WorldWideScience

Sample records for access programs evidence

  1. Clinical evidence continuous medical education: a randomised educational trial of an open access e-learning program for transferring evidence-based information – ICEKUBE (Italian Clinical Evidence Knowledge Utilization Behaviour Evaluation) – study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Satolli Roberto; Manfrini Roberto; Clivio Luca; Deligant Christian; Duca Piergiorgio; Compagnoni Anna; Sala Valeria; Cinquini Michela; Moschetti Ivan; Moja Lorenzo; Addis Antonio; Grimshaw Jeremy M; Dri Pietro; Liberati Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In an effort to ensure that all physicians have access to valid and reliable evidence on drug effectiveness, the Italian Drug Agency sponsored a free-access e-learning system, based on Clinical Evidence, called ECCE. Doctors have access to an electronic version and related clinical vignettes. Correct answers to the interactive vignettes provide Continuing Medical Education credits. The aims of this trial are to establish whether the e-learning program (ECCE) increases phys...

  2. Bundling occupational safety with harm reduction information as a feasible method for improving police receptiveness to syringe access programs: evidence from three U.S. cities

    OpenAIRE

    Beletsky Leo; Davis Corey S

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction In light of overwhelming evidence that access to sterile injection equipment reduces incidence of injection-attributable bloodborne disease without encouraging drug use, many localities have authorized sterile syringe access programs (SAPs), including syringe exchange and pharmacy-based initiatives. Even where such interventions are clearly legal, many law enforcement officers are unaware of the public health benefits and legal status of these programs and may continue t...

  3. Clinical evidence continuous medical education: a randomised educational trial of an open access e-learning program for transferring evidence-based information – ICEKUBE (Italian Clinical Evidence Knowledge Utilization Behaviour Evaluation – study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satolli Roberto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to ensure that all physicians have access to valid and reliable evidence on drug effectiveness, the Italian Drug Agency sponsored a free-access e-learning system, based on Clinical Evidence, called ECCE. Doctors have access to an electronic version and related clinical vignettes. Correct answers to the interactive vignettes provide Continuing Medical Education credits. The aims of this trial are to establish whether the e-learning program (ECCE increases physicians' basic knowledge about common clinical scenarios, and whether ECCE is superior to the passive diffusion of information through the printed version of Clinical Evidence. Design All Italian doctors naïve to ECCE will be randomised to three groups. Group one will have access to ECCE for Clinical Evidence chapters and vignettes lot A and will provide control data for Clinical Evidence chapters and vignettes lot B; group two vice versa; group three will receive the concise printed version of Clinical Evidence. There are in fact two designs: a before and after pragmatic trial utilising a two by two incomplete block design (group one versus group two and a classical design (group one and two versus group three. The primary outcome will be the retention of Clinical Evidence contents assessed from the scores for clinical vignettes selected from ECCE at least six months after the intervention. To avoid test-retest effects, we will randomly select vignettes out of lot A and lot B, avoiding repetitions. In order to preserve the comparability of lots, we will select vignettes with similar, optimal psychometric characteristics. Trial registration ISRCTN27453314

  4. Professional Access 2013 programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hennig, Teresa; Hepworth, George; Yudovich, Dagi (Doug)

    2013-01-01

    Authoritative and comprehensive coverage for building Access 2013 Solutions Access, the most popular database system in the world, just opened a new frontier in the Cloud. Access 2013 provides significant new features for building robust line-of-business solutions for web, client and integrated environments.  This book was written by a team of Microsoft Access MVPs, with consulting and editing by Access experts, MVPs and members of the Microsoft Access team. It gives you the information and examples to expand your areas of expertise and immediately start to develop and upgrade projects. Exp

  5. AVLIS industrial access program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-11-15

    This document deals with the procurements planned for the construction of an Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) production plant. Several large-scale AVLIS facilities have already been built and tested; a full-scale engineering demonstration facility is currently under construction. The experience gained from these projects provides the procurement basis for the production plant construction and operation. In this document, the status of the AVLIS process procurement is presented from two viewpoints. The AVLIS Production Plant Work Breakdown Structure is referenced at the level of the items to be procured. The availability of suppliers for the items at this level is discussed. In addition, the work that will result from the AVLIS enrichment plant project is broken down by general procurement categories (construction, mechanical equipment, etc.) and the current AVLIS suppliers are listed according to these categories. A large number of companies in all categories are currently providing AVLIS equipment for the Full-Scale Demonstration Facility in Livermore, California. These companies form an existing and expanding supplier network for the AVLIS program. Finally, this document examines the relationship between the AVLIS construction project/operational facility and established commercial suppliers. The goal is to utilize existing industrial capability to meet the needs of the project in a competitive procurement situation. As a result, costs and procurement risks are both reduced because the products provided come from within the AVLIS suppliers' experience base. At the same time, suppliers can benefit by the potential to participate in AVLIS technology spin-off markets. 35 figures.

  6. AVLIS industrial access program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document deals with the procurements planned for the construction of an Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) production plant. Several large-scale AVLIS facilities have already been built and tested; a full-scale engineering demonstration facility is currently under construction. The experience gained from these projects provides the procurement basis for the production plant construction and operation. In this document, the status of the AVLIS process procurement is presented from two viewpoints. The AVLIS Production Plant Work Breakdown Structure is referenced at the level of the items to be procured. The availability of suppliers for the items at this level is discussed. In addition, the work that will result from the AVLIS enrichment plant project is broken down by general procurement categories (construction, mechanical equipment, etc.) and the current AVLIS suppliers are listed according to these categories. A large number of companies in all categories are currently providing AVLIS equipment for the Full-Scale Demonstration Facility in Livermore, California. These companies form an existing and expanding supplier network for the AVLIS program. Finally, this document examines the relationship between the AVLIS construction project/operational facility and established commercial suppliers. The goal is to utilize existing industrial capability to meet the needs of the project in a competitive procurement situation. As a result, costs and procurement risks are both reduced because the products provided come from within the AVLIS suppliers' experience base. At the same time, suppliers can benefit by the potential to participate in AVLIS technology spin-off markets. 35 figures

  7. Bundling occupational safety with harm reduction information as a feasible method for improving police receptiveness to syringe access programs: evidence from three U.S. cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beletsky Leo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In light of overwhelming evidence that access to sterile injection equipment reduces incidence of injection-attributable bloodborne disease without encouraging drug use, many localities have authorized sterile syringe access programs (SAPs, including syringe exchange and pharmacy-based initiatives. Even where such interventions are clearly legal, many law enforcement officers are unaware of the public health benefits and legal status of these programs and may continue to treat the possession of injection equipment as illegal and program participation as a marker of illegal behavior. Law enforcement practice can impede SAP utilization and may increase the risk of needlestick injury (NSI among law enforcement personnel. Many SAPs conduct little or no outreach to law enforcement, in part because they perceive law enforcement actors as unreceptive to health-promotion programs targeting drug users. Case description We report on a brief training intervention for law enforcement personnel designed to increase officer knowledge of and positive attitudes towards SAPs by bundling content that addresses officer concerns about infectious disease and occupational safety with information about the legality and public health benefits of these programs. Pilot trainings using this bundled curriculum were conducted with approximately 600 officers in three US cities. Discussion and evaluation Law enforcement officers were generally receptive to receiving information about SAPs through the bundled curriculum. The trainings led to better communication and collaboration between SAP and law enforcement personnel, providing a valuable platform for better harmonization of law enforcement and public health activities targeting injection drug users. Conclusion The experience in these three cities suggests that a harm reduction training curriculum that bundles strategies for increasing officer occupational safety with information about the legality

  8. Research Grants Program Office Open Access Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Research Grant Program Office (RGPO)

    2014-01-01

    This is the Open Access Policy for all research funded through the Research Grants Program Office in the University of California Office of the President. Specifically, it applies to all research funded through UC Research Initiatives (UCRI), the California Breast Cancer Prevention Program (CBCRP), the Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program (TRDRP), and the California HIV/AIDS Research Program (CHRP).  

  9. Charter Halibut Limited Access Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This limited access system limits the number of charter vessels that may participate in the guided sport fishery for halibut in area 2C and 3A. NMFS issues a...

  10. Environmental Research Division's Data Access Program (ERDDAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ERDDAP (the Environmental Research Division's Data Access Program) is a data server that gives you a simple, consistent way to download subsets of scientific...

  11. Access with evidence development: the US experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Penny E; Tunis, Sean R

    2010-01-01

    The concept of access with evidence development (AED), also known as 'coverage with evidence development' in the Medicare programme, has long been discussed as a policy option for ensuring more appropriate use of new technologies in the US. This article provides a comprehensive overview of more than 10 years of US experience with AED, both in the public and private healthcare sectors. Beginning with a discussion of the successes of private plans' conditional coverage for high-density chemotherapy for autologous bone marrow transplants for metastatic breast cancer and Medicare's conditional coverage of lung-volume-reduction surgery in the 1990s, the article moves on to describe how Medicare worked to codify AED as one of its coverage policy options in the early part of this decade. More recent private and public sector initiatives are also discussed, including an overview of barriers to implementing AED. Despite the complexity of political, financial and ethical issues faced in implementation, AED is now a permanent fixture of US coverage policy. Future initiatives within the Medicare programme and with private payers in the US are much more likely to succeed by relying upon the simple but consequential principles laid out at a Summit convened in Banff, Alberta, Canada in 2009 and presented in another article in this issue. PMID:20085391

  12. 76 FR 66089 - Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide 5.66, ``Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide... Authorization Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants,'' and 10 CFR part 26, ``Fitness for Duty Programs.'' The...

  13. 29 CFR 33.8 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited. 33.8 Section 33.8 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR § 33.8 Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited. Except as...

  14. 47 CFR 76.1003 - Program access proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Access to Cable Programming § 76.1003 Program... behavior complained of has harmed complainant. (8) The complaint must be accompanied by...

  15. Increasing access and support for emergency management higher education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiak, Carol L

    2014-01-01

    The number of emergency management higher education programs has grown dramatically since 1994 when the FEMA Higher Education Program was created to propagate and support such growth. Data collected annually since 2007 from emergency management higher education programs shows that these programs face some consistent challenges. These challenges were coupled with annual data on program access and support indicators via dimensional analysis to answer the questions: To what extent are the challenges linked to a lack of access or support? If there is linkage, what can be gleaned from these linkages that can help address the challenges through improving access and support? The analysis showed that lack of access to funding and resources, and lack of support from partner organizations, has an impact on emergency management higher education. Discussion of that impact is followed with detailed recommendations that are focused on strengthening both internal and external access and support relationships for emergency management higher education programs.

  16. Strategic Investments under Open Access: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Klumpp, Tilman; Su, Xuejuan

    2013-01-01

    We examine the incentives of access-regulated firms to invest in infrastructure facilities they must share with competitors. The non-strategic incentives imply that investment depends positively on the market size. The strategic incentives imply that investment also depends on market composition, namely, the market shares of the facility owner and its competitors. Using a dataset of regulated electric utilities in the United States, we find evidence that transmission investments are indeed ma...

  17. 29 CFR 2706.149 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited. 2706.149 Section 2706.149 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW... THE FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION § 2706.149 Program accessibility:...

  18. 29 CFR 100.549 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited. 100.549 Section 100.549 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE... the National Labor Relations Board § 100.549 Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited....

  19. 29 CFR 2205.149 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited. 2205.149 Section 2205.149 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW... THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION § 2205.149 Program accessibility:...

  20. 29 CFR 1615.149 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited. 1615.149 Section 1615.149 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION... § 1615.149 Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited. Except as otherwise provided in §...

  1. 75 FR 39135 - Voluntary Public Access and Habitat Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published in the Federal Register on June 24, 1983 (48 FR 29115... Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1455 RIN 0560-AH98 Voluntary Public Access and Habitat Incentive... Access and Habitat Incentive Program (VPA-HIP). This is a new program authorized by the...

  2. 75 FR 34960 - Import Administration IA ACCESS Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... ACCESS Pilot Program in the Federal Register at 75 FR 32341. The reference to the Docket No. ITA- 2010.... The Department publishes this notice to correct this number. Accordingly, in FR Doc. 2010-13733, at... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 Import Administration IA ACCESS Pilot Program AGENCY:...

  3. 77 FR 66052 - Program Access Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... satellite programming, then it must grapple with whether its definition of unfairness would apply to conduct... Competition and Diversity in Video Programming Distribution and Carriage, 63 FR 45740-02, 45742 (1998). 12... challenging exclusive contracts involving cable-affiliated programming; and amendments to its rules to...

  4. 75 FR 32341 - Import Administration IA ACCESS Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 Import Administration IA ACCESS Pilot Program AGENCY: Import... comments. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (the Department) is creating a pilot program to test an..., the Department is requesting comments from parties on this pilot program. DATES: Effective Date:...

  5. Planning toward equal accessibility to services: a quadratic programming approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fahui Wang; Quan Tang

    2013-01-01

    In the literature various accessibility indices have been developed to assess the relative ease by which the locations of services (supply) can be reached from a residential (demand) location. In this paper we address the planning problem: how the resources can be redistributed to achieve the highest equality of accessibility to the service providers. In particular, a quadratic programming approach is used to minimize the variance of accessibility scores across demand locations by readjusting...

  6. Computer Invention Programs Today: Accessible and Authorable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Wallis May

    Discussing available computer software for prompting for the kinds of computers likely to be used in writing programs, this paper concentrates on categorizing software programs and exploring their "uniquely electronic" features. The paper deals with the following questions: (1) What kinds of planning software are available? (2) What happens when…

  7. Evidence that Good Early Childhood Programs Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinhart, Lawrence J.; Weikart, David P.

    1985-01-01

    Seven studies of the positive long- and short-term effects of good preschool programs on low-income youngsters provide evidence that such programs can be effective. The studies also reveal some of the problems faced by researchers in this field. (PGD)

  8. The development of accessibility indicators for distance learning programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Burgstahler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to explore program policies and practices related to the accessibility of American distance learning courses to qualified students with disabilities. A literature review was conducted, a draft list of accessibility indicators was created, examples of applications of the indicators in existing distance learning programs were collected, the indicators were systematically applied to one distance learning program, input from a variety of distance learning programs was used to further refine the indicators, and these programs were encouraged to adopt the indicators and make use of resources provided by the project. Results of this exploratory work suggest that incorporating accessibility considerations into policies, procedures and communications of a program requires consideration of the unique needs of students, course designers, instructors and evaluators; involves approval and implementation at a variety of administrative levels; and is an ongoing process that may be implemented in incremental steps.

  9. Guide to Accessing Program Data | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visit the Guide to Accessing TARGET Data page for a visual and interactive guide on how to access OCG program data. Although this guide uses TARGET as an example, it is also applicable to CGCI data. 

  10. 29 CFR 4907.149 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited. 4907.149 Section 4907.149 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION... accessibility: Discrimination prohibited. Except as otherwise provided in § 4907.150, no qualified...

  11. Notified Access: Extending Remote Memory Access Programming Models for Producer-Consumer Synchronization

    KAUST Repository

    Belli, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    Remote Memory Access (RMA) programming enables direct access to low-level hardware features to achieve high performance for distributed-memory programs. However, the design of RMA programming schemes focuses on the memory access and less on the synchronization. For example, in contemporary RMA programming systems, the widely used producer-consumer pattern can only be implemented inefficiently, incurring in an overhead of an additional round-trip message. We propose Notified Access, a scheme where the target process of an access can receive a completion notification. This scheme enables direct and efficient synchronization with a minimum number of messages. We implement our scheme in an open source MPI-3 RMA library and demonstrate lower overheads (two cache misses) than other point-to-point synchronization mechanisms for each notification. We also evaluate our implementation on three real-world benchmarks, a stencil computation, a tree computation, and a Colicky factorization implemented with tasks. Our scheme always performs better than traditional message passing and other existing RMA synchronization schemes, providing up to 50% speedup on small messages. Our analysis shows that Notified Access is a valuable primitive for any RMA system. Furthermore, we provide guidance for the design of low-level network interfaces to support Notified Access efficiently.

  12. Embedded Systems Programming: Accessing Databases from Esterel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A current limitation in embedded controller design and programming is the lack of database support in development tools such as Esterel Studio. This article proposes a way of integrating databases and Esterel by providing two application programming interfaces (APIs which enable the use of relational databases inside Esterel programs. As databases and Esterel programs are often executed on different machines, result sets returned as responses to database queries may be processed either locally and according to Esterel’s synchrony hypothesis, or remotely along several of Esterel’s execution cycles. These different scenarios are reflected in the design and usage rules of the two APIs presented in this article, which rely on Esterel’s facilities for extending the language by external data types, external functions, and procedures, as well as tasks. The APIs’ utility is demonstrated by means of a case study modelling an automated warehouse storage system, which is constructed using Lego Mindstorms robotics kits. The robot’s controller is programmed in Esterel in a way that takes dynamic ordering information and the warehouse’s floor layout into account, both of which are stored in a MySQL database.

  13. Embedded Systems Programming: Accessing Databases from Esterel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A current limitation in embedded controller design and programming is the lack of database support in development tools such as Esterel Studio. This article proposes a way of integrating databases and Esterel by providing two application programming interfaces (APIs which enable the use of relational databases inside Esterel programs. As databases and Esterel programs are often executed on different machines, result sets returned as responses to database queries may be processed either locally and according to Esterel's synchrony hypothesis, or remotely along several of Esterel's execution cycles. These different scenarios are reflected in the design and usage rules of the two APIs presented in this article, which rely on Esterel's facilities for extending the language by external data types, external functions, and procedures, as well as tasks. The APIs' utility is demonstrated by means of a case study modelling an automated warehouse storage system, which is constructed using Lego Mindstorms robotics kits. The robot's controller is programmed in Esterel in a way that takes dynamic ordering information and the warehouse's floor layout into account, both of which are stored in a MySQL database.

  14. 76 FR 19356 - Video Programming and Accessibility Advisory Committee; Announcement of Date of Next Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... COMMISSION Video Programming and Accessibility Advisory Committee; Announcement of Date of Next Meeting... meeting of the Video Programming Accessibility Advisory Committee (``Committee'' or ``VPAAC''). The... television, video description of television programming, accessible emergency information for people...

  15. Access to Books: A Scaffolded Program Creates Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTague, Becky; Abrams, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    A summer reading program for disadvantaged, urban elementary school students provided scaffolded access to books by constructing a book-rich environment, as well as giving supportive strategy instruction for choosing and using reading materials. The program culminated in a book-buying experience in which students chose books for home libraries.…

  16. Wellness programs: a review of the evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, D.; S Verma; Flynn, L.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review studies that have examined an association between wellness programs and improvements in quality of life and to assess the strength of the scientific evidence. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search was constructed with the following medical subject headings: "psychoneuroimmunology," "chronic disease" and "health promotion," "chronic disease" and "health behaviour," "relaxation techniques," "music therapy," "laughter," "anger," "mediation" and "behavioural medicine." Searches usin...

  17. 5 CFR 2416.149 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited. 2416.149 Section 2416.149 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AND FEDERAL SERVICE IMPASSES PANEL GENERAL PROVISIONS ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON...

  18. Does Access to Finance Lower Firms’ Cost of Capital? Empirical Evidence from International Manufacturing Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lashitew, Addisu A.

    2011-01-01

    Lack of access to finance is argued to be one of the most binding constraints for firm growth. There is, however, limited empirical evidence on the relationship between access to finance and the cost of capital. This paper uses international manufacturing data to analyze the effect of access to fina

  19. Accessibility of Peripheral Regions: Evidence from Aegean Islands (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Spilanis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Islands, especially smaller ones, are characterized by discontinuity of space and are considered as some of the least accessible areas. In this paper, we seek to shed light on the accessibility problems that islands face from the point of view of island residents. This shift in emphasis considers additional aspects to accessibility that include the availability of connections to access services required to cover the needs of island residents and the different destinations where these may be available, and the time that one may have to spend to get to these destinations in order to use these services. An alternative measure of accessibility is proposed, based on the time required to travel; this is then applied to three different Greek islands in the Aegean Sea. The accessibility of the residents of these islands to selected services is compared with that of settlements in continental Greece of similar population and distance to the capital Athens. The findings clearly demonstrate the adversities that island residents have to face, especially for smaller islands, where accessing selected services may require as many as four destinations, with virtual distances 4 to 6 times longer than ‘real distances’.

  20. Access to credit for SMEs: theories and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Arca, Pasqualina

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we focus on firms’ access to credit under different sources of asymmetric information. In Chapter 1 we analyze how the institution of debt discharge of bankruptcy law affects loan contracts. In particular we evaluates the effects of debt discharge on access to credit and cost of credit by taking into account its impact on the role of collateral as a signaling device. In the theoretical model we take explicitly into account the fact that borrowers can undo the effects of exem...

  1. Informality and Access to Finance : Evidence from India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Hoseini, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper gauges the effect of financial deepening and bank outreach on informality using micro data from the Indian manufacturing sector and exploiting cross-industry variation in the need for external finance. We distinguish between two channels through which access to finance can reduce informal

  2. 77 FR 6113 - Video Programming and Accessibility Advisory Committee; Announcement of Date of Next Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... COMMISSION Video Programming and Accessibility Advisory Committee; Announcement of Date of Next Meeting... meeting of the Video Programming Accessibility Advisory Committee (``Committee'' or ``VPAAC''). The Committee will continue developing recommendations for the Commission regarding the provision of...

  3. 76 FR 57989 - Video Programming and Accessibility Advisory Committee; Announcement of Date of Next Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... COMMISSION Video Programming and Accessibility Advisory Committee; Announcement of Date of Next Meeting... meeting of the Video Programming Accessibility Advisory Committee (``Committee'' or ``VPAAC''). The November meeting will continue to develop recommendations to the Commission regarding video...

  4. 76 FR 15028 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Interim Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property (75 FR 54946..., Safety Management System for Certificated Airports (75 FR 62008, October 7, 2010). However, the agency... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Interim Policy Regarding Access...

