routing attacks, such as flooding, blackhole, link spoofing, wormhole, and colluding misrelay attacks, as well as existing solutions to protect MANET protocols.

  20. Professional Access 2013 programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hennig, Teresa; Hepworth, George; Yudovich, Dagi (Doug)

    2013-01-01

    Authoritative and comprehensive coverage for building Access 2013 Solutions Access, the most popular database system in the world, just opened a new frontier in the Cloud. Access 2013 provides significant new features for building robust line-of-business solutions for web, client and integrated environments.  This book was written by a team of Microsoft Access MVPs, with consulting and editing by Access experts, MVPs and members of the Microsoft Access team. It gives you the information and examples to expand your areas of expertise and immediately start to develop and upgrade projects. Exp

  1. A multicast routing algorithm with multiple trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Xunxue; Gao Wei; Fang Hongyu

    2005-01-01

    Quality of service (QoS) multicast routing has continued to be a very important research topic in the Internet.A method of multicast routing is proposed to simultaneously optimize several parameters based on multiobjective genetic algorithm, after the related work is reviewed. The contribution lies on that the selection process of such routing is treated with multiobjective optimization. Different quality criterions in IP network are taken into account for multicast communications. A set of routing trees is generated to approximate the Pareto front of multicast problem. Multiple trees can be selected from the final set of nondominated solutions, and applied to obtain a good overall link cost and balance traffic distribution according to some simulation results.

  2. Rich Vehicle Routing Problems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min

    of these problems was motivated by our cooperation with industrial companies, particularly Transvision A/S and its client distributors, and Danish Crown. The models and methods proposed in the thesis are general and can be applied to practical routing problems arising in many other distribution companies as well...... the company’s solution in terms of all the objectives, including the travel time, customer waiting and daily workload balances, under the given constraints considered in the work. Finally, we address an integrated vehicle routing and driver scheduling problem, in which a large number of practical constraints......The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the most important and challenging optimization problems in the field of Operations Research. It was introduced by Dantzig and Ramser (1959) and defined as the problem of designing the optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles in order to serve...

  3. A new routing assignment model for Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper builds a new traffic assignment model for Internet. The routing policy based on this model can realize load splitting in a network automatically, which overcomes the shortcoming of OSPF and satisfies the load balancing requirement of IETF.

  4. Multicriteria Evolutionary Weather Routing Algorithm in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Szlapczynska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Multicriteria Evolutionary Weather Routing Algorithm (MEWRA has already been introduced by the author on earlier TransNav 2009 and 2011 conferences with a focus on theoretical application to a hybrid-propulsion or motor-driven ship. This paper addresses the topic of possible practical weather routing applications of MEWRA. In the paper some practical advantages of utilizing Pareto front as a result of multicriteria optimization in case of route finding are described. The paper describes the notion of Pareto-optimality of routes along with a simplified, easy to follow, example. It also discusses a choice of the most suitable ranking method for MEWRA (a comparison between Fuzzy TOPSIS and Zero Unitarization Method is presented. In addition to that the paper briefly outlines a commercial application of MEWRA.

  5. Quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been investigating “quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development” using in silico screenings and applied the method to several targets. Another example was conducted to develop synthesis routes for a urea derivative, namely 1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)urea. While five synthesis routes were examined, only three routes passed the second in silico screening. Among them, the reaction of 7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and O-methyl carbamate with BF3 as an additive was ranked as the first choice for synthetic work. We were able to experimentally obtain the target compound even though its yield was as low as 21 %. The theoretical result was thus consistent with that observed. The summary of transition state data base (TSDB) is also provided. TSDB is the key to reducing time of in silico screenings

  6. Integrating routing decisions in public transportation problems

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Marie E

    2014-01-01

    This book treats three planning problems arising in public railway transportation planning: line planning, timetabling, and delay management, with the objective to minimize passengers’ travel time. While many optimization approaches simplify these problems by assuming that passengers’ route choice is independent of the solution, this book focuses on models which take into account that passengers will adapt their travel route to the implemented planning solution. That is, a planning solution and passengers’ routes are determined and evaluated simultaneously. This work is technically deep, with insightful findings regarding complexity and algorithmic approaches to public transportation problems with integrated passenger routing. It is intended for researchers in the fields of mathematics, computer science, or operations research, working in the field of public transportation from an optimization standpoint. It is also ideal for students who want to gain intuition and experience in doing complexity proofs ...

  7. Quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, Kenji; Sumimoto, Michinori [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Murafuji, Toshihiro [Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    We have been investigating “quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development” using in silico screenings and applied the method to several targets. Another example was conducted to develop synthesis routes for a urea derivative, namely 1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)urea. While five synthesis routes were examined, only three routes passed the second in silico screening. Among them, the reaction of 7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and O-methyl carbamate with BF{sub 3} as an additive was ranked as the first choice for synthetic work. We were able to experimentally obtain the target compound even though its yield was as low as 21 %. The theoretical result was thus consistent with that observed. The summary of transition state data base (TSDB) is also provided. TSDB is the key to reducing time of in silico screenings.

  8. Advances in technology for integrated route analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, N.T.; George, P.J.; Khamhawi, K. [SAGE Engineering Ltd., Bath (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Pipeline and cable routes are becoming ever complex with routes being chosen in increasingly remote and technically demanding areas. Clients now demand greater information and analysis from the surveys and interpretations. By utilising a range of leading edge equipment, greater information can be obtained, visualised and analysed than ever before. Three case studies are presented, indicating how such technology has been employed to provide the client with a greater understanding of complex engineering projects, and what additional technology could have been utilised to further enhance the project. Examples of data, systems and project management used on two major pipe routes and one major cable route are presented. Swath Bathymetry (ISIS), 3D visualisation (Fledermaus), cone penetrometer testing (SAGE Miniature CPT), GIS databases (INfoXProfessional), and the use of pipeline stress analysis, upheaval buckling and rock dump optimisation software (SAFE Profile) are all examined. (author)

  9. Recommended Cross-Desert Driving Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Beijing - Duolun - Dalai Nur- Hexigten Banner -Saihanba - Weichang - Luanping - Miyun - Beijing. Along this 1,600-kilometer route is a 150-kin section(between Duolun and Darhan) of desert with no surfaced road - a paradise for desert drivers.

