WorldWideScience

Sample records for access programs evidence

  1. Equitable Access for Secondary English Learner Students: Course Taking as Evidence of EL Program Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca M.; Shifrer, Dara

    2016-01-01

    Purpose EL education policy has long directed schools to address English learner (EL) students’ linguistic and academic development, and must do so without furthering inequity or segregation (Lau, 1974; Castañeda, 1981). The recent ESSA (2015) reauthorization expresses a renewed focus on evidence of equity, effectiveness, and opportunity to learn. We propose that high school course taking patterns provide evidence of program effectiveness and equity in access. Research Design Using data from the nationally representative Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002), we employ multinomial regression models to predict students’ likelihood of completing two types of high school coursework (basic graduation, college preparatory) by their linguistic status. Findings Despite considerable linguistic, sociodemographic, and academic controls, marked disparities in high school course taking patterns remain, with EL students experiencing significantly less academic exposure. Implications for Policy and Practice Building on McKenzie and Scheurich’s (2004) notion of an equity trap and evidence of a long-standing EL opportunity gap, we suggest that school leaders might use our findings and their own course taking patterns to prompt discussions about the causes and consequences of local EL placement processes. Such discussions have the potential to raise awareness about how educators and school leaders approach educational equity and access, key elements central to the spirit of EL education policy. PMID:27429476

  2. School Access, Resources, and Learning Outcomes: Evidence from a Non-formal School Program in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Hai-Anh; Sarr, Leopold; Asadullah, Niaz

    2011-01-01

    This study reports evidence from an unusual policy intervention - The Reaching Out of School Children (ROSC) project - in Bangladesh where school grants and education allowances are offered to attract hard-to-reach children to schools comprised of a single teacher and a classroom. The operating unit cost of these schools is a fraction of that of formal primary schools. We use panel data to investigate whether ROSC schools are effective in raising enrolment and learning outcomes. Our findings ...

  3. Clinical evidence continuous medical education: a randomised educational trial of an open access e-learning program for transferring evidence-based information - ICEKUBE (Italian Clinical Evidence Knowledge Utilization Behaviour Evaluation) - study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moja, Lorenzo; Moschetti, Ivan; Cinquini, Michela; Sala, Valeria; Compagnoni, Anna; Duca, Piergiorgio; Deligant, Christian; Manfrini, Roberto; Clivio, Luca; Satolli, Roberto; Addis, Antonio; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Dri, Pietro; Liberati, Alessandro

    2008-07-17

    In an effort to ensure that all physicians have access to valid and reliable evidence on drug effectiveness, the Italian Drug Agency sponsored a free-access e-learning system, based on Clinical Evidence, called ECCE. Doctors have access to an electronic version and related clinical vignettes. Correct answers to the interactive vignettes provide Continuing Medical Education credits. The aims of this trial are to establish whether the e-learning program (ECCE) increases physicians' basic knowledge about common clinical scenarios, and whether ECCE is superior to the passive diffusion of information through the printed version of Clinical Evidence. All Italian doctors naïve to ECCE will be randomised to three groups. Group one will have access to ECCE for Clinical Evidence chapters and vignettes lot A and will provide control data for Clinical Evidence chapters and vignettes lot B; group two vice versa; group three will receive the concise printed version of Clinical Evidence. There are in fact two designs: a before and after pragmatic trial utilising a two by two incomplete block design (group one versus group two) and a classical design (group one and two versus group three). The primary outcome will be the retention of Clinical Evidence contents assessed from the scores for clinical vignettes selected from ECCE at least six months after the intervention. To avoid test-retest effects, we will randomly select vignettes out of lot A and lot B, avoiding repetitions. In order to preserve the comparability of lots, we will select vignettes with similar, optimal psychometric characteristics.

  4. Clinical evidence continuous medical education: a randomised educational trial of an open access e-learning program for transferring evidence-based information – ICEKUBE (Italian Clinical Evidence Knowledge Utilization Behaviour Evaluation) – study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moja, Lorenzo; Moschetti, Ivan; Cinquini, Michela; Sala, Valeria; Compagnoni, Anna; Duca, Piergiorgio; Deligant, Christian; Manfrini, Roberto; Clivio, Luca; Satolli, Roberto; Addis, Antonio; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Dri, Pietro; Liberati, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Background In an effort to ensure that all physicians have access to valid and reliable evidence on drug effectiveness, the Italian Drug Agency sponsored a free-access e-learning system, based on Clinical Evidence, called ECCE. Doctors have access to an electronic version and related clinical vignettes. Correct answers to the interactive vignettes provide Continuing Medical Education credits. The aims of this trial are to establish whether the e-learning program (ECCE) increases physicians' basic knowledge about common clinical scenarios, and whether ECCE is superior to the passive diffusion of information through the printed version of Clinical Evidence. Design All Italian doctors naïve to ECCE will be randomised to three groups. Group one will have access to ECCE for Clinical Evidence chapters and vignettes lot A and will provide control data for Clinical Evidence chapters and vignettes lot B; group two vice versa; group three will receive the concise printed version of Clinical Evidence. There are in fact two designs: a before and after pragmatic trial utilising a two by two incomplete block design (group one versus group two) and a classical design (group one and two versus group three). The primary outcome will be the retention of Clinical Evidence contents assessed from the scores for clinical vignettes selected from ECCE at least six months after the intervention. To avoid test-retest effects, we will randomly select vignettes out of lot A and lot B, avoiding repetitions. In order to preserve the comparability of lots, we will select vignettes with similar, optimal psychometric characteristics. Trial registration ISRCTN27453314 PMID:18637189

  5. Professional Access 2013 programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hennig, Teresa; Hepworth, George; Yudovich, Dagi (Doug)

    2013-01-01

    Authoritative and comprehensive coverage for building Access 2013 Solutions Access, the most popular database system in the world, just opened a new frontier in the Cloud. Access 2013 provides significant new features for building robust line-of-business solutions for web, client and integrated environments.  This book was written by a team of Microsoft Access MVPs, with consulting and editing by Access experts, MVPs and members of the Microsoft Access team. It gives you the information and examples to expand your areas of expertise and immediately start to develop and upgrade projects. Exp

  6. Community food environments and healthy food access among older adults: A review of the evidence for the Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dare Wilson, Kellie

    2017-04-01

    Although an array of federal, state, and local programs exist that target food insecurity and the specific nutritional needs of seniors, food insecurity among older adults in the United States remains a persistent problem, particularly in minority and rural populations. Food insecurity is highly predictive of inadequate fresh fruit and vegetable (FFV) consumption in particular. The Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP) is a community-based program to help seniors purchase FFVs at farmer's markets in their neighborhoods. The SFMNP continues to grow; however, little is known about the effectiveness of the program. The purposes of this article are to (1) highlight the importance of community and neighborhood based food insecurity programs, specifically emphasizing the importance of FFV access for seniors, (2) review the current state of the evidence on the SFMNP, and (3) provide recommendations for researchers and policy-makers wishing to continue to advance the knowledge base in neighborhood-based food security among older adults.

  7. Stability of children's insurance coverage and implications for access to care: evidence from the Survey of Income and Program Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmueller, Thomas; Orzol, Sean M; Shore-Sheppard, Lara

    2014-06-01

    Even as the number of children with health insurance has increased, coverage transitions--movement into and out of coverage and between public and private insurance--have become more common. Using data from 1996 to 2005, we examine whether insurance instability has implications for access to primary care. Because unobserved factors related to parental behavior and child health may affect both the stability of coverage and utilization, we estimate the relationship between insurance and the probability that a child has at least one physician visit per year using a model that includes child fixed effects to account for unobserved heterogeneity. Although we find that unobserved heterogeneity is an important factor influencing cross-sectional correlations, conditioning on child fixed effects we find a statistically and economically significant relationship between insurance coverage stability and access to care. Children who have part-year public or private insurance are more likely to have at least one doctor's visit than children who are uninsured for a full year, but less likely than children with full-year coverage. We find comparable effects for public and private insurance. Although cross-sectional analyses suggest that transitions directly between public and private insurance are associated with lower rates of utilization, the evidence of such an effect is much weaker when we condition on child fixed effects.

  8. AVLIS industrial access program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-11-15

    This document deals with the procurements planned for the construction of an Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) production plant. Several large-scale AVLIS facilities have already been built and tested; a full-scale engineering demonstration facility is currently under construction. The experience gained from these projects provides the procurement basis for the production plant construction and operation. In this document, the status of the AVLIS process procurement is presented from two viewpoints. The AVLIS Production Plant Work Breakdown Structure is referenced at the level of the items to be procured. The availability of suppliers for the items at this level is discussed. In addition, the work that will result from the AVLIS enrichment plant project is broken down by general procurement categories (construction, mechanical equipment, etc.) and the current AVLIS suppliers are listed according to these categories. A large number of companies in all categories are currently providing AVLIS equipment for the Full-Scale Demonstration Facility in Livermore, California. These companies form an existing and expanding supplier network for the AVLIS program. Finally, this document examines the relationship between the AVLIS construction project/operational facility and established commercial suppliers. The goal is to utilize existing industrial capability to meet the needs of the project in a competitive procurement situation. As a result, costs and procurement risks are both reduced because the products provided come from within the AVLIS suppliers' experience base. At the same time, suppliers can benefit by the potential to participate in AVLIS technology spin-off markets. 35 figures.

  9. Bundling occupational safety with harm reduction information as a feasible method for improving police receptiveness to syringe access programs: evidence from three U.S. cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beletsky Leo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In light of overwhelming evidence that access to sterile injection equipment reduces incidence of injection-attributable bloodborne disease without encouraging drug use, many localities have authorized sterile syringe access programs (SAPs, including syringe exchange and pharmacy-based initiatives. Even where such interventions are clearly legal, many law enforcement officers are unaware of the public health benefits and legal status of these programs and may continue to treat the possession of injection equipment as illegal and program participation as a marker of illegal behavior. Law enforcement practice can impede SAP utilization and may increase the risk of needlestick injury (NSI among law enforcement personnel. Many SAPs conduct little or no outreach to law enforcement, in part because they perceive law enforcement actors as unreceptive to health-promotion programs targeting drug users. Case description We report on a brief training intervention for law enforcement personnel designed to increase officer knowledge of and positive attitudes towards SAPs by bundling content that addresses officer concerns about infectious disease and occupational safety with information about the legality and public health benefits of these programs. Pilot trainings using this bundled curriculum were conducted with approximately 600 officers in three US cities. Discussion and evaluation Law enforcement officers were generally receptive to receiving information about SAPs through the bundled curriculum. The trainings led to better communication and collaboration between SAP and law enforcement personnel, providing a valuable platform for better harmonization of law enforcement and public health activities targeting injection drug users. Conclusion The experience in these three cities suggests that a harm reduction training curriculum that bundles strategies for increasing officer occupational safety with information about the legality

  10. Charter Halibut Limited Access Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This limited access system limits the number of charter vessels that may participate in the guided sport fishery for halibut in area 2C and 3A. NMFS issues a charter...

  11. Environmental Research Division's Data Access Program (ERDDAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ERDDAP (the Environmental Research Division's Data Access Program) is a data server that gives you a simple, consistent way to download subsets of scientific...

  12. 77 FR 66025 - Program Access Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... and Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 76 Program Access Rules AGENCY... to A&E's other owners (Disney and Hearst). As a result of this transaction, the regulatory status of...

  13. Programming and Technology for Accessibility in Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevre, E.; Lee, S.

    2013-12-01

    Many people, students and professors alike, shy away from learning to program because it is often believed to be something scary or unattainable. However, integration of programming into geoscience education can be a valuable tool for increasing the accessibility of content for all who are interested. It is my goal to dispel these myths and convince people that: 1) Students with disabilities can use programming to increase their role in the classroom, 2) Everyone can learn to write programs to simplify daily tasks, 3) With a deep understanding of the task, anyone can write a program to do a complex task, 4) Technology can be combined with programming to create an inclusive environment for all students of geoscience, and 5) More advanced knowledge of programming and technology can lead geoscientists to create software to serve as assistive technology in the classroom. It is my goal to share my experiences using technology to enhance the classroom experience as a way of addressing the aforementioned issues. Through my experience, I have found that programming skills can be included and learned by all to enhance the content of courses without detracting from curriculum. I hope that, through this knowledge, geoscience courses can become more accessible for people with disabilities by including programming and technology to the benefit of all involved.

  14. An analysis of Naval Officer accession programs

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner, William D.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis conducts an extensive literature review of prior studies on the three major commissioning programs for United States naval officers --the United States Naval Academy, Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps, and Officer Candidate School. Three areas are covered: historical patterns in officer accessions and historical changes in Navy pre-commissioning training and education philosophy and policy; cost comparisons of the three major commissioning programs; and comparisons of job perf...

  15. 76 FR 56091 - Expansion of 911 Access; Telecommunications Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1735 RIN 0572-AC24 Expansion of 911 Access; Telecommunications Loan Program AGENCY... access and integrated emergency communications systems in rural areas for the Telecommunications Loan... Villano, Assistant Administrator, Telecommunications Program, USDA--Rural Utilities Service,...

  16. 12 CFR 268.707 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Programs and Activities Because of Physical or Mental Disability § 268.707 Program accessibility: Existing facilities. (a) General. The Board shall operate each program or activity so that the program or activity, when viewed in its entirety, is readily accessible to and usable by individuals with a disability....

  17. 76 FR 66089 - Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide 5.66, ``Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide... Authorization Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants,'' and 10 CFR part 26, ``Fitness for Duty Programs.'' The......

  18. 77 FR 6113 - Video Programming and Accessibility Advisory Committee; Announcement of Date of Next Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... COMMISSION Video Programming and Accessibility Advisory Committee; Announcement of Date of Next Meeting... meeting of the Video Programming Accessibility Advisory Committee (``Committee'' or ``VPAAC''). The... description, access to emergency programming, and access to user interfaces, menus, and programming...

  19. Increasing access and support for emergency management higher education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiak, Carol L

    2014-01-01

    The number of emergency management higher education programs has grown dramatically since 1994 when the FEMA Higher Education Program was created to propagate and support such growth. Data collected annually since 2007 from emergency management higher education programs shows that these programs face some consistent challenges. These challenges were coupled with annual data on program access and support indicators via dimensional analysis to answer the questions: To what extent are the challenges linked to a lack of access or support? If there is linkage, what can be gleaned from these linkages that can help address the challenges through improving access and support? The analysis showed that lack of access to funding and resources, and lack of support from partner organizations, has an impact on emergency management higher education. Discussion of that impact is followed with detailed recommendations that are focused on strengthening both internal and external access and support relationships for emergency management higher education programs.

  20. Evidence supporting broader access to safe legal abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal; Shah, Iqbal H

    2015-10-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal condition for abortion is met. The present article aims to contribute to a better understanding that one can be in favor of greater access to safe abortion services, while at the same time not be "in favor of abortion," by reviewing the evidence that indicates that criminalization of abortion only increases mortality and morbidity without decreasing the incidence of induced abortion, and that decriminalization rapidly reduces abortion-related mortality and does not increase abortion rates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. 75 FR 34960 - Import Administration IA ACCESS Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... ACCESS Pilot Program in the Federal Register at 75 FR 32341. The reference to the Docket No. ITA- 2010.... The Department publishes this notice to correct this number. Accordingly, in FR Doc. 2010-13733, at... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 Import Administration IA ACCESS Pilot Program AGENCY:...

  2. 75 FR 7153 - National Organic Program; Access to Pasture (Livestock)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    ... Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 205 National Organic Program; Access to Pasture... Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 205 RIN 0581-AC57 National Organic Program; Access to Pasture (Livestock) AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service,...

  3. 75 FR 32341 - Import Administration IA ACCESS Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 Import Administration IA ACCESS Pilot Program AGENCY: Import... comments. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (the Department) is creating a pilot program to test an..., the Department is requesting comments from parties on this pilot program. DATES: Effective Date:...

  4. The development of accessibility indicators for distance learning programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Burgstahler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to explore program policies and practices related to the accessibility of American distance learning courses to qualified students with disabilities. A literature review was conducted, a draft list of accessibility indicators was created, examples of applications of the indicators in existing distance learning programs were collected, the indicators were systematically applied to one distance learning program, input from a variety of distance learning programs was used to further refine the indicators, and these programs were encouraged to adopt the indicators and make use of resources provided by the project. Results of this exploratory work suggest that incorporating accessibility considerations into policies, procedures and communications of a program requires consideration of the unique needs of students, course designers, instructors and evaluators; involves approval and implementation at a variety of administrative levels; and is an ongoing process that may be implemented in incremental steps.

  5. Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information Access Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information Access (TICFIA) Program supports projects focused on developing innovative technologies for accessing, collecting, organizing, preserving, and disseminating information from foreign sources to address the U.S.' teaching and research needs in international education and foreign…

  6. Embedded Systems Programming: Accessing Databases from Esterel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A current limitation in embedded controller design and programming is the lack of database support in development tools such as Esterel Studio. This article proposes a way of integrating databases and Esterel by providing two application programming interfaces (APIs which enable the use of relational databases inside Esterel programs. As databases and Esterel programs are often executed on different machines, result sets returned as responses to database queries may be processed either locally and according to Esterel's synchrony hypothesis, or remotely along several of Esterel's execution cycles. These different scenarios are reflected in the design and usage rules of the two APIs presented in this article, which rely on Esterel's facilities for extending the language by external data types, external functions, and procedures, as well as tasks. The APIs' utility is demonstrated by means of a case study modelling an automated warehouse storage system, which is constructed using Lego Mindstorms robotics kits. The robot's controller is programmed in Esterel in a way that takes dynamic ordering information and the warehouse's floor layout into account, both of which are stored in a MySQL database.

  7. Embedded Systems Programming: Accessing Databases from Esterel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A current limitation in embedded controller design and programming is the lack of database support in development tools such as Esterel Studio. This article proposes a way of integrating databases and Esterel by providing two application programming interfaces (APIs which enable the use of relational databases inside Esterel programs. As databases and Esterel programs are often executed on different machines, result sets returned as responses to database queries may be processed either locally and according to Esterel’s synchrony hypothesis, or remotely along several of Esterel’s execution cycles. These different scenarios are reflected in the design and usage rules of the two APIs presented in this article, which rely on Esterel’s facilities for extending the language by external data types, external functions, and procedures, as well as tasks. The APIs’ utility is demonstrated by means of a case study modelling an automated warehouse storage system, which is constructed using Lego Mindstorms robotics kits. The robot’s controller is programmed in Esterel in a way that takes dynamic ordering information and the warehouse’s floor layout into account, both of which are stored in a MySQL database.

  8. Notified Access: Extending Remote Memory Access Programming Models for Producer-Consumer Synchronization

    KAUST Repository

    Belli, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    Remote Memory Access (RMA) programming enables direct access to low-level hardware features to achieve high performance for distributed-memory programs. However, the design of RMA programming schemes focuses on the memory access and less on the synchronization. For example, in contemporary RMA programming systems, the widely used producer-consumer pattern can only be implemented inefficiently, incurring in an overhead of an additional round-trip message. We propose Notified Access, a scheme where the target process of an access can receive a completion notification. This scheme enables direct and efficient synchronization with a minimum number of messages. We implement our scheme in an open source MPI-3 RMA library and demonstrate lower overheads (two cache misses) than other point-to-point synchronization mechanisms for each notification. We also evaluate our implementation on three real-world benchmarks, a stencil computation, a tree computation, and a Colicky factorization implemented with tasks. Our scheme always performs better than traditional message passing and other existing RMA synchronization schemes, providing up to 50% speedup on small messages. Our analysis shows that Notified Access is a valuable primitive for any RMA system. Furthermore, we provide guidance for the design of low-level network interfaces to support Notified Access efficiently.

  9. 76 FR 57989 - Video Programming and Accessibility Advisory Committee; Announcement of Date of Next Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... COMMISSION Video Programming and Accessibility Advisory Committee; Announcement of Date of Next Meeting... meeting of the Video Programming Accessibility Advisory Committee (``Committee'' or ``VPAAC''). The..., and the delivery of video description, access to emergency programming, and the interoperability...

  10. A novel IPTV program multiplex access system to EPON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xian; Liu, Deming; He, Wei; Lu, Xi

    2007-11-01

    With the rapid development of high speed networks, such as Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON), traffic patterns in access networks have evolved from traditional text-oriented service to the mixed text-, voice- and video- based services, leading to so called "Triple Play". For supporting IPTV service in EPON access network infrastructure, in this article we propose a novel IPTV program multiplex access system to EPON, which enables multiple IPTV program source servers to seamlessly access to IPTV service access port of optical line terminal (OLT) in EPON. There are two multiplex schemes, namely static multiplex scheme and dynamic multiplex scheme, in implementing the program multiplexing. Static multiplex scheme is to multiplex all the IPTV programs and forward them to the OLT, regardless of the need of end-users. While dynamic multiplex scheme can dynamically multiplex and forward IPTV programs according to what the end-users actually demand and those watched by no end-user would not be multiplexed. By comparing these two schemes, a reduced traffic of EPON can be achieved by using dynamic multiplex scheme, especially when most end-users are watching the same few IPTV programs. Both schemes are implemented in our system, with their hardware and software designs described.

  11. An Open-Access Review to Determine Best Evidence-Based Practice for COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Ann Walker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The manifestation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD can have an enormous impact on individuals’ areas of occupation, specifically activities of daily living. Occupational therapy (OT practitioners have the ability to efficiently treat these clients using evidence-based interventions to achieve optimal functioning and quality of life. The purpose of this research study was to identify specific interventions supported by evidence for consumers with COPD using an open-access database for OT. Method: A thematic synthesis of 102 articles available on COPD via the open-access database OTseeker was used in this study. A constant comparison approach revealed seven descriptive themes for intervention including exercise, education, self-management, cognitive-behavioral therapy, complementary and alternative medicine therapy, breathing technique training, and nutrition. Results: For each theme, sub-themes were discussed and components of effective interventions were identified. Aspects of an evidence-based intervention program for individuals with COPD were outlined. Conclusion: Occupational therapists can use this evidence to thoroughly design well-rounded effective evidence-based intervention programs to enable individuals with COPD to live life to its fullest.

  12. 46 CFR 507.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... impairment of significant historic features of an historic property; or (3) Require the agency to take any... of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and devices to depict... handicapped persons, to participate in the development of the transition plan by submitting comments (both...

  13. 45 CFR 1153.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... impairment of significant historic features of an historic property; or (3) Require the agency to take any...), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and devices... organizations representing handicapped persons, to participate in the development of the transition plan by...

  14. 22 CFR 144.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... impairment of significant historic features of an historic property; or (3) Require the agency to take any... of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and devices to depict... handicapped persons, to participate in the development of the transition plan by submitting comments (both...

  15. 1 CFR 500.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... impairment of significant historic features of an historic property; or (3) Require the agency to take any... of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and devices to depict... handicapped persons, to participate in the development of the transition plan by submitting comments (both...

  16. 45 CFR 2104.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... would result in a substantial impairment of significant historic features of an historic property; or (3... of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and devices to depict... handicapped persons, to participate in the development of the transition plan by submitting comments (both...

  17. 22 CFR 1600.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... impairment of significant historic features of an historic property; or (3) Require the agency to take any... of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and devices to depict... handicapped persons, to participate in the development of the transition plan by submitting comments (both...

  18. 22 CFR 530.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... impairment of significant historic features of an historic property; or (3) Require the Board to take any... program accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and devices to depict those portions of an... participate in the development of the transition plan by submitting comments (both oral and written). A copy...

  19. 5 CFR 723.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the agency to take any action that would result in a substantial impairment of significant historic... methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and devices to depict... organizations representing individuals with handicaps, to participate in the development of the transition plan...

  20. 25 CFR 720.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... impairment of significant historic features of an historic property; or (3) Require the agency to take any... of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and devices to depict... handicapped persons, to participate in the development of the transition plan by submitting comments (both...

  1. 18 CFR 1313.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... would result in a substantial impairment of significant historic features of an historic property; or (3... (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual... persons or organizations representing handicapped persons, to participate in the development of the...

  2. 49 CFR 1014.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... impairment of significant historic features of an historic property; or (3) Require the agency to take any... of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and devices to depict... handicapped persons, to participate in the development of the transition plan by submitting comments (both...

  3. Accessibility of Peripheral Regions: Evidence from Aegean Islands (Greece)

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Spilanis; Thanasis Kizos; Paraskevi Petsioti

    2012-01-01

    Islands, especially smaller ones, are characterized by discontinuity of space and are considered as some of the least accessible areas. In this paper, we seek to shed light on the accessibility problems that islands face from the point of view of island residents. This shift in emphasis considers additional aspects to accessibility that include the availability of connections to access services required to cover the needs of island residents and the different destinations where these may be a...

  4. 76 FR 19356 - Video Programming and Accessibility Advisory Committee; Announcement of Date of Next Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... COMMISSION Video Programming and Accessibility Advisory Committee; Announcement of Date of Next Meeting... meeting of the Video Programming Accessibility Advisory Committee (``Committee'' or ``VPAAC''). The meeting will address the provision of closed captioning of Internet programming previously captioned...

  5. Home Delivery Medicament Program: access, inactivity and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque da Silva Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to verify causes of inactivity in the Home Delivery Medicament Program, as referred by users from a Primary Health Care Service in São Paulo, comparing them to the causes registered in the program and analyzing them in the theoretical model Concept of Access to Health. Methods: cross-sectional study, interviewing 111 inactive users; and documentary study in the program records. Results: half of the users did not know the condition of inactivity. Discrepancies were found between the user's and the program's information, observing different levels of agreement: Absence of physician and administrative staff member 0%; Transfer to other service 25%; Death 50%; Option to quit 50%; Address change 57% and Change in therapeutic schedule 80%. The users' feeling of accepting the program was observed. In the health access concept, inactivity can be explained in the information dimension, in the degree of asymmetry between the patient's and the health professional's knowledge, identified through the indicators: education, knowledge and information sources. Conclusions: due to the low education level, the user does not assimilate the information on the steps of the program flowchart, does not return for the assessment that guarantees its continuity. Consequently, (she stops receiving the medication and spends a long time without treatment, increasing the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive (92% of the sample, diabetic (44% and dyslipidemic patients (31%.

  6. An accessible interface for programming an assistive robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G Victores

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an accessible interface in the context of our work on bringing advanced robotics closer to everyday domestic users. This interface allows inexperienced users to be capable of programming an assistive robotic arm to perform a specific desired task in a household environment. The programming process is performed through the developed Web Browsable interface, within which a Task Creator Wizard plays an essential role. The robot's open architecture enables flexible multi-modal interaction. In addition to the touch buttons provided by the Web Browsable interface when presented on a touch screen, voice commands and the use of the Wii RemoteTM controller for intuitive robotic movement have also been enabled. The Web Browsable interface has been designed to provide high accessibility while taking aesthetic details into account, in order to prevent distraction caused by boredom of the user.

  7. Access to Bathtub Grab Bars: Evidence of a Policy Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Nicholas; Nair, Rama; Murphy, Maureen; Roberge, Ginette; Lockett, Donna

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines access to bathtub grab bars in privately and publicly owned apartment buildings and explores the profile of seniors who have access to bathtub grab bars. Results indicate that bathtub grab bars were significantly more prevalent in apartments that were publicly owned (91.3%) as compared to privately owned (37.8%) (p lesser than…

  8. Accessibility of Peripheral Regions: Evidence from Aegean Islands (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Spilanis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Islands, especially smaller ones, are characterized by discontinuity of space and are considered as some of the least accessible areas. In this paper, we seek to shed light on the accessibility problems that islands face from the point of view of island residents. This shift in emphasis considers additional aspects to accessibility that include the availability of connections to access services required to cover the needs of island residents and the different destinations where these may be available, and the time that one may have to spend to get to these destinations in order to use these services. An alternative measure of accessibility is proposed, based on the time required to travel; this is then applied to three different Greek islands in the Aegean Sea. The accessibility of the residents of these islands to selected services is compared with that of settlements in continental Greece of similar population and distance to the capital Athens. The findings clearly demonstrate the adversities that island residents have to face, especially for smaller islands, where accessing selected services may require as many as four destinations, with virtual distances 4 to 6 times longer than ‘real distances’.

  9. Does Access to Finance Lower Firms’ Cost of Capital? Empirical Evidence from International Manufacturing Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lashitew, Addisu A.

    2011-01-01

    Lack of access to finance is argued to be one of the most binding constraints for firm growth. There is, however, limited empirical evidence on the relationship between access to finance and the cost of capital. This paper uses international manufacturing data to analyze the effect of access to fina

  10. Does Access to Finance Lower Firms’ Cost of Capital? Empirical Evidence from International Manufacturing Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lashitew, Addisu A.

    2011-01-01

    Lack of access to finance is argued to be one of the most binding constraints for firm growth. There is, however, limited empirical evidence on the relationship between access to finance and the cost of capital. This paper uses international manufacturing data to analyze the effect of access to fina

  11. 47 CFR 76.1003 - Program access proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... differential. (i) When responding to allegations concerning price discrimination, except in cases in which the... conduct described in § 76.1001(b)(1); (4) In complaints alleging discrimination, documentary evidence such as a rate card or a programming contract that demonstrates a differential in price, terms...

  12. 77 FR 6479 - Leased Commercial Access; Development of Competition and Diversity in Video Programming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Programming Distribution and Carriage AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... carriage of video programming vendors by multichannel video programming distributors (program carriage... and Order, Leased Commercial Access; Development of Competition and Diversity in Video...

  13. Serving underserved transplant recipients: experience of the Medication Access Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spivey CA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Christina A Spivey,1 Marie A Chisholm-Burns,1 Charlene Garrett,2 Kenneth M Duke21University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy, Memphis, TN, USA; 2University of Georgia College of Pharmacy, Athens, GA, USAObjective: Programs have been established to help underserved, solid-organ transplant recipients and other patient populations address the burden of medication regimen costs. The purpose of this study was to describe one such program, the Medication Access Program (MAP, and the population of solid-organ transplant recipients it serves. An additional objective was to compare characteristics of recipients whose MAP enrollment was continued versus those who were discontinued during the annual re-enrollment period.Methods: Enrollment into MAP is based on referral from a pharmacist or another health care professional/transplant team member. To enroll, a recipient must complete an application which includes information about demographics, health care coverage, income, and medication regimen. To maintain enrollment, patients must complete a renewal application on an annual basis. Data were collected from renewal applications for 2012 and 2011 (for those who did not return the 2012 renewal applications. Chi-square analyses and Student’s t-test for independent samples were conducted to compare the characteristics of those who renewed their MAP enrollment in 2012 and those who were discontinued because they did not return the renewal application. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression was conducted to determine variables predictive of MAP continuation status.Results: In total, 246 recipients were included. The majority qualified for Medicare (67.9%, did not qualify for Medicaid (69.9%, and did not have private health care coverage (63.8%. Significantly more continued recipients qualified for Medicare compared to discontinued recipients (P=0.002. Discontinued recipients had a greater number of past discontinuations than continued recipients

  14. How Accessible Is IB Schooling? Evidence from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Anisah; Perry, Laura B.; Ledger, Susan

    2017-01-01

    This study examines access to International Baccalaureate schools in Australia. It is important to examine whether, as a highly regarded form of rigorous academic education, IB programmes are available to a wide range of students. We examine the location of schools in Australia that offer one or more of the IB Primary Years Programme, Middle Years…

  15. Informality and Access to Finance : Evidence from India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Hoseini, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper gauges the effect of financial deepening and bank outreach on informality using micro data from the Indian manufacturing sector and exploiting cross-industry variation in the need for external finance. We distinguish between two channels through which access to finance can reduce informal

  16. 28 CFR 513.43 - Inmate access to certain Bureau Program Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Information § 513.43 Inmate access to certain Bureau Program Statements. Inmates are encouraged to use the simple local access procedures described in this section to review certain Bureau Program Statements... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate access to certain Bureau Program...

  17. Informativity renders a referent more accessible: Evidence from eyetracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Hossein; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2016-04-01

    The amount of information attached to a noun phrase (henceforth, NP) has been shown to enhance accessibility and increase pronominal reference in language production. However, both the effect of information quantity on the comprehension of ambiguous pronouns and the time course of any informativity effect have been left unexplored. In two eyetracking experiments, we investigated how additional information on the part of NP referents influenced the resolution of following ambiguous pronouns. The results of the first experiment revealed an informativity effect, with more looks to the informationally richer referent than to the competitor. However, the effect of additional information emerged late in time when the referent was the object of the verb. The second experiment replicated the results of the first and also showed that, consistent with the online results, an ambiguous pronoun is interpreted as referring to the informationally richer NP in an offline, explicit pronoun resolution task. The results lend support to theories of language processing that assume that explicit information increases the accessibility of the associated concept, in contrast to approaches that assume that accessibility is associated with givenness.

  18. An Accessible User Interface for Geoscience and Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevre, E. O.; Lee, S.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this research is to develop an interface that will simplify user interaction with software for scientists. The motivating factor of the research is to develop tools that assist scientists with limited motor skills with the efficient generation and use of software tools. Reliance on computers and programming is increasing in the world of geology, and it is increasingly important for geologists and geophysicists to have the computational resources to use advanced software and edit programs for their research. I have developed a prototype of a program to help geophysicists write programs using a simple interface that requires only simple single-mouse-clicks to input code. It is my goal to minimize the amount of typing necessary to create simple programs and scripts to increase accessibility for people with disabilities limiting fine motor skills. This interface can be adapted for various programming and scripting languages. Using this interface will simplify development of code for C/C++, Java, and GMT, and can be expanded to support any other text based programming language. The interface is designed around the concept of maximizing the amount of code that can be written using a minimum number of clicks and typing. The screen is split into two sections: a list of click-commands is on the left hand side, and a text area is on the right hand side. When the user clicks on a command on the left hand side the applicable code is automatically inserted at the insertion point in the text area. Currently in the C/C++ interface, there are commands for common code segments that are often used, such as for loops, comments, print statements, and structured code creation. The primary goal is to provide an interface that will work across many devices for developing code. A simple prototype has been developed for the iPad. Due to the limited number of devices that an iOS application can be used with, the code has been re-written in Java to run on a wider range of devices

  19. The Global Auroral Imaging Access (GAIA) VxO Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanswick, E.; Donovan, E.; Syrjaesuo, M.; Kauristie, K.; Mende, S.; Frey, H.; Germany, G.; Roberts, A.; Lummerzheim, D.; Marple, S.; Honary, F.; Weatherwax, A.; Moen, J.; Manuel, J.; Sandahl, I.

    2006-12-01

    The Global Auroral Imaging Access virtual observatory (herein GAIA-VxO) is being developed as a clearing house for data related to remote sensing of auroral precipitation. GAIA-VxO is a truly international program. Researchers in Finland, the UK, Canada, and the US have agreed to contribute work on different modules of the overall GAIA system. These include summary browsers, mirror sites, and a data distribution system. GAIA will stage summary and full-resolution data from satellite-borne and ground-based auroral imagers, as well as meridian scanning photometers, and imaging and single-beam riometers. GAIA will provide ready access to data from the THEMIS, NORSTAR, and MIRACLE ASIs, as well, numerous other programs. GAIA has at its heart a relational data base, and protocols for production of summary data (we currently have more than 7,000,000 summary images on our prototype web page http://gaia-vxo.org). In this talk, we present an overview of the GAIA concept and architecture. We discuss how GAIA will draw on the efforts of researchers from different countries, with different programmatic constraints and scientific and operational objectives. Finally, we provide some insights into how GAIA will form an integral part of the evolving Living With a Star Data Environment.

  20. Increasing Access to Evidence-Based Practices and Knowledge and Attitudes: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of increasing field instructors access to information about evidence-based practices (EBPs) on their level of knowledge and attitudes about EBPs. Method: Eighteen field instructors received training and access to a library with extensive online journals. Half were randomly selected to also receive a…

  1. Newborn access and care in a health attention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Remundini de Lima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study aimed to describe the access and integrality of attention to children before one year old, born between January of 2010 and December of 2012 in a Brazilian city, in a newborn attention program. From the 24.560 children, 55.0% were users of the Unified Health System (SUS; 10.1% children presented low weight at birth; 6,332 (46.9% children received BCG vaccine at the nursing consultation day; 13,590 (79.5% children had neonatal screening being less than seven days old; 17,035 (69.4% children were vaccinated for Hepatitis B at birth. Within SUS users, 68% of children went to nursing consultation at their first week of life and, 37.8% went to a medical consultation being 10 days old. The study presents information of care after birth at the primary healthcare as potential instrument to coordinate assistance to this clientele.

  2. 47 CFR 1.1805 - Federal Communications Commission Section 504 Programs and Activities Accessibility Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Programs and Activities Accessibility Handbook. 1.1805 Section 1.1805 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications Commission Section 504 Programs and Activities Accessibility Handbook. The Consumer & Governmental... Accessibility Handbook” (“Section 504 Handbook”) for Commission staff, and shall update the Section 504 Handbook...

  3. Access pricing for transmission networks: Hypotheses and empirical evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martoccia, Maria [Decision Technology Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-08-01

    The sectors characterised by the use of transmission or transport networks as inputs of production (electricity, gas, telecommunications) have long been considered as natural monopolies. Thanks to the technological innovations which have modified the economics of production (as in electricity generation) or that have driven the development of high value added services (as in telecommunications), the boundaries of the old natural monopolies have been eroded by the presence of operators potentially able to compete in national and international markets. The objective is to delineate, by analysing the more significant theoretical contributions and some of the restructuring experiences of the sector in question, the possible regulatory solutions which, in the perspective of a `European market` for electricity, makes the management and the expansion of the transmission networks adequate for the `open access` of national electricity sectors. The analysis of some mature experiences, such as in Chile, Argentina, the UK and Norway, in the second section, will offer a useful support to this evaluation. The regulatory solution here adopted will be analysed, in particular, with reference to the two main problems outlined above: on the one hand, the problem of providing through prices the necessary information about the opportunities of using the transmission assets; and on the other hand, the problem of defining an efficient incentive mechanism for the behaviour of the monopolist (the owner of the transmission assets). Finally, by considering the limits found in the solutions explored in these models, we will try, in the third section, to delineate the evolution that the regulation of the analysed sectors could follow, in an attempt to make the optimal solution defined in the first section consistent with the imperfections of the real scenarios. (EHS)

  4. 45 CFR 606.52 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 606.52 Program accessibility: New construction and... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program accessibility: New construction...

  5. Economic Impact of the Critical Access Hospital Program on Kentucky's Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ona, Lucia; Davis, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Context: In 1997, the Medicare Rural Hospital Flexibility Grant Program created the Critical Access Hospital (CAH) Program as a response to the financial distress of rural hospitals. It was believed that this program would reduce the rate of rural hospital closures and improve access to health care services in rural communities. Objective: The…

  6. Evidence for transgenerational metabolic programming in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Worldwide epidemiologic studies have repeatedly demonstrated an association between prenatal nutritional environment, birth weight and susceptibility to adult diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Despite advances in mammalian model systems, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear, but might involve programming mechanisms such as epigenetics. Here we describe a new system for evaluating metabolic programming mechanisms using...

  7. Access Services Education in Library and Information Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, David

    2009-01-01

    This article defines the elements of Access Services, explains the importance of those aspects in the library, and proposes a course centered on Access Services for library schools. The areas of circulation, interlibrary loan, course reserves, collection maintenance, and public relations are core components of Access Services. Each of those…

  8. Home Delivery Medicament Program: access, inactivity and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Roque da Silva; Arcuri, Edna Apparecida Moura; Lopes, Victor Cauê

    2016-10-10

    to verify causes of inactivity in the Home Delivery Medicament Program, as referred by users from a Primary Health Care Service in São Paulo, comparing them to the causes registered in the program and analyzing them in the theoretical model Concept of Access to Health. cross-sectional study, interviewing 111 inactive users; and documentary study in the program records. half of the users did not know the condition of inactivity. Discrepancies were found between the user's and the program's information, observing different levels of agreement: Absence of physician and administrative staff member 0%; Transfer to other service 25%; Death 50%; Option to quit 50%; Address change 57% and Change in therapeutic schedule 80%. The users' feeling of accepting the program was observed. In the health access concept, inactivity can be explained in the information dimension, in the degree of asymmetry between the patient's and the health professional's knowledge, identified through the indicators: education, knowledge and information sources. due to the low education level, the user does not assimilate the information on the steps of the program flowchart, does not return for the assessment that guarantees its continuity. Consequently, (s)he stops receiving the medication and spends a long time without treatment, increasing the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive (92% of the sample), diabetic (44%) and dyslipidemic patients (31%). verificar causas de inatividade no Programa Remédio em Casa, referidas por usuários de Unidade Básica de Saúde de São Paulo, comparando-as às registradas pelo programa e analisando-as no modelo teórico Conceito de Acesso à Saúde. estudo transversal entrevistando 111 usuários inativos; e documental, nos registros do programa. metade dos usuários desconhecia a condição de inatividade. Constatadas discrepâncias nas informações usuário versus programa, observando-se diferentes níveis de concordância: Falta de médico e funcion

  9. Evidence for transgenerational metabolic programming in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buescher, Jessica L; Musselman, Laura P; Wilson, Christina A; Lang, Tieming; Keleher, Madeline; Baranski, Thomas J; Duncan, Jennifer G

    2013-09-01

    Worldwide epidemiologic studies have repeatedly demonstrated an association between prenatal nutritional environment, birth weight and susceptibility to adult diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Despite advances in mammalian model systems, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear, but might involve programming mechanisms such as epigenetics. Here we describe a new system for evaluating metabolic programming mechanisms using a simple, genetically tractable Drosophila model. We examined the effect of maternal caloric excess on offspring and found that a high-sugar maternal diet alters body composition of larval offspring for at least two generations, augments an obese-like phenotype under suboptimal (high-calorie) feeding conditions in adult offspring, and modifies expression of metabolic genes. Our data indicate that nutritional programming mechanisms could be highly conserved and support the use of Drosophila as a model for evaluating the underlying genetic and epigenetic contributions to this phenomenon.

  10. Evidence for transgenerational metabolic programming in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Buescher

    2013-09-01

    Worldwide epidemiologic studies have repeatedly demonstrated an association between prenatal nutritional environment, birth weight and susceptibility to adult diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Despite advances in mammalian model systems, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear, but might involve programming mechanisms such as epigenetics. Here we describe a new system for evaluating metabolic programming mechanisms using a simple, genetically tractable Drosophila model. We examined the effect of maternal caloric excess on offspring and found that a high-sugar maternal diet alters body composition of larval offspring for at least two generations, augments an obese-like phenotype under suboptimal (high-calorie feeding conditions in adult offspring, and modifies expression of metabolic genes. Our data indicate that nutritional programming mechanisms could be highly conserved and support the use of Drosophila as a model for evaluating the underlying genetic and epigenetic contributions to this phenomenon.

  11. Building a foundation for systems change: increasing access to physical activity programs for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmayr, Sue; Mackenzie, Geraldine

    2004-10-01

    Although 25% of U.S. adults are physically inactive, this percentage increases dramatically for older adults. Organizational change theory guided a state health department in identifying system gaps and developing strategies to expand programming for seniors. A survey of provider agencies in New Jersey assessed (a) capacity for physical activity programs for older adults, (b) accessibility of programs, and (c) barriers to providing programs. One hundred sixty agencies provided physical activity programs to almost 184,000 individuals annually. Fewer than one half of the agencies provided exercise programs for people with disabilities, and only 44% provided in-home programs. Eighty-two percent of program providers wanted to expand programming but cited lack of trained instructors and peer leaders, inadequate facility space, insufficient funding, and limited transportation resources as barriers. Sustaining older adult behavior change requires infrastructure that will ensure access to diverse physical activities. This article provides strategies to expand access to physical activity programs for older adults.

  12. Quality, language, subdiscipline and promotion were associated with article accesses on Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Tiê P; Arora, Mohit; Stevens, Matthew L; Elkins, Mark R; Moseley, Anne M

    2017-08-12

    To quantify the relationship between the number of times articles are accessed on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and the article characteristics. A secondary aim was to examine the relationship between accesses and the number of citations of articles. The study was conducted to derive prediction models for the number of accesses of articles indexed on PEDro from factors that may influence an article's accesses. All articles available on PEDro from August 2014 to January 2015 were included. We extracted variables relating to the algorithm used to present PEDro search results (research design, year of publication, PEDro score, source of systematic review (Cochrane or non-Cochrane)) plus language, subdiscipline of physiotherapy, and whether articles were promoted to PEDro users. Three predictive models were examined using multiple regression analysis. Citation and journal impact factor were downloaded. There were 29,313 articles indexed in this period. We identified seven factors that predicted the number of accesses. More accesses were noted for factors related to the algorithm used to present PEDro search results (synthesis research (i.e., guidelines and reviews), recent articles, Cochrane reviews, and higher PEDro score) plus publication in English and being promoted to PEDro users. The musculoskeletal, neurology, orthopaedics, sports, and paediatrics subdisciplines were associated with more accesses. We also found that there was no association between number of accesses and citations. The number of times an article is accessed on PEDro is partly predicted by how condensed and high quality the evidence it contains is. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N.; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A.; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A.; Ngogang, Jeanne Y.

    2016-01-01

    Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs. PMID:27508058

  14. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Ngogang, Jeanne Y

    2016-01-01

    Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs.

  15. Open access of evidence-based publications: the case of the orthopedic and musculoskeletal literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammine, Kaissar

    2015-11-01

    The open access model, where researchers can publish their work and make it freely available to the whole medical community, is gaining ground over the traditional type of publication. However, fees are to be paid by either the authors or their institutions. The purpose of this paper is to assess the proportion and type of open access evidence-based articles in the form of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the field of musculoskeletal disorders and orthopedic surgery. PubMed database was searched and the results showed a maximal number of hits for low back pain and total hip arthroplasty. We demonstrated that despite a 10-fold increase in the number of evidence-based publications in the past 10 years, the rate of free systematic reviews in the general biomedical literature did not change for the last two decades. In addition, the average percentage of free open access systematic reviews and meta-analyses for the commonest painful musculoskeletal conditions and orthopedic procedures was 20% and 18%, respectively. Those results were significantly lower than those of the systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the remaining biomedical research. Such findings could indicate a divergence between the efforts engaged at promoting evidence-based principles and those at disseminating evidence-based findings in the field of musculoskeletal disease and trauma. The high processing fee is thought to be a major limitation when considering open access model for publication.

  16. Income Transfers and Maternal Health: Evidence from a National Randomized Social Cash Transfer Program in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Peterman, Amber; Seidenfeld, David; Tembo, Gelson

    2016-02-01

    There is promising recent evidence that poverty-targeted social cash transfers have potential to improve maternal health outcomes; however, questions remain surrounding design features responsible for impacts. In addition, virtually no evidence exists from the African region. This study explores the impact of Zambia's Child Grant Program on a range of maternal health utilization outcomes using a randomized design and difference-in-differences multivariate regression from data collected over 24 months from 2010 to 2012. Results indicate that while there are no measurable program impacts among the main sample, there are heterogeneous impacts on skilled attendance at birth among a sample of women residing in households having better access to maternal health services. The latter result is particularly interesting because of the overall low level of health care availability in program areas suggesting that dedicated program design or matching supply-side interventions may be necessary to leverage unconditional cash transfers in similar settings to impact maternal health.

  17. The challenge, access, risks, and deficits of evidence-based dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederman, Richard; Richards, Derek

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate goal of evidence-based health care (EBH) and evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is the improvement of health of our patients, our practices, and our families. The mechanics of balancing these in the face of overwhelming and increasing information is a challenge. With this challenge come the benefits of access to knowledge that can improve health, the legal risks for inattention, and arguments to the contrary. This conceptual introduction does not provide the truth--it provides one viewpoint. Clinicians will need to decide for themselves if and when they might (or might not) chose to embrace an evidence-based approach to healthcare improvement.

  18. 24 CFR 1003.507 - Public access to program records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS FOR INDIAN TRIBES AND ALASKA NATIVE VILLAGES Grant...), grantees shall provide citizens with reasonable access to records regarding the past use of ICDBG funds...

  19. Hand Society and Matching Program Web Sites Provide Poor Access to Information Regarding Hand Surgery Fellowship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Richard M; Klifto, Christopher S; Naik, Amish A; Sapienza, Anthony; Capo, John T

    2016-08-01

    The Internet is a common resource for applicants of hand surgery fellowships, however, the quality and accessibility of fellowship online information is unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the accessibility of hand surgery fellowship Web sites and to assess the quality of information provided via program Web sites. Hand fellowship Web site accessibility was evaluated by reviewing the American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) on November 16, 2014 and the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) fellowship directories on February 12, 2015, and performing an independent Google search on November 25, 2014. Accessible Web sites were then assessed for quality of the presented information. A total of 81 programs were identified with the ASSH directory featuring direct links to 32% of program Web sites and the NRMP directory directly linking to 0%. A Google search yielded direct links to 86% of program Web sites. The quality of presented information varied greatly among the 72 accessible Web sites. Program description (100%), fellowship application requirements (97%), program contact email address (85%), and research requirements (75%) were the most commonly presented components of fellowship information. Hand fellowship program Web sites can be accessed from the ASSH directory and, to a lesser extent, the NRMP directory. However, a Google search is the most reliable method to access online fellowship information. Of assessable programs, all featured a program description though the quality of the remaining information was variable. Hand surgery fellowship applicants may face some difficulties when attempting to gather program information online. Future efforts should focus on improving the accessibility and content quality on hand surgery fellowship program Web sites.

  20. An evidence-based rehabilitation program for tracheoesophageal speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, P.; Rossum, M.; As-Brooks, C.; Hilgers, F.; Pols, L.; Hilgers, F.J.M.; Pols, L.C.W.; van Rossum, M.; van den Brekel, M.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: to develop an evidence-based therapy program aimed at improving tracheoesophageal speech intelligibility. The therapy program is based on particular problems found for TE speakers in a previous study as performed by the authors. Patients/Materials and Methods: 9 male laryngectomized indi

  1. Disinfection of the Access Orifice in NOTES: Evaluation of the Evidence Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael H. Sodergren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Appropriate prevention of infection is a key area of research in natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES, as identified by the Natural Orifice Surgery Consortium for Assessment and Research (NOSCAR. Methods. A review of the literature was conducted evaluating the evidence base for access orifice preparation/treatment in NOTES procedures in the context of infectious complications. Recommendations based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines were made. Results. The most robust evidence includes several experimental randomised controlled trials assessing infectious complications in the transgastric approach to NOTES. Transvaginal procedures are long established for accessing the peritoneal cavity following disinfection with antiseptic. Only experimental case series for transcolonic and transvesical approaches are described. Conclusion. Grade C recommendation requiring no preoperative preparation can be made for the transgastric approach. Antiseptic irrigation is recommended for transvaginal (grade C NOTES access, as is current practice. Further human trials need to be conducted to corroborate the current evidence base for transgastric closure. It is important that future trials are conducted in a methodologically robust fashion, with emphasis on clinical outcomes and standardisation of enterotomy closure and postoperative therapy.