  5. Serving underserved transplant recipients: experience of the Medication Access Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spivey CA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Christina A Spivey,1 Marie A Chisholm-Burns,1 Charlene Garrett,2 Kenneth M Duke21University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy, Memphis, TN, USA; 2University of Georgia College of Pharmacy, Athens, GA, USAObjective: Programs have been established to help underserved, solid-organ transplant recipients and other patient populations address the burden of medication regimen costs. The purpose of this study was to describe one such program, the Medication Access Program (MAP, and the population of solid-organ transplant recipients it serves. An additional objective was to compare characteristics of recipients whose MAP enrollment was continued versus those who were discontinued during the annual re-enrollment period.Methods: Enrollment into MAP is based on referral from a pharmacist or another health care professional/transplant team member. To enroll, a recipient must complete an application which includes information about demographics, health care coverage, income, and medication regimen. To maintain enrollment, patients must complete a renewal application on an annual basis. Data were collected from renewal applications for 2012 and 2011 (for those who did not return the 2012 renewal applications. Chi-square analyses and Student’s t-test for independent samples were conducted to compare the characteristics of those who renewed their MAP enrollment in 2012 and those who were discontinued because they did not return the renewal application. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression was conducted to determine variables predictive of MAP continuation status.Results: In total, 246 recipients were included. The majority qualified for Medicare (67.9%, did not qualify for Medicaid (69.9%, and did not have private health care coverage (63.8%. Significantly more continued recipients qualified for Medicare compared to discontinued recipients (P=0.002. Discontinued recipients had a greater number of past discontinuations than continued recipients

  6. An Accessible User Interface for Geoscience and Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevre, E. O.; Lee, S.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this research is to develop an interface that will simplify user interaction with software for scientists. The motivating factor of the research is to develop tools that assist scientists with limited motor skills with the efficient generation and use of software tools. Reliance on computers and programming is increasing in the world of geology, and it is increasingly important for geologists and geophysicists to have the computational resources to use advanced software and edit programs for their research. I have developed a prototype of a program to help geophysicists write programs using a simple interface that requires only simple single-mouse-clicks to input code. It is my goal to minimize the amount of typing necessary to create simple programs and scripts to increase accessibility for people with disabilities limiting fine motor skills. This interface can be adapted for various programming and scripting languages. Using this interface will simplify development of code for C/C++, Java, and GMT, and can be expanded to support any other text based programming language. The interface is designed around the concept of maximizing the amount of code that can be written using a minimum number of clicks and typing. The screen is split into two sections: a list of click-commands is on the left hand side, and a text area is on the right hand side. When the user clicks on a command on the left hand side the applicable code is automatically inserted at the insertion point in the text area. Currently in the C/C++ interface, there are commands for common code segments that are often used, such as for loops, comments, print statements, and structured code creation. The primary goal is to provide an interface that will work across many devices for developing code. A simple prototype has been developed for the iPad. Due to the limited number of devices that an iOS application can be used with, the code has been re-written in Java to run on a wider range of devices

  7. Childhood Immunization and Access to Health Care: Evidence From Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Satis; Panda, Bibhudutta

    2016-03-01

    This article examines the effect of access to health care center, in terms of travel time, on childhood immunization in Nepal using the 2004 and 2011 waves of the Nepal Living Standards Measurement Surveys. We employ probit and instrumental variable probit estimation methods to estimate the causal effect of travel time on the probability of immunization. Results indicate that travel time to the nearest health center displays a significant negative association with the probability of immunization (coefficient = -0.015,Peffect of travel time tends to be stronger in rural and distant areas of Nepal's mountain and hill regions. The results suggest that policy interventions should increase the number of mobile clinics in rural villages and provide conditional cash transfer to incentivize immunization coverage at the household level. In addition, household income, parental education, ethnicity, and household location emerge as important determinants of immunization in Nepal. PMID:26809971

  8. 75 FR 34941 - Review of the Commission's Program Access Rules and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Tying Arrangements, MB Docket No. 07-198, FCC 10-17, at 75 FR 9692. The Ordering Clause of the First...(c)(3) published at 75 FR 9692, March 3, 2010 are effective on June 21, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 76 Review of the Commission's Program Access Rules and Examination of...

  9. ACCESS 1: Approximation Concepts Code for Efficient Structural Synthesis program documentation and user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, H.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The program documentation and user's guide for the ACCESS-1 computer program is presented. ACCESS-1 is a research oriented program which implements a collection of approximation concepts to achieve excellent efficiency in structural synthesis. The finite element method is used for structural analysis and general mathematical programming algorithms are applied in the design optimization procedure. Implementation of the computer program, preparation of input data and basic program structure are described, and three illustrative examples are given.

  10. Economic Impact of the Critical Access Hospital Program on Kentucky's Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ona, Lucia; Davis, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Context: In 1997, the Medicare Rural Hospital Flexibility Grant Program created the Critical Access Hospital (CAH) Program as a response to the financial distress of rural hospitals. It was believed that this program would reduce the rate of rural hospital closures and improve access to health care services in rural communities. Objective: The…

  11. 76 FR 21741 - Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... COMMISSION Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town... Programming Accessibility Act (the Act or CVAA) hosted by the California State University at Northridge (CSUN... and video programming changes required by the Act. DATES: The Town Hall meeting was held on...

  12. 47 CFR 79.2 - Accessibility of programming providing emergency information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accessibility of programming providing...) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CLOSED CAPTIONING AND VIDEO DESCRIPTION OF VIDEO PROGRAMMING § 79.2 Accessibility of programming providing emergency information. (a) Definitions. (1) For purposes of this...

  13. Pilot Mobile Smoking Cessation Program Reaches Underserved — Increases Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Barouh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a pilot mobile smoking cessation programthat occurred between 2007 and 2009 across two suburban New Yorkcounties, serving 1,263 individuals. The program was designed andcarried out with three objectives: (a to assess and reduce a potential service disparity faced by adult smokers in heavily disadvantaged communities—including people marginalized by homelessness, economic distress, lack of transportation, alcoholism / drug addiction, mental illness, and/or HIV; (b to use evidence-based methods to promote smoking cessation and reduction among such adults in 14 specific lowincome Long Island, NY areas; (c to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of the program’s mobile service modality. Results of this pilot program show that meaningful percentages of the target population had: (1 never encountered a smoking cessation message prior to engagement with thismobile program (38%; (2 a demonstrated desire to quit smoking despite the heightened stresses in their lives that other people don’t face, and (3 a demonstrated ability to quit or reduce smoking when given help in a form (including mobile service that works for them. This paper concludes that Stakeholders and Policymakers in this and/or similar jurisdications would benefit from uniting to fund and design an extended mobile service delivery and data-gathering project that serves a greater number of at-risk/ multi-disadvantaged people, while seeking to quantify the financialsavings to the community that results from helping disadvantaged people to: (1 quit smoking and (2 become linked to affordable doctors for regular check-ups. This pilot program demonstrated a positive social justice impact and suggests a possible parallel positive financial impact on the community worthy of exploration.

  14. Access Services Education in Library and Information Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, David

    2009-01-01

    This article defines the elements of Access Services, explains the importance of those aspects in the library, and proposes a course centered on Access Services for library schools. The areas of circulation, interlibrary loan, course reserves, collection maintenance, and public relations are core components of Access Services. Each of those…

  15. 29 CFR 1601.16 - Access to and production of evidence; testimony of witnesses; procedure and authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to and production of evidence; testimony of... Employment Practices Investigation of A Charge § 1601.16 Access to and production of evidence; testimony of... attendance and testimony of witnesses; (2) The production of evidence including, but not limited to,...

  16. Evidence Scan of Work Experience Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Samina Sattar

    2010-01-01

    This report presents evidence on the effectiveness of interventions that include work experience as a strategy to improve employment outcomes for people with barriers to employment. The report reviews 26 years of rigorous research gathering information from 27 evaluations. The author distinguishes between interventions targeting adults versus youth, paid versus unpaid work, and length of work opportunity.

  17. Open access of evidence-based publications: the case of the orthopedic and musculoskeletal literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammine, Kaissar

    2015-11-01

    The open access model, where researchers can publish their work and make it freely available to the whole medical community, is gaining ground over the traditional type of publication. However, fees are to be paid by either the authors or their institutions. The purpose of this paper is to assess the proportion and type of open access evidence-based articles in the form of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the field of musculoskeletal disorders and orthopedic surgery. PubMed database was searched and the results showed a maximal number of hits for low back pain and total hip arthroplasty. We demonstrated that despite a 10-fold increase in the number of evidence-based publications in the past 10 years, the rate of free systematic reviews in the general biomedical literature did not change for the last two decades. In addition, the average percentage of free open access systematic reviews and meta-analyses for the commonest painful musculoskeletal conditions and orthopedic procedures was 20% and 18%, respectively. Those results were significantly lower than those of the systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the remaining biomedical research. Such findings could indicate a divergence between the efforts engaged at promoting evidence-based principles and those at disseminating evidence-based findings in the field of musculoskeletal disease and trauma. The high processing fee is thought to be a major limitation when considering open access model for publication.

  18. Common Processes in Evidence-Based Adolescent HIV Prevention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Barbara L.; Flannery, Diane; Elkavich, Amy; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2008-01-01

    Dissemination of evidence-based HIV prevention programs for adolescents will be increased if community interventionists are able to distinguish core, essential program elements from optional, discretionary ones. We selected five successful adolescent HIV prevention programs, used a qualitative coding method to identify common processes described in the procedural manuals, and then compared the programs. Nineteen common processes were categorized as structural features, group management strate...

  19. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Ngogang, Jeanne Y

    2016-01-01

    Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs. PMID:27508058

  20. International Education Programs: Access to the World and Its Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Education Programs Service (IEPS) administers 14 education programs. These programs are complementary in nature and designed to benefit a variety of audiences through training programs, research, start-up or enhancement projects, and fellowships. This paper provides brief descriptions of these programs.

  1. Evaluation of Access, a Primary Care Program for Indigent Patients: Inpatient and Emergency Room Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Richard A.; Giancola, Angela; Gast, Andrea; Ho, Janice; Waddell, Rhondda

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated the impact of Accessing Community Care through Eastside Social Services (ACCESS), a program that provided indigent patients with free primary care, on inpatient admissions, emergency room (ER) visits, and subsequent charges. Data on 19 people before and after program enrollment showed significant decreases in ER visits following…

  2. 47 CFR 1.1805 - Federal Communications Commission Section 504 Programs and Activities Accessibility Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Communications Commission Section 504 Programs and Activities Accessibility Handbook. The Consumer & Governmental... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal Communications Commission Section 504 Programs and Activities Accessibility Handbook. 1.1805 Section 1.1805 Telecommunication...

  3. Income Transfers and Maternal Health: Evidence from a National Randomized Social Cash Transfer Program in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Peterman, Amber; Seidenfeld, David; Tembo, Gelson

    2016-02-01

    There is promising recent evidence that poverty-targeted social cash transfers have potential to improve maternal health outcomes; however, questions remain surrounding design features responsible for impacts. In addition, virtually no evidence exists from the African region. This study explores the impact of Zambia's Child Grant Program on a range of maternal health utilization outcomes using a randomized design and difference-in-differences multivariate regression from data collected over 24 months from 2010 to 2012. Results indicate that while there are no measurable program impacts among the main sample, there are heterogeneous impacts on skilled attendance at birth among a sample of women residing in households having better access to maternal health services. The latter result is particularly interesting because of the overall low level of health care availability in program areas suggesting that dedicated program design or matching supply-side interventions may be necessary to leverage unconditional cash transfers in similar settings to impact maternal health.

  4. Disinfection of the Access Orifice in NOTES: Evaluation of the Evidence Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael H. Sodergren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Appropriate prevention of infection is a key area of research in natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES, as identified by the Natural Orifice Surgery Consortium for Assessment and Research (NOSCAR. Methods. A review of the literature was conducted evaluating the evidence base for access orifice preparation/treatment in NOTES procedures in the context of infectious complications. Recommendations based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines were made. Results. The most robust evidence includes several experimental randomised controlled trials assessing infectious complications in the transgastric approach to NOTES. Transvaginal procedures are long established for accessing the peritoneal cavity following disinfection with antiseptic. Only experimental case series for transcolonic and transvesical approaches are described. Conclusion. Grade C recommendation requiring no preoperative preparation can be made for the transgastric approach. Antiseptic irrigation is recommended for transvaginal (grade C NOTES access, as is current practice. Further human trials need to be conducted to corroborate the current evidence base for transgastric closure. It is important that future trials are conducted in a methodologically robust fashion, with emphasis on clinical outcomes and standardisation of enterotomy closure and postoperative therapy.

  5. Is Access Sufficient?: An Examination of the Effects of the MedShare Program to Expand Access to Prescription Drugs for Indigent Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Thomas; Carrozza, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We conduct an evaluation of MedShare, a program designed to enhance access to prescription drugs for indigent patients in the Greater Cincinnati area. The program expands access to drugs by providing subsidies to reduce the costs paid by patients for their prescriptions. The assumption is that by expanding access to prescription drugs, participant…

  6. Hand Society and Matching Program Web Sites Provide Poor Access to Information Regarding Hand Surgery Fellowship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Richard M; Klifto, Christopher S; Naik, Amish A; Sapienza, Anthony; Capo, John T

    2016-08-01

    The Internet is a common resource for applicants of hand surgery fellowships, however, the quality and accessibility of fellowship online information is unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the accessibility of hand surgery fellowship Web sites and to assess the quality of information provided via program Web sites. Hand fellowship Web site accessibility was evaluated by reviewing the American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) on November 16, 2014 and the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) fellowship directories on February 12, 2015, and performing an independent Google search on November 25, 2014. Accessible Web sites were then assessed for quality of the presented information. A total of 81 programs were identified with the ASSH directory featuring direct links to 32% of program Web sites and the NRMP directory directly linking to 0%. A Google search yielded direct links to 86% of program Web sites. The quality of presented information varied greatly among the 72 accessible Web sites. Program description (100%), fellowship application requirements (97%), program contact email address (85%), and research requirements (75%) were the most commonly presented components of fellowship information. Hand fellowship program Web sites can be accessed from the ASSH directory and, to a lesser extent, the NRMP directory. However, a Google search is the most reliable method to access online fellowship information. Of assessable programs, all featured a program description though the quality of the remaining information was variable. Hand surgery fellowship applicants may face some difficulties when attempting to gather program information online. Future efforts should focus on improving the accessibility and content quality on hand surgery fellowship program Web sites. PMID:27625537

  7. Using Community Access Cable in an Extension Parenting Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Steve A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Utah State Extension collaborated with community groups and local cable providers to broadcast programs for parents on teen sexuality and substance abuse. A survey of cable subscribers yielded 638 responses (4.5%). Of the 103 who watched programs, most were positive, but better ways to advertise the programs were needed. (SK)

  8. 32 CFR 154.17 - Special access programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and prior Orders. Title 32 CFR part 159 governs the establishment of Departmental Special Access... Security standards of DCID 1/14 are met. (2) A previous investigation conducted within the past five years... the Armed Forces does not satisfy this requirement. (B) Interim certification is authorized for...

  9. 50 CFR 300.67 - Charter halibut limited access program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of a vessel with one or more charter vessel anglers catching and retaining Pacific halibut on board a vessel must have on board the vessel an original valid charter halibut permit or permits endorsed for the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charter halibut limited access...

  10. Avatars travel for free: virtual access to evidence-based intervention training and capacity building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarruel, Antonia M; Aebersold, Michelle; Valladares, Angel F; Yeagley, Emily; Tschannen, Dana

    2014-10-01

    Virtual facilitator trainings have the potential to accelerate the dissemination of evidence-based interventions by increasing accessibility and affordability. We explore the feasibility and acceptability of translating facilitator trainings of ¡Cuídate!, an evidence-based sexual risk intervention for Latino youth, to a multi-user virtual environment (Second Life). We describe the adaptation process and compare participant ratings of face-to-face (n = 35) and Second Life trainings (n = 26). Second Life participants reported that training resources, activities, and demonstrations were good/very good (97%, 88.5%, 94%). While face-to-face participants rated training process outcomes significantly higher than those in Second Life (p virtual trainings are an acceptable and feasible option for training community facilitators on evidence-based interventions. This study contributes to the development of trainings necessary to disseminate and implement evidence-based interventions and is an important effort in providing end-users with access to trainings in order to provide needed community services.

  11. 47 CFR 76.1507 - Competitive access to satellite cable programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... programming. 76.1507 Section 76.1507 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... access to satellite cable programming. (a) Any provision that applies to a cable operator under §§ 76... provides video programming on its open video system, except as limited by paragraph (a) (1)-(3) of...

  12. How Does Land Title Affect Access to Credit? Empirical Evidence from an Emerging Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Caio Piza; Mauricio José Serpa Barros de Moura

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effects property rights on credit access using a unique data set based on a Brazilian land-titling program affecting 85,000 families. The causal role of land title is isolated by comparing two communities in Osasco, where some residential units are allocated titles and others not. Survey data is collected from residents before and after the title granting. In order to estimate land title impact, we have undertaken the Difference-in- Differences methodology. Some of our ...

  13. 45 CFR 1706.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE §...

  14. 45 CFR 1706.149 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE §...

  15. Increased access to evidence-based primary mental health care: will the implementation match the rhetoric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickie, Ian B; McGorry, Patrick D

    2007-07-16

    There is clear evidence that coordinated systems of medical and psychological care ("collaborative care") are superior to single-provider-based treatment regimens. Although other general practice-based mental health schemes promoted collaborative care, the new Medicare Benefits Schedule payments revert largely to individual-provider service systems and fee-for-service rebates. Such systems have previously resulted in high out-of-pocket expenses, poor geographical and socioeconomic distribution of specialist services, and proliferation of individual-provider-based treatments rather than collaborative care. The new arrangements for broad access to psychological therapies should provide the financial basis for major structural reform. Unless this reform is closely monitored for equity of access, degree of out-of-pocket expenses, extent of development of evidence-based collaborative care structures, and impact on young people in the early phases of mental illness, we may waste this opportunity. The responsibility for achieving the best outcome does not lie only with governments. To date, the professions have not placed enough emphasis on systematically adopting evidence-based forms of collaborative care. PMID:17635093

  16. 78 FR 77074 - Accessibility of User Interfaces, and Video Programming Guides and Menus; Accessible Emergency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    .... Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis 17. As required by the Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980, as amended (``RFA''),\\23\\ the Commission has prepared this present Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis... subscription service that delivers video and audio programming via satellite to a small parabolic...

  17. Potential access to primary health care: what does the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement data show?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchôa, Severina Alice da Costa; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Fronteira, Inês Santos Estevinho; Coêlho, Ardigleusa Alves; Martiniano, Claudia Santos; Brandão, Isabel Cristina Araújo; Yamamura, Mellina; Maroto, Renata Melo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the influence of contextual indicators on the performance of municipalities regarding potential access to primary health care in Brazil and to discuss the contribution from nurses working on this access. Method: a multicenter descriptive study based on secondary data from External Evaluation of the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care, with the participation of 17,202 primary care teams. The chi-square test of proportions was used to verify differences between the municipalities stratified based on size of the coverage area, supply, coordination, and integration; when necessary, the chi-square test with Yates correction or Fisher's exact test were employed. For the population variable, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used. Results: the majority of participants were nurses (n=15.876; 92,3%). Statistically significant differences were observed between the municipalities in terms of territory (p=0.0000), availability (p=0.0000), coordination of care (p=0.0000), integration (p=0.0000) and supply (p=0.0000), verifying that the municipalities that make up area 6 tend to have better performance in these dimensions. Conclusion: areas 4,5 and 6 performed better in every analyzed dimension, and the nurse had a leading role in the potential to access primary health care in Brazil. PMID:26959332

  18. Potential access to primary health care: what does the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement data show?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severina Alice da Costa Uchôa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the influence of contextual indicators on the performance of municipalities regarding potential access to primary health care in Brazil and to discuss the contribution from nurses working on this access. Method: a multicenter descriptive study based on secondary data from External Evaluation of the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care, with the participation of 17,202 primary care teams. The chi-square test of proportions was used to verify differences between the municipalities stratified based on size of the coverage area, supply, coordination, and integration; when necessary, the chi-square test with Yates correction or Fisher's exact test were employed. For the population variable, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used. Results: the majority of participants were nurses (n=15.876; 92,3%. Statistically significant differences were observed between the municipalities in terms of territory (p=0.0000, availability (p=0.0000, coordination of care (p=0.0000, integration (p=0.0000 and supply (p=0.0000, verifying that the municipalities that make up area 6 tend to have better performance in these dimensions. Conclusion: areas 4,5 and 6 performed better in every analyzed dimension, and the nurse had a leading role in the potential to access primary health care in Brazil.

  19. 76 FR 56091 - Expansion of 911 Access; Telecommunications Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ..., ``Department Programs and Activities Excluded from Executive Order 12372'' (50 FR 47034). Information... residents that broadband service is a critical component to the future of rural America and modern emergency... sixty-minute period immediately following a traumatic injury, like an injury resulting from a car...

  20. Access, Equity, and Opportunity. Women in Machining: A Model Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Heather

    The Women in Machining (WIM) program is a Machine Action Project (MAP) initiative that was developed in response to a local skilled metalworking labor shortage, despite a virtual absence of women and people of color from area shops. The project identified post-war stereotypes and other barriers that must be addressed if women are to have an equal…

  1. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer; Gorgol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched a 10-year, multi-million dollar initiative, the Washington State Achievers Program (WSA), to increase opportunities for low-income students to attend postsecondary institutions in Washington State. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation granted funds to the College Success Foundation (CSF),…

  2. 78 FR 36478 - Accessibility of User Interfaces, and Video Programming Guides and Menus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 79 Accessibility of User Interfaces, and Video Programming Guides and Menus AGENCY... to ensure that user interfaces, and video programming guides, and menus provided by digital apparatus... formats (computer diskettes, large print, audio recording, and Braille), send an email to...

  3. 78 FR 23893 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Market Access Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... section 1485.13. In addition, in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget's policy (68 FR 38402... Access Program (MAP). The intended effect of this notice is to solicit applications from eligible applicants for fiscal year 2014 and to set out criteria for the award of funds under the program in...

  4. 78 FR 33445 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access For Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access For Credit Unions AGENCY: National..., 2011. 76 FR 67583. Additional requirements are found at 12 CFR Parts 701 and 741. Applicants should... Qualifying Credit Union that submits a complete Application to NCUA under the OSCUI Grant Program. B....

  5. 78 FR 77721 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions AGENCY: National... Opportunity The purpose of the OSCUI Grant Program is to assist specially designated credit unions in.... A revised Part 705 was published on November 2, 2011. 76 FR 67583. Additional requirements are...

  6. Evidence of eligibility manipulation for conditional cash transfer programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Firpo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses whether eligibility for conditional cash transfer programs has been manipulated, as well as the impact of this phenomenon on time allocation within households. To perform this analysis, we use data from the 2006 PNAD (Brazilian national household survey and investigate the eligibility manipulation for the Bolsa Família (Family Stipend program during this time period. The program assists families with a monthly per capita income of around R$120.00 (US$60.00. By applying the tests developed by McCrary (2008, we find suggestive evidence that individuals manipulate their income by voluntarily reducing their labor supply in order to become eligible to the program. Moreover, the reduction in labor supply is greater among women, especially single or divorced mothers. This evidence raises some concern about the unintended consequences related to the eligibility criteria utilized by Bolsa Família, as well as the program's impact on individuals living in extreme poverty.

  7. Associative programming language and virtual associative access manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C.