  10. Language and Spatial Cognition in Route Navigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋娟

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the contrast between using street names or landmarks to process spatial in⁃structions. The study confirms the special cognitive status of landmarks in the mental representation of routes.

  11. Dams and Obstructions along Iowa's Canoe Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This dataset represents obstruction to canoe and boat users of the canoe routes of Iowa. This may represent actual dams, rock dams (natural or man made), large...

  12. Latent variables and route choice behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Pronello, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    by proposing and estimating a hybrid model that integrates latent variable and route choice models. Data contain information about latent variable indicators and chosen routes of travelers driving regularly from home to work in an urban network. Choice sets include alternative routes generated with a branch...... and bound algorithm. A hybrid model consists of measurement equations, which relate latent variables to measurement indicators and utilities to choice indicators, and structural equations, which link travelers’ observable characteristics to latent variables and explanatory variables to utilities. Estimation...... results illustrate that considering latent variables (i.e., memory, habit, familiarity, spatial ability, time saving skills) alongside traditional variables (e.g., travel time, distance, congestion level) enriches the comprehension of route choice behavior....

  13. A Multistage Method for Multiobjective Route Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feng; Gen, Mitsuo

    The multiobjective route selection problem (m-RSP) is a key research topic in the car navigation system (CNS) for ITS (Intelligent Transportation System). In this paper, we propose an interactive multistage weight-based Dijkstra genetic algorithm (mwD-GA) to solve it. The purpose of the proposed approach is to create enough Pareto-optimal routes with good distribution for the car driver depending on his/her preference. At the same time, the routes can be recalculated according to the driver's preferences by the multistage framework proposed. In the solution approach proposed, the accurate route searching ability of the Dijkstra algorithm and the exploration ability of the Genetic algorithm (GA) are effectively combined together for solving the m-RSP problems. Solutions provided by the proposed approach are compared with the current research to show the effectiveness and practicability of the solution approach proposed.

  14. Performance Evaluation of MANET Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrituparna Paul

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The task of finding and sustaining routes in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETS is an important factor in determining the efficiency of any MANET protocol. MANET characteristically is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links without any centralised infrastructure. Absence of fixed infrastructures and host mobility thus network may experience rapid and unpredictable topology changes. Hence, routing is required in order to perform communication among the entire network. There are several routing protocols namely proactive, reactive and hybrid etc. In this paper we will discuss the active research work on these routing protocols and its performance evaluation. To this end, we adopt a simulation approach, which is more suitable to this kind of analysis

  15. Finding routes in anonymous sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dutra, Renato C.; Barbosa, Valmir C

    2005-01-01

    We consider networks of anonymous sensors and address the problem of constructing routes for the delivery of information from a group of sensors in response to a query by a sink. In order to circumvent the restrictions imposed by anonymity, we rely on using the power level perceived by the sensors in the query from the sink. We introduce a simple distributed algorithm to achieve the building of routes to the sink and evaluate its performance by means of simulations.

  16. Stochastic vehicle routing: from theory to practice

    OpenAIRE

    Weyland, Dennis; Gambardella, Luca Maria; Montemanni, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss practical and theoretical aspects of various stochastic vehicle routing problems. These are combinatorial optimization problems related to the field of transportation and logistics in which input data is (partially) represented in a stochastic way. More in detail, we focus on two-stage stochastic vehicle routing problems and in particular on so-called a priori optimization problems. The results are divided into a theoretical part and a practical part. In fact, the ...

  17. Efficient Networks Communication Routing Using Swarm Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Koushal Kumar

    2012-01-01

    As demonstrated by natural biological swarm’s collective intelligence has an abundance of desirable properties for problem-solving like in network routing. The focus of this paper is in the applications of swarm based intelligence in information routing for communication networks. As we know networks are growing and adopting new platforms as new technologies comes. Also according to new demands and requirements networks topologies and its complexity is increasing with time. Thus it is becomin...

  18. Southern Bohemian route of industrial heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimír Dvořák; Blažena Gehinová; Dagmar Škodová Parmová; Eva Jaderná; Eduard Šitler

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the industrial heritage and its usage in the frame of tourism service supply. There were three so called Anchor Points selected based on the ERIH methodology in the southern Bohemia. And there were also other regional and important places and points named for the future tourist route. The Southern Bohemian Route of Industrial Heritage was invented around the Anchor Point of Schwarzenberg Channel because of its importance in European heritage and its location next to the ...

  19. Security Conformance for the Dynamically Routed Data

    OpenAIRE

    Suma Patra; Dr.V.Janaki; Priyanka suram; Nalubala Ranjeeth Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Secure transmission of data plays a crucial role in the networks. To improve the security many methodologies have been proposed till now, like cryptographic designs, intrusion detection, dynamic routing etc. In this paper we consider that the data transmission is done by using the concept of dynamic routing. Sometimes the sender may be neglecting the security due to the lack of personal interest, but the receiver has to take the utmost care. In such cases the receiver after forcing the sender...

  20. Light olefins - challenges from new production routes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, H. [Linde Engineering, Pullach (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Light Olefins are the building blocks for many modern plastic products and are produced in large quantities. Driven by high crude oil prices, production is shifted to regions with low cost raw materials. Alternatives to the traditional production from Naphta, AGO and other crude products are becoming attractive. This paper evaluates several methods Ethylene and Pro-pylene production economically and also the regional advantageous routes. The analysis includes Steamcracking, dehydrogenation, dehydration of Ethanol, Methanol based routes and olefin conversion by Metathesis. (orig.)