  2. 78 FR 77074 - Accessibility of User Interfaces, and Video Programming Guides and Menus; Accessible Emergency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... Rcd 6417, 6429-30, paras. 21-29 (1999) (``Section 255 Order''). The U.S. Access Board is ``an... Rulemaking, 26 FCC Rcd 14557, 14563, para. 10, n. 30 (2011) (``ACS Order''). \\2\\ See 47 CFR 14.21(c); ACS Order, 26 FCC Rcd at 14605, para. 115. \\3\\ Implementation of Sections 716 and 717 of the Communications...

  3. 47 CFR 76.1507 - Competitive access to satellite cable programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... programming. 76.1507 Section 76.1507 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... access to satellite cable programming. (a) Any provision that applies to a cable operator under §§ 76... provides video programming on its open video system, except as limited by paragraph (a) (1)-(3) of...

  4. 75 FR 39135 - Voluntary Public Access and Habitat Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... satisfaction from these opportunities. The benefits will be where landowners permit access. VPA-HIP benefits... sales, and increased restaurant and motel expenditures. VPA-HIP is expected to provide $50 million, the... should show how customers will be identified, key personnel to be involved with administration of the...

  5. Bridging the Education Gap through College Access Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Kenyae L.

    2008-01-01

    College access and subsequently college attendance rates of students of color, students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, and those who would be first-generation college students are still significantly below second generation students and European-Americans. The gap exists because the dissemination of college information is inconsistent and…

  6. 32 CFR 154.17 - Special access programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and prior Orders. Title 32 CFR part 159 governs the establishment of Departmental Special Access... Security standards of DCID 1/14 are met. (2) A previous investigation conducted within the past five years... the Armed Forces does not satisfy this requirement. (B) Interim certification is authorized for...

  7. 45 CFR 2301.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... agency to take any action that would result in a substantial impairment of significant historic features... accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and devices to depict those portions of an historic... handicaps, to participate in the development of the transition plan by submitting comments (both oral and...

  8. 22 CFR 711.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agency to take any action that would result in a substantial impairment of significant historic features... accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and devices to depict those portions of an historic... handicaps, to participate in the development of the transition plan by submitting comments (both oral and...

  9. 34 CFR 1200.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agency to take any action that would result in a substantial impairment of significant historic features... accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and devices to depict those portions of an historic... handicaps, to participate in the development of the transition plan by submitting comments (both oral and...

  10. 45 CFR 2490.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., require the agency to take any action that would result in a substantial impairment of significant... accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and devices to depict those portions of an historic... handicaps, to participate in the development of the transition plan by submitting comments (both oral and...

  11. 45 CFR 1706.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE §...

  12. 45 CFR 1706.149 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE §...

  13. Access to special education for exceptional students in French immersion programs: An equity issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Wise

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exceptional pupils enrolled in Canadian French immersion programs rarely have access to the same range of special education programs and services that are available to students in the regular English program. More often than not, students with special needs are encouraged to transfer to English programs to access necessary support services. This counselling-out process perpetuates the elitist status commonly attributed to French immersion programs. From a critical pedagogy perspective, this inquiry examines the lack of incentive on the part of multiple French immersion stakeholders to accommodate students with special needs. It further attempts to unveil the myths created by these stakeholders to better understand this discriminatory educational practice. The impact of federal and provincial funding models on access to special education programs and services is discussed, and the application of funding allocations by English-language district school boards is explored. The inquiry concludes with recommendations to promote more inclusionary practices.

  14. 76 FR 25550 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs: Changes Affecting Hospital and Critical Access Hospital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... and Medicaid Programs: Changes Affecting Hospital and Critical Access Hospital Conditions of...) for both hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs). The final rule will implement a new.... Currently, a hospital or CAH receiving telemedicine services must go through a burdensome credentialing and...

  15. 75 FR 70831 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs: Changes to the Hospital and Critical Access Hospital Conditions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... and Medicaid Programs: Changes to the Hospital and Critical Access Hospital Conditions of... for hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs) to provide visitation rights to Medicare and Medicaid patients. Specifically, Medicare- and Medicaid-participating hospitals and CAHs will be required...

  16. Use of Evidence in the Implementation of Social Programs: A Qualitative Study from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Rodrigo; Naranjo, Carola; Hein, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Through this qualitative, empirical study the authors aim to explore and describe the sources of knowledge that are used to guide intervention practice by social workers in Chile. Particular attention was paid to factors that may facilitate or hinder the use of research-based evidence to guide social interventions design, implementation, and outcome evaluation. In order to explore these issues, 25 semi-structured interviews with social workers from Chilean social service non-profit organizations were conducted. The main findings suggest that social workers do not use research-based evidence to support their social interventions due to various personal organizational constraints (e.g., lack of time, lack of access to resources for disseminating evidence, lack of English command). In addition, no evaluation processes of social programs which will support evidence-based effectiveness could be found. One key barrier to support use of evidence and evidence production may be related to the fact that most non-governmental organizations maintain a hierarchical and vertical relationship with state agencies (program design, oversight, and funding) for social program development.

  17. Avatars travel for free: virtual access to evidence-based intervention training and capacity building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarruel, Antonia M; Aebersold, Michelle; Valladares, Angel F; Yeagley, Emily; Tschannen, Dana

    2014-10-01

    Virtual facilitator trainings have the potential to accelerate the dissemination of evidence-based interventions by increasing accessibility and affordability. We explore the feasibility and acceptability of translating facilitator trainings of ¡Cuídate!, an evidence-based sexual risk intervention for Latino youth, to a multi-user virtual environment (Second Life). We describe the adaptation process and compare participant ratings of face-to-face (n = 35) and Second Life trainings (n = 26). Second Life participants reported that training resources, activities, and demonstrations were good/very good (97%, 88.5%, 94%). While face-to-face participants rated training process outcomes significantly higher than those in Second Life (p virtual trainings are an acceptable and feasible option for training community facilitators on evidence-based interventions. This study contributes to the development of trainings necessary to disseminate and implement evidence-based interventions and is an important effort in providing end-users with access to trainings in order to provide needed community services.

  18. New graduate nurse transition programs: Relationships with bullying and access to support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Kathy L; Adamack, Monica; Gordon, Jason; Janke, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New graduate nurses are often targets of bullying and horizontal violence. The support offered by new graduate nurse transition programs may moderate the effects of bullying and limit its negative impact on new graduate nurse transition. This study examined the relationships between access to support, workplace bullying and new graduate nurse transition within the context of new graduate transition programs. As part of a mixed methods study, an online survey was administered to new graduates (N = 245) approximately a year from starting employment. Bullied new graduate nurses were less able to access support when needed and had poorer transition experiences than their non-bullied peers. Participation in a formal transition program improved access to support and transition for bullied new graduate nurses. People supports within transition programs positively influenced the new graduate nurse transition experience. Formal transition programs provide support that attenuates the impact of bullying on new graduate nurses and improves transition.

  19. New Graduate Transition Programs: Relationships With Access to Support and Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Kathy L; Adamack, Monica; Gordon, Jason; Janke, Robert

    2014-02-03

    Abstract New graduate nurses are often targets of bullying and horizontal violence. The support offered by new graduate nurse transition programs may moderate the effects of bullying and limit its negative impact on new graduate nurse transition. This study examined the relationships between access to support, workplace bullying and new graduate nurse transition within the context of New Graduate Transition programs. As part of a mixed methods study, an online survey was administered to new graduates (n=245) approximately a year from starting employment. Bullied new graduate nurses were less able to access support when needed and had poorer transition experiences than their non-bullied peers. Participation in a formal transition program improved access to support and transition for bullied new graduate nurses. People supports within transition programs positively influenced the new graduate nurse transition experience. Formal transition programs provide support that attenuates the impact of bullying on new graduate nurses and improves transition.

  20. Access, Equity, and Opportunity. Women in Machining: A Model Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Heather

    The Women in Machining (WIM) program is a Machine Action Project (MAP) initiative that was developed in response to a local skilled metalworking labor shortage, despite a virtual absence of women and people of color from area shops. The project identified post-war stereotypes and other barriers that must be addressed if women are to have an equal…

  1. 1 CFR 457.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... preservation programs, require the agency to take any action that would result in a substantial impairment of... include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and devices to depict those portions of an historic property... handicapped persons or organizations representing handicapped persons, to participate in the development of...

  2. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer; Gorgol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched a 10-year, multi-million dollar initiative, the Washington State Achievers Program (WSA), to increase opportunities for low-income students to attend postsecondary institutions in Washington State. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation granted funds to the College Success Foundation…

  3. Potential access to primary health care: what does the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement data show?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchôa, Severina Alice da Costa; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Fronteira, Inês Santos Estevinho; Coêlho, Ardigleusa Alves; Martiniano, Claudia Santos; Brandão, Isabel Cristina Araújo; Yamamura, Mellina; Maroto, Renata Melo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the influence of contextual indicators on the performance of municipalities regarding potential access to primary health care in Brazil and to discuss the contribution from nurses working on this access. Method: a multicenter descriptive study based on secondary data from External Evaluation of the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care, with the participation of 17,202 primary care teams. The chi-square test of proportions was used to verify differences between the municipalities stratified based on size of the coverage area, supply, coordination, and integration; when necessary, the chi-square test with Yates correction or Fisher's exact test were employed. For the population variable, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used. Results: the majority of participants were nurses (n=15.876; 92,3%). Statistically significant differences were observed between the municipalities in terms of territory (p=0.0000), availability (p=0.0000), coordination of care (p=0.0000), integration (p=0.0000) and supply (p=0.0000), verifying that the municipalities that make up area 6 tend to have better performance in these dimensions. Conclusion: areas 4,5 and 6 performed better in every analyzed dimension, and the nurse had a leading role in the potential to access primary health care in Brazil. PMID:26959332

  4. Potential access to primary health care: what does the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement data show?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severina Alice da Costa Uchôa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the influence of contextual indicators on the performance of municipalities regarding potential access to primary health care in Brazil and to discuss the contribution from nurses working on this access. Method: a multicenter descriptive study based on secondary data from External Evaluation of the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care, with the participation of 17,202 primary care teams. The chi-square test of proportions was used to verify differences between the municipalities stratified based on size of the coverage area, supply, coordination, and integration; when necessary, the chi-square test with Yates correction or Fisher's exact test were employed. For the population variable, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used. Results: the majority of participants were nurses (n=15.876; 92,3%. Statistically significant differences were observed between the municipalities in terms of territory (p=0.0000, availability (p=0.0000, coordination of care (p=0.0000, integration (p=0.0000 and supply (p=0.0000, verifying that the municipalities that make up area 6 tend to have better performance in these dimensions. Conclusion: areas 4,5 and 6 performed better in every analyzed dimension, and the nurse had a leading role in the potential to access primary health care in Brazil.

  5. Dual Language Immersion Program Equity and Access: Is There Equity for All Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Patricia Espinoza

    2016-01-01

    This is a mixed methods study of K-12 school administrators with dual language immersion school leadership expertise. The paramount research focus was to identify equity and access issues in dual language immersion programs serving grades K-12, as identified by school administrators who have led such programs. A total pool of 498 were invited to…

  6. Evaluation of an open-access CBT-based Internet program for social anxiety: Patterns of use, retention, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryman, M Taylor; McTeague, Lisa M; Olino, Thomas M; Heimberg, Richard G

    2017-10-01

    Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) has been established as both efficacious and effective in reducing symptoms of social anxiety. However, most research has been conducted in controlled settings, and little is known regarding the utility of such programs in an open-access format. The present study examined the use, adherence, and effectiveness of Joyable, an open-access, Internet-delivered, coach-supported CBT-based intervention for social anxiety. Participants were 3,384 registered users (Mage [SD] = 29.82 [7.89]; 54% male) that created an account between 2014 and 2016. Characteristics of use, factors related to attrition and adherence, and within-group outcomes were examined. The primary outcome measure was the Social Phobia Inventory. On average, participants remained in the program for 81.02 days (SD = 60.50), during which they completed 12.14 activities (SD = 11.09) and 1.53 exposures (SD = 3.18). About half (57%) had contact with a coach. Full adherence to the program was achieved by 16% of participants, a rate higher than previously published open-access studies of ICBT. Social anxiety symptoms were significantly reduced for participants that engaged in the program, with medium within-group effects from baseline through the cognitive restructuring module (d = 0.63-0.76) and large effects from baseline through the exposure module (d = 1.40-1.83). Response rates were high (72%). Exposures and coach contact were significant predictors of retention and outcome. This open-access online CBT-based program is effective in reducing social anxiety symptoms and has the potential to extend Internet-based mental health services to socially anxious individuals unwilling or unable to seek face-to-face evidence-based therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Simulation Time History and Access Time History Programs (Users Manual)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Motion program, SMP81. 1 Data Set 10. Run Innut r - FORMAT (A) No variables, blank line used for spacing. Sond Line - Free Format (1) NRUNS, integer...ACTH Run First Line - FORMAT (A) No variables, blank line used for spacing. sond ine - Format (15X,I5) (1) STARTRUN, integer, columns 16-20, start ACTH...C DIMENSIONS COMMON DUMMY ,USCS,IvS,IvuS,PAGE,ECS,DELL,DISP, 2 CLR,YS,N8,N, Samplerate,Dt, Runnumber

  8. Evidence of eligibility manipulation for conditional cash transfer programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Firpo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses whether eligibility for conditional cash transfer programs has been manipulated, as well as the impact of this phenomenon on time allocation within households. To perform this analysis, we use data from the 2006 PNAD (Brazilian national household survey and investigate the eligibility manipulation for the Bolsa Família (Family Stipend program during this time period. The program assists families with a monthly per capita income of around R$120.00 (US$60.00. By applying the tests developed by McCrary (2008, we find suggestive evidence that individuals manipulate their income by voluntarily reducing their labor supply in order to become eligible to the program. Moreover, the reduction in labor supply is greater among women, especially single or divorced mothers. This evidence raises some concern about the unintended consequences related to the eligibility criteria utilized by Bolsa Família, as well as the program's impact on individuals living in extreme poverty.

  9. Access to non-pecuniary benefits: does gender matter? Evidence from six low- and middle-income countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Neeru; Alfano, Marco

    2011-01-01

    .... There is an accumulating body of evidence on gender differences in health workers' employment patterns and pay, but inequalities in access to non-pecuniary benefits between men and women have received little attention...

  10. Healthcare utilization of patients accessing an African national treatment program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Robin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The roll-out of antiretroviral therapy (ART in Africa will have significant resource implications arising from its impact on demand for healthcare services. Existing studies of healthcare utilization on HAART have been conducted in the developed world, where HAART is commenced when HIV illness is less advanced. Methods This paper describes healthcare utilization from program entry by treatment-naïve patients in a peri-urban settlement in South Africa. Treatment criteria included a CD4 cell count Results 212 patients were followed for a median of 490 days. Outpatient visits per 100 patient years of observation (PYO, excluding scheduled primary-care follow-up, fell from 596 immediately prior to ART to 334 in the first 48 weeks on therapy and 245 thereafter. Total inpatient time fell from 2,549 days per 100 PYO pre-ART to 476 in the first 48 weeks on therapy and 73 thereafter. This fall in healthcare utilization occurred at every level of care. The greatest causes of utilization were tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis, HIV-related neoplasms and adverse reactions to stavudine. After 48 weeks on ART demand reverted to primarily non-HIV-related causes. Conclusion Utilization of both inpatient and outpatient hospital services fell significantly after commencement of ART for South African patients in the public sector, with inpatient demand falling fastest. Earlier initiation might reduce early on-ART utilization rates.

  11. Improving access to emergency contraception pills through strengthening service delivery and demand generation: a systematic review of current evidence in low and middle-income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dawson

    Full Text Available Emergency contraception pills (ECP are among the 13 essential commodities in the framework for action established by the UN Commission on Life-Saving Commodities for Women and Children. Despite having been on the market for nearly 20 years, a number of barriers still limit women's access to ECP in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC including limited consumer knowledge and poor availability. This paper reports the results of a review to synthesise the current evidence on service delivery strategies to improve access to ECP.A narrative synthesis methodology was used to examine peer reviewed research literature (2003 to 2013 from diverse methodological traditions to provide critical insights into strategies to improve access from a service delivery perspective. The studies were appraised using established scoring systems and the findings of included papers thematically analysed and patterns mapped across all findings using concept mapping.Ten papers were included in the review. Despite limited research of adequate quality, promising strategies to improve access were identified including: advance provision of ECP; task shifting and sharing; intersectoral collaboration for sexual assault; m-health for information provision; and scale up through national family planning programs.There are a number of gaps in the research concerning service delivery and ECP in LMIC. These include a lack of knowledge concerning private/commercial sector contributions to improving access, the needs of vulnerable groups of women, approaches to enhancing intersectoral collaboration, evidence for social marketing models and investment cases for ECP.

  12. The KDOQI 2006 Vascular Access Update and Fistula First Program Synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navuluri, Rakesh; Regalado, Sidney

    2009-06-01

    The optimal care of patients with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis involves a multidisciplinary approach involving nephrologists, vascular surgeons, transplant surgeons and interventional radiologists. A collaborative effort by these groups of physicians was used to create the KDOQI guidelines and the Fistula First program, which have served as the template for the management of dialysis patients. This article will briefly review the recent updates for vascular access in the KDOQI guidelines and summarize the highlights of the Fistula First program.

  13. Random-access technique for modular bathymetry data storage in a continental shelf wave refraction program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted of an alternate method for storage and use of bathymetry data in the Langley Research Center and Virginia Institute of Marine Science mid-Atlantic continental-shelf wave-refraction computer program. The regional bathymetry array was divided into 105 indexed modules which can be read individually into memory in a nonsequential manner from a peripheral file using special random-access subroutines. In running a sample refraction case, a 75-percent decrease in program field length was achieved by using the random-access storage method in comparison with the conventional method of total regional array storage. This field-length decrease was accompanied by a comparative 5-percent increase in central processing time and a 477-percent increase in the number of operating-system calls. A comparative Langley Research Center computer system cost savings of 68 percent was achieved by using the random-access storage method.

  14. Event-related potential evidence of accessing gender stereotypes to aid source monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leynes, P Andrew; Crawford, Jarret T; Radebaugh, Anne M; Taranto, Elizabeth

    2013-01-23

    Source memory for the speaker's voice (male or female) was investigated when semantic knowledge (gender stereotypes) could and could not inform the episodic source judgment while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Source accuracy was greater and response times were faster when stereotypes could predict the speaker's voice at test. Recollection supported source judgments in both conditions as indicated by significant parietal "old/new" ERP effects (500-800ms). Prototypical late ERP effects (the right frontal "old/new" effect and the late posterior negativity, LPN) were evident when source judgment was based solely on episodic memory. However, these two late ERP effects were diminished and a novel, frontal-negative ERP with left-central topography was observed when stereotypes aided source judgments. This pattern of ERP activity likely reflects activation of left frontal or left temporal lobes when semantic knowledge, in the form of a gender stereotype, is accessed to inform the episodic source judgment.

  15. 75 FR 54946 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Federal Register on October 13, 2009 (74 FR 52524). Comments were due on March 31, 2010. Comments on the... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports... Federally obligated airport from an adjacent or nearby property, when that property is used as a...

  16. 77 FR 47440 - Office of the Assistant Secretary for Office of Disability Employment Program Accessible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Assistant Secretary for Office of Disability Employment Program Accessible Technology Action Center (ATAC) AGENCY: Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor. Announcement Type: New...

  17. 47 CFR 79.2 - Accessibility of programming providing emergency information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CLOSED CAPTIONING AND VIDEO DESCRIPTION OF VIDEO PROGRAMMING § 79.2 Accessibility..., school closings and changes in school bus schedules resulting from such conditions, and warnings and... take shelter in one's home, instructions on how to secure personal property, road closures, and how to...

  18. Oak Park and River Forest High School Random Access Information Center; A PACE Program. Report II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak Park - River Forest High School, Oak Park, IL.

    The specifications, planning, and initial development phases of the Random Access Center at the Oak Park and River Forest High School in Oak Park, Illinois, are described with particular attention to the ways that the five functional specifications and the five-part program rationale were implemented in the system design. Specifications, set out…

  19. 78 FR 2449 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Notice of Funding Opportunity. SUMMARY: The National Credit...

  20. Changes in sport and physical activity behavior after participation in easily accessible sporting programs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, L.; Veenhof, C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Dutch government stimulates sport and physical activity opportunities in the neighborhood to make it easier for people to adopt a physically active lifestyle. Seven National Sports Federations (NSFs) were funded to develop easily accessible sporting programs, targeted at groups

  1. Worker programs and resource use: Evidence from better work jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Nathan

    This paper examines data collected for the Better Work program in Jordan which aims to protect laborers in the garment industry from poor working conditions. Data are examined to look for benefits to the factories participating in the program beyond improved compliance with labor law. In particular, potential impacts to firm energy use are examined and correlations are tested between electricity use rates and measures of worker outcomes and a number of factory traits such as size and production input costs. Evidence was found to back up work done in Vietnam with regard to resource use and distribution of electricity expenses. It was also found that the type of data being collected is not ideal for examinations of energy, and more direct methods are desirable, and that considerable production obstacles are worker skill level, electricity prices, and to a greater degree in Jordan than in previously examined countries, water prices.

  2. Accessing Secondary Markets as a Capital Source for Energy Efficiency Finance Programs: Program Design Considerations for Policymakers and Administrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Martin, E. Fadrhonc [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thompson, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Estimates of the total opportunity for investment in cost-effective energy efficiency in the United States are typically in the range of several hundred billion dollars (Choi Granade, et al., 2009 and Fulton & Brandenburg, 2012).1,2 To access this potential, many state policymakers and utility regulators have established aggressive energy efficiency savings targets. Current levels of taxpayer and utility bill-payer funding for energy efficiency is only a small fraction of the total investment needed to meet these targets (SEE Action Financing Solutions Working Group, 2013). Given this challenge, some energy efficiency program administrators are working to access private capital sources with the aim of amplifying the funds available for investment. In this context, efficient access to secondary market capital has been advanced as one important enabler of the energy efficiency industry “at scale.”3 The question of what role secondary markets can play in bringing energy efficiency to scale is largely untested despite extensive attention from media, technical publications, advocates, and others. Only a handful of transactions of energy efficiency loan products have been executed to date, and it is too soon to draw robust conclusions from these deals. At the same time, energy efficiency program administrators and policymakers face very real decisions regarding whether and how to access secondary markets as part of their energy efficiency deployment strategy.

  3. Policies and programs to facilitate access to targeted cancer therapies in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosarin Sruamsiri

    Full Text Available Increasing access to clinically beneficial targeted cancer medicines is a challenge in every country due to their high cost. We describe the interplay of innovative policies and programs involving multiple stakeholders to facilitate access to these medicines in Thailand, as well as the utilization of selected targeted therapies over time.We selected two medicines on the 2013 Thai national list of essential medicines (NLEM [letrozole and imatinib] and three unlisted medicines for the same indications [trastuzumab, nilotinib and dasatinib]. We created timelines of access policies and programs for these products based on scientific and grey literature. Using IMS Health sales data, we described the trajectories of sales volumes of the study medicines between January 2001 and December 2012. We compared estimated average numbers of patients treated before and after the implementation of policies and programs for each product.Different stakeholders implemented multiple interventions to increase access to the study medicines for different patient populations. During 2007-2009, the Thai Government created a special NLEM category with different coverage requirements for payers and issued compulsory licenses; payers negotiated prices with manufacturers and engaged in pooled procurement; pharmaceutical companies expanded patient assistance programs and lowered prices in different ways. Compared to before the interventions, estimated numbers of patients treated with each medicine increased significantly afterwards: for letrozole from 645 (95% CI 366-923 to 3683 (95% CI 2,748-4,618; for imatinib from 103 (95% CI 72-174 to 350 (95% CI 307-398; and for trastuzumab from 68 (95% CI 45-118 to 412 (95% CI 344-563.Government, payers, and manufacturers implemented multi-pronged approaches to facilitate access to targeted cancer therapies for the Thai population, which differed by medicine. Routine monitoring is needed to assess clinical and economic impacts of these

  4. Is it time to rethink the expanded-access programs for HIV infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosa, Valerianna; Tebas, Pablo

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of expanded-access programs (EAPs) for antiretroviral therapy has been to allow patients without alternative treatment options to obtain drugs before formal Food and Drug Administration approval. Given the dramatic changes that have occurred in antiretroviral therapeutic approaches during the past 2 decades, we wish to review the history of antiretroviral EAPs and to propose an updated model for expanded access that would achieve maximal patient benefit and add useful knowledge that could guide treatment decisions in patients infected with multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus.

  5. Global Access Programs: A Collaborative Approach for Effective Implementation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainge, Debra; Aitken, Suzanne; Corbett, Mark; De-Keyzer, David

    Global access programs (GAPs) provide access to medicinal products for patients with serious medical conditions and no commercially available treatment options. Providing early access to medicines can be challenging for a pharmaceutical company. The demand for a GAP often occurs at a time when other activities are the prime focus, such as delivery of pivotal clinical trials or gaining of marketing authorization. Furthermore, the skills, experience, and infrastructure necessary to implement and manage a successful GAP vary significantly from those required for regular clinical trial execution, and the regulatory environment presents its own challenges, with regulations often poorly defined and with considerable inter-country variation. This article considers the triggers for early access requests and examines the need for companies to develop a global strategy for GAPs in order to respond appropriately to requests for early access. It also provides a comprehensive overview of the processes for GAP set-up, implementation, management, and closure, along with the considerations affecting the type and scope of GAP, such as demand, regulatory feasibility, license status of the product, drug pricing structure, company strategy, costs, and product supply. Also discussed is the need for appropriate personnel to implement and manage the GAP, and when to consider collaboration with an external GAP provider. In summary, GAPs require careful and efficient planning and management, from set-up to closure. Well-run GAPs provide an ethical and regulatory-compliant pathway for access of new treatments to patients with serious conditions and an unmet medical need.

  6. Adapting an evidence based parenting program for child welfare involved teens and their caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Susan E.; Salazar, Amy M.; Estep, Kara; Mattos, Leah M.; Eichenlaub, Caroline; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The scarcity of caregivers and the unique vulnerability of teens involved with the child welfare system necessitate effective strategies for ensuring that caregivers are prepared and supported in the important role they play with children and youth within the child welfare system. They are in a position, through the establishment of a strong, positive, supportive connection with the youth, to potentially minimize the impacts of recent trauma and interrupt a negative trajectory by preventing the youth’s initiation of high-risk behavior. In this paper we describe the process used to systematically adapt Staying Connected with Your Teen™, an evidence-based, prevention-focused parenting program found in other studies to reduce the initiation of teens‘ risky behaviors, for use with foster teens and their relative or foster caregivers. This work has been guided by the ADAPT-ITT framework developed by Wingood and DiClemente (2008) for adapting evidence-based interventions. Qualitative work conducted in Phase 1 of this study identified the need for the development of a trusted connection between foster youth and their caregivers, as well as tools for helping them access community resources, social services, and educational supports. This paper describes the process used to develop new and adapted program activities in response to the needs identified in Phase 1. We conducted a theater test with dyads of foster youth and their caregivers to get feedback on the new activities. Findings from the theater test are provided and next steps in the research are discussed which include examining program usability, fidelity, feasibility, and testing this new prevention program that has been tailored for child welfare involved youth and their caregivers. This intervention program has the potential to fill an important gap in the availability of preventive programming for caregivers of teens in foster care. PMID:26052172

  7. Complementary primary mental health programs for young people in Australia: Access to Allied Psychological Services (ATAPS) and headspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassilios, Bridget; Telford, Nicolas; Rickwood, Debra; Spittal, Matthew J; Pirkis, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Access to Allied Psychological Services (ATAPS) was introduced in 2001 by the Australian Government to provide evidence-based psychological interventions for people with high prevalence disorders. headspace, Australia's National Youth Mental Health Foundation, was established in 2006 to promote and facilitate improvements in the mental health, social wellbeing and economic participation of young people aged 12-25 years. Both programs provided free or low cost psychological services. This paper aims to describe the uptake of psychological services by people aged 12-25 years via ATAPS and headspace, the characteristics of these clients, the types of services received and preliminary client outcomes achieved. Data from 1 July 2009 to 30 June 2012 were sourced from the respective national web-based minimum datasets used for routine data collection in ATAPS and headspace. In total, 20,156 and 17,337 young people accessed two or more psychological services via ATAPS and headspace, respectively, in the 3-year analysis period. There were notable differences between the clients of, and the services delivered by, the programs. ATAPS clients were less likely to be male (31 vs 39%) and to reside in major cities (51 vs 62%) than headspace clients; ATAPS clients were also older (18-21 vs 15-17 years modal age group). There was some variation in the number and types of psychological sessions that young people received via the programs but the majority received at least one session of cognitive behavioural therapy. Based on limited available outcome data, both programs appear to have produced improvements in clients' mental health; specifically, psychological distress as assessed by the Kessler-10 (K-10) was reduced. ATAPS and headspace have delivered free or low-cost psychological services to 12-25 year olds with somewhat different characteristics. Both programs have had promising effects on mental health. ATAPS and headspace have operated in a complementary fashion to fill a

  8. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Tambo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs.

  9. Intellectual property rights vs. public access rights: ethical aspects of the DeCSS decryptation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Vaagan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In 1999-2000, a Norwegian youth cracked a DVD-access code and published a decryptation program on the Internet. He was sued by the US DVD Copy Control Association (DVD-CCA and the Norwegian Motion Picture Association (MAP, allies of the US Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA, arrested by Norwegian police and charged with data crime. Two Norwegian court rulings in 2003 unanimously ruled that the program did not amount to a breach of Norwegian law, and he was fully acquitted. In the US, there have been related cases, some with other outcomes. Method. Based on a theoretical framework developed by Zwass, the paper discusses these court rulings and the wider issues of intellectual property rights versus public access rights. Analysis. The DVD-Jon case illustrates that intellectual property rights can conflict with public access rights, as the struggle between proprietary software and public domain software, as well as the SPARC and Open Archives Initiative reflect. Results. An assessment of the DVD-Jon case based on the Zwass framework does not give a clear information ethics answer. The analysis depends on whether one ascribes to consequentialist (e.g., utilitarian or de-ontological reflection, and also on which side of the digital gap is to be accorded most weight. Conclusion. While copyright interests are being legally strengthened, there may be ethically- grounded access rights that outweigh property rights.

  10. Does a voucher program improve reproductive health service delivery and access in Kenya?

    OpenAIRE

    Njuki, Rebecca; Timothy, Abuya; James, Kimani; Kanya, Lucy; Korongo, Allan; Mukanya, Collins; Bracke, Piet; Bellows, Ben; Warren, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. Background - Current assessments on Output-Based Aid (OBA) programs have paid limited attention to the experiences and perceptions of the healthcare providers and facility managers. This study examines the knowledge, a...

  11. The link between access to urban environmental infrastructure services and health. USAID / Indonesia shifts program emphasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article describes urban women's role and access to sanitation and a safe water supply in Indonesia, and links potential improvements in women's health to improved access to urban infrastructure. In 1996, USAID discovered that morbidity was higher in female-headed households in urban areas. Female-headed households were only 6.5% of total households, but had 27% more illnesses than male-headed ones. USAID's study found that the health related problems of women were related to their poverty, illiteracy, lack of resources, and lack of access to the cleanest drinking water and wastewater disposal. Age was not a factor. Women had less access to clean drinking water, bathing, and toilet facilities. The USAID mission determined that its gender neutral approach to providing services was not reaching the neediest group. Women needed greater access to healthy urban environmental structures. The USAID shifted its erroneous assumption that female-headed households were headed by mostly old and widowed women and redesigned its infrastructure development to ensure that female-headed households received improved water and sanitation services. The USAID Mission also changed its practices by including women in planning and management of urban infrastructure services. The change was based on the belief that women decision-makers would improve how water, sanitation, and solid waste disposal services were provided. The Mission targeted 20% of its program funds for community participation of women. This effort will provide valuable insight into the role of women in urban service delivery.

  12. ACCESS AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM: LOOKING FOR NEW SENSES IN WORKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ribeiro dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Looking forward to increase access and quality of basic attention service, Brazilian Health Ministry creates the “Access and Quality Improvement Program for Basic Attention” that intends to promote better physical structure and better working process for health worker that develop basic attention activities. This study intends to analyse the accomplishment and results of the program in a municipality from the South region of Bahia. This is an experience report about the program execution, that started in 2013, moment that there were municipal manager changes, and remained until April, 2014. As primary result, it was understood that the program is able to promote new encounter of health workers with the basic attention's working process and it's principles, reinforce the institutional effort and also promote a critical consciousness by the service users and by the health workers themselves. It also permits to provide new materials acquisitions and gratifications to the health workers involved. So, The program shows itself like an important strategy to improve the working process, and once public managers realize about it, more important would be the improvement of the Health Public System in Brazil and the remarkable consolidation of basic attention as rearrangement of the health attention model in Brazil.

  13. Access and quality improvement program: Looking for new senses in working process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ribeiro dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Looking forward to increase access and quality of basic attention service, Brazilian Health Ministry creates the “Access and Quality Improvement Program for Basic Attention” that intends to promote better physical structure and better working process for health worker that develop basic attention activities. This study intends to analyse the accomplishment and results of the program in a municipality from the South region of Bahia. This is an experience report about the program execution, that started in 2013, moment that there were municipal manager changes, and remained until April, 2014. As primary result, it was understood that the program is able to promote new encounter of health workers with the basic attention's working process and it's principles, reinforce the institutional effort and also promote a critical consciousness by the service users and by the health workers themselves. It also permits to provide new materials acquisitions and gratifications to the health workers involved. So, The program shows itself like an important strategy to improve the working process, and once public managers realize about it, more important would be the improvement of the Health Public System in Brazil and the remarkable consolidation of basic attention as rearrangement of the health attention model in Brazil.

  14. Supporting the whole student: Inclusive program design for making undergraduate research experiences accessible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker-Santos, R.; Allen, L.; Batchelor, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    As undergraduate research experiences have become an unofficial pre-requisite to enter graduate school programs in the sciences, we have to make sure that these experiences are inclusive and accessible to all students. Program managers who make a conscious effort to recruit students from traditionally under-represented groups, including veterans, non-traditional students or students with disabilities, are often unaware of the financial and program implications these students require, and discover that their current program design might inadvertently exclude or not fully support these students. The SOARS Program, an undergraduate-to-graduate bridge program in the atmospheric sciences, has supported this group of students for over 15 years. We have found that we needed to adjust some program elements and secure extra funding sources to holistically support our students in their research experience, however, the program and the students have reaped tremendous benefits. Involving non-traditional students or veterans in our program has raised the maturity level and problem solving skills of the group, and having students with disabilities participate has been a vehicle for broadening perspective and diverse knowledge into the field of study, e.g. researching weather and climate beyond what you can 'see'. This presentation will highlight some of the findings from the SOARS program experience, and will share practices for recruitment and holistic support to ensure student success. We will share resources and tips on inclusive program design, including working with students with family commitments or physical disabilities, and will report on the enormous program benefits and peer learning these students have brought to the student cohorts and research labs they are working in.

  15. The legal and non-legal barriers to abortion access in Australia: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moel-Mandel, Caroline; Shelley, Julia M

    2017-04-01

    In Australia, about one in four pregnancies results in an induced abortion. The termination of a pregnancy is still, however, a criminal act in most jurisdictions, and access to abortion is not without barriers. This paper analyses existing access barriers and their implications. Databases and the grey literature were searched for publications that examined any legal and/or non-legal abortion access barrier applicable to Australia (2000-2016). Only those barriers that had been demonstrated to be the most restrictive were included and categorised. From the initial 410 studies, only 20 publications were identified that matched the inclusion criteria. They indicated that access barriers do indeed exist in Australia. In many parts of Australia, abortion is only legal under strict conditions. Relatively strong evidence was found on the limited abortion access of rural women and of an imminent shortage in the provision of late abortions. For other barriers only limited research evidence existed, or merely opinions were expressed. Very few studies were undertaken to link barriers to outcomes. Although this review can form a base for the national improvement of abortion access, the gap found in Australian research demonstrates a need for additional studies.

  16. Vessel health and preservation (Part 1): a new evidence-based approach to vascular access selection and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moureau, Nancy L; Trick, Nancy; Nifong, Thomas; Perry, Cathy; Kelley, Cheryl; Carrico, Ruth; Leavitt, Michael; Gordon, Steven M; Wallace, Jessica; Harvill, Monte; Biggar, Connie; Doll, Michael; Papke, Loreli; Benton, Lori; Phelan, Deborah A

    2012-01-01

    Vascular access for the infusion of medications and solutions requires timely assessment, planning, insertion, and assessment. Traditional vascular access is reactive, painful, and ineffective, often resulting in the exhaustion of peripheral veins prior to consideration of other access options. Evidence suggests clinical pathways improve outcomes by reducing variations and establishing processes to assess and coordinate care, minimizing fragmentation and cost. Implementation of a vascular access clinical pathway leads to the intentional selection of the best vascular access device for the patient specific to the individual diagnosis, treatment plan, current medical condition, and the patient's vessel health (1). The Vessel Health and Preservation (VHP) programme incorporates evidence-based practices focused on timely, intentional proactive device selection implemented within 24 hours of admission into any acute facility. VHP is an all-inclusive clinical pathway, guiding clinicians from device selection through patient discharge, including daily assessment. Initiation of the VHP programme within a facility provides a systematic pathway to improve vascular access selection and patient care, allowing for the reduction of variations and roadblocks in care while increasing positive patient outcomes and satisfaction. Patient safety and preservation of vessel health is the ultimate goal.

  17. Evidence, models, conservation programs and limits to management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Walsh et al. (2012) emphasized the importance of obtaining evidence to assess the effects of management actions on state variables relevant to objectives of conservation programs. They focused on malleefowl Leipoa ocellata, ground-dwelling Australian megapodes listed as vulnerable. They noted that although fox Vulpes vulpes baiting is the main management action used in malleefowl conservation throughout southern Australia, evidence of the effectiveness of this action is limited and currently debated. Walsh et al. (2012) then used data from 64 sites monitored for malleefowl and foxes over 23 years to assess key functional relationships relevant to fox control as a conservation action for malleefowl. In one set of analyses, Walsh et al. (2012) focused on two relationships: fox baiting investment versus fox presence, and fox presence versus malleefowl population size and rate of population change. Results led to the counterintuitive conclusion that increases in investments in fox control produced slight decreases in malleefowl population size and growth. In a second set of analyses, Walsh et al. (2012) directly assessed the relationship between investment in fox baiting and malleefowl population size and rate of population change. This set of analyses showed no significant relationship between investment in fox population control and malleefowl population growth. Both sets of analyses benefited from the incorporation of key environmental covariates hypothesized to influence these management relationships. Walsh et al. (2012) concluded that "in most situations, malleefowl conservation did not effectively benefit from fox baiting at current levels of investment." In this commentary, I discuss the work of Walsh et al. (2012) using the conceptual framework of structured decision making (SDM). In doing so, I accept their analytic results and associated conclusions as accurate and discuss basic ideas about evidence, conservation and limits to management.

  18. Program experience with micronutrient powders and current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee Hyun; dePee, Saskia; Kraemer, Klaus; Steiger, Georg; Bloem, Martin W; Spiegel, Paul; Wilkinson, Caroline; Bilukha, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of micronutrient powders (MNP) in the treatment of anemia in moderately anemic children aged 6-24 mo has been clearly demonstrated. The evidence of the effectiveness of MNP in large-scale programs, however, is scarce. This article describes the program experience and findings of large-scale MNP distribution in refugee camps and in an emergency context in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Kenya. The MNP contained 15-16 micronutrients as per the WHO/World Food Programme/UNICEF joint statement, whereas the iron content was reduced to 2.5 mg from NaFeEDTA in a malaria-endemic area in Kenya. Hundreds of thousands of children aged 6-59 mo and pregnant and lactating women were targeted to consume MNP either daily or every other day over an extended period of time. Extensive social marketing campaigns were undertaken to promote regular use of the product. A number of studies were embedded in the programs to assess the impact of MNP on the nutritional status of target beneficiaries. Some improvements in anemia prevalence estimates were observed in particular subgroups, but other results did not show significant improvements. A significant decrease in the prevalence of stunting was observed in Nepal and Kenya but not in Bangladesh. Diarrhea episodes decreased significantly among children receiving MNP in Nepal. A key challenge is to ensure high MNP acceptance and adherence among beneficiaries. Investigation of non-nutritional causes of anemia is warranted in settings with high compliance but no improvement in hemoglobin status. Further investigation into the most appropriate manner to use MNP in malaria endemic settings is warranted.

  19. Evidence-Based Programming within Cooperative Extension: How Can We Maintain Program Fidelity While Adapting to Meet Local Needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jonathan R.; Welsh, Janet A.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we describe how the recent movement towards evidence-based programming has impacted Extension. We review how the emphasis on implementing such programs with strict fidelity to an underlying program model may be at odds with Extension's strong history of adapting programming to meet the unique needs of children, youth, families,…

  20. The influence of Community Access to Child Health (CATCH) program on community pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Neelkamal S; Hobson, Wendy L; Ruch-Ross, Holly; Finneran, Maureen; Varrasso, Denia A; Keller, David

    2014-01-01

    The CATCH (Community Access to Child Health) Program, which supports pediatricians who engage with the community to improve child health, increase access to health care, and promote advocacy through small seed grants, was last evaluated in 1998. The objective was to describe the characteristics of CATCH grant recipients and projects and assess the community impact of funded projects. Prospective data was collected from CATCH applications (grantee characteristics, topic area and target population for projects funded from 2006-2012) and post-project 2-year follow-up survey (project outcomes, sustainability, and impact for projects funded from 2008 through 2010). From 2006 through 2012, the CATCH Program awarded 401 projects to grantees working mostly in general pediatrics. Eighty-five percent of projects targeted children covered by Medicaid, 33% targeted uninsured children, and 75% involved a Latino population. Main topic areas addressed were nutrition, access to health care, and medical home. Sixty-nine percent of grantees from 2008 to 2010 responded to the follow-up survey. Ninety percent reported completing their projects, and 86% of those projects continued to exist in some form. Grantees reported the development of community partnerships (77%) and enhanced recognition of child health issues in the community (73%) as the most frequent changes due to the projects. The CATCH Program funds community-based projects led by pediatricians that address the medical home and access to care. A majority of these projects and community partnerships are sustained beyond their original CATCH funding and, in many cases, are leveraged into additional financial or other community support.

  1. Social media and gamification: Engaging vulnerable parents in an online evidence-based parenting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Susan M; Sanders, Matthew R; Turner, Karen M T; Maurange, Marianne; Knott, Theresa; Prinz, Ronald; Metzler, Carol; Ainsworth, Andrew T

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility (accessibility, engagement and impact) of adding social media and gaming features (e.g., social sharing with anonymity, badges to incentivize skills practice, an accredited facilitator for support) and access via smartphones to an evidenced-based parenting program, Triple P Online. The highly vulnerable population included 155 disadvantaged, high-risk parents (e.g., 76% had a family annual income of less than $15,000; 41% had been incarcerated; 38% were in drug/alcohol treatment; and 24% had had a child removed due to maltreatment). The ethnic groups most commonly identified were African American (24%) and Hispanic (66%). Respondents were primarily mothers (86%) from five community programs in Los Angeles. The study used a single group repeated measures design (pre, post, 6-month follow-up). Data collected included standardized self-report measures, post-intervention focus groups and interviews, website usage reports, and Google Analytics. Significant multivariate ANOVA time effects were found, demonstrating reductions in child behavioral problems, reduced lax/permissive and over-reactive parenting, and decreased parental stress. No effects were found for parental confidence, attributions, or depression and anxiety (which were in the normal range at baseline). Positive effects were maintained or improved at 6-month follow-up. The participants engaged in the online community and valued its flexibility, anonymity, and shared learning. This foundational implementation trial provides support for future rigorous evaluation of social media and gaming features as a medium for increasing parental engagement in evidence-based parenting programs online--a public health approach to protect and improve the development of vulnerable children.

  2. Credit market access in Uganda: evidence from household survey data 1999/2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FN Okurut

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the individual and household characteristics that influenced credit market access in Uganda using household data for 1999/2000. The results suggest that credit market access was significantly influenced by gender, household wealth, age, regional location, and urban/rural location.

  3. The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access : An evidence-based review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tennant, Jonathan P.; Waldner, François; Jacques, Damien C.; Masuzzo, Paola; Collister, Lauren B.; Hartgerink, C.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing debates surrounding Open Access to the scholarly literature are multifaceted and complicated by disparate and often polarised viewpoints from engaged stakeholders. At the current stage, Open Access has become such a global issue that it is critical for all involved in scholarly publishing, i

  4. Determinants of access to credit for SMEs: evidence at the level of the firm in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Alberto Botello Peñaloza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financing allows companies to address their economic resources to obtain external activities at different terms. However, there are flaws in the credit markets that limit this process, especially in SMEs. Taking into account the above, the objective of the paper is to investigate the determinants of access to credit for these businesses in Latin America. The analysis is based on a discrete choice model compound from the internal and external characteristics of the firms. It is evident that the size and technological capability are the most influential variables for access to funding markets, due to its ability to generate competitive advantages.

  5. Implementing evidence-based patient self-management programs in the Veterans Health Administration: perspectives on delivery system design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damush, T M; Jackson, G L; Powers, B J; Bosworth, H B; Cheng, E; Anderson, J; Guihan, M; LaVela, S; Rajan, S; Plue, L

    2010-01-01

    While many patient self-management (PSM) programs have been developed and evaluated for effectiveness, less effort has been devoted to translating and systematically delivering PSM in primary and specialty care. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to review delivery system design considerations for implementing self-management programs in practice. As lessons are learned about implementing PSM programs in Veterans Health Administration (VHA), resource allocation by healthcare organization for formatting PSM programs, providing patient access, facilitating PSM, and incorporating support tools to foster PSM among its consumers can be refined and tailored. Redesigning the system to deliver and support PSM will be important as implementation researchers translate evidence based PSM practices into routine care and evaluate its impact on the health-related quality of life of veterans living with chronic disease.

  6. Evidence-based diabetes prevention and control programs and policies in local health departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwald, Marissa; Elliott, Lindsay; Brownson, Ross C.; Skala, Mahree

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to: (1) assess implementation of evidence-based programs and policies (EBPPs) related to diabetes prevention and control in local health departments; (2) assess feasibility of non-implemented diabetes prevention and control EBPPs; and (3) examine individual- and organizational-level factors associated with implementation of diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. Methods An online survey was administered in January 2015 to key representatives of all local health departments in Missouri. Descriptive statistics were used to describe implementation and perceived feasibility of 20 diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between individual and organizational factors and diabetes prevention and control EBPP implementation. Results One hundred local health departments participated (89% response rate) in the online survey. Most frequently implemented diabetes-related EBPPs in local health departments included: nutrition education for agency or community members; increased fruit and vegetable access in community settings; and community-wide campaigns to promote physical activity. Increased encouragement to others in the department to use evidence-based decision making and agency incentives to help employees use evidence-based decision making were positively associated with implementation of diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. Conclusions Local health departments are the “front line” of public health and this study demonstrates the important role these organizations play in implementing diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. Potential leverage points for more widespread adoption of diabetes-related EBPPs in local health departments include education about and encouragement of evidence-based decision making and organizational incentives for employees to integrate evidence-based decision making into their diabetes prevention and control activities. PMID:26297714

  7. Evidence-Based Diabetes Prevention and Control Programs and Policies in Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwald, Marissa; Elliott, Lindsay; Brownson, Ross C; Skala, Mahree

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to: (1) assess implementation of evidence-based programs and policies (EBPPs) related to diabetes prevention and control in local health departments, (2) assess feasibility of non-implemented diabetes prevention and control EBPPs, and (3) examine individual- and organizational-level factors associated with implementation of diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. An online survey was administered in January 2015 to key representatives of all local health departments in Missouri. Descriptive statistics were used to describe implementation and perceived feasibility of 20 diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between individual and organizational factors and diabetes prevention and control EBPP implementation. One hundred local health departments participated (89% response rate) in the online survey. Most frequently implemented diabetes-related EBPPs in local health departments included: nutrition education for agency or community members, increased fruit and vegetable access in community settings, and community-wide campaigns to promote physical activity. Increased encouragement to others in the department to use evidence-based decision making and agency incentives to help employees use evidence-based decision making were positively associated with implementation of diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. Local health departments are on the "front line" of public health, and this study demonstrates the important role these organizations play in implementing diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. Potential leverage points for more widespread adoption of diabetes-related EBPPs in local health departments include education about and encouragement of evidence-based decision making and organizational incentives for employees to integrate evidence-based decision making into their diabetes prevention and control activities. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Jonathan P; Waldner, François; Jacques, Damien C; Masuzzo, Paola; Collister, Lauren B; Hartgerink, Chris H J

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing debates surrounding Open Access to the scholarly literature are multifaceted and complicated by disparate and often polarised viewpoints from engaged stakeholders. At the current stage, Open Access has become such a global issue that it is critical for all involved in scholarly publishing, including policymakers, publishers, research funders, governments, learned societies, librarians, and academic communities, to be well-informed on the history, benefits, and pitfalls of Open Access. In spite of this, there is a general lack of consensus regarding the potential pros and cons of Open Access at multiple levels. This review aims to be a resource for current knowledge on the impacts of Open Access by synthesizing important research in three major areas: academic, economic and societal. While there is clearly much scope for additional research, several key trends are identified, including a broad citation advantage for researchers who publish openly, as well as additional benefits to the non-academic dissemination of their work. The economic impact of Open Access is less well-understood, although it is clear that access to the research literature is key for innovative enterprises, and a range of governmental and non-governmental services. Furthermore, Open Access has the potential to save both publishers and research funders considerable amounts of financial resources, and can provide some economic benefits to traditionally subscription-based journals. The societal impact of Open Access is strong, in particular for advancing citizen science initiatives, and leveling the playing field for researchers in developing countries. Open Access supersedes all potential alternative modes of access to the scholarly literature through enabling unrestricted re-use, and long-term stability independent of financial constraints of traditional publishers that impede knowledge sharing. However, Open Access has the potential to become unsustainable for research communities if

  9. 34 CFR 75.740 - Protection of and access to student records; student rights in research, experimental programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of and access to student records; student... Grantee? Privacy § 75.740 Protection of and access to student records; student rights in research, experimental programs, and testing. (a) Most records on present or past students are subject to...