    1978-01-01

    APL provides convenient associative data manipulation functions in a high level language. Six statements were added to PL/1 via a preprocessor: CREATE, INSERT, FIND, FOR EACH, REMOVE, and DELETE. They allow complete control of all data base operations. During execution, data base management programs perform the functions required to support the APL language. VAAM is the data base management system designed to support the APL language. APL/VAAM is used by CADANCE, an interactive graphic computer system. VAAM is designed to support heavily referenced files. Virtual memory files, which utilize the paging mechanism of the operating system, are used. VAAM supports a full network data structure. The two basic blocks in a VAAM file are entities and sets. Entities are the basic information element and correspond to PL/1 based structures defined by the user. Sets contain the relationship information and are implemented as arrays.

  8. 25 CFR 170.128 - Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.128 Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for...

  9. Assessing Syringe Exchange Program Access among Persons Who Inject Drugs (PWID) in the District of Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sean T; Ruiz, Monica S; Jones, Jeff

    2016-02-01

    Prior research has explored spatial access to syringe exchange programs (SEPs) among persons who inject drugs (PWID), but these studies have been based on limited data from short periods of time. No research has explored changes in spatial access to SEPs among PWID longitudinally. The purpose of this research is to examine spatial access to SEPs among PWID who accessed services at a SEP in Washington, District of Columbia (DC), from 1996 to 2010. The geometric point distance estimation technique was used to calculate the mean walking distance PWID traveled from the centroid point of their zip code of home residence to the mobile exchange site where they accessed SEP services. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences in walking distance measures by year. The results of this research suggest that the distance DC PWID traveled to access SEP services remained relatively constant (approximately 2.75 mi) from 2003 to 2008, but increased to just over 4 mi in 2010. This research provides support for expanding SEP operations such that PWID have increased access to their services. Increasing SEP accessibility may help resolve unmet needs among injectors. PMID:26786782

  10. Early access programs: Benefits, challenges, and key considerations for successful implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sanjaykumar

    2016-01-01

    Early access programs, (EAPs) are adopted by an increasing number of pharma companies due to several benefits offered by these programs. EAPs offer ethical, compliant, and controlled mechanisms of access to investigational drugs outside of the clinical trial space and before the commercial launch of the drug, to patients with life-threatening diseases having no treatment options available. In addition to the development of positive relationships with key opinion leaders (KOL), patients, advocacy groups and regulators, the data captured from the implementation of EAPs supports in the formulation of global commercialization strategies. This white paper outlines various circumstances to be considered for the implementation of EAPs named patient programs, the regulatory landscape, the benefits and challenges associated with implementing these programs and the key considerations for their successful implementation. PMID:26955570

  11. Accession incentives for institutional change in post-socialist countries: cross-section and country evidence from NATO enlargement

    OpenAIRE

    Schweickert, Rainer; Melnykovska, Inna; Heitmann, Hanno

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the transformative power of NATO accession that gains in importance due to the enlargement fatigue of the EU, the EU’s rather weak neighbourhood incentives and the increasing importance of regional security as an incentive for compliance with the institutional standards of democracy and market economy. Econometric cross-country evidence from a hazard model reveals that the entry into NATO’s accession process is mainly driven by neighbourhood and strategic effects rather th...

  12. Worker programs and resource use: Evidence from better work jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Nathan

    This paper examines data collected for the Better Work program in Jordan which aims to protect laborers in the garment industry from poor working conditions. Data are examined to look for benefits to the factories participating in the program beyond improved compliance with labor law. In particular, potential impacts to firm energy use are examined and correlations are tested between electricity use rates and measures of worker outcomes and a number of factory traits such as size and production input costs. Evidence was found to back up work done in Vietnam with regard to resource use and distribution of electricity expenses. It was also found that the type of data being collected is not ideal for examinations of energy, and more direct methods are desirable, and that considerable production obstacles are worker skill level, electricity prices, and to a greater degree in Jordan than in previously examined countries, water prices.

  13. 77 FR 5295 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project Selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... by Section 3038 of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). The OTRB... FTA's Transportation Electronic Awards Management System (TEAM) for the projects identified in Tables... TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of...

  14. 28 CFR 16.77 - Exemption of U.S. Trustee Program System-limited access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of U.S. Trustee Program System-limited access. 16.77 Section 16.77 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE... existence of a confidential investigation or reveal the identity of witnesses or confidential informants....

  15. 28 CFR 16.100 - Exemption of Office of Justice Programs-limited access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of Office of Justice Programs-limited access. 16.100 Section 16.100 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR... identity of such confidential sources will not be compromised....

  16. 78 FR 2449 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    .... A revised Part 705 was published on November 2, 2011. 76 FR 67583. Additional requirements are found... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions AGENCY:...

  17. 16 CFR 6.152 - Program accessibility: Electronic and information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information technology. (a) When developing, procuring, maintaining, or using electronic and information... electronic and information technology allows, regardless of the type of medium of the technology: (1... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program accessibility: Electronic...

  18. 75 FR 54946 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Federal Register on October 13, 2009 (74 FR 52524). Comments were due on March 31, 2010. Comments on the... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports... Federally obligated airport from an adjacent or nearby property, when that property is used as a...

  19. The impact of the changing English higher education marketplace on widening participation and fair access : evidence from a discourse analysis of access agreements

    OpenAIRE

    McCaig, Colin

    2015-01-01

    This article uses a discourse analysis of access policy statements to trace the impact of differentiation and marketisation among English HE institutions that was evident before but accelerated by recent policy developments, including the increase in tuition fees. A result of this has been a shift in institutions' policy discourses that indicate less propitious circumstances for widening participation, particularly among post-1992 institutions which are now expected to improve retention and e...

  20. Internet access, awareness and utilisation of web based evidence: a survey of ANZ and Singaporean radiation oncology registrars in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past decade has seen an 'explosion' in electronically archived evidence available on the Internet. Access to, and awareness of, pre-appraised web based evidence such as is available at the Cochrane Library, and more recently the Cancer Library, is now easily accessible to both clinicians and patients. A postal survey was recently sent out to all Radiation Oncology registrars in Australia, New Zealand and Singapore. The aim of the survey was to ascertain previous training in literature searching and critical appraisal, the extent of Internet access and use of web based evidence and awareness of databases including the Cochrane Library. Sixty six (66) out of ninety (90) registrars responded (73% response rate). Fifty five percent of respondents had previously undertaken some form of training related to literature searching or critical appraisal. The majority (68%) felt confident in performing a literature search, although 80% of respondents indicated interest in obtaining further training. The majority (68%) reported accessing web-based evidence for literature searching in the previous week, and 92% in the previous month. Nearly all respondents (89%) accessed web-based evidence at work. Most (94%) were aware of the Cochrane Library with 48% of respondents having used this database. Sixty-eight percent were aware of the Cancer Library. In 2000 a similar survey revealed only 68% of registrars aware and 30% having used the Cochrane Library. These findings reveal almost universal access to the Internet and use of web-based evidence amongst Radiation Oncology registrars. There has been a marked increase in awareness and use of the Cochrane Library with the majority also aware of the recently introduced Cancer Library

  1. 75 FR 9691 - Review of the Commission's Program Access Rules and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... action will provide competitors to incumbent cable operators with an opportunity to obtain access to... previously sought specific comment on how the Commission might ``further reduce the information collection... established herein will provide competitors to incumbent cable operators with an opportunity to obtain...

  2. Policies and programs to facilitate access to targeted cancer therapies in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosarin Sruamsiri

    Full Text Available Increasing access to clinically beneficial targeted cancer medicines is a challenge in every country due to their high cost. We describe the interplay of innovative policies and programs involving multiple stakeholders to facilitate access to these medicines in Thailand, as well as the utilization of selected targeted therapies over time.We selected two medicines on the 2013 Thai national list of essential medicines (NLEM [letrozole and imatinib] and three unlisted medicines for the same indications [trastuzumab, nilotinib and dasatinib]. We created timelines of access policies and programs for these products based on scientific and grey literature. Using IMS Health sales data, we described the trajectories of sales volumes of the study medicines between January 2001 and December 2012. We compared estimated average numbers of patients treated before and after the implementation of policies and programs for each product.Different stakeholders implemented multiple interventions to increase access to the study medicines for different patient populations. During 2007-2009, the Thai Government created a special NLEM category with different coverage requirements for payers and issued compulsory licenses; payers negotiated prices with manufacturers and engaged in pooled procurement; pharmaceutical companies expanded patient assistance programs and lowered prices in different ways. Compared to before the interventions, estimated numbers of patients treated with each medicine increased significantly afterwards: for letrozole from 645 (95% CI 366-923 to 3683 (95% CI 2,748-4,618; for imatinib from 103 (95% CI 72-174 to 350 (95% CI 307-398; and for trastuzumab from 68 (95% CI 45-118 to 412 (95% CI 344-563.Government, payers, and manufacturers implemented multi-pronged approaches to facilitate access to targeted cancer therapies for the Thai population, which differed by medicine. Routine monitoring is needed to assess clinical and economic impacts of these

  3. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Tambo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs.

  4. The self-medication hypothesis: Evidence from terrorism and cigarette accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Baum, Christopher F

    2016-09-01

    We use single equation and system instrumental variable models to explore if individuals smoke during times of stress (the motivation effect) and if they are successful in self-medicating short-term stress (the self-medication effect). Short-term stress is a powerful motivator of smoking, and the decision to smoke could trigger biological feedback that immediately reduces short-term stress. We use data on self-reported smoking and stress from 240,388 current and former smokers. We instrument short-term stress with temporal distance from September 11, 2001 (using date of interview). We instrument smoking with cigarette accessibility measures of cigarette price changes and distance to state borders. In the absence of accounting for endogeneity, we find that smoking is associated with increases in short-term stress. However, when we account for endogeneity we find no evidence of smoking affecting short-term stress. We do find a consistent positive effect of short-term stress on smoking. PMID:27037500

  5. Evidence, models, conservation programs and limits to management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Walsh et al. (2012) emphasized the importance of obtaining evidence to assess the effects of management actions on state variables relevant to objectives of conservation programs. They focused on malleefowl Leipoa ocellata, ground-dwelling Australian megapodes listed as vulnerable. They noted that although fox Vulpes vulpes baiting is the main management action used in malleefowl conservation throughout southern Australia, evidence of the effectiveness of this action is limited and currently debated. Walsh et al. (2012) then used data from 64 sites monitored for malleefowl and foxes over 23 years to assess key functional relationships relevant to fox control as a conservation action for malleefowl. In one set of analyses, Walsh et al. (2012) focused on two relationships: fox baiting investment versus fox presence, and fox presence versus malleefowl population size and rate of population change. Results led to the counterintuitive conclusion that increases in investments in fox control produced slight decreases in malleefowl population size and growth. In a second set of analyses, Walsh et al. (2012) directly assessed the relationship between investment in fox baiting and malleefowl population size and rate of population change. This set of analyses showed no significant relationship between investment in fox population control and malleefowl population growth. Both sets of analyses benefited from the incorporation of key environmental covariates hypothesized to influence these management relationships. Walsh et al. (2012) concluded that "in most situations, malleefowl conservation did not effectively benefit from fox baiting at current levels of investment." In this commentary, I discuss the work of Walsh et al. (2012) using the conceptual framework of structured decision making (SDM). In doing so, I accept their analytic results and associated conclusions as accurate and discuss basic ideas about evidence, conservation and limits to management.

  6. Intellectual property rights vs. public access rights: ethical aspects of the DeCSS decryptation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Vaagan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In 1999-2000, a Norwegian youth cracked a DVD-access code and published a decryptation program on the Internet. He was sued by the US DVD Copy Control Association (DVD-CCA and the Norwegian Motion Picture Association (MAP, allies of the US Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA, arrested by Norwegian police and charged with data crime. Two Norwegian court rulings in 2003 unanimously ruled that the program did not amount to a breach of Norwegian law, and he was fully acquitted. In the US, there have been related cases, some with other outcomes. Method. Based on a theoretical framework developed by Zwass, the paper discusses these court rulings and the wider issues of intellectual property rights versus public access rights. Analysis. The DVD-Jon case illustrates that intellectual property rights can conflict with public access rights, as the struggle between proprietary software and public domain software, as well as the SPARC and Open Archives Initiative reflect. Results. An assessment of the DVD-Jon case based on the Zwass framework does not give a clear information ethics answer. The analysis depends on whether one ascribes to consequentialist (e.g., utilitarian or de-ontological reflection, and also on which side of the digital gap is to be accorded most weight. Conclusion. While copyright interests are being legally strengthened, there may be ethically- grounded access rights that outweigh property rights.

  7. Positive Psychology Program for equal Access for Children and Adolescents with Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kokotova, Tatjana; Miloseva, Lence; Angelovska, Beti; Milenkovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical frame of this paper was grounded in positive psychology programs and social ecology theory. Our main aim was to raise awareness against discrimination toward disabled children and adolescents. In the frame of the project Equal Access through Service Learning for Persons with Disabilities, we conducted our Service Learning Project, on which we based our paper. It consists of two parts. The main aim of the first part of the study was to identify students’discrimination attitud...

  8. Enabling Highly-Scalable Remote Memory Access Programming with MPI-3 One Sided

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Gerstenberger; Maciej Besta; Torsten Hoefler

    2014-01-01

    Modern interconnects offer remote direct memory access (RDMA) features. Yet, most applications rely on explicit message passing for communications albeit their unwanted overheads. The MPI-3.0 standard defines a programming interface for exploiting RDMA networks directly, however, it's scalability and practicability has to be demonstrated in practice. In this work, we develop scalable bufferless protocols that implement the MPI-3.0 specification. Our protocols support scaling to millions of co...

  9. Performance Evaluation of Remote Memory Access (RMA) Programming on Shared Memory Parallel Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hao-Qiang; Jost, Gabriele; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of remote memory access (RMA) programming on shared memory parallel computers. We discuss different RMA based implementations of selected CFD application benchmark kernels and compare them to corresponding message passing based codes. For the message-passing implementation we use MPI point-to-point and global communication routines. For the RMA based approach we consider two different libraries supporting this programming model. One is a shared memory parallelization library (SMPlib) developed at NASA Ames, the other is the MPI-2 extensions to the MPI Standard. We give timing comparisons for the different implementation strategies and discuss the performance.

  10. [Self-help program: a new tool to facilitate the access to treatment for problem gamblers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeremans, M; Noël, X; Verbanck, P

    2015-01-01

    Shame, fear of stigmatization, denial, accessibility to and the cost of treatment program may explain why only a small proportion of problem gamblers sought clinical treatment. In the hope to overcome these barriers, the Gambling Clinic and Other Behavioral Addictions of C.H.U. Brugmann (Brussels) has developed its own self-help program for excessive gamblers. Our goals were to foster readiness to change gambling behaviors and when appropriate to facilitate the transition from self-help program to classical face-to-face clinical intervention. In a sample of 172 problem gamblers who participated, 40% had never sought help (e.g., clinical treatment) and/or never attempted quit gambling. Interestingly, for some, internet-based self-help treatment preceded their determination for seeking a traditional face-to-face therapeutic setting. Those results led us to discuss this program as a valid clinical tool within a broader health care setting in excessive gamblers. PMID:26164965

  11. How States are Implementing Evidence-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs Through the Personal Responsibility Education Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Zief; Rachel Shapiro; Debra Strong

    2014-01-01

    Congress created the Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP), an initiative to fund evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs, in 2010 to help reduce teen pregnancies and their negative consequences. The evaluation will expand the knowledge base on teen pregnancy prevention programs and help to identify decisions, successes, and challenges involved in replicating, adapting, and scaling up evidence-based programs. This issue brief documents key decisions state grantees made ab...

  12. Supporting the whole student: Inclusive program design for making undergraduate research experiences accessible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker-Santos, R.; Allen, L.; Batchelor, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    As undergraduate research experiences have become an unofficial pre-requisite to enter graduate school programs in the sciences, we have to make sure that these experiences are inclusive and accessible to all students. Program managers who make a conscious effort to recruit students from traditionally under-represented groups, including veterans, non-traditional students or students with disabilities, are often unaware of the financial and program implications these students require, and discover that their current program design might inadvertently exclude or not fully support these students. The SOARS Program, an undergraduate-to-graduate bridge program in the atmospheric sciences, has supported this group of students for over 15 years. We have found that we needed to adjust some program elements and secure extra funding sources to holistically support our students in their research experience, however, the program and the students have reaped tremendous benefits. Involving non-traditional students or veterans in our program has raised the maturity level and problem solving skills of the group, and having students with disabilities participate has been a vehicle for broadening perspective and diverse knowledge into the field of study, e.g. researching weather and climate beyond what you can 'see'. This presentation will highlight some of the findings from the SOARS program experience, and will share practices for recruitment and holistic support to ensure student success. We will share resources and tips on inclusive program design, including working with students with family commitments or physical disabilities, and will report on the enormous program benefits and peer learning these students have brought to the student cohorts and research labs they are working in.

  13. Determinants of access to credit for SMEs: evidence at the level of the firm in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Alberto Botello Peñaloza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financing allows companies to address their economic resources to obtain external activities at different terms. However, there are flaws in the credit markets that limit this process, especially in SMEs. Taking into account the above, the objective of the paper is to investigate the determinants of access to credit for these businesses in Latin America. The analysis is based on a discrete choice model compound from the internal and external characteristics of the firms. It is evident that the size and technological capability are the most influential variables for access to funding markets, due to its ability to generate competitive advantages.

  14. The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access : An evidence-based review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tennant, Jonathan P.; Waldner, François; Jacques, Damien C.; Masuzzo, Paola; Collister, Lauren B.; Hartgerink, C.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing debates surrounding Open Access to the scholarly literature are multifaceted and complicated by disparate and often polarised viewpoints from engaged stakeholders. At the current stage, Open Access has become such a global issue that it is critical for all involved in scholarly publishing, i

  15. Access and Barriers to Postsecondary Education: Evidence from the Youth in Transition Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnie, Ross; Wismer, Andrew; Mueller, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    We exploit the Youth in Transition Survey, Cohort A, to investigate access and barriers to postsecondary education (PSE). We first look at how access to PSE by age 21 is related to family characteristics, including family income and parental education. We find that the effects of the latter significantly dominate those of the former. Among the 25%…

  16. Effects of Job Accessibility Improved by Public Transport System: Natural Experimental Evidence from the Copenhagen Metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons Rotger, Gabriel Angel; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of accessibility to urban jobs via a public transport system on individual earnings and commuting behaviour. The effect of improved public transport based accessibility on these outcomes is determined by exploiting the exogenous variation in access to a public rail...... and Metro system resulting from the construction of a new terminal Metro station connecting southern townships to Copenhagen city centre. The results show that public transport based job accessibility has a positive and permanent effect on individual earnings. The increase in earnings is associated...... with a change in commuting patterns as the improved access to public transport facilitates a shift from employment within the township to better paid jobs in the city centre, as well as in other suburbs of the Copenhagen Metropolitan area...

  17. The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Jonathan P; Waldner, François; Jacques, Damien C; Masuzzo, Paola; Collister, Lauren B; Hartgerink, Chris H J

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing debates surrounding Open Access to the scholarly literature are multifaceted and complicated by disparate and often polarised viewpoints from engaged stakeholders. At the current stage, Open Access has become such a global issue that it is critical for all involved in scholarly publishing, including policymakers, publishers, research funders, governments, learned societies, librarians, and academic communities, to be well-informed on the history, benefits, and pitfalls of Open Access. In spite of this, there is a general lack of consensus regarding the potential pros and cons of Open Access at multiple levels. This review aims to be a resource for current knowledge on the impacts of Open Access by synthesizing important research in three major areas: academic, economic and societal. While there is clearly much scope for additional research, several key trends are identified, including a broad citation advantage for researchers who publish openly, as well as additional benefits to the non-academic dissemination of their work. The economic impact of Open Access is less well-understood, although it is clear that access to the research literature is key for innovative enterprises, and a range of governmental and non-governmental services. Furthermore, Open Access has the potential to save both publishers and research funders considerable amounts of financial resources, and can provide some economic benefits to traditionally subscription-based journals. The societal impact of Open Access is strong, in particular for advancing citizen science initiatives, and leveling the playing field for researchers in developing countries. Open Access supersedes all potential alternative modes of access to the scholarly literature through enabling unrestricted re-use, and long-term stability independent of financial constraints of traditional publishers that impede knowledge sharing. However, Open Access has the potential to become unsustainable for research communities if

  18. The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access: an evidence-based review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Jonathan P.; Waldner, François; Jacques, Damien C.; Masuzzo, Paola; Collister, Lauren B.; Hartgerink, Chris. H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing debates surrounding Open Access to the scholarly literature are multifaceted and complicated by disparate and often polarised viewpoints from engaged stakeholders. At the current stage, Open Access has become such a global issue that it is critical for all involved in scholarly publishing, including policymakers, publishers, research funders, governments, learned societies, librarians, and academic communities, to be well-informed on the history, benefits, and pitfalls of Open Access. In spite of this, there is a general lack of consensus regarding the potential pros and cons of Open Access at multiple levels. This review aims to be a resource for current knowledge on the impacts of Open Access by synthesizing important research in three major areas: academic, economic and societal. While there is clearly much scope for additional research, several key trends are identified, including a broad citation advantage for researchers who publish openly, as well as additional benefits to the non-academic dissemination of their work. The economic impact of Open Access is less well-understood, although it is clear that access to the research literature is key for innovative enterprises, and a range of governmental and non-governmental services. Furthermore, Open Access has the potential to save both publishers and research funders considerable amounts of financial resources, and can provide some economic benefits to traditionally subscription-based journals. The societal impact of Open Access is strong, in particular for advancing citizen science initiatives, and leveling the playing field for researchers in developing countries. Open Access supersedes all potential alternative modes of access to the scholarly literature through enabling unrestricted re-use, and long-term stability independent of financial constraints of traditional publishers that impede knowledge sharing. However, Open Access has the potential to become unsustainable for research communities if

  19. Social media and gamification: Engaging vulnerable parents in an online evidence-based parenting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Susan M; Sanders, Matthew R; Turner, Karen M T; Maurange, Marianne; Knott, Theresa; Prinz, Ronald; Metzler, Carol; Ainsworth, Andrew T

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility (accessibility, engagement and impact) of adding social media and gaming features (e.g., social sharing with anonymity, badges to incentivize skills practice, an accredited facilitator for support) and access via smartphones to an evidenced-based parenting program, Triple P Online. The highly vulnerable population included 155 disadvantaged, high-risk parents (e.g., 76% had a family annual income of less than $15,000; 41% had been incarcerated; 38% were in drug/alcohol treatment; and 24% had had a child removed due to maltreatment). The ethnic groups most commonly identified were African American (24%) and Hispanic (66%). Respondents were primarily mothers (86%) from five community programs in Los Angeles. The study used a single group repeated measures design (pre, post, 6-month follow-up). Data collected included standardized self-report measures, post-intervention focus groups and interviews, website usage reports, and Google Analytics. Significant multivariate ANOVA time effects were found, demonstrating reductions in child behavioral problems, reduced lax/permissive and over-reactive parenting, and decreased parental stress. No effects were found for parental confidence, attributions, or depression and anxiety (which were in the normal range at baseline). Positive effects were maintained or improved at 6-month follow-up. The participants engaged in the online community and valued its flexibility, anonymity, and shared learning. This foundational implementation trial provides support for future rigorous evaluation of social media and gaming features as a medium for increasing parental engagement in evidence-based parenting programs online--a public health approach to protect and improve the development of vulnerable children. PMID:26880281

  20. 76 FR 52350 - Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System (VDMERS) Standard, Certification Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... of Justice Programs Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System (VDMERS) Standard...) will make available to the general public three draft documents related to Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording Systems (VDMERSs) used by law enforcement agencies: 1. Draft VDMERS Standard for...