  1. A CONTRIBUTION TO SECURE THE ROUTING PROTOCOL

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed ERRITALI; Oussama Mohamed Reda; Bouabid El Ouahidi

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a contribution to secure the routing protocol GPSR (Greedy Perimeter StatelessRouting) for vehicular ad hoc networks, we examine the possible attacks against GPSR and securitysolutions proposed by different research teams working on ad hoc network security. Then, we propose asolution to secure GPSR packet by adding a digital signature based on symmetric cryptographygenerated using the AES algorithm and the MD5 hash function more suited to a mobile environment

  2. A CONTRIBUTION TO SECURE THE ROUTING PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed ERRITALI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a contribution to secure the routing protocol GPSR (Greedy Perimeter StatelessRouting for vehicular ad hoc networks, we examine the possible attacks against GPSR and securitysolutions proposed by different research teams working on ad hoc network security. Then, we propose asolution to secure GPSR packet by adding a digital signature based on symmetric cryptographygenerated using the AES algorithm and the MD5 hash function more suited to a mobile environment

  3. Ising model for packet routing control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For packet routing control in computer networks, we propose an Ising model which is defined in order to express competition among a queue length and a distance from a node with a packet to its destination node. By introducing a dynamics for a mean-field value of an Ising spin, we show by computer simulations that effective control of packet routing through priority links is possible

  4. Energy Efficient Routing in Nomadic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2007-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a novel energy-efficient routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. We combine two techniques for optimizing energy levels with a well-known routing protocol. We examine the behavior of this combination in a nomadic network setting, where some nodes are stationary...... and have a steady power supply. Protocol optimizations for the nomadic scenario are presented and validated through simulations...

  5. Integrated Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anshul Verma; Dr. Anurag Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    In opportunistic networks the existence of a simultaneous path is not assumed to transmit a message between a sender and a receiver. Information about the context in which the users communicate is a key piece of knowledge to design efficient routing protocols in opportunistic networks. But this kind of information is not always available. When users are very isolated, context information cannot be distributed, and cannot be used for taking efficient routing decisions. In such cases, context o...

  6. Fast electron heating of shock compressed solids at high intensities relevant to fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the experiment entitled 'Fast electron heating of shock compressed solids at high intensities relevant to fast ignition'; carried out at the Central Laser Facility (CLF) from the 5th January to the 15th February 1997. The experiment, funded by the Framework IV Large-Scale Facilities Access Scheme, was proposed by Dr. D. Batani, University of Milan, Italy and carried out by visiting researchers from the University and Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France. They were supported by UK researchers from the University of Essex, the University of Bristol and the Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Experimental results: (i) The experiment demonstrated the first results for fast electron deposition in compressed matter. The irradiances used in these experiments are lower than would be used in the fast ignitor scheme but the significance of the results is, nevertheless very relevant to this scheme. (ii) It is shown that in the experiments presented here that ionised, compressed plastic is less effective at stopping the fast electrons than uncompressed, unionised plastic. The stopping power of the compressed material is reduced by a factor of two (in areal density units) over the uncompressed materials. (iii) These experiments are the first measurements of electron stopping power in compressed plasmas but further experiments with more highly compressed plasmas are necessary before the results may be safely extrapolated to fast ignitor conditions. (author)

  7. Improved Multispanning Tree Routing Using Efficient and Reliable Routing Algorithm for Irregular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Keerthana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Strategy of Multispanning Tree Zone Ordered Label Based routing is improved with Efficient and Reliable (EAR routing for irregular networks is presented and analyzed in this work. Most existing deadlock free routing methods for irregular topologies impose several limitations on node and channel labeling in an irregular network is based on a pre-defined spanning tree.It is not possible to form a deadlock free zone of three or four channel labels for two spanning tree. So this existing Multispanning Tree Zone Ordered Label Based routing is modified with Efficient and Reliable (EAR routing. EAR is based on four parameters length of the path,distance traversed,transmission of link and energy levels to dynamically determine and maintain the best routes.. The simulation results have shown highest packet delivery ratio, minimum latency, and energy consumption.

  8. Information Priority Based Multicast Routing in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashekhar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The routing efficiency in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs suffers from frequent batterydrains, mobility and large variation of received signal strength. Thus, nodes and links in MANETsbecome more vulnerable and unstable. Multicast routing in MANETs for group communication requiresestablishment of reliable links between neighbouring nodes called as reliability pair beginning from thesource and extending such reliability pairs enroute to the destination. If there are multiple paths fromsource to every multicast destination, the reliability of source information may be enhanced by sendinghigher priority information on higher priority path.In this paper, we propose a scheme of Information Priority based Multicast Routing in MANETsusing multiple paths (IPMRM. IPMRM operates in following phases. (1 Reliability pair factorcomputation based on node power level, received differential signal strength between the nodes andmobility. (2 Pruning neighbor nodes that have reliability pair factor lesser than a threshold. (3 Findingmulticast mesh routes with multiple paths to a destination using request and reply packets. (4 Priorityassignment to multiple paths based on minimum value of reliability pair factor of a path and informationtransfer from source to multicast destination. (4 Route maintenance against link failures. The simulationresults for packet delivery ratio and control overhead demonstrate better performance of IPMRM overOn Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP and Enhanced ODMRP (EODMRP.

  9. Multirate Anypath Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Laufer, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new routing paradigm that generalizes opportunistic routing in wireless mesh networks. In multirate anypath routing, each node uses both a set of next hops and a selected transmission rate to reach a destination. Using this rate, a packet is broadcast to the nodes in the set and one of them forwards the packet on to the destination. To date, there is no theory capable of jointly optimizing both the set of next hops and the transmission rate used by each node. We bridge this gap by introducing a polynomial-time algorithm to this problem and provide the proof of its optimality. The proposed algorithm runs in the same running time as regular shortest-path algorithms and is therefore suitable for deployment in link-state routing protocols. We conducted experiments in a 802.11b testbed network, and our results show that multirate anypath routing performs on average 80% and up to 6.4 times better than anypath routing with a fixed rate of 11 Mbps. If the rate is fixed at 1 Mbps instead, p...

  10. Survivable Lightpath Routing in WDM Optical Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUFengqing; ZENGQingji; ZHUXu; YANGXudong; XIAOShilin

    2004-01-01

    In IP over WDM networks, when a failure(such as a fiber cut) occurs, the service restoration can be implemented by dynamic routing in IP layer. But it needs that the logical topology remains connected after any physical link failure. Otherwise, IP layer cannot find an alternate path to restore the service. The problem of routing logical links (lightpaths) on a physical network topology in a way that the logical topology remains connected in the event of single physical link failure is called survivabl erouting. In this paper~ we address the survivable routing problem by proposing a new ILP algorithm that works well with sparse-connected logical topologies. The necessary and sufficient conditions for survivable routing are simplified, which greatly reduces the number of survivable constraints. Based-on the simplified conditions, a new ILP formulation with K-shortest paths as alternate paths for a logical link is presented, which mainly reduces the number of ILP variables. Finally, numerical results are given and discussed to show that most survivable routing solutions can be found with our algorithms, and the time needed to find such a survivable routing solution is much smaller than other similar methods.