  10. 34 CFR 76.740 - Protection of and access to student records; student rights in research, experimental programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of and access to student records; student... of the State and Its Subgrantees? Privacy § 76.740 Protection of and access to student records; student rights in research, experimental programs, and testing. (a) Most records on present or...

  11. 76 FR 60022 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Weight-of-Evidence Guidance Document; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... protection, Endocrine disruptors, Screening assays, Weight-of-evidence. ] Dated: September 22, 2011. Stephen... AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Weight-of-Evidence Guidance Document; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA's Endocrine...

  12. 76 FR 52350 - Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System (VDMERS) Standard, Certification Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... of Justice Programs Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System (VDMERS) Standard...) will make available to the general public three draft documents related to Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording Systems (VDMERSs) used by law enforcement agencies: 1. Draft VDMERS Standard for...

  13. Enabling Highly-Scalable Remote Memory Access Programming with MPI-3 One Sided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gerstenberger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern interconnects offer remote direct memory access (RDMA features. Yet, most applications rely on explicit message passing for communications albeit their unwanted overheads. The MPI-3.0 standard defines a programming interface for exploiting RDMA networks directly, however, it's scalability and practicability has to be demonstrated in practice. In this work, we develop scalable bufferless protocols that implement the MPI-3.0 specification. Our protocols support scaling to millions of cores with negligible memory consumption while providing highest performance and minimal overheads. To arm programmers, we provide a spectrum of performance models for all critical functions and demonstrate the usability of our library and models with several application studies with up to half a million processes. We show that our design is comparable to, or better than UPC and Fortran Coarrays in terms of latency, bandwidth and message rate. We also demonstrate application performance improvements with comparable programming complexity.

  14. More than Access: The Role of Support Services in the Transitional Experiences of Underrepresented Students in a Statewide Access Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, Juan Gabriel; Zerquera, Desiree D.; Smith, Joshua S.

    2015-01-01

    While a number of studies have examined outcomes associated with early intervention programs that have a financial aid component, few have examined the experiences of student beneficiaries of those programs and the administrators charged with carrying out state mandates associated with the implementation of the programs. This gap in the literature…

  15. Some Programs Should Not Run on Laptops - Providing Programmatic Access to Applications Via Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V.; Gupta, N.; Gupta, S.; Field, E.; Maechling, P.

    2003-12-01

    hosted these Web Services as a part of the SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) ITR Project (http://www.scec.org/cme). We have implemented Web Services for several of the reasons sited previously. For example, we implemented a FORTRAN-based Earthquake Rupture Forecast (ERF) as a Web Service for use by client computers that don't support a FORTRAN runtime environment. We implemented a Generic Mapping Tool (GMT) Web Service for use by systems that don't have local access to GMT. We implemented a Hazard Map Calculator Web Service to execute Hazard calculations that are too computationally intensive to run on a local system. We implemented a Coordinate Conversion Web Service to enforce a standard and consistent method for converting between UTM and Lat/Lon. Our experience developing these services indicates both strengths and weakness in current Web Service technology. Client programs that utilize Web Services typically need network access, a significant disadvantage at times. Programs with simple input and output parameters were the easiest to implement as Web Services, while programs with complex parameter-types required a significant amount of additional development. We also noted that Web services are very data-oriented, and adapting object-oriented software into the Web Service model proved problematic. Also, the Web Service approach of converting data types into XML format for network transmission has significant inefficiencies for some data sets.

  16. Evidence for a compulsive-like behavior in rats exposed to alternate access to highly preferred palatable food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Clara; Spena, Giuseppe; Halfon, Olivier; Boutrel, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    Converging evidence suggests that recurrent excessive calorie restriction causes binge eating by promoting behavioral disinhibition and overeating. This interpretation suggests that cognitive adaptations may surpass physiological regulations of metabolic needs after recurrent cycles of dieting and binging. Intermittent access to palatable food has long been studied in rats, but the consequences of such diet cycling procedures on the cognitive control of food seeking remain unclear. Female Wistar rats were divided in two groups matched for food intake and body weight. One group received standard chow pellets 7 days/week, whereas the second group was given chow pellets for 5 days and palatable food for 2 days over seven consecutive weeks. Rats were also trained for operant conditioning. Intermittent access to palatable food elicited binging behavior and reduced intake of normal food. Rats with intermittent access to palatable food failed to exhibit anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze, but displayed reduced locomotor activity in the open field and developed a blunted corticosterone response following an acute stress across the diet procedure. Trained under a progressive ratio schedule, both groups exhibited the same motivation for sweetened food pellets. However, in contrast to controls, rats with a history of dieting and binging exhibited a persistent compulsive-like behavior when access to preferred pellets was paired with mild electrical foot shock punishments. These results highlight the intricate development of anxiety-like disorders and cognitive deficits leading to a loss of control over preferred food intake after repetitive cycles of intermittent access to palatable food.

  17. Remote Memory Access: A Case for Portable, Efficient and Library Independent Parallel Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros V. Gerbessiotis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we make a strong case for remote memory access (RMA as the effective way to program a parallel computer by proposing a framework that supports RMA in a library independent, simple and intuitive way. If one uses our approach the parallel code one writes will run transparently under MPI-2 enabled libraries but also bulk-synchronous parallel libraries. The advantage of using RMA is code simplicity, reduced programming complexity, and increased efficiency. We support the latter claims by implementing under this framework a collection of benchmark programs consisting of a communication and synchronization performance assessment program, a dense matrix multiplication algorithm, and two variants of a parallel radix-sort algorithm and examine their performance on a LINUX-based PC cluster under three different RMA enabled libraries: LAM MPI, BSPlib, and PUB. We conclude that implementations of such parallel algorithms using RMA communication primitives lead to code that is as efficient as the message-passing equivalent code and in the case of radix-sort substantially more efficient. In addition our work can be used as a comparative study of the relevant capabilities of the three libraries.

  18. A Systematic Process to Facilitate Evidence-Informed Decisionmaking Regarding Program Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laurie T; Farris, Coreen; Adamson, David M; Weinick, Robin M

    2014-01-01

    While the Department of Defense supports more than 200 psychological health and traumatic brain injury programs, it lacks an approach and process to systematically develop, track, and assess the performance of this portfolio of programs. Further, there is not yet a uniform approach to decisionmaking around program support and expansion of particularly promising, evidence-based programs. This lack of centralized oversight may result in the proliferation of untested programs that are developed without an evidence base; an inefficient use of resources; and added cost and administrative inefficiencies. RAND researchers developed a potential model and tools to support a centralized, systematic, and ongoing process to help in making decisions around continued program support, and by which expansion can be facilitated. This study includes two tools. The first is a Program Abstraction Form, which collects relevant background information from programs and asks explicitly about program effectiveness and the design of the program evaluation used to assess program effectiveness, as a poor evaluation design may lead to incorrect conclusions about the effectiveness of the program. The second is the RAND Program Expansion Tool, which provides a standardized summary of the quality and outcome of a program evaluation. The focus of these tools is on decisionmaking around program expansion, and does not preclude or address initial funding decisions of particularly promising new programs that may not yet have a solid evidence base.

  19. Effects of Job Accessibility Improved by Public Transport System: Natural Experimental Evidence from the Copenhagen Metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons Rotger, Gabriel Angel; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2015-01-01

    and Metro system resulting from the construction of a new terminal Metro station connecting southern townships to Copenhagen city centre. The results show that public transport based job accessibility has a positive and permanent effect on individual earnings. The increase in earnings is associated...

  20. Effects of Job Accessibility Improved by Public Transport System: Natural Experimental Evidence from the Copenhagen Metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Sick Nielsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    and Metro system due to the construction of a new terminal Metro station connecting southern townships to the city centre of Copenhagen. The results show that public transport based job accessibility has a positive and permanent effect on individual earnings. The increase in earnings is associated...

  1. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Green Space Quality and Accessibility-Evidence from a Southern European City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffimann, Elaine; Barros, Henrique; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel

    2017-08-15

    Background: The provision of green spaces is an important health promotion strategy to encourage physical activity and to improve population health. Green space provision has to be based on the principle of equity. This study investigated the presence of socioeconomic inequalities in geographic accessibility and quality of green spaces across Porto neighbourhoods (Portugal). Methods: Accessibility was evaluated using a Geographic Information System and all the green spaces were audited using the Public Open Space Tool. Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficients and ordinal regression were used to test whether socioeconomic differences in green space quality and accessibility were statistically significant. Results: Although the majority of the neighbourhoods had an accessible green space, mean distance to green space increased with neighbourhood deprivation. Additionally, green spaces in the more deprived neighbourhoods presented significantly more safety concerns, signs of damage, lack of equipment to engage in active leisure activities, and had significantly less amenities such as seating, toilets, cafés, etc. Conclusions: Residents from low socioeconomic positions seem to suffer from a double jeopardy; they lack both individual and community resources. Our results have important planning implications and might contribute to understanding why deprived communities have lower physical activity levels and poorer health.

  2. Do young readers have fast access to abstract lexical representations? Evidence from masked priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Gomez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Although there is consensus that adult readers have fast access to abstract letter/word representations, the developmental trajectory of such access has not been mapped out yet. To examine whether developmental readers have rapid access to abstract representations during the early stages of word processing, we conducted a masked priming lexical decision experiment with two groups of young readers (third and fifth graders) and a group of young adults. We selected two types of words: (a) words composed of cross-case letters that are visually dissimilar (DIS words; e.g., arte/ARTE [Spanish for art]) and (b) words composed of cross-case letters that are visually similar (SIM words; e.g., vivo/VIVO [Spanish for alive]). For young adults and fifth graders, response times for DIS and SIM words were very similar in the matched- and mismatched-case identity priming conditions, which in turn produced shorter responses than the unrelated condition (i.e., ARTE-ARTE=arte-ARTEARTE). This is consistent with the idea that there is fast access to abstract representations. In contrast, this process does not seem to be fully operative in third graders, as revealed by the pattern of data with DIS words (ARTE-ARTEarte-ARTE=edad-ARTE). These findings have relevant implications for developmental models of visual word recognition and for the use of masked priming experiments with developmental readers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Influence of Water Access in Subjective Well-Being: Some Evidence in Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Jorge; Gonzalez-Gomez, Francisco; Grajales, Angel Lendechy

    2013-01-01

    The literature on happiness or subjective well-being has explored the determinants of happiness without taking into consideration the role that water plays. In this paper we attempt to draw attention to water in subjective well-being studies. Approximately one hundred million people do not have access to water. A lack of clean water causes…

  4. Market access and the heterogeneous effect of shocks on wages : Evidence from Chinese cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno-Monroy, Ana Isabel

    2011-01-01

    New Economic Geography (NEG) models predict that locations with market access advantages have higher wages and larger labour inflows. Using comprehensive prefecture-city level data for China, the study estimates a wage equation derived from a NEG model. The results support the NEG explanation for wa

  5. The Influence of Water Access in Subjective Well-Being: Some Evidence in Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Jorge; Gonzalez-Gomez, Francisco; Grajales, Angel Lendechy

    2013-01-01

    The literature on happiness or subjective well-being has explored the determinants of happiness without taking into consideration the role that water plays. In this paper we attempt to draw attention to water in subjective well-being studies. Approximately one hundred million people do not have access to water. A lack of clean water causes…

  6. Off-Grid Electricity Access and its Impact on Micro-Enterprises: Evidence from Rural Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhoro, Peter N.

    The history of development shows convincingly that no country has substantially reduced poverty without massively increasing the use of electricity. The development of micro-enterprises in rural areas of Uganda is linked with increased access and use of electricity services. In this study, I combine quantitative and qualitative methods, including informal surveys, intra-business energy allocation studies and historical analysis, to analyze off-grid electricity access among micro-enterprises in rural western Uganda. I explore the linkages between of grid electricity access and the influence it has on micro- enterprises. Data is obtained from 56 micro-enterprises located in 11 village-towns within 3 districts in Uganda. In studying the micro-enterprises. the focus is on the services that are provided by electricity from modern energy carriers. The type of equipment used, forms of transportation, technical support, level of understanding and education of the entrepreneur, financing for energy equipment, and the role of donors are discussed in this thesis. Qualitative methods are used to allow for new insights and prioritization of concepts to emerge from the field rattier than from theory. Micro-enterprises in rural Uganda create income for the poor; they are resources for poverty reduction. With price adjustments, it becomes possible for those who live below the poverty line, nominally less than $1 a day, to afford the products and services and therefore mitigating the vicious cycle of poverty. Energy consumption among the micro-enterprises is at an average of 0.13kWh/day. The cost of accessing this amount of electricity attributes to about 50% of total revenue. I find that the "practices" used in off-grid electricity access lead to situations where the entrepreneurs have to evaluate pricing and output of products and services to generate higher profits. Such numbers indicate the need for appropriate technologies and profitable policies to be implemented. The data

  7. The effect of a healthy school tuck shop program on the access of students to healthy foods

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kirang; Hong, Seo Ah; Yun, Sung Ha; Ryou, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sang Sun; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a healthy school tuck shop program, developed as a way of creating a healthy and nutritional school environment, on students' access to healthy foods. Five middle schools and four high schools (775 students) participated in the healthy school tuck shop program, and nine schools (1,282 students) were selected as the control group. The intervention program included restriction of unhealthy foods sold in tuck shops, provision of various f...

  8. Expanding access to gerontological education via distance learning: the Management of Aging Services Masters Program at UMass Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadash, Pamela; Miller, Edward Alan; Porell, Frank W; Birchander, Ellen; Glickman, Lillian; Burr, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the online Management of Aging Services Masters Program at the University of Massachusetts Boston and reports on a recent Program review. The Program has experienced rapid growth, evolving from seven matriculating students in 2003 to 108 in 2012. It has graduated 125 students and boasts a 78% completion rate. The authors describe the Program and report on faculty and student perceptions of performance. The Program demonstrates sound pedagogical practice for online education, incorporating techniques to foster community and encourage students and faculty interaction. Distance learning holds considerable promise for expanding access to gerontological education to reach future aging services professionals.

  9. International dissemination of evidence-based practice, open access and the IACAPAP textbook of child and adolescent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Joseph M; Omigbodun, Olayinka Olusola

    2015-01-01

    Dramatic changes have occurred in both publishing and teaching in the last 20 years stemming from the digital and Internet revolutions. Such changes are likely to grow exponentially in the near future aided by the trend to open access publishing. This revolution has challenged traditional publishing and teaching methods that-largely but not exclusively due to cost-are particularly relevant to professionals in low and middle income countries. The digital medium and the Internet offer boundless opportunities for teaching and training to people in disadvantaged regions. This article describes the development of the IACAPAP eTextbook of child and adolescent mental health, its use, accessibility, and potential impact on the international dissemination of evidence-based practice.

  10. Overcoming access barriers to health services through membership-based microfinance organizations: a review of evidence from South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Somen; Annear, Peter Leslie

    2014-06-30

    It is a challenge for the poor to overcome the barriers to accessing health services. Membership-based microfinance with associated health programmes can improve health outcomes for the poor. This study reviewed the evidence published between 1993 and 2013 on the role of membership-based microfinance with associated health programmes in improving health outcomes for the poor in South Asia. A total of 661 papers were identified and 26 selected for inclusion, based on the relevance and rigour of the research methods. Of these 26, five were evidence reviews. Of the remaining 21 papers, 12 were from India, seven from Bangladesh, and one each from Sri Lanka and Indonesia. Three papers addressed more than one theme. Five key themes emerged from the review: (i) the impact of microfinance programmes on the social and economic situation of the poor; (ii) the impact of microfinance programmes on community health; (iii) the impact of integrated microfinance health programmes on raising client awareness; (iv) the impact of integrated microfinance health programmes on financing health care; and (v) the impact of integrated microfinance health programmes on affordable health-care products and services. The review provides new evidence on the pathways through which microfinance helps to improve population health and value for money for such programmes. Among countries with large populations in the informal sector, there is a strong case for policy-makers to support these groups in providing access to life-saving health care among the poor.

  11. Parents' expectations, awareness, and experiences of accessing evidence-based speech-language pathology services for their children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auert, Elle-Jane; Trembath, David; Arciuli, Joanne; Thomas, Donna

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the expectations, awareness, and experiences of parents in their efforts to access evidence-based speech-language pathology (SLP) services for their children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Four focus groups were conducted with 20 parents of pre school aged children with ASD and transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Two themes emerged to account for the participants' expectations, awareness, and experiences. The two themes, "Speech-language pathology: More than just a business", and "Parents and power", represented the complex interaction between factors including the parents' access to information, their involvement in the therapy process, and their sense of empowerment. The parents in this study expressed a strong desire for evidence-based practice (EBP) to be employed. However, the parents had different views on how EBP should be achieved. The findings of this study demonstrate the importance of involving parents in therapeutic relationships as partners in the decision-making process. This means providing parents with comprehensive information, including research evidence to support the clinical decisions that need to be made, and respecting parents' preferences in the therapy process.

  12. Comparing rating paradigms for evidence-based program registers in behavioral health: evidentiary criteria and implications for assessing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Stephanie N; Magura, Stephen; Burkhardt, Jason T; Schröter, Daniela C; Coryn, Chris L S

    2015-02-01

    Decision makers need timely and credible information about the effectiveness of behavioral health interventions. Online evidence-based program registers (EBPRs) have been developed to address this need. However, the methods by which these registers determine programs and practices as being “evidence-based” has not been investigated in detail. This paper examines the evidentiary criteria EBPRs use to rate programs and the implications for how different registers rate the same programs. Although the registers tend to employ a standard Campbellian hierarchy of evidence to assess evaluation results, there is also considerable disagreement among the registers about what constitutes an adequate research design and sufficient data for designating a program as evidence-based. Additionally, differences exist in how registers report findings of “no effect,” which may deprive users of important information. Of all programs on the 15 registers that rate individual programs, 79% appear on only one register. Among a random sample of 100 programs rated by more than one register, 42% were inconsistently rated by the multiple registers to some degree.

  13. Open-access evidence database of controlled trials and systematic reviews in youth mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Stefanie; Bailey, Alan P; Parker, Alexandra G; Montague, Alice E; Hetrick, Sarah E

    2017-05-10

    To present an update to an evidence-mapping project that consolidates the evidence base of interventions in youth mental health. To promote dissemination of this resource, the evidence map has been translated into a free online database (https://orygen.org.au/Campus/Expert-Network/Evidence-Finder or https://headspace.org.au/research-database/). Included studies are extensively indexed to facilitate searching. A systematic search for prevention and treatment studies in young people (mean age 6-25 years) is conducted annually using Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library. Included studies are restricted to controlled trials and systematic reviews published since 1980. To date, 221 866 publications have been screened, of which 2680 have been included in the database. Updates are conducted annually. This shared resource can be utilized to substantially reduce the amount of time involved with conducting literature searches. It is designed to promote the uptake of evidence-based practice and facilitate research to address gaps in youth mental health. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. 'PACE-Gate': When clinical trial evidence meets open data access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Keith J

    2017-08-01

    Science is not always plain sailing and sometimes the voyage is across an angry sea. A recent clinical trial of treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome (the PACE trial) has whipped up a storm of controversy. Patients claim the lead authors overstated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exercise therapy by lowering the thresholds they used to determine improvement. In this extraordinary case, patients discovered that the treatments tested had much lower efficacy after an information tribunal ordered the release of data from the PACE trial to a patient who had requested access using a freedom of information request.

  15. Language access and theory of mind reasoning: evidence from deaf children in bilingual and oralist environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meristo, Marek; Falkman, Kerstin W; Hjelmquist, Erland; Tedoldi, Mariantonia; Surian, Luca; Siegal, Michael

    2007-09-01

    This investigation examined whether access to sign language as a medium for instruction influences theory of mind (ToM) reasoning in deaf children with similar home language environments. Experiment 1 involved 97 deaf Italian children ages 4-12 years: 56 were from deaf families and had LIS (Italian Sign Language) as their native language, and 41 had acquired LIS as late signers following contact with signers outside their hearing families. Children receiving bimodal/bilingual instruction in LIS together with Sign-Supported and spoken Italian significantly outperformed children in oralist schools in which communication was in Italian and often relied on lipreading. Experiment 2 involved 61 deaf children in Estonia and Sweden ages 6-16 years. On a wide variety of ToM tasks, bilingually instructed native signers in Estonian Sign Language and spoken Estonian succeeded at a level similar to age-matched hearing children. They outperformed bilingually instructed late signers and native signers attending oralist schools. Particularly for native signers, access to sign language in a bilingual environment may facilitate conversational exchanges that promote the expression of ToM by enabling children to monitor others' mental states effectively.

  16. Implementing an Evidence Based Preceptorship Program in a Military Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-05

    want to act in good conscience, always trying to reach their goals without compromising their personal code of ethics . As Concrete Utilitarians ...Translate research into practice/evidence-based practice Clinical excellence Knowledge management Education and training Leadership, Ethics ...management Education and training Leadership, Ethics , and Mentoring: Health policy Recruitment and retention Preparing tomorrow’s leaders Care of

  17. An Evidence Based Approach to Sepsis: Educational Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for recognizing and treating sepsis have been available for decades, yet healthcare providers do not adhere to the recommendations. Sepsis can progress rapidly if not recognized early. Literature reports reveal that sepsis is the leading cause of death in non-cardiac intensive care units (ICUs), and it is one of the most…

  18. Barriers to International Student Mobility: Evidence from the Erasmus Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Otero, Manuel; Huisman, Jeroen; Beerkens, Maarja; de Wit, Hans; Vujic, Suncica

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we look at the barriers to international student mobility, with particular reference to the European Erasmus program. Much is known about factors that support or limit student mobility, but very few studies have made comparisons between participants and nonparticipants. Making use of a large data set on Erasmus and non-Erasmus…

  19. Programs to improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health in the US: a review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manlove J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Manlove, Heather Fish, Kristin Anderson Moore Child Trends, Bethesda, MD, USA Background: US adolescents have high rates of teen pregnancy, childbearing, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs, highlighting the need to identify and implement effective programs that will help improve teen sexual and reproductive health. Materials and methods: This review identified 103 random-assignment evaluations of 85 programs that incorporated intent-to-treat analyses and assessed impacts on pregnancy, childbearing, STIs, and their key determinants – sexual activity, number of sexual partners, condom use, and other contraceptive use – among teens. This review describes the evidence base for five broad program approaches, including abstinence education, comprehensive sex education, clinic-based programs, youth development programs, and parent–youth relationship programs. We also describe programs with impacts on key outcomes, including pregnancy/childbearing, STIs, and those that found impacts on both sexual activity and contraceptive use. Results: Our review identified 52 effective programs: 38 with consistent impacts on reproductive health outcomes, and 14 with mixed findings (across subpopulations, follow-ups, or multiple measures of a single outcome. We found that a variety of program approaches produced impacts on sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Parent–youth relationship programs and clinic-based program evaluations more frequently showed impacts than other program approaches, although we also identified a number of abstinence-education, comprehensive sex education, and youth-development programs with impacts on sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Overall, we identified nine program evaluations with impacts on teen pregnancies or births, five with impacts on reducing STIs, and 15 with impacts on both delaying/reducing sexual activity and increasing contraceptive use (including condom use. Conclusion: Future efforts should

  20. Who You Know, What You Know and Knowing the Ropes: A Review of Evidence about Access to Higher Education Institutions in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Geoff; Hayton, Annette; Tang, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the history of access to higher education in England and reviews the evidence on the progress made in widening participation and ensuring "fair access" under the New Labour governments of 1997-2010 and, insofar as is possible, under the Coalition government that has been in office since 2010. While recognising that…

  1. Accessing evidence to inform public health policy: a study to enhance advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, R G; Eyler, A A; Dodson, E A; Brownson, R C

    2015-06-01

    Improving population health often involves policy changes that are the result of complex advocacy efforts. Information exchanges among researchers, advocates, and policymakers is paramount to policy interventions to improve health outcomes. This information may include evidence on what works well for whom and cost-effective strategies to improve outcomes of interest. However, this information is not always readily available or easily communicated. The purposes of this paper are to describe ways advocates seek information for health policy advocacy and to compare advocate demographics. Cross-sectional telephone survey. Seventy-seven state-level advocates were asked about the desirable characteristics of policy-relevant information including methods of obtaining information, what makes it useful, and what sources make evidence most reliable/trustworthy. Responses were explored for the full sample and variety of subsamples (i.e. gender, age, and position on social and fiscal issues). Differences between groups were tested using t-tests and one-way analysis of variance. On average, advocates rated frequency of seeking research information as 4.3 out of five. Overall, advocates rated the Internet as the top source, rated unbiased research and research with relevancy to their organization as the most important characteristics, and considered information from their organization as most reliable/believable. When ratings were examined by subgroup, the two characteristics most important for each question in the total sample (listed above) emerged as most important for nearly all subgroups. Advocates are a resource to policymakers on health topics in the policy process. This study, among the first of its kind, found that advocates seek research information, but have a need for evidence that is unbiased and relevant to their organizations and report that university-based information is reliable. Researchers and advocates should partner so research is useful in advocating for

  2. Early Successes in an Open Access, Provincially Funded Hepatitis C Treatment Program in Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Daniel; Francheville, Jordan W; Rankin, Robin; Beck, Jeremy; Hoare, Connie; Materniak, Stefanie; German, Greg; Barrett, Lisa; Bunimov-Wall, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    The availability of curative hepatitis C therapies has created an opportunity to improve delivery and access. Local providers, government, industry, and community groups in Prince Edward Island developed an innovative province-wide care model. Our goal was to describe the first year of program implementation. Using a community based prospective observational study design, all chronic hepatitis C referrals received from April 2015 to April 2016 were recorded in a database. Primary analysis assessed the time from referral to assessment/treatment, as well as the number of referrals, assessments, and treatment initiations. Secondary objectives included: 1) Treatment effectiveness using intention-to-treat analysis; and 2) Patient treatment experience assessed using demographics, adverse events, and medication adherence. During the study period 242 referrals were received, 123 patients were seen for intake assessments, and 93 initiated direct-acting antiviral therapy based on medical need. This is compared to 4 treatment initiations in the previous 2 years. The median time from assessment to treatment initiation was 3 weeks. Eighty-two of 84 (97.6%, 95% CI 91.7 - 99.7%) patients for whom outcome data were available achieved sustained virologic response at 12 weeks post-treatment; 1 was lost to follow-up and 1 died from an unrelated event. In the voluntary registry, 39.7% of patients reported missed treatment doses. In conclusion, results from the first 12 months of this multi-phase hepatitis C elimination strategy demonstrate improved access to treatment, and high rates of safe engagement and cure for patients living with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infections.

  3. After abduction: exploring access to reintegration programs and mental health status among young female abductees in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Katherine A; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Betancourt, Theresa S; Ajok, Mirriam; Akello, Monica; Petruf, Zaira; Nguyen, Paul; Baines, Erin K; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Reintegration programs are commonly offered to former combatants and abductees to acquire civilian status and support services to reintegrate into post-conflict society. Among a group of young female abductees in northern Uganda, this study examined access to post-abduction reintegration programming and tested for between group differences in mental health status among young women who had accessed reintegration programming compared to those who self-reintegrated. This cross-sectional study analysed interviews from 129 young women who had previously been abducted by the Lords Resistance Army (LRA). Data was collected between June 2011-January 2012. Interviews collected information on abduction-related experiences including age and year of abduction, manner of departure, and reintegration status. Participants were coded as 'reintegrated' if they reported ≥1 of the following reintegration programs: traditional cleansing ceremony, received an amnesty certificate, reinsertion package, or had gone to a reception centre. A t-test was used to measure mean differences in depression and anxiety measured by the Acholi Psychosocial Assessment Instrument (APAI) to determine if abductees who participated in a reintegration program had different mental status from those who self-reintegrated. From 129 young abductees, 56 (43.4%) had participated in a reintegration program. Participants had been abducted between 1988-2010 for an average length of one year, the median age of abduction was 13 years (IQR:11-14) with escaping (76.6%), being released (15.6%), and rescued (7.0%) being the most common manner of departure from the LRA. Traditional cleansing ceremonies (67.8%) were the most commonly accessed support followed by receiving amnesty (37.5%), going to a reception centre (28.6%) or receiving a reinsertion package (12.5%). Between group comparisons indicated that the mental health status of abductees who accessed ≥1 reintegration program were not significantly different from

  4. 75 FR 29479 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs: Proposed Changes Affecting Hospital and Critical Access Hospital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Changes Affecting Hospital and Critical Access Hospital (CAH) Conditions of Participation (CoPs... conditions of participation (CoPs) for both hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs). These revisions...). [[Page 29480

  5. Factors influencing law enforcement decisions to adopt an evidence-based robbery prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, A; Casteel, C; Chronister, T; Nocera, M; Vladutiu, C J; Peek-Asa, C

    2013-12-01

    Homicide is the leading cause of workplace death among small retail and service businesses in the United States. Evidence-based programs have been shown to reduce robbery and robbery-related crimes in small retail businesses; however, reaching small businesses with programs has been difficult. As small businesses typically have no corporate backing or trade affiliation, police departments have been identified as potential vehicles for program dissemination. A national sample of 300 law enforcement agencies was surveyed to identify facilitators and barriers to adoption and sustainability of an evidence-based program. The questionnaire was developed using behavioral theory concepts and administered via telephone. Preliminary findings suggest the primary facilitators to program adoption included organizational capacity factors such as staff buy-in, dedicated personnel and financial support. Competing responsibilities was the primary barrier identified by agencies. Agency size and program complexity were identified as potential predictors of program adoption. Identifying agency and program-specific characteristics that influence program adoption by law enforcement agencies will be valuable for marketing programs to agencies that have the infrastructure to support and sustain program dissemination. Understanding these factors will optimize the reach of evidence-based strategies to small businesses.

  6. The National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) is a searchable online registry of mental health and substance abuse interventions that have...

  7. Minimalist Program and its fundamental improvements in syntactic theory: evidence from Agreement Asymmetry in Standard Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Horais

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:auto; mso-para-margin-right:1.0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:auto; mso-para-margin-left:2.0cm; text-align:justify; text-indent:-1.0cm; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The Minimalist Program is a major line of inquiry that has been developing inside Generative Grammar since the early nineties, when it was proposed by Chomsky  (1993, 1995. In that time, Chomsky (1998: 5 presents Minimalist Program as a program, not as a theory, but today, Minimalist Program lays out a very specific view of the basis of syntactic grammar that, when compared to other formalisms, is often taken to look very much like a theory. The prime concern of this paper, however, is  to provide a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the art of minimalist approach to the theory of grammar. In this regard, this paper discusses some new ideas articulated recently by Chomsky, and have led to several fundamental improvements in syntactic theory  such as changing the function of movement and the Extended Projection Principle (EPP feature, or proposing new theories such as Phases and Feature Inheritance. In order to evidence the significance of these fundamental improvements, the current paper provides a minimalist analysis to account for agreement and word-order asymmetry in Stranded Arabic. This fresh minimalist account meets the challenges (to the basic tenets of syntactic theory occurred

  8. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30–70 percentage points within 1–3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women

  9. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren

    2016-09-28

    Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30-70 percentage points within 1-3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women family planning

  10. Preferential access to emotion under attentional blink: evidence for threshold phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepanowski Remigiusz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides evidence that the activation strength produced by emotional stimuli must pass a threshold level in order to be consciously perceived, contrary to the assumption of continuous quality of representation. An analysis of receiver operating characteristics (ROC for attentional blink performance was used to distinguish between two (continuous vs. threshold models of emotion perception by inspecting two different ROC’s shapes. Across all conditions, the results showed that performance in the attentional blink task was better described by the two-limbs ROC predicted by the Krantz threshold model than by the curvilinear ROC implied by the signal-detection theory.

  11. Access to sanitation and violence against women: evidence from Demographic Health Survey (DHS) data in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Samantha C; Barchi, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Violence against women (VAW) is a serious public health and human rights concern. Literature suggests sanitation conditions in developing countries may be potential neighborhood-level risk factors contributing to VAW, and that this association may be more important in highly socially disorganized neighborhoods. This study analyzed 2008 Kenya Demographic Health Survey's data and found women who primarily practice open defecation (OD), particularly in disorganized communities, had higher odds of experiencing recent non-partner violence. This study provides quantitative evidence of an association between sanitation and VAW that is attracting increasing attention in media and scholarly literature throughout Kenya and other developing countries.

  12. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Adolescent Alcohol Access: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Nilsson, Anton; Kedir, Abdu

    We exploit changes in minimum legal alcohol purchasing ages in Denmark in order to estimate effects on short- and long-term health outcomes, as well as on human capital formation. Employing a difference-in-differences approach for immediate outcomes and a “regression kink design” for long......-term outcomes, we bring comprehensive evidence on the health and education effects of three reforms, which affected alcohol availability along different dimensions and margins – 1) establishing an off-premise alcohol purchase age of 15 (1998), 2) raising the off-premise alcohol purchase age to 16 (2004), and 3...

  13. Immigrant mothers and access to prenatal care: evidence from a regional population study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Lanari, Donatella; Minelli, Liliana; Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca

    2016-02-09

    We addressed the question of whether use of adequate prenatal care differs between foreign-born and Italian mothers and estimated the extent to which unobservable characteristics bias results. This study is on primary care and especially on adequate access to prenatal healthcare services by immigrant mothers. Approximately 37,000 mothers of both Italian and foreign nationality were studied. Data were obtained from the Standard Certificate of Live Birth between 2005 and 2010 in Umbria. Estimates from the bivariate probit model indicate that immigrant mothers are three times more likely to make fewer than four prenatal visits (OR=3.35) and 1.66 times more likely to make a late first visit (OR=1.66). The effect is found to be strongest for Asian women. Standard probit models lead to underestimation of the probability of inadequate use of prenatal care services by immigrant women, whereas bivariate probit models, which allow us to consider immigrant status as an endogenous variable, estimated ORs to be three times larger than those obtained with univariate models. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Accessible cultural mind-set modulates default mode activity: evidence for the culturally situated brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenbo; Oyserman, Daphna; Liu, Qiang; Li, Hong; Han, Shihui

    2013-01-01

    Self-construal priming modulates human behavior and associated neural activity. However, the neural activity associated with the self-construal priming procedure itself remains unknown. It is also unclear whether and how self-construal priming affects neural activity prior to engaging in a particular task. To address this gap, we scanned Chinese adults, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, during self-construal priming and a following resting state. We found that, relative to a calculation task, both interdependent and independent self-construal priming activated the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). The contrast of interdependent vs. independent self-construal priming also revealed increased activity in the dorsal MPFC and left middle frontal cortex. The regional homogeneity analysis of the resting-state activity revealed increased local synchronization of spontaneous activity in the dorsal MPFC but decreased local synchronization of spontaneous activity in the PCC when contrasting interdependent vs. independent self-construal priming. The functional connectivity analysis of the resting-state activity, however, did not show significant difference in synchronization of activities in remote brain regions between different priming conditions. Our findings suggest that accessible collectivistic/individualistic mind-set induced by self-construal priming is associated with modulations of both task-related and resting-state activity in the default mode network.

  15. Access to resources shapes maternal decision making: evidence from a factorial vignette experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Kushnick

    Full Text Available The central assumption of behavioral ecology is that natural selection has shaped individuals with the capacity to make decisions that balance the fitness costs and benefits of behavior. A number of factors shape the fitness costs and benefits of maternal care, but we lack a clear understanding how they, taken together, play a role in the decision-making process. In animal studies, the use of experimental methods has allowed for the tight control of these factors. Standard experimentation is inappropriate in human behavioral ecology, but vignette experiments may solve the problem. I used a confounded factorial vignette experiment to gather 640 third-party judgments about the maternal care decisions of hypothetical women and their children from 40 female karo Batak respondents in rural Indonesia. This allowed me to test hypotheses derived from parental investment theory about the relative importance of five binary factors in shaping maternal care decisions with regard to two distinct scenarios. As predicted, access to resources--measured as the ability of a woman to provide food for her children--led to increased care. A handful of other factors conformed to prediction, but they were inconsistent across scenarios. The results suggest that mothers may use simple heuristics, rather than a full accounting for costs and benefits, to make decisions about maternal care. Vignettes have become a standard tool for studying decision making, but have made only modest inroads to evolutionarily informed studies of human behavior.

  16. Who you know, what you know and knowing the ropes: a review of evidence about access to higher education institutions in England

    OpenAIRE

    Whitty, G.; Hayton, A; Tang, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the history of access to higher education in England and reviews the evidence on the progress made in widening participation and ensuring ‘fair access’ under the New Labour governments of 1997–2010 and, insofar as is possible, under the Coalition government that has been in office since 2010. While recognising that we need also to consider the nature of what students gain access to, the focus of this particular review is on evidence about inequalities in access to higher ...

  17. Crime Prevention Programs: Evidence for a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Vergara

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of two anti-crime programs implemented in Chile in the late 1990s. The first (Quadrant Plan) is related to enhancing the quality of police work and the second one (Secure County Plan) to the involvement of the community in designing specific projects aimed at reducing the crime rate. It is found that only the Quadrant Plan has been successful in terms of reducing crime rates and has caused its impact through the effect of arrests in deterring crime. The Secure C...

  18. Improving Access to Quality Care in Family Planning: WHO's Four Cornerstones of Evidence-based Guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang-chun WU; Yan ZOU; K Church; O Meirik

    2007-01-01

    The four cornerstones of guidance in technique service of family planning are established by WHO based on high quality evidences. They have been updated according to the appearing new evidences, and the consensuses were reached by the international experts in this field. The four documents include Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, Decision-making Tool for Family Planning Clients and Providers and The Global Handbook for Family Planning Providers. The first two documents mainlyface to the policy-makers and programme managers and were treated as the important references for creating the local guideline. The other two documents were developed for the front-line health-care and family planning providers at different levels, which include plenty of essential technical information to help providers improve their ability in service delivery and counselling. China paid great attention to the introduction and application of WHO guidelines. As soon as the newer editions of these documents were available, the Chinese version would be followed. WHO guidelines have been primarily adapted with the newly issued national guideline, The Clinical Practical Skill Guidelines- Family Planning Part, which was established by China Medical Association. At the same time, the WHO guidelines have been introduced to some of the linicians and family planning providers at different levels. In the future, more special training courses will be introduced to the township level based on the needs of grassroot providers.

  19. Gaining Access to Late French-Immersion Programs: Class-Based Perspectives of Canadian Students in an Ottawa High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makropoulos, Josee

    2009-01-01

    The question of access to French-immersion programs has become a timely subject in Canada as a result of shifting political priorities, cutbacks, and growing concern around finding the most efficient way to teach French as a second language (FSL). While drawing on social selection and identity perspectives on school choice, this article presents…

  20. Mass surveillance, privacy, and freedom : A case for public access to information about mass government surveillance programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Bryce; Moore, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines judicial decisions about the legality of mass surveillance in the United States and Europe (at the European Court of Human Rights), and explores how the existence of these programs threatens individual freedom. In doing so, the chapter presents a theory of information access an

  1. Teacher Adaptations to a Core Reading Program: Increasing Access to Curriculum for Elementary Students in Urban Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniates, Helen

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how three urban elementary school teachers adapted pedagogical strategies from a school district--adopted core reading program to increase their students' access to the curriculum. Using teacher interviews and classroom observations to construct a descriptive case study of teacher adaptation, analysis reveals that the…

  2. Teacher Adaptations to a Core Reading Program: Increasing Access to Curriculum for Elementary Students in Urban Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniates, Helen

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how three urban elementary school teachers adapted pedagogical strategies from a school district--adopted core reading program to increase their students' access to the curriculum. Using teacher interviews and classroom observations to construct a descriptive case study of teacher adaptation, analysis reveals that the…

  3. Improving Nigerian health policymakers' capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop.

  4. The cervical cancer screening program in Mexico: problems with access and coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Ponce, E C; Nájera-Aguilar, P; Buiatti, E; Alonso-de-Ruiz, P; Kuri, P; Cantoral, L; Hernández-Avila, M

    1997-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in two geographic regions of Mexico - Oaxaca (rural area) and Mexico City (urban area) - to determine the main factors for predicting participation in Cervical Cytology Screening Programs (CCSP), in populations with high mortality due to cervical cancer. We included 4,208 women aged between 15 and 49 years, randomly selected through a national household-sample frame. Knowledge of what the Pap test is used for strongly predisposes use of CCSP in Mexico City (odds ratio [OR] = 46.1, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 33.1-64.1) and Oaxaca state (OR = 61.5, CI = 42.0-89.9), as well as high socioeconomic level (Mexico: OR = 2.0, CI = 1.1-7.6; Oaxaca: OR = 4.1, CI = 3.1-5.3), high education level (Mexico: OR = 3.6, CI = 1.5-8.8; Oaxaca: OR = 5.3, CI = 2.8-10.0), and access to social security (Mexico: OR = 1.7, CI = 1.4-2.2; Oaxaca: OR = 2.2, CI = 1.8-2.7). Low coverage of the CCSP is confirmed as an important problem in Mexico.

  5. Key Implementation Considerations for Executing Evidence-Based Programs: Project Overview. ASPE Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In April 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) hosted a Forum, Emphasizing Evidence-Based Programs for Children and Youth, to convene the nation's leading practitioners and researchers with experience using and evaluating an array of evidence-based…

  6. Credit Accessibility Granted by Rural Banks in Rural Community: Evidence from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Binfor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the rural banks was to improve the standard of the living in the rural community they operate. This is done by encouraging the rural indigenes to save with them, and assist them by granting credit facilities to them. It is obvious that in spite of the existence of the bank in the community, people still take loans from friends and relatives (moneylenders, when in comparably have higher interest rate than that of the bank. Some take 100% interest within the shortest time with properties used as collateral until the money are paid back before the properties are released to them. The researcher found out that the public lack information about the rural bank in their community, which leads to their access of credit from friends and relatives known as Money Lenders instead of the bank. The concern in this study is, therefore, the lack of information between banks and the public. Even though the display of information by banks is supposed to provide vital information to customers, a number of concerns are raised. They are directed at how the rural banks can bring about effective banking services to the rural community. Given the low level of literacy, how many customers can read the information displayed in the banks if they are available? How many can understand what they read if they are able to read? In addition, to what extent does this information assist customers in their demand for credits? With what strategies do the banks reach out to the public? If not all, most of these concerns have informed the focus of discussion in this paper.

  7. DOES CAREER PROGRAM HAVE EFFECT ON EMPLOYEE OUTCOMES? EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman ISMAIL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study sets to examine the relationship between career program and employee outcomes. A survey method was employed to obtain data from employees of a military based university in Malaysia. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model analysis showed four important findings: first, career planning was positively and insignificantly correlated with job satisfaction. Second, career management was positively and significantly correlated with job satisfaction. Thirdly, career planning was positively and insignificantly correlated with career commitment. Finally, career management was positively and significantly correlated with career commitment. This result confirms that career planning does not act as an essential predictor of job satisfaction and career commitment, but career management does act as an essential predictor of job satisfaction and career commitment in the studied organization. In addition, this study provides discussion, implications and conclusion.

  8. Examining Inclusion of Evidence-Based Practice on Social Work Training Program Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Traci L.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.; Grady, Melissa D.

    2013-01-01

    Websites represent a visible medium for social work programs to communicate information about social work research, academics, and professional training priorities, including evidence-based practice (EBP). However, few studies have examined the content of social work program websites. This exploratory study aimed to answer the question: Are EBP…

  9. Resource List--Using Evidence-Based Programs as the Foundation of Comprehensive Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advocates for Youth, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have identified dozens of programs that are effective in helping young people reduce their risk for pregnancy, HIV, and STDs. These evidence-based programs utilize strategies that include the provision of accurate, honest information about abstinence as well as contraception and can serve as the foundation for comprehensive sex…

  10. Can universal pre-kindergarten programs improve population health and longevity? Mechanisms, evidence, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has found that children who attended pre-kindergarten programs in childhood were more likely to be healthy as adults. One intuitive way of improving population health and longevity may therefore be to invest in pre-kindergarten programs. However, much of the research linking pre-kindergarten programs to health is very recent and has not been synthesized. In this paper, I review the mechanisms linking pre-kindergarten programs in childhood to adult longevity, and the experimental evidence backing up these linkages. I conclude with a critical exploration of whether investments in pre-kindergarten programs could also serve as investments in public health.

  11. Effecting Change in an Evidence-Based Medicine Curriculum: Librarians' Role in a Pediatric Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeblisky, Kathy; Birr, Rebecca A; Sjursen Guerrero, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Librarians for the joint Phoenix Children's Hospital/Maricopa Medical Center Pediatric Residency Program were asked to assist on the Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Subcommittee for the program. Faculty was open to recommendations for revising and improving the curriculum and desired librarian assistance in completing the task. The annual program review and conference evaluations revealed a gap between the objectives of the EBM curriculum and the residents' perceived abilities to integrate knowledge into meaningful literature searches. This column demonstrates how librarians can collaborate with their residency programs to revise and improve processes to effect change in their program's EBM curriculum.

  12. The VA Point-of-Care Precision Oncology Program: Balancing Access with Rapid Learning in Molecular Cancer Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Louis D; Brophy, Mary T; Turek, Sara; Kudesia, Valmeek; Ramnath, Nithya; Shannon, Colleen; Ferguson, Ryan; Pyarajan, Saiju; Fiore, Melissa A; Hornberger, John; Lavori, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) recognized the need to balance patient-centered care with responsible creation of generalizable knowledge on the effectiveness of molecular medicine tools. Embracing the principles of the rapid learning health-care system, a new clinical program called the Precision Oncology Program (POP) was created in New England. The POP integrates generalized knowledge about molecular medicine in cancer with a database of observations from previously treated veterans. The program assures access to modern genomic oncology practice in the veterans affairs (VA), removes disparities of access across the VA network of clinical centers, disseminates the products of learning that are generalizable to non-VA settings, and systematically presents opportunities for patients to participate in clinical trials of targeted therapeutics.

  13. Evidence for developmental programming of cerebral laterality in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander; Osmond, Clive; Godfrey, Keith M; Phillips, David I W

    2011-02-16

    Adverse fetal environments are associated with depression, reduced cognitive ability and increased stress responsiveness in later life, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. Environmental pressures on the fetus, resulting from variations in placental function and maternal nutrition, health and stress might alter neurodevelopment, promoting the development of some brain regions over others. As asymmetry of cerebral activity, with greater right hemisphere activity, has been associated with psychopathology, we hypothesized that regional specialization during fetal life might be reflected persistently in the relative activity of the cerebral hemispheres. We tested this hypothesis in 140 healthy 8-9 year-old children, using tympanic membrane temperature to assess relative blood flow to the cerebral hemispheres at rest and following psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test for Children). Their birth weight and placental weight had already been measured when their mothers took part in a previous study of pregnancy outcomes. We found that children who had a smaller weight at birth had evidence of greater blood flow to the right hemisphere than to the left hemisphere (r = -.09, P = .29 at rest; r = -.18, P = .04 following stress). This finding was strengthened if the children had a relatively low birth weight for their placental weight (r = -.17, P = .05 at rest; r = -.31, P = .0005 following stress). Our findings suggest that lateralization of cerebral activity is influenced persistently by early developmental experiences, with possible consequences for long-term neurocognitive function.

  14. Developmental origins of health and disease: experimental and human evidence of fetal programming for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gusmão Correia, M L; Volpato, A M; Águila, M B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C A

    2012-07-01

    The concept of developmental origins of health and disease has been defined as the process through which the environment encountered before birth, or in infancy, shapes the long-term control of tissue physiology and homeostasis. The evidence for programming derives from a large number of experimental and epidemiological observations. Several nutritional interventions during diverse phases of pregnancy and lactation in rodents are associated with fetal and neonatal programming for metabolic syndrome. In this paper, recent experimental models and human epidemiological studies providing evidence for the fetal programming associated with the development of metabolic syndrome and related diseases are revisited.

  15. Evolutionary Evaluation: implications for evaluators, researchers, practitioners, funders and the evidence-based program mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Jennifer Brown; Hargraves, Monica; Trochim, William M

    2014-08-01

    Evolutionary theory, developmental systems theory, and evolutionary epistemology provide deep theoretical foundations for understanding programs, their development over time, and the role of evaluation. This paper relates core concepts from these powerful bodies of theory to program evaluation. Evolutionary Evaluation is operationalized in terms of program and evaluation evolutionary phases, which are in turn aligned with multiple types of validity. The model of Evolutionary Evaluation incorporates Chen's conceptualization of bottom-up versus top-down program development. The resulting framework has important implications for many program management and evaluation issues. The paper illustrates how an Evolutionary Evaluation perspective can illuminate important controversies in evaluation using the example of the appropriate role of randomized controlled trials that encourages a rethinking of "evidence-based programs". From an Evolutionary Evaluation perspective, prevailing interpretations of rigor and mandates for evidence-based programs pose significant challenges to program evolution. This perspective also illuminates the consequences of misalignment between program and evaluation phases; the importance of supporting both researcher-derived and practitioner-derived programs; and the need for variation and evolutionary phase diversity within portfolios of programs.