  1. Assessing Program Efficiency: A Time and Motion Study of the Mental Health Emergency Care — Rural Access Program in NSW Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Saurman; David Lyle; Sue Kirby; Russell Roberts

    2014-01-01

    The Mental Health Emergency Care-Rural Access Program (MHEC-RAP) is a telehealth solution providing specialist emergency mental health care to rural and remote communities across western NSW, Australia. This is the first time and motion (T&M) study to examine program efficiency and capacity for a telepsychiatry program. Clinical services are an integral aspect of the program accounting for 6% of all activities and 50% of the time spent conducting program activities, but half of this time ...

  2. 34 CFR 75.740 - Protection of and access to student records; student rights in research, experimental programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of and access to student records; student... Grantee? Privacy § 75.740 Protection of and access to student records; student rights in research, experimental programs, and testing. (a) Most records on present or past students are subject to...

  3. 34 CFR 76.740 - Protection of and access to student records; student rights in research, experimental programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of and access to student records; student... of the State and Its Subgrantees? Privacy § 76.740 Protection of and access to student records; student rights in research, experimental programs, and testing. (a) Most records on present or...

  4. Targeting Of Subsidized Fertilizer Under Kenya’s National Accelerated Agricultural Input Access Program (NAAIAP)

    OpenAIRE

    Sheahan, Megan; Olwande, John; Kirimi, Lilian; Jayne, Thom S.

    2014-01-01

    A new wave of “market smart” modern input subsidy schemes has emerged in sub-Saharan Africa over the past decade with the promise of increasing input use and grain yields while building or complementing private sector efforts. We study the extent to which geographic and household level targeting under Kenya’s National Accelerated Agricultural Input Access Program (NAAIAP) has remained true to its “market smart” objectives using household level panel data from before and during the initial yea...

  5. Household electricity access, availability and human well-being: Evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the 2011 Census of India, over 31% of India's 1.2 billion people lived in nearly 8000 towns and cities; the remaining 830 million people lived in over 638,000 villages. About 55% of rural households and 93% of urban households had access to electricity. The 2005 Indian Human Development Survey showed that on average, electricity availability (hours of supply per day) in rural and urban households were 14 and 19 h, respectively (Desai et al., 2007). Using nationally representative data from Indian Human Development Survey, this study estimated the impact of electricity access and availability on two attributes of human well-being, viz. education and health attainment. It found a significant positive relationship between electricity availability and well-being in rural and urban households. Electricity accessibility, revealed a significant positive relationship only for rural households. The paper concludes with implications for electricity policy and infrastructure choices. - Graphical abstract: Impact of electricity security on the attributes of human well-being. - Highlights: • Nexus between well-being, and electricity access and availability is quantified. • Electricity access is positively associated with well-being in rural but not urban. • Electricity availability negatively associates with morbidity and absenteeism. • Electricity security as human well-being enabler seeks nuanced policy attention. • Decentralized rapidly deployable modular technologies and microgrids are advocated

  6. Access to non-pecuniary benefits: does gender matter? Evidence from six low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfano Marco

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender issues remain a neglected area in most approaches to health workforce policy, planning and research. There is an accumulating body of evidence on gender differences in health workers' employment patterns and pay, but inequalities in access to non-pecuniary benefits between men and women have received little attention. This study investigates empirically whether gender differences can be observed in health workers' access to non-pecuniary benefits across six low- and middle-income countries. Methods The analysis draws on cross-nationally comparable data from health facility surveys conducted in Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Jamaica, Mozambique, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe. Probit regression models are used to investigate whether female and male physicians, nurses and midwives enjoy the same access to housing allowance, paid vacations, in-service training and other benefits, controlling for other individual and facility-level characteristics. Results While the analysis did not uncover any consistent pattern of gender imbalance in access to non-monetary benefits, some important differences were revealed. Notably, female nursing and midwifery personnel (the majority of the sample are found significantly less likely than their male counterparts to have accessed in-service training, identified not only as an incentive to attract and retain workers but also essential for strengthening workforce quality. Conclusion This study sought to mainstream gender considerations by exploring and documenting sex differences in selected employment indicators across health labour markets. Strengthening the global evidence base about the extent to which gender is independently associated with health workforce performance requires improved generation and dissemination of sex-disaggregated data and research with particular attention to gender dimensions.

  7. Enabling Highly-Scalable Remote Memory Access Programming with MPI-3 One Sided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gerstenberger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern interconnects offer remote direct memory access (RDMA features. Yet, most applications rely on explicit message passing for communications albeit their unwanted overheads. The MPI-3.0 standard defines a programming interface for exploiting RDMA networks directly, however, it's scalability and practicability has to be demonstrated in practice. In this work, we develop scalable bufferless protocols that implement the MPI-3.0 specification. Our protocols support scaling to millions of cores with negligible memory consumption while providing highest performance and minimal overheads. To arm programmers, we provide a spectrum of performance models for all critical functions and demonstrate the usability of our library and models with several application studies with up to half a million processes. We show that our design is comparable to, or better than UPC and Fortran Coarrays in terms of latency, bandwidth and message rate. We also demonstrate application performance improvements with comparable programming complexity.

  8. Child Discipline and Social Programs: Evidence from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Avila, Diana

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how interventions during early childhood affect disciplining methods in Colombia, where poor households are eligible for a number of social programs targeted to young children, based on a proxy means index. These programs include child care options, nutritional programs and health checks. I analyze whether these programs affect parents' disciplining methods through two different identification strategies. I implement a regression discontinuity design exploiting the discont...

  9. The Influence of Water Access in Subjective Well-Being: Some Evidence in Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Jorge; Gonzalez-Gomez, Francisco; Grajales, Angel Lendechy

    2013-01-01

    The literature on happiness or subjective well-being has explored the determinants of happiness without taking into consideration the role that water plays. In this paper we attempt to draw attention to water in subjective well-being studies. Approximately one hundred million people do not have access to water. A lack of clean water causes…

  10. Accessing world knowledge: Evidence from N400 and reaction time priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chwilla, D.J.; Kolk, H.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    How fast are we in accessing world knowledge? In two experiments, we tested for priming for word triplets that described a conceptual script (e.g., DIRECTOR-BRIBE-DISMISSAL) but were not associatively related and did not share a category relationship. Event-Related Brain Potentials were used to trac

  11. On the Role of Regular Phonological Variation in Lexical Access: Evidence from Voice Assimilation in French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeren, Natalie D.; Segui, Juan; Halle, Pierre A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated whether lexical access is affected by a regular phonological variation in connected speech: voice assimilation in French. Two associative priming experiments were conducted to determine whether strongly assimilated, potentially ambiguous word forms activate the conceptual representation of the underlying word. Would…

  12. Market access and the heterogeneous effect of shocks on wages : Evidence from Chinese cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno-Monroy, Ana Isabel

    2011-01-01

    New Economic Geography (NEG) models predict that locations with market access advantages have higher wages and larger labour inflows. Using comprehensive prefecture-city level data for China, the study estimates a wage equation derived from a NEG model. The results support the NEG explanation for wa

  13. Remote Memory Access: A Case for Portable, Efficient and Library Independent Parallel Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros V. Gerbessiotis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we make a strong case for remote memory access (RMA as the effective way to program a parallel computer by proposing a framework that supports RMA in a library independent, simple and intuitive way. If one uses our approach the parallel code one writes will run transparently under MPI-2 enabled libraries but also bulk-synchronous parallel libraries. The advantage of using RMA is code simplicity, reduced programming complexity, and increased efficiency. We support the latter claims by implementing under this framework a collection of benchmark programs consisting of a communication and synchronization performance assessment program, a dense matrix multiplication algorithm, and two variants of a parallel radix-sort algorithm and examine their performance on a LINUX-based PC cluster under three different RMA enabled libraries: LAM MPI, BSPlib, and PUB. We conclude that implementations of such parallel algorithms using RMA communication primitives lead to code that is as efficient as the message-passing equivalent code and in the case of radix-sort substantially more efficient. In addition our work can be used as a comparative study of the relevant capabilities of the three libraries.

  14. Off-Grid Electricity Access and its Impact on Micro-Enterprises: Evidence from Rural Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhoro, Peter N.

    The history of development shows convincingly that no country has substantially reduced poverty without massively increasing the use of electricity. The development of micro-enterprises in rural areas of Uganda is linked with increased access and use of electricity services. In this study, I combine quantitative and qualitative methods, including informal surveys, intra-business energy allocation studies and historical analysis, to analyze off-grid electricity access among micro-enterprises in rural western Uganda. I explore the linkages between of grid electricity access and the influence it has on micro- enterprises. Data is obtained from 56 micro-enterprises located in 11 village-towns within 3 districts in Uganda. In studying the micro-enterprises. the focus is on the services that are provided by electricity from modern energy carriers. The type of equipment used, forms of transportation, technical support, level of understanding and education of the entrepreneur, financing for energy equipment, and the role of donors are discussed in this thesis. Qualitative methods are used to allow for new insights and prioritization of concepts to emerge from the field rattier than from theory. Micro-enterprises in rural Uganda create income for the poor; they are resources for poverty reduction. With price adjustments, it becomes possible for those who live below the poverty line, nominally less than $1 a day, to afford the products and services and therefore mitigating the vicious cycle of poverty. Energy consumption among the micro-enterprises is at an average of 0.13kWh/day. The cost of accessing this amount of electricity attributes to about 50% of total revenue. I find that the "practices" used in off-grid electricity access lead to situations where the entrepreneurs have to evaluate pricing and output of products and services to generate higher profits. Such numbers indicate the need for appropriate technologies and profitable policies to be implemented. The data

  15. Determinants of accessibility and affordability of health care in post-socialist Tajikistan: evidence and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L; Habibov, N N

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of rising levels of inequality in health care utilisation in the post-socialist countries of Central Asia and the Caucasus. Against this backdrop, we investigate the determinants of accessibility and affordability of health care utilisation in Tajikistan. A modified version of the Andersen Behavioural Model is used to conceptualise the determinants of health care utilisation in Tajikistan. Poisson and Ordered Logit regression models are performed to estimate the determinants of health care utilisation. Empirical results demonstrate that poverty, chronic illness and disability are the most important determinants of health care utilisation and affordability in Tajikistan. Other significant determinants include gender, the level of education of the household head, and the availability of medical personnel at a given population point. These findings suggest an urgent need for health care reform in order to ensure equality in accessibility and affordability for the entire population. PMID:19326278

  16. Yakima Tributary Access and Habitat Program, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myra, D.; Ready, C.

    2003-12-01

    The Yakima Tributary Access and Habitat Program (YTAHP) was organized to restore salmonid passage to Yakima tributaries that historically supported salmonids and to improve habitat in areas where access is restored. This program intends to (a) screen unscreened diversion structures to prevent fish entrainment into artificial waterways; (b) provide for fish passage at man-made barriers, such as diversion dams, culverts, siphons and bridges; and (c) provide information and assistance to landowners interested in to contributing to the improvement of water quality, water reliability and stream habitat. The YTAHP developed from a number of groups actively engaged in watershed management, and/or habitat restoration within the Yakima River Basin. These groups include the Washington State Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), Kittitas County Conservation District (KCCD), North Yakima Conservation District (NYCD), Kittitas County Water Purveyors (KCWP), and Ahtanum Irrigation District (AID). The US Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and Yakama Nation (YN) both participated in the development of the objectives of YTAHP. Other entities that will be involved during permitting or project review may include the YN, the federal Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and US Army Corps of Engineers (COE). The objectives of YTAHP are listed below and also include subtasks detailed in the report: (1) Conduct Early Action Projects; (2) Review Strategic Plan; (3) Restore Access, including stream inventory, prioritization, implementation; and (4) Provide opportunities to improve habitat and conserve resources. The BPA YTAHP funding supported activities of the program which are described in this report. These activities are primarily related to objective 1 (conduct early action projects) and parts of objectives 2-4. The work supported by YTAHP funding will support a series of scheduled projects and be

  17. Immigrant mothers and access to prenatal care: evidence from a regional population study in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Lanari, Donatella; Minelli, Liliana; Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We addressed the question of whether use of adequate prenatal care differs between foreign-born and Italian mothers and estimated the extent to which unobservable characteristics bias results. Setting This study is on primary care and especially on adequate access to prenatal healthcare services by immigrant mothers. Participants Approximately 37 000 mothers of both Italian and foreign nationality were studied. Data were obtained from the Standard Certificate of Live Birth between ...

  18. Defining Access to Health Care: Evidence on the Importance of Quality and Distance in Rural Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Klemick, Heather; Leonard, Kenneth L; Masatu, Melkiory C.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the implications of health seeking behavior on access to quality health care using a unique dataset that combines a household survey from rural Tanzania with the location and quality of all health facilities available to households. Patients do not always visit the nearest facility, but choose from among multiple facilities, improving the quality of care they receive by bypassing low quality facilities. Recognizing this behavior alters the projected benefits to health interventions...

  19. Congestive Heart Failure Consumer Information on the Web: How Accessible Is the Evidence?

    OpenAIRE

    Boren, Suzanne Austin; Gunlock, Teira L.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to assess the accessibility of congestive heart failure consumer information on the web. Twenty-seven education trials involving 5589 patients with congestive heart failure were analyzed. Education topics and outcomes were abstracted. Twenty education topics were linked to outcomes. A sample of 15 websites missed 56.7% of education topics and 61.8% of technical website characteristics that have suggested accuracy, reliability, and timeliness of content.

  20. Near-instant automatic access to visually presented words in the human neocortex: neuromagnetic evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Yury Shtyrov; MacGregor, Lucy J

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient processing of external information by the brain is vital to survival in a highly dynamic environment. The key channel humans use to exchange information is language, but the neural underpinnings of its processing are still not fully understood. We investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of neural access to word representations in the brain by scrutinising the brain’s activity elicited in response to psycholinguistically, visually and phonologically matched groups of fami...

  1. Is accessing dental care becoming more difficult? Evidence from Canada's middle-income population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel Ramraj

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore trends in access to dental care among middle-income Canadians. METHODS: A secondary data analysis of six Canadian surveys that collected information on dental insurance coverage, cost-barriers to dental care, and out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care was conducted for select years from 1978 to 2009. Descriptive analyses were used to outline and compare trends among middle-income Canadians with other levels of income as well as national averages. RESULTS: By 2009, middle-income Canadians had the lowest levels of dental insurance coverage (48.7% compared to all other income groups. They reported the greatest increase in cost-barriers to dental care, from 12.6% in 1996 to 34.1% by 2009. Middle-income Canadians had the largest rise in out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care since 1978. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that affordability issues in accessing dental care are no longer just a problem for the lowest income groups in Canada, but are now impacting middle-income earners as a consequence of their lack of, or decreased access to, comprehensive dental insurance.

  2. Evidence for a compulsive-like behavior in rats exposed to alternate access to highly preferred palatable food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Clara; Spena, Giuseppe; Halfon, Olivier; Boutrel, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    Converging evidence suggests that recurrent excessive calorie restriction causes binge eating by promoting behavioral disinhibition and overeating. This interpretation suggests that cognitive adaptations may surpass physiological regulations of metabolic needs after recurrent cycles of dieting and binging. Intermittent access to palatable food has long been studied in rats, but the consequences of such diet cycling procedures on the cognitive control of food seeking remain unclear. Female Wistar rats were divided in two groups matched for food intake and body weight. One group received standard chow pellets 7 days/week, whereas the second group was given chow pellets for 5 days and palatable food for 2 days over seven consecutive weeks. Rats were also trained for operant conditioning. Intermittent access to palatable food elicited binging behavior and reduced intake of normal food. Rats with intermittent access to palatable food failed to exhibit anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze, but displayed reduced locomotor activity in the open field and developed a blunted corticosterone response following an acute stress across the diet procedure. Trained under a progressive ratio schedule, both groups exhibited the same motivation for sweetened food pellets. However, in contrast to controls, rats with a history of dieting and binging exhibited a persistent compulsive-like behavior when access to preferred pellets was paired with mild electrical foot shock punishments. These results highlight the intricate development of anxiety-like disorders and cognitive deficits leading to a loss of control over preferred food intake after repetitive cycles of intermittent access to palatable food. PMID:23654201

  3. Electrophysiological evidence for phonological priming in Spanish Sign Language lexical access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Eva; Müller, Oliver; Baus, Cristina; Carreiras, Manuel

    2012-06-01

    Interactive activation models of lexical access assume that the presentation of a given word activates not only its lexical representation but also those corresponding to words similar in form. Current theories are based on data from oral and written languages, and therefore signed languages represent a special challenge for existing theories of word recognition and lexical access since they allow us to question what the genuine fundamentals of human language are and what might be modality-specific adaptation. The aim of the present study is to determine the electrophysiological correlates and time course of phonological processing of Spanish Sign Language (LSE). Ten deaf native LSE signers and ten deaf non-native but highly proficient LSE signers participated in the experiment. We used the ERP methodology and form-based priming in the context of a delayed lexical decision task, manipulating phonological overlap (i.e. related prime-target pairs shared either handshape or location parameters). Results showed that both parameters under study modulated brain responses to the stimuli in different time windows. Phonological priming of location resulted in a higher amplitude of the N400 component (300-500 ms window) for signs but not for non-signs. This effect may be explained in terms of initial competition among candidates. Moreover, the fact that a higher amplitude N400 for related pairs was found for signs but not for non-signs points to an effect at the lexical level. Handshape overlap produced a later effect (600-800 ms window). In this window, a more negative-going wave for the related condition than for the unrelated condition was found for non-signs in the native signers group. The findings are discussed in relation to current models of lexical access and word recognition. Finally, differences between native and non-native signers point to a less efficient use of phonological information among the non-native signers. PMID:22401990

  4. Accept or Reject: Do Immigrants Have Less Access to Bank Credit? Evidence from Swedish Pawnshop Customers

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Marieke

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies to what extent immigrants have less access to main- stream credit than their native counterparts. For this purpose I use a large, unique data set with a panel of Swedish pawnshop customers. The data al- low me to investigate to what extent pawnshop customers actively apply for mainstream bank credit and how successful they are by comparing credit ap- plications from immigrants and natives and the corresponding bank decisions. I do not …nd that immigrants have a di¤erent pro...

  5. Access to Archived Astronaut Data for Human Research Program Researchers: Update on Progress and Process Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L. R.; Montague, K. A.; Charvat, J. M.; Wear, M. L.; Thomas, D. M.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 2010 NASA directive to make the Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) data archives more accessible by the research and operational communities, demand for astronaut medical data has increased greatly. LSAH and LSDA personnel are working with Human Research Program on many fronts to improve data access and decrease lead time for release of data. Some examples include the following: Feasibility reviews for NASA Research Announcement (NRA) data mining proposals; Improved communication, support for researchers, and process improvements for retrospective Institutional Review Board (IRB) protocols; Supplemental data sharing for flight investigators versus purely retrospective studies; Work with the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) to develop acceptable data sharing and crew consent processes and to organize inter-agency data coordinators to facilitate requests for international crewmember data. Current metrics on data requests crew consenting will be presented, along with limitations on contacting crew to obtain consent. Categories of medical monitoring data available for request will be presented as well as flow diagrams detailing data request processing and approval steps.

  6. THE EMPLOYEE STOCK OWNERSHIP PROGRAM PHENOMENA: EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    I Putu Sugiartha Sanjaya

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explain the employee stock ownership program phenomenon in public companies in Indonesia. The ownership of companies in Indonesia is concentrated by a single controlling shareholder. Sometimes, the board of directors and board of commissioners of a company or his/her family are the controlling shareholders. This study is interested in describing the employment stock option program phenomenon. This study collects data from the Indonesian Stock Exchange databas...

  7. Near-instant automatic access to visually presented words in the human neocortex: neuromagnetic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyrov, Yury; MacGregor, Lucy J

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient processing of external information by the brain is vital to survival in a highly dynamic environment. The key channel humans use to exchange information is language, but the neural underpinnings of its processing are still not fully understood. We investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of neural access to word representations in the brain by scrutinising the brain's activity elicited in response to psycholinguistically, visually and phonologically matched groups of familiar words and meaningless pseudowords. Stimuli were briefly presented on the visual-field periphery to experimental participants whose attention was occupied with a non-linguistic visual feature-detection task. The neural activation elicited by these unattended orthographic stimuli was recorded using multi-channel whole-head magnetoencephalography, and the timecourse of lexically-specific neuromagnetic responses was assessed in sensor space as well as at the level of cortical sources, estimated using individual MR-based distributed source reconstruction. Our results demonstrate a neocortical signature of automatic near-instant access to word representations in the brain: activity in the perisylvian language network characterised by specific activation enhancement for familiar words, starting as early as ~70 ms after the onset of unattended word stimuli and underpinned by temporal and inferior-frontal cortices. PMID:27217080

  8. 77 FR 47440 - Office of the Assistant Secretary for Office of Disability Employment Program Accessible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... creating accessible human resource management systems (e.g., accessible online job application portals... the Accessible Technology Action Center (ATAC), a new national resource to facilitate and promote the... publicize resources on accessible technology in the workplace; (2) promote effective employer practices...

  9. Breastfeeding Support in a Community Pharmacy: Improving Access through the Well Babies at Walgreens Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenell, Amy; Friesen, Carol A; Hormuth, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Well Babies at Walgreens is a unique community-based corporate partnership program that offers breastfeeding support by a lactation professional in a private room at the pharmacy. Walgreens is a community pharmacy chain with more than 8000 locations in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. The primary goal of Well Babies is to support breastfeeding women using a model that is expandable to other Walgreens pharmacy sites. The Well Babies program offers drop-in services, with a professional consultation by a lactation consultant and baby weight check, if desired. Well Babies creators are developing a business plan for Walgreens and a toolkit that would help other stores implement the program. An additional goal is to improve continuity of care for breastfeeding by engaging pharmacists as vital members of the health care team. Offering breastfeeding support at a pharmacy improves access and encourages support persons to attend while simultaneously allowing the family to complete other errands. This initiative included education for pharmacists to improve the recommendations they make for breastfeeding mothers and to improve awareness among pharmacists of the benefits associated with breastfeeding and the need to preserve the breastfeeding relationship. The first drop-in location opened in April 2012. Grant funding from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, awarded to the Indiana State Department of Health, made it possible to open a second drop-in location in June 2013. Future plans include developing an employee lactation program and expanding Well Babies at Walgreens at other store locations. PMID:25829476

  10. An Evidence Based Approach to Sepsis: Educational Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for recognizing and treating sepsis have been available for decades, yet healthcare providers do not adhere to the recommendations. Sepsis can progress rapidly if not recognized early. Literature reports reveal that sepsis is the leading cause of death in non-cardiac intensive care units (ICUs), and it is one of the most…

  11. Preferential access to emotion under attentional blink: evidence for threshold phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Szczepanowski Remigiusz; Traczyk Jakub; Fan Zhao; Harvey Lewis O.