  11. The Route Analysis Based On Flight Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi

    2016-02-01

    Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.

  12. Manet Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Arafat Ali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, multi-path routing protocols have attained more attention in mobile ad hoc networks as compared to other routing schemes due to their abilities and efficiency in improving bandwidth of communication, increasing delivery reliability, responding to congestion and heavy traffic. Several protocols have been developed to address multi path routing, but it always has a problem that the discovered paths may be not 100% disjoint and sending data is done in only one path until it's broken; the discovery of multiple paths also generates more overhead on the network. Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol [LBPRP] tried to solve previous multi path problems, distributing traffic among multiple paths sending data in parallel form as it uses all paths in the same time. We employed a simple test scenario to be sure of proposed model efficiency and to validate the proposed Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol. [LBPRP] will achieve load balancing in sending data, decreasing the end-to-end delay and increasing the packet delivery ratio and throughput, thus the performance of multi-path routing protocols can be improved consequently.

  13. ACO Agent Based Routing in AOMDV Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Amanpreet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET is a group of moving nodes which can communicate with each other without the help of any central stationary node. All the nodes in the MANET act as router for forwarding data packets. The nodes in the network also move randomly and there exists no fixed infrastructure. So, path breaks are the frequent problem in MANET. The routing protocol faces a lot of problem due these path breaks. Therefore, the routing protocol which is multipath in nature is more reliable than a unipath routing protocol. Ant colony optimization is a relatively new technique which is suitable for the optimization problems. AOMDV is a multipath routing protocol. Thus, if there happens to be path break, the packets can start following the new path which has already been selected. In this paper, we are trying to add ant’s agents into AOMDV behavior. In this way, the new protocol will be benefited by the dual properties i.e. of ant’s nature and multipath nature of AOMDV. The modified concept is simulated and the outcomes are compared with AOMDV, AODV and DSR routing protocols for few performance parameters. Results obtained are encouraging; the new algorithm performs better than traditional unipath and multipath routing protocols.

  14. Youth tobacco access: trends and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Marsh, Louise; Edwards, Richard; Healey, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined whether the supply routes via which New Zealand adolescents aged 14–15 years accessed tobacco had changed during a period of dynamic policy activity. Setting We analysed data from seven consecutive years (2006–2012) of the New Zealand Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) Year 10 survey, a nationwide cross-sectional annual survey. Participants All New Zealand schools teaching Year 10 students are invited to participate in the survey; school-level participation rates have ra...

  15. MQARR-AODV: A NOVEL MULTIPATH QOS AWARE RELIABLE REVERSE ON-DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G. Santhiya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Network is an infra structure less wireless ad-hoc network that does not require any basic central control. The topology of the network changes drastically due to very fast mobility of nodes. So an adaptive routing protocol is needed for routing in MANET. AODV (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing is the effective and prominent on-demand Ad-hoc routing protocols. During route establishment phase in traditional AODV, only one route reply message will be sent in the reverse path to establish routing path. The high mobility of nodes may affect the reply messages which lead to the retransmission of route request message by the sender which in turn leads to higher communication delay, power consumption and the reduction in the ratio of packets delivered. Sending multiple route reply messages and establishing multiple paths in a single path discovery will reduce the routing overhead involved in maintaining the connection between source and destination nodes. Multipath routing can render high scalability, end-to-end throughput and provide load balancing in MANET. The new proposed novel Multipath QoS aware reliable routing protocol establishes two routes of maximum node disjoint paths and the data transfer is carried out in the two paths simultaneously. To select best paths, the new proposed protocol uses three parameters Link Eminence, MAC overhead and node residual energy. The experimental values prove that the MQARR-AODV protocol achieves high reliability, stability, low latency and outperforms AODV by the less energy consumption, overhead and delay.

  16. Pseudo-Cycle-Based Multicast Routing in Wormhole-Routed Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG JianPing (宋建平); HOU ZiFeng (侯紫峰); XU Ming (许铭)

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of fault-tolerant multicast routing in wormholerouted multicomputers. A new pseudo-cycle-based routing method is presented for constructing deadlock-free multicast routing algorithms. With at most two virtual channels this technique can be applied to any connected networks with arbitrary topologies. Simulation results show that this technique results in negligible performance degradation even in the presence of a large number of faulty nodes.

  17. Are GIS-modelled routes a useful proxy for the actual routes followed by commuters?

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Alice M; Jones, Andrew P.; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    Active commuting offers the potential to increase physical activity among adults by being built into daily routines. Characteristics of the route to work may influence propensity to walk or cycle. Geographic information system (GIS) software is often used to explore this by modelling routes between home and work. However, if the validity of modelled routes depends on the mode of travel used, studies of environmental determinants of travel may be biased. We aimed to understand how well mod...

  18. Physical Access Control Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains the personnel access card data (photo, name, activation/expiration dates, card number, and access level) as well as data about turnstiles and...

  19. Ad Hoc Access Gateway Selection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Liu

    With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. For mobile nodes in Ad Hoc network to internet, internet communications in the peer nodes must be achieved through the gateway. Therefore, the key Ad Hoc Access Networks will focus on the discovery gateway, as well as gateway selection in the case of multi-gateway and handover problems between different gateways. This paper considers the mobile node and the gateway, based on the average number of hops from an average access time and the stability of routes, improved gateway selection algorithm were proposed. An improved gateway selection algorithm, which mainly considers the algorithm can improve the access time of Ad Hoc nodes and the continuity of communication between the gateways, were proposed. This can improve the quality of communication across the network.

  20. Field target allocation and routing algorithms for Starbugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Michael; Lorente, Nuria P. F.; Satorre, Christophe; Hong, Sungwook E.; Kuehn, Kyler; Lawrence, Jon S.