  16. Insurance Expansion and Hospital Emergency Department Access: Evidence From the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthwaite, Craig; Gross, Tal; Notowidigdo, Matthew; Graves, John A

    2017-02-07

    Little is known about whether insurance expansion affects the location and type of emergency department (ED) use. Understanding these changes can inform state-level decisions about the Medicaid expansion under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). To investigate the effect of the 2014 ACA Medicaid expansion on the location, insurance status, and type of ED visits. Quasi-experimental observational study from 2012 to 2014. 126 investor-owned, hospital-based EDs. Uninsured and Medicaid-insured adults aged 18 to 64 years. ACA expansion of Medicaid in January 2014. Number of ED visits overall, type of visit (for example, nondiscretionary or nonemergency), and average travel time to the ED. Interrupted time-series analyses comparing changes from the end of 2013 to end of 2014 for patients from Medicaid expansion versus nonexpansion states were done. There were 1.06 million ED visits among patients from 17 Medicaid expansion states, and 7.87 million ED visits among patients from 19 nonexpansion states. The EDs treating patients from Medicaid expansion states saw an overall 47.1% decrease in uninsured visits (95% CI, -65.0% to -29.3%) and a 125.7% (CI, 89.2% to 162.6%) increase in Medicaid visits after 12 months of ACA expansion. Average travel time for nondiscretionary conditions requiring immediate medical care decreased by 0.9 minutes (-6.2% [CI, -8.9% to -3.5%]) among all Medicaid patients from expansion states. We found little evidence of similar changes among patients from nonexpansion states. Results reflect shifts in ED care at investor-owned facilities, which limits generalizability to other hospital types. Meaningful changes in insurance status and location and type of ED visits in the first year of ACA Medicaid expansion were found, suggesting that expansion provides patients with a greater choice of hospital facilities. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

  17. Evidence for developmental programming of cerebral laterality in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jones

    Full Text Available Adverse fetal environments are associated with depression, reduced cognitive ability and increased stress responsiveness in later life, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. Environmental pressures on the fetus, resulting from variations in placental function and maternal nutrition, health and stress might alter neurodevelopment, promoting the development of some brain regions over others. As asymmetry of cerebral activity, with greater right hemisphere activity, has been associated with psychopathology, we hypothesized that regional specialization during fetal life might be reflected persistently in the relative activity of the cerebral hemispheres. We tested this hypothesis in 140 healthy 8-9 year-old children, using tympanic membrane temperature to assess relative blood flow to the cerebral hemispheres at rest and following psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test for Children. Their birth weight and placental weight had already been measured when their mothers took part in a previous study of pregnancy outcomes. We found that children who had a smaller weight at birth had evidence of greater blood flow to the right hemisphere than to the left hemisphere (r = -.09, P = .29 at rest; r = -.18, P = .04 following stress. This finding was strengthened if the children had a relatively low birth weight for their placental weight (r = -.17, P = .05 at rest; r = -.31, P = .0005 following stress. Our findings suggest that lateralization of cerebral activity is influenced persistently by early developmental experiences, with possible consequences for long-term neurocognitive function.

  18. Reducing access times for an endoscopy department by an iterative combination of computer simulation and linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joustra, P E; de Wit, J; Struben, V M D; Overbeek, B J H; Fockens, P; Elkhuizen, S G

    2010-03-01

    To reduce the access times of an endoscopy department, we developed an iterative combination of Discrete Event simulation and Integer Linear Programming. We developed the method in the Endoscopy Department of the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam and compared different scenarios to reduce the access times for the department. The results show that by a more effective allocation of the current capacity, all procedure types will meet their corresponding performance targets in contrast to the current situation. This improvement can be accomplished without requiring additional equipment and staff. Currently, our recommendations are implemented.

  19. Open Access Discovery of alunite in Cross crater, Terra Sirenum, Mars: Evidence for acidic, sulfurous waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Milliken, Ralph E.; Mustard, John F.; Clark, Roger N.; Murchie, Scott L.; Breit, George N.; Wray, James J.; Gondet, Brigitte; Poulet, Francois; Carter, John; Calvin, Wendy M.; Benzel, William M.; Seelos, Kimberly D.

    2016-01-01

    Cross crater is a 65 km impact crater, located in the Noachian highlands of the Terra Sirenum region of Mars (30°S, 158°W), which hosts aluminum phyllosilicate deposits first detected by the Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, L’Eau, les Glaces et l’Activitié (OMEGA) imaging spectrometer on Mars Express. Using high-resolution data from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we examine Cross crater’s basin-filling sedimentary deposits. Visible/shortwave infrared (VSWIR) spectra from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) show absorptions diagnostic of alunite. Combining spectral data with high-resolution images, we map a large (10 km × 5 km) alunite-bearing deposit in southwest Cross crater, widespread kaolin-bearing sediments with variable amounts of alunite that are layered in <10 m scale beds, and silica- and/or montmorillonite-bearing deposits that occupy topographically lower, heavily fractured units. The secondary minerals are found at elevations ranging from 700 to 1550 m, forming a discontinuous ring along the crater wall beneath darker capping materials. The mineralogy inside Cross crater is different from that of the surrounding terrains and other martian basins, where Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates and Ca/Mg-sulfates are commonly found. Alunite in Cross crater indicates acidic, sulfurous waters at the time of its formation. Waters in Cross crater were likely supplied by regionally upwelling groundwaters as well as through an inlet valley from a small adjacent depression to the east, perhaps occasionally forming a lake or series of shallow playa lakes in the closed basin. Like nearby Columbus crater, Cross crater exhibits evidence for acid sulfate alteration, but the alteration in Cross is more extensive/complete. The large but localized occurrence of alunite suggests a localized, high-volume source of acidic waters or vapors, possibly supplied by sulfurous (H2S- and/or SO2-bearing) waters in contact with a magmatic source, upwelling

  20. 77 FR 48199 - Privacy Act; System of Records: State-35, Information Access Programs Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... user must first be granted access to the Department of State computer system. All employees of the... trails of access from the computer media, thereby permitting regular and ad hoc monitoring of computer usage. RETENTION AND DISPOSAL: Records are retired and destroyed in accordance with published...

  1. Language Access Toolkit: An Organizing and Advocacy Resource for Community-Based Youth Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyersdorf, Mark Ro

    2013-01-01

    Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund (AALDEF) developed this language access toolkit to share the expertise and experiences of National Asian American Education Advocates Network (NAAEA) member organizations with other community organizations interested in developing language access campaigns. This toolkit includes an overview of…

  2. 76 FR 27633 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for Market Access Program, Foreign Market...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... Assistance (CFDA) Numbers: 10.601 (MAP), 10.600 (FMD), 10.603 (EMP), 10.604 (TASC), 10.605 (QSP). SUMMARY... Program (FMD), Emerging Markets Program (EMP), Technical Assistance for Specialty Crops Program (TASC... May 16, 2011, deadline for proposals for the MAP, FMD, EMP, TASC, and QSP programs. This...

  3. Project Integration Architecture (PIA) and Computational Analysis Programming Interface (CAPRI) for Accessing Geometry Data from CAD Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyo, Theresa L.

    2002-01-01

    Integration of a supersonic inlet simulation with a computer aided design (CAD) system is demonstrated. The integration is performed using the Project Integration Architecture (PIA). PIA provides a common environment for wrapping many types of applications. Accessing geometry data from CAD files is accomplished by incorporating appropriate function calls from the Computational Analysis Programming Interface (CAPRI). CAPRI is a CAD vendor neutral programming interface that aids in acquiring geometry data directly from CAD files. The benefits of wrapping a supersonic inlet simulation into PIA using CAPRI are; direct access of geometry data, accurate capture of geometry data, automatic conversion of data units, CAD vendor neutral operation, and on-line interactive history capture. This paper describes the PIA and the CAPRI wrapper and details the supersonic inlet simulation demonstration.

  4. [Use of evidence in heath policies and programs contributions of the instituto nacional de salud].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Ericson L; Piazza, Marina; Gutierrez-Aguado, Alfonso; Hijar, Gisely; Carmona, Gloria; Caballero, Patricia; Reyes, Nora; Canelo, Carlos; Aparco, Juan Pablo; Tejada, Romina A; Bolaños-Díaz, Rafael; Saravia, Silvia; Gozzer, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes some examples about how the Ministry of Health of Peru has used evidence for policy and program formulation, implementation and evaluation. It describes the process by which health budget programs are based and strengthened with scientific evidence. Provides an overview about how the development of clinical guidelines methodology is facilitating the generation of high quality evidence based clinical guidelines.It presents some examples of specific information needs of the Ministry of Health to which the Instituto Nacional de Salud has responded, and the impact of that collaboration. Finally, the article proposes future directions for the use of research methodology especially relevant for the development and evaluation of policy and programs, as well as the development of networks of health technology assessment at the national and international level.

  5. Small scale farmers’ access to and participation in markets : The case of the P4P program in western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Skjöldevald, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to understand how small scale farmers navigate the market to access and participate in the formal maize market to improve their revenue, utilising the case of the P4P program inKenya. The empirical material was collected during fieldwork in Kenya. Qualitative methods were found to be the most suitable for this thesis. The methods that was utilised were a case study strategy, semi structured interviews, focus groups, observations and analysis of secondary sources....

  6. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Grants for Access and Persistence Program (GAP) State Grant Allotment Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grants for Access and Persistence Program (GAP) State Grant Allotment Case Study A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 692 Education Regulations of the Offices of...) State Grant Allotment Case Study ER29OC09.010 ER29OC09.011 ER29OC09.012 ER29OC09.013 ER29OC09.014...

  7. Can cash transfers improve determinants of maternal mortality? Evidence from the household and community programs in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Dian; Cohen, Jessica; McConnell, Margaret; Berman, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Despite global efforts in maternal health, 303,000 maternal deaths still occurred globally in 2015. One explanation is a considerable inequality in maternal mortality and the sources such as nutritional status and health utilization. One strategy to fight health inequality due to poverty is conditional cash transfer (CCT). Taking advantage of two large clustered-randomized trials in Indonesia from 2007 to 2009, this paper provides evidence on the effects of household cash transfers (PKH) and community cash transfers (Generasi) on determinants of maternal mortality. The sample sizes are 14,000 households for PKH and 12,000 households for Generasi. After two years of implementation, difference-in-differences (DID) analyses show that the two programs can improve determinants of maternal mortality with Generasi provides positive impact in some aspects of determinants, but PKH does not. Generasi improves maternal health knowledge, reduces financial barriers to accessing health services and improves utilization of health services, increases utilization among higher-risk women, improves posyandu equipment, and increases nutritional intake. As for PKH, evidence shows its strongest effects only on utilization of health services. Both programs, however, are unlikely to have a large effect on maternal mortality due to design and implementation issues that might significantly reduce program effectiveness. While the programs improved utilization, they did so at community-based facilities not equipped with emergency obstetric care. In the midst of popularity of household cash transfer, our results show that community cash transfer offers a viable policy alternative to improve the determinants of maternal mortality by allowing more flexibility in activities and at lower cost by monitoring at community level.

  8. DOE Voluntary Partnership Program with Utilities and Local Governments Supports the Design of New Data Access Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Monisha; Burr, Andrew; Schulte, Andrew; Field-Macumber, Kristin; Cochran-Hameen, Erica; Marion, Flore

    2016-08-26

    The Better Buildings Energy Data Accelerator (BBEDA) is a unique effort that has supported 22 pairs of local governments and their utility companies to help building owners gain access to their whole-building energy data. Municipal and Utility BBEDA Partners committed to develop streamlined and easy-to-use solutions to provide whole-building energy data, especially for multitenant commercial buildings, by the end of 2015. As a result, building owners would be able to make data-driven decisions about their buildings by utilizing readily available energy consumption data for entire buildings. Traditionally, data access was difficult to implement due to technical barriers and the lack of clear value propositions for the utilities. During the past two years, BBEDA has taken a hands-on approach to overcome these barriers by offering a platform for the partners to discuss their challenges and solutions. Customized support was also provided to Partners building their local strategies. Based on the lessons learned from the partners, BBEDA developed a final toolkit with guiding documents that addressed key barriers and served as a resource for the other cities and utilities attempting to establish whole-building data access, including an exploration of opportunities to apply the whole-building data to various aspects of utility demand-side management (DSM) programs. BBEDA has been a catalyst for market transformation by addressing the upstream (to efficiency implementation) barrier of data access, demonstrated through the success of the BBEDA partners to address policy, engagement, and technical hurdles and arrive at replicable solutions to make data access a standard practice nationwide. As a result of best practices identified by the BBEDA, 18 utilities serving more than 2.6 million commercial customers nationwide will provide whole-building energy data access to building owners by 2017. This historic expansion of data accessibility will increase building energy

  9. Automated Eukaryotic Gene Structure Annotation Using EVidenceModeler and the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, B J; Salzberg, S L; Zhu, W; Pertea, M; Allen, J E; Orvis, J; White, O; Buell, C R; Wortman, J R

    2007-12-10

    EVidenceModeler (EVM) is presented as an automated eukaryotic gene structure annotation tool that reports eukaryotic gene structures as a weighted consensus of all available evidence. EVM, when combined with the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments (PASA), yields a comprehensive, configurable annotation system that predicts protein-coding genes and alternatively spliced isoforms. Our experiments on both rice and human genome sequences demonstrate that EVM produces automated gene structure annotation approaching the quality of manual curation.

  10. Memory Access Behavior Analysis of NUMA-Based Shared Memory Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tao

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Shared memory applications running transparently on top of NUMA architectures often face severe performance problems due to bad data locality and excessive remote memory accesses. Optimizations with respect to data locality are therefore necessary, but require a fundamental understanding of an application's memory access behavior. The information necessary for this cannot be obtained using simple code instrumentation due to the implicit nature of the communication handled by the NUMA hardware, the large amount of traffic produced at runtime, and the fine access granularity in shared memory codes. In this paper an approach to overcome these problems and thereby to enable an easy and efficient optimization process is presented. Based on a low-level hardware monitoring facility in coordination with a comprehensive visualization tool, it enables the generation of memory access histograms capable of showing all memory accesses across the complete address space of an application's working set. This information can be used to identify access hot spots, to understand the dynamic behavior of shared memory applications, and to optimize applications using an application specific data layout resulting in significant performance improvements.

  11. Successfully integrating aged care services: A review of the evidence and tools emerging from a long-term care program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Stewart

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing efficient and effective aged care services is one of the greatest public policy concerns currently facing governments. Increasing the integration of care services has the potential to provide many benefits including increased access, promoting greater efficiency, and improving care outcomes. There is little research, however, investigating how integrated aged care can be successfully achieved. The PRISMA (Program of Research to Integrate Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy project, from Quebec, Canada, is one of the most systematic and sustained bodies of research investigating the translation and outcomes of an integrated care policy into practice.  The PRISMA research program has run since 1988, yet there has been no independent systematic review of this work to draw out the lessons learnt. Methods: Narrative review of all literature emanating from the PRISMA project between 1988 and 2012. Researchers accessed an online list of all published papers from the program website. The reference lists of papers were hand searched to identify additional literature. Finally, Medline, Pubmed, EMBASE and Google Scholar indexing databases were searched using key terms and author names. Results were extracted into specially designed spread sheets for analysis. Results: 45 journal articles and two books authored or co-authored by the PRISMA team were identified. Research was primarily concerned with: the design, development and validation of screening and assessment tools; and results generated from their application. Both quasi-experimental and cross sectional analytic designs were used extensively. Contextually appropriate expert opinion was obtained using variations on the Delphi Method. Literature analysis revealed the structures, processes and outcomes which underpinned the implementation. PRISMA provides evidence that integrating care for older persons is beneficial to individuals through reducing incidence of functional

  12. Successfully integrating aged care services: A review of the evidence and tools emerging from a long-term care program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Stewart

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing efficient and effective aged care services is one of the greatest public policy concerns currently facing governments. Increasing the integration of care services has the potential to provide many benefits including increased access, promoting greater efficiency, and improving care outcomes. There is little research, however, investigating how integrated aged care can be successfully achieved. The PRISMA (Program of Research to Integrate Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy project, from Quebec, Canada, is one of the most systematic and sustained bodies of research investigating the translation and outcomes of an integrated care policy into practice.  The PRISMA research program has run since 1988, yet there has been no independent systematic review of this work to draw out the lessons learnt.Methods: Narrative review of all literature emanating from the PRISMA project between 1988 and 2012. Researchers accessed an online list of all published papers from the program website. The reference lists of papers were hand searched to identify additional literature. Finally, Medline, Pubmed, EMBASE and Google Scholar indexing databases were searched using key terms and author names. Results were extracted into specially designed spread sheets for analysis.Results: 45 journal articles and two books authored or co-authored by the PRISMA team were identified. Research was primarily concerned with: the design, development and validation of screening and assessment tools; and results generated from their application. Both quasi-experimental and cross sectional analytic designs were used extensively. Contextually appropriate expert opinion was obtained using variations on the Delphi Method. Literature analysis revealed the structures, processes and outcomes which underpinned the implementation. PRISMA provides evidence that integrating care for older persons is beneficial to individuals through reducing incidence of functional

  13. Do Payments Pay Off? Evidence from Participation in Costa Rica's PES Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R A Arriagada

    Full Text Available Payments for environmental services (PES are often viewed as a way to simultaneously improve conservation outcomes and the wellbeing of rural households who receive the payments. However, evidence for such win-win outcomes has been elusive. We add to the growing literature on conservation program impacts by using primary household survey data to evaluate the socioeconomic impacts of participation in Costa Rica's PES program. Despite the substantial cash transfers to voluntary participants in this program, we do not detect any evidence of impacts on their wealth or self-reported well-being using a quasi-experimental design. These results are consistent with the common claim that voluntary PES do not harm participants, but they beg the question of why landowners participate if they do not benefit. Landowners in our sample voluntarily renewed their contracts after five years in the program and thus are unlikely to have underestimated their costs of participation. They apparently did not invest additional income from the program in farm inputs such as cattle or hired labor, since both decreased as a result of participation. Nor do we find evidence that participation encouraged moves off-farm. Instead, semi-structured interviews suggest that participants joined the program to secure their property rights and contribute to the public good of forest conservation. Thus, in order to understand the social impacts of PES, we need to look beyond simple economic rationales and material outcomes.

  14. Do Payments Pay Off? Evidence from Participation in Costa Rica's PES Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriagada, R A; Sills, E O; Ferraro, P J; Pattanayak, S K

    2015-01-01

    Payments for environmental services (PES) are often viewed as a way to simultaneously improve conservation outcomes and the wellbeing of rural households who receive the payments. However, evidence for such win-win outcomes has been elusive. We add to the growing literature on conservation program impacts by using primary household survey data to evaluate the socioeconomic impacts of participation in Costa Rica's PES program. Despite the substantial cash transfers to voluntary participants in this program, we do not detect any evidence of impacts on their wealth or self-reported well-being using a quasi-experimental design. These results are consistent with the common claim that voluntary PES do not harm participants, but they beg the question of why landowners participate if they do not benefit. Landowners in our sample voluntarily renewed their contracts after five years in the program and thus are unlikely to have underestimated their costs of participation. They apparently did not invest additional income from the program in farm inputs such as cattle or hired labor, since both decreased as a result of participation. Nor do we find evidence that participation encouraged moves off-farm. Instead, semi-structured interviews suggest that participants joined the program to secure their property rights and contribute to the public good of forest conservation. Thus, in order to understand the social impacts of PES, we need to look beyond simple economic rationales and material outcomes.

  15. Successfully integrating aged care services: a review of the evidence and tools emerging from a long-term care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael J; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2013-01-01

    Providing efficient and effective aged care services is one of the greatest public policy concerns currently facing governments. Increasing the integration of care services has the potential to provide many benefits including increased access, promoting greater efficiency, and improving care outcomes. There is little research, however, investigating how integrated aged care can be successfully achieved. The PRISMA (Program of Research to Integrate Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy) project, from Quebec, Canada, is one of the most systematic and sustained bodies of research investigating the translation and outcomes of an integrated care policy into practice. The PRISMA research program has run since 1988, yet there has been no independent systematic review of this work to draw out the lessons learnt. Narrative review of all literature emanating from the PRISMA project between 1988 and 2012. Researchers accessed an online list of all published papers from the program website. The reference lists of papers were hand searched to identify additional literature. Finally, Medline, Pubmed, EMBASE and Google Scholar indexing databases were searched using key terms and author names. Results were extracted into specially designed spread sheets for analysis. Forty-five journal articles and two books authored or co-authored by the PRISMA team were identified. Research was primarily concerned with: the design, development and validation of screening and assessment tools; and results generated from their application. Both quasi-experimental and cross sectional analytic designs were used extensively. Contextually appropriate expert opinion was obtained using variations on the Delphi Method. Literature analysis revealed the structures, processes and outcomes which underpinned the implementation. PRISMA provides evidence that integrating care for older persons is beneficial to individuals through reducing incidence of functional decline and handicap levels, and improving

  16. DO FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMS DECREASE POVERTY? EVIDENCE FROM PUBLIC CENSUS DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Martha J.; Malkova, Olga; Norling, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides new evidence that family planning programs are associated with a decrease in the share of children and adults living in poverty. Our research design exploits the county roll-out of U.S. family planning programs in the late 1960s and early 1970s and examines their relationship with poverty rates in the short and longer-term in public census data. We find that cohorts born after federal family planning programs began were less likely to live in poverty in childhood and that these same cohorts were less likely to live in poverty as adults. PMID:25346655

  17. Report of the workshop on evidence-based design of national wildlife health programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Natalie T.; Duff, J. Paul; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Grillo, Tiggy; He, Hongxuan; Lee, Hang; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Rijks, Jolianne M.; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Stephen, Craig; Tana, Toni; Uhart, Marcela; Zimmer , Patrick

    2017-05-08

    SummaryThis report summarizes a Wildlife Disease Association sponsored workshop held in 2016. The overall objective of the workshop was to use available evidence and selected subject matter expertise to define the essential functions of a National Wildlife Health Program and the resources needed to deliver a robust and reliable program, including the basic infrastructure, workforce, data and information systems, governance, organizational capacity, and essential features, such as wildlife disease surveillance, diagnostic services, and epidemiological investigation. This workshop also provided the means to begin the process of defining the essential attributes of a national wildlife health program that could be scalable and adaptable to each nation’s needs.

  18. Impact of Health on Education Access and Achievement: A Cross-National Review of the Research Evidence. Create Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Pat

    2007-01-01

    This literature review synthesises the findings from published reviews and key individual studies of health, nutrition and educational access with a particular emphasis on issues of gender, poverty, social exclusion and innovative practices. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the range of research designs and methods employed in…

  19. Building evidence for sustainability of food and nutrition intervention programs in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunny S; Rogers, Beatrice L; Coates, Jennifer; Gilligan, Daniel O; Sarriot, Eric

    2013-09-01

    After making large investments to put in place effective health and nutrition interventions, researchers, program implementers, policy makers, and donors all expect lasting effects. However, it is uncertain whether this is the case, and there is less certainty on how to approach the study of program sustainability. This symposium, "Building Evidence for Sustainability of Food and Nutrition Intervention Programs in Developing Countries," provided not only frameworks for conceptualizing sustainability but concrete evidence about the approaches and methods used as well as lessons on how they do or do not work in particular contexts. We presented the following findings: 1) sustainability of activities and impacts of Title II food aid programs in Bolivia and Kenya, 2) sustainability of impact in terms of adoption and consumption of a biofortified orange sweet potato in Uganda, and 3) lessons from incorporating pro-sustainability investment strategies in child survival programs in Guinea. Our symposium introduced a new important body of research on program sustainability to provide insights and stimulate innovative thinking in the design and planning of further applied research and future prosustainability intervention programs.

  20. Integrating the Principles of Effective Intervention into Batterer Intervention Programming: The Case for Moving Toward More Evidence-Based Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radatz, Dana L; Wright, Emily M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of batterer intervention program (BIP) evaluations have indicated they are marginally effective in reducing domestic violence recidivism. Meanwhile, correctional programs used to treat a variety of offenders (e.g., substance users, violent offenders, and so forth) that adhere to the "principles of effective intervention" (PEI) have reported significant reductions in recidivism. This article introduces the PEI-the principles on which evidence-based practices in correctional rehabilitation are based-and identifies the degree to which they are currently integrated into BIPs. The case is made that batterer programs could be more effective if they incorporate the PEI. Recommendations for further integration of the principles into BIPs are also provided.

  1. Examining the use of evidence-based and social media supported tools in freely accessible physical activity intervention websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kirwan, Morwenna; Rebar, Amanda; Alley, Stephanie; Short, Camille; Fallon, Luke; Buzza, Gavin; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Maher, Carol; Duncan, Mitch J

    2014-08-17

    It has been shown that physical activity is more likely to increase if web-based interventions apply evidence-based components (e.g. self-monitoring) and incorporate interactive social media applications (e.g. social networking), but it is unclear to what extent these are being utilized in the publicly available web-based physical activity interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether freely accessible websites delivering physical activity interventions use evidence-based behavior change techniques and provide social media applications. In 2013, a systematic search strategy examined 750 websites. Data was extracted on a wide range of variables (e.g. self-monitoring, goal setting, and social media applications). To evaluate website quality a new tool, comprising three sub-scores (Behavioral Components, Interactivity and User Generated Content), was developed to assess implementation of behavior change techniques and social media applications. An overall website quality scored was obtained by summing the three sub-scores. Forty-six publicly available websites were included in the study. The use of self-monitoring (54.3%), goal setting (41.3%) and provision of feedback (46%) was relatively low given the amount of evidence supporting these features. Whereas the presence of features allowing users to generate content (73.9%), and social media components (Facebook (65.2%), Twitter (47.8%), YouTube (48.7%), smartphone applications (34.8%)) was relatively high considering their innovative and untested nature. Nearly all websites applied some behavioral and social media applications. The average Behavioral Components score was 3.45 (±2.53) out of 10. The average Interactivity score was 3.57 (±2.16) out of 10. The average User Generated Content Score was 4.02 (±2.77) out of 10. The average overall website quality score was 11.04 (±6.92) out of 30. Four websites (8.7%) were classified as high quality, 12 websites (26.1%) were classified as moderate

  2. Effects of Medicaid disease management programs on medical expenditures: Evidence from a natural experiment in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranker, Keith

    2016-03-01

    In recent decades, most states' Medicaid programs have introduced disease management programs for chronically ill beneficiaries. Interventions assist beneficiaries and their health care providers to appropriately manage chronic health condition(s) according to established clinical guidelines. Cost containment has been a key justification for the creation of these programs despite mixed evidence they actually save money. This study evaluates the effects of a disease management program in Georgia by exploiting a natural experiment that delayed the introduction of high-intensity services for several thousand beneficiaries. Expenditures for medical claims decreased an average of $89 per person per month for the high- and moderate-risk groups, but those savings were not large enough to offset the total costs of the program. Impacts varied by the intensity of interventions, over time, and across disease groups. Heterogeneous treatment effect analysis indicates that decreases in medical expenditures were largest at the most expensive tail of the distribution.

  3. Addressing Interpersonal Violence in the School Context: Awareness and Use of Evidence-Supported Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was completed by 250 members of the School Social Work Association of America. This article addresses the research-practice gap in the delivery of mental health services in the school setting by examining the extent to which evidence-supported school violence intervention programs (ESPs) are known and used by…

  4. Barriers to the Use of Evidence-Supported Programs to Address School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have argued that there is a research-practice gap in the delivery of prevention and mental health services in the school setting. This national survey addresses that gap by identifying the barriers confronted by school social workers in implementing evidence-supported programs to address interpersonal violence in the school context. A…

  5. Analysis of Evidence Supporting the Educational Leadership Constituent Council 2011 Educational Leadership Program Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Pamela D.; Anderson, Erin; Reynolds, Amy L.; Mawhinney, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    This document analysis provides a summary of the research from high-impact journals published between 2008 and 2013 with the explicit purpose of determining the extent to which the current empirical evidence supports the individual 2011 Educational Leadership Constituent Council Program Standards and their elements. We found that the standards are…

  6. Sustained Implementation of Evidence-based Programs in Disadvantaged Communities: A Conceptual Framework of Supporting Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Lauren M; Turner, Karen M T

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a review of the empirical literature for studies evaluating factors that facilitate and create barriers to sustained program implementation in disadvantaged communities. It outlines study methodology and sustainment outcomes and proposes a conceptual model that involves implementation sustainment support for providers delivering evidence-based health and family services in disadvantaged communities. Sustained program implementation in the community setting is a significant issue as only 43% of studies reported successfully sustained programs. The review identified 18 factors that facilitate success and create barriers to program sustainment. The factors are synthesized into three themes; program characteristics, workplace capacity, and process and interaction factors. The majority of factors map onto commonly cited sustainability influences in implementation science. However, there was an additional focus for studies included in this review on the importance of factors such as program burden, program familiarity and perceived competence in program skills, workplace support for the program, staff mobility and turnover, supervision and peer support, and ongoing technical assistance. The need to use a conceptual framework and develop measures to guide and evaluate capacity building in EBP implementation and sustainment in low-resource community settings is highlighted.

  7. Access and Quality of HIV-Related Point-of-Care Diagnostic Testing in Global Health Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonjungo, Peter N; Boeras, Debrah I; Zeh, Clement; Alexander, Heather; Parekh, Bharat S; Nkengasong, John N

    2016-02-01

    Access to point-of-care testing (POCT) improves patient care, especially in resource-limited settings where laboratory infrastructure is poor and the bulk of the population lives in rural settings. However, because of challenges in rolling out the technology and weak quality assurance measures, the promise of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related POCT in resource-limited settings has not been fully exploited to improve patient care and impact public health. Because of these challenges, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), in partnership with other organizations, recently launched the Diagnostics Access Initiative. Expanding HIV programs, including the "test and treat" strategies and the newly established UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, will require increased access to reliable and accurate POCT results. In this review, we examine various components that could improve access and uptake of quality-assured POC tests to ensure coverage and public health impact. These components include evaluation, policy, regulation, and innovative approaches to strengthen the quality of POCT. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Collaborative Pediatric Bone Tumor Program to Improve Access to Specialized Care: An Initiative by the Lebanese Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Raya; Merabi, Zeina; Abboud, Miguel R; Muwakkit, Samar; Noun, Peter; Gemayel, Gladys; Bechara, Elie; Khalifeh, Hassan; Farah, Roula; Kabbara, Nabil; El-Khoury, Tarek; Al-Yousef, Rasha; Haidar, Rachid; Saghieh, Said; Eid, Toufic; Akel, Samir; Khoury, Nabil; Bayram, Layal; Krasin, Matthew J; Jeha, Sima; El-Solh, Hassan

    2017-02-01

    Children with malignant bone tumors have average 5-year survival rates of 60% to 70% with current multimodality therapy. Local control modalities aimed at preserving function greatly influence the quality of life of long-term survivors. In developing countries, the limited availability of multidisciplinary care and limited expertise in specialized surgery and pediatric radiation therapy, as well as financial cost, all form barriers to achieving optimal outcomes in this population. We describe the establishment of a collaborative pediatric bone tumor program among a group of pediatric oncologists in Lebanon and Syria. This program provides access to specialized local control at a tertiary children's cancer center to pediatric patients with newly diagnosed bone tumors at participating sites. Central review of pathology, staging, and treatment planning is performed in a multidisciplinary tumor board setting. Patients receive chemotherapy at their respective centers on a unified treatment plan. Surgery and/or radiation therapy are performed centrally by specialized staff at the children's cancer center. Cost barriers were resolved through a program development initiative led by St Jude Children's Research Hospital. Once program feasibility was achieved, the Children's Cancer Center of Lebanon Foundation, via fundraising efforts, provided continuation of program-directed funding. Findings over a 3-year period showed the feasibility of this project, with timely local control and protocol adherence at eight collaborating centers. We report success in providing standard-of-care multidisciplinary therapy to this patient population with complex needs and financially challenging surgical procedures. This initiative can serve as a model, noting that facilitating access to specialized multidisciplinary care, resolution of financial barriers, and close administrative coordination all greatly contributed to the success of the program.

  9. A Widely-Accessible Distributed MEMS Processing Environment. The MEMS Exchange Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    adequate to cover the costs of running the service. We take lessons from the very successful MOSIS program that was supported by DARPA and which began...over twenty years ago. Many technology experts agree that the MOSIS program has been one of the most important and successful programs in DARPA’s...history. MOSIS has provided training to countless graduate students in IC design, provided support to many silicon-valley startups that have become

  10. Survey of knowledge and perception on the access to evidence-based practice and clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowther Caroline A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based practice (EBP can provide appropriate care for women and their babies; however implementation of EBP requires health professionals to have access to knowledge, the ability to interpret health care information and then strategies to apply care. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge of evidence-based practice, information seeking practices, perceptions and potential enablers and barriers to clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia. Methods Questionnaires about IT access for health information and evidence-based practice were administered during August to December 2005 to health care professionals working at the nine hospitals participating in the South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing countries (SEA-ORCHID project in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and The Philippines. Results The survey was completed by 660 staff from six health professional groups. Overall, easy IT access for health care information was available to 46% of participants. However, over a fifth reported no IT access was available and over half of nurses and midwives never used IT health information. Evidence-based practice had been heard of by 58% but the majority did not understand the concept. The most frequent sites accessed were Google and PubMed. The Cochrane Library had been heard of by 47% of whom 51% had access although the majority did not use it or used it less than monthly. Only 27% had heard of the WHO Reproductive Health Library and 35% had been involved in a clinical practice change and were able to identify enablers and barriers to change. Only a third of participants had been actively involved in practice change with wide variation between the countries. Willingness to participate in professional development workshops on evidence-based practice was high. Conclusion This survey has identified the need to improve IT access to health care

  11. A Free Program for Using and Teaching an Accessible Electronic Wayfinding Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Maya Delgado; Kuns, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Accessible Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are changing the way many people with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) travel. GPS provides real-time orientation information so that a traveler with a visual impairment can make informed decisions about path of travel and destination. Orientation and mobility (O&M)…

  12. Phase I - Smart Grid Data Access Pilot Program: Utilizing STEM Education as a Catalyst for Residential Consumer Decision Making and Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lishness, Alan [Gulf Of Maine Research Inst., Portland, ME (United States); Peake, Leigh [Gulf Of Maine Research Inst., Portland, ME (United States)

    2014-11-19

    Under Phase I of the Smart Grid Data Access Pilot Program, the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (GMRI) partnered with Central Maine Power (CMP), and the Maine Mathematics and Science Alliance (MMSA) and engaged key vendors Tilson Government Services, LLC (Tilson), and Image Works to demonstrate the efficacy of PowerHouse, an interactive online learning environment linking middle school students with their home electricity consumption data provided through CMP’s Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). The goal of the program is to harness the power of youth to alter home energy consumption behaviors using AMI data. Successful programs aimed at smoking cessation, recycling, and seat belt use have demonstrated the power of young people to influence household behaviors. In an era of increasing concern about energy costs, availability, and human impacts on global climate, GMRI sought to demonstrate the effectiveness of a student-focused approach to understanding and managing household energy use. We also sought to contribute to a solid foundation of science-literate students who can analyze evidence to find solutions to increasingly complex energy challenges.

  13. Perspectives on Evidence-Based Research in Education--What Works? Issues in Synthesizing Educational Program Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    Syntheses of research on educational programs have taken on increasing policy importance. Procedures for performing such syntheses must therefore produce reliable, unbiased, and meaningful information on the strength of evidence behind each program. Because evaluations of any given program are few in number, syntheses of program evaluations must…

  14. Translating an evidence-based lifestyle intervention program into primary care: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonstein, Andrea C; Yank, Veronica; Stafford, Randall S; Wilson, Sandra R; Rosas, Lisa Goldman; Ma, Jun

    2013-07-01

    The E-LITE (Evaluation of Lifestyle Interventions to Treat Elevated Cardiometabolic Risk in Primary Care) trial evaluated the feasibility and potential effectiveness of translating an evidence-based lifestyle intervention for the management of obesity and related risk factors in a primary care setting. Delivered by allied health care providers, the intervention promoted at least 7% weight loss and at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity through gradual, sustainable lifestyle changes. Activities included interactive group lessons, food tasting, guided physical activity, and technology-mediated self-monitoring and behavioral counseling. This article discusses insights and potential areas for improvement to strengthen program implementation for dissemination of the E-LITE program to other primary care settings. We focus on (a) the role of allied health professionals in program delivery, (b) strengthening program integration within a primary care clinic, and (c) the use of information technology to extend the reach and impact of the program. Our experience shows the feasibility of implementing an evidence-based lifestyle intervention program combining group-delivered nutrition and behavioral counseling, physical activity training, and technology-mediated follow-up in a primary care setting. Challenges remain, and we offer possible solutions to overcome them.

  15. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  16. 42 CFR 417.106 - Quality assurance program; Availability, accessibility, and continuity of basic and supplemental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Qualified Health Maintenance Organizations: Services § 417.106 Quality assurance program; Availability... following conditions: (1) Stresses health outcomes to the extent consistent with the state of the art....

  17. 34 CFR 98.3 - Access to instructional material used in a research or experimentation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... experimentation program. 98.3 Section 98.3 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT... research or experimentation program. (a) All instructional material—including teachers' manuals, films, tapes, or other supplementary instructional material—which will be used in connection with any...

  18. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Impact of the Gates Millennium Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation began an innovative scholarship program that provides full financial support to low-income minority students across the United States. The Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) program has already awarded more than 10,000 scholarships to exceptional students, with the ultimate goal of funding at least…

  19. Adopting an Evidence-Based Lifestyle Physical Activity Program: Dissemination Study Design and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Andrea L; Buller, David B; Dearing, James W; Cutter, Gary; Guerra, Michele; Wilcox, Sara; Bettinghaus, Erwin P

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of research studies that have examined academic-commercial partnerships to disseminate evidence-based physical activity programs. Understanding this approach to dissemination is essential because academic-commercial partnerships are increasingly common. Private companies have used dissemination channels and strategies to a degree that academicians have not, and declining resources require academicians to explore these partnerships. PURPOSE: This paper describes a retrospective case-control study design including the methods, demographics, organizational decision-making, implementation rates, and marketing strategy for Active Living Every Day (ALED), an evidence-based lifestyle physical activity program that has been commercially available since 2001. Evidence-based public health promotion programs rely on organizations and targeted sectors to disseminate these programs although relatively little is known about organizational-level and sector-level influences that lead to their adoption and implementation. METHODS: Cases (n=154) were eligible if they had signed an ALED license agreement with Human Kinetics (HK), publisher of the program's textbooks and facilitator manuals, between 2001 and 2008. Two types of controls were matched (2:2:1) and stratified by sector and region. Active controls (Control 1; n=319) were organizations that contacted HK to consider adopting ALED. Passive controls (Control 2; n=328) were organizations that received unsolicited marketing materials and did not initiate contact with HK. We used Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT) constructs as the basis for developing the survey of cases and controls. RESULTS: Using the multi-method strategy recommended by Dillman, a total of n=801 cases and controls were surveyed. Most organizations were from the fitness sector followed by medical, nongovernmental, governmental, educational, worksite and other sectors with significantly higher response rates from government

  20. Interprofessional evidence-based clinical scholar program: learning to work together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Penelope A; Finch Guthrie, Patricia L; Swan, Alice R; Sathe, Laurie Anderson

    2014-01-01

    St. Catherine University and North Memorial Medical Center conducted an Interprofessional Clinical Scholar Program (ICSP) involving five teams of staff, students, and faculty. The aim of the case study was to determine how the interprofessional teams implemented evidence-based projects. We triangulated data from interviews, field notes, and surveys to produce themes: learning to value interprofessional teams, working as a team, and being evidence-based practitioners. We found significant differences pre- and post-ICSP on the Attitudes Toward Interprofessional Teamwork and Education scale, t(14) = -5.48, p < .005, and the Terminology subscale of the Evidence-Based Practice Profile, t(15) = -4.04, p = .001. We found no change in scores on the Evidence-Based Practice Belief Scale, t(14) = -1.49, p = .156. The study supported predicted patterns of benefits from ICSP. Not all participants benefited because of variability in attendance. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  1. The effect of Self-Help Groups on access to maternal health services: evidence from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Somen; Annear, Peter Leslie; Pathak, Swati

    2013-05-28

    The main challenge for achieving universal health coverage in India is ensuring effective coverage of poor and vulnerable communities in the face of high levels of income and gender inequity in access to health care. Drawing on the social capital generated through women's participation in community organizations like SHGs can influence health outcomes. To date, evidence about the impact of SHGs on health outcomes has been derived from pilot-level interventions, some using randomised controlled trials and other rigorous methods. While the evidence from these studies is convincing, our study is the first to analyse the impact of SHGs at national level. We analyzed the entire dataset from the third national District Level Household Survey from 601 districts in India to assess the impact of the presence of SHGs on maternal health service uptake. The primary predictor variable was presence of a SHG in the village. The outcome variables were: institutional delivery; feeding newborns colostrum; knowledge about family planning methods; and ever used family planning. We controlled for respondent education, wealth, heard or seen health messages, availability of health facilities and the existence of a village health and sanitation committee. Stepwise logistic regression shows respondents from villages with a SHG were 19 per cent (OR: 1.19, CI: 1.13-1.24) more likely to have delivered in an institution, 8 per cent (OR: 1.08, CI: 1.05-1.14) more likely to have fed newborns colostrum, have knowledge (OR: 1.48, CI 1.39 - 1.57) and utilized (OR: 1.19, CI 1.11 - 1.27) family planning products and services. These results are significant after controlling for individual and village-level heterogeneities and are consistent with existing literature that the social capital generated through women's participation in SHGs influences health outcome. The study concludes that the presence of SHGs in a village is associated with higher knowledge of family planning and maternal health service

  2. Sustaining evidence-based prevention programs: correlates in a large-scale dissemination initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Brittany Rhoades; Bumbarger, Brian K; Moore, Julia E

    2015-01-01

    Over the past four decades, significant strides have been made in the science of preventing youth problem behaviors. Subsequently, policymakers and funders have begun to insist on the use of evidence-based programs (EBPs) as a requirement for funding. However, unless practitioners are able to sustain these programs beyond initial seed funding, they are unlikely to achieve their ultimate goal of broad public health impact. Despite its obvious importance, sustainability has received relatively little attention in prevention science until recently. Moreover, there have been few opportunities to study the correlates of sustainability in large-scale, multi-year initiatives involving multiple programs. The present study examined rates of sustainment of a wide range of proven-effective prevention and intervention programs; identified factors related to organizational support and readiness, program and implementer characteristics, and sustainability planning that distinguished sustained programs; and examined variability in these associations across classroom-based, community/mentoring, family-focused prevention, and family treatment program types within the context of a state-wide EBP dissemination initiative in Pennsylvania over 4 years. The majority of EBPs sustained functioning 2 years or more beyond their initial funding. In general, sustained programs reported greater community coalition functioning, communication to key stakeholders, knowledge of the program's logical model, communication with the trainer or program developer, and sustainability planning. In addition to these universal correlates, important program-specific correlates emerged as well. Implications for the technical assistance and support necessary to promote the sustainability of EBPs in nonresearch contexts are also discussed.

  3. Professional Development of Physics Teachers in an Evidence-Based Blended Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Hana; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Bagno, Esther

    2008-08-01

    The present study examined continuity of learning between face-to-face and online environments in a "blended" professional development program designed for 16 physics teachers. The program had nine face-to-face meetings as well as continuous online exchanges between them through a website. The program focused on "knowledge integration" (KI) innovative activities in physics classes using an "evidence-based" approach: The teachers implemented the activities, collected and analyzed data about their practice and their students' learning, and reflected on the evidence with their peers. Five reflective tools were used to promote continuity: Your Comments, Hot Polls, Smashing Sentences, Hot Reports, and Mini Research. Continuity was assessed with regard to the ideas discussed by the teachers and the reasoning patterns that they employed. Analysis of the online exchanges in relation to teachers' face-to-face discourse revealed that the teachers discussed the same ideas (KI, evidence and learner-centered pedagogies), employed the same reasoning patterns (e.g., forming generalizations), and extended ideas in re-visitation. The online and face-to-face environments played different and complementary roles in the teachers' learning. This study shows that appropriate use of an online environment in a blended program can lead to a continuous course of learning and can transform a "9 once-a-month-meetings" workshop into a "9-month" workshop.

  4. Ventanillas de Salud: A Collaborative and Binational Health Access and Preventive Care Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel Gomez, Maria Gudelia; Tonda, Josana; Zapata, G Rogelio; Flynn, Michael; Gany, Francesca; Lara, Juanita; Shapiro, Ilan; Rosales, Cecilia Ballesteros

    2017-01-01

    While individuals of Mexican origin are the largest immigrant group living in the U.S., this population is also the highest uninsured. Health disparities related to access to health care, among other social determinants, continue to be a challenge for this population. The government of Mexico, in an effort to address these disparities and improve the quality of life of citizens living abroad, has partnered with governmental and non-governmental health-care organizations in the U.S. by developing and implementing an initiative known as Ventanillas de Salud-Health Windows-(VDS). The VDS is located throughout the Mexican Consular network and aim to increase access to health care and health literacy, provide health screenings, and promote healthy lifestyle choices among low-income and immigrant Mexican populations in the U.S.

  5. An evaluation of equitable access to a community-based maternal and newborn health program in rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Sydney A; Barry, Danika; Sibley, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP) aimed to promote equitable access to safe childbirth and postnatal care through a community-based educational intervention. This study evaluates the extent to which MaNHEP reached women who are socially and materially disadvantaged and, thus, at high risk for inadequate access to care. The data used in this analysis are from MaNHEP's cross-sectional 2010 baseline and 2012 endline surveys of women who gave birth in the prior year. A logistic regression model was fit to examine the effects of sociodemographic characteristics on participation in the MaNHEP program. Descriptive statistics of select characteristics by birth and postnatal care provider were also calculated to explore trends in services use. Using data from the endline survey (N = 1019), the regression model showed that age, parity, education, and geographic residence were not significantly associated with MaNHEP exposure. However, women who were materially disadvantaged were still less likely to have participated in the program than their better-off counterparts. From the baseline survey (N = 1027) to the endline survey, women's use of skilled and semiskilled providers for birth care and postnatal care increased substantially, while use of untrained providers or no provider decreased. These shifts were greater for women with less personal wealth than for women with more personal wealth. MaNHEP appears to have succeeded in meeting its equity goals to a degree. However, this study also supports the intractable relationship between wealth inequality and access to maternal and newborn health services. Strategies targeting the poor in diverse contexts may eventually prove consistently effective in equitable services delivery. Until that time, a critical step that all maternal and newborn health programs can take is to monitor and evaluate to what extent they are reaching disadvantaged groups within the populations they serve. © 2013 by the

  6. File format documentation for data sets submitted to the archive as part of the Rolling Deck to Repository program (NODC Accession 0086548)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File format documentation for data sets submitted to the archive as part of the Rolling Deck to Repository program. This accession is updated on a monthly basis if...

  7. Domestic violence perpetrator programs in Europe, Part II: A systematic review of the state of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoensi, Thomas D; Koehler, Johann A; Lösel, Friedrich; Humphreys, David K

    2013-10-01

    In Part II of this article, we present the results of a systematic review of European evidence on the effectiveness of domestic violence perpetrator programs. After searching through 10,446 titles, we discovered only 12 studies that evaluated the effectiveness of a perpetrator program in some systematic manner. The studies applied treatment to a total of 1,586 domestic violence perpetrators, and the sample sizes ranged from 9 to 322. Although the evaluations showed various positive effects after treatment, methodological problems relating to the evaluation designs do not allow attribution of these findings to the programs. Overall, the methodological quality of the evaluations is insufficient to derive firm conclusions and estimate an effect size. Accordingly, one cannot claim that one programmatic approach is superior to another. Evaluation of domestic violence perpetrator treatment in Europe must be improved and programs should become more tailored to the characteristics of the participants.

  8. Family Coaching as a delivery modality for evidence-based prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; Youssef, Maryann K

    2017-08-01

    Family Coaching is proposed as a new delivery format for evidence-based prevention programs (EBPPs). Three recent developments in health promotion support the potential efficacy of Family Coaching: (1) renewed interest in integrated prevention programs for multiple risk factors and behavior changes, (2) broad and long-term impacts of family-based interventions, and (3) popular acceptance of "coaching" as a nonstigmatizing, goal-focused intervention strategy. Family coaches are community members and paraprofessionals trained in common elements of EBPP. Family Coaching has specific goals, is short term, and has definable outcomes. Coaches frame the program's goals to be consistent with the family's values, normalize the family's experience, assess their strengths, and help the family set goals and develop skills and routines to problem solve challenging situations. Broad dissemination of EBPP will be facilitated with delivery formats that are flexible to meet families' priorities and providers' desires and capacities to tailor programs to local contexts.

  9. Effects of Education Programs on Evidence-Based Practice Implementation for Clinical Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jae Youn; Jang, Keum Seong; Kim, Nam Young

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of an education program for evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation of clinical nursing. EBP knowledge/skill, attitude, and belief; information search ability; and EBP implementation were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group. Furthermore, the effect on implementation was maintained at week 4 and week 8, indicating that the education program practically promotes the EBP implementation of nurses. Results confirm that the education program for EBP implementation is critical and the continuous education program is an essential part of EBP implementation. Also, to promote EBP implementation and disseminate it to nursing organizations, an immediate concern should be the cultivation of mentors for EBP and fortification of the belief and ability regarding EBP implementation. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(8):363-371.

  10. Guidelines for establishing a telemental health program to provide evidence-based therapy for trauma-exposed children and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrea M; Shealy, Kristen M; Reid-Quiñones, Kathryn; Moreland, Angela D; Davidson, Tatiana M; López, Cristina M; Barr, Simone C; de Arellano, Michael A

    2014-11-01

    Although similar rates of traumatic experiences exist in both rural and urban settings, mental health resources available to those living in rural areas are often scarce. Limited resources pose a problem for children and families living in rural areas, and several barriers to service access and utilization exist including reduced anonymity, few "after hours" services, decreased availability of evidence-based treatments, few specialty clinics, and expenses associated with travel, taking time off work, and provision of childcare. As a solution, the authors discuss the utility, use, and set-up of a telemental health program within an existing community outreach program. Suggestions for establishing a telemental health clinic are presented along with guidelines for the delivery of trauma-focused, cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) via telemental health videoconferencing technology. Specific guidelines discussed include (1) establishing and using community partnerships, (2) Memoranda of Understanding (MOU), (3) equipment setup and technological resources, (4) videoconferencing software, (5) physical setup, (6) clinic administration, (7) service reimbursement and start-up costs, (8) therapy delivery modifications, and (9) delivering culturally competent services to rural and remote areas.

  11. EntrezAJAX: direct web browser access to the Entrez Programming Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallen Mark J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Web applications for biology and medicine often need to integrate data from Entrez services provided by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. However, direct access to Entrez from a web browser is not possible due to 'same-origin' security restrictions. The use of "Asynchronous JavaScript and XML" (AJAX to create rich, interactive web applications is now commonplace. The ability to access Entrez via AJAX would be advantageous in the creation of integrated biomedical web resources. We describe EntrezAJAX, which provides access to Entrez eUtils and is able to circumvent same-origin browser restrictions. EntrezAJAX is easily implemented by JavaScript developers and provides identical functionality as Entrez eUtils as well as enhanced functionality to ease development. We provide easy-to-understand developer examples written in JavaScript to illustrate potential uses of this service. For the purposes of speed, reliability and scalability, EntrezAJAX has been deployed on Google App Engine, a freely available cloud service. The EntrezAJAX webpage is located at http://entrezajax.appspot.com/

  12. Does Household Gun Access Increase the Risk of Attempted Suicide?: Evidence from a National Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Adam M.; Lizotte, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to assess if home firearm access increases the risk of nonfatal suicidal attempts among adolescents. Such a gun focus has largely been limited to case-control studies on completed suicides. This line of research has found that household gun access increases the risk of suicide due to features of available firearms…

  13. Does Household Gun Access Increase the Risk of Attempted Suicide?: Evidence from a National Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Adam M.; Lizotte, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to assess if home firearm access increases the risk of nonfatal suicidal attempts among adolescents. Such a gun focus has largely been limited to case-control studies on completed suicides. This line of research has found that household gun access increases the risk of suicide due to features of available firearms…

  14. NODC Standard Format NOS Coastal Wave Program (F182) Data (1979-1983) (NODC Accession 0014203)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data type was designed for analyzed wave data originating from the National Ocean Service (NOS) Coastal Wave Program. The data are organized into 3 record...