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides evidence that the activation strength produced by emotional stimuli must pass a threshold level in order to be consciously perceived, contrary to the assumption of continuous quality of representation. An analysis of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) for attentional blink performance was used to distinguish between two (continuous vs. threshold) models of emotion perception by inspecting two different ROC’s shapes. Across all conditions, the results showed th...

  12. Accessing world knowledge: evidence from N400 and reaction time priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwilla, Dorothee J; Kolk, Herman H J

    2005-12-01

    How fast are we in accessing world knowledge? In two experiments, we tested for priming for word triplets that described a conceptual script (e.g., DIRECTOR-BRIBE-DISMISSAL) but were not associatively related and did not share a category relationship. Event-related brain potentials were used to track the time course at which script information becomes available. In Experiment 1, in which participants made lexical decisions, we found a facilitation for script-related relative to unrelated triplets, as indicated by (i) a decrease in both reaction time and errors, and (ii) an N400-like priming effect. In Experiment 2, we further explored the locus of script priming by increasing the contribution of meaning integration processes. The participants' task was to indicate whether the three words presented a plausible scenario. Again, an N400 script priming effect was obtained. Directing attention to script relations was effective in enhancing the N400 effect. The time course of the N400 effect was similar to that of the standard N400 effect to semantic relations. The present results show that script priming can be obtained in the visual modality, and that script information is immediately accessed and integrated with context. This supports the view that script information forms a central aspect of word meaning. The RT and N400 script priming effects reported in this article are problematic for most current semantic priming models, like spreading activation models, expectancy models, and task-specific semantic matching/integration models. They support a view in which there is no clear cutoff point between semantic knowledge and world knowledge. PMID:16202570

  13. Access to sanitation and violence against women: evidence from Demographic Health Survey (DHS) data in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Samantha C; Barchi, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Violence against women (VAW) is a serious public health and human rights concern. Literature suggests sanitation conditions in developing countries may be potential neighborhood-level risk factors contributing to VAW, and that this association may be more important in highly socially disorganized neighborhoods. This study analyzed 2008 Kenya Demographic Health Survey's data and found women who primarily practice open defecation (OD), particularly in disorganized communities, had higher odds of experiencing recent non-partner violence. This study provides quantitative evidence of an association between sanitation and VAW that is attracting increasing attention in media and scholarly literature throughout Kenya and other developing countries. PMID:26593879

  14. Preferential access to emotion under attentional blink: evidence for threshold phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepanowski Remigiusz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides evidence that the activation strength produced by emotional stimuli must pass a threshold level in order to be consciously perceived, contrary to the assumption of continuous quality of representation. An analysis of receiver operating characteristics (ROC for attentional blink performance was used to distinguish between two (continuous vs. threshold models of emotion perception by inspecting two different ROC’s shapes. Across all conditions, the results showed that performance in the attentional blink task was better described by the two-limbs ROC predicted by the Krantz threshold model than by the curvilinear ROC implied by the signal-detection theory.

  15. Programs to improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health in the US: a review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manlove J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Manlove, Heather Fish, Kristin Anderson Moore Child Trends, Bethesda, MD, USA Background: US adolescents have high rates of teen pregnancy, childbearing, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs, highlighting the need to identify and implement effective programs that will help improve teen sexual and reproductive health. Materials and methods: This review identified 103 random-assignment evaluations of 85 programs that incorporated intent-to-treat analyses and assessed impacts on pregnancy, childbearing, STIs, and their key determinants – sexual activity, number of sexual partners, condom use, and other contraceptive use – among teens. This review describes the evidence base for five broad program approaches, including abstinence education, comprehensive sex education, clinic-based programs, youth development programs, and parent–youth relationship programs. We also describe programs with impacts on key outcomes, including pregnancy/childbearing, STIs, and those that found impacts on both sexual activity and contraceptive use. Results: Our review identified 52 effective programs: 38 with consistent impacts on reproductive health outcomes, and 14 with mixed findings (across subpopulations, follow-ups, or multiple measures of a single outcome. We found that a variety of program approaches produced impacts on sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Parent–youth relationship programs and clinic-based program evaluations more frequently showed impacts than other program approaches, although we also identified a number of abstinence-education, comprehensive sex education, and youth-development programs with impacts on sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Overall, we identified nine program evaluations with impacts on teen pregnancies or births, five with impacts on reducing STIs, and 15 with impacts on both delaying/reducing sexual activity and increasing contraceptive use (including condom use. Conclusion: Future efforts should

  16. Improving Access to Quality Care in Family Planning: WHO's Four Cornerstones of Evidence-based Guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang-chun WU; Yan ZOU; K Church; O Meirik

    2007-01-01

    The four cornerstones of guidance in technique service of family planning are established by WHO based on high quality evidences. They have been updated according to the appearing new evidences, and the consensuses were reached by the international experts in this field. The four documents include Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, Decision-making Tool for Family Planning Clients and Providers and The Global Handbook for Family Planning Providers. The first two documents mainlyface to the policy-makers and programme managers and were treated as the important references for creating the local guideline. The other two documents were developed for the front-line health-care and family planning providers at different levels, which include plenty of essential technical information to help providers improve their ability in service delivery and counselling. China paid great attention to the introduction and application of WHO guidelines. As soon as the newer editions of these documents were available, the Chinese version would be followed. WHO guidelines have been primarily adapted with the newly issued national guideline, The Clinical Practical Skill Guidelines- Family Planning Part, which was established by China Medical Association. At the same time, the WHO guidelines have been introduced to some of the linicians and family planning providers at different levels. In the future, more special training courses will be introduced to the township level based on the needs of grassroot providers.

  17. Improving Nigerian health policymakers' capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop. PMID:26448807

  18. Improving Nigerian health policymakers’ capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified “before and after” intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers’ ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop. PMID:26448807

  19. Accessible cultural mind-set modulates default mode activity: evidence for the culturally situated brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenbo; Oyserman, Daphna; Liu, Qiang; Li, Hong; Han, Shihui

    2013-01-01

    Self-construal priming modulates human behavior and associated neural activity. However, the neural activity associated with the self-construal priming procedure itself remains unknown. It is also unclear whether and how self-construal priming affects neural activity prior to engaging in a particular task. To address this gap, we scanned Chinese adults, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, during self-construal priming and a following resting state. We found that, relative to a calculation task, both interdependent and independent self-construal priming activated the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). The contrast of interdependent vs. independent self-construal priming also revealed increased activity in the dorsal MPFC and left middle frontal cortex. The regional homogeneity analysis of the resting-state activity revealed increased local synchronization of spontaneous activity in the dorsal MPFC but decreased local synchronization of spontaneous activity in the PCC when contrasting interdependent vs. independent self-construal priming. The functional connectivity analysis of the resting-state activity, however, did not show significant difference in synchronization of activities in remote brain regions between different priming conditions. Our findings suggest that accessible collectivistic/individualistic mind-set induced by self-construal priming is associated with modulations of both task-related and resting-state activity in the default mode network.

  20. Access to resources shapes maternal decision making: evidence from a factorial vignette experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Kushnick

    Full Text Available The central assumption of behavioral ecology is that natural selection has shaped individuals with the capacity to make decisions that balance the fitness costs and benefits of behavior. A number of factors shape the fitness costs and benefits of maternal care, but we lack a clear understanding how they, taken together, play a role in the decision-making process. In animal studies, the use of experimental methods has allowed for the tight control of these factors. Standard experimentation is inappropriate in human behavioral ecology, but vignette experiments may solve the problem. I used a confounded factorial vignette experiment to gather 640 third-party judgments about the maternal care decisions of hypothetical women and their children from 40 female karo Batak respondents in rural Indonesia. This allowed me to test hypotheses derived from parental investment theory about the relative importance of five binary factors in shaping maternal care decisions with regard to two distinct scenarios. As predicted, access to resources--measured as the ability of a woman to provide food for her children--led to increased care. A handful of other factors conformed to prediction, but they were inconsistent across scenarios. The results suggest that mothers may use simple heuristics, rather than a full accounting for costs and benefits, to make decisions about maternal care. Vignettes have become a standard tool for studying decision making, but have made only modest inroads to evolutionarily informed studies of human behavior.

  1. Access to resources shapes maternal decision making: evidence from a factorial vignette experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnick, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The central assumption of behavioral ecology is that natural selection has shaped individuals with the capacity to make decisions that balance the fitness costs and benefits of behavior. A number of factors shape the fitness costs and benefits of maternal care, but we lack a clear understanding how they, taken together, play a role in the decision-making process. In animal studies, the use of experimental methods has allowed for the tight control of these factors. Standard experimentation is inappropriate in human behavioral ecology, but vignette experiments may solve the problem. I used a confounded factorial vignette experiment to gather 640 third-party judgments about the maternal care decisions of hypothetical women and their children from 40 female karo Batak respondents in rural Indonesia. This allowed me to test hypotheses derived from parental investment theory about the relative importance of five binary factors in shaping maternal care decisions with regard to two distinct scenarios. As predicted, access to resources--measured as the ability of a woman to provide food for her children--led to increased care. A handful of other factors conformed to prediction, but they were inconsistent across scenarios. The results suggest that mothers may use simple heuristics, rather than a full accounting for costs and benefits, to make decisions about maternal care. Vignettes have become a standard tool for studying decision making, but have made only modest inroads to evolutionarily informed studies of human behavior. PMID:24069427

  2. The National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) is a searchable online registry of mental health and substance abuse interventions that have...

  3. 76 FR 60022 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Weight-of-Evidence Guidance Document; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... the endocrine system. The combined results and information will also be used to identify which tests... AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Weight-of-Evidence Guidance Document; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA's Endocrine...

  4. Immigrant Participation in Social Assistance Programs: Evidence from German Guestworkers

    OpenAIRE

    Riphahn, Regina

    1999-01-01

    The share of immigrants in the German social assistance program exceeds their population share and continues to grow. This study evaluates the causes of this phenomenon and tests for the effects of assimilation, cohort, age at migration, and country of origin on immigrant behaviour. It uses panel data and jointly models panel attrition, labour force status, and household social assistance dependence. Assimilation and age at migration increase the probability of social assistance dependence. I...

  5. Access to physician services: does supplemental insurance matter? evidence from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmueller, Thomas C; Couffinhal, Agnès; Grignon, Michel; Perronnin, Marc

    2004-07-01

    In France, public health insurance is universal but incomplete, with private payments accounting for roughly 25% of all spending. As a result, most people have supplemental private health insurance. We investigate the effects of such insurance on the utilization of physician services using data from the 1998 Enquête sur la santé et la protection sociale, a nationally representative survey of the non-institutionalized French population. Our results indicate that insurance has a strong and significant effect on the utilization of physician services. Individuals with supplemental coverage have substantially more physician visits than those without. While French patients have greater freedom than patients in other countries to choose to see a specialist rather than a general practitioner, we find no evidence that supplemental insurance affects this decision. PMID:15259046

  6. Minimalist Program and its fundamental improvements in syntactic theory: evidence from Agreement Asymmetry in Standard Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Horais

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:auto; mso-para-margin-right:1.0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:auto; mso-para-margin-left:2.0cm; text-align:justify; text-indent:-1.0cm; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The Minimalist Program is a major line of inquiry that has been developing inside Generative Grammar since the early nineties, when it was proposed by Chomsky  (1993, 1995. In that time, Chomsky (1998: 5 presents Minimalist Program as a program, not as a theory, but today, Minimalist Program lays out a very specific view of the basis of syntactic grammar that, when compared to other formalisms, is often taken to look very much like a theory. The prime concern of this paper, however, is  to provide a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the art of minimalist approach to the theory of grammar. In this regard, this paper discusses some new ideas articulated recently by Chomsky, and have led to several fundamental improvements in syntactic theory  such as changing the function of movement and the Extended Projection Principle (EPP feature, or proposing new theories such as Phases and Feature Inheritance. In order to evidence the significance of these fundamental improvements, the current paper provides a minimalist analysis to account for agreement and word-order asymmetry in Stranded Arabic. This fresh minimalist account meets the challenges (to the basic tenets of syntactic theory occurred

  7. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30–70 percentage points within 1–3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women

  8. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren

    2016-09-28

    Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30-70 percentage points within 1-3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women family planning

  9. The process of adoption of evidence-based tobacco use prevention programs in California schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melissa A; Pokhrel, Pallav; Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise Ann

    2015-01-01

    Although there are a number of research-validated substance use prevention programs available for wide-scale dissemination, very little is known about the factors that influence adoption of evidence-based prevention programs in schools. We tested a model of the mechanisms of program adoption in schools that was guided by diffusion of innovations and social ecological theories. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of school district and county office of education tobacco use prevention education coordinators throughout California. Structural equation modeling was used to test the effects of community and organizational variables on the adoption of prevention programs via school administrators' beliefs and the organization's receipt of funding for the program. Results supported the hypothesis that the process of adoption begins with forming beliefs about the program, leading to adoption through the receipt of funding. In addition, we found direct effects of various community- and organizational-level factors on beliefs, receipt of funding, and adoption. These results are likely to inform policies that affect school districts' use of evidence-based substance use prevention programming, which should ultimately lead to reductions in negative health outcomes among adolescents. Specifically, this study identifies various factors that could be targeted for improvement to enhance evidence-based program adoption. To our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically elucidate the process of adoption of evidence-based tobacco prevention programs in schools. PMID:24398826

  10. Credit Accessibility Granted by Rural Banks in Rural Community: Evidence from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Binfor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the rural banks was to improve the standard of the living in the rural community they operate. This is done by encouraging the rural indigenes to save with them, and assist them by granting credit facilities to them. It is obvious that in spite of the existence of the bank in the community, people still take loans from friends and relatives (moneylenders, when in comparably have higher interest rate than that of the bank. Some take 100% interest within the shortest time with properties used as collateral until the money are paid back before the properties are released to them. The researcher found out that the public lack information about the rural bank in their community, which leads to their access of credit from friends and relatives known as Money Lenders instead of the bank. The concern in this study is, therefore, the lack of information between banks and the public. Even though the display of information by banks is supposed to provide vital information to customers, a number of concerns are raised. They are directed at how the rural banks can bring about effective banking services to the rural community. Given the low level of literacy, how many customers can read the information displayed in the banks if they are available? How many can understand what they read if they are able to read? In addition, to what extent does this information assist customers in their demand for credits? With what strategies do the banks reach out to the public? If not all, most of these concerns have informed the focus of discussion in this paper.

  11. The Effects of Youth Employment: Evidence from New York City Summer Youth Employment Program Lotteries

    OpenAIRE

    Gelber, Alexander; Isen, Adam; Kessler, Judd B.

    2014-01-01

    Programs to encourage labor market activity among youth, including public employment programs and wage subsidies like the Work Opportunity Tax Credit, can be supported by three broad rationales. They may: (1) provide contemporaneous income support to participants; (2) encourage work experience that improves future employment and/or educational outcomes of participants; and/or (3) keep participants “out of trouble.” We study randomized lotteries for access to New York City's Summer Youth Emplo...

  12. Crime Prevention Programs: Evidence for a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Vergara

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of two anti-crime programs implemented in Chile in the late 1990s. The first (Quadrant Plan) is related to enhancing the quality of police work and the second one (Secure County Plan) to the involvement of the community in designing specific projects aimed at reducing the crime rate. It is found that only the Quadrant Plan has been successful in terms of reducing crime rates and has caused its impact through the effect of arrests in deterring crime. The Secure C...

  13. Examining Inclusion of Evidence-Based Practice on Social Work Training Program Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Traci L.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.; Grady, Melissa D.

    2013-01-01

    Websites represent a visible medium for social work programs to communicate information about social work research, academics, and professional training priorities, including evidence-based practice (EBP). However, few studies have examined the content of social work program websites. This exploratory study aimed to answer the question: Are EBP…

  14. Resource List--Using Evidence-Based Programs as the Foundation of Comprehensive Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advocates for Youth, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have identified dozens of programs that are effective in helping young people reduce their risk for pregnancy, HIV, and STDs. These evidence-based programs utilize strategies that include the provision of accurate, honest information about abstinence as well as contraception and can serve as the foundation for comprehensive sex…

  15. DOES CAREER PROGRAM HAVE EFFECT ON EMPLOYEE OUTCOMES? EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman ISMAIL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study sets to examine the relationship between career program and employee outcomes. A survey method was employed to obtain data from employees of a military based university in Malaysia. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model analysis showed four important findings: first, career planning was positively and insignificantly correlated with job satisfaction. Second, career management was positively and significantly correlated with job satisfaction. Thirdly, career planning was positively and insignificantly correlated with career commitment. Finally, career management was positively and significantly correlated with career commitment. This result confirms that career planning does not act as an essential predictor of job satisfaction and career commitment, but career management does act as an essential predictor of job satisfaction and career commitment in the studied organization. In addition, this study provides discussion, implications and conclusion.

  16. Mass surveillance, privacy, and freedom : A case for public access to information about mass government surveillance programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Bryce; Moore, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines judicial decisions about the legality of mass surveillance in the United States and Europe (at the European Court of Human Rights), and explores how the existence of these programs threatens individual freedom. In doing so, the chapter presents a theory of information access an

  17. Can universal pre-kindergarten programs improve population health and longevity? Mechanisms, evidence, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has found that children who attended pre-kindergarten programs in childhood were more likely to be healthy as adults. One intuitive way of improving population health and longevity may therefore be to invest in pre-kindergarten programs. However, much of the research linking pre-kindergarten programs to health is very recent and has not been synthesized. In this paper, I review the mechanisms linking pre-kindergarten programs in childhood to adult longevity, and the experimental evidence backing up these linkages. I conclude with a critical exploration of whether investments in pre-kindergarten programs could also serve as investments in public health.

  18. Effecting Change in an Evidence-Based Medicine Curriculum: Librarians' Role in a Pediatric Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeblisky, Kathy; Birr, Rebecca A; Sjursen Guerrero, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Librarians for the joint Phoenix Children's Hospital/Maricopa Medical Center Pediatric Residency Program were asked to assist on the Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Subcommittee for the program. Faculty was open to recommendations for revising and improving the curriculum and desired librarian assistance in completing the task. The annual program review and conference evaluations revealed a gap between the objectives of the EBM curriculum and the residents' perceived abilities to integrate knowledge into meaningful literature searches. This column demonstrates how librarians can collaborate with their residency programs to revise and improve processes to effect change in their program's EBM curriculum. PMID:26211797

  19. Reinventing Mpowerment for black men: long-term community implementation of an evidence-based program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin Lin; Forney, Jason C; Hubbard, Peter; Camacho, Lizeth M

    2012-03-01

    Although research on the dissemination of evidence-based programs to community providers has rapidly grown, research describing implementation of evidence-based efforts remains a central need. Insight on implementation may aid in developing approaches to assisting organizations to use a variety of evidence-based practices effectively and to improve the design of programs that can and will be used faithfully. This mixed-method case study provides a descriptive account of the implementation of an evidence-based program designed principally for white gay and bisexual young men, the Mpowerment Project, in the 4th and 5th years after its initial adoption by an organization serving black gay and bisexual men. We identify factors that have shaped how the program has evolved and is currently operated. The case study results highlight how the dynamic interaction of practice-based experiences, skills, relationships, local context, and practitioner judgments about the relevance and credibility of evidence for specific actions propel the reinvention of evidence-based program procedures. Implications for research and practice are provided. PMID:21773862

  20. Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: the Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Assessment Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Dayna; Fortin, Rebecca; Lessio, Anne; Herrera, Christine; Riley, Barbara; Hanning, Rhona; Rush, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Best practices identified solely on the strength of research evidence may not be entirely relevant or practical for use in community-based public health and the practice of chronic disease prevention. Aiming to bridge the gap between best practices literature and local knowledge and expertise, the Ontario Public Health Association, through the Toward Evidence-Informed Practice initiative, developed a set of resources to strengthen evidence-informed decision making in chronic disease preventio...

  1. Evidence for developmental programming of cerebral laterality in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jones

    Full Text Available Adverse fetal environments are associated with depression, reduced cognitive ability and increased stress responsiveness in later life, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. Environmental pressures on the fetus, resulting from variations in placental function and maternal nutrition, health and stress might alter neurodevelopment, promoting the development of some brain regions over others. As asymmetry of cerebral activity, with greater right hemisphere activity, has been associated with psychopathology, we hypothesized that regional specialization during fetal life might be reflected persistently in the relative activity of the cerebral hemispheres. We tested this hypothesis in 140 healthy 8-9 year-old children, using tympanic membrane temperature to assess relative blood flow to the cerebral hemispheres at rest and following psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test for Children. Their birth weight and placental weight had already been measured when their mothers took part in a previous study of pregnancy outcomes. We found that children who had a smaller weight at birth had evidence of greater blood flow to the right hemisphere than to the left hemisphere (r = -.09, P = .29 at rest; r = -.18, P = .04 following stress. This finding was strengthened if the children had a relatively low birth weight for their placental weight (r = -.17, P = .05 at rest; r = -.31, P = .0005 following stress. Our findings suggest that lateralization of cerebral activity is influenced persistently by early developmental experiences, with possible consequences for long-term neurocognitive function.

  2. Suppression of relaxation effect in HfO2 resistive random access memory array by improved program operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Wu, Huaqiang; Gao, Bin; Dai, Lingjun; Deng, Ning; Sekar, Deepak; Lu, Zhichao; Kellam, Mark; Bronner, Gary; Qian, He

    2016-05-01

    As a postprograming resistance shift, the relaxation effect could be a major issue for resistive random access memory (RRAM) applications. To understand the physical mechanisms of the relaxation effect, temperature-related ion and charge movements are analyzed using the incremental-step-pulse program (ISPP) and repeat-cycle program (RCP). Pre-electron detrapping (PED) operation is found to minimize the amount of interfacial trapped charges and thus to greatly reduce the resistance relaxation effect. Our experimental results demonstrate the improved data retention and tight distribution of RRAM arrays as a result of the above optimized program operations.