    2014-07-01

    Starbugs are miniaturised robotic devices that position optical fibres over a telescope's focal plane in parallel operation for high multiplex spectroscopic surveys. The key advantage of the Starbug positioning system is its potential to configure fields of hundreds of targets in a few minutes, consistent with typical detector readout times. Starbugs have been selected as the positioning technology for the TAIPAN (Transforming Astronomical Imaging surveys through Polychromatic Analysis of Nebulae) instrument, a prototype for MANIFEST (Many Instrument Fiber System) on the GMT (Giant Magellan Telescope). TAIPAN consists of a 150-fibre Starbug positioner accessing the 6 degree field-ofview of the AAO's UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory. For TAIPAN, it is important to optimise the target allocation and routing algorithms to provide the fastest configurations times. We present details of the algorithms and results of the simulated performance.

  1. Field Target Allocation and Routing Algorithms for Starbugs

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, Michael; Satorre, Christophe; Hong, Sungwook E; Kuehn, Kyler; Lawrence, Jon S

    2014-01-01

    Starbugs are miniaturised robotic devices that position optical fibres over a telescope's focal plane in parallel operation for high multiplex spectroscopic surveys. The key advantage of the Starbug positioning system is its potential to configure fields of hundreds of targets in a few minutes, consistent with typical detector readout times. Starbugs have been selected as the positioning technology for the TAIPAN (Transforming Astronomical Imaging surveys through Polychromatic Analysis of Nebulae) instrument, a prototype for MANIFEST (Many Instrument Fiber System) on the GMT (Giant Magellan Telescope). TAIPAN consists of a 150-fibre Starbug positioner accessing the 6 degree field-of-view of the AAO's UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory. For TAIPAN, it is important to optimise the target allocation and routing algorithms to provide the fastest configurations times. We present details of the algorithms and results of the simulated performance.

  2. A Routing Mechanism for Cloud Outsourcing of Medical Imaging Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Tiago Marques; Viana-Ferreira, Carlos; Bastião Silva, Luís A; Costa, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Web-based technologies have been increasingly used in picture archive and communication systems (PACS), in services related to storage, distribution, and visualization of medical images. Nowadays, many healthcare institutions are outsourcing their repositories to the cloud. However, managing communications between multiple geo-distributed locations is still challenging due to the complexity of dealing with huge volumes of data and bandwidth requirements. Moreover, standard methodologies still do not take full advantage of outsourced archives, namely because their integration with other in-house solutions is troublesome. In order to improve the performance of distributed medical imaging networks, a smart routing mechanism was developed. This includes an innovative cache system based on splitting and dynamic management of digital imaging and communications in medicine objects. The proposed solution was successfully deployed in a regional PACS archive. The results obtained proved that it is better than conventional approaches, as it reduces remote access latency and also the required cache storage space.

  3. Access Customized Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Cosma Emil; Jeflea Victor

    2010-01-01

    By using Word, Excel or PowerPoint one can automate routine operations using the VBA language (Visual Basic for Applications). This language is also used in Access, allowing access to data stored in tables or queries. Thus, Access and VBA resources can be used together. Access is designed for programming forms and reports (among other things), so there won’t be found any of the VBA editor’s specific forms.

  4. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report summarizes the fast reactor research carried out by ECN during the period covering the year 1980. This research is mainly concerned with the cores of sodium-cooled breeders, in particular the SNR-300, and its related safety aspects. It comprises six items: A programme to determine relevant nuclear data of fission- and corrosion-products; A fuel performance programme comprising in-pile cladding failure experiments and a study of the consequences of loss-of-cooling and overpower; Basic research on fuel; Investigation of the changes in the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel DIN 1.4948 due to fast neutron doses, this material has been used in the manufacture of the reactor vessel and its internal components; Study of aerosols which could be formed at the time of a fast reactor accident and their progressive behaviour on leaking through cracks in the concrete containment; Studies on heat transfer in a sodium-cooled fast reactor core. As fast breeders operate at high power densities, an accurate knowledge of the heat transfer phenomena under single-phase and two-phase conditions is sought. (Auth.)

  5. Fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on the fast wave in the range of high ion cyclotron harmonics in the ACT-1 device show that current drive is possible with the fast wave just as it is for the lower hybrid wave, except that it is suitable for higher plasma densities. A 1400 loop antenna launched the high ion cyclotron harmonic fast wave [ω/Ω = O(10)] into a He+ plasma with n/sub e/approx. =4 x 1012 cm-3 and B = 4.5 kG. Probe and magnetic loop diagnostics and FIR laser scattering confirmed the presence of the fast wave, and the Rogowski loop indicated that the circulating plasma current increased by up to 40A with 1 kW of coupled power, which is comparable to lower hybrid current drive in the same device with the same unidirectional fast electron beam used as the target for the RF. A phased antenna array would be used for FWCD in a tokamak without the E-beam

  6. Open Access Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  7. URSA: Ubiquitous and Robust Access Control for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Haiyun; Kong, Jiejun; Zerfos, Petros; Lu, Songwu; Zhang, Lixia

    2004-01-01

    Restricting network access of routing and packet forwarding to well-behaving nodes and denying access from misbehaving nodes are critical for the proper functioning of a mobile ad-hoc network where cooperation among all networking nodes is usually assumed. However, the lack of a network infrastructure, the dynamics of the network topology and node membership, and the potential attacks from inside the network by malicious and/or noncooperative selfish nodes make the conventional network access...

  8. Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks: Advances and Future Trends in Physical, MAC and Routing Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Climent

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current researchon underwater wireless sensor networks, focusing on the lower layers of the communicationstack, and envisions future trends and challenges. It analyzes the current state-of-the-art onthe physical, medium access control and routing layers. It summarizes their security threadsand surveys the currently proposed studies. Current envisioned niches for further advances inunderwater networks research range from efficient, low-power algorithms and

  9. A fast friend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高怡

    2010-01-01

    我们都知道fast food的意思是“快餐”。那fast friend能解释为“快速或速成的朋友”吗?也许你会说:“什么是速成朋友呀?It doesn’t make sense.”没错,交朋友怎么会有速成的呢?原来;fast还有一个意思是“忠实的、牢固的”,所以a fast friend的真正意思是“可靠、忠实的朋友”。

  10. The fast code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.N.; Wilson, R.E. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The FAST Code which is capable of determining structural loads on a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data are given at two wind speeds for the ESI-80. The FAST Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade bending, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffnesses, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms, and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST Code and test results is good. (au)