  15. Development of a Selection Measure for Access to Public Employment Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gary W.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a prototype measure of employability to be used as a tool in public employment programs. Considers political and ethical implications pertaining to the use of such a selection instrument for welfare recipients. (Author/ABB)

  16. 76 FR 21741 - Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... distribution program, and TRS contributions by VoIP providers, were deemed oral ex parte presentations in the... that the Commission has taken to obtain public feedback as it implements the Act. The Town Hall...

  17. Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A; Ross, A Catharine

    2015-01-01

    for generating evidence-based policy. The INSPIRE process included convening 5 thematic working groups (WGs) charged with developing summary reports around the following issues: 1) basic overview of the interactions between nutrition, immune function, and the inflammatory response; 2) examination of the evidence...... of the bidirectional relations between nutritional status and the development and function of the immune and inflammatory response and 2) the specific impact of the inflammatory response on the selection, use, and interpretation of nutrient biomarkers. The goal of the Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs...

  18. Translating knowledge: a framework for evidence-informed yoga programs in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, Amanda J; Capozzi, Lauren C; Mackenzie, Michael J; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Culos-Reed, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research suggests that yoga may positively influence the negative psychosocial and physical side effects associated with cancer and its treatment. The translation of these findings into sustainable, evidence-informed yoga programming for cancer survivors has lagged behind the research. This article provides (a) an overview of the yoga and cancer research, (b) a framework for successfully developing and delivering yoga to cancer populations, and (c) an example of a successful community-based program. The importance of continued research and knowledge translation efforts in the context of yoga and integrative oncology are highlighted.

  19. The importance of considering the evidence in the MTP 2014 Amendment debate in India – unsubstantiated arguments should not impede improved access to safe abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Paul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to improve access to safe abortion services in India, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, with approval of the Law Ministry, published draft amendments of the MTP Act on October 29, 2014. Instead of the expected support, the amendments created a heated debate within professional medical associations of India. In this commentary, we review the evidence in response to the current discourse with regard to the amendments. It would be unfortunate if unsubstantiated one-sided arguments would impede the intention of improving access to safe abortion care in India.

  20. Access to "Jiggasha program: a family planning communication approach" and its exposure to the selected background characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M W; Khan, H T; Begum, A

    1999-06-01

    This paper studies the effectiveness of "Jiggasha," an innovative communication approach for the promotion of family planning in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data from the 1996 Jiggasha follow-up survey were used, which gathered information by interviewing a network sample of 1862 married women and a subsample of 608 men. The study used the sample constituted by women respondents and included data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the respondents and their knowledge, attitude and practice relating to contraceptives. Findings showed that Jiggasha respondents have more access to radio than television. All respondents reported having a radio in their homes and they emphasized the importance of broadcasting more family planning messages via both electronic media. Only 16% of the women in the study setting were exposed to group meetings. Of the respondents reporting participation in group meetings, 38.25% joined in a Jiggasha meeting, 23.15% in a Grameen Bank group meeting, and 4.70% in a Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee group meeting. Logistic regression analysis indicated more access to Jiggashas among women over 30 years of age than among the younger age groups. Religion and education levels of respondents have significant impact on access to Jiggashas. Husbands' approval plays an important role among the Jiggasha respondents in using family planning method. This study provides important information for policy-makers to make family planning program a success.

  1. Investigating the Utilization of Research Evidence in the 4-H Youth Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette H. Bikos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acquisition, interpretation, and utilization of research evidence in the 4-H Youth Development Program from the frame of Social Cognitive Theory. Utilizing Consensual Qualitative Research, we interviewed twenty 4-H faculty, staff, and volunteers from seven states. Results indicated four domains, which covered participants’ definitions of research utilization, their experiences utilizing research, the process of acquiring and distributing research, and barriers and facilitators to research utilization. Participants described research use primarily in terms of improving 4-H programs. They discussed their level of confidence (i.e. self-efficacy in finding and applying research evidence and their beliefs about the outcomes of research utilization (i.e. outcomes expectancy. Participants mentioned such barriers as not knowing where to look for research, lack of time, lack of funding, and difficulty applying research findings to their work. The facilitators included support from other 4-H colleagues and availability of 4-H specific conferences, publications, and curriculum databases.

  2. American Indian Access to Department of Defense Facilities: Source Documents and Bibliography (Legacy Resource Management Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    access restrictions on military lands for various types of sacred sites such as plant collecting areas or fasting/ meditation places. This type of...tiIE~,A13 IP4 -710,’flI r~nI. rP*.i~ c(til[ LOS As4E.rttsc~ C ~I1i ~.0.1 to%* r LE Er*% 19.18 XflACI r.;lNrw A At %.- vr [T-C refer to: Sk-WiC/RX 3312 10

  3. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Amy L; Pribbenow, Christine M

    2016-05-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation) Biology Scholars Program (BSP) to promote undergraduate education reform by 1) supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2) engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists' leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3) participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) to more than 270 participants ("scholars") from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER). To identify the BSP's long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program's 2010-2014 scholars (n = 127) and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life sciences and helps

  4. Translating an Evidence-based Lifestyle Intervention Program into Primary Care: Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Blonstein, Andrea C.; Yank, Veronica; Stafford, Randall S.; Wilson, Sandra R.; Rosas, Lisa Goldman; Ma, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is one of the top health priorities in the United States. Primary care physicians are the designated “gatekeepers” for obesity prevention, detection, and treatment. However, they and the current U.S. health care structure and reimbursement systems are often ill-equipped to implement evidence-based obesity care. The Group Lifestyle Balance™ (GLB) program is a group-delivery adaptation of the predominantly one-on-one lifestyle intervention proven efficacious in the Diabetes Prevention P...

  5. Access to Adequate Healthcare for Hmong Women: A Patient Navigation Program to Increase Pap Test Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon S. Chen, Jr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a Hmong Cervical Cancer Intervention Program utilizing a patient navigation model to raise cervical cancer awareness for Hmong women through educational workshops and to assist Hmong women in obtaining a Pap test. Out of 402 women who participated in a baseline survey, the Patient Navigation Program was able to enroll 109 participants who had not had a Pap test in the past 3 years and had never had a Pap test. Through utilization of outreach, an awareness campaign and patient navigation support, at least 38 percent of 109 participants obtained a Pap test. Overall, 21 workshops and 43 outreach activities were conducted by the Hmong Women’s Heritage Association, leading to 63 percent of those enrolled in the Patient Navigation Program who could be contacted to obtain a Pap test.

  6. Ecological and environmental data as under-utilized national resources: results of the TIE/ACCESS program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armentano, T.V.; Loucks, O.L.

    1979-06-01

    The goal of The Institute of Energy (TIE) 1977 to 1979 ACCESS program was to define the national need for ecological and environmental data and the extent to which present data documentation and archiving are meeting this need. The principal steps focussed on current data documentation and research in government, private and academic sectors of the natural science technical community, particularly as they bear on the accessibility of environmental data to secondary users. The extent to which existing data services are satisfying the needs of data users also was emphasized. The results indicate that the potential contributions which existing data and models could make are not being achieved because of inconsistencies in data documentation, inadequate communication between data suppliers and data users, and a lack of overall coordination of the data bases in national research and monitoring programs. A nationally coordinated network is proposed which focuses on regional data centers and ties together the hierarchy of data bases (national, state, and local) with the broad spectrum of potential users. The network concept includes immediate development of a comprehensive catalog of data resources in each region, with later production of a data abstract journal as one of two methods for communicating between regional and local data centers and the user community.

  7. Technologic advances and program initiatives in public access defibrillation using automated external defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D

    2001-06-01

    Widespread provision of early defibrillation following cardiac arrest holds major promise for improved survival from ventricular fibrillation. The critical element in predicting a successful outcome is the rapidity with which defibrillation is achieved. A worldwide awareness of this potential and its advocacy by such organizations as the American Heart Association have been pivotal in the evolution of initiatives to make defibrillation more widely and more rapidly available. The feasibility of this initiative, known as public access defibrillation, is in large measure a direct consequence of major technologic advances in automated external defibrillators (AEDs). New low-energy waveforms with biphasic morphology have been shown to be more effective in terminating ventricular fibrillation and may do so with less myocardial injury. Placement of AEDs in a variety of nontraditional settings such as police cars, aircraft and airport terminals, and gambling casinos has been shown to yield an impressive number of survivors of cardiac arrest in ventricular fibrillation. Questions yet to be answered center on the appropriate disposition of AEDs in public access defibrillation settings, training and retraining issues, device maintenance, and collection of accurate data to document benefit and to identify areas of needed improvement or expansion of AED availability.

  8. An "Evidence-Based" Professional Development Program for Physics Teachers Focusing on Knowledge Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Hana

    This dissertation is concerned with the design and study of an evidence-based approach to the professional development of high-school physics teachers responding to the need to develop effective continuing professional development programs (CPD) in domains that require genuine changes in teachers' views, knowledge, and practice. The goals of the thesis were to design an evidence-based model for the CPD program, to implement it with teachers, and to study its influence on teachers' knowledge, views, and practice, as well as its impact on students' learning. The program was developed in three consecutive versions: a pilot, first, and second versions. Based on the pilot version (that was not part of this study), we developed the first version of the program in which we studied difficulties in employing the evidence-based and blended-learning approaches. According to our findings, we modified the strategies for enacting these approaches in the second version of the program. The influence of the program on the teachers and students was studied during the enactment of the second version of the program. The model implemented in the second version of the program was characterized by four main design principles: 1. The KI and evidence aspects are acquired simultaneously in an integrated manner. 2. The guidance of the teachers follows the principles of cognitive apprenticeship both in the evidence and the KI aspects. 3. The teachers experience the innovative activities as learners. 4. The program promotes continuity of teachers' learning through a structured "blended learning" approach. The results of our study show that this version of the program achieved its goals; throughout the program the teachers progressed in their knowledge, views, and practice concerning the knowledge integration, and in the evidence and learner-centered aspects. The results also indicated that students improved their knowledge of physics and knowledge integration skills that were developed

  9. Desired attributes and skills of program managers in translation of evidence-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rhonda; Woodell, Carol; McCarville, Erin; Damitz, Maureen; Banks, Tinesha; Montoya, Jorge; Lesch, Julie Kennedy; Peretz, Patricia; Lara, Marielena

    2011-11-01

    Successful chronic disease project management, especially of multiyear initiatives using evidence-based interventions (EBIs), is of great importance to funders, health care decision makers, and researchers, particularly in light of limited funding. However, a gap in knowledge may exist regarding which attributes and skills are most desirable in a program manager to help him or her ensure successful implementation of EBIs. Although some literature examines the dynamics contributing to the success of community coalitions, public health leadership, and community health education, there is minimal literature exploring the significance of a program manager's role in the conceptualization, implementation, and sustainability of initiatives to improve patient and community health. The authors present their experiences as participants in a large-scale asthma initiative implemented in priority communities, as well as results of a survey distributed among all personnel of the program sites. The survey aimed to assess the key skills and attributes, in addition to contextual factors, that contribute to the strength of a program manager overseeing EBIs in asthma initiatives. The results suggest that certain attributes and skills are desirable in recruiting and hiring of a program manager, especially when augmented by ongoing skill-building training, and can help ensure program and research success.

  10. Handbook for Producing Educational and Public-Access Programs for Cable Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretz, Rudolph

    This handbook responds to local cable television broadcasters' need to generate more local programing in order to comply with federal statutes and to capitalize on growing interest in local interests. The text begins with a brief overview of the cable television industry, and there are chapters which cover the following topics: (1) goals of local…

  11. Farmers' Market Use Patterns Among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Recipients With High Access to Farmers' Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Darcy A; Flocke, Susan; Shon, En-Jung; Matlack, Kristen; Trapl, Erika; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Osborne, Amanda; Borawski, Elaine

    2017-05-01

    Evaluate farmers' market (FM) use patterns among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recipients. Cross-sectional survey administered June to August, 2015. Cleveland and East Cleveland, OH. A total of 304 SNAP recipients with children. Participants lived within 1 mile of 1 of 17 FMs. Most were African American (82.6%) and female (88.1%), and had received SNAP for ≥5 years (65.8%). Patterns of FM shopping, awareness of FM near home and of healthy food incentive program, use of SNAP to buy fruits and vegetables and to buy other foods at FMs, receipt of healthy food incentive program. Two-stage cluster analysis to identify segments with similar FM use patterns. Bivariate statistics including chi-square and ANOVA to evaluate main outcomes, with significance at P ≤ .05. A total of 42% reported FM use in the past year. Current FM shoppers (n = 129) were segmented into 4 clusters: single market, public market, multiple market, and high frequency. Clusters differed significantly in awareness of FM near home and the incentive program, use of SNAP to buy fruit and vegetables at FMs, and receipt of incentive. Findings highlight distinct types of FM use and had implications for tailoring outreach to maximize first time and repeat use of FMs among SNAP recipients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Examining Advanced Placement Program Access and Equity for Low-Income, Latino, and English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Castellanos, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Placement (AP) program was initiated during the early 1950's in response to growing concerns regarding the educational needs of high ability secondary school students. The Advanced Placement "Status Quo" (AP Status Quo) framework suggests that there has been an emphasis on preparing a few students while excluding the majority of…

  13. 77 FR 24169 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Market Access Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... CONTACT: Entities wishing to apply for funding assistance should contact the Program Operations Division... or country goals. The FAS also considers the extent to which a proposed project targets markets with... overseas marketing and promotion activities. MAP participants may receive assistance for generic or brand...

  14. 75 FR 26194 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Market Access Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... to apply for funding assistance should contact the Program Operations Division, Office of Trade... against which results can be measured at specific intervals using quantifiable product or country goals... marketing and promotion activities. MAP participants may receive assistance for generic or brand promotion...

  15. 76 FR 21325 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Market Access Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Cooperator program, the 2-year average share (2010-2011) of Cooperator marketing plan budgets. (c) Projected... allocation strategy to fund applicants who can demonstrate performance and address the objectives of the GPRA... share the cost of certain overseas marketing and promotion activities. MAP participants may receive...

  16. Latino Immigrant Children and Inequality in Access to Early Schooling Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrana, Ruth Enid; Morant, Tamyka

    2009-01-01

    Latino children in immigrant families are less likely than their peers to participate in early schooling programs, which puts them at increased risk for learning problems and school failure. Factors such as family structure and size, parental education, and income are strongly associated with early learning experiences, participation in early…

  17. 78 FR 23893 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Market Access Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... promotional strategies contained in its application, as represented by the agreed cost-share contributions... the applicant provides a clear, long-term agricultural trade strategy and a program effectiveness time... growth potential. These factors are part of the FAS resource allocation strategy to fund applicants...

  18. Evidence in promoting positive parenting through the Program-Guide to Develop Emotional Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel-Amaya Martínez-González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at providing evidence of the effectiveness of the Program-Guide to Develop Emotional Competences in promoting positive parenting. Contextual, institutional, methodological and professional issues were taken into account to develop a social innovation experience to support parenting as a preventive measure to family conflicts. The study describes both the contents of the Program-Guide and the methodological and evaluation issues that trained professionals need to consider when delivering the Program-Guide to families in natural contexts. Information was gathered and analyzed from 259 parents with children of ages 1-18 who participated in 26 parent training groups. A pre- and post-test design showed that after finishing the sessions parents perceived themselves more competent as parents according to the five dimensions of parenting competences considered: (1 emotional self-regulation abilities; (2 self-esteem and assertiveness; (3 communication strategies; (4 strategies to solve conflicts and to negotiate; and (5 strategies to establish coherent norms, limits and consequences to promote positive discipline. The study presents a discussion on these results from evidence-based parenting programs, as well as some strengths and limitations of the study, together with some suggestions for further research.

  19. Evidence on access to medicines for chronic diseases from household surveys in five low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialle-Valentin, Catherine E; Serumaga, Brian; Wagner, Anita K; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2015-10-01

    The 2011 United Nations (UN) General Assembly Political Declaration on Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) brought NCDs to the global health agenda. Essential medicines are central to treating chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. Our study aimed to quantify access to essential medicines for people with chronic conditions in five low- and middle-income countries and to evaluate how household socioeconomic status and perceptions about medicines availability and affordability influence access. We analysed data for 1867 individuals with chronic diseases from national surveys (Ghana, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines and Uganda) conducted in 2007-10 using a standard World Health Organization (WHO) methodology to measure medicines access and use. We defined individuals as having access to medicines if they reported regularly taking medicine for a diagnosed chronic disease and data collectors found a medicine indicated for that disease in their homes. We used logistic regression models accounting for the clustered survey design to investigate determinants of keeping medicines at home and predictors of access to medicines for chronic diseases. Less than half of individuals previously diagnosed with a chronic disease had access to medicines for their condition in every country, from 16% in Uganda to 49% in Jordan. Other than reporting a chronic disease, higher household socioeconomic level was the most significant predictor of having any medicines available at home. The likelihood of having access to medicines for chronic diseases was higher for those with medicines insurance coverage [highest adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.12 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.38, 7.07)] and lower for those with past history of borrowing money to pay for medicines [lowest adjusted OR 0.56 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.92)]. Our study documents poor access to essential medicines for chronic conditions in five resource-constrained settings. It highlights the importance of

  20. Adapting Evidence-Based Prevention Approaches for Latino Adolescents: The Familia Adelante Program - Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Cervantes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral health is defined as the absence of mental illness or substance use problems and the presence of positive emotional well being. Although many U.S. Hispanic youth are at increased risk for substance abuse, suicidality, teen pregnancy, unsafe sexual practices and HIV, there exists a lack of available evidence-based practices for Hispanic youth which promotes behavioral health and HIV prevention. The objective of the current research was to adapt and revise the Familia Adelante (FA Program, a behavioral health, drug intervention and prevention program to incorporate an HIV prevention component. Through qualitative community based participatory methods, including an expert panel and members of the target population, the curriculum was redesigned to integrate effective HIV risk reduction strategies. The process of adapting the intervention is described in this paper, as well as recommendations for future research in program adaptation.

  1. Effectiveness of a grant program's efforts to promote synergy within its funded initiatives: perceptions of participants of the Southern Rural Access Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner Bryan J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foundations and public agencies commonly fund focused initiatives for individual grantees. These discrete, stand-alone initiatives can risk failure by being carried out in isolation. Fostering synergy among grantees' initiatives is one strategy proposed for promoting the success and impact of grant programs. We evaluate an explicit strategy to build synergy within the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Southern Rural Access Program (SRAP, which awarded grants to collaboratives within eight southeastern U.S. states to strengthen basic health care services in targeted rural counties. Methods We interviewed 39 key participants of the SRAP, including the program director within each state and the principal subcontractors heading the program's funded initiatives that supported heath professionals' recruitment, retention and training, made loans to health care providers, and built networks among providers. Interews were recorded and transcribed. Two investigators independently coded the transcripts and a third investigator distilled the main points. Results Participants generally perceived that the SRAP yielded more synergies than other grant programs in which they had participated and that these synergies added to the program's impact. The synergies most often noted were achieved through relationship building among grantees and with outside agencies, sharing information and know-how, sharing resources, combining efforts to yield greater capacity, joining voices to advocate for common goals, and spotting gaps in services offered and then filling these gaps. The SRAP's strategies that participants felt fostered synergy included targeting funding to culturally and geographically similar states, supporting complementary types of initiatives, promoting opportunities to network through semi-annual meetings and regular conference calls, and the advocacy efforts of the program's leadership. Participants noted that synergies were sometimes

  2. CE: Original Research: Creating an Evidence-Based Progression for Clinical Advancement Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kathleen G; Johnson, Tonya; Sites, Christine; Barnsteiner, Jane

    2017-05-01

    : Background: The Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) project have identified six nursing competencies and supported their integration into undergraduate and graduate nursing curricula nationwide. But integration of those competencies into clinical practice has been limited, and evidence for the progression of competency proficiency within clinical advancement programs is scant. Using an evidence-based approach and building on the competencies identified by the IOM and QSEN, a team of experts at an academic health system developed eight competency domains and 186 related knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) for professional nursing practice. The aim of our study was to validate the eight identified competencies and 186 related KSAs and determine their developmental progression within a clinical advancement program. Using the Delphi technique, nursing leadership validated the newly identified competency domains and KSAs as essential to practice. Clinical experts from 13 Magnet-designated hospitals with clinical advancement programs then participated in Delphi rounds aimed at reaching consensus on the developmental progression of the 186 KSAs through four levels of clinical advancement. Two Delphi rounds resulted in consensus by the expert participants. All eight competency domains were determined to be essential at all four levels of clinical practice. At the novice level of practice, the experts identified a greater number of KSAs in the domains of safety and patient- and family-centered care. At more advanced practice levels, the experts identified a greater number of KSAs in the domains of professionalism, teamwork, technology and informatics, and continuous quality improvement. Incorporating the eight competency domains and the 186 KSAs into a framework for clinical advancement programs will likely result in more clearly defined role expectations; enhance accountability; and elevate and promote nursing practice

  3. News from the Library: Facilitating access to a program for radiation shielding - the Library can help

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2013-01-01

    MicroShield® is a comprehensive photon/gamma ray shielding and dose assessment programme. It is widely used for designing shields, estimating source strength from radiation measurements, minimising exposure to people, and teaching shielding principles.   Integrated tools allow the graphing of results, material and source file creation, source inference with decay (dose-to-Bq calculations accounting for decay and daughter buildup), the projection of exposure rate versus time as a result of decay, access to material and nuclide data, and decay heat calculations. The latest version is able to export results using Microsoft Office (formatted and colour-coded for readability). Sixteen geometries accommodate offset dose points and as many as ten standard shields plus source self-shielding and cylinder cladding are available. The library data (radionuclides, attenuation, build-up and dose conversion) reflect standard data from ICRP 38 and 107* as well as ANSI/ANS standards and RSICC publicat...

  4. “Basically... porn is everywhere”: a rapid evidence assessment on the effects that access and exposure to pornography has on children and young people

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, M.; Alys, L.; Massey, K.; PINA, A.; Scally, M.; Adler, J

    2013-01-01

    This Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) was commissioned by the Office of the Children’s Commissioner (OCC) as part of its Inquiry into Child Sexual Exploitation in Gangs and Groups (CSEGG). It was conducted by a consortium led by Middlesex University, to explore the effects that exposure and access to pornography have on children and young people. The CSEGG Inquiry was launched in October 2011 to better understand the scale, scope, extent and nature of child sexual exploitation in gangs and gro...

  5. "Basically...porn is everywhere". A Rapid Evidence Assessment on the Effects that Access and Exposure to Pornography has on Children and Young People

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Miranda; Alys, Llian; Massey, Kristina; Pina, Afroditi; Scally, Maria; Adler, Joanna R.

    2013-01-01

    This Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) was commissioned by the Office of the Children’s Commissioner (OCC) as part of its Inquiry into Child Sexual Exploitation in Gangs and Groups (CSEGG). It was conducted by a consortium led by Middlesex University, to explore the effects that exposure and access to pornography have on children and young people. The CSEGG Inquiry was launched in October 2011 to better understand the scale, scope, extent and nature of child sexual exploitation in gangs and gro...

  6. Role of Information Professionals in Knowledge Management Programs: Empirical Evidence from Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    la Ajiferuke

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of a knowledge management program in an organization has the potential of im-proving customer services, quickly bringing new products to market, and reducing cost of business operations. Information technologies are often used in knowledge management programs in informing clients and employees of latest innovation/development in the business sector as well as sharing knowledge among the employees. The key professionals involved in knowledge management programs are information technologists and human resource managers but the information professionals also have a role to play as they are traditionally known as good managers of explicit knowledge. Hence, the aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence of the role of information professionals in knowledge management programs. 386 information professionals working in Canadian organizations were selected from the Special Libraries Association's Who's Who in Special Libraries 2001/2002, and a questionnaire with a stamped self-addressed envelope for its return was sent to each one of them. 63 questionnaires were completed and returned, and 8 in-depth interviews conducted. About 59% of the information professionals surveyed are working in organizations that have knowledge management programs with about 86% of these professionals being involved in the programs. Factors such as gender, age, and educational background (i.e. highest educational qualifications and discipline did not seem to have any relationship with involvement in knowledge management programs. Many of those involved in the programs are playing key roles, such as the design of the information architecture, development of taxonomy, or con-tent management of the organization's intranet. Others play lesser roles, such as providing information for the intranet, gathering competitive intelligence, or providing research services as requested by the knowledge management team.

  7. Dialysis vascular access management by interventional nephrology programs at University Medical Centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachharajani, Tushar J; Moossavi, Shahriar; Salman, Loay; Wu, Steven; Dwyer, Amy C; Ross, Jamie; Dukkipati, Ramanath; Maya, Ivan D; Yevzlin, Alexander S; Agarwal, Anil; Abreo, Kenneth D; Work, Jack; Asif, Arif

    2011-01-01

    The development of interventional nephrology has undoubtedly led to an improvement in patient care at many facilities across the United States. However, these services have traditionally been offered by interventional nephrologists in the private practice arena. While interventional nephrology was born in the private practice setting, several academic medical centers across the United States have now developed interventional nephrology programs. University Medical Centers (UMCs) that offer interventional nephrology face challenges, such as smaller dialysis populations, limited financial resources, and real or perceived political "turf" issues." Despite these hurdles, several UMCs have successfully established interventional nephrology as an intricate part of a larger nephrology program. This has largely been accomplished by consolidating available resources and collaborating with other specialties irrespective of the size of the dialysis population. The collaboration with other specialties also offers an opportunity to perform advanced procedures, such as application of excimer laser and endovascular ultrasound. As more UMCs establish interventional nephrology programs, opportunities for developing standardized training centers will improve, resulting in better quality and availability of nephrology-related procedures, and providing an impetus for research activities.

  8. The Effect of Child Health Insurance Access on Schooling: Evidence from Public Insurance Expansions. NBER Working Paper No. 20178

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohodes, Sarah; Kleiner, Samuel; Lovenheim, Michael F.; Grossman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Public health insurance programs comprise a large share of federal and state government expenditure, and these programs are due to be expanded as part of the 2010 Affordable Care Act. Despite a large literature on the effects of these programs on health care utilization and health outcomes, little prior work has examined the long-term effects of…

  9. The Effect of Child Health Insurance Access on Schooling: Evidence from Public Insurance Expansions. NBER Working Paper No. 20178

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohodes, Sarah; Kleiner, Samuel; Lovenheim, Michael F.; Grossman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Public health insurance programs comprise a large share of federal and state government expenditure, and these programs are due to be expanded as part of the 2010 Affordable Care Act. Despite a large literature on the effects of these programs on health care utilization and health outcomes, little prior work has examined the long-term effects of…

  10. Signal detection theory, the exclusion failure paradigm and weak consciousness--evidence for the access/phenomenal distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Elizabeth

    2009-06-01

    Block [Block, N. (2005). Two neural correlates of consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Science, 9, 46-52] and Snodgrass (2006) claim that a signal detection theory (SDT) analysis of qualitative difference paradigms, in particular the exclusion failure paradigm, reveals cases of phenomenal consciousness without access consciousness. This claim is unwarranted on several grounds. First, partial cognitive access rather than a total lack of cognitive access can account for exclusion failure results. Second, Snodgrass's Objective Threshold/Strategic (OT/S) model of perception relies on a problematic 'enable' approach to perception that denies the possibility of intentional control of unconscious perception and any effect of following different task instructions on the presence/absence of phenomenal consciousness. Many of Block's purported examples of phenomenal consciousness without cognitive access also rely on this problematic approach. Third, qualitative difference paradigms may index only a subset of access consciousness. Thus, qualitative difference paradigms like exclusion failure cannot be used to isolate phenomenal consciousness, any attempt to do so still faces serious methodological problems.

  11. Parallel programming of saccades during natural scene viewing: evidence from eye movement positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Esther X W; Gilani, Syed Omer; van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Amihai, Ido; Chua, Fook Kee; Yen, Shih-Cheng

    2013-10-24

    Previous studies have shown that saccade plans during natural scene viewing can be programmed in parallel. This evidence comes mainly from temporal indicators, i.e., fixation durations and latencies. In the current study, we asked whether eye movement positions recorded during scene viewing also reflect parallel programming of saccades. As participants viewed scenes in preparation for a memory task, their inspection of the scene was suddenly disrupted by a transition to another scene. We examined whether saccades after the transition were invariably directed immediately toward the center or were contingent on saccade onset times relative to the transition. The results, which showed a dissociation in eye movement behavior between two groups of saccades after the scene transition, supported the parallel programming account. Saccades with relatively long onset times (>100 ms) after the transition were directed immediately toward the center of the scene, probably to restart scene exploration. Saccades with short onset times (programming of saccades during scene viewing. Additionally, results from the analyses of intersaccadic intervals were also consistent with the parallel programming hypothesis.

  12. Excluding Orphan Drugs from the 340B Drug Discount Program: the Impact on 18 Critical Access Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Carpinelli Wallack

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The 340B Drug Pricing Program is a federal program designed to reduce the amount that safety net providers spend on outpatient drugs. The Patient Protection and Affordable Health Care Act of 2010 extended eligibility for 340B to critical access hospitals (CAHs for all drugs except those designated as “orphan.” Because this policy is unprecedented, this study quantifies the gross financial impact that this exemption has on a group of CAHs. Methods: Drug spending for 2010 from 18 CAHs in Minnesota and Wisconsin are reviewed to identify the prevalence of orphan drug purchases and to calculate the price differentials between the 340B price and the hospitals’ current cost. Results: The 18 CAHs’ purchases of orphan drugs comprise an average of 44% of the total annual drug budgets, but only 5% of units purchased, thus representing a very high proportion of their expenditures. In the aggregate, the 18 hospitals would have saved $3.1 million ($171,000 average per hospital had purchases of drugs with orphan designations been made at the 340B price. Because CAH claims for Medicare are reimbursed on a cost-basis, the Federal government is losing an opportunity for savings. Conclusion: The high prevalence of orphan drug use and considerable potential for cost reduction through the 340B program demonstrate the loss of benefit to the hospitals, Federal government and the states.

  13. Social capital and access to primary health care in developing countries: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollard, Guillaume; Sene, Omar

    2016-01-01

    We test for a causal role of social capital, as measured by self-reported trust, in determining access to basic health facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa. To skirt the reverse-causality problems between social capital and basic health, we rely on instrumental-variable (IV) estimates. A one standard-deviation increase in trust is predicted to lead to a 0.22 standard-deviation fall in doctor absenteeism, a 0.31 standard-deviation fall in waiting time and a 0.30 standard-deviation fall in bribes. As a robustness check, we also use a different database regarding a different health issue, access to clean water. We find that a one standard-deviation rise in trust leads to a 0.33 standard-deviation rise in access to clean water. The variety of public goods considered provides insights about the possible channels through which social capital is converted into health improvements.

  14. Evaluation of an Evidence-based Medicine Educational Program for Pharmacists and Pharmacy Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tadashi; Ueda, Masahiro; Toyoyama, Mikoto; Ohmori, Shiho; Takagaki, Nobumasa

    2017-01-01

     This study evaluated the effect of an evidence-based medicine (EBM) educational program on EBM-related knowledge and skills of pharmacists and pharmacy students. Our preliminary educational program included the following four sessions: 1) ice breaker, 2) formulation of answerable clinical questions from virtual clinical scenario using the PICO criteria, 3) critical appraisal of the literature using a checklist, and 4) critical appraisal of the results and integrating the evidence with experience and patients values. Change in knowledge and skills related to EBM were evaluated using pre- and post-seminar 4-point scale questionnaires comprising of 14 questions. A total of 23 pharmacists, 1 care manager, and 5 pharmacy students participated in our EBM educational seminar. Knowledge and skills related to several variables improved significantly post-seminar (pre-seminar 2.80 versus 3.26 post-seminar; peducational program using problem-based learning was effective in improving EBM-related knowledge and skills of pharmacists and pharmacy students.

  15. The use of a policy dialogue to facilitate evidence-informed policy development for improved access to care: the case of the Winnipeg Central Intake Service (WCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damani, Zaheed; MacKean, Gail; Bohm, Eric; DeMone, Brie; Wright, Brock; Noseworthy, Tom; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Marshall, Deborah A

    2016-10-18

    Policy dialogues are critical for developing responsive, effective, sustainable, evidence-informed policy. Our multidisciplinary team, including researchers, physicians and senior decision-makers, comprehensively evaluated The Winnipeg Central Intake Service, a single-entry model in Winnipeg, Manitoba, to improve patient access to hip/knee replacement surgery. We used the evaluation findings to develop five evidence-informed policy directions to help improve access to scheduled clinical services across Manitoba. Using guiding principles of public participation processes, we hosted a policy roundtable meeting to engage stakeholders and use their input to refine the policy directions. Here, we report on the use and input of a policy roundtable meeting and its role in contributing to the development of evidence-informed policy. Our evidence-informed policy directions focused on formal measurement/monitoring of quality, central intake as a preferred model for service delivery, provincial scope, transparent processes/performance indicators, and patient choice of provider. We held a policy roundtable meeting and used outcomes of facilitated discussions to refine these directions. Individuals from our team and six stakeholder groups across Manitoba participated (n = 44), including patients, family physicians, orthopaedic surgeons, surgical office assistants, Winnipeg Central Intake team, and administrators/managers. We developed evaluation forms to assess the meeting process, and collected decision-maker partners' perspectives on the value of the policy roundtable meeting and use of policy directions to improve access to scheduled clinical services after the meeting, and again 15 months later. We analyzed roundtable and evaluation data using thematic analysis to identify key themes. Four key findings emerged. First, participants supported all policy directions, with revisions and key implementation considerations identified. Second, participants felt the policy roundtable

  16. Technology and Child Development: Evidence from the One Laptop per Child Program Title: Tecnología y desarrollo infantil: Evidencia del programa Una computadora por niño

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Although many countries are aggressively implementing the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) program, there is a lack of empirical evidence on its effects. This paper presents the impact of the first large-scale randomized evaluation of the OLPC program, using data collected after 15 months of implementation in 319 primary schools in rural Peru. The results indicate that the program increased the ratio of computers per student from 0.12 to 1.18 in treatment schools. This expansion in access translat...

  17. Condoms and sexual health education as evidence: impact of criminalization of in-call venues and managers on migrant sex workers access to HIV/STI prevention in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S; Shannon, K; Li, J; Lee, Y; Chettiar, J; Goldenberg, S; Krüsi, A

    2016-11-17

    Despite a large body of evidence globally demonstrating that the criminalization of sex workers increases HIV/STI risks, we know far less about the impact of criminalization and policing of managers and in-call establishments on HIV/STI prevention among sex workers, and even less so among migrant sex workers. Analysis draws on ethnographic fieldwork and 46 qualitative interviews with migrant sex workers, managers and business owners of in-call sex work venues in Metro Vancouver, Canada. The criminalization of in-call venues and third parties explicitly limits sex workers' access to HIV/STI prevention, including manager restrictions on condoms and limited onsite access to sexual health information and HIV/STI testing. With limited labour protections and socio-cultural barriers, criminalization and policing undermine the health and human rights of migrant sex workers working in -call venues. This research supports growing evidence-based calls for decriminalization of sex work, including the removal of criminal sanctions targeting third parties and in-call venues, alongside programs and policies that better protect the working conditions of migrant sex workers as critical to HIV/STI prevention and human rights.

  18. Presumed competence reflected in the educational programs of students with IDD before and after the Beyond Access professional development intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Cheryl M; McSheehan, Michael; Sonnenmeier, Rae M

    2007-12-01

    Judgements about students' competence influence the goals of their individualised education programs (IEPs), the location of service delivery, and their placement in general education (GE) as opposed to special education (SE) classes. The purpose of this study was to describe how presumed competence to learn the GE curriculum was reflected in the IEPs of students with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), and in the reported percentage of time that these students spent in GE classes prior to and following the Beyond Access professional development intervention. Five educational teams of students with IDD participated in a professional development intervention that emphasised students' presumed competence to learn grade-level GE curriculum. Students' pre- and post-intervention IEPs were qualitatively analysed and team member reports of percentage time spent in GE classes were averaged. Five categories of presumed competence were identified. Following intervention, emphasis on learning the GE curriculum, a shift in location of service delivery from outside to within the GE classroom, and increased time spent in GE classes were reported. The Beyond Access intervention shows promise for enhancing views of the competence of students with IDD to learn the GE curriculum and for increasing their inclusion in GE classrooms.

  19. Does deregulation in community pharmacy impact accessibility of medicines, quality of pharmacy services and costs? Evidence from nine European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Habimana, Katharina; Arts, Danielle

    2014-09-01

    To analyse the impact of deregulation in community pharmacy on accessibility of medicines, quality of pharmacy services and costs. We analysed and compared community pharmacy systems in five rather deregulated countries (England, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden) and four rather regulated countries (Austria, Denmark, Finland, Spain). Data were collected by literature review, a questionnaire survey and interviews. Following a deregulation, several new pharmacies and dispensaries of Over-the-Counter (OTC) medicines tended to be established, predominantly in urban areas. Unless prevented by regulation, specific stakeholders, e.g. wholesalers, were seen to gain market dominance which limited envisaged competition. There were indications for an increased workload for pharmacists in some deregulated countries. Economic pressure to increase the pharmacy turnover through the sale of OTC medicines and non-pharmaceuticals was observed in deregulated and regulated countries. Prices of OTC medicines were not found to decrease after a deregulation in pharmacy. Access to pharmacies usually increases after a deregulation but this is likely to favour urban populations with already good accessibility. Policy-makers are recommended to take action to ensure equitable accessibility and sustainable competition in a more deregulated environment. No association between pharmaceutical expenditure and the extent of regulation/deregulation appears to exist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence-Informed Leadership in the Japanese Context: Middle Managers at a University Self-Access Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, John; Brown, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the steering of a self-access learning center in a Japanese university by its "middle management" committee over the first years of its operation. Middle management practice was informed by an ethnographic archive of various facets of center use, particularly concerning language policy and curriculum integration, issues about…

  1. Evidence that the circadian system mediates photoperiodic nonresponsiveness in Siberian hamsters: the effect of running wheel access on photoperiodic responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, D A; Goldman, B D

    1997-04-01

    Juvenile male Siberian hamsters from a line of hamsters selected for nonresponsiveness to short photoperiod (PNRj) and animals from the general colony (UNS) were separated at weaning into two groups. Group 1 males were moved into short days (10 h light:14 h dark [10L:14D]) with free access to running wheels (RW). Group 2 animals were the male siblings of Group 1 hamsters; they were moved at the same time into the same room, but were housed in cages without access to RW. Group 2 hamsters only had access to RW for the final week of short-day exposure (Week 8). Animals were blood sampled at the time of sacrifice for analysis of serum prolactin (PRL) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations. At sacrifice, paired testis weights were obtained and pelage color was scored. Animals from the UNS line showed the expected declines in testis weight, body weight, and serum concentrations of both PRL and FSH, regardless of the presence or absence of RW. These animals also exhibited a high proportion of individuals molting to winter-type pelage. By contrast, a marked difference was noted between siblings from the PNRj line depending on whether RW access was provided at the time of weaning. Animals with access to RW exhibited identical responses to those of the UNS responder animals, whereas PNRj animals without access to RW showed no adjustments to short days (i.e., testis regression, pelage molt, expansion of alpha). In a second experiment, PNRj and UNS males were placed in constant darkness (DD), with or without RW access. The results of this experiment indicated that PNRj animals respond to DD regardless of the presence or absence of RW. In DD, PNRj hamsters also exhibited significantly longer free-running period lengths (taus) than did UNS hamsters; all the PNRj hamsters had taus > 24 h, whereas none of the UNS hamsters had a tau > 24 h. These results indicate that PNRj hamsters retain the proper neural pathways for responding to short day lengths and establish a

  2. Systematic Braiding of Two Evidence-Based Parent Training Programs: Qualitative Results from the Pilot Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastaferro, Kate; Miller, Katy; Shanley Chatham, Jenelle R.; Whitaker, Daniel J.; McGilly, Kate; Lutzker, John R.

    2017-01-01

    An effective approach in early intervention for children and families, including child maltreatment prevention, is home-based services. Though several evidence-based programs exist, they are often grouped together, despite having different foci. This paper describes an ongoing cluster randomized trial systematically braiding two evidence-based home-based models, SafeCare® and Parents as Teachers (PAT)®, to better meet the needs of families at-risk. We describe the methodology for braiding model implementation and curriculum, specifically focusing on how structured qualitative feedback from pilot families and providers was used to create the braided curriculum and implementation. Systematic braiding of two models at the implementation and curriculum levels is a mechanism that has the potential to meet the more comprehensive needs of families at-risk for maltreatment. PMID:27870760

  3. Generalizability of the NAMI Family-to-Family Education Program: Evidence From an Efficacy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Micaela; Fuss, Ashley Ann; Sawano, Nanaho; Gensemer, Alexandra; Brennan, Wendy; McManus, Kinsey; Dixon, Lisa B; Haselden, Morgan; Cleek, Andrew F

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies conducted in Maryland of the Family-to-Family (FTF) education program of the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) found that FTF reduced subjective burden and distress and improved empowerment, mental health knowledge, self-care, and family functioning, establishing it as an evidence-based practice. In the study reported here, the FTF program of NAMI-NYC Metro was evaluated. Participants (N=83) completed assessments at baseline and at completion of FTF. Participants had improved family empowerment, family functioning, engagement in self-care activities, self-perception of mental health knowledge, and emotional acceptance as a form of coping. Scores for emotional support and positive reframing also improved significantly. Displeasure in caring for the family member, a measure of subjective burden, significantly declined. Despite the lack of a control group and the limited sample size, this study further supports the efficacy of FTF with a diverse urban population.

  4. Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A; Ross, A Catharine; Meydani, Simin N; Dawson, Harry D; Stephensen, Charles B; Brabin, Bernard J; Suchdev, Parminder S; van Ommen, Ben

    2015-05-01

    An increasing recognition has emerged of the complexities of the global health agenda—specifically, the collision of infections and noncommunicable diseases and the dual burden of over- and undernutrition. Of particular practical concern are both 1) the need for a better understanding of the bidirectional relations between nutritional status and the development and function of the immune and inflammatory response and 2) the specific impact of the inflammatory response on the selection, use, and interpretation of nutrient biomarkers. The goal of the Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE) is to provide guidance for those users represented by the global food and nutrition enterprise. These include researchers (bench and clinical), clinicians providing care/treatment, those developing and evaluating programs/interventions at scale, and those responsible for generating evidence-based policy. The INSPIRE process included convening 5 thematic working groups (WGs) charged with developing summary reports around the following issues: 1) basic overview of the interactions between nutrition, immune function, and the inflammatory response; 2) examination of the evidence regarding the impact of nutrition on immune function and inflammation; 3) evaluation of the impact of inflammation and clinical conditions (acute and chronic) on nutrition; 4) examination of existing and potential new approaches to account for the impact of inflammation on biomarker interpretation and use; and 5) the presentation of new approaches to the study of these relations. Each WG was tasked with synthesizing a summary of the evidence for each of these topics and delineating the remaining gaps in our knowledge. This review consists of a summary of the INSPIRE workshop and the WG deliberations.

  5. The Social Construction of "Evidence-Based" Drug Prevention Programs: A Reanalysis of Data from the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Dennis M.; Huber, J. Charles, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that any drug prevention program might be considered "evidence-based" given the use of data analysis procedures that optimize the chance of producing statistically significant results by reanalyzing data from a Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) program evaluation. The analysis produced a number of…

  6. Accessing best practice resources using mobile technology in an undergraduate nursing program: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Elizabeth G; Medves, Jennifer; Vandenkerkhof, Elizabeth G

    2015-03-01

    Mobile technology presents new opportunities for nursing education and ultimately the provision of nursing care. The aim of this study was to explore the utility of mobile technology in undergraduate nursing education. In this evaluation study, undergraduate nursing students were provided with iPod Touch devices containing best practice guidelines. Computer self-efficacy was assessed, and the Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify potential predictors of the use of mobile technology. Questionnaires were completed at baseline (n = 33) and postimplementation (n = 23). Feedback on feasibility issues was recorded throughout the study period. Students generally found the devices useful, and few technical problems were identified; however, lack of skill in using the devices and lack of support from staff in the clinical setting were commonly identified issues. Self-efficacy scores were high throughout the study. Attitudes, perceptions of the desirability of use, perceived personal control over use, and intentions of using the device were lower postimplementation than at baseline. Attitude toward the technology predicted intention to use the device after graduation. Mobile technology may promote evidence-informed practice; however, supporting students' acquisition of related skills may optimize use. Successful integration of mobile technology into practice requires attention to factors that affect student attitudes.

  7. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Undergraduate Education and Research Programs, Facilities, and Information Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) GRIDVIEW: Recent Improvements in Research and Education Software for Exploring Mars Topography; 2) Software and Hardware Upgrades for the University of North Dakota Asteroid and Comet Internet Telescope (ACIT); 3) Web-based Program for Calculating Effects of an Earth Impact; 4) On-Line Education, Web- and Virtual-Classes in an Urban University: A Preliminary Overview; 5) Modelling Planetary Material's Structures: From Quasicrystalline Microstructure to Crystallographic Materials by Use of Mathematica; 6) How We Used NASA Lunar Set in Planetary and Material Science Studies: Textural and Cooling Sequences in Sections of Lava Column from a Thin and a Thick Lava-Flow, from the Moon and Mars with Terrestrial Analogue and Chondrule Textural Comparisons; 7) Classroom Teaching of Space Technology and Simulations by the Husar Rover Model; 8) New Experiments (In Meteorology, Aerosols, Soil Moisture and Ice) on the New Hunveyor Educational Planetary Landers of Universities and Colleges in Hungary; 9) Teaching Planetary GIS by Constructing Its Model for the Test Terrain of the Hunveyor and Husar; 10) Undergraduate Students: An Untapped Resource for Planetary Researchers; 11) Analog Sites in Field Work of Petrology: Rock Assembly Delivered to a Plain by Floods on Earth and Mars; 12) RELAB (Reflectance Experiment Laboratory): A NASA Multiuser Spectroscopy Facility; 13) Full Text Searching and Customization in the NASA ADS Abstract Service.

  8. Linear programming based determination of optimal bilateral real power contracts in open access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaisakh, K.; Siva Krishan Rao, G.V. [Andhra University, AU College of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, Visakhapatnam 530 003, AP (India)

    2010-12-15

    Under a deregulated environment, electricity consumers and suppliers generally establish various bilateral power transactions/contracts. The transmission company normally honors and executes these bilateral contracts within the limits permitted by the system design and operating conditions. This article describes determination of optimal bilateral contracts by using line flow factors (LFFs). An innovative approach for obtaining the set of line flow factors is presented. The line flow factors are evaluated from existing load flow information. A generalized linear programming formulation is proposed to determine the optimal bilateral real power contracts under a deregulated environment subjected to the steady-state security constraints (e.g. generation and line flow limits). It is demonstrated that the proposed methodology would be an effective tool to study the intricate relationships between the bilateral contracts and system security. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of this formulation to minimize the cost of any bilateral contract to comply with the security requirements. The results obtained show great prospects for practical application of the proposed algorithm for optimal bilateral contracts on a real-time basis. (author)

  9. Determinants of Successful Access to Bank Loans by Vietnamese SMEs: New Evidence from the Red River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A key target of Small and Medium sized Enterprise (SME development is facilitating their access to finance, therefore drivers in SME credit decision making by banks are important to understand in every region and country. This paper provides an empirical analysis of the factors affecting the availability and affordability of SME loans in Vietnam. We use Ordinary Least Squares (OLS and Logit as measures for analysing results from a survey of 20 banks and 180 SMEs conducted in 2012. The results indicate that collateral and relationship lending have positive impacts on successful access. In addition, developing relationships with lenders or seeking a guarantee from a third party can help firms mitigate stringent terms and conditions for credit approvals. On the demand side, the sector where firms operate has an influence on barriers to finance. From the supply side, with various sizes and ownerships, has different perceptions about legal uncertainties and requirements in SME lending.

  10. Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act: What do Geriatrics Healthcare Professionals Need to Know About the Quality Payment Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unroe, Kathleen T; Hollmann, Peter A; Goldstein, Alanna C; Malone, Michael L

    2017-04-01

    Commencing in 2017, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) of 2015 will change how Medicare pays health professionals. By enacting MACRA, Congress brought an end to the (un)sustainable growth rate formula while also setting forth a vision for how to transform the U.S. healthcare system so that clinicians deliver higher-quality care with smarter spending by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). In October 2016, CMS released the first of what stakeholders anticipate will be a number of (annual) rules related to implementation of MACRA. CMS received extensive input from stakeholders including the American Geriatrics Society. Under the Quality Payment Program, CMS streamlined multiple Medicare value-based payment programs into a new Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS). CMS also outlined how it will provide incentives for participation in Advanced Alternative Payment Models (called APMs). Although Medicare payments to geriatrics health professionals will not be based on the new MIPS formula until 2019, those payments will be based upon performance during a 90-day period in 2017. This article defines geriatrics health professionals as clinicians who care for a predominantly older adult population and who are eligible to bill under the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule. Given the current paucity of eligible APMs, this article will focus on MIPS while providing a brief overview of APMs. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Ownership Characteristics and Access to Finance: Evidence from a Survey of Large Privatised Companies in Hungary and Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Isachenkova, N; Mickiewicz, T.

    2003-01-01

    We examine financial constraints and forms of finance used for investment, by analysing survey data on 157 large privatised companies in Hungary and Poland for the period 1998 - 2000. The Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling is carried out to obtain inferences about the sample companies' access to finance from a model for categorical outcome. By applying alternative measures of financial constraints we find that foreign companies, companies that are part of domestic industrial groups and en...