  3. Availability and Accessibility of Student-Specific Weight Loss Programs and Other Risk Prevention Health Services on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sharon; Napolitano, Melissa; Hufnagel, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Background More than one third of college students who are overweight or obese are in need of weight loss programs tailored to college students. However, the availability and accessibility of these programs is unknown. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the availability and ease of access to weight loss programs for students at 10 universities with the largest undergraduate enrollment. Methods The 10 public universities with the largest student bodies with a mean (SD) undergraduate enrollment of 41,122 (7657) students were examined. The websites of the universities were assessed to determine the availability of weight loss programs. Services for high-risk health needs common to university campuses (ie, alcohol and other drugs, victim services, sexual health, and eating disorders) were searched. Results Of the universities searched, 3 (30%, 3/10) offered weight loss programming, however, none met the predetermined criteria. Comparatively, all schools (100%, 10/10) offered no-cost and continual enrollment programming for the other high-risk health needs. Conclusions There are limited weight loss services available to undergraduate students compared with other university services. Collaboration between existing college health service providers is suggested for the delivery of appropriate programming for overweight and obese undergraduates wanting to lose weight. PMID:27278261

  4. Evidence-based medicine among internal medicine residents in a community hospital program using smart phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackerman Michael

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study implemented and evaluated a point-of-care, wireless Internet access using smart phones for information retrieval during daily clinical rounds and academic activities of internal medicine residents in a community hospital. We did the project to assess the feasibility of using smart phones as an alternative to reach online medical resources because we were unable to find previous studies of this type. In addition, we wanted to learn what Web-based information resources internal medicine residents were using and whether providing bedside, real-time access to medical information would be perceived useful for patient care and academic activities. Methods We equipped the medical teams in the hospital wards with smart phones (mobile phone/PDA hybrid devices to provide immediate access to evidence-based resources developed at the National Library of Medicine as well as to other medical Websites. The emphasis of this project was to measure the convenience and feasibility of real-time access to current medical literature using smart phones. Results The smart phones provided real-time mobile access to medical literature during daily rounds and clinical activities in the hospital. Physicians found these devices easy to use. A post-study survey showed that the information retrieved was perceived to be useful for patient care and academic activities. Conclusion In community hospitals and ambulatory clinics without wireless networks where the majority of physicians work, real-time access to current medical literature may be achieved through smart phones. Immediate availability of reliable and updated information obtained from authoritative sources on the Web makes evidence-based practice in a community hospital a reality.

  5. Reducing access times for an endoscopy department by an iterative combination of computer simulation and linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joustra, P E; de Wit, J; Struben, V M D; Overbeek, B J H; Fockens, P; Elkhuizen, S G

    2010-03-01

    To reduce the access times of an endoscopy department, we developed an iterative combination of Discrete Event simulation and Integer Linear Programming. We developed the method in the Endoscopy Department of the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam and compared different scenarios to reduce the access times for the department. The results show that by a more effective allocation of the current capacity, all procedure types will meet their corresponding performance targets in contrast to the current situation. This improvement can be accomplished without requiring additional equipment and staff. Currently, our recommendations are implemented.

  6. Assessing Program Efficiency: A Time and Motion Study of the Mental Health Emergency Care — Rural Access Program in NSW Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Saurman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mental Health Emergency Care-Rural Access Program (MHEC-RAP is a telehealth solution providing specialist emergency mental health care to rural and remote communities across western NSW, Australia. This is the first time and motion (T&M study to examine program efficiency and capacity for a telepsychiatry program. Clinical services are an integral aspect of the program accounting for 6% of all activities and 50% of the time spent conducting program activities, but half of this time is spent completing clinical paperwork. This finding emphasizes the importance of these services to program efficiency and the need to address variability of service provision to impact capacity. Currently, there is no efficiency benchmark for emergency telepsychiatry programs. Findings suggest that MHEC-RAP could increase its activity without affecting program responsiveness. T&M studies not only determine activity and time expenditure, but have a wider application assessing program efficiency by understanding, defining, and calculating capacity. T&M studies can inform future program development of MHEC-RAP and similar telehealth programs, both in Australia and overseas.

  7. 77 FR 25529 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... disability community and the transportation industry. Project ACTION provides training, resources and.... Overview II. Program Purpose III. Program Information A. Award Information B. Eligible Applicants C... Criteria VI. Award Administration Information VII. Agency Contacts I. Overview A. Authority The program...

  8. Automated Eukaryotic Gene Structure Annotation Using EVidenceModeler and the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, B J; Salzberg, S L; Zhu, W; Pertea, M; Allen, J E; Orvis, J; White, O; Buell, C R; Wortman, J R

    2007-12-10

    EVidenceModeler (EVM) is presented as an automated eukaryotic gene structure annotation tool that reports eukaryotic gene structures as a weighted consensus of all available evidence. EVM, when combined with the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments (PASA), yields a comprehensive, configurable annotation system that predicts protein-coding genes and alternatively spliced isoforms. Our experiments on both rice and human genome sequences demonstrate that EVM produces automated gene structure annotation approaching the quality of manual curation.

  9. Can cash transfers improve determinants of maternal mortality? Evidence from the household and community programs in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Dian; Cohen, Jessica; McConnell, Margaret; Berman, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Despite global efforts in maternal health, 303,000 maternal deaths still occurred globally in 2015. One explanation is a considerable inequality in maternal mortality and the sources such as nutritional status and health utilization. One strategy to fight health inequality due to poverty is conditional cash transfer (CCT). Taking advantage of two large clustered-randomized trials in Indonesia from 2007 to 2009, this paper provides evidence on the effects of household cash transfers (PKH) and community cash transfers (Generasi) on determinants of maternal mortality. The sample sizes are 14,000 households for PKH and 12,000 households for Generasi. After two years of implementation, difference-in-differences (DID) analyses show that the two programs can improve determinants of maternal mortality with Generasi provides positive impact in some aspects of determinants, but PKH does not. Generasi improves maternal health knowledge, reduces financial barriers to accessing health services and improves utilization of health services, increases utilization among higher-risk women, improves posyandu equipment, and increases nutritional intake. As for PKH, evidence shows its strongest effects only on utilization of health services. Both programs, however, are unlikely to have a large effect on maternal mortality due to design and implementation issues that might significantly reduce program effectiveness. While the programs improved utilization, they did so at community-based facilities not equipped with emergency obstetric care. In the midst of popularity of household cash transfer, our results show that community cash transfer offers a viable policy alternative to improve the determinants of maternal mortality by allowing more flexibility in activities and at lower cost by monitoring at community level. PMID:27376594

  10. Can cash transfers improve determinants of maternal mortality? Evidence from the household and community programs in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Dian; Cohen, Jessica; McConnell, Margaret; Berman, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Despite global efforts in maternal health, 303,000 maternal deaths still occurred globally in 2015. One explanation is a considerable inequality in maternal mortality and the sources such as nutritional status and health utilization. One strategy to fight health inequality due to poverty is conditional cash transfer (CCT). Taking advantage of two large clustered-randomized trials in Indonesia from 2007 to 2009, this paper provides evidence on the effects of household cash transfers (PKH) and community cash transfers (Generasi) on determinants of maternal mortality. The sample sizes are 14,000 households for PKH and 12,000 households for Generasi. After two years of implementation, difference-in-differences (DID) analyses show that the two programs can improve determinants of maternal mortality with Generasi provides positive impact in some aspects of determinants, but PKH does not. Generasi improves maternal health knowledge, reduces financial barriers to accessing health services and improves utilization of health services, increases utilization among higher-risk women, improves posyandu equipment, and increases nutritional intake. As for PKH, evidence shows its strongest effects only on utilization of health services. Both programs, however, are unlikely to have a large effect on maternal mortality due to design and implementation issues that might significantly reduce program effectiveness. While the programs improved utilization, they did so at community-based facilities not equipped with emergency obstetric care. In the midst of popularity of household cash transfer, our results show that community cash transfer offers a viable policy alternative to improve the determinants of maternal mortality by allowing more flexibility in activities and at lower cost by monitoring at community level.

  11. 76 FR 27633 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for Market Access Program, Foreign Market...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... Assistance (CFDA) Numbers: 10.601 (MAP), 10.600 (FMD), 10.603 (EMP), 10.604 (TASC), 10.605 (QSP). SUMMARY... Program (FMD), Emerging Markets Program (EMP), Technical Assistance for Specialty Crops Program (TASC... May 16, 2011, deadline for proposals for the MAP, FMD, EMP, TASC, and QSP programs. This...

  12. Do cash transfers improve birth outcomes? Evidence from matched vital statistics, social security and program data

    OpenAIRE

    Amarante, Veronica; Manacorda, Marco; Miguel, Edward; Vigorito, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    There is limited empirical evidence on whether unrestricted cash social assistance to poor pregnant women improves children's birth outcomes. Using program administrative micro-data matched to longitudinal vital statistics on the universe of births in Uruguay, we estimate that participation in a generous cash transfer program led to a sizeable 15% reduction in the incidence of low birthweight. Improvements in mother nutrition and a fall in labor supply, out-of-wedlock births and mother's smok...

  13. 76 FR 2686 - Video Programming and Emergency Access Advisory Committee; Announcement of Establishment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Blindness--Louis Herrera AT&T--Leonardo Velazquez Audio Description Associates--Joel Snyder Bright House... Accessible Media--Larry Goldberg World Wide Web Consortium--Judy Brewer To request materials in...

  14. DOE Voluntary Partnership Program with Utilities and Local Governments Supports the Design of New Data Access Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Monisha; Burr, Andrew; Schulte, Andrew; Field-Macumber, Kristin; Cochran-Hameen, Erica; Marion, Flore

    2016-08-26

    The Better Buildings Energy Data Accelerator (BBEDA) is a unique effort that has supported 22 pairs of local governments and their utility companies to help building owners gain access to their whole-building energy data. Municipal and Utility BBEDA Partners committed to develop streamlined and easy-to-use solutions to provide whole-building energy data, especially for multitenant commercial buildings, by the end of 2015. As a result, building owners would be able to make data-driven decisions about their buildings by utilizing readily available energy consumption data for entire buildings. Traditionally, data access was difficult to implement due to technical barriers and the lack of clear value propositions for the utilities. During the past two years, BBEDA has taken a hands-on approach to overcome these barriers by offering a platform for the partners to discuss their challenges and solutions. Customized support was also provided to Partners building their local strategies. Based on the lessons learned from the partners, BBEDA developed a final toolkit with guiding documents that addressed key barriers and served as a resource for the other cities and utilities attempting to establish whole-building data access, including an exploration of opportunities to apply the whole-building data to various aspects of utility demand-side management (DSM) programs. BBEDA has been a catalyst for market transformation by addressing the upstream (to efficiency implementation) barrier of data access, demonstrated through the success of the BBEDA partners to address policy, engagement, and technical hurdles and arrive at replicable solutions to make data access a standard practice nationwide. As a result of best practices identified by the BBEDA, 18 utilities serving more than 2.6 million commercial customers nationwide will provide whole-building energy data access to building owners by 2017. This historic expansion of data accessibility will increase building energy

  15. Small scale farmers’ access to and participation in markets : The case of the P4P program in western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Skjöldevald, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to understand how small scale farmers navigate the market to access and participate in the formal maize market to improve their revenue, utilising the case of the P4P program inKenya. The empirical material was collected during fieldwork in Kenya. Qualitative methods were found to be the most suitable for this thesis. The methods that was utilised were a case study strategy, semi structured interviews, focus groups, observations and analysis of secondary sources....

  16. Successfully integrating aged care services: A review of the evidence and tools emerging from a long-term care program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Stewart

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing efficient and effective aged care services is one of the greatest public policy concerns currently facing governments. Increasing the integration of care services has the potential to provide many benefits including increased access, promoting greater efficiency, and improving care outcomes. There is little research, however, investigating how integrated aged care can be successfully achieved. The PRISMA (Program of Research to Integrate Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy project, from Quebec, Canada, is one of the most systematic and sustained bodies of research investigating the translation and outcomes of an integrated care policy into practice.  The PRISMA research program has run since 1988, yet there has been no independent systematic review of this work to draw out the lessons learnt. Methods: Narrative review of all literature emanating from the PRISMA project between 1988 and 2012. Researchers accessed an online list of all published papers from the program website. The reference lists of papers were hand searched to identify additional literature. Finally, Medline, Pubmed, EMBASE and Google Scholar indexing databases were searched using key terms and author names. Results were extracted into specially designed spread sheets for analysis. Results: 45 journal articles and two books authored or co-authored by the PRISMA team were identified. Research was primarily concerned with: the design, development and validation of screening and assessment tools; and results generated from their application. Both quasi-experimental and cross sectional analytic designs were used extensively. Contextually appropriate expert opinion was obtained using variations on the Delphi Method. Literature analysis revealed the structures, processes and outcomes which underpinned the implementation. PRISMA provides evidence that integrating care for older persons is beneficial to individuals through reducing incidence of functional

  17. Scalability of an Evidence-Based Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program: New Evidence From 5 Cluster-Randomized Evaluations of the Teen Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philliber, Susan; Walsh-Buhi, Eric R.; Philliber, Ashley; Seshadri, Roopa; Daley, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To determine if the Teen Outreach Program (TOP), a youth development and service learning program, can reduce sexual risk-taking behaviors compared with a business as usual or benign counterfactual. Methods. We synthesized results of 5 independent studies conducted in 5 geographically and ethnically diverse locations between 2011 and 2015 with 17 194 middle and high school students. Each study cluster-randomized classes, teachers, or schools to treatment or control groups and included the students enrolled in those clusters at baseline in an intent-to-treat analysis. Multilevel models tested impacts on recent sexual activity, recent unprotected sexual activity, and sexual initiation among the sexually inexperienced at baseline at approximately 1 and 2 years after baseline. Results. Precision-weighted average effect sizes showed nonsignificant reductions of 1 percentage point or less in recent sexual activity (5 studies: −0.6; P = .32), recent unprotected sex (5 studies: −0.2; P = .76), and sexual initiation (4 studies: −1.1; P = .10) after 1 year. Conclusions. There was little evidence of the effectiveness of TOP in reducing sexual risk-taking behaviors. Results underscored the importance of continually evaluating evidence-based programs that have previously been shown to be effective. PMID:27689490

  18. Student Assistance General Provisions; Federal Pell Grant Program; Academic Competitiveness Grant Program; and National Science and Mathematics Access to Retain Talent Grant Program. Final Rule. Federal Register, Part IV, Department of Education, 34 CFR Parts 668, 690, and 691

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Secretary is adopting as final, with changes, interim final regulations in: 34 CFR part 691 for the Academic Competitiveness Grant (ACG) and National Science and Mathematics Access to Retain Talent Grant (National SMART Grant) programs; 34 CFR part 668 (Student Assistance General Provisions); and 34 CFR part 690 (Federal Pell Grant Program).…

  19. Do Payments Pay Off? Evidence from Participation in Costa Rica's PES Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R A Arriagada

    Full Text Available Payments for environmental services (PES are often viewed as a way to simultaneously improve conservation outcomes and the wellbeing of rural households who receive the payments. However, evidence for such win-win outcomes has been elusive. We add to the growing literature on conservation program impacts by using primary household survey data to evaluate the socioeconomic impacts of participation in Costa Rica's PES program. Despite the substantial cash transfers to voluntary participants in this program, we do not detect any evidence of impacts on their wealth or self-reported well-being using a quasi-experimental design. These results are consistent with the common claim that voluntary PES do not harm participants, but they beg the question of why landowners participate if they do not benefit. Landowners in our sample voluntarily renewed their contracts after five years in the program and thus are unlikely to have underestimated their costs of participation. They apparently did not invest additional income from the program in farm inputs such as cattle or hired labor, since both decreased as a result of participation. Nor do we find evidence that participation encouraged moves off-farm. Instead, semi-structured interviews suggest that participants joined the program to secure their property rights and contribute to the public good of forest conservation. Thus, in order to understand the social impacts of PES, we need to look beyond simple economic rationales and material outcomes.

  20. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  1. Survey of knowledge and perception on the access to evidence-based practice and clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowther Caroline A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based practice (EBP can provide appropriate care for women and their babies; however implementation of EBP requires health professionals to have access to knowledge, the ability to interpret health care information and then strategies to apply care. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge of evidence-based practice, information seeking practices, perceptions and potential enablers and barriers to clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia. Methods Questionnaires about IT access for health information and evidence-based practice were administered during August to December 2005 to health care professionals working at the nine hospitals participating in the South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing countries (SEA-ORCHID project in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and The Philippines. Results The survey was completed by 660 staff from six health professional groups. Overall, easy IT access for health care information was available to 46% of participants. However, over a fifth reported no IT access was available and over half of nurses and midwives never used IT health information. Evidence-based practice had been heard of by 58% but the majority did not understand the concept. The most frequent sites accessed were Google and PubMed. The Cochrane Library had been heard of by 47% of whom 51% had access although the majority did not use it or used it less than monthly. Only 27% had heard of the WHO Reproductive Health Library and 35% had been involved in a clinical practice change and were able to identify enablers and barriers to change. Only a third of participants had been actively involved in practice change with wide variation between the countries. Willingness to participate in professional development workshops on evidence-based practice was high. Conclusion This survey has identified the need to improve IT access to health care

  2. Addressing Interpersonal Violence in the School Context: Awareness and Use of Evidence-Supported Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was completed by 250 members of the School Social Work Association of America. This article addresses the research-practice gap in the delivery of mental health services in the school setting by examining the extent to which evidence-supported school violence intervention programs (ESPs) are known and used by…

  3. 77 FR 64997 - Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... December 14, 1998 Federal Register (63 FR 68780). This notice announces the Wednesday, January 30, 2013... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee--January 30, 2013 AGENCY: Centers for...

  4. 78 FR 13059 - Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... information on MCAC, see the December 14, 1998 Federal Register (63 FR 68780). This notice announces the... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee--May 1, 2013 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare &...

  5. 75 FR 8980 - Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... MCAC, see the December 14, 1998 Federal Register (63 FR 68780).) This notice announces the April 21... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee--April 21, 2010 AGENCY: Centers for...

  6. 76 FR 71569 - Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... December 14, 1998 Federal Register (63 FR 68780). This notice announces the Wednesday, January 25, 2012... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee--January 25, 2012 AGENCY: Centers for...

  7. 75 FR 43533 - Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... information on MCAC, see the December 14, 1998 Federal Register (63 FR 68780).) This notice announces the... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee--September 22, 2010 AGENCY: Centers for...

  8. 76 FR 44011 - Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... Register (63 FR 68780).) This notice announces the September 21, 2011, public meeting of the Committee... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee--September 21, 2011 AGENCY: Centers for...

  9. 75 FR 4095 - Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... MCAC, see the December 14, 1998 Federal Register (63 FR 68780).) This notice announces the March 24... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee, March 24, 2010 AGENCY: Centers for...

  10. Analysis of Evidence Supporting the Educational Leadership Constituent Council 2011 Educational Leadership Program Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Pamela D.; Anderson, Erin; Reynolds, Amy L.; Mawhinney, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    This document analysis provides a summary of the research from high-impact journals published between 2008 and 2013 with the explicit purpose of determining the extent to which the current empirical evidence supports the individual 2011 Educational Leadership Constituent Council Program Standards and their elements. We found that the standards are…

  11. 75 FR 73094 - Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... information on MCAC, see the December 14, 1998 Federal Register (63 FR 68780).) This notice announces the... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee--January 19, 2011 AGENCY: Centers for...

  12. 77 FR 15372 - Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... Register (63 FR 68780). This notice announces the Wednesday, May 16, 2012, public meeting of the Committee... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee--May 16, 2012 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare &...

  13. 76 FR 53475 - Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... information on MCAC, see the December 14, 1998 Federal Register (63 FR 68780).) This notice announces the... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Meeting of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee--November 9, 2011 AGENCY: Centers for...

  14. 75 FR 26194 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Market Access Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Cooperator program, the 2-year average share (2009-2010) of Cooperator marketing plan budgets. (c) Projected... marketing and promotion activities. MAP participants may receive assistance for generic or brand promotion... recommendations for virtually all of the FAS marketing programs, financial assistance programs, and market...

  15. Integrating the Principles of Effective Intervention into Batterer Intervention Programming: The Case for Moving Toward More Evidence-Based Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radatz, Dana L; Wright, Emily M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of batterer intervention program (BIP) evaluations have indicated they are marginally effective in reducing domestic violence recidivism. Meanwhile, correctional programs used to treat a variety of offenders (e.g., substance users, violent offenders, and so forth) that adhere to the "principles of effective intervention" (PEI) have reported significant reductions in recidivism. This article introduces the PEI-the principles on which evidence-based practices in correctional rehabilitation are based-and identifies the degree to which they are currently integrated into BIPs. The case is made that batterer programs could be more effective if they incorporate the PEI. Recommendations for further integration of the principles into BIPs are also provided.

  16. Access and Quality of HIV-Related Point-of-Care Diagnostic Testing in Global Health Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonjungo, Peter N; Boeras, Debrah I; Zeh, Clement; Alexander, Heather; Parekh, Bharat S; Nkengasong, John N

    2016-02-01

    Access to point-of-care testing (POCT) improves patient care, especially in resource-limited settings where laboratory infrastructure is poor and the bulk of the population lives in rural settings. However, because of challenges in rolling out the technology and weak quality assurance measures, the promise of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related POCT in resource-limited settings has not been fully exploited to improve patient care and impact public health. Because of these challenges, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), in partnership with other organizations, recently launched the Diagnostics Access Initiative. Expanding HIV programs, including the "test and treat" strategies and the newly established UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, will require increased access to reliable and accurate POCT results. In this review, we examine various components that could improve access and uptake of quality-assured POC tests to ensure coverage and public health impact. These components include evaluation, policy, regulation, and innovative approaches to strengthen the quality of POCT. PMID:26423384

  17. Phase I - Smart Grid Data Access Pilot Program: Utilizing STEM Education as a Catalyst for Residential Consumer Decision Making and Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lishness, Alan [Gulf Of Maine Research Inst., Portland, ME (United States)

    2014-11-19

    Under Phase I of the Smart Grid Data Access Pilot Program, the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (GMRI) partnered with Central Maine Power (CMP), and the Maine Mathematics and Science Alliance (MMSA) and engaged key vendors Tilson Government Services, LLC (Tilson), and Image Works to demonstrate the efficacy of PowerHouse, an interactive online learning environment linking middle school students with their home electricity consumption data provided through CMP’s Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). The goal of the program is to harness the power of youth to alter home energy consumption behaviors using AMI data. Successful programs aimed at smoking cessation, recycling, and seat belt use have demonstrated the power of young people to influence household behaviors. In an era of increasing concern about energy costs, availability, and human impacts on global climate, GMRI sought to demonstrate the effectiveness of a student-focused approach to understanding and managing household energy use. We also sought to contribute to a solid foundation of science-literate students who can analyze evidence to find solutions to increasingly complex energy challenges.

  18. 75 FR 19464 - Interagency Guidance on Response Programs for Unauthorized Access to Customer Information and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Customer Information and Customer Notice AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION... for Unauthorized Access to Customer Information and Customer Notice. OMB Number: 1550-0110. Form...) Ensure the security and confidentiality of customer records and information; (2) protect against...