  11. An efficient geo-routing aware MAC protocol for underwater acoustic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Zhu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an efficient geo-routing aware MAC protocol (GOAL for underwater acoustic networks. It smoothly integrates self-adaptation based REQ/REP handshake, geographic cyber carrier sensing, and implicit ACK to perform combined channel reservation and next-hop selection. As a result, it incorporates the advantages of both a geo-routing protocol and a reservation-based medium access control (MAC protocol. Specifically, with its self-adaptation based REQ/REP, nodes can dynamically detect the best next-hop with low route discovery cost. In addition, through geographic cyber carrier sensing, a node can map its neighbors’ time slots for sending/receiving DATA packets to its own time line, which allows the collision among data packets to be greatly reduced. With these features, GOAL outperforms geo-routing protocols coupling with broadcast MAC. Simulation results show that GOAL provides much higher end-to-end reliability with lower energy consumptions than existing Vector-Based Forwarding (VBF routing with use of a broadcast MAC protocol. Moreover, we develop a theoretical model for the probability of a successful handshake, which coincides well with the simulation results.

  12. A new perspective on the access process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Gouws, Rufus

    2010-01-01

    Only 10 or 15 years ago, you had to spend hours, days or even weeks in libraries to find data of many kinds. Today, one has access to data at your desks at home. Therefore, the biggest problem for a real information society is not that you do not have access to the needed data, but that you cannot...... find it or that it takes so long to find it that you quit the search before finding the result. This is clearly shown by a Google search where you get so many results that can lead to a case of information stress or even worse information death. An easy search route and a short search time...

  13. Pro Access 2010 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Pro Access 2010 Development is a fundamental resource for developing business applications that take advantage of the features of Access 2010 and the many sources of data available to your business. In this book, you'll learn how to build database applications, create Web-based databases, develop macros and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) tools for Access applications, integrate Access with SharePoint and other business systems, and much more. Using a practical, hands-on approach, this book will take you through all the facets of developing Access-based solutions, such as data modeling, co

  14. Access 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ulrich Fuller, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    The easy guide to Microsoft Access returns with updates on the latest version! Microsoft Access allows you to store, organize, view, analyze, and share data; the new Access 2013 release enables you to build even more powerful, custom database solutions that integrate with the web and enterprise data sources. Access 2013 For Dummies covers all the new features of the latest version of Accessand serves as an ideal reference, combining the latest Access features with the basics of building usable databases. You'll learn how to create an app from the Welcome screen, get support

  15. Android Access Control Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Baláž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.

  16. Fast food in Tbilisi

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrica Soderlind

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the fast food establishments that can be found in Georgia's capital Tbilisi as of today. The article is divided into two sections, first interviews with the managers or the owners of the establishments and then we hear the voices of the costumers by a questionnaire that was left for the costumers to answer while they were visiting the establishments. The article and study should be seen as a first academic attempt to map out the fast food sphere in Tbilisi that is quit...

  17. Fast neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research concentrated on three major areas during the last twelve months: (1) investigations of energy fluence and absorbed dose measurements using crystalline and hot pressed TLD materials exposes to ultrasoft beams of photons, (2) fast neutron kerma factor measurements for several important elements as well as NE-213 scintillation material response function determinations at the intense ''white'' source available at the WNR facility at LAMPF, and (3) kerma factor ratio determinations for carbon and oxygen to A-150 tissue equivalent plastic at the clinical fast neutron radiation facility at Harper Hospital, Detroit, MI. Progress summary reports of these efforts are given in this report

  18. ATLAS fast physics monitoring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karsten Köneke; on behalf of the ATLAS Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is recording data from proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV since the spring of 2010. The integrated luminosity has grown nearly exponentially since then and continues to rise fast. The ATLAS Collaboration has set up a framework to automatically process the rapidly growing dataset and produce performance and physics plots for the most interesting analyses. The system is designed to give fast feedback. The histograms are produced within hours of data reconstruction (2–3 days after data taking). Hints of potentially interesting physics signals obtained this way are followed up by physics groups.

  19. Moms og fast ejendom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    I artiklen gives et overblik over, hvorledes fast ejendom behandles momsmæssigt. Derfor findes en kort skitsering af reglerne for moms på byggearbejder, afgrænsningen mellem momspligtig og momsfri udlejning, muligheden for frivillig registrering af udlejning samt opgørelse af reguleringsforpligte......I artiklen gives et overblik over, hvorledes fast ejendom behandles momsmæssigt. Derfor findes en kort skitsering af reglerne for moms på byggearbejder, afgrænsningen mellem momspligtig og momsfri udlejning, muligheden for frivillig registrering af udlejning samt opgørelse af...

  20. Fast Josephson vortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malishevskii, A.S.; Silin, V.P.; Uryupin, S.A

    2002-12-30

    For the magnetically coupled waveguide and long Josephson junction we gave the analytic description of two separate velocity domains where the free motion of traveling vortex (2{pi}-kink) exists. The role of the mutual influence of waveguide and long Josephson junction is discussed. It is shown the possibility of the fast vortex motion with the velocity much larger than Swihart velocity of Josephson junction and close to the speed of light in the waveguide. The excitation of motion of such fast Josephson vortex is described.

  1. Fast ejendom II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Hansen, Carsten

    Fremstillingen påviser, at lov om forbrugerbeskyttelse ved erhvervelse af fast ejendom mv. lider af en række svagheder og at ankenævnspraksis bevæger sig væk fra retspraksis på en række områder,,......Fremstillingen påviser, at lov om forbrugerbeskyttelse ved erhvervelse af fast ejendom mv. lider af en række svagheder og at ankenævnspraksis bevæger sig væk fra retspraksis på en række områder,,...