  12. Assessing the accessibility and degree of development in health care resources: evidence from the West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satar Rezaei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health care is one of the most important sectors in the development of each country and disparities in their distribution will reduce the level of development. The aim of this study was to examine the access to healthcare and degree of development in health care resources in the west of Iran in 2011. Method: This was a cross-sectional and retrospective study. The study setting was 51 cities of five western provinces of Iran, including Kermanshah, Kurdistan, Ilam, Lorestan and Hamadan. For assessing these towns in terms of the degree of development in healthcare resources by the numerical taxonomy technique, 23 indicators of health resources were selected and obtained from the statistics yearbook. The data was analyzed by EXCEL software. Results:Our study showed that the highest and lowest access to health care based on numerical taxonomy belonged to cities of Kermanshah (0.61 and Salas Babajani (1.07. Also, most towns of Ilam, Lorestan and Kurdistan provinces are underdeveloped and developing, while the most towns of Kermanshah and Hamadan provinces were placed in the developed region. Conclusion: This study showed that there was a large gap between the cities of one province and also among the provinces in terms of the access to and degree of development in health care resources. Therefore, it is suggested that a higher priority in terms of health resource allocation should be placed on the developing and underdeveloped areas in order to reduce these disparities.

  13. Accent modulates access to word meaning: Evidence for a speaker-model account of spoken word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhenguang G; Gilbert, Rebecca A; Davis, Matthew H; Gaskell, M Gareth; Farrar, Lauren; Adler, Sarah; Rodd, Jennifer M

    2017-11-01

    Speech carries accent information relevant to determining the speaker's linguistic and social background. A series of web-based experiments demonstrate that accent cues can modulate access to word meaning. In Experiments 1-3, British participants were more likely to retrieve the American dominant meaning (e.g., hat meaning of "bonnet") in a word association task if they heard the words in an American than a British accent. In addition, results from a speeded semantic decision task (Experiment 4) and sentence comprehension task (Experiment 5) confirm that accent modulates on-line meaning retrieval such that comprehension of ambiguous words is easier when the relevant word meaning is dominant in the speaker's dialect. Critically, neutral-accent speech items, created by morphing British- and American-accented recordings, were interpreted in a similar way to accented words when embedded in a context of accented words (Experiment 2). This finding indicates that listeners do not use accent to guide meaning retrieval on a word-by-word basis; instead they use accent information to determine the dialectic identity of a speaker and then use their experience of that dialect to guide meaning access for all words spoken by that person. These results motivate a speaker-model account of spoken word recognition in which comprehenders determine key characteristics of their interlocutor and use this knowledge to guide word meaning access. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Practical experience from the Office of Adolescent Health's large scale implementation of an evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Amy Lynn; Roper, Allison Yvonne

    2014-03-01

    After 3 years of experience overseeing the implementation and evaluation of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs in a diversity of populations and settings across the country, the Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) has learned numerous lessons through practical application and new experiences. These lessons and experiences are applicable to those working to implement evidence-based programs on a large scale. The lessons described in this paper focus on what it means for a program to be implementation ready, the role of the program developer in replicating evidence-based programs, the importance of a planning period to ensure quality implementation, the need to define and measure fidelity, and the conditions necessary to support rigorous grantee-level evaluation.

  15. Improving the care of people with traumatic brain injury through the Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) program: protocol for a program of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sally E; Bosch, Marije; McKenzie, Joanne E; O'Connor, Denise A; Tavender, Emma J; Bragge, Peter; Chau, Marisa; Pitt, Veronica; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Gruen, Russell L

    2012-01-01

    The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) program was funded in 2009 to increase the uptake of research evidence in the clinical care of patients who have sustained traumatic brain injury. This paper reports the rationale and plan for this five-year knowledge translation research program. The overarching aims of the program are threefold: to improve outcomes for people with traumatic brain injury; to create a network of neurotrauma clinicians and researchers with expertise in knowledge translation and evidence-based practice; and to contribute knowledge to the field of knowledge translation research. The program comprises a series of interlinked projects spanning varying clinical environments and disciplines relevant to neurotrauma, anchored within four themes representing core knowledge translation activities: reviewing research evidence; understanding practice; developing and testing interventions for practice change; and building capacity for knowledge translation in neurotrauma. The program uses a range of different methods and study designs, including: an evidence fellowship program; conduct of and training in systematic reviews; mixed method study designs to describe and understand factors that influence current practices (e.g., semi-structured interviews and surveys); theory-based methods to develop targeted interventions aiming to change practice; a cluster randomised trial to test the effectiveness of a targeted theory-informed intervention; stakeholder involvement activities; and knowledge translation events such as consensus conferences.

  16. Improving the care of people with traumatic brain injury through the Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET program: protocol for a program of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Sally E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET program was funded in 2009 to increase the uptake of research evidence in the clinical care of patients who have sustained traumatic brain injury. This paper reports the rationale and plan for this five-year knowledge translation research program. The overarching aims of the program are threefold: to improve outcomes for people with traumatic brain injury; to create a network of neurotrauma clinicians and researchers with expertise in knowledge translation and evidence-based practice; and to contribute knowledge to the field of knowledge translation research. The program comprises a series of interlinked projects spanning varying clinical environments and disciplines relevant to neurotrauma, anchored within four themes representing core knowledge translation activities: reviewing research evidence; understanding practice; developing and testing interventions for practice change; and building capacity for knowledge translation in neurotrauma. The program uses a range of different methods and study designs, including: an evidence fellowship program; conduct of and training in systematic reviews; mixed method study designs to describe and understand factors that influence current practices (e.g., semi-structured interviews and surveys; theory-based methods to develop targeted interventions aiming to change practice; a cluster randomised trial to test the effectiveness of a targeted theory-informed intervention; stakeholder involvement activities; and knowledge translation events such as consensus conferences.

  17. Strategies of Building a Stronger Sense of Community for Sustainable Neighborhoods: Comparing Neighborhood Accessibility with Community Empowerment Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-I Albert Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available New Urbanist development in the U.S. aims at enhancing a sense of community and seeks to return to the design of early transitional neighborhoods which have pedestrian-oriented environments with retail shops and services within walking distances of housing. Meanwhile, 6000 of Taiwan’s community associations have been running community empowerment programs supported by the Council for Cultural Affairs that have helped many neighborhoods to rebuild so-called community cohesion. This research attempts to evaluate whether neighborhoods with facilities near housing and shorter travel distances within a neighborhood would promote stronger social interactions and form a better community attachment than neighborhoods that have various opportunities for residents to participate in either formal or informal social gatherings. After interviewing and surveying residents from 19 neighborhoods in Taipei’s Beitou District, and correlating the psychological sense of community with inner neighborhood’s daily travel distances and numbers of participatory activities held by community organizations under empowerment programs together with frequencies of regular individual visits and casual meetings, statistical evidence yielded that placing public facilities near residential locations is more effective than providing various programs for elevating a sense of community.

  18. Recruiting and Engaging Older Men in Evidence-Based Health Promotion Programs: Perspectives on Barriers and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chelsie; Seff, Laura R; Batra, Anamika; Bhatt, Chintan; Palmer, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based health promotion programs are effective at reducing health risks and healthcare costs among older adults, but few men participate in the programs. This mixed methods study aimed to gain insight into the barriers to recruiting and engaging older men in evidence-based health promotion programs offered by the Healthy Aging Regional Collaborative of South Florida (HARC). Fourteen program coordinators participated in a focus group to identify barriers and strategies to improve male participation, and 49 instructors participated in a survey to triangulate the findings. Themes among barriers to male participation included women outnumbering men in the implementation sites and programs, conflict between male gender roles and the programs, and preference for other activities. Themes among strategies included public support of programs by male community leaders, program advertisements featuring males, and adapting program content. Survey results supported themes identified in the focus group. Nearly 78% of the survey respondents agreed that the perception of exercise programs as feminine was a barrier and over 90% of the survey respondents believed program advertisements featuring men would increase male participation. Findings indicate that health promotion programs and recruiting strategies need to be tailored to the unique needs and preferences of older men to improve participation.

  19. Recruiting and Engaging Older Men in Evidence-Based Health Promotion Programs: Perspectives on Barriers and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsie Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based health promotion programs are effective at reducing health risks and healthcare costs among older adults, but few men participate in the programs. This mixed methods study aimed to gain insight into the barriers to recruiting and engaging older men in evidence-based health promotion programs offered by the Healthy Aging Regional Collaborative of South Florida (HARC. Fourteen program coordinators participated in a focus group to identify barriers and strategies to improve male participation, and 49 instructors participated in a survey to triangulate the findings. Themes among barriers to male participation included women outnumbering men in the implementation sites and programs, conflict between male gender roles and the programs, and preference for other activities. Themes among strategies included public support of programs by male community leaders, program advertisements featuring males, and adapting program content. Survey results supported themes identified in the focus group. Nearly 78% of the survey respondents agreed that the perception of exercise programs as feminine was a barrier and over 90% of the survey respondents believed program advertisements featuring men would increase male participation. Findings indicate that health promotion programs and recruiting strategies need to be tailored to the unique needs and preferences of older men to improve participation.

  20. Perceptual Correlates of Turkish Word Stress and Their Contribution to Automatic Lexical Access: Evidence from Early ERP Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zora, Hatice; Heldner, Mattias; Schwarz, Iris-Corinna

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual correlates of Turkish word stress and their contribution to lexical access were studied using the mismatch negativity (MMN) component in event-related potentials (ERPs). The MMN was expected to indicate if segmentally identical Turkish words were distinguished on the sole basis of prosodic features such as fundamental frequency (f0), spectral emphasis (SE), and duration. The salience of these features in lexical access was expected to be reflected in the amplitude of MMN responses. In a multi-deviant oddball paradigm, neural responses to changes in f0, SE, and duration individually, as well as to all three features combined, were recorded for words and pseudowords presented to 14 native speakers of Turkish. The word and pseudoword contrast was used to differentiate language-related effects from acoustic-change effects on the neural responses. First and in line with previous findings, the overall MMN was maximal over frontal and central scalp locations. Second, changes in prosodic features elicited neural responses both in words and pseudowords, confirming the brain's automatic response to any change in auditory input. However, there were processing differences between the prosodic features, most significantly in f0: While f0 manipulation elicited a slightly right-lateralized frontally-maximal MMN in words, it elicited a frontal P3a in pseudowords. Considering that P3a is associated with involuntary allocation of attention to salient changes, the manipulations of f0 in the absence of lexical processing lead to an intentional evaluation of pitch change. f0 is therefore claimed to be lexically specified in Turkish. Rather than combined features, individual prosodic features differentiate language-related effects from acoustic-change effects. The present study confirms that segmentally identical words can be distinguished on the basis of prosodic information alone, and establishes the salience of f0 in lexical access. PMID:26834534

  1. Does Health Insurance Premium Exemption Policy for Older People Increase Access to Health Care? Evidence from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duku, Stephen Kwasi Opuku; van Dullemen, Caroline Elisabeth; Fenenga, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Aging in Sub-Saharan Africa causes major challenges for policy makers in social protection. Our study focuses on Ghana, one of the few Sub-Saharan African countries that passed a National Policy on Aging in 2010. Ghana is also one of the first Sub-Saharan African countries that launched a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS; NHIS Act 650, 2003) with the aim to improve access to quality health care for all citizens, and as such can be considered as a means of poverty reduction. Our study assesses whether premium exemption policy under the NHIS that grants non-payments of annual health insurance premiums for older people increases access to health care. We assessed differences in enrollment coverage among four different age groups (18-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70+). We found higher enrollment for the 70+ and 60-69 age groups. The likelihood of enrollment was 2.7 and 1.7 times higher for the 70+ and 60-69 age groups, respectively. Our results suggest the NHIS exemption policy increases insurance coverage of the aged and their utilization of health care services.

  2. Polio supplementary immunization activities and equity in access to vaccination: evidence from the demographic and health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleringer, Stéphane; Abdelwahab, Jalaa; Vandenent, Maya

    2014-11-01

    Every year, large numbers of children are vaccinated against polio during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Such SIAs have contributed to the >99% decline in the incidence of poliovirus cases since the beginning of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. It is not clear, however, how much they have also contributed to reducing poverty-related inequalities in access to oral polio vaccine (OPV). We investigated whether the gap in coverage with 3 doses of OPV between children in the poorest and wealthiest households was reduced by SIA participation. To do so, we used data from 25 demographic and health surveys (DHS) conducted in 20 countries since 2002. We found that, in several countries as well as in pooled analyses, poverty-related inequalities in 3-dose OPV coverage were significantly lower among children who had participated in SIAs over the 2 years before a DHS than among other children. SIAs are an important approach to ensuring equitable access to immunization services and possibly other health services. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Evidence summary: why is access to dental care for frail elderly people worse than for other groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caines, Beth

    2010-02-13

    In August 2009, members of the newly redeveloped Primary Care Dentistry Research Forum (http://www.dentistryresearch.org) took part in an online vote to identify questions in day-to-day practice that they felt most needed to be answered with conclusive research. The question which received the most votes formed the subject of a critical appraisal of the relevant literature. Each month a new round of voting will take place to decide which further questions will be reviewed. Dental practitioners and dental care professionals are encouraged to take part in the voting and submit their own questions to be included in the vote by joining the website.This paper details a summary of the findings of the first critical appraisal. In conclusion, the critical appraisal has identified that primary research is needed to look at the subject of access to dental care for frail elderly people. Similar barriers to accessing care for this group of people are still being reported today as they were 20 years ago.

  4. Coenzyme Q Biosynthesis: Evidence for a Substrate Access Channel in the FAD-Dependent Monooxygenase Coq6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coq6 is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q, a polyisoprenylated benzoquinone lipid essential to the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this putative flavin-dependent monooxygenase is proposed to hydroxylate the benzene ring of coenzyme Q (ubiquinone precursor at position C5. We show here through biochemical studies that Coq6 is a flavoprotein using FAD as a cofactor. Homology models of the Coq6-FAD complex are constructed and studied through molecular dynamics and substrate docking calculations of 3-hexaprenyl-4-hydroxyphenol (4-HP6, a bulky hydrophobic model substrate. We identify a putative access channel for Coq6 in a wild type model and propose in silico mutations positioned at its entrance capable of partially (G248R and L382E single mutations or completely (a G248R-L382E double-mutation blocking access to the channel for the substrate. Further in vivo assays support the computational predictions, thus explaining the decreased activities or inactivation of the mutated enzymes. This work provides the first detailed structural information of an important and highly conserved enzyme of ubiquinone biosynthesis.

  5. Coenzyme Q Biosynthesis: Evidence for a Substrate Access Channel in the FAD-Dependent Monooxygenase Coq6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Alexandre; Leroux, Vincent; Smadja, Myriam; Gonzalez, Lucie; Lombard, Murielle; Pierrel, Fabien; Mellot-Draznieks, Caroline; Fontecave, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Coq6 is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q, a polyisoprenylated benzoquinone lipid essential to the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this putative flavin-dependent monooxygenase is proposed to hydroxylate the benzene ring of coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) precursor at position C5. We show here through biochemical studies that Coq6 is a flavoprotein using FAD as a cofactor. Homology models of the Coq6-FAD complex are constructed and studied through molecular dynamics and substrate docking calculations of 3-hexaprenyl-4-hydroxyphenol (4-HP6), a bulky hydrophobic model substrate. We identify a putative access channel for Coq6 in a wild type model and propose in silico mutations positioned at its entrance capable of partially (G248R and L382E single mutations) or completely (a G248R-L382E double-mutation) blocking access to the channel for the substrate. Further in vivo assays support the computational predictions, thus explaining the decreased activities or inactivation of the mutated enzymes. This work provides the first detailed structural information of an important and highly conserved enzyme of ubiquinone biosynthesis.

  6. School Drop Out in Bangladesh: New Insights from Longitudinal Evidence. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 49

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabates, Ricardo; Hossain, Altaf; Lewin, Keith M.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides new evidence into the factors that predict school drop out for children in Bangladesh. It also examines similarities and differences between children who enter late into primary schooling, those who are permanently excluded and those who drop out. Our results show that the relationship of the child within the household and the…

  7. Economic evaluation of screening programs for hepatitis C virus infection: evidence from literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coretti S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Silvia Coretti,1 Federica Romano,1 Valentina Orlando,2 Paola Codella,1 Sabrina Prete,1 Eugenio Di Brino,1 Matteo Ruggeri1 1Post-Graduate School of Economics and Management (ALTEMS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy; 2Center of Pharmacoeconomics (CIRFF, Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University, Naples, Italy Background: Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by hepatitis C virus. Its main complications are cirrhosis and liver cancer. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, more than 185 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus and, of these, 350,000 die every year. Due to the high disease prevalence and the existence of effective (and expensive medical treatments able to dramatically change the prognosis, early detection programs can potentially prevent the development of serious chronic conditions, improve health, and save resources. Objective: To summarize the available evidence on the cost-effectiveness of screening programs for hepatitis C. Methods: A literature search was performed on PubMed and Scopus search engines. Trip database was queried to identify reports produced by the major Health Technology Assessment (HTA agencies. Three reviewers dealt with study selection and data extraction blindly. Results: Ten papers eventually met the inclusion criteria. In studies focusing on asymptomatic cohorts of individuals at general risk the cost/quality adjusted life year of screening programs ranged between US $4,200 and $50,000/quality adjusted life year gained, while in those focusing on specific risk factors the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ranged between $848 and $128,424/quality adjusted life year gained. Age of the target population and disease prevalence were the main cost-effectiveness drivers. Conclusion: Our results suggest that, especially in the long run, screening programs represent a cost-effective strategy for the management of hepatitis C. Keywords: hepatitis C, screening

  8. Dietary Interventions in Multiple Sclerosis: Development and Pilot-Testing of an Evidence Based Patient Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann-Lorenz, Karin; Eilers, Marlene; von Geldern, Gloria; Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Köpke, Sascha; Heesen, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary factors have been discussed to influence risk or disease course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Specific diets are widely used among patients with MS. Objective To design and pilot-test an evidence based patient education program on dietary factors in MS. Methods We performed a systematic literature search on the effectiveness of dietary interventions in MS. A web-based survey among 337 patients with MS and 136 healthy controls assessed knowledge, dietary habits and information needs. An interactive group education program was developed and pilot-tested. Results Fifteen randomised-controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the systematic review. Quality of evidence was low and no clear benefit could be seen. Patients with MS significantly more often adhered to a `Mediterranean Diet`(29.7% versus 14.0%, pnutrition and MS (43%). A pilot test of our newly developed patient education program with 13 participants showed excellent comprehensibility and the MS-specific content was judged as very important. However, the poor evidence base for dietary approaches in MS was perceived disappointing. Conclusions Development and pilot-testing of an evidence-based patient education program on nutrition and MS is feasible. Patient satisfaction with the program suffers from the lack of evidence. Further research should focus on generating evidence for the potential influence of lifestyle habits (diet, physical activity) on MS disease course thus meeting the needs of patients with MS. PMID:27764237

  9. Development of an evidence-based training program for laparoscopic hysterectomy on a virtual reality simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, Patrice; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Knight, Sophie; Berdah, Stéphane; Boubli, Léon; Agostini, Aubert

    2017-06-01

    Substantial evidence in the scientific literature supports the use of simulation for surgical education. However, curricula lack for complex laparoscopic procedures in gynecology. The objective was to evaluate the validity of a program that reproduces key specific components of a laparoscopic hysterectomy (LH) procedure until colpotomy on a virtual reality (VR) simulator and to develop an evidence-based and stepwise training curriculum. This prospective cohort study was conducted in a Marseille teaching hospital. Forty participants were enrolled and were divided into experienced (senior surgeons who had performed more than 100 LH; n = 8), intermediate (surgical trainees who had performed 2-10 LH; n = 8) and inexperienced (n = 24) groups. Baselines were assessed on a validated basic task. Participants were tested for the LH procedure on a high-fidelity VR simulator. Validity evidence was proposed as the ability to differentiate between the three levels of experience. Inexperienced subjects performed ten repetitions for learning curve analysis. Proficiency measures were based on experienced surgeons' performances. Outcome measures were simulator-derived metrics and Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scores. Quantitative analysis found significant inter-group differences between experienced intermediate and inexperienced groups for time (1369, 2385 and 3370 s; p < 0.001), number of movements (2033, 3195 and 4056; p = 0.001), path length (3390, 4526 and 5749 cm; p = 0.002), idle time (357, 654 and 747 s; p = 0.001), respect for tissue (24, 40 and 84; p = 0.01) and number of bladder injuries (0.13, 0 and 4.27; p < 0.001). Learning curves plateaued at the 2nd to 6th repetition. Further qualitative analysis found significant inter-group OSATS score differences at first repetition (22, 15 and 8, respectively; p < 0.001) and second repetition (25.5, 19.5 and 14; p < 0.001). The VR program for LH accrued validity evidence and

  10. The IRIS Education and Outreach Program: Providing access to data and equipment for educational and public use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, J.; Toigo, M.; Bravo, T. K.; Hubenthal, M.; McQuillan, P. J.; Welti, R.

    2009-12-01

    The IRIS Education and Outreach Program has been an integral part of IRIS for the past 10 years and during that time has worked to advance awareness and understanding of seismology and earth science while inspiring careers in geophysics. The focus on seismology and the use of seismic data has allowed the IRIS E&O program to develop and disseminate a unique suite of products and services for a wide range of audiences. One result of that effort has been increased access to the IRIS Data Management System by non-specialist audiences and simplified use of location and waveform data. The Seismic Monitor was one of the first Web-based tools for observing near-real-time seismicity. It continues to be the most popular IRIS web page, and thus it presents aspects of seismology to a very wide audience. For individuals interested in more detailed ground motion information, waveforms can be easily viewed using the Rapid Earthquake Viewer, developed by the University of South Carolina in collaboration with IRIS E&O. The Seismographs in Schools program gives schools the opportunity to apply for a low-cost educational seismograph and to receive training for its use in the classroom. To provide better service to the community, a new Seismographs in Schools website was developed in the past year with enhanced functions to help teachers improve their teaching of seismology. The site encourages schools to make use of seismic data and communicate with other educational seismology users throughout the world. Users can view near-real-time displays of other participating schools, upload and download data, and use the “find a teacher” tool to contact nearby schools that also may be operating seismographs. In order to promote and maintain program participation and communication, the site features a discussion forum to encourage and support the growing global community of educational seismograph users. Any data that is submitted to the Seismographs in Schools Website is also accessible

  11. Public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and referral behaviors for an evidence based parenting program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Whitaker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the public child welfare work force influence implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP as most research has focused on the private workforce. This paper reports on public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and practices in a state implementing the EBP, SafeCare®. A survey of public child welfare staff (N = 222 was conducted to assess knowledge, familiarity, and referral barriers and practices. Knowledge of and familiarity with SafeCarewere low, especially among front line staff (case managers. Attitudes toward SafeCare were fairly positive, but somewhat less so than attitudes toward a standard, non-evidenced based parenting program. Case managers were significantly less likely to have made a referral (15% than other staff (46%. Job tenure had few effects on familiarity, knowledge, attitudes, or referrals. The strongest predictors of having made referrals were familiarity with SafeCare and job position.

  12. Access to Obstetric Care and Children's Health, Growth and Cognitive Development in Vietnam: Evidence from Young Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Tina; Preen, David B; Newnham, Elizabeth A

    2017-06-01

    Background The impact of birth with poor access to skilled obstetric care such as home birth on children's long term development is unknown. This study explores the health, growth and cognitive development of children surviving homebirth in the Vietnam Young Lives sample during early childhood. Methods The Young Lives longitudinal cohort study was conducted in Vietnam with 1812 children born in 2001/2 with follow-up at 1, 5, and 8 years. Data were collected on height/weight, health and cognitive development (Peabody Picture Vocabulary test). Statistical models adjusted for sociodemographic and pregnancy-related factors. Results Children surviving homebirth did not have significantly poorer long-term health, greater stunting after adjusting for sociodemographic/pregnancy-related factors. Rural location, lack of household education, ethnic minority status and lower wealth predicted greater stunting and poorer scores on Peabody Vocabulary test. Conclusions Social disadvantage rather than homebirth influenced children's health, growth and development.

  13. Access to health insurance and the use of inpatient medical care: evidence from the Affordable Care Act young adult mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akosa Antwi, Yaa; Moriya, Asako S; Simon, Kosali I

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act of 2010 expanded coverage to young adults by allowing them to remain on their parent's private health insurance until they turn 26 years old. While there is evidence on insurance effects, we know very little about use of general or specific forms of medical care. We study the implications of the expansion on inpatient hospitalizations. Given the prevalence of mental health needs for young adults, we also specifically study mental health related inpatient care. We find evidence that compared to those aged 27-29 years, treated young adults aged 19-25 years increased their inpatient visits by 3.5 percent while mental illness visits increased 9.0 percent. The prevalence of uninsurance among hospitalized young adults decreased by 12.5 percent; however, it does not appear that the intensity of inpatient treatment changed despite the change in reimbursement composition of patients.

  14. New evidence on the HIV epidemic in Libya: why countries must implement prevention programs among people who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoyan, Lusine; Berendes, Sima; Jeffery, Caroline; Thomson, Joanna; Ben Othman, Hussain; Danon, Leon; Turki, Abdullah A; Saffialden, Rabea; Valadez, Joseph J

    2013-04-15

    Libya had one of the world's largest nosocomial HIV outbreaks in the late 1990 s leading to the detention of 6 foreign medical workers. They were released in 2007 after the Libyan Government and the European Union agreed to humanitarian cooperation that included the development of Libya's first National HIV Strategy and the research reported in this article. Despite the absence of sound evidence on the status and dynamics of Libya's HIV epidemic, some officials posited that injecting drug use was the main mode of transmission. We therefore sought to assess HIV prevalence and related risk factors among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tripoli. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 328 PWID in Tripoli using respondent-driven sampling. We collected behavioral data and blood samples for HIV, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus testing. We estimate an HIV prevalence of 87%, hepatitis C virus prevalence of 94%, and hepatitis B virus prevalence of 5%. We detected injecting drug use-related and sexual risk factors in the context of poor access to comprehensive services for HIV prevention and mitigation. For example, most respondents (85%) reported having shared needles. In this first biobehavioral survey among PWID in Libya, we detected one of the highest (or even the highest) levels of HIV infection worldwide in the absence of a comprehensive harm-reduction program. There is an urgent need to implement an effective National HIV Strategy informed by the results of this research, especially because recent military events and related sociopolitical disruption and migration might lead to a further expansion of the epidemic.

  15. Early programing of uterine tissue by bisphenol A: Critical evaluation of evidence from animal exposure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorov, Alexander; Waxman, David J

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) during the critical window of uterine development has been proposed to program the uterus for increased disease susceptibility based on well-documented effects of the potent xenoestrogen diethylstilbestrol. To investigate this proposal, we reviewed 37 studies of prenatal and/or perinatal BPA exposure in animal models and evaluated evidence for: molecular signatures of early BPA exposure; the development of adverse uterine health effects; and epigenetic changes linked to long-term dysregulation of uterine gene expression and health effects. We found substantial evidence for adult uterine effects of early BPA exposure. In contrast, experimental support for epigenetic actions of early BPA exposure is very limited, and largely consists of effects on Hoxa gene DNA methylation. Critical knowledge gaps were identified, including the need to fully characterize short-term and long-term uterine gene responses, interactions with estrogens and other endogenous hormones, and any long-lasting epigenetic signatures that impact adult disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effective Evidence-Based Programs For Preventing Sexually-Transmitted Infections: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Dafina; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2015-01-01

    Educational programs for preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have often been implemented in different settings and populations. Mathematica Policy Research and Child Trends conducted a systematic review of 289 evidence-based interventions aiming to reduce STIs and sexual risk behavior in adolescents in the United States. These interventions were published between 1989 and 2012. We conducted a meta-analysis of the interventions that assessed incidence of STIs at follow up, and we identified key characteristics of successful interventions. Results showed that on average interventions reduced incidence roughly from 7 to 6 out of 100 people (17% relative risk reduction (RRR)). Interventions focused on abstinence had no effect, while comprehensive education programs aiming to improve skills and promote safe sexual practices reduced risk by 4 percent (23% RRR). In particular, interventions teaching condom use skills or communication and negotiation skills reduced incidence of STIs by 3 to 4 percent (30% RRR). Finally, interventions decreasing frequency of intercourse or number of sexual partners and interventions increasing condom use also reduced incidence of STIs by 5 to 7 percent (28-36% RRR). Overall properly designed interventions with the above-mentioned characteristics can achieve a 30% reduction of STI incidence. Implications for designing successful interventions to prevent STIs in adolescents are discussed.

  17. Nitrergic system and plasmatic methylarginines: Evidence of their role in the perinatal programming of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Mussap, Michele; Bassareo, Valentina; Flore, Giovanna; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Atherosclerosis, in turn preceded by endothelial dysfunction, underlies a series of important cardiovascular diseases. Reduced bioavailability of endothelial nitric oxide, by increasing vascular tone and promoting platelet aggregation, leukocyte adhesion, and smooth muscle cell proliferation, plays a key role in the onset of the majority of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, high blood levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, a potent inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, are associated with future development of adverse cardiovascular events and cardiac death. Recent reports have demonstrated that another methylarginine, i.e., symmetric dimethylarginine, is also involved in the onset of endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Almost a decade ago, prematurity at birth and intrauterine growth retardation were first associated with a potential negative influence on the cardiovascular apparatus, thus constituting risk factors or leading to early onset of cardiovascular diseases. This condition is referred to as cardiovascular perinatal programming. Accordingly, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are higher among former preterm adults than in those born at term. The aim of this paper was to undertake a comprehensive literature review focusing on cellular and biochemical mechanisms resulting in both reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and increased methylarginine levels in subjects born preterm. Evidence of the involvement of these compounds in the perinatal programming of cardiovascular risk are also discussed.

  18. Social disparities in internet patient portal use in diabetes: evidence that the digital divide extends beyond access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Urmimala; Karter, Andrew J; Liu, Jennifer Y; Adler, Nancy E; Nguyen, Robert; López, Andrea; Schillinger, Dean

    2011-05-01

    The authors investigated use of the internet-based patient portal, kp.org, among a well-characterized population of adults with diabetes in Northern California. Among 14,102 diverse patients, 5671 (40%) requested a password for the patient portal. Of these, 4311 (76%) activated their accounts, and 3922 (69%), logged on to the patient portal one or more times; 2990 (53%) participants viewed laboratory results, 2132 (38%) requested medication refills, 2093 (37%) sent email messages, and 835 (15%) made medical appointments. After adjustment for age, gender, race/ethnicity, immigration status, educational attainment, and employment status, compared to non-Hispanic Caucasians, African-Americans and Latinos had higher odds of never logging on (OR 2.6 (2.3 to 2.9); OR 2.3 (1.9 to 2.6)), as did those without an educational degree (OR compared to college graduates, 2.3 (1.9 to 2.7)). Those most at risk for poor diabetes outcomes may fall further behind as health systems increasingly rely on the internet and limit current modes of access and communication.

  19. Phonology is not accessed earlier than orthography in Chinese written production: evidence for the orthography autonomy hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingfang; Wang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of orthographic and phonological codes to written production remains controversial. We report results using a picture-word interference task in which participants were asked to write (Experiments 1 and 2) or to speak (Experiment 3) the names of pictures while trying to ignore visual distractors, and the interval between the target and distractor onset was varied. Distractors were orthographically plus phonologically related, orthographically related, phonologically related, or unrelated to picture names. For written production, we found an exclusive orthographic effect at an early stage, reflecting a fast and direct link between meaning and graphemic lexicon, and we demonstrated that orthographic codes can be accessed directly from meaning in healthy adults. We also found orthographic and phonological effects at a later stage, reflecting a slow and indirect link between meaning and graphemic lexicon via phonology. Furthermore, the absence of an interaction effect of orthographic and phonological facilitation on written latencies suggests that the two effects are additive in general and that they might occur independently in written production in Chinese. For spoken production, we found that orthographic and phonological effects occur simultaneously in spoken production and that the two effects are additive at an early stage but interactive at a later stage. The temporal courses and their interplay of orthographic and phonological effects are dissociative in written and spoken production. Our findings thus support the orthography autonomy hypothesis, rather than the obligatory phonological mediation hypothesis, in written production in Chinese (as a non-alphabetic script).

  20. Electrophysiological evidence of sublexical phonological access in character processing by L2 Chinese learners of L1 alphabetic scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Yen Na; Law, Sam-Po; Mo, Kwan Nok; Lau, Dustin; Su, I-Fan; Shum, Mark S K

    2016-04-01

    While Chinese character reading relies more on addressed phonology relative to alphabetic scripts, skilled Chinese readers also access sublexical phonological units during recognition of phonograms. However, sublexical orthography-to-phonology mapping has not been found among beginning second language (L2) Chinese learners. This study investigated character reading in more advanced Chinese learners whose native writing system is alphabetic. Phonological regularity and consistency were examined in behavioral responses and event-related potentials (ERPs) in lexical decision and delayed naming tasks. Participants were 18 native English speakers who acquired written Chinese after age 5 years and reached grade 4 Chinese reading level. Behaviorally, regular characters were named more accurately than irregular characters, but consistency had no effect. Similar to native Chinese readers, regularity effects emerged early with regular characters eliciting a greater N170 than irregular characters. Regular characters also elicited greater frontal P200 and smaller N400 than irregular characters in phonograms of low consistency. Additionally, regular-consistent characters and irregular-inconsistent characters had more negative amplitudes than irregular-consistent characters in the N400 and LPC time windows. The overall pattern of brain activities revealed distinct regularity and consistency effects in both tasks. Although orthographic neighbors are activated in character processing of L2 Chinese readers, the timing of their impact seems delayed compared with native Chinese readers. The time courses of regularity and consistency effects across ERP components suggest both assimilation and accommodation of the reading network in learning to read a typologically distinct second orthographic system.

  1. Access to HIV community services by vulnerable populations: evidence from an enhanced HIV/AIDS surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, H C E; Phillips-Howard, P A; Hargreaves, S C; Downing, J; Bellis, M A; Vivancos, R; Morley, C; Syed, Q; Cook, P A

    2011-05-01

    HIV disproportionately affects vulnerable populations such as black and minority ethnic groups, men who have sex with men (MSM) and migrants, in many countries including those in the UK. Community organisations in the UK are charitable non-governmental organisations with a proportion of the workforce who volunteer, and provide invaluable additional support for people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Information on their contribution to HIV care in vulnerable groups is relatively sparse. Data generated from an enhanced HIV surveillance system in North West England, UK, was utilised for this study. We aimed to determine the characteristics of individuals who chose to access community services in addition to clinical services (1375 out of 4195 records of PLWHIV in clinical services). Demographic information, risk factors including residency status, uniquely gathered in this region, and deprivation scores were examined. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was conducted to predict the relative effect of patient characteristics on attendance at community services. Attendance at community services was highest in those living in the most, compared with least, deprived areas (prefugees (AOR = 5.75, 95% CI 3.3-10.03; pmigrant workers (AOR = 5.48, 95% CI 2.22-13.51; pmigrant populations, community services are vital for the management of HIV in black and minority groups. Paradoxically, this coincides with increasing funding pressures on these services.

  2. Usability evaluation: results from "Evaluation of mobile information technology to improve nurses' access to and use of research evidence".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Tammie Leigh; Nguyen, Ha; Doran, Diane M

    2012-08-01

    Usability evaluations are necessary to determine the feasibility of nurses' interactions with computerized clinical decision-support systems. Limitations and challenges of operations that inhibit or facilitate utilization in clinical practice can be identified. This study provided nurses with mobile information terminals, PDAs and tablet PCs, to improve point-of-care access to information. The purpose of this study was to determine usability issues associated with point-of-care technology. Eleven nurses were self-selected. Nurses were videotaped and audiotaped completing four tasks, including setting up the device and three resource search exercises. A research team member completed a usability checklist. Completion times for each task, success rate, and challenges experienced were documented. Four participants completed all tasks, with an average time of 3 minutes 22 seconds. Three participants were unable to complete any of the three tasks. Navigating within resources caused the greatest occurrence of deviations with 39 issues among all participants. Results of the usability evaluation suggest that nurses require a device that (1) is manageable to navigate and (2) utilizes a user-friendly interface, such as a one-time log-in system. Usability testing can be helpful to organizations as they document issues to be cognizant of during the implementation process, increasing the potential for successful implementation and sustained usability.

  3. We Need More Evidence in Order to Create Effective Pre-K Programs. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, Dale C.

    2016-01-01

    The proposition that expanding pre-K will improve later achievement for children from low-income families is premature. Premature as well is the presumption that solid research exists to guide the content and structure of pre-K programs. Despite more than 50 years of preliminary work on pre-K as an early intervention for young children from poor…

  4. A Close Look at a STEM-Themed Magnet and its Experiential Program on the Occupational Identities, Career Maturity, and Access Provided to Low Socioeconomic Minority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Urlette

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an experiential program on the occupational identity, access, and career maturity of Black and Latino students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Data shows these students to be underrepresented in STEM fields. Student interest and access are noted in the literature to be amongst the reasons minorities do not pursue a career in STEM related fields. Jobs within the STEM industry pay considerably more than non-STEM related jobs, access to these jobs can help individuals transform their socioeconomic status. Lack of access and exposure to these fields for low socioeconomic minorities then becomes a social justice issue. A mixed methods approach was applied which included surveys and interviews of junior students currently in an experiential careers program with a STEM emphasis. Composites and subscales were created and checked for internal reliability and consistency. Interview responses were recorded and coded based on theories of occupational identity and emergent themes. Findings suggest that most students within the experiential careers program exhibited high levels of occupational identity. The experiential learning model works well to support continuous learning and the identity development of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds.

  5. Assessment of USDA-NRCS rangeland conservation programs: recommendation for an evidence-based conservation platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briske, D D; Bestelmeyer, B T; Brown, J R; Brunson, M W; Thurow, T L; Tanaka, J A

    2017-01-01

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) was created in response to a request from the Office of Management and Budget that the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS) document the societal benefits anticipated to accrue from a major increase in conservation funding authorized by the 2002 Farm Bill. A comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of rangeland conservation practices cost-shared with private landowners was unable to evaluate conservation benefits because outcomes were seldom documented. Four interrelated suppositions are presented to examine the causes underlying minimal documentation of conservations outcomes. These suppositions are (1) the benefits of conservation practices are considered a certainty so that documentation in not required, (2) there is minimal knowledge exchange between the USDA-NRCS and research organizations, (3) and a paucity of conservation-relevant science, as well as (4) inadequate technical support for land owners following implementation of conservation practices. We then follow with recommendations to overcome potential barriers to documentation of conservation outcomes identified for each supposition. Collectively, this assessment indicates that the existing conservation practice standards are insufficient to effectively administer large conservation investments on rangelands and that modification of these standards alone will not achieve the goals explicitly stated by CEAP. We recommend that USDA-NRCS modify its conservation programs around a more comprehensive and integrative platform that is capable of implementing evidence-based conservation. Collaborative monitoring organized around landowner-agency-scientist partnerships would represent the focal point of a Conservation Program Assessment Network (CPAN). The primary network objective would be to establish missing information feedback loops between conservation practices and their agricultural and environmental outcomes

  6. [Improving Access to Evidence Based Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Mental Disorders After Child Abuse and Neglect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganser, Helene G; Münzer, Annika; Seitz, Diana C M; Witt, Andreas; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Victims of child abuse and neglect are more likely to develop emotional and behavioral problems than their non-abused peers. In many cases they do not receive evidence based treatments. Based on pilot studies and clinical experience, a structured and manualized case-management protocol was developed to provide child welfare professionals guidance, direction and support in helping these families find and engage in appropriate treatment. The protocol is described. A survey among child welfare workers indicates a lack of knowledge about mental disorders in victims of child abuse as well as an insufficient cooperation between the child welfare and the mental healthcare system. Child welfare workers who have applied the manual evaluate it positively. This study shows that the structured case-management can be implemented in a child welfare setting.

  7. The Need to Support of Data Flow Graph Visualization of Forensic Lucid Programs, Forensic Evidence, and their Evaluation by GIPSY

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, Serguei A; Debbabi, Mourad

    2010-01-01

    Lucid programs are data-flow programs and can be visually represented as data flow graphs (DFGs) and composed visually. Forensic Lucid, a Lucid dialect, is a language to specify and reason about cyberforensics cases. It includes the encoding of the evidence (representing the context of evaluation) and the crime scene modeling in order to validate claims against the model and perform event reconstruction, potentially within large swaths of digital evidence. To aid investigators to model the scene and evaluate it, instead of typing a Forensic Lucid program, we propose to expand the design and implementation of the Lucid DFG programming onto Forensic Lucid case modeling and specification to enhance the usability of the language and the system.

  8. "Utstein style" spreadsheet and database programs based on Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Access software for CPR data management of in-hospital resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bruce D; Whitlock, Warren L

    2004-04-01

    In 1997, The American Heart Association in association with representatives of the International Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) published recommended guidelines for reviewing, reporting and conducting in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) outcomes using the "Utstein style". Using these guidelines, we developed two Microsoft Office based database management programs that may be useful to the resuscitation community. We developed a user-friendly spreadsheet based on MS Office Excel. The user enters patient variables such as name, age, and diagnosis. Then, event resuscitation variables such as time of collapse and CPR team arrival are entered from a "code flow sheet". Finally, outcome variables such as patient condition at different time points are recorded. The program then makes automatic calculations of average response times, survival rates and other important outcome measurements. Also using the Utstein style, we developed a database program based on MS Office Access. To promote free public access to these programs, we established at a website. These programs will help hospitals track, analyze, and present their CPR outcomes data. Clinical CPR researchers might also find the programs useful because they are easily modified and have statistical functions.

  9. Health system barriers to access and use of magnesium sulfate for women with severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Pakistan: evidence for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdeli, Maryam; Zafar, Shamsa; Assad, Hafeez; Ghaffar, Adbul

    2013-01-01

    Severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are rare but serious complications of pregnancy that threaten the lives of mothers during childbirth. Evidence supports the use of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) as the first line treatment option for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Eclampsia is the third major cause of maternal mortality in Pakistan. As in many other Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC), it is suspected that MgSO4 is critically under-utilized in the country. There is however a lack of information on context-specific health system barriers that prevent optimal use of this life-saving medicine in Pakistan. Combining quantitative and qualitative methods, namely policy document review, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and direct observation at health facility, we explored context-specific health system barriers and enablers that affect access and use of MgSO4 for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Pakistan. Our study finds that while international recommendations on MgSO4 have been adequately translated in national policies in Pakistan, the gap remains in implementation of national policies into practice. Barriers to access to and effective use of MgSO4 occur at health facility level where the medicine was not available and health staff was reluctant to use it. Low price of the medicine and the small market related to its narrow indications acted as disincentives for effective marketing. Results of our survey were further discussed in a multi-stakeholder round-table meeting and an action plan for increasing access to this life-saving medicine was identified.

  10. Health system barriers to access and use of magnesium sulfate for women with severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Pakistan: evidence for policy and practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bigdeli

    Full Text Available Severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are rare but serious complications of pregnancy that threaten the lives of mothers during childbirth. Evidence supports the use of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 as the first line treatment option for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Eclampsia is the third major cause of maternal mortality in Pakistan. As in many other Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC, it is suspected that MgSO4 is critically under-utilized in the country. There is however a lack of information on context-specific health system barriers that prevent optimal use of this life-saving medicine in Pakistan. Combining quantitative and qualitative methods, namely policy document review, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and direct observation at health facility, we explored context-specific health system barriers and enablers that affect access and use of MgSO4 for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Pakistan. Our study finds that while international recommendations on MgSO4 have been adequately translated in national policies in Pakistan, the gap remains in implementation of national policies into practice. Barriers to access to and effective use of MgSO4 occur at health facility level where the medicine was not available and health staff was reluctant to use it. Low price of the medicine and the small market related to its narrow indications acted as disincentives for effective marketing. Results of our survey were further discussed in a multi-stakeholder round-table meeting and an action plan for increasing access to this life-saving medicine was identified.

  11. Implementation of evidence-based home visiting programs aimed at reducing child maltreatment: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Katherine L; Fauchier, Angèle; Derkash, Bridget T; Garrido, Edward F

    2016-03-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in the popularity of home visitation programs as a means of addressing risk factors for child maltreatment. The evidence supporting the effectiveness of these programs from several meta-analyses, however, is mixed. One potential explanation for this inconsistency explored in the current study involves the manner in which these programs were implemented. In the current study we reviewed 156 studies associated with 9 different home visitation program models targeted to caregivers of children between the ages of 0 and 5. Meta-analytic techniques were used to determine the impact of 18 implementation factors (e.g., staff selection, training, supervision, fidelity monitoring, etc.) and four study characteristics (publication type, target population, study design, comparison group) in predicting program outcomes. Results from analyses revealed that several implementation factors, including training, supervision, and fidelity monitoring, had a significant effect on program outcomes, particularly child maltreatment outcomes. Study characteristics, including the program's target population and the comparison group employed, also had a significant effect on program outcomes. Implications of the study's results for those interested in implementing home visitation programs are discussed. A careful consideration and monitoring of program implementation is advised as a means of achieving optimal study results.

  12. National Implementation of an Evidence-Based HIV Prevention and Reproductive Health Program for Bahamian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Valerie; Kaljee, Linda; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Rolle, Glenda; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of behavioral prevention interventions have been demonstrated through longitudinal, randomized controlled trials to reduce sexual risk behaviors. Many of these interventions have been made available at little cost for implementation on a public health scale. However, efforts to utilize such programs typically have been met with a range of problems to be addressed, leading to the recognition that new processes must be identified and integrated into the emerging field of implementation science. A randomized, controlled trial conducted among Bahamian grade six students attending fifteen elementary schools found the sexual risk-reduction intervention "Focus on Youth in the Caribbean (FOYC) and Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together (CImPACT)" to be effective through three years of follow-up. Based on these results, the Bahamian Ministry of Education decided to implement FOYC-CImPACT throughout all government grade six classes in The Bahamas. This manuscript describes the considerations, approaches, and actions taken regarding national implementation of this evidence-based intervention. The implementation process included active data-gathering, observation and feedback components to inform subsequent intervention phases. This manuscript reviewed the success and challenges to date within this framework and described changes made to enable next stages of the national implementation effort.

  13. Does self-control improve with practice? Evidence from a six-week training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Eleanor; Sheeran, Paschal; Baird, Harriet; Macdonald, Ian; Webb, Thomas L; Harris, Peter R

    2016-08-01

    Can self-control be improved through practice? Several studies have found that repeated practice of tasks involving self-control improves performance on other tasks relevant to self-control. However, in many of these studies, improvements after training could be attributable to methodological factors (e.g., passive control conditions). Moreover, the extent to which the effects of training transfer to real-life settings is not yet clear. In the present research, participants (N = 174) completed a 6-week training program of either cognitive or behavioral self-control tasks. We then tested the effects of practice on a range of measures of self-control, including lab-based and real-world tasks. Training was compared with both active and no-contact control conditions. Despite high levels of adherence to the training tasks, there was no effect of training on any measure of self-control. Trained participants did not, for example, show reduced ego depletion effects, become better at overcoming their habits, or report exerting more self-control in everyday life. Moderation analyses found no evidence that training was effective only among particular groups of participants. Bayesian analyses suggested that the data were more consistent with a null effect of training on self-control than with previous estimates of the effect of practice. The implication is that training self-control through repeated practice does not result in generalized improvements in self-control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Synthesis of evidence of diagnostic tests and preventive programs identifying pre-diabetes type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Tučková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D has become the main type of diabetes in children and it is expected that in countries with high income diabetes it is projected to be one of the leading causes of death by 2030. Another fact is that programs and tests diagnosing pre-diabetes type 2 (T2P-DMC are missing. Methods: The aim of the paper is to present the steps for the synthesis of the evidence within the brand new type of the systematic review (SR: SR of diagnostic test accuracy (DTA. Using the acronym PIRD it was developed a review question, search strategy and inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: The initial search was done in two databases (MedLine and Cinahl with 2 025 results. The second search after the improvement of the sensitivity and the specificity was done in 15 databases with 3 681 results. Conclusion: This methodological paper introduces how to conduct the systematic review protocols of diagnostic test accuracy on the example of T2P-DMC.

  15. Frames of scientific evidence: How journalists represent the (un)certainty of molecular medicine in science television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhrmann, Georg; Guenther, Lars; Kessler, Sabrina Heike; Milde, Jutta

    2015-08-01

    For laypeople, media coverage of science on television is a gateway to scientific issues. Defining scientific evidence is central to the field of science, but there are still questions if news coverage of science represents scientific research findings as certain or uncertain. The framing approach is a suitable framework to classify different media representations; it is applied here to investigate the frames of scientific evidence in film clips (n=207) taken from science television programs. Molecular medicine is the domain of interest for this analysis, due to its high proportion of uncertain and conflicting research findings and risks. The results indicate that television clips vary in their coverage of scientific evidence of molecular medicine. Four frames were found: Scientific Uncertainty and Controversy, Scientifically Certain Data, Everyday Medical Risks, and Conflicting Scientific Evidence. They differ in their way of framing scientific evidence and risks of molecular medicine. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. A National Long-term Outcomes Evaluation of U.S. Premedical Postbaccalaureate Programs Designed to Promote Health care Access and Workforce Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougle, Leon; Way, David P; Lee, Winona K; Morfin, Jose A; Mavis, Brian E; Matthews, De'Andrea; Latham-Sadler, Brenda A; Clinchot, Daniel M

    2015-08-01

    The National Postbaccalaureate Collaborative (NPBC) is a partnership of Postbaccalaureate Programs (PBPs) dedicated to helping promising college graduates from disadvantaged and underrepresented backgrounds get into and succeed in medical school. This study aims to determine long-term program outcomes by looking at PBP graduates, who are now practicing physicians, in terms of health care service to the poor and underserved and contribution to health care workforce diversity. We surveyed the PBP graduates and a randomly drawn sample of non-PBP graduates from the affiliated 10 medical schools stratified by the year of medical school graduation (1996-2002). The PBP graduates were more likely to be providing care in federally designated underserved areas and practicing in institutional settings that enable access to care for vulnerable populations. The NPBC graduates serve a critical role in providing access to care for underserved populations and serve as a source for health care workforce diversity.

  17. Moving evidence-based drug abuse prevention programs from basic science to practice: "bridging the efficacy-effectiveness interface".

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Gerald J; Winters, Ken C; Realmuto, George M; Tarter, Ralph; Perry, Cheryl; Hektner, Joel M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges faced by developers of youth drug abuse prevention programs in transporting scientifically proven or evidence-based programs into natural community practice systems. Models for research on the transfer of prevention technology are described with specific emphasis given to the relationship between efficacy and effectiveness studies. Barriers that impede the successful integration of efficacy methods within effectiveness studies (e.g., client factors, practitioner factors, intervention structure characteristics, and environmental and organizational factors) are discussed. We present a modified model for program development and evaluation that includes a new type of research design, the hybrid efficacy-effectiveness study that addresses program transportability. The utility of the hybrid study is illustrated in the evaluation of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" prevention program.