  19. 76 FR 26341 - Medicaid Program; Methods for Assuring Access to Covered Medicaid Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ..., telemedicine and telehealth, nurse help lines, health information technology and other methods for providing... years of research and consulted extensively with key stakeholders to develop a recommendation on how to... standards and are considering future proposals to address access issues under managed care delivery...

  20. 77 FR 44515 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Access to Airports From Residential Property (76 FR 15028; March 18, 2011). The interim policy modified... assisted public use airport. This is discussed in detail at 75 FR 54946, 54948 (Sept. 9, 2010). As a result... limits application of the FAA's previously published interim policy (76 FR 15028; March 18, 2011)...

  1. 78 FR 42419 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... (76 FR 15028; March 18, 2011) with regard to commercial service airports, and establishes how FAA will... Existing Through-the- Fence Access to Commercial Service Airports From A Residential Property (77 FR 44515... adjacent or nearby property, when that property is used as a residence, is available at: 75 FR...

  2. Perspectives on Evidence-Based Research in Education--What Works? Issues in Synthesizing Educational Program Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    Syntheses of research on educational programs have taken on increasing policy importance. Procedures for performing such syntheses must therefore produce reliable, unbiased, and meaningful information on the strength of evidence behind each program. Because evaluations of any given program are few in number, syntheses of program evaluations must…

  3. Adopting an Evidence-Based Lifestyle Physical Activity Program: Dissemination Study Design and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Andrea L; Buller, David B; Dearing, James W; Cutter, Gary; Guerra, Michele; Wilcox, Sara; Bettinghaus, Erwin P

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of research studies that have examined academic-commercial partnerships to disseminate evidence-based physical activity programs. Understanding this approach to dissemination is essential because academic-commercial partnerships are increasingly common. Private companies have used dissemination channels and strategies to a degree that academicians have not, and declining resources require academicians to explore these partnerships. PURPOSE: This paper describes a retrospective case-control study design including the methods, demographics, organizational decision-making, implementation rates, and marketing strategy for Active Living Every Day (ALED), an evidence-based lifestyle physical activity program that has been commercially available since 2001. Evidence-based public health promotion programs rely on organizations and targeted sectors to disseminate these programs although relatively little is known about organizational-level and sector-level influences that lead to their adoption and implementation. METHODS: Cases (n=154) were eligible if they had signed an ALED license agreement with Human Kinetics (HK), publisher of the program's textbooks and facilitator manuals, between 2001 and 2008. Two types of controls were matched (2:2:1) and stratified by sector and region. Active controls (Control 1; n=319) were organizations that contacted HK to consider adopting ALED. Passive controls (Control 2; n=328) were organizations that received unsolicited marketing materials and did not initiate contact with HK. We used Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT) constructs as the basis for developing the survey of cases and controls. RESULTS: Using the multi-method strategy recommended by Dillman, a total of n=801 cases and controls were surveyed. Most organizations were from the fitness sector followed by medical, nongovernmental, governmental, educational, worksite and other sectors with significantly higher response rates from government

  4. Adopting an Evidence-Based Lifestyle Physical Activity Program: Dissemination Study Design and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Andrea L; Buller, David B; Dearing, James W; Cutter, Gary; Guerra, Michele; Wilcox, Sara; Bettinghaus, Erwin P

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of research studies that have examined academic-commercial partnerships to disseminate evidence-based physical activity programs. Understanding this approach to dissemination is essential because academic-commercial partnerships are increasingly common. Private companies have used dissemination channels and strategies to a degree that academicians have not, and declining resources require academicians to explore these partnerships. PURPOSE: This paper describes a retrospective case-control study design including the methods, demographics, organizational decision-making, implementation rates, and marketing strategy for Active Living Every Day (ALED), an evidence-based lifestyle physical activity program that has been commercially available since 2001. Evidence-based public health promotion programs rely on organizations and targeted sectors to disseminate these programs although relatively little is known about organizational-level and sector-level influences that lead to their adoption and implementation. METHODS: Cases (n=154) were eligible if they had signed an ALED license agreement with Human Kinetics (HK), publisher of the program's textbooks and facilitator manuals, between 2001 and 2008. Two types of controls were matched (2:2:1) and stratified by sector and region. Active controls (Control 1; n=319) were organizations that contacted HK to consider adopting ALED. Passive controls (Control 2; n=328) were organizations that received unsolicited marketing materials and did not initiate contact with HK. We used Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT) constructs as the basis for developing the survey of cases and controls. RESULTS: Using the multi-method strategy recommended by Dillman, a total of n=801 cases and controls were surveyed. Most organizations were from the fitness sector followed by medical, nongovernmental, governmental, educational, worksite and other sectors with significantly higher response rates from government

  5. The importance of considering the evidence in the MTP 2014 Amendment debate in India - unsubstantiated arguments should not impede improved access to safe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mandira; Danielsson, Kristina Gemzell; Essén, Birgitta; Allvin, Marie Klingberg

    2015-01-01

    With the objective to improve access to safe abortion services in India, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, with approval of the Law Ministry, published draft amendments of the MTP Act on October 29, 2014. Instead of the expected support, the amendments created a heated debate within professional medical associations of India. In this commentary, we review the evidence in response to the current discourse with regard to the amendments. It would be unfortunate if unsubstantiated one-sided arguments would impede the intention of improving access to safe abortion care in India. PMID:25828071

  6. The importance of considering the evidence in the MTP 2014 Amendment debate in India – unsubstantiated arguments should not impede improved access to safe abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Paul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to improve access to safe abortion services in India, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, with approval of the Law Ministry, published draft amendments of the MTP Act on October 29, 2014. Instead of the expected support, the amendments created a heated debate within professional medical associations of India. In this commentary, we review the evidence in response to the current discourse with regard to the amendments. It would be unfortunate if unsubstantiated one-sided arguments would impede the intention of improving access to safe abortion care in India.

  7. Does Household Gun Access Increase the Risk of Attempted Suicide?: Evidence from a National Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Adam M.; Lizotte, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to assess if home firearm access increases the risk of nonfatal suicidal attempts among adolescents. Such a gun focus has largely been limited to case-control studies on completed suicides. This line of research has found that household gun access increases the risk of suicide due to features of available firearms…

  8. Guidelines for establishing a telemental health program to provide evidence-based therapy for trauma-exposed children and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrea M; Shealy, Kristen M; Reid-Quiñones, Kathryn; Moreland, Angela D; Davidson, Tatiana M; López, Cristina M; Barr, Simone C; de Arellano, Michael A

    2014-11-01

    Although similar rates of traumatic experiences exist in both rural and urban settings, mental health resources available to those living in rural areas are often scarce. Limited resources pose a problem for children and families living in rural areas, and several barriers to service access and utilization exist including reduced anonymity, few "after hours" services, decreased availability of evidence-based treatments, few specialty clinics, and expenses associated with travel, taking time off work, and provision of childcare. As a solution, the authors discuss the utility, use, and set-up of a telemental health program within an existing community outreach program. Suggestions for establishing a telemental health clinic are presented along with guidelines for the delivery of trauma-focused, cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) via telemental health videoconferencing technology. Specific guidelines discussed include (1) establishing and using community partnerships, (2) Memoranda of Understanding (MOU), (3) equipment setup and technological resources, (4) videoconferencing software, (5) physical setup, (6) clinic administration, (7) service reimbursement and start-up costs, (8) therapy delivery modifications, and (9) delivering culturally competent services to rural and remote areas.

  9. Health Promotion in an Opioid Treatment Program: An Evidence-Based Nursing Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadbois, Christine; Chin, Elizabeth D; Dalphonse, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Community assessment and review of the literature indicate that individuals supported in opioid treatment programs are at a significant disadvantage for access to preventative and primary healthcare. In addition, this population faces increased comorbidities and chronic disease. Finally, access to housing, nutritious food, and other social determinants of health is also a challenge for these individuals. This project, aimed at addressing healthcare disparities and improving health outcomes for the opioid treatment program client, was undertaken at a large, private, not-for-profit, community mental health center in an urban area. An education-practice partnership was created between the center and the local university's College of Nursing, which includes undergraduate and graduate programs. Working with administration, nurses, medical staff, and clinicians, the advanced practice nurse guided nursing practice change within the context of an interdisciplinary team to increase attention to clients' health needs. Outcomes included a more comprehensive nursing health assessment and increased attention to nursing care coordination. The partnership between the university and the facility continues with the goal of addressing clients' unmet healthcare needs and improving wellness via on-site intervention, referral, and education. PMID:27272997

  10. 34 CFR 98.3 - Access to instructional material used in a research or experimentation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... experimentation program. 98.3 Section 98.3 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT... research or experimentation program. (a) All instructional material—including teachers' manuals, films, tapes, or other supplementary instructional material—which will be used in connection with any...

  11. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Impact of the Gates Millennium Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation began an innovative scholarship program that provides full financial support to low-income minority students across the United States. The Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) program has already awarded more than 10,000 scholarships to exceptional students, with the ultimate goal of funding at least 20,000…

  12. Balancing the One-to-One Equation: Equity and Access in Three Laptop Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschauer, Mark; Zheng, Binbin; Niiya, Melissa; Cotten, Shelia; Farkas, George

    2014-01-01

    Seeking to improve teaching and learning and to narrow gaps between students of high and low socioeconomic status, many school districts in the United States are implementing one-to-one laptop programs. In this comparative case study, we examine one-to-one laptop programs in Colorado, California, and Alabama, all of which deployed low-cost netbook…

  13. A Close Look at a STEM-Themed Magnet and Its Experiential Program on the Occupational Identities, Career Maturity, and Access Provided to Low Socioeconomic Minority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Urlette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an experiential program on the occupational identity, access, and career maturity of Black and Latino students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Data shows these students to be underrepresented in STEM fields. Student interest and access are noted in the literature to be amongst the…

  14. Do Cash Transfers Improve Birth Outcomes? Evidence from Matched Vital Statistics, Program and Social Security Data

    OpenAIRE

    Amarante, Verónica; Manacorda, Marco; Miguel, Edward; Vigorito, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    There is limited empirical evidence on whether cash social assistance to poor pregnant women improves children’s birth outcomes. Using program administrative micro-data matched to longitudinal vital statistics on the universe of births in Uruguay, we estimate that participation in a generous cash transfer program led to a sizeable 15 to 17% reduction in the incidence of low birth weight. Improvements in mother nutrition and a fall in labor supply, out-of-wedlock births and mother’s smoking al...

  15. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Amy L; Pribbenow, Christine M

    2016-05-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation) Biology Scholars Program (BSP) to promote undergraduate education reform by 1) supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2) engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists' leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3) participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) to more than 270 participants ("scholars") from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER). To identify the BSP's long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program's 2010-2014 scholars (n = 127) and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life sciences and helps

  16. Using Evidence for Teacher Education Program Improvement and Accountability: An Illustrative Case of the Role of Value-Added Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plecki, Margaret L.; Elfers, Ana M.; Nakamura, Yugo

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors consider what can be learned from limited forms of evidence, for purposes of accountability and improvement of teacher education programs. They begin with a review of recent research on how evidence has been used to examine the effectiveness of teacher preparation and development. Using empirical evidence from a state…

  17. Evidence on access to medicines for chronic diseases from household surveys in five low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialle-Valentin, Catherine E; Serumaga, Brian; Wagner, Anita K; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2015-10-01

    The 2011 United Nations (UN) General Assembly Political Declaration on Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) brought NCDs to the global health agenda. Essential medicines are central to treating chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. Our study aimed to quantify access to essential medicines for people with chronic conditions in five low- and middle-income countries and to evaluate how household socioeconomic status and perceptions about medicines availability and affordability influence access. We analysed data for 1867 individuals with chronic diseases from national surveys (Ghana, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines and Uganda) conducted in 2007-10 using a standard World Health Organization (WHO) methodology to measure medicines access and use. We defined individuals as having access to medicines if they reported regularly taking medicine for a diagnosed chronic disease and data collectors found a medicine indicated for that disease in their homes. We used logistic regression models accounting for the clustered survey design to investigate determinants of keeping medicines at home and predictors of access to medicines for chronic diseases. Less than half of individuals previously diagnosed with a chronic disease had access to medicines for their condition in every country, from 16% in Uganda to 49% in Jordan. Other than reporting a chronic disease, higher household socioeconomic level was the most significant predictor of having any medicines available at home. The likelihood of having access to medicines for chronic diseases was higher for those with medicines insurance coverage [highest adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.12 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.38, 7.07)] and lower for those with past history of borrowing money to pay for medicines [lowest adjusted OR 0.56 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.92)]. Our study documents poor access to essential medicines for chronic conditions in five resource-constrained settings. It highlights the importance of

  18. International market integration and market interdependence: evidence from China's stock market in the post-WTO accession period

    OpenAIRE

    He, Hongbo

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese government has implemented a series of financial liberalisation policies in stock market after China’s accession into the WTO in 2001. However, it remains somewhat unclear whether and to what extent China’s financial liberalisation has influenced its stock market in the post-WTO accession period. This thesis examines this issue from the perspectives of international market integration and market interdependence. This thesis mainly includes three empirical studies: 1) gauging the d...

  19. The importance of considering the evidence in the MTP 2014 Amendment debate in India - unsubstantiated arguments should not impede improved access to safe abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Mandira; Gemzell Danielsson, Kristina; Essén, Birgitta; Klingberg Allvin, Marie

    2015-01-01

    With the objective to improve access to safe abortion services in India, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, with approval of the Law Ministry, published draft amendments of the MTP Act on October 29, 2014. Instead of the expected support, the amendments created a heated debate within professional medical associations of India. In this commentary, we review the evidence in response to the current discourse with regard to the amendments. It would be unfortunate if unsubstantiated one-sided arg...

  20. "Basically...porn is everywhere". A Rapid Evidence Assessment on the Effects that Access and Exposure to Pornography has on Children and Young People

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Miranda; Alys, Llian; Massey, Kristina; Pina, Afroditi; Scally, Maria; Adler, Joanna R.

    2013-01-01

    This Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) was commissioned by the Office of the Children’s Commissioner (OCC) as part of its Inquiry into Child Sexual Exploitation in Gangs and Groups (CSEGG). It was conducted by a consortium led by Middlesex University, to explore the effects that exposure and access to pornography have on children and young people. The CSEGG Inquiry was launched in October 2011 to better understand the scale, scope, extent and nature of child sexual exploitation in gangs and gro...

  1. An "Evidence-Based" Professional Development Program for Physics Teachers Focusing on Knowledge Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Hana

    This dissertation is concerned with the design and study of an evidence-based approach to the professional development of high-school physics teachers responding to the need to develop effective continuing professional development programs (CPD) in domains that require genuine changes in teachers' views, knowledge, and practice. The goals of the thesis were to design an evidence-based model for the CPD program, to implement it with teachers, and to study its influence on teachers' knowledge, views, and practice, as well as its impact on students' learning. The program was developed in three consecutive versions: a pilot, first, and second versions. Based on the pilot version (that was not part of this study), we developed the first version of the program in which we studied difficulties in employing the evidence-based and blended-learning approaches. According to our findings, we modified the strategies for enacting these approaches in the second version of the program. The influence of the program on the teachers and students was studied during the enactment of the second version of the program. The model implemented in the second version of the program was characterized by four main design principles: 1. The KI and evidence aspects are acquired simultaneously in an integrated manner. 2. The guidance of the teachers follows the principles of cognitive apprenticeship both in the evidence and the KI aspects. 3. The teachers experience the innovative activities as learners. 4. The program promotes continuity of teachers' learning through a structured "blended learning" approach. The results of our study show that this version of the program achieved its goals; throughout the program the teachers progressed in their knowledge, views, and practice concerning the knowledge integration, and in the evidence and learner-centered aspects. The results also indicated that students improved their knowledge of physics and knowledge integration skills that were developed

  2. A New Evaluation Tool to Obtain Practice-Based Evidence of Worksite Health Promotion Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane O. Dunet, PhD

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Swift Worksite Assessment and Translation (SWAT evaluation method to identify promising practices in worksite health promotion programs. The new method complements research studies and evaluation studies of evidence-based practices that promote healthy weight in working adults.MethodsWe used nationally recognized program evaluation standards of utility, feasibility, accuracy, and propriety as the foundation for our 5-step method: 1 site identification and selection, 2 site visit, 3 post-visit evaluation of promising practices, 4 evaluation capacity building, and 5 translation and dissemination. An independent, outside evaluation team conducted process and summative evaluations of SWAT to determine its efficacy in providing accurate, useful information and its compliance with evaluation standards.ResultsThe SWAT evaluation approach is feasible in small and medium-sized workplace settings. The independent evaluation team judged SWAT favorably as an evaluation method, noting among its strengths its systematic and detailed procedures and service orientation. Experts in worksite health promotion evaluation concluded that the data obtained by using this evaluation method were sufficient to allow them to make judgments about promising practices.ConclusionSWAT is a useful, business-friendly approach to systematic, yet rapid, evaluation that comports with program evaluation standards. The method provides a new tool to obtain practice-based evidence of worksite health promotion programs that help prevent obesity and, more broadly, may advance public health goals for chronic disease prevention and health promotion.

  3. Evidence in promoting positive parenting through the Program-Guide to Develop Emotional Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel-Amaya Martínez-González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at providing evidence of the effectiveness of the Program-Guide to Develop Emotional Competences in promoting positive parenting. Contextual, institutional, methodological and professional issues were taken into account to develop a social innovation experience to support parenting as a preventive measure to family conflicts. The study describes both the contents of the Program-Guide and the methodological and evaluation issues that trained professionals need to consider when delivering the Program-Guide to families in natural contexts. Information was gathered and analyzed from 259 parents with children of ages 1-18 who participated in 26 parent training groups. A pre- and post-test design showed that after finishing the sessions parents perceived themselves more competent as parents according to the five dimensions of parenting competences considered: (1 emotional self-regulation abilities; (2 self-esteem and assertiveness; (3 communication strategies; (4 strategies to solve conflicts and to negotiate; and (5 strategies to establish coherent norms, limits and consequences to promote positive discipline. The study presents a discussion on these results from evidence-based parenting programs, as well as some strengths and limitations of the study, together with some suggestions for further research.

  4. Adapting Evidence-Based Prevention Approaches for Latino Adolescents: The Familia Adelante Program - Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Cervantes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral health is defined as the absence of mental illness or substance use problems and the presence of positive emotional well being. Although many U.S. Hispanic youth are at increased risk for substance abuse, suicidality, teen pregnancy, unsafe sexual practices and HIV, there exists a lack of available evidence-based practices for Hispanic youth which promotes behavioral health and HIV prevention. The objective of the current research was to adapt and revise the Familia Adelante (FA Program, a behavioral health, drug intervention and prevention program to incorporate an HIV prevention component. Through qualitative community based participatory methods, including an expert panel and members of the target population, the curriculum was redesigned to integrate effective HIV risk reduction strategies. The process of adapting the intervention is described in this paper, as well as recommendations for future research in program adaptation.

  5. Desired attributes and skills of program managers in translation of evidence-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rhonda; Woodell, Carol; McCarville, Erin; Damitz, Maureen; Banks, Tinesha; Montoya, Jorge; Lesch, Julie Kennedy; Peretz, Patricia; Lara, Marielena

    2011-11-01

    Successful chronic disease project management, especially of multiyear initiatives using evidence-based interventions (EBIs), is of great importance to funders, health care decision makers, and researchers, particularly in light of limited funding. However, a gap in knowledge may exist regarding which attributes and skills are most desirable in a program manager to help him or her ensure successful implementation of EBIs. Although some literature examines the dynamics contributing to the success of community coalitions, public health leadership, and community health education, there is minimal literature exploring the significance of a program manager's role in the conceptualization, implementation, and sustainability of initiatives to improve patient and community health. The authors present their experiences as participants in a large-scale asthma initiative implemented in priority communities, as well as results of a survey distributed among all personnel of the program sites. The survey aimed to assess the key skills and attributes, in addition to contextual factors, that contribute to the strength of a program manager overseeing EBIs in asthma initiatives. The results suggest that certain attributes and skills are desirable in recruiting and hiring of a program manager, especially when augmented by ongoing skill-building training, and can help ensure program and research success.

  6. Ecological and environmental data as under-utilized national resources: results of the TIE/ACCESS program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armentano, T.V.; Loucks, O.L.

    1979-06-01

    The goal of The Institute of Energy (TIE) 1977 to 1979 ACCESS program was to define the national need for ecological and environmental data and the extent to which present data documentation and archiving are meeting this need. The principal steps focussed on current data documentation and research in government, private and academic sectors of the natural science technical community, particularly as they bear on the accessibility of environmental data to secondary users. The extent to which existing data services are satisfying the needs of data users also was emphasized. The results indicate that the potential contributions which existing data and models could make are not being achieved because of inconsistencies in data documentation, inadequate communication between data suppliers and data users, and a lack of overall coordination of the data bases in national research and monitoring programs. A nationally coordinated network is proposed which focuses on regional data centers and ties together the hierarchy of data bases (national, state, and local) with the broad spectrum of potential users. The network concept includes immediate development of a comprehensive catalog of data resources in each region, with later production of a data abstract journal as one of two methods for communicating between regional and local data centers and the user community.

  7. Access to Adequate Healthcare for Hmong Women: A Patient Navigation Program to Increase Pap Test Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon S. Chen, Jr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a Hmong Cervical Cancer Intervention Program utilizing a patient navigation model to raise cervical cancer awareness for Hmong women through educational workshops and to assist Hmong women in obtaining a Pap test. Out of 402 women who participated in a baseline survey, the Patient Navigation Program was able to enroll 109 participants who had not had a Pap test in the past 3 years and had never had a Pap test. Through utilization of outreach, an awareness campaign and patient navigation support, at least 38 percent of 109 participants obtained a Pap test. Overall, 21 workshops and 43 outreach activities were conducted by the Hmong Women’s Heritage Association, leading to 63 percent of those enrolled in the Patient Navigation Program who could be contacted to obtain a Pap test.

  8. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Amy L.; Pribbenow, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation) Biology Scholars Program (BSP) to promote undergraduate education reform by 1) supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2) engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists’ leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3) participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) to more than 270 participants (“scholars”) from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER). To identify the BSP’s long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program’s 2010–2014 scholars (n = 127) and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life sciences and

  9. Signal detection theory, the exclusion failure paradigm and weak consciousness--evidence for the access/phenomenal distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Elizabeth

    2009-06-01

    Block [Block, N. (2005). Two neural correlates of consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Science, 9, 46-52] and Snodgrass (2006) claim that a signal detection theory (SDT) analysis of qualitative difference paradigms, in particular the exclusion failure paradigm, reveals cases of phenomenal consciousness without access consciousness. This claim is unwarranted on several grounds. First, partial cognitive access rather than a total lack of cognitive access can account for exclusion failure results. Second, Snodgrass's Objective Threshold/Strategic (OT/S) model of perception relies on a problematic 'enable' approach to perception that denies the possibility of intentional control of unconscious perception and any effect of following different task instructions on the presence/absence of phenomenal consciousness. Many of Block's purported examples of phenomenal consciousness without cognitive access also rely on this problematic approach. Third, qualitative difference paradigms may index only a subset of access consciousness. Thus, qualitative difference paradigms like exclusion failure cannot be used to isolate phenomenal consciousness, any attempt to do so still faces serious methodological problems.