  2. Dual-route processing of complex words: new fMRI evidence from derivational suffixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannest, Jennifer; Polk, Thad A; Lewis, Richard L

    2005-03-01

    Many behavioral models of the comprehension of suffixed words assume a dual-route mechanism in which these words are accessed sometimes from the mental lexicon as whole units and sometimes in terms of their component morphemes (such as happi+ness). In related neuropsychological work, Ullman et al. (1997) proposed a dual-route model for past tense processing, in which the lexicon (used for access to irregularly inflected forms) corresponds to declarative memory and a medial temporal/ parietal circuit, and the rule system (used for computation of regularly inflected forms) corresponds to procedural memory and a frontal (including Broca's area)/basal ganglia circuit. We used functional MRI and a memory encoding task to test this model for derivationally suffixed words, comparing those words that show evidence of decompositional processing in behavioral studies (-ness, -less, and -able words) with derived words that do not show decomposition effects (-ity and -ation words). By examining Broca's area and the basal ganglia as regions of interest, we found that "decomposable" derived and inflected words showed increases in activity relative to nondecomposable suffixed words. Results support a dual-route model of lexical access of complex words that is consistent with the Ullman et al. proposal. PMID:15913009

  3. Optimal Relay Selection using Efficient Beaconless Geographic Contention-Based Routing Protocol in Wireless Adhoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Srimathy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Ad hoc network, cooperation of nodes can be achieved by more interactions at higher protocol layers, particularly the MAC (Medium Access Control and network layers play vital role. MAC facilitates a routing protocol based on position location of nodes at network layer specially known as Beacon-less geographic routing (BLGR using Contention-based selection process. This paper proposes two levels of cross-layer framework -a MAC network cross-layer design for forwarder selection (or routing and a MAC-PHY for relay selection. CoopGeo; the proposed cross-layer protocol provides an efficient, distributed approach to select next hops and optimal relays to form a communication path. Wireless networks suffers huge number of communication at the same time leads to increase in collision and energy consumption; hence focused on new Contention access method that uses a dynamical change of channel access probability which can reduce the number of contention times and collisions. Simulation result demonstrates the best Relay selection and the comparative of direct mode with the cooperative networks. And Performance evaluation of contention probability with Collision avoidance.

  4. Urban Railway Accessibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Hongzhi; YIN Yuanfei; YAN Hai; HAN Yan; QIN Huanmei

    2007-01-01

    Effective use of urban rapid railway systems requires that the railway systems be effectively connected with other transportation modes so that they are accessible. This paper uses the logit model and data to analyze the factors influencing railway access choices in a railway choice access model. The results indicate that access time, access cost, and access distance are factors significantly affecting railway access choices. The user's income significantly affects the probability of choosing to walk rather than to take a taxi,but is not related to choosing buses or bicycles. Vehicle ownership significantly affects the probability of choosing a taxi, but is not significantly related to the other modes. The conclusions provide an analysis tool for urban railway planning and construction.

  5. Open Access @ DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Jeannette

    Open Access is high on the agenda in Denmark and internationally. Denmark has announced a national strategy for Open Access that aims to achieve Open Access to 80% in 2017 and 100% in 2022 to peer review research articles. All public Danish funders as well as H2020 requires that all peer review...... articles that is an outcome of their funding will be Open Access. Uploading your full texts (your final author manuscript after review ) to DTU Orbit is a fundamental part of providing Open Access to your research. We are here to answer all your questions with regards to Open Access and related topics...... such as copyright, DTU Orbit, Open Access journals, APCs, Vouchers etc....

  6. FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS: AN UPDATE

    OpenAIRE

    Darna Bikshapathi; Kandikonda Saikrishna; Uppuluru Ashok Kumar; Gade Sabitha; Bhupathi Saikumar

    2011-01-01

    Fast dissolving tablets are dissolving rapidly in the saliva without the need for water. Some tablets are designed to dissolve in saliva remarkably fast, within a few seconds, and are true fast-dissolving tablets. Other ingredients to enhance the rate of tablet disintegration in the oral cavity, and are more appropriately termed fast-disintegrating tablets, as they may take up to a minute to completely disintegrate. Fast or mouth dissolving tablets have been formulated for pediatric, geriatri...

  7. Direct cervical arterial access for intracranial endovascular treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, R. [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); APHP, Hopital Henri Mondor, Service de Neuroradiologie Diagnostique et Therapeutique, Creteil Cedex (France); Piotin, M.; Mounayer, C.; Spelle, L. [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Moret, J. [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Hopital de la Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Service de Neuroradiologie Interventionnelle, Paris Cedex 19 (France)

    2006-12-15

    Tortuous vasculature is a cause of failure of endovascular treatment of intracranial vascular lesions. We report our experience of direct cervical accesses in patients in whom the arterial femoral route was not attainable. In this retrospective study, 42 direct punctures of the carotid or the vertebral arteries at the neck were performed in 38 patients. The vessel harboring the intracranial lesion was punctured at the neck above the main tortuosity, a sheath was then positioned under fluoroscopic control to allow a stable access to the intracranial circulation. After the procedure, the sheath was removed and hemostasis was gained either by manual compression or by an arterial closure device (4 of 42, 9%). The cervical route allowed access to all intracranial lesions in all 42 procedures. A complication was encountered in six procedures (14%) related to the direct puncture. In 2 of the 42 procedures (4%), a transient vasospasm was encountered. A cervical hematoma formed in 3 of the 42 procedures (7%) after sheath withdrawal (one patient in whom an 8F sheath had been used, required surgical evacuation of a hematoma compressing the upper airways; the other patients did well without surgical evacuation). In the remaining patient (1 of 42 procedures, 2%), a small asymptomatic aneurysm at the puncture site was seen on the follow-up angiogram. Direct cervical arterial approaches to accessing the intracranial circulation is effective in patients in whom the femoral route does not allow the navigation and stabilization of guiding catheters. (orig.)

  8. FRBCAT: The Fast Radio Burst Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroff, E.; Barr, E. D.; Jameson, A.; Keane, E. F.; Bailes, M.; Kramer, M.; Morello, V.; Tabbara, D.; van Straten, W.

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present a catalogue of known Fast Radio Burst sources in the form of an online catalogue, FRBCAT. The catalogue includes information about the instrumentation used for the observations for each detected burst, the measured quantities from each observation, and model-dependent quantities derived from observed quantities. To aid in consistent comparisons of burst properties such as width and signal-to-noise ratios, we have re-processed all the bursts for which we have access to the raw data, with software which we make available. The originally derived properties are also listed for comparison. The catalogue is hosted online as a Mysql database which can also be downloaded in tabular or plain text format for off-line use. This database will be maintained for use by the community for studies of the Fast Radio Burst population as it grows.