  18. Android Access Control Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Baláž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.

  19. Structuring a life support program using evidence-based practice and the Magnet model for successful patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Mary; Paston, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Integrating life support activities into an acute care academic hospital structure using evidence-based practice and the Magnet Model framework provides program operations and outcomes that are cost effective, link quality to life support professional development, and demonstrate excellence patient safety outcomes.

  20. Building a Unit-Level Mentored Program to Sustain a Culture of Inquiry for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-24

    experiencing significant change . It also demonstrates that a unit-level mentored EBP program is sustainable despite changes in organizational structure...culture, readiness, beliefs, and implementation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Evidence-based practice, culture, mentor, organizational change 16. SECURITY...Medical Command; her areas of interest include staffing, acuity, nursing workload, change management, organizational culture and empowering junior

  1. Helping adults who are homeless gain disability benefits: the SSI/SSDI Outreach, Access, and Recovery (SOAR) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Deborah; Lassiter, Margaret; Connelly, William H; Lupfer, Kristin S

    2011-11-01

    Approval rates for first-time applications for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) among adults who are homeless can be as low as 10%. This study examined approval rates among applicants who were assisted by SSI/SSDI Outreach, Access, and Recovery (SOAR), a federal initiative to increase access to disability benefits among people who are homeless or at risk of homelessness and who have mental illness or other co-occurring disorders. Data were collected in 37 states that had participated in SOAR for at least one year. Of 8,978 applications assisted by SOAR, 6,558 (73%) were approved. The average number of days between application and decision was 91. SOAR was associated with increased access to housing and cost savings through increased Medicaid reimbursement. SOAR substantially increased access to SSI and SSDI entitlements for people with disabilities who experience or are at risk for homelessness.

  2. Channel Access in Erlang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicklaus, Dennis J. [Fermilab

    2013-10-13

    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.

  3. Depth-cue integration in grasp programming: no evidence for a binocular specialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Bruce D; Hibbard, Paul B; Watt, Simon J

    2011-04-01

    When we grasp with one eye covered, the finger and thumb are typically opened wider than for binocularly guided grasps, as if to build a margin-for-error into the movement. Also, patients with visual form agnosia can have profound deficits in their (otherwise relatively normal) grasping when binocular information is removed. One interpretation of these findings is that there is a functional specialism for binocular vision in the control of grasping. Alternatively, cue-integration theory suggests that binocular and monocular depth cues are combined in the control of grasping, and so impaired performance reflects not the loss of 'critical' binocular cues, but increased uncertainty per se. Unfortunately, removing binocular information confounds removing particular (binocular) depth cues with an overall reduction in the available information, and so such experiments cannot distinguish between these alternatives. We measured the effects on visually open-loop grasping of selectively removing monocular (texture) or binocular depth cues. To allow meaningful comparisons, we made psychophysical measurements of the uncertainty in size estimates in each case, so that the informativeness of binocular and monocular cues was known in each condition. Consistent with cue-integration theory, removing either binocular or monocular cues resulted in similar increases in grip apertures. In a separate experiment, we also confirmed that changes in uncertainty per se (keeping the same depth cues available) resulted in larger grip apertures. Overall, changes in the margin-for-error in grasping movements were determined by the uncertainty in size estimates and not by the presence or absence of particular depth cues. Our data therefore argue against a binocular specialism for grasp programming. Instead, grip apertures were smaller when binocular and monocular cues were available than with either cue alone, providing strong evidence that the visuo-motor system exploits the redundancy available

  4. The mitochondrial genome of the hexactinellid sponge Aphrocallistes vastus: Evidence for programmed translational frameshifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leys Sally P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA of numerous sponges have been sequenced as part of an ongoing effort to resolve the class-level phylogeny of the Porifera, as well as to place the various lower metazoan groups on the animal-kingdom tree. Most recently, the partial mtDNA of two glass sponges, class Hexactinellida, were reported. While previous phylogenetic estimations based on these data remain uncertain due to insufficient taxon sampling and accelerated rates of evolution, the mtDNA molecules themselves reveal interesting traits that may be unique to hexactinellids. Here we determined the first complete mitochondrial genome of a hexactinellid sponge, Aphrocallistes vastus, and compared it to published poriferan mtDNAs to further describe characteristics specific to hexactinellid and other sponge mitochondrial genomes. Results The A. vastus mtDNA consisted of a 17,427 base pair circular molecule containing thirteen protein-coding genes, divergent large and small subunit ribosomal RNAs, and a reduced set of 18 tRNAs. The A. vastus mtDNA showed a typical hexactinellid nucleotide composition and shared a large synteny with the other sequenced glass sponge mtDNAs. It also contained an unidentified open reading frame and large intergenic space region. Two frameshifts, in the cox3 and nad6 genes, were not corrected by RNA editing, but rather possessed identical shift sites marked by the extremely rare tryptophan codon (UGG followed by the common glycine codon (GGA in the +1 frame. Conclusion Hexactinellid mtDNAs have shown similar trends in gene content, nucleotide composition, and codon usage, and have retained a large gene syntenty. Analysis of the mtDNA of A. vastus has provided evidence diagnostic for +1 programmed translational frameshifting, a phenomenon disparately reported throughout the animal kingdom, but present in the hexactinellid mtDNAs that have been sequenced to date.

  5. Making Content Accessible to Promote Second Language Acquisition: The ESL Intensive Program at Hostos Community College (CUNY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Diana M.; Justicia, Nellie T.; Levine, Lewis

    An English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) Intensive Program was established at Hostos Community College, New York, to help accelerate students' acquisition of ESL by combining three semesters of the college's regular ESL program into two semesters. Each level of this program provides 15 hours of classroom instruction per week, a 6-hour reading and…

  6. Financing Promising Evidence-Based Programs: Early Lessons from the New York City Social Impact Bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Timothy; Nicoletti, Elisa; Misner, Kristin; Bonsu, Janae

    2013-01-01

    Lack of money has long kept promising preventive programs from expanding. Existing government-funded programs are furthermore subject to budgetary cutbacks or complete loss of funding. Moreover, preventive programs traditionally offer no accountability for success or failure. This leaves government entities in a bind where if they invest their…

  7. Do Student Migrations Affect School Performance? Evidence from Wisconsin's Inter-District Public School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, David M.; Zimmer, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the competitive effects of a unique school choice program implemented in the late 1990s, Wisconsin's open enrollment program, which allows families to send their children to schools outside their home district. In contrast to other school choice programs, districts not only face negative consequences from losing students and…

  8. A meta-review of evidence on heart failure disease management programs: the challenges of describing and synthesizing evidence on complex interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson David R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite favourable results from past meta-analyses, some recent large trials have not found Heart Failure (HF disease management programs to be beneficial. To explore reasons for this, we evaluated evidence from existing meta-analyses. Methods Systematic review incorporating meta-review was used. We selected meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials published after 1995 in English that examined the effects of HF disease management programs on key outcomes. Databases searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, DARE, NHS EED, NHS HTA, Ageline, AMED, Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL; cited references, experts and existing reviews were also searched. Results 15 meta-analyses were identified containing a mean of 18.5 randomized trials of HF interventions +/- 10.1 (range: 6 to 36. Overall quality of the meta-analyses was very mixed (Mean AMSTAR Score = 6.4 +/- 1.9; range 2-9. Reporting inadequacies were widespread around populations, intervention components, settings and characteristics, comparison, and comparator groups. Heterogeneity (statistical, clinical, and methodological was not taken into account sufficiently when drawing conclusions from pooled analyses. Conclusions Meta-analyses of heart failure disease management programs have promising findings but often fail to report key characteristics of populations, interventions, and comparisons. Existing reviews are of mixed quality and do not adequately take account of program complexity and heterogeneity.

  9. Will the Pell Grant Have the Ability To Provide Access and Choice to Low-Income Students in the Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Vicente M.

    This paper provides a basic understanding of the Pell Grant program and summarizes the evidence regarding its effectiveness. The Basic Educational Opportunities Program, known as the Pell Grant program, began in 1973 as a means of providing disadvantaged students access to a postsecondary education. The Pell Grant program has tried to keep up with…

  10. Quality of implementation in an evidence-based family prevention program: “The Family Competence Program”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Orte

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Family prevention programs need to be evidence-based in order to guarantee the success of their implementation. The Family Competence Program (FCP, a Spanish cultural adaptation of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP, has developed different measures and processes to gauge the quality of the implementation. This article is dedicated specifically to two of these measures: the evaluation of the facilitators and the assessment of the family engagement techniques. For evaluating the facilitators, a Delphi technique with experts and professionals is undertaken. For assessing the family techniques, both self-evaluation of trainers and evaluation by families are used. Finding underpin that, in the case of facilitators, is important that, after to skills and experience, they need to understand the theory of change of the program. In the case of family engagement techniques, more detailed, comprehensive talks, discussions and group activities lead to better family engagement outcomes.

  11. The importance of using evidence-based e-health smoking cessation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein De Vries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available eHealth programs have become very popular to help people to quit smoking. Yet, the efficacy of eHealth programs is dependent on the health communication theories used and applied in these programs. Computer tailored technology has shown to be an effective tool to help people to quit smoking. Programs with even one session can increase the success rates significantly. During this presentation I will discuss several computer tailored eHealth programs for smoking cessation that have been developed and tested at Maastricht University. I will discuss the theoretical grounding of these programs, their effects and the cost-effectiveness. Additionally I will also outline some potential innovations for eHealth programs, and will also share the results of a test comparing eHealth and mHealth.

  12. Providing researchers with online access to NHLBI biospecimen collections: The results of the first six years of the NHLBI BioLINCC program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffen, Carol A; Wagner, Elizabeth L; Adams, John T; Hitchcock, Denise M; Welniak, Lisbeth A; Brennan, Sean P; Carroll, Leslie E

    2017-01-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), within the United States' National Institutes of Health (NIH), established the Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center (BioLINCC) in 2008 to develop the infrastructure needed to link the contents of the NHLBI Biorepository and the NHLBI Data Repository, and to promote the utilization of these scientific resources by the broader research community. Program utilization metrics were developed to measure the impact of BioLINCC on Biorepository access by researchers, including visibility, program efficiency, user characteristics, scientific impact, and research types. Input data elements were defined and are continually populated as requests move through the process of initiation through fulfillment and publication. This paper reviews the elements of the tracking metrics which were developed for BioLINCC and reports the results for the first six on-line years of the program.

  13. Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY: impact of an eye health education program on patient knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhodes LA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lindsay A Rhodes,1 Carrie E Huisingh,1 Gerald McGwin Jr,1,2 Stephen T Mennemeyer,3 Mary Bregantini,4 Nita Patel,4 Jinan Saaddine,5 John E Crews,5 Christopher A Girkin,1 Cynthia Owsley11Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, 2Department of Epidemiology, 3Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 4Prevent Blindness, Chicago, IL, USA; 5Vision Health Initiative, Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USAPurpose: To assess the impact of the education program of the Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY telemedicine program on at-risk patients’ knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care as well as to assess patient satisfaction with EQUALITY.Patients and methods: New or existing patients presenting for a comprehensive eye exam (CEE at one of two retail-based primary eye clinics were enrolled based on ≥1 of the following at-risk criteria for glaucoma: African Americans ≥40 years of age, Whites ≥50 years of age, diabetes, family history of glaucoma, and/or preexisting diagnosis of glaucoma. A total of 651 patients were enrolled. A questionnaire was administered prior to the patients’ CEE and prior to the patients receiving any of the evidence-based eye health education program; a follow-up questionnaire was administered 2–4 weeks later by phone. Baseline and follow-up patient responses regarding knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care were compared using McNemar’s test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of patient-level characteristics with improvement in knowledge and attitudes. Overall patient satisfaction was summarized.Results: At follow-up, all patient responses in the knowledge and attitude domains significantly improved from baseline (P≤0.01 for all questions. Those who were unemployed (odds

  14. Adaptation of an Evidence-Based Arthritis Program for Breast Cancer Survivors on Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy Who Experience Joint Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyrop, Kirsten A; Callahan, Leigh F; Rini, Christine; Altpeter, Mary; Hackney, Betsy; Schecher, Arielle; Wilson, Anne; Muss, Hyman B

    2015-06-11

    Adding aromatase inhibitors (AIs) to adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer significantly reduces cancer recurrence. A common side effect of AIs is noninflammatory joint pain and stiffness (arthralgia) similar to arthritis symptoms. An evidence-based walking program developed by the Arthritis Foundation - Walk With Ease (WWE) - reduces arthritis-related joint symptoms. We hypothesized that WWE may also reduce AI-associated arthralgia. However, the potential for different barriers and facilitators to physical activity for these 2 patient populations suggested a need to adapt WWE before testing it with breast cancer survivors. We conducted qualitative research with 46 breast cancer survivors to explore program modification and inform the development of materials for an adapted program (Walk With Ease-Breast Cancer). Our process parallels the National Cancer Institute's Research-Tested Intervention Programs (RTIPs) guidelines for adapting evidence-based programs for cancer populations. Findings resulted in a customized 8-page brochure to supplement existing WWE materials.

  15. From evidence-based to hope-based medicine? Ethical aspects on conditional market authorization of and early access to new cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Lars; Liliemark, Jan

    2017-08-01

    There is a strong patient demand for early access to potentially beneficial cancer drugs. In line with this authorization agencies like the European Medicines Agency are providing drugs with conditional market authorisation based on positive interim analyses. This implies that drugs are used with insecure evidence of efficacy and adverse side-effects. Several authors have pointed to ethical problems with such a system but up to date no indepth ethical analysis of this system is found which is the aim of this article. Drawing of the four generally accepted principles of medical ethics: beneficence, nonmaleficence, respect for autonomy and justice the ethical pros and cons of conditional market authorisation are analysed. From the perspective of beneficence and non-maleficence it is found that the main problem is not risk of adverse side-effects to patients, but rather risk of less beneficial outcomes than what can be expected which could change incentives for patients' choice of treatment. This is also related to the extent to which patients might make an autonomous choice, especially taking into account problematic psychological attitudes and biases in medical decision-making. However, the main problem is related to justice and an equitable distribution of scarce health-care resources given the opportunity cost of drugs treatment. When using resources on cancer treatments which later might be found to be less efficacious than was first expected, other patients (in and outside the cancer field) are deprived of potentially more beneficial treatments even though their needs might be equally or more severe. At the same time, demanding more evidence has an ethical cost to patients in terms of depriving them of potential benefits in terms of reduced mortality and morbidity. In order to handle these ethical conflicts further research and analyses are required and it is suggested that pricing strategies and information requirements are alternatives to be further explored

  16. Evaluation of a web portal for improving public access to evidence-based health information and health literacy skills: a pragmatic trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Austvoll-Dahlgren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using the conceptual framework of shared decision-making and evidence-based practice, a web portal was developed to serve as a generic (non disease-specific tailored intervention to improve the lay public's health literacy skills. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the web portal compared to no intervention in a real-life setting. METHODS: A pragmatic randomised controlled parallel trial using simple randomisation of 96 parents who had children aged <4 years. Parents were allocated to receive either access to the portal or no intervention, and assigned three tasks to perform over a three-week period. These included a searching task, a critical appraisal task, and reporting on perceptions about participation. Data were collected from March through June 2011. RESULTS: Use of the web portal was found to improve attitudes towards searching for health information. This variable was identified as the most important predictor of intention to search in both samples. Participants considered the web portal to have good usability, usefulness, and credibility. The intervention group showed slight increases in the use of evidence-based information, critical appraisal skills, and participation compared to the group receiving no intervention, but these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Despite the fact that the study was underpowered, we found that the web portal may have a positive effect on attitudes towards searching for health information. Furthermore, participants considered the web portal to be a relevant tool. It is important to continue experimenting with web-based resources in order to increase user participation in health care decision-making. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01266798.

  17. Parents Plus Systemic, Solution-Focused Parent Training Programs: Description, Review of the Evidence Base, and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alan; Hartnett, Dan; Brosnan, Eileen; Sharry, John

    2017-09-01

    Parents Plus (PP) programs are systemic, solution-focused, group-based interventions. They are designed for delivery in clinical and community settings as treatment programs for families with child-focused problems, such as behavioral difficulties, disruptive behavior disorders, and emotional disorders in young people with and without developmental disabilities. PP programs have been developed for families of preschoolers, preadolescent children, and teenagers, as well as for separated or divorced families. Seventeen evaluation studies involving over 1,000 families have shown that PP programs have a significant impact on child behavior problems, goal attainment, and parental satisfaction and stress. The effect size of 0.57 (p < .001) from a meta-analysis of 10 controlled studies for child behavior problems compares favorably with those of meta-analyses of other well-established parent training programs with large evidence bases. In controlled studies, PP programs yielded significant (p < .001) effect sizes for goal attainment (d = 1.51), parental satisfaction (d = 0.78), and parental stress reduction (d = 0.54). PP programs may be facilitated by trained front-line mental health and educational professionals. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  18. Is health of the aging improved by conditional cash transfer programs? Evidence from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Jere R; Parker, Susan W

    2013-08-01

    Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs link public transfers to human capital investment in the hopes of alleviating current poverty and reducing its intergenerational transmission. Whereas nearly all studies of their effects have focused on youth, CCT programs may also have an impact on aging adults by increasing household resources or inducing changes in allocations of time of household members, which may be of substantial interest, particularly given the rapid aging of most populations. This article contributes to this underresearched area by examining health and work impacts on the aging for the best-known and most influential of these programs, the Mexican PROGRESA/Oportunidades program. For a number of health indicators, the program appears to significantly improve health, with larger effects for recipients with a greater time receiving benefits from the program. Most of these health effects are concentrated on women.

  19. Minimalist program and its fundamental improvements in syntactic theory: evidence from agreement asymmetry in standard Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Horais, Nasser

    2012-01-01

    The Minimalist Program is a major line of inquiry that has been developing inside Generative Grammar since the early nineties, when it was proposed by Chomsky (1993, 1995). At the outset, Chomsky (1998: 5) presented Minimalist Program as a program, not as a theory, but today, the Minimalist Program lays out a very specific view of the basis of syntactic grammar that, when compared to other formalisms, is often taken to look very much like a theory. The prime concern of this paper, however, is...

  20. The impact of scrappage programs on the demand for new vehicles: Evidence from Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantos - Sánchez, Pedro; Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Mulalic, Ismir

    We evaluate the impact of the Spanish car scrappage program introduced in May 2009 on short-run car purchases. The scrappage program was simultaneously discussed and implemented, and was therefore exogenous to the consumers. We analyse the effect of this program on household new car purchase...... decision and household expenditures. The results show that the scrappage program increased the probability to buy a new car, but decreased the mean expenditure devoted to the purchase of this new vehicle. We also evaluate the impact of the financial aid on the household welfare, which suggests...

  1. The time course of access to semantic information in high-performing older adults: behavioral evidence for the hemispheric asymmetry reduction in OLDer individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassi, Ensie; Joanette, Yves

    2011-07-01

    The possibility that the HAROLD phenomenon (i.e., Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in OLDer adults) is manifested in the course of access to semantic information, in particular the meaning of emotional words, was investigated using the visual half-field priming paradigm. The time course of priming was tracked in the cerebral hemispheres across three SOAs: 150, 300, and 750 ms. The results showed older and young adults had the same level of accuracy. While priming occurred unilaterally in young participants, the pattern of priming in older participants appeared to be bilateral whenever it was present, that is, at the 300- and 750-ms SOAs. The delay in the appearance of priming in older adults may be due to an increase in sensory thresholds that causes older adults to need more time to encode stimuli and fully activate their semantic network. It is concluded that the bilateral pattern of priming in the presence of an equivalent level of performance in older adults provides behavioral evidence supporting the compensatory role of the HAROLD phenomenon for this particular task.

  2. Teaching Students to Write across a Border: A Writing Curriculum for Inner-City College Access Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Jennifer Kwon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the development of the Summer Tools, Information, Motivation, and Education (SummerTIME) Writing Program, the only program of its kind in Los Angeles that conducts self-assessment. The author describes the geographical and political boundaries separating inner-city Los Angeles high school graduates from higher education,…

  3. Promoting Social Inclusion: Emerging Evidence from the Catalyst-Clemente Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Peter; Marchant, Tim; Hampshire, Anne; Butcher, Jude; Egan, Luke; Bredhauer, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    Catalyst-Clemente is an innovative educational program based upon a collaboration involving Australian Catholic University, Mission Australia and the St Vincent de Paul Society. The program enhances the transformational learning opportunities and re-engagement of disadvantaged people within the community. This paper reports on the origins and…

  4. A new national service learning program in the Netherlands : preliminary evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2009-01-01

    Since 2006, the Department of Education in the Netherlands encourages the introduction of service learning programs at the level of secondary education. The goal of the programs is to promote civic-mindedness: civic engagement, awareness of values and norms, and active citizenship. Past studies of

  5. A new national service learning program in the Netherlands : preliminary evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2009-01-01

    Since 2006, the Department of Education in the Netherlands encourages the introduction of service learning programs at the level of secondary education. The goal of the programs is to promote civic-mindedness: civic engagement, awareness of values and norms, and active citizenship. Past studies of t

  6. Developing Memory Clinics in Primary Care: An Evidence-Based Interprofessional Program of Continuing Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda; Weston, W. Wayne; Hillier, Loretta M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Primary care is challenged to meet the needs of patients with dementia. A training program was developed to increase capacity for dementia care through the development of Family Health Team (FHT)-based interprofessional memory clinics. The interprofessional training program consisted of a 2-day workshop, 1-day observership, and 2-day…

  7. A new national service learning program in the Netherlands : preliminary evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2009-01-01

    Since 2006, the Department of Education in the Netherlands encourages the introduction of service learning programs at the level of secondary education. The goal of the programs is to promote civic-mindedness: civic engagement, awareness of values and norms, and active citizenship. Past studies of t

  8. Perceived barriers to completing an e-learning program on evidence-based medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Gagnon

    2007-06-01

    Conclusions This study offers a theoretical basis to understand physicians' beliefs towards completing an internet-based continuing medical education (CME program on EBM. Based upon respondents' insights, several modifications were carried out to enhance the uptake of the program by physicians and, therefore, its implementation.

  9. Empirical Evidence in Support of a Research-Informed Water Conservation Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ruthanne; Serna, Victoria Faubion

    2016-01-01

    Based on results from a 2008 research study of regional citizen knowledge concerning watershed issues, a water conservation education program was designed and implemented. Findings from the initial study demonstrated program success as evidenced by knowledge gain and willingness to "commit" to water saving behaviors in 94% of students. A…

  10. Predicting Successful College Experiences: Evidence from a First Year Retention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Kimberly; Flynn, Nicole T.; Lee, James D.; Hilton, David

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that programs designed to target first year students increase their likelihood of success during that year and their chances of completing an undergraduate education (Bureau & Rromrey, 1994; Conner & Colton, 1999). Theoretically, such programs should help in part because they foster integration into campus communities…

  11. An In-Depth Analysis of Learning Goals in Higher Education: Evidence from the Programming Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Belle Selene

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that, despite the importance of programming education, there is limited research done on programming education experiences from the students' point of view and the need to do so is strong. By understanding the student behaviour, their learning styles, their expectation and motivation to learn, the quality of teaching…

  12. Evidence-Based Research: The Impact of the College Crusade GEAR UP Program in RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    The Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Program, more commonly known as GEAR UP, is a product of federal legislation designed to increase high school completion and college attendance of low-­income youth. It is a federally funded discretionary grant program that is planned, organized and operated at the state and local level.…

  13. Multiple impacts of an intergenerational program in Japan: Evidence from the Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Masashi; Murayama, Yoh; Takahashi, Tomoya; Ohba, Hiromi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Nonaka, Kumiko; Kuraoka, Masataka; Sakurai, Ryota; Nishi, Mariko; Sakuma, Naoko; Kobayashi, Erika; Shinkai, Shoji; Fujiwara, Yoshinori

    2016-03-01

    Compelling evidence supporting the benefits of social engagement in older adults has been increasingly discussed. However, knowledge regarding an intergenerational program is limited. Herein, we provide a targeted review of intergenerational programs by focusing on our novel interventional program, Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy. The Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy program is an intergenerational picture-book reading program launched in 2004. Participants were involved a 3-month intensive weekly training seminar comprising classes about book selection, reading techniques and basic knowledge of children's school life. Subsequently, they participated in group activities that involved playing a hand game, and reading picture books to children at kindergartens, elementary schools and public childcare centers, once every 1-2 weeks. The Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy program has shown improvement of physical and psychological functioning of older adults and healthy upbringing of children. Similarly, Experience Corps - designed to train and place volunteers in participating elementary schools for an academic year during which time they assist teachers - also showed positive effects for older adults' health status and the psychological/academic success of young children in the USA. Health promotion efforts for older adults must support social policy for the creation of meaningful service programs for older adults on a large social scale. As such, an intergenerational program based on the concept of social capital, defined as "features of social organization, such as trust, norms and networks, that can improve the efficacy of society by facilitating coordinated actions," is an effective and sustainable program for health promotion among older adults.

  14. LifeSteps: An Evidence-based Health Promotion Program for Underserved Populations – A Community Service Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Austin-McCain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the most common, costly, and preventable of all health problems in the United States. Chronic diseases represent the leading causes of death and are experienced at higher rates by minority populations (CDC, 2012. Innovative community-based health promotion programs are recommended that meet the diverse needs of underserved populations (Yeary, et al., 2011. LifeSteps is being developed as an evidence-based health promotion program focusing on health and wellness, a domain area defined within the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework (OTPF, 2008. LifeSteps will utilize a client-centered approach to coach individuals in making health behavior changes. Fieldwork and service-learning components are incorporated integrating clinical practice, academic study, and collaboration with community providers. Program evaluation measures based on the Transtheoretical Model (TTM have been identified to address all phases of program planning. The LifeSteps health promotion program aligns with local, national, and international objectives and addresses the need for programs that meet the diverse needs of underserved populations. Occupational therapists are in a unique position for implementing community-based interventions that promote health and contribute to a healthier society.

  15. 47 CFR 76.702 - Public access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public access. 76.702 Section 76.702... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Television Access § 76.702 Public access. A cable operator may refuse to transmit any public access program or portion of a public access program that the operator...

  16. Implementation lessons: the importance of assessing organizational "fit" and external factors when implementing evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demby, Hilary; Gregory, Alethia; Broussard, Marsha; Dickherber, Jennifer; Atkins, Shantice; Jenner, Lynne W

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the demand for evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs has increased, but practitioners often struggle to replicate and implement them as designed in real-world community settings. The purpose of this article is to describe the barriers and facilitators encountered during pilot year attempts to implement an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program within three types of organizations: (1) small community-based organizations; (2) a school-based organization; and (3) a large decentralized city-sponsored summer youth program. We frame our discussion of these experiences within the context of a systemic, multilevel framework for implementation consisting of (1) core implementation components; (2) organizational components; and (3) external factors. This article explores the organizational and external implementation factors we experienced during the implementation process, describes our lessons learned throughout this process, and offers strategies for other practitioners to proactively address these factors from the start of program planning. These findings may provide useful insight for other organizations looking to implement multi-session, group-level interventions with fidelity.

  17. Evidence to Support the Pike's Peak Model: The UA Geropsychology Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Tracy; Shah, Avani; Scogin, Forrest R; Allen, Rebecca S

    2013-05-01

    The University of Alabama's Graduate Geropsychology Education program (GGE) was conceived and implemented in the years prior to the design of the Pike's Peak Model (PPM) of geropsychology training. The GGE program provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the PPM, and this paper outlines the GGE program in the framework of the model. Three primary goals defined the GGE program: recruitment and retention of students in the geropsychology program, a doctoral level interdisciplinary class, and a set of clinical rotations in urban and rural sites. Outcomes were promising, indicating that geropsychology students were able to provide services with positive outcomes to underserved older adults in primary care settings and in a legal clinic, students from several disciplines rated the course very highly, and psychology students indicated that they were likely to continue in the field of geriatric care. Participating students have gone on to careers in geropsychology. Findings from this program support the design of the Pike's Peak Model, and provide support for broader implementation of similar training programs.

  18. Evidence to Support the Pike’s Peak Model: The UA Geropsychology Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Tracy; Shah, Avani; Scogin, Forrest R.; Allen, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    The University of Alabama’s Graduate Geropsychology Education program (GGE) was conceived and implemented in the years prior to the design of the Pike’s Peak Model (PPM) of geropsychology training. The GGE program provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the PPM, and this paper outlines the GGE program in the framework of the model. Three primary goals defined the GGE program: recruitment and retention of students in the geropsychology program, a doctoral level interdisciplinary class, and a set of clinical rotations in urban and rural sites. Outcomes were promising, indicating that geropsychology students were able to provide services with positive outcomes to underserved older adults in primary care settings and in a legal clinic, students from several disciplines rated the course very highly, and psychology students indicated that they were likely to continue in the field of geriatric care. Participating students have gone on to careers in geropsychology. Findings from this program support the design of the Pike’s Peak Model, and provide support for broader implementation of similar training programs. PMID:24883167

  19. Columbia University's Competency and Evidence-based Acute Care Nurse Practitioner Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Christine R.; Roberts, W. Dan

    2002-01-01

    Columbia University's acute care nurse practitioner curriculum incorporates evaluation strategies and standards to assess clinical competence and foster evidence-based practice. The curriculum consists of four core courses, supporting sciences, and specialty courses. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)

  20. The Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology's Grand Rounds Around the World-An Online Educational Program Freely Accessible to All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Dennis; Leung, Christopher; He, Mingguang; Tham, Clement; Liu, Yizhi; Pang, Calvin; Martin, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Grand rounds are excellent learning platforms for physicians and other health care professionals to keep up with important evolving areas in the management and treatment models of various diseases. However, there are hardly any freely accessible grand rounds in ophthalmology to meet the need for ophthalmic education in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond. The Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology would like to meet the need by sponsoring a new initiative "Grand Rounds Around the World" so that ophthalmologists and eye care professionals in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond can benefit from the program, leading to improved patient care and the elimination of learning barriers.

  1. Developing a strategic marketing plan for physical and occupational therapy services: a collaborative project between a critical access hospital and a graduate program in health care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, Bita A; Deshmukh, A A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a marketing plan for the Physical and Occupational Therapy (PT/OT) department at a Critical Access Hospital (CAH). We took the approach of understanding and analyzing the rural community and health care environment, problems faced by the PT/OT department, and developing a strategic marketing plan to resolve those problems. We used hospital admissions data, public and physician surveys, a SWOT analysis, and tools to evaluate alternative strategies. Lack of awareness and negative perception were key issues. Recommended strategies included building relationships with physicians, partnering with the school district, and enhancing the wellness program.

  2. Free Access Does Not Necessarily Encourage Practitioners to Use Online Evidence Based Information Tools. A Review of: Buchan, H., Lourey, E., D’Este, C., & Sanson-Fisher, R. (2009. Effectiveness of strategies to encourage general practitioners to accept an offer of free access to online evidence-based information: A randomised controlled trial. Implementation Science, 4, article 68.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ganshorn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – To determine which strategies were most effective for encouraging general practitioners (GPs to sign up for free access to an online evidence based information resource; and to determine whether those who accepted the offer differed in their sociodemographic characteristics from those who did not.Design – Descriptive marketing research study.Setting – Australia’s public healthcare system.Subjects – 14,000 general practitioners (GPs from all regions of Australia.Methods – Subjects were randomly selected by Medicare Australia from its list of GPs that bill it for services. Medicare Australia had 18,262 doctors it deemed eligible; 14,000 of these were selected for a stratified random sample. Subjects were randomized to one of 7 groups of 2,000 each. Each group received a different letter offering two years of free access to BMJ Clinical Evidence, an evidence based online information tool. Randomization was done electronically, and the seven groups were stratified by age group, gender, and location. The interventions given to each group differed as follows:• Group 1: Received a letter offering 2 years of free access, with no further demands on the recipient.• Group 2: Received a letter offering 2 years of free access, but on the condition that they complete an initial questionnaire and another one at 12 months, as well as allowing the publisher to provide de-personalized usage data to the researchers.• Group 3: Same as Group 2, but with the additional offer of an online tutorial to assist them with using the resource.• Group 4: Same as Group 2, but with an additional pamphlet with positive testimonials about the resource from Australian medical opinion leaders.• Group 5: Same as Group 2, but with an additional offer of professional development credits towards their required annual totals.• Group 6: Same as Group 2, but with an additional offer to be entered to win a prize of $500 towards registration at a

  3. Sediment toxicity data from the NOAA National Status and Trends Program, March 1991 to July 1996 (NODC Accession 9800146)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of its bioeffects assessment program. NOAA has begun a series of surveys of the toxicity and other biological effects of toxicants in selected bays and...

  4. The Military Accessions Vital to National Interest Program: What It Is and How It Can Be Made Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    this program should not be viewed as merely a recruiting program to increase personnel numbers. Lessons learned from Afghanistan and Iraq point to...them the opportunity to learn what information is important to enhancing a commander’s understanding of the environment. Materiel 1. Establish...Mandarin (CM) Czech (CX) French (FR) (note 2) Georgian (GG) Haitian-Creole (HC) Hausa (HS) Hindi (HJ) Igbo (JB) Indonesian (JN) Korean (KP) Kurdish

  5. Early Intervention Programs for Children with Behavior Problems and at Risk for Developing Antisocial Behaviors: Evidence- and Research-Based Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, John W.; Katsiyannis, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The number of children who would be eligible for, and benefit from, early intervention programs has dramatically increased during the past several years. However, those programs would have to meet the U.S. Department of Education's criteria for being evidence based. Some programs that have proven successful would not be eligible but rather be…

  6. An Overview of the Evidence on Bullying Prevention and Intervention Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mishna, Faye

    2008-01-01

    ... of experiencing problems that may persist into adulthood. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview of key points and issues regarding the current state of anti-bullying prevention and intervention programs...

  7. Can Authorization Reduce Poverty among Undocumented Immigrants? Evidence from the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Program

    OpenAIRE

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Antman, Francisca M.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the impact of authorization on the poverty exposure of households headed by undocumented immigrants. The identification strategy makes use of the 2012 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, which provided a temporary work authorization and reprieve from deportation to eligible immigrants. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we compare DACA-eligible to DACA-ineligible likely unauthorized immigrants, before and after the program implementation. We find that DA...

  8. Return on Investment: Evaluating the Evidence Regarding Financial Outcomes of Workplace Wellness Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrella, Julie A

    Workplace wellness programs are expected to reduce employee healthcare costs, increase productivity, and provide a positive return on investment. A review of the literature from 2000 to 2016 was conducted to determine whether workplace wellness programs deliver a positive economic impact. Individual financial metrics and results varied; 6 of 7 studies reported a positive economic impact. Additional study is recommended because of the high-degree variability and lack of longitudinal data.

  9. Evidence that attitude accessibility augments the relationship between speeding attitudes and speeding behavior: a test of the MODE model in the context of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Mark A; Lee, Emme; Robertson, Jamie S; Innes, Rhona

    2015-01-01

    According to the MODE model of attitude-to-behavior processes, attitude accessibility augments attitude-behavior correspondence, reflecting an automatic influence of attitudes on behavior. We therefore tested whether attitude accessibility moderates the attitude-behavior relationship in a context that is governed by characteristically automatic behavior, namely driving. In study 1 (correlational design), participants (N=130) completed online questionnaire measures of the valences and accessibilities of their attitudes towards speeding. Two weeks later, online questionnaire measures of subsequent speeding behavior were obtained. Attitude valence was a significantly better predictor of behavior at high (mean+1SD) versus low (mean-1SD) levels of attitude accessibility. In study 2 (experimental design), attitude accessibility was manipulated with a repeated attitude expression task. Immediately after the manipulation, participants (N=122) completed online questionnaire measures of attitude valence and accessibility, and two weeks later, subsequent speeding behavior. Increased attitude accessibility in the experimental (versus control) condition generated an increase in attitude-behavior correspondence. The findings are consistent with the MODE model's proposition that attitudes can exert an automatic influence on behavior. Interventions to reduce speeding could usefully increase the accessibility of anti-speeding attitudes and reduce the accessibility of pro-speeding attitudes.

  10. Open Access policy effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This presentation discusses the policy elements that are necessary for an effective open access policy, according to the findings of the analysis of the revamped ROARMAP tool for open access policies by PASTEUR4OA. It contains graphs, charts and numbers for evidence-based arguments

  11. Nurse residency programs: an evidence-based review of theory, process, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gwen; Hair, Carole; Todero, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Nursing shortages exist worldwide while job stress, dissatisfaction, lack of peer support and limited professional opportunities still contribute to attrition. The aim of this systematic review is to describe and evaluate the quality of the science, report recommendations and lessons learned about implementing and evaluating nurse residency programs (NRPs) designed to improve new graduate transitioning. Databases were searched between 1980 and 2010 using five search terms: nurse, intern, extern, transition and residency programs. Twenty studies reporting programs for new RNs fit the inclusion criteria. Three major discoveries include: 1. Wide variation in content, teaching and learning strategies make comparison across programs difficult; 2. Lack of theory in designing the educational intervention has limited the selection and development of new instruments to measure program effectiveness; and 3. Well designed quasi-experimental studies are needed. As a major nursing education redesign, NRPs could be used to test the principles, concepts and strategies of organizational transformation and experiential-interactive learning theory. By focusing on fiscal outcomes, current administrators of NRPs are missing the opportunity to implement an organizational strategy that could improve workplace environments. Healthcare organizations need to envision NRPs as a demonstration of positive clinical learning environments that can enhance intra- and interprofessional education and practice.

  12. Structural adjustment and public spending on health: evidence from IMF programs in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentikelenis, Alexander E; Stubbs, Thomas H; King, Lawrence P

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between health policy in low-income countries (LICs) and structural adjustment programs devised by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has been the subject of intense controversy over past decades. While the influence of the IMF on health policy can operate through various pathways, one main link is via public spending on health. The IMF has claimed that its programs enhance government spending for health, and that a number of innovations have been introduced to enable borrowing countries to protect health spending from broader austerity measures. Critics have pointed to adverse effects of Fund programs on health spending or to systematic underfunding that does not allow LICs to address health needs. We examine the effects of Fund programs on government expenditures on health in low-income countries using data for the period 1985-2009. We find that Fund programs are associated with higher health expenditures only in Sub-Saharan African LICs, which historically spent less than any other region. This relationship turns negative in LICs in other regions. We outline the implications of these findings for health policy in a development context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An individual-level meta-analysis assessing the impact of community-level sanitation access on child stunting, anemia, and diarrhea: Evidence from DHS and MICS surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, David A; Grisham, Thomas; Slawsky, Erik; Narine, Lutchmie

    2017-06-01

    A lack of access to sanitation is an important risk factor child health, facilitating fecal-oral transmission of pathogens including soil-transmitted helminthes and various causes of diarrheal disease. We conducted a meta-analysis of cross-sectional surveys to determine the impact that community-level sanitation access has on child health for children with and without household sanitation access. Using 301 two-stage demographic health surveys and multiple indicator cluster surveys conducted between 1990 and 2015 we calculated the sanitation access in the community as the proportion of households in the sampled cluster that had household access to any type of sanitation facility. We then conducted exact matching of children based on various predictors of living in a community with high access to sanitation. Using logistic regression with the matched group as a random intercept we examined the association between the child health outcomes of stunted growth, any anemia, moderate or severe anemia, and diarrhea in the previous two weeks and the exposure of living in a community with varying degrees of community-level sanitation access. For children with household-level sanitation access, living in a community with 100% sanitation access was associated with lowered odds of stunting (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.97, 95%; confidence interval (CI) = 0.94-1.00; n = 14,153 matched groups, 1,175,167 children), any anemia (AOR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.67-0.78; n = 5,319 matched groups, 299,033 children), moderate or severe anemia (AOR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.68-0.77; n = 5,319 matched groups, 299,033 children) and diarrhea (AOR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.91-0.97); n = 16,379 matched groups, 1,603,731 children) compared to living in a community with diarrhea (AOR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.98-1.02; n = 16,379 matched groups, 1,603,731 children) compared to children without household-level sanitation access living in communities with 1-30% sanitation access. Community-level sanitation access is associated

  14. ITAINNOVA AIDA-2020 Transnational Access

    CERN Multimedia

    ITAINNOVA, Zaragoza, Spain

    2017-01-01

    The AIDA-2020 Transnational Access program offers access to 10 European facilities, including the Electromagnetic Compatibility Laboratory (EMClab) at Instituto Tecnológico de Aragón (ITAINNOVA) in Spain.

  15. UCLouvain AIDA-2020 Transnational Access

    CERN Multimedia

    Universite catholique de Louvain, Belgium

    2016-01-01

    The AIDA-2020 Transnational Access program offers access to 10 European facilities, including the Centre de Recherche du Cyclotron (CRC) at the Universite catholique de Louvain (UCLouvain) in Belgium.

  16. Implementing an evidence-based Tai Ji Quan program in a multicultural setting: A pilot dissemination project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fink

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Falls in older adults are a significant public health issue and a particularly significant health risk in Minnesota. With accumulating research evidence suggesting that falls can be prevented through exercise, there is an increased public health effort among organizations serving older adults to translate and disseminate evidence-based programs into the community. Such efforts, however, face additional challenges if they are implemented in communities with older adults from different cultural backgrounds and languages. This paper briefly describes a pilot community-based dissemination project, including the initiation, implementation, process, and outcomes, of an evidence-based fall prevention (Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance formerly known as Tai Chi: Moving for Better Balance through a local Area Agency on Aging in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area in Minnesota (USA. Overall, the program was successfully implemented resulting in adoption by local community organizations serving Asian and, to a lesser degree, East African non-English speaking older adults. Bilingual community instructors were trained to lead the classes resulting in broad participation and improved physical performance by the older adults targeted for the intervention. The results from this pilot study indicate that Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance can be implemented with positive results in non-English speaking community settings using bilingual leaders.

  17. Determinants of malaria program expenditures during elimination: case study evidence from select provinces in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jenny X; Newby, Gretchen; Brackery, Aprielle; Smith Gueye, Cara; Candari, Christine J; Escubil, Luz R; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Baquilod, Mario

    2013-01-01

    ...Even though eliminating malaria from the endemic margins is a part of the Global Malaria Action Plan, little guidance exists on what resources are needed to transition from controlling malaria to eliminating it. Using Philippines as an example, this study aimed to (1) estimate the financial resources used by sub-national malaria programs in different phases during elimination and (2) understand how different environmental and organizational factors may influence expenditure levels and spending proportions. The Philippines provides an opportunity to study variations in sub-national programs because its epidemiological and ecological diversity, devolved health system, and progressive elimination strategy all allow greater flexibility for lower-level governments to direct activities, but also create challenges for coordination and resource mobilization. Through key informant interviews and archival record retrieval in four selected provinces chosen based on eco-epidemiological variation, expenditures associated with provincial malaria programs were collected for selected years (mid-1990s to 2010). Results show that expenditures per person at risk per year decrease as programs progress from a state of controlled low-endemic malaria to elimination to prevention of reintroduction regardless of whether elimination was deliberately planned. However, wide variation across provinces were found: expenditures were generally higher if mainly financed with donor grants, but were moderated by the level of economic development, the level of malaria transmission and receptivity, and the capacity of program staff. Across all provinces, strong leadership appears to be a necessary condition for maintaining progress and is vital in controlling outbreaks. While sampled provinces and years may not be representative of other sub-national malaria programs, these findings suggest that the marginal yearly cost declines with each phase during elimination.

  18. Determinants of malaria program expenditures during elimination: case study evidence from select provinces in the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny X Liu

    Full Text Available ...Even though eliminating malaria from the endemic margins is a part of the Global Malaria Action Plan, little guidance exists on what resources are needed to transition from controlling malaria to eliminating it. Using Philippines as an example, this study aimed to (1 estimate the financial resources used by sub-national malaria programs in different phases during elimination and (2 understand how different environmental and organizational factors may influence expenditure levels and spending proportions. The Philippines provides an opportunity to study variations in sub-national programs because its epidemiological and ecological diversity, devolved health system, and progressive elimination strategy all allow greater flexibility for lower-level governments to direct activities, but also create challenges for coordination and resource mobilization. Through key informant interviews and archival record retrieval in four selected provinces chosen based on eco-epidemiological variation, expenditures associated with provincial malaria programs were collected for selected years (mid-1990s to 2010. Results show that expenditures per person at risk per year decrease as programs progress from a state of controlled low-endemic malaria to elimination to prevention of reintroduction regardless of whether elimination was deliberately planned. However, wide variation across provinces were found: expenditures were generally higher if mainly financed with donor grants, but were moderated by the level of economic development, the level of malaria transmission and receptivity, and the capacity of program staff. Across all provinces, strong leadership appears to be a necessary condition for maintaining progress and is vital in controlling outbreaks. While sampled provinces and years may not be representative of other sub-national malaria programs, these findings suggest that the marginal yearly cost declines with each phase during elimination.

  19. Evidence-based medicine for all: what we can learn from a programme providing free access to an online clinical resource to health workers in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtis, Yannis K; Rosenberg, Julie; Bhandari, Sudip; Wachter, Keri; Teichman, Marie; Beauvais, Sophie; Weintraub, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly changing landscape of medical knowledge and guidelines requires health professionals to have immediate access to current, reliable clinical resources. Access to evidence is instrumental in reducing diagnostic errors and generating better health outcomes. UpToDate, a leading evidence-based clinical resource is used extensively in the USA and other regions of the world and has been linked to lower mortality and length of stay in US hospitals. In 2009, the Global Health Delivery Project collaborated with UpToDate to provide free subscriptions to qualifying health workers in resource-limited settings. We evaluated the provision of UpToDate access to health workers by analysing their usage patterns. Since 2009, ∼2000 individual physicians and healthcare institutions from 116 countries have received free access to UpToDate through our programme. During 2013-2014, users logged into UpToDate ∼150 000 times; 61% of users logged in at least weekly; users in Africa were responsible for 54% of the total usage. Search patterns reflected local epidemiology with 'clinical manifestations of malaria' as the top search in Africa, and 'management of hepatitis B' as the top search in Asia. Our programme demonstrates that there are barriers to evidence-based clinical knowledge in resource-limited settings we can help remove. Some assumed barriers to its expansion (poor internet connectivity, lack of training and infrastructure) might pose less of a burden than subscription fees.

  20. Videoconferencing of a national program for residents on evidence-based practice: early performance evaluation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the medium of videoconferencing for the delivery of a course for radiology residents in practice-based learning (PBL), including evidence-based practice, at centers geographically separated from the principal teaching site.

  1. Effective Educational Programs: Meta-Findings from the Best Evidence Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    One of the major series of reviews in elementary and secondary education is the Best Evidence Encyclopedia, or the BEE. Up to now, findings for systematic reviews have largely been restricted to the reviews themselves, with few cases in which lessons learned across many reviews using similar methods can be synthesized. The completion of the Best…

  2. Problems of Accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servedio, William; McLeod, William

    1980-01-01

    Increased participation in recreational programing by persons with handicapping conditions is a right that calls for significant changes in accessibility of facilities. Both interior and exterior building modifications must be made. (CJ)

  3. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Partrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spitter, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  4. Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohardt, Robert; Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.

  5. The University of North Carolina Report on Expanding Access to Higher Education through State-Funded Distance Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of North Carolina General Administration, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Legislation in 1998 provided enrollment funding for UNC distance education. This report documents the growth of UNC distance education programs and their role in meeting the high priority education and economic development needs of the State. As highlighted in the Executive Summary and documented throughout this report, state enrollment funding…

  6. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 748 - Guidance on Response Programs for Unauthorized Access to Member Information and Member Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... unions to develop appropriate security programs, and issued appendix A, reflecting its expectation that... identity theft. When member notification is warranted, a credit union may not forgo notifying its customers... information and assistance. 41 The notice also should remind members of the need to remain vigilant over...

  7. Performance and prospects of payments for ecosystem services programs: evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu; Liu, Wei; Viña, Andrés; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-09-30

    Systematic evaluation of the environmental and socioeconomic effects of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) programs is crucial for guiding policy design and implementation. We evaluated the performance of the Natural Forest Conservation Program (NFCP), a national PES program of China, in the Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas. The environmental effects of the NFCP were evaluated through a historical trend (1965-2001) analysis of forest cover to estimate a counter-factual (i.e., without-PES) forest cover baseline for 2007. The socioeconomic effects of the NFCP were evaluated using data collected through household interviews carried out before and after NFCP implementation in 2001. Our results suggest that the NFCP was not only significantly associated with increases in forest cover, but also had both positive (e.g., labor reduction for fuelwood collection) and negative (e.g., economic losses due to crop raiding by wildlife) effects on local households. Results from this study emphasize the importance of integrating local conditions and understanding underlying mechanisms to enhance the performance of PES programs. Our findings are useful for the design and implementation of successful conservation policies not only in our study area but also in similar places around the world.

  8. National Implementation of an Evidence-Based HIV Prevention and Reproductive Health Program for Bahamian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Valerie; Kaljee, Linda; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Rolle, Glenda; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of behavioral prevention interventions have been demonstrated through longitudinal, randomized controlled trials to reduce sexual risk behaviors. Many of these interventions have been made available at little cost for implementation on a public health scale. However, efforts to utilize such programs typically have been met with a…

  9. Marital status and HIV prevalence among women in Nigeria: Ingredients for evidence-based programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Francis Fagbamigbe

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Being formerly married, under 15 years of age at first sex, and having engaged in transactional sex were found to be the strongest HIV risk factors among women. Besides empowering formerly married women and providing better social security, these women should be targeted in HIV programming and policies.

  10. Florida Public Health Training Center: Evidence-Based Online Mentor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Kathryn A.; Alsac-Seitz, Biray; Mescia, Nadine; Brown, Lisa M.; Hyer, Kathy; Liburd, Desiree; Rogoff, David P.; Troutman, Adewale

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an Online Mentor Program (OMP) designed to support and facilitate mentorships among and between Florida Department of Health (FDOH) employees and USF College of Public Health students using a Web-based portal. The Florida Public Health Training Center (FPHTC) at the University of South Florida (USF) College of Public Health…

  11. The Repeated School-to-Work Transition: Evidence from a Dynamic Programming Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    by youths after high school graduation. It is assumed that the decision is taken year by year, and it is analyzed in a discrete choice dynamic programming model. In this forward-looking behavioral model, it is shown that a small bonus would remove interruptions of the educational careers just after high...