  9. Alternative routes to olefins. Chances and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiswinkel, A.; Delhomme, C.; Ponceau, M. [Linde AG, Pullach (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    In the future, conventional raw materials which are used for the production of olefins will get shorter and more expensive and alternative raw materials and production routes will gain importance. Natural gas, coal, shale oil or bio-mass are potential sources for the production of olefins, especially ethylene and propylene, as major base chemicals. Several potential production routes were already developed in the past, but cost, energy and environmental considerations might make these unattractive or unfeasible in comparison to traditional processes (e.g. steam cracking). Other processes such as methanol to olefins processes were successfully developed and first commercial units are running. In addition, combination of traditional processes (e.g. coal/biomass gasification, Fischer-Tropsch and steam cracking) might enable new pathways. Besides, dehydration of ethanol is opening direct routes from biomass to 'green' ethylene. However, for these 'bio-routes', feedstock availability and potential land use conflict with food production (sugar cane, wheat,..) still need to be evaluated. finally, new oxidative routes, including processes such as oxidative coupling of methane or oxidative dehydrogenation, are still at an early development stage but present potential for future industrial applications. (orig.) (Published in summary form only)

  10. Fuzzy Optimized Metric for Adaptive Network Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Khader Haboush

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Network routing algorithms used today calculate least cost (shortest paths between nodes. The cost of a path is the sum of the cost of all links on that path. The use of a single metric for adaptive routing is insufficient to reflect the actual state of the link. In general, there is a limitation on the accuracy of the link state information obtained by the routing protocol. Hence it becomes useful if two or more metrics can be associated to produce a single metric that can describe the state of the link more accurately. In this paper, a fuzzy inference rule base is implemented to generate the fuzzy cost of each candidate path to be used in routing the incoming calls. This fuzzy cost is based on the crisp values of the different metrics; a fuzzy membership function is defined. The parameters of these membership functions reflect dynamically the requirement of the incoming traffic service as well as the current state of the links in the path. And this paper investigates how three metrics, the mean link bandwidth, queue utilization and the mean link delay, can be related using a simple fuzzy logic algorithm to produce a optimized cost of the link for a certain interval that is more „precise‟ than either of the single metric, to solve routing problem .

  11. Routing algorithms in networks-on-chip

    CERN Document Server

    Daneshtalab, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip (NoCs), as well as in-depth discussions of advanced solutions applied to current and next generation, many core NoC-based Systems-on-Chip (SoCs). After a basic introduction to the NoC design paradigm and architectures, routing algorithms for NoC architectures are presented and discussed at all abstraction levels, from the algorithmic level to actual implementation.  Coverage emphasizes the role played by the routing algorithm and is organized around key problems affecting current and next generation, many-core SoCs. A selection of routing algorithms is included, specifically designed to address key issues faced by designers in the ultra-deep sub-micron (UDSM) era, including performance improvement, power, energy, and thermal issues, fault tolerance and reliability.   ·         Provides a comprehensive overview of routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip and NoC-based, manycore systems; ·         Describe...

  12. Low Carbon Footprint Routes for Bird Watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ta Fang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bird watching is one of many recreational activities popular in ecotourism. Its popularity, therefore, prompts the need for studies on energy conservation. One such environmentally friendly approach toward minimizing bird watching’s ecological impact is ensuring a reduced carbon footprint by using an economic travel itinerary comprising a series of connected routes between tourist attractions that minimizes transit time. This study used a travel-route planning approach using geographic information systems to detect the shortest path, thereby solving the problems associated with time-consuming transport. Based on the results of road network analyses, optimal travel-route planning can be determined. These methods include simulated annealing (SA and genetic algorithms (GA. We applied two algorithms in our simulation research to detect which one is an appropriate algorithm for running carbon-routing algorithms at the regional scale. SA, which is superior to GA, is considered an excellent approach to search for the optimal path to reduce carbon dioxide and high gasoline fees, thereby controlling travel time by using the shortest travel routes.

  13. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  14. Eccentricity in Zone Routing Protocol for MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs Komal Nair

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a decentralized network of autonomous mobile nodes, able to communicate with each other over wireless links. Due to the mobility of the nodes, the topology ofthe network changes spontaneously, therefore use of conventional routing tables maintained at fixed points (routers is not suggested. Such a network may operate in a standalone fashion. There are variousrouting protocols available for MANETs. The most popular ones are DSR, DSDV and ZRP .The zone routing protocol (ZRP is a hybrid routing protocol that proactively maintains routes within a localregion of the network. ZRP can be configured for a particular network through adjustment of a single parameter, the routing zone radius. In this paper, we address the issue of configuring the ZRP to providethe best performance for a particular network at any time with the concept of eccentricity. The results illustrate the important characteristics of different protocols based on their performance and thus suggest some improvements in the respective protocol. The tools used for the simulation are NS2 which is the main simulator, NAM (Network Animator and Tracegraph which is used for preparing the graphs from the trace files.

  15. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Wesley R; Johnson Cassandra M; Sharkey Joseph R; Horel Scott A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. Methods The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed da...

  16. Fast frequency tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopenko I. G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A method of periodical signal frequency tracking by the frequency-locked loops is proposed. Increasing of frequency adjustment accuracy is achieved by using of a new fast frequency discriminator, based on estimates of an instantaneous frequency. Reasonability of an input signal pre-filtering in case of nonlinear distortions, harmonics interferences and strong noise is proved.

  17. Fast Passenger Tracks Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s fast passenger tracks network consists of four parts:express rail- way with speeds between 300km/h and 350 kin/h,passenger rail lines with speeds between 200 km/h and 250 km/h,intercity high-speed railways that run

  18. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert

    1998-01-01

    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU...

  19. Integral Fast Reactor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes highlights of the technical progress made in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program in FY 1992. Technical accomplishments are presented in the following areas of the IFR technology development activities: (1) metal fuel performance, (2) pyroprocess development, (3) safety experiments and analyses, (4) core design development, (5) fuel cycle demonstration, and (6) LMR technology R ampersand D

  20. Parallel Fast Legendre Transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves de Inda, M.; Bisseling, R.H.; Maslen, D.K.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a parallel implementation of a fast algorithm for the discrete polynomial Legendre transform We give an introduction to the DriscollHealy algorithm using polynomial arithmetic and present experimental results on the eciency and accuracy of our implementation The algorithms were implemente