  12. Young driver distraction: state of the evidence and directions for behavior change programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L; Sheehan, Mary

    2014-05-01

    Adolescent drivers are overrepresented in distraction-related motor vehicle crashes. A number of potential reasons for such an elevated risk include driving inexperience, high adoption of communication technology, increased peer involvement, and tendency to take risks, which render young drivers particularly vulnerable. Major legislative efforts in Graduated Licensing Systems that include passenger restrictions have shown positive effects. Restrictions on cell phone use are also being introduced; however, it is challenging to enforce such regulations. This article argues that such contextual, legislative interventions are an essential prevention strategy, but there is an unfilled need to introduce behavior change programs that may target adolescents, parents, and friends. A theoretical framework is applied in which risk and protective factors are identified from research within the contexts of community and jurisdiction. In the literature on distraction, social context and normative influences are key elements used to inform program design for adolescent drivers, with parental monitoring informing interventions targeting parents. Following from this assessment of the message content assessment, the design of strategies to deliver the messages is reviewed. In the current literature, school-based programs, simulations, and Web-delivered programs have been evaluated with supplementary strategies delivered by physicians and parents. Such developments are still at an early stage of development, and ultimately will need controlled implementation and evaluation studies. Of course, there is no likely single approach to prevent adolescent driver distraction. Complementary approaches such as the further development of technological interventions to manage phone use are needed.

  13. Decentralization and Educational Performance: Evidence from the PROHECO Community School Program in Rural Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gropello, Emanuela; Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effectiveness of the Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria (PROHECO) community school program in rural Honduras. The data include standardized tests and extensive information on school, teacher, classroom and community features for 120 rural schools drawn from 15 states. Using academic achievement decompositions we find that…

  14. Towards evidence-based clinical practice: an international survey of 18 clinical guideline programs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, J.S.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Klazinga, N.S.; Makela, M.; Zaat, J.O.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe systematically the structures and working methods of guideline programs. DESIGN: Descriptive survey using a questionnaire with 32 items based on a framework derived from the literature. Answers were tabulated and checked by participants. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: Key informants of 1

  15. The effectiveness of a population-based skin cancer screening program: evidence from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Micha; Schiller, Jörg; Schreckenberger, Christopher

    2017-03-28

    In this paper, we analyze how a nationwide population-based skin cancer screening program (SCS) implemented in Germany in 2008 has impacted the number of hospital discharges following malignant skin neoplasm diagnosis and the malignant melanoma mortality rate per 100,000 inhabitants. Our panel data, drawn from the Eurostat database, cover subregions in 22 European countries, measured at the lowest nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) level for 2000-2013. Applying fixed effects methods, we find a significantly positive and robust effect of the German SCS on the number of patients diagnosed with malignant skin neoplasm. However, the program does not significantly influence the melanoma mortality rate. This finding conflicts with the decreased melanoma mortality rate found for the pilot SCS program in northern Germany. Our results indicate that Germany's nationwide SCS program is effective in terms of a higher diagnosis rate for malignant skin neoplasms and thus may contribute to an improvement in the early detection of skin cancer.

  16. Evidence-Based Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The UCLA PEERS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Frankel, Fred; Gantman, Alexander; Dillon, Ashley R.; Mogil, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the efficacy and durability of the PEERS Program, a parent-assisted social skills group intervention for high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Results indicate that teens receiving PEERS significantly improved their social skills knowledge, social responsiveness, and overall social skills in the areas of social…

  17. Evidence-Based Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The UCLA PEERS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Frankel, Fred; Gantman, Alexander; Dillon, Ashley R.; Mogil, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the efficacy and durability of the PEERS Program, a parent-assisted social skills group intervention for high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Results indicate that teens receiving PEERS significantly improved their social skills knowledge, social responsiveness, and overall social skills in the areas of social…

  18. Peer monitoring, social ties and moral hazard in group lending programs : Evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, N; Lensink, R; Mehrteab, HT

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of monitoring and social ties on moral hazard behavior within group lending programs. Our study is based on data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We separately analyze the impact of group leaders and other grou

  19. Decentralization and Educational Performance: Evidence from the PROHECO Community School Program in Rural Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gropello, Emanuela; Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effectiveness of the Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria (PROHECO) community school program in rural Honduras. The data include standardized tests and extensive information on school, teacher, classroom and community features for 120 rural schools drawn from 15 states. Using academic achievement decompositions we find that…

  20. Evaluation of an Evidence-Based Tobacco Treatment Curriculum for Psychiatry Residency Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Leek, Desiree; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Louie, Alan K.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Smokers with mental illness and addictive disorders account for nearly one in two cigarettes sold in the United States and are at high risk for smoking-related deaths and disability. Psychiatry residency programs provide a unique arena for disseminating tobacco treatment guidelines, influencing professional norms, and increasing access…

  1. Professional Knowledge of Child Support Staff: Evidence from the New Jersey Child Support Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Blake, Allison; Edwards, Richard L.; Liu, Chieh-Wen; Nolan, Robert B.; Rusen, Barbara; Thompson, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Child support enforcement (CSE) has experienced dramatic changes in the last decade; however, it is not clear whether child support staff is fully aware of the development. Using data from the New Jersey child support training program (n = 530), this article aims to evaluate the professional knowledge of child support staff. The results show that…

  2. Supporting Policy and Program Decisions: Recommendations for Conducting High Quality Systematic Evidence Reviews. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Policy and program decisions typically involve selecting one choice from among a set of options, and research about the effect of those options can help inform the decision process. However, for the research to be useful, decision makers need a way of drawing accurate lessons from what often can be a large assortment of relevant studies.…

  3. Is the crop insurance program effective in China? Evidence from farmers analysis in ifve provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ke; ZHANG Qiao; Shingo Kimura; Suraya Akter

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Chinese crop insurance program in terms of farmers’ utility and welfare. A simulation model based on the power utility function was ifrst developed to evaluate the effectiveness of crop insurance. Then, the Monte Carlo approach was used to generate the datasets of area, price, yield, cost, and income based on the characteristics of representative farmers, which were clustered and calibrated using the farm-level data of 574 individual farmers from ifve Chinese provinces. Finaly, the effectiveness of Chinese crop insurance was evaluated by comparing the certainty equivalence (CE) of farmers’ utility/welfare under alternative crop insurance scenarios. Government subsidy is a necessary premise for implementing the crop insurance program. The government should subsidize more than 50%of the crop insurance premium to motivate more farmers to participate in the program. The ifndings also show that the current crop insurance program in China has increased the farmers’ welfare but stil need to be improved to achieve the Pareto improvement and to make ful use of the ifnancial fund of the government. This paper is believed to not only extend academic research but also has signiifcant implications for policymakers, especialy in the context of rapid development of Chinese crop insurance with much issues such as rate, subsidy and coverage level needed to be improved.

  4. A Systematic Review of the Literature to Support an Evidence-based Precepting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    environment. Additional articles were identified using bibliographic/reference list hand searches. Further limits included: human, English language ...NR Educational success not dependent on adapting to learner preferences CRNA population Source references not in English Matching based on learning...development and retention and satisfaction of nurses General community hospital settings Retention, long term benefits of precepting program Cost

  5. The role of managerial stock option programs in governance: evidence from REIT stock repurchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, C.; Giambona, E.; Harding, J.P.; Sezer, O.; Sirmans, C.F.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of stock option programs and executive holdings of stock options in real estate investment trust (REIT) governance. We study the issue by analyzing how the market reaction to a stock repurchase announcement varies as a function of the individual REIT's governance struc

  6. Translation of Etiology into Evidence-Based Prevention: The Life Skills Program IPSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichold, Karina

    2014-01-01

    IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection) is a universal life skills program aiming at the promotion of generic intra-and interpersonal life skills, substance specific skills (for example, resistance skills), school bonding, knowledge, and the prevention of substance misuse with a focus on alcohol and tobacco in youth. This program…

  7. The SOS Suicide Prevention Program: Further Evidence of Efficacy and Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Elizabeth A; Aseltine, Robert H; James, Amy

    2016-02-01

    This study replicated and extended previous evaluations of the Signs of Suicide (SOS) prevention program in a high school population using a more rigorous pre-test post-test randomized control design than used in previous SOS evaluations in high schools (Aseltine and DeMartino 2004; Aseltine et al. 2007). SOS was presented to an ethnically diverse group of ninth grade students in technical high schools in Connecticut. After controlling for the pre-test reports of suicide behaviors, exposure to the SOS program was associated with significantly fewer self-reported suicide attempts in the 3 months following the program. Ninth grade students in the intervention group were approximately 64% less likely to report a suicide attempt in the past 3 months compared with students in the control group. Similarly, exposure to the SOS program resulted in greater knowledge of depression and suicide and more favorable attitudes toward (1) intervening with friends who may be exhibiting signs of suicidal intent and (2) getting help for themselves if they were depressed or suicidal. In addition, high-risk SOS participants, defined as those with a lifetime history of suicide attempt, were significantly less likely to report planning a suicide in the 3 months following the program compared to lower-risk participants. Differential attrition is the most serious limitation of the study; participants in the intervention group who reported a suicide attempt in the previous 3 months at baseline were more likely to be missing at post-test than their counterparts in the control group.

  8. The effect of a Lean quality improvement implementation program on surgical pathology specimen accessioning and gross preparation error frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maxwell L; Wilkerson, Trent; Grzybicki, Dana M; Raab, Stephen S

    2012-09-01

    Few reports have documented the effectiveness of Lean quality improvement in changing anatomic pathology patient safety. We used Lean methods of education; hoshin kanri goal setting and culture change; kaizen events; observation of work activities, hand-offs, and pathways; A3-problem solving, metric development, and measurement; and frontline work redesign in the accessioning and gross examination areas of an anatomic pathology laboratory. We compared the pre- and post-Lean implementation proportion of near-miss events and changes made in specific work processes. In the implementation phase, we documented 29 individual A3-root cause analyses. The pre- and postimplementation proportions of process- and operator-dependent near-miss events were 5.5 and 1.8 (P < .002) and 0.6 and 0.6, respectively. We conclude that through culture change and implementation of specific work process changes, Lean implementation may improve pathology patient safety.

  9. Proposed 'grant-and-access' program with price caps could stimulate development of drugs for very rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Ana M; Reed, Shelby D; Schulman, Kevin A

    2012-11-01

    The 1983 Orphan Drug Act created incentives for the development of orphan drugs. Despite its successes, including a substantial increase in new drugs, approved orphan drugs still treat fewer than 5 percent of registered rare diseases. In addition, concerns have arisen about the high prices of many of these therapies, which can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars per patient each year. In this article, we propose a new "grant-and-access pathway," in which drug developers could opt to compete for federal grants to subsidize the costs of clinical testing. In return for the grant funding, companies would no longer claim orphan drug tax credits and would agree to price caps for marketed products based on the duration and costs associated with drug development, expected market size, and target rate of return. We identify scenarios in which such a policy could provide a net benefit to society.

  10. The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access: an evidence-based review [version 3; referees: 3 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Tennant

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing debates surrounding Open Access to the scholarly literature are multifaceted and complicated by disparate and often polarised viewpoints from engaged stakeholders. At the current stage, Open Access has become such a global issue that it is critical for all involved in scholarly publishing, including policymakers, publishers, research funders, governments, learned societies, librarians, and academic communities, to be well-informed on the history, benefits, and pitfalls of Open Access. In spite of this, there is a general lack of consensus regarding the potential pros and cons of Open Access at multiple levels. This review aims to be a resource for current knowledge on the impacts of Open Access by synthesizing important research in three major areas: academic, economic and societal. While there is clearly much scope for additional research, several key trends are identified, including a broad citation advantage for researchers who publish openly, as well as additional benefits to the non-academic dissemination of their work. The economic impact of Open Access is less well-understood, although it is clear that access to the research literature is key for innovative enterprises, and a range of governmental and non-governmental services. Furthermore, Open Access has the potential to save both publishers and research funders considerable amounts of financial resources, and can provide some economic benefits to traditionally subscription-based journals. The societal impact of Open Access is strong, in particular for advancing citizen science initiatives, and leveling the playing field for researchers in developing countries. Open Access supersedes all potential alternative modes of access to the scholarly literature through enabling unrestricted re-use, and long-term stability independent of financial constraints of traditional publishers that impede knowledge sharing. However, Open Access has the potential to become unsustainable for

  11. The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access: an evidence-based review [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Tennant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing debates surrounding Open Access to the scholarly literature are multifaceted and complicated by disparate and often polarised viewpoints from engaged stakeholders. At the current stage, Open Access has become such a global issue that it is critical for all involved in scholarly publishing, including policymakers, publishers, research funders, governments, learned societies, librarians, and academic communities, to be well-informed on the history, benefits, and pitfalls of Open Access. In spite of this, there is a general lack of consensus regarding the advantages or disadvantages of Open Access at multiple levels. This review aims to to be a resource for current knowledge on the impacts of Open Access by synthesizing important research in three major areas of impact: academic, economic and societal. While there is clearly much scope for additional research, several key trends are identified, including a broad citation advantage for researchers who publish openly, as well as additional benefits to the non-academic dissemination of their work. The economic case for Open Access is less well-understood, although it is clear that access to the research literature is key for innovative enterprises, and a range of governmental and non-governmental services. Furthermore, Open Access has the potential to save publishers and research funders considerable amounts of financial resources. The social case for Open Access is strong, in particular for advancing citizen science initiatives, and leveling the playing field for researchers in developing countries. Open Access supersedes all potential alternative modes of access to the scholarly literature through enabling unrestricted re-use, and long-term stability independent of financial constraints of traditional publishers that impede knowledge sharing. Open Access remains only one of the multiple challenges that the scholarly publishing system is currently facing. Yet, it provides one foundation for

  12. The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access: an evidence-based review [version 2; referees: 4 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Tennant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing debates surrounding Open Access to the scholarly literature are multifaceted and complicated by disparate and often polarised viewpoints from engaged stakeholders. At the current stage, Open Access has become such a global issue that it is critical for all involved in scholarly publishing, including policymakers, publishers, research funders, governments, learned societies, librarians, and academic communities, to be well-informed on the history, benefits, and pitfalls of Open Access. In spite of this, there is a general lack of consensus regarding the potential pros and cons of Open Access at multiple levels. This review aims to be a resource for current knowledge on the impacts of Open Access by synthesizing important research in three major areas: academic, economic and societal. While there is clearly much scope for additional research, several key trends are identified, including a broad citation advantage for researchers who publish openly, as well as additional benefits to the non-academic dissemination of their work. The economic impact of Open Access is less well-understood, although it is clear that access to the research literature is key for innovative enterprises, and a range of governmental and non-governmental services. Furthermore, Open Access has the potential to save both publishers and research funders considerable amounts of financial resources, and can provide some economic benefits to traditionally subscription-based journals. The societal impact of Open Access is strong, in particular for advancing citizen science initiatives, and leveling the playing field for researchers in developing countries. Open Access supersedes all potential alternative modes of access to the scholarly literature through enabling unrestricted re-use, and long-term stability independent of financial constraints of traditional publishers that impede knowledge sharing. However, Open Access has the potential to become unsustainable for

  13. National Archive of Marine Seismic Surveys (NAMSS): U.S. Geological Survey Program to Provide new Access to Proprietary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, J. R.; Hart, P. E.

    2004-12-01

    Marine seismic reflection profile data originally acquired for purposes of offshore oil and gas exploration and development within the United States Exclusive Economic Zone represent a national scientific resource of inestimable value. Although the commercial value of these data has diminished due to technological advances and offshore development moratoria, the value to current and future scientific endeavors continues to be very high. Recently, commercial owners (including WesternGeco and ChevronTexaco) of large data holdings offshore the eastern, western, and Alaskan coasts of the United States have offered to transfer over 200,000 line kilometers of two-dimensional data (vintage 1970 to 1985) to the public domain. Recognizing the value of these data, the U.S. Geological Survey in co-operation with the Institute for Crustal Studies at UCSB, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, and the American Geological Institute) is promoting efforts to safeguard on behalf of the research community and the nation any data that may otherwise be lost, and to ensure free and open access to that data. To achieve these goals, the USGS has developed a National Archive of Marine Seismic Surveys (NAMSS). Work is underway to organize and reformat digital data currently stored on obsolete media, primarily nine-track tapes. The NAMSS web site below has further information on the project, including trackline maps of surveys that will soon be publicly available. The ultimate objective is the establishment of a data repository accessible through an on-line database, with graphical and text-based search and retrieval interface.

  14. Monitoring fever treatment behaviour and equitable access to effective medicines in the context of initiatives to improve ACT access: baseline results and implications for programming in six African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littrell Megan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT remains limited in high malaria-burden countries, and there are concerns that the poorest people are particularly disadvantaged. This paper presents new evidence on household treatment-seeking behaviour in six African countries. These data provide a baseline for monitoring interventions to increase ACT coverage, such as the Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm. Methods Nationally representative household surveys were conducted in Benin, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia between 2008 and 2010. Caregivers responded to questions about management of recent fevers in children under five. Treatment indicators were tabulated across countries, and differences in case management provided by the public versus private sector were examined using chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to test for association between socioeconomic status and 1 malaria blood testing, and 2 ACT treatment. Results Fever treatment with an ACT is low in Benin (10%, the DRC (5%, Madagascar (3% and Nigeria (5%, but higher in Uganda (21% and Zambia (21%. The wealthiest children are significantly more likely to receive ACT compared to the poorest children in Benin (OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 1.12-6.42; the DRC (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.12-4.24; Madagascar (OR = 5.37, 95% CI = 1.58-18.24; and Nigeria (OR = 6.59, 95% CI = 2.73-15.89. Most caregivers seek treatment outside of the home, and private sector outlets are commonly the sole external source of treatment (except in Zambia. However, children treated in the public sector are significantly more likely to receive ACT treatment than those treated in the private sector (except in Madagascar. Nonetheless, levels of testing and ACT treatment in the public sector are low. Few caregivers name the national first-line drug as most effective for treating malaria in Madagascar (2%, the DRC (2%, Nigeria (4% and Benin (10

  15. Adapting an evidence-based intervention for HIV to avail access to testing and risk-reduction counseling for female victims of sexual violence in post-earthquake Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahill, Guitele J; Joshi, Manisha; Hernandez, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Haiti has the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean. Before the 2010 earthquake, Haitian women bore a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS, had lower HIV knowledge, less capacity to negotiate for safer sex, and limited access to HIV testing and risk-reduction (RR) counseling. Since 2010, there has been an increase in sexual violence against women, characterized by deliberate vaginal injuries by non-intimate partners, increasing victims' risk of sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Needed is an adaptation of evidence-based interventions for HIV that include HIV testing and counseling for this stigmatized population. We reviewed several features of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 103 evidence-based interventions for HIV (e.g., measures used, participant risk characteristics, theoretical framework, outcome variables, and evidence tier) in an attempt to seek a feasibly adaptable evidence-based intervention for HIV that could be used for victims of sexual violence (VOSV). RESPECT, one of the reviewed evidence-based HIV interventions, comprises of one-on-one, client-focused HIV prevention/RR counseling, and RAPID HIV testing. Adapting RESPECT can enhance access to testing for Haitian VOSV and can influence their perceptions of HIV risk, and establishment of RR goals for future consensual intimate relations. Adapting and implementing RESPECT can increase uptake of evidence-based HIV interventions among Haitians and positively affect a region with high HIV prevalence and increased rates of sexual violence.

  16. An individual-level meta-analysis assessing the impact of community-level sanitation access on child stunting, anemia, and diarrhea: Evidence from DHS and MICS surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Larsen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A lack of access to sanitation is an important risk factor child health, facilitating fecal-oral transmission of pathogens including soil-transmitted helminthes and various causes of diarrheal disease. We conducted a meta-analysis of cross-sectional surveys to determine the impact that community-level sanitation access has on child health for children with and without household sanitation access.Using 301 two-stage demographic health surveys and multiple indicator cluster surveys conducted between 1990 and 2015 we calculated the sanitation access in the community as the proportion of households in the sampled cluster that had household access to any type of sanitation facility. We then conducted exact matching of children based on various predictors of living in a community with high access to sanitation. Using logistic regression with the matched group as a random intercept we examined the association between the child health outcomes of stunted growth, any anemia, moderate or severe anemia, and diarrhea in the previous two weeks and the exposure of living in a community with varying degrees of community-level sanitation access. For children with household-level sanitation access, living in a community with 100% sanitation access was associated with lowered odds of stunting (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.97, 95%; confidence interval (CI = 0.94-1.00; n = 14,153 matched groups, 1,175,167 children, any anemia (AOR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.67-0.78; n = 5,319 matched groups, 299,033 children, moderate or severe anemia (AOR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.68-0.77; n = 5,319 matched groups, 299,033 children and diarrhea (AOR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.91-0.97; n = 16,379 matched groups, 1,603,731 children compared to living in a community with < 30% sanitation access. For children without household-level sanitation access, living in communities with 0% sanitation access was associated with higher odds of stunting (AOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02-1.06; n = 14,153 matched groups, 1

  17. Use of evidence-based treatments in substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novins, Douglas K; Croy, Calvin D; Moore, Laurie A; Rieckmann, Traci

    2016-04-01

    Research and health surveillance activities continue to document the substantial disparities in the impacts of substance abuse on the health of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people. While Evidence-Based Treatments (EBTs) hold substantial promise for improving treatment for AI/ANs with substance use problems (as they do for non-AI/ANs), anecdotal reports suggest that their use is limited. In this study, we examine the awareness of, attitudes toward, and use of EBTs in substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities. Data are drawn from the first national survey of tribal substance abuse treatment programs. Clinicians or clinical administrators from 192 programs completed the survey. Participants were queried about their awareness of, attitudes toward, and use of 9 psychosocial and 3 medication EBTs. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (82.2%), Motivational Interviewing (68.6%), and Relapse Prevention Therapy (66.8%) were the most commonly implemented psychosocial EBTs; medications for psychiatric comorbidity was the most commonly implemented medication treatment (43.2%). Greater EBT knowledge and use were associated with both program (e.g., funding) and staff (e.g., educational attainment) characteristics. Only two of the commonly implemented psychosocial EBTs (Motivational Interviewing and Relapse Prevention Therapy) were endorsed as culturally appropriate by a majority of programs that had implemented them (55.9% and 58.1%, respectively). EBT knowledge and use is higher in substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities than has been previously estimated. However, many users of these EBTs continue to have concerns about their cultural appropriateness, which likely limits their further dissemination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MATERNAL PERCEPTIONS OF PARENTING FOLLOWING AN EVIDENCE-BASED PARENTING PROGRAM: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF LEGACY FOR CHILDREN(TM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Sophie A; Robinson, Lara R; Comeau, Dawn L; Claussen, Angelika H; Perou, Ruth

    2017-07-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of maternal perceptions of parenting following participation in Legacy for Children(TM) (Legacy), an evidence-based parenting program for low-income mothers of young children and infants. To further examine previous findings and better understand participant experiences, we analyzed semistructured focus-group discussions with predominantly Hispanic and Black, non-Hispanic Legacy mothers at two sites (n = 166) using thematic analysis and grounded theory techniques. The qualitative study presented here investigated how mothers view their parenting following participation in Legacy, allowing participants to describe their experience with the program in their own words, thus capturing an "insider" perspective. Mothers at both sites communicated knowledge and use of positive parenting practices targeted by the goals of Legacy; some site-specific differences emerged related to these parenting practices. These findings align with the interpretation of quantitative results from the randomized controlled trials and further demonstrate the significance of the Legacy program in promoting positive parenting for mothers living in poverty. This study emphasizes the importance of understanding real-world context regarding program efficacy and the benefit of using qualitative research to understand participant experiences. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. The effects of the evidence-based Safe Dates dating abuse prevention program on other youth violence outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Luz McNaughton; Agnew-Brune, Christine B; Simon, Thomas R; Vagi, Kevin J; Lee, Rosalyn D; Suchindran, Chiravath

    2014-12-01

    In response to recent calls for programs that can prevent multiple types of youth violence, the current study examined whether Safe Dates, an evidence-based dating violence prevention program, was effective in preventing other forms of youth violence. Using data from the original Safe Dates randomized controlled trial, this study examined (1) the effectiveness of Safe Dates in preventing peer violence victimization and perpetration and school weapon carrying 1 year after the intervention phase was completed and (2) moderation of program effects by the sex or race/ethnicity of the adolescent. Ninety percent (n = 1,690) of the eighth and ninth graders who completed baseline questionnaires completed the 1-year follow-up assessment. The sample was 51 % female and 26 % minority (of whom 69 % was black and 31 % was of another minority race/ethnicity). There were no baseline treatment group differences in violence outcomes. Treatment condition was significantly associated with peer violence victimization and school weapon carrying at follow-up; there was 12 % less victimization and 31 % less weapon carrying among those exposed to Safe Dates than those among controls. Treatment condition was significantly associated with perpetration among the minority but not among white adolescents; there was 23 % less violence perpetration among minority adolescents exposed to Safe Dates than that among controls. The observed effect sizes were comparable with those of other universal school-based youth violence prevention programs. Implementing Safe Dates may be an efficient way of preventing multiple types of youth violence.

  20. An Open-Source Sandbox for Increasing the Accessibility of Functional Programming to the Bioinformatics and Scientific Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Matthew; Sesanker, Colbert; Schiller, Martin R; Ellis, Heidi Jc; Hinman, M Lee; Vyas, Jay; Gryk, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Scientists are continually faced with the need to express complex mathematical notions in code. The renaissance of functional languages such as LISP and Haskell is often credited to their ability to implement complex data operations and mathematical constructs in an expressive and natural idiom. The slow adoption of functional computing in the scientific community does not, however, reflect the congeniality of these fields. Unfortunately, the learning curve for adoption of functional programming techniques is steeper than that for more traditional languages in the scientific community, such as Python and Java, and this is partially due to the relative sparseness of available learning resources. To fill this gap, we demonstrate and provide applied, scientifically substantial examples of functional programming, We present a multi-language source-code repository for software integration and algorithm development, which generally focuses on the fields of machine learning, data processing, bioinformatics. We encourage scientists who are interested in learning the basics of functional programming to adopt, reuse, and learn from these examples. The source code is available at: https://github.com/CONNJUR/CONNJUR-Sandbox (see also http://www.connjur.org).

  1. Validation of Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Programs for Adults with Intellectual and/or Developmental Disorders (FallPAIDD: A Modified Otago Exercise Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindy Renfro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Evidence-based fall prevention (EBFP programs significantly decrease fall risk, falls, and fall-related injuries in community-dwelling older adults. To date, EBFP programs are only validated for use among people with normal cognition and, therefore, are not evidence-based for adults with intellectual and/or developmental disorders (IDD such as Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD, cerebral vascular accident (CVA, or traumatic brain injury (TBI. BACKGROUND: Adults with IDD experience not only a higher rate of falls than their community-dwelling, cognitively intact peers, but also higher rates and earlier onset of chronic diseases, also known to increase fall risk. Adults with IDD experience many barriers to healthcare and health promotion programs. As the lifespan for people with IDD continues to increase, issues of aging (including falls with associated injury are on the rise and require effective and efficient prevention. METHODS: A modified group-based version of the Otago Exercise Program (OEP was developed and implemented at a worksite employing adults with IDD in Montana. Participants were tested pre and post-intervention using the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC STopping Elderly Accidents Deaths and Injuries (STEADI tool kit. Participants participated in progressive once weekly, one-hour group exercise classes and home programs over a 7-week period. Discharge planning with consumers and caregivers included home exercise, walking, and an optional home assessment. RESULTS: Despite the limited number of participants (n=15 and short length of participation, improvements were observed in the 30-Second Chair Stand Test, 4-Stage Balance Test, and 2-Minute Walk Test. Additionally, three individuals experienced an improvement in ambulation independence. Participants reported no falls during the study period. DISCUSSION: Promising results of this preliminary project underline the need for further study

  2. Making evidence-based lifestyle modification programs available in community mental health centers: why so slow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwastiak, Lydia

    2015-04-01

    Lifestyle modification programs to promote healthy diet and physical fitness should be an integral component of the treatment provided in community mental health centers. Over 50% of adults with serious mental illness are obese. Persons with schizophrenia consume more calories and saturated fats, on average, than the general population, while fewer than 20% engage in regular physical activity. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  3. Factors contributing to popularity of loyalty programs: evidence from emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Yan; Zhijian, Cui

    2016-01-01

    Using secondary data from multiple sources, this study empirically examines the factors that contribute to the popularity of loyalty programs in the airline and hotel industries in the context of emerging market economies. We find that the number of partners, the number of redemption options, and the threshold for obtaining elite status all positively contribute to a loyalty program’s popularity. However, the award redemption requirement has the opposite effects on a program’s pop...

  4. Vitamin A Supplementation Programs and Country-Level Evidence of Vitamin A Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Wirth

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A supplementation (VAS programs targeted at children aged 6–59 months are implemented in many countries. By improving immune function, vitamin A (VA reduces mortality associated with measles, diarrhea, and other illnesses. There is currently a debate regarding the relevance of VAS, but amidst the debate, researchers acknowledge that the majority of nationally-representative data on VA status is outdated. To address this data gap and contribute to the debate, we examined data from 82 countries implementing VAS programs, identified other VA programs, and assessed the recentness of national VA deficiency (VAD data. We found that two-thirds of the countries explored either have no VAD data or data that were >10 years old (i.e., measured before 2006, which included twenty countries with VAS coverage ≥70%. Fifty-one VAS programs were implemented in parallel with at least one other VA intervention, and of these, 27 countries either had no VAD data or data collected in 2005 or earlier. To fill these gaps in VAD data, countries implementing VAS and other VA interventions should measure VA status in children at least every 10 years. At the same time, the coverage of VA interventions can also be measured. We identified three countries that have scaled down VAS, but given the lack of VA deficiency data, this would be a premature undertaking in most countries without appropriate status assessment. While the global debate about VAS is important, more attention should be directed towards individual countries where programmatic decisions are made.

  5. How evidence-based is an 'evidence-based parenting program'? A PRISMA systematic review and meta-analysis of Triple P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Philip

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions to promote positive parenting are often reported to offer good outcomes for children but they can consume substantial resources and they require rigorous appraisal. Methods Evaluations of the Triple P parenting program were subjected to systematic review and meta-analysis with analysis of biases. PsychInfo, Embase and Ovid Medline were used as data sources. We selected published articles reporting any child-based outcome in which any variant of Triple P was evaluated in relation to a comparison condition. Unpublished data, papers in languages other than English and some book chapters were not examined. Studies reporting Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory or Child Behavior Checklist scores as outcomes were used in the meta-analysis. Results A total of 33 eligible studies was identified, most involving media-recruited families. Thirty-one of these 33 studies compared Triple P interventions with waiting list or no-treatment comparison groups. Most papers only reported maternal assessments of child behavior. Twenty-three papers were incorporated in the meta-analysis. No studies involved children younger than two-years old and comparisons of intervention and control groups beyond the duration of the intervention were only possible in five studies. For maternally-reported outcomes the summary effect size was 0.61 (95%CI 0.42, 0.79. Paternally-reported outcomes following Triple P intervention were smaller and did not differ significantly from the control condition (effect size 0.42 (95%CI -0.02, 0.87. The two studies involving an active control group showed no between-group differences. There was limited evidence of publication bias, but there was substantial selective reporting bias, and preferential reporting of positive results in article abstracts. Thirty-two of the 33 eligible studies were authored by Triple-P affiliated personnel. No trials were registered and only two papers contained conflict of interest

  6. Urban fertility responses to local government programs: Evidence from the 1923-1932 U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Fox

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the 1920s and early 1930s, U.S. fertility declined overall but with large regional variations. Changes in foreign born populations explain only part of this. Differences in public health and poverty relief programs may further help explain these declines because of their potential impact on fertility determinants, in particular on breastfeeding and child mortality. Objective: We investigate whether public health investments in child health (conservation of child life programs and poverty relief (outdoor care of poor or charity for children and mothers affected fertility for U.S. cities over 100,000 persons between 1923 and 1932. Methods: We analyze data covering 64 cities between 1923-1932 that include birth information from the U.S. Birth, Stillbirth and Infant Mortality Statistics volumes and city financial information from the Financial Statistics of Cities volumes. Time and city fixed-effects models are used to identify the impact of public investments on fertility. Results: Fixed effects estimates indicating the conservation of child life programs explain about 10 percent of the fertility change between 1923 and 1932. Outdoor care of poor did not seem to be related to fertility. Investments in charity for children and mothers were associated with fertility increases, possibly because poorer areas experienced relative increases in both higher fertility and charitable spending. Conclusions: Public spending on child health was strongly related to decreasing fertility in the U.S. during the 1920s, possibly because of increased breastfeeding and decreased child mortality. This leads to a better understanding of the 1920s fertility decline and highlights how public policy may affect fertility.

  7. Evidence-based recommendations for the development of obesity prevention programs targeted at preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerbell, C D; Moore, H J; Vögele, C; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Manios, Y; Douthwaite, W; Nixon, C A; Gibson, E L

    2012-03-01

    The ToyBox intervention was developed using an evidence-based approach, using the findings of four reviews. These reviews included three critical and narrative reviews of educational strategies and psychological approaches explaining young children's acquisition and formation of energy-balance related behaviours, and the management of these behaviours, and also a systematic review of behavioural models underpinning school-based interventions in preschool and school settings for the prevention of obesity in children aged 4-6 years. This paper summarises and translates the findings from these reviews into practical evidence based recommendations for researchers and policy-makers to consider when developing and implementing interventions for the prevention of overweight and obesity in young (aged 4-6 years) children. The recommendations focus on two behaviours, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and healthy eating, and include general recommendations, intervention approaches, interventions content, and simple messages. The review also briefly examines the role that the commercial sector plays in hindering or facilitating attempts to create healthy food environments for children. This paper also recognises that childhood obesity is not an issue for the education sector alone; it needs to be tackled at a multi sectoral level, recognizing the particularly important role of local governments, nongovernment organizations and the media.

  8. Program Specificity for Ptf1a in Pancreas versus Neural Tube Development Correlates with Distinct Collaborating Cofactors and Chromatin Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, David M.; Borromeo, Mark D.; Deering, Tye G.; Casey, Bradford H.; Savage, Trisha K.; Mayer, Paul R.; Hoang, Chinh; Tung, Kuang-Chi; Kumar, Manonmani; Shen, Chengcheng; Swift, Galvin H.

    2013-01-01

    The lineage-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Ptf1a is a critical driver for development of both the pancreas and nervous system. How one transcription factor controls diverse programs of gene expression is a fundamental question in developmental biology. To uncover molecular strategies for the program-specific functions of Ptf1a, we identified bound genomic regions in vivo during development of both tissues. Most regions bound by Ptf1a are specific to each tissue, lie near genes needed for proper formation of each tissue, and coincide with regions of open chromatin. The specificity of Ptf1a binding is encoded in the DNA surrounding the Ptf1a-bound sites, because these regions are sufficient to direct tissue-restricted reporter expression in transgenic mice. Fox and Sox factors were identified as potential lineage-specific modifiers of Ptf1a binding, since binding motifs for these factors are enriched in Ptf1a-bound regions in pancreas and neural tube, respectively. Of the Fox factors expressed during pancreatic development, Foxa2 plays a major role. Indeed, Ptf1a and Foxa2 colocalize in embryonic pancreatic chromatin and can act synergistically in cell transfection assays. Together, these findings indicate that lineage-specific chromatin landscapes likely constrain the DNA binding of Ptf1a, and they identify Fox and Sox gene families as part of this process. PMID:23754747

  9. Outcomes and impact of HIV prevention, ART and TB programs in Swaziland--early evidence from public health triangulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari van Schalkwyk

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Swaziland's severe HIV epidemic inspired an early national response since the late 1980s, and regular reporting of program outcomes since the onset of a national antiretroviral treatment (ART program in 2004. We assessed effectiveness outcomes and mortality trends in relation to ART, HIV testing and counseling (HTC, tuberculosis (TB and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT. METHODS: Data triangulated include intervention coverage and outcomes according to program registries (2001-2010, hospital admissions and deaths disaggregated by age and sex (2001-2010 and population mortality estimates from the 1997 and 2007 censuses and the 2007 demographic and health survey. RESULTS: By 2010, ART reached 70% of the estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS with CD4<350/mm(3, with progressively improving patient retention and survival. As of 2010, 88% of health facilities providing antenatal care offered comprehensive PMTCT services. The HTC program recorded a halving in the proportion of adults tested who were HIV-infected; similarly HIV infection rates among HIV-exposed babies halved from 2007 to 2010. Case fatality rates among hospital patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS started to decrease from 2005-6 in adults and especially in children, contrasting with stable case fatality for other causes including TB. All-cause child in-patient case fatality rates started to decrease from 2005-6. TB case notifications as well as rates of HIV/TB co-infection among notified TB patients continued a steady increase through 2010, while coverage of HIV testing and CPT for co-infected patients increased to above 80%. CONCLUSION: Against a background of high, but stable HIV prevalence and decreasing HIV incidence, we documented early evidence of a mortality decline associated with the expanded national HIV response since 2004. Attribution of impact to specific interventions (versus natural epidemic dynamics will require additional data from

  10. Evidence for cervical cancer mortality with screening program in Taiwan, 1981–2010: age-period-cohort model

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    Su Shih-Yung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most common cancer experienced by women worldwide; however, screening techniques are very effective for reducing the risk of death. The national cervical cancer screening program was implemented in Taiwan in 1995. The objective of this study was to examine and provide evidence of the cervical cancer mortality trends for the periods before and after the screening program was implemented. Methods Data from 1981 to 2010 of the causes of death registered were obtained from the Department of Health, Taiwan. Age-standardized mortality rates, age-specific rates, and age-period-cohort models that employed the sequential method were used to assess temporal changes that occurred between 1981 and 2010, with 1995 used as the separating year. Results The results showed that for both time periods of 1981 to 1995 and 1996 to 2010, age and period had significant effects, whereas the birth cohort effects were insignificant. For patients between 80 and 84 years of age, the mortality rate for 1981 to 1995 and 1996 to 2010 was 48.34 and 68.08. The cervical cancer mortality rate for 1996 to 2010 was 1.0 for patients between 75 and 79 years of age and 1.4 for patients between 80 and 84 years of age compared to that for 1981 to 1995. Regarding the period effect, the mortality trend decreased 2-fold from 1996 to 2010. Conclusions The results of this study indicate a decline in cervical cancer mortality trends after the screening program involving Papanicolaou tests was implemented in 1995. However, the positive effects of the screening program were not observed in elderly women because of treatment delays during the initial implementation of the screening program.

  11. Outcomes and Impact of HIV Prevention, ART and TB Programs in Swaziland – Early Evidence from Public Health Triangulation

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    van Schalkwyk, Cari; Mndzebele, Sibongile; Hlophe, Thabo; Garcia Calleja, Jesus Maria; Korenromp, Eline L.; Stoneburner, Rand; Pervilhac, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Swaziland’s severe HIV epidemic inspired an early national response since the late 1980s, and regular reporting of program outcomes since the onset of a national antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in 2004. We assessed effectiveness outcomes and mortality trends in relation to ART, HIV testing and counseling (HTC), tuberculosis (TB) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). Methods Data triangulated include intervention coverage and outcomes according to program registries (2001-2010), hospital admissions and deaths disaggregated by age and sex (2001-2010) and population mortality estimates from the 1997 and 2007 censuses and the 2007 demographic and health survey. Results By 2010, ART reached 70% of the estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS with CD4<350/mm3, with progressively improving patient retention and survival. As of 2010, 88% of health facilities providing antenatal care offered comprehensive PMTCT services. The HTC program recorded a halving in the proportion of adults tested who were HIV-infected; similarly HIV infection rates among HIV-exposed babies halved from 2007 to 2010. Case fatality rates among hospital patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS started to decrease from 2005–6 in adults and especially in children, contrasting with stable case fatality for other causes including TB. All-cause child in-patient case fatality rates started to decrease from 2005–6. TB case notifications as well as rates of HIV/TB co-infection among notified TB patients continued a steady increase through 2010, while coverage of HIV testing and CPT for co-infected patients increased to above 80%. Conclusion Against a background of high, but stable HIV prevalence and decreasing HIV incidence, we documented early evidence of a mortality decline associated with the expanded national HIV response since 2004. Attribution of impact to specific interventions (versus natural epidemic dynamics) will require additional data from future

  12. Optimizing Suicide Prevention Programs and Their Implementation in Europe (OSPI Europe: an evidence-based multi-level approach

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    Maxwell Margaret

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviour are significant public health issues in Europe requiring effective preventive interventions. However, the evidence for effective preventive strategies is scarce. The protocol of a European research project to develop an optimized evidence based program for suicide prevention is presented. Method The groundwork for this research has been established by a regional community based intervention for suicide prevention that focuses on improving awareness and care for depression performed within the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD. The EAAD intervention consists of (1 training sessions and practice support for primary care physicians,(2 public relations activities and mass media campaigns, (3 training sessions for community facilitators who serve as gatekeepers for depressed and suicidal persons in the community and treatment and (4 outreach and support for high risk and self-help groups (e.g. helplines. The intervention has been shown to be effective in reducing suicidal behaviour in an earlier study, the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression. In the context of the current research project described in this paper (OSPI-Europe the EAAD model is enhanced by other evidence based interventions and implemented simultaneously and in standardised way in four regions in Ireland, Portugal, Hungary and Germany. The enhanced intervention will be evaluated using a prospective controlled design with the primary outcomes being composite suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal, and with intermediate outcomes being the effect of training programs, changes in public attitudes, guideline-consistent media reporting. In addition an analysis of the economic costs and consequences will be undertaken, while a process evaluation will monitor implementation of the interventions within the different regions with varying organisational and healthcare contexts. Discussion This multi-centre research seeks to

  13. Optimizing suicide prevention programs and their implementation in Europe (OSPI-Europe): An evidence-based multi-level approach

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2009-11-23

    Abstract Background Suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviour are significant public health issues in Europe requiring effective preventive interventions. However, the evidence for effective preventive strategies is scarce. The protocol of a European research project to develop an optimized evidence based program for suicide prevention is presented. Method The groundwork for this research has been established by a regional community based intervention for suicide prevention that focuses on improving awareness and care for depression performed within the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD). The EAAD intervention consists of (1) training sessions and practice support for primary care physicians,(2) public relations activities and mass media campaigns, (3) training sessions for community facilitators who serve as gatekeepers for depressed and suicidal persons in the community and treatment and (4) outreach and support for high risk and self-help groups (e.g. helplines). The intervention has been shown to be effective in reducing suicidal behaviour in an earlier study, the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression. In the context of the current research project described in this paper (OSPI-Europe) the EAAD model is enhanced by other evidence based interventions and implemented simultaneously and in standardised way in four regions in Ireland, Portugal, Hungary and Germany. The enhanced intervention will be evaluated using a prospective controlled design with the primary outcomes being composite suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal), and with intermediate outcomes being the effect of training programs, changes in public attitudes, guideline-consistent media reporting. In addition an analysis of the economic costs and consequences will be undertaken, while a process evaluation will monitor implementation of the interventions within the different regions with varying organisational and healthcare contexts. Discussion This multi-centre research seeks to overcome major

  14. Optimizing suicide prevention programs and their implementation in Europe (OSPI Europe): an evidence-based multi-level approach.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviour are significant public health issues in Europe requiring effective preventive interventions. However, the evidence for effective preventive strategies is scarce. The protocol of a European research project to develop an optimized evidence based program for suicide prevention is presented. METHOD: The groundwork for this research has been established by a regional community based intervention for suicide prevention that focuses on improving awareness and care for depression performed within the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD). The EAAD intervention consists of (1) training sessions and practice support for primary care physicians,(2) public relations activities and mass media campaigns, (3) training sessions for community facilitators who serve as gatekeepers for depressed and suicidal persons in the community and treatment and (4) outreach and support for high risk and self-help groups (e.g. helplines). The intervention has been shown to be effective in reducing suicidal behaviour in an earlier study, the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression. In the context of the current research project described in this paper (OSPI-Europe) the EAAD model is enhanced by other evidence based interventions and implemented simultaneously and in standardised way in four regions in Ireland, Portugal, Hungary and Germany. The enhanced intervention will be evaluated using a prospective controlled design with the primary outcomes being composite suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal), and with intermediate outcomes being the effect of training programs, changes in public attitudes, guideline-consistent media reporting. In addition an analysis of the economic costs and consequences will be undertaken, while a process evaluation will monitor implementation of the interventions within the different regions with varying organisational and healthcare contexts. DISCUSSION: This multi-centre research seeks to overcome major

  15. Clinical metric and medication persistency effects: evidence from a Medicaid care management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gregory D; Leary, Fredric; Medina, Wendie; Donnelly, Shawn; Warnick, Kathleen

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to estimate clinical metric and medication persistency impacts of a care management program. The data sources were Medicaid administrative claims for a sample population of 32,334 noninstitutionalized Medicaid-only aged, blind, or disabled patients with diagnosed conditions of asthma, coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, or heart failure between 2005 and 2009. Multivariate regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that exposure to a care management intervention increased the likelihood of having the appropriate medication or procedures performed, as well as increased medication persistency. Statistically significant clinical metric improvements occurred in each of the 5 conditions studied. Increased medication persistency was found for beta-blocker medication for members with coronary artery disease, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker and diuretic medications for members with heart failure, bronchodilator and corticosteroid medications for members with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and aspirin/antiplatelet medications for members with diabetes. This study demonstrates that a care management program increases the likelihood of having an appropriate medication dispensed and/or an appropriate clinical test performed, as well as increased likelihood of medication persistency, in people with chronic conditions.

  16. The Challenge of Access to Care for Adolescents with Cancer in Italy: National and Local Pediatric Oncology Programs. International Perspectives on AYAO, Part 2.

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    Ferrari, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    This paper, summarizing the March 2012 presentation at the second international workshop of the Canadian Task Force on Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer, describes the situation in Italy concerning the inadequate access to optimal cancer services for adolescents, and the need to improve the quality of care for these patients while investing in more research on the diseases that afflict them. National actions to bridge the gap in care and implement specific programs tailored to these patients arose from the pediatric oncology community. These actions include creation of the national Committee on Adolescents of the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP), founded with the mission of ensuring that Italian adolescents with cancer have prompt, adequate, and equitable access to the best care to optimize their treatment outcome and quality of life. Also developed was the Youth Project of the pediatric oncology unit at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, which is currently dedicated to adolescents aged 15-19 years old and may eventually serve young adults up to the age of 25 that are affected by pediatric-type tumors.

  17. Access to Risk Mitigating Weather Forecasts and Changes in Farming Operations in East and West Africa: Evidence from a Baseline Survey

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    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable weather currently ranks among the major challenges facing agricultural development in many African countries. Impact mitigation through access to reliable and timely weather forecasts and other adaptive mechanisms are foremost in Africa’s policy dialogues and socio-economic development agendas. This paper analyzed the factors influencing access to forecasts on incidence of pests/diseases (PD and start of rainfall (SR. The data were collected by Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS and analyzed with Probit regression separately for East Africa, West Africa and the combined dataset. The results show that 62.7% and 56.4% of the farmers from East and West Africa had access to forecasts on start of rainfall, respectively. In addition, 39.3% and 49.4% of the farmers from East Africa indicated that forecasts on outbreak of pests/diseases and start of rainfall were respectively accompanied with advice as against 18.2% and 41.9% for West Africa. Having received forecasts on start of rainfall, 24.0% and 17.6% of the farmers from East and West Africa made decisions on timing of farming activities respectively. Probabilities of having access to forecasts on PD significantly increased with access to formal education, farm income and previous exposure to climatic shocks. Furthermore, probabilities of having access to forecasts on SR significantly increased (p < 0.05 with access to business income, radio and perception of more erratic rainfall, among others. It was recommended that promotion of informal education among illiterate farmers would enhance their climatic resilience, among others.

  18. Translation of evidence-based tobacco use prevention programming in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skara, Silvana; Kovacic, Luka; Civljak, Marta; Voncina, Luka

    2008-09-01

    Croatia faces a major threat of smoking-related health burdens given the monumental changes this newly formed country has undergone in the past 15 years because of its postcommunist democratic and economic transitions and the destructive 1991-1995 war with Serbia. This article provides information on Croatia's general background, current smoking prevalence and attitudes, and current evidence-based smoking prevention efforts. Furthermore, various cultural and contextual conditions within Croatia that facilitate or impede smoking prevention research utilization are discussed. Finally, it is concluded that new research is needed that continues to build on comprehensive research-tested multicomponent prevention initiatives utilizing school-, family-, community-, and mass media-based delivery modalities, which specifically focus on the social influences of smoking.

  19. Examining the Sustainability of an Evidence-Based Preschool Curriculum: The REDI Program

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    Sanford DeRousie, Rebecca M.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which an evidence-based preschool curriculum (Head Start REDI) was sustained by 20 teachers during the year following a randomized controlled efficacy trial, when teachers were no longer required by the research project to implement the curriculum. Two quantitative measures of sustainability (teacher ratings, REDI coach ratings) and a qualitative measure (teacher interview) were collected and compared. Sustainability varied by the specific curriculum component, with higher rates of sustainability for the social-emotional component (Preschool PATHS) than for the language and literacy components. Estimates of sustainability were affected by the method of measurement, with REDI coach ratings and qualitative teacher interviews more closely aligned than teacher ratings. Responses from qualitative interviews identified the main factors that teachers thought affected sustainability. Teacher responses suggest that efforts to promote sustainability are best targeted at reducing barriers, such as competing demands, rather than simply highlighting the benefits of the new curriculum. PMID:22408287

  20. Utilizing Public Access Data and Open Source Statistical Programs to Teach Climate Science to Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, L.

    2014-12-01

    Students in the Environmental Studies major at the University of Southern California fulfill their curriculum requirements by taking a broad range of courses in the social and natural sciences. Climate change is often taught in 1-2 lectures in these courses with limited examination of this complex topic. Several upper division elective courses focus on the science, policy, and social impacts of climate change. In an upper division course focused on the scientific tools used to determine paleoclimate and predict future climate, I have developed a project where students download, manipulate, and analyze data from the National Climatic Data Center. Students are required to download 100 or more years of daily temperature records and use the statistical program R to analyze that data, calculating daily, monthly, and yearly temperature averages along with changes in the number of extreme hot or cold days (≥90˚F and ≤30˚F, respectively). In parallel, they examine population growth, city expansion, and changes in transportation looking for correlations between the social data and trends observed in the temperature data. Students examine trends over time to determine correlations to urban heat island effect. This project exposes students to "real" data, giving them the tools necessary to critically analyze scientific studies without being experts in the field. Utilizing the existing, public, online databases provides almost unlimited, free data. Open source statistical programs provide a cost-free platform for examining the data although some in-class time is required to help students navigate initial data importation and analysis. Results presented will highlight data compiled over three years of course projects.