  10. The Effect of Child Health Insurance Access on Schooling: Evidence from Public Insurance Expansions. NBER Working Paper No. 20178

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohodes, Sarah; Kleiner, Samuel; Lovenheim, Michael F.; Grossman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Public health insurance programs comprise a large share of federal and state government expenditure, and these programs are due to be expanded as part of the 2010 Affordable Care Act. Despite a large literature on the effects of these programs on health care utilization and health outcomes, little prior work has examined the long-term effects of…

  11. 50 CFR 648.82 - Effort-control program for NE multispecies limited access vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... documentation or state registration papers. For vessels over 20 ft (6.1 m) in length overall, the measurement of... Trip gillnet vessel. (k) NE Multispecies DAS Leasing Program—(1) Program description. Eligible vessels... has final approval authority for all NE multispecies DAS leasing requests. (2) Eligible vessels. (i)...

  12. 76 FR 21325 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Market Access Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... strategy and a program effectiveness time line against which results can be measured at specific intervals... allocation strategy to fund applicants who can demonstrate performance and address the objectives of the GPRA... assistance for generic or brand promotion activities. For generic activities, funding priority is given...

  13. 77 FR 71865 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... by Section 3038 of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). The OTRB... FTA's Transportation Electronic Awards Management System (TEAM) for the projects identified in Tables... program was repealed under the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act, signed by...

  14. 76 FR 60651 - Leased Commercial Access; Development of Competition and Diversity in Video Programming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ..., File No. CSR-8258-P (filed January 5, 2010); Bloomberg, L.P. v. Comcast Cable Communications, LLC, MB... how the processes for resolving program carriage complaints should be modified; whether the elements...- affiliation'' is sufficient to establish this element of a prima facie case but is not required. For...

  15. 76 FR 41323 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... distant points. 4. The applicant maintains a Website showing routes and schedules of its regularly... an additional notification, FTA's system will notify the applicant if there are any problems with the... problems that may have caused a rejection notification. D. Intergovernmental Review This program is...

  16. Examining Advanced Placement Program Access and Equity for Low-Income, Latino, and English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Castellanos, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Placement (AP) program was initiated during the early 1950's in response to growing concerns regarding the educational needs of high ability secondary school students. The Advanced Placement "Status Quo" (AP Status Quo) framework suggests that there has been an emphasis on preparing a few students while excluding the majority of…

  17. 77 FR 6479 - Leased Commercial Access; Development of Competition and Diversity in Video Programming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...)(1), 76.1302(d), 76.1302(e)(1), and 76.1302(k) published at 76 FR 60652, September 29, 2011, are... FR 60652, September 29, 2011. The OMB Control Number is 3060-0888. The Commission publishes this... Programming Distribution and Carriage AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final...

  18. Social capital and access to primary health care in developing countries: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollard, Guillaume; Sene, Omar

    2016-01-01

    We test for a causal role of social capital, as measured by self-reported trust, in determining access to basic health facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa. To skirt the reverse-causality problems between social capital and basic health, we rely on instrumental-variable (IV) estimates. A one standard-deviation increase in trust is predicted to lead to a 0.22 standard-deviation fall in doctor absenteeism, a 0.31 standard-deviation fall in waiting time and a 0.30 standard-deviation fall in bribes. As a robustness check, we also use a different database regarding a different health issue, access to clean water. We find that a one standard-deviation rise in trust leads to a 0.33 standard-deviation rise in access to clean water. The variety of public goods considered provides insights about the possible channels through which social capital is converted into health improvements.

  19. News from the Library: Facilitating access to a program for radiation shielding - the Library can help

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2013-01-01

    MicroShield® is a comprehensive photon/gamma ray shielding and dose assessment programme. It is widely used for designing shields, estimating source strength from radiation measurements, minimising exposure to people, and teaching shielding principles.   Integrated tools allow the graphing of results, material and source file creation, source inference with decay (dose-to-Bq calculations accounting for decay and daughter buildup), the projection of exposure rate versus time as a result of decay, access to material and nuclide data, and decay heat calculations. The latest version is able to export results using Microsoft Office (formatted and colour-coded for readability). Sixteen geometries accommodate offset dose points and as many as ten standard shields plus source self-shielding and cylinder cladding are available. The library data (radionuclides, attenuation, build-up and dose conversion) reflect standard data from ICRP 38 and 107* as well as ANSI/ANS standards and RSICC publicat...

  20. Role of Information Professionals in Knowledge Management Programs: Empirical Evidence from Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    la Ajiferuke

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of a knowledge management program in an organization has the potential of im-proving customer services, quickly bringing new products to market, and reducing cost of business operations. Information technologies are often used in knowledge management programs in informing clients and employees of latest innovation/development in the business sector as well as sharing knowledge among the employees. The key professionals involved in knowledge management programs are information technologists and human resource managers but the information professionals also have a role to play as they are traditionally known as good managers of explicit knowledge. Hence, the aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence of the role of information professionals in knowledge management programs. 386 information professionals working in Canadian organizations were selected from the Special Libraries Association's Who's Who in Special Libraries 2001/2002, and a questionnaire with a stamped self-addressed envelope for its return was sent to each one of them. 63 questionnaires were completed and returned, and 8 in-depth interviews conducted. About 59% of the information professionals surveyed are working in organizations that have knowledge management programs with about 86% of these professionals being involved in the programs. Factors such as gender, age, and educational background (i.e. highest educational qualifications and discipline did not seem to have any relationship with involvement in knowledge management programs. Many of those involved in the programs are playing key roles, such as the design of the information architecture, development of taxonomy, or con-tent management of the organization's intranet. Others play lesser roles, such as providing information for the intranet, gathering competitive intelligence, or providing research services as requested by the knowledge management team.

  1. Delivering On Accountable Care: Lessons From A Behavioral Health Program To Improve Access And Outcomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, RM; Jeffrey, J; Grossman, M.; Strouse, T; Gitlin, M.; Skootsky, SA

    2016-01-01

    Patients with behavioral health disorders often have worse health outcomes and have higher health care utilization than patients with medical diseases alone. As such, people with behavioral health conditions are important populations for accountable care organizations (ACOs) seeking to improve the efficiency of their delivery systems. However, ACOs have historically faced numerous barriers in implementing behavioral health population-based programs, including acquiring reimbursement, recruiti...

  2. College Pride, Native Pride: A Portrait of a Culturally Grounded Precollege Access Program for American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Adrienne J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article Adrienne J. Keene employs the portraiture methodology to explore the story of College Horizons. She examines this precollege access program for American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian students to understand how a program rooted in Native cultures and identities can not only provide a space to create knowledge…

  3. Evidence that the circadian system mediates photoperiodic nonresponsiveness in Siberian hamsters: the effect of running wheel access on photoperiodic responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, D A; Goldman, B D

    1997-04-01

    Juvenile male Siberian hamsters from a line of hamsters selected for nonresponsiveness to short photoperiod (PNRj) and animals from the general colony (UNS) were separated at weaning into two groups. Group 1 males were moved into short days (10 h light:14 h dark [10L:14D]) with free access to running wheels (RW). Group 2 animals were the male siblings of Group 1 hamsters; they were moved at the same time into the same room, but were housed in cages without access to RW. Group 2 hamsters only had access to RW for the final week of short-day exposure (Week 8). Animals were blood sampled at the time of sacrifice for analysis of serum prolactin (PRL) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations. At sacrifice, paired testis weights were obtained and pelage color was scored. Animals from the UNS line showed the expected declines in testis weight, body weight, and serum concentrations of both PRL and FSH, regardless of the presence or absence of RW. These animals also exhibited a high proportion of individuals molting to winter-type pelage. By contrast, a marked difference was noted between siblings from the PNRj line depending on whether RW access was provided at the time of weaning. Animals with access to RW exhibited identical responses to those of the UNS responder animals, whereas PNRj animals without access to RW showed no adjustments to short days (i.e., testis regression, pelage molt, expansion of alpha). In a second experiment, PNRj and UNS males were placed in constant darkness (DD), with or without RW access. The results of this experiment indicated that PNRj animals respond to DD regardless of the presence or absence of RW. In DD, PNRj hamsters also exhibited significantly longer free-running period lengths (taus) than did UNS hamsters; all the PNRj hamsters had taus > 24 h, whereas none of the UNS hamsters had a tau > 24 h. These results indicate that PNRj hamsters retain the proper neural pathways for responding to short day lengths and establish a

  4. Excluding Orphan Drugs from the 340B Drug Discount Program: the Impact on 18 Critical Access Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Carpinelli Wallack

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The 340B Drug Pricing Program is a federal program designed to reduce the amount that safety net providers spend on outpatient drugs. The Patient Protection and Affordable Health Care Act of 2010 extended eligibility for 340B to critical access hospitals (CAHs for all drugs except those designated as “orphan.” Because this policy is unprecedented, this study quantifies the gross financial impact that this exemption has on a group of CAHs. Methods: Drug spending for 2010 from 18 CAHs in Minnesota and Wisconsin are reviewed to identify the prevalence of orphan drug purchases and to calculate the price differentials between the 340B price and the hospitals’ current cost. Results: The 18 CAHs’ purchases of orphan drugs comprise an average of 44% of the total annual drug budgets, but only 5% of units purchased, thus representing a very high proportion of their expenditures. In the aggregate, the 18 hospitals would have saved $3.1 million ($171,000 average per hospital had purchases of drugs with orphan designations been made at the 340B price. Because CAH claims for Medicare are reimbursed on a cost-basis, the Federal government is losing an opportunity for savings. Conclusion: The high prevalence of orphan drug use and considerable potential for cost reduction through the 340B program demonstrate the loss of benefit to the hospitals, Federal government and the states.

  5. Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A; Ross, A Catharine; Meydani, Simin N; Dawson, Harry D; Stephensen, Charles B; Brabin, Bernard J; Suchdev, Parminder S; van Ommen, Ben

    2015-05-01

    An increasing recognition has emerged of the complexities of the global health agenda—specifically, the collision of infections and noncommunicable diseases and the dual burden of over- and undernutrition. Of particular practical concern are both 1) the need for a better understanding of the bidirectional relations between nutritional status and the development and function of the immune and inflammatory response and 2) the specific impact of the inflammatory response on the selection, use, and interpretation of nutrient biomarkers. The goal of the Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE) is to provide guidance for those users represented by the global food and nutrition enterprise. These include researchers (bench and clinical), clinicians providing care/treatment, those developing and evaluating programs/interventions at scale, and those responsible for generating evidence-based policy. The INSPIRE process included convening 5 thematic working groups (WGs) charged with developing summary reports around the following issues: 1) basic overview of the interactions between nutrition, immune function, and the inflammatory response; 2) examination of the evidence regarding the impact of nutrition on immune function and inflammation; 3) evaluation of the impact of inflammation and clinical conditions (acute and chronic) on nutrition; 4) examination of existing and potential new approaches to account for the impact of inflammation on biomarker interpretation and use; and 5) the presentation of new approaches to the study of these relations. Each WG was tasked with synthesizing a summary of the evidence for each of these topics and delineating the remaining gaps in our knowledge. This review consists of a summary of the INSPIRE workshop and the WG deliberations. PMID:25833893

  6. Determinants of Successful Access to Bank Loans by Vietnamese SMEs: New Evidence from the Red River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A key target of Small and Medium sized Enterprise (SME development is facilitating their access to finance, therefore drivers in SME credit decision making by banks are important to understand in every region and country. This paper provides an empirical analysis of the factors affecting the availability and affordability of SME loans in Vietnam. We use Ordinary Least Squares (OLS and Logit as measures for analysing results from a survey of 20 banks and 180 SMEs conducted in 2012. The results indicate that collateral and relationship lending have positive impacts on successful access. In addition, developing relationships with lenders or seeking a guarantee from a third party can help firms mitigate stringent terms and conditions for credit approvals. On the demand side, the sector where firms operate has an influence on barriers to finance. From the supply side, with various sizes and ownerships, has different perceptions about legal uncertainties and requirements in SME lending.

  7. Assessing the accessibility and degree of development in health care resources: evidence from the West of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Satar Rezaei; Behzad Karami Matin; Yousef Chavehpour; Negar Yousefzadeh; Sajad Delavari; Ali Kazemi Karyani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Health care is one of the most important sectors in the development of each country and disparities in their distribution will reduce the level of development. The aim of this study was to examine the access to healthcare and degree of development in health care resources in the west of Iran in 2011. Method: This was a cross-sectional and retrospective study. The study setting was 51 cities of five western provinces of Iran, including Kermanshah, Kurdistan, Ilam, Lorestan and...

  8. The Geographic Accessibility of Child Care Subsidies and Evidence on the Impact of Subsidy Receipt on Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the spatial accessibility of public human services agencies on the likelihood of receiving a child care subsidy among disadvantaged mothers with young children. In particular, we collect data on the location of virtually every human services agency in the U.S. and use this information to calculate the approximate distance that families must travel from home in order to reach the nearest office that administers the subsidy application process. Using data from ...

  9. Assessing the accessibility and degree of development in health care resources: evidence from the West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satar Rezaei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health care is one of the most important sectors in the development of each country and disparities in their distribution will reduce the level of development. The aim of this study was to examine the access to healthcare and degree of development in health care resources in the west of Iran in 2011. Method: This was a cross-sectional and retrospective study. The study setting was 51 cities of five western provinces of Iran, including Kermanshah, Kurdistan, Ilam, Lorestan and Hamadan. For assessing these towns in terms of the degree of development in healthcare resources by the numerical taxonomy technique, 23 indicators of health resources were selected and obtained from the statistics yearbook. The data was analyzed by EXCEL software. Results:Our study showed that the highest and lowest access to health care based on numerical taxonomy belonged to cities of Kermanshah (0.61 and Salas Babajani (1.07. Also, most towns of Ilam, Lorestan and Kurdistan provinces are underdeveloped and developing, while the most towns of Kermanshah and Hamadan provinces were placed in the developed region. Conclusion: This study showed that there was a large gap between the cities of one province and also among the provinces in terms of the access to and degree of development in health care resources. Therefore, it is suggested that a higher priority in terms of health resource allocation should be placed on the developing and underdeveloped areas in order to reduce these disparities.

  10. Population-Level Impact of Ontario's Infant Rotavirus Immunization Program: Evidence of Direct and Indirect Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Wilson

    Full Text Available To evaluate the direct and indirect population impact of rotavirus (RV immunization on hospitalizations and emergency department (ED visits for acute gastroenteritis (AGE in Ontario before and after the publicly-funded RV immunization program.Administrative data was used to identify ED visits and hospitalizations for all Ontarians using ICD-10 codes. We used two outcome definitions: RV-specific AGE (RV-AGE and codes representing RV-, other viral and cause unspecified AGE ("overall AGE". The pre-program and public program periods were August 1, 2005 to July 31, 2011; and August 1, 2011 to March 31, 2013, respectively. A negative binominal regression model that included the effect of time was used to calculate rates and rate ratios (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for RV-AGE and overall AGE between periods, after adjusting for age, seasonality and secular trends. Analyses were conducted for all ages combined and age stratified.Relative to the pre-program period, the adjusted RRs for RV-AGE and overall AGE hospitalizations in the public program period were 0.29 (95%CI: 0.22-0.39 and 0.68 (95%CI: 0.62-0.75, respectively. Significant reductions in RV-AGE hospitalizations were noted overall and for the following age bands: = 65 years (RR 0.80, 95%CI: 0.72-0.90. The program was associated with adjusted RRs of 0.32 (95% CI: 0.20-0.52 for RV-AGE ED visits and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96 for overall AGE ED visits.This large, population-based study provides evidence of the impact of RV vaccine in preventing hospitalizations and ED visits for RV-AGE and overall AGE, including herd effects.

  11. Implementation Measurement for Evidence-Based Violence Prevention Programs in Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M; Holland, Kristin M; Gorman-Smith, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    Increasing attention to the evaluation, dissemination, and implementation of evidence-based programs (EBPs) has led to significant advancements in the science of community-based violence prevention. One of the prevailing challenges in moving from science to community involves implementing EBPs and strategies with quality. The CDC-funded National Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (YVPCs) partner with communities to implement a comprehensive community-based strategy to prevent violence and to evaluate that strategy for impact on community-wide rates of violence. As part of their implementation approach, YVPCs document implementation of and fidelity to the components of the comprehensive youth violence prevention strategy. We describe the strategies and methods used by the six YVPCs to assess implementation and to use implementation data to inform program improvement efforts. The information presented describes the approach and measurement strategies employed by each center and for each program implemented in the partner communities. YVPCs employ both established and innovative strategies for measurement and tracking of implementation across a broad range of programs, practices, and strategies. The work of the YVPCs highlights the need to use data to understand the relationship between implementation of EBPs and youth violence outcomes. PMID:26860276

  12. The Social Construction of "Evidence-Based" Drug Prevention Programs: A Reanalysis of Data from the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Dennis M.; Huber, J. Charles, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that any drug prevention program might be considered "evidence-based" given the use of data analysis procedures that optimize the chance of producing statistically significant results by reanalyzing data from a Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) program evaluation. The analysis produced a number of…

  13. Accessing best practice resources using mobile technology in an undergraduate nursing program: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Elizabeth G; Medves, Jennifer; Vandenkerkhof, Elizabeth G

    2015-03-01

    Mobile technology presents new opportunities for nursing education and ultimately the provision of nursing care. The aim of this study was to explore the utility of mobile technology in undergraduate nursing education. In this evaluation study, undergraduate nursing students were provided with iPod Touch devices containing best practice guidelines. Computer self-efficacy was assessed, and the Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify potential predictors of the use of mobile technology. Questionnaires were completed at baseline (n = 33) and postimplementation (n = 23). Feedback on feasibility issues was recorded throughout the study period. Students generally found the devices useful, and few technical problems were identified; however, lack of skill in using the devices and lack of support from staff in the clinical setting were commonly identified issues. Self-efficacy scores were high throughout the study. Attitudes, perceptions of the desirability of use, perceived personal control over use, and intentions of using the device were lower postimplementation than at baseline. Attitude toward the technology predicted intention to use the device after graduation. Mobile technology may promote evidence-informed practice; however, supporting students' acquisition of related skills may optimize use. Successful integration of mobile technology into practice requires attention to factors that affect student attitudes. PMID:25636042

  14. Practical experience from the Office of Adolescent Health's large scale implementation of an evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Amy Lynn; Roper, Allison Yvonne

    2014-03-01

    After 3 years of experience overseeing the implementation and evaluation of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs in a diversity of populations and settings across the country, the Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) has learned numerous lessons through practical application and new experiences. These lessons and experiences are applicable to those working to implement evidence-based programs on a large scale. The lessons described in this paper focus on what it means for a program to be implementation ready, the role of the program developer in replicating evidence-based programs, the importance of a planning period to ensure quality implementation, the need to define and measure fidelity, and the conditions necessary to support rigorous grantee-level evaluation.

  15. Translation of Two Evidence-Based Programs for Training Families to Improve Care of Persons with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teri, Linda; McKenzie, Glenise; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; McCurry, Susan M.; Bollin, Salli; Mead, Jennifer; Menne, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The need for evidence-based non-pharmacological community programs to improve care of older adults with dementia is self-evident, considering the sheer numbers of affected individuals; the emotional, physical, and financial toll on affected individuals and their caregivers; the impact on our health care system; and the growing availability of…

  16. A standard data access layer for fusion devices R and D programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each EURATOM Association stores data using proprietary schemes, usually developed by the research unit or using third party software. The temporary exchange of researchers between laboratories is a common practice nowadays. When the researchers returns to the home laboratory, there is usually the need to follow the work. The amount of available data is becoming enormous and the main data index is changing from shot number to time and events, where the pulse number is just one among the most relevant events against data is catalogued. These difficulties can be overcome by using a common software layer between end-users and laboratories. The components needed to create this software abstraction layer, between users and laboratories data, have already been developed using a universal and well known remote procedure call standard (RPC) based on the eXtensible Markup Language (XML): XML-RPC. The library allows data retrieval using the same methods for all associations. Users are authenticated through the PAPI system ( (http://papi.rediris.es)), allowing each organization to use its own authentication schema. Presently there are libraries and server implementations in Java and C++. These libraries have been included and tested in some of the most common data analysis programs such as MatLab and IDL. The system is already being used in ISTTOK/PT and CASTOR/CZ

  17. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Undergraduate Education and Research Programs, Facilities, and Information Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) GRIDVIEW: Recent Improvements in Research and Education Software for Exploring Mars Topography; 2) Software and Hardware Upgrades for the University of North Dakota Asteroid and Comet Internet Telescope (ACIT); 3) Web-based Program for Calculating Effects of an Earth Impact; 4) On-Line Education, Web- and Virtual-Classes in an Urban University: A Preliminary Overview; 5) Modelling Planetary Material's Structures: From Quasicrystalline Microstructure to Crystallographic Materials by Use of Mathematica; 6) How We Used NASA Lunar Set in Planetary and Material Science Studies: Textural and Cooling Sequences in Sections of Lava Column from a Thin and a Thick Lava-Flow, from the Moon and Mars with Terrestrial Analogue and Chondrule Textural Comparisons; 7) Classroom Teaching of Space Technology and Simulations by the Husar Rover Model; 8) New Experiments (In Meteorology, Aerosols, Soil Moisture and Ice) on the New Hunveyor Educational Planetary Landers of Universities and Colleges in Hungary; 9) Teaching Planetary GIS by Constructing Its Model for the Test Terrain of the Hunveyor and Husar; 10) Undergraduate Students: An Untapped Resource for Planetary Researchers; 11) Analog Sites in Field Work of Petrology: Rock Assembly Delivered to a Plain by Floods on Earth and Mars; 12) RELAB (Reflectance Experiment Laboratory): A NASA Multiuser Spectroscopy Facility; 13) Full Text Searching and Customization in the NASA ADS Abstract Service.

  18. Improving the care of people with traumatic brain injury through the Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) program: protocol for a program of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sally E; Bosch, Marije; McKenzie, Joanne E; O'Connor, Denise A; Tavender, Emma J; Bragge, Peter; Chau, Marisa; Pitt, Veronica; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Gruen, Russell L

    2012-01-01

    The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) program was funded in 2009 to increase the uptake of research evidence in the clinical care of patients who have sustained traumatic brain injury. This paper reports the rationale and plan for this five-year knowledge translation research program. The overarching aims of the program are threefold: to improve outcomes for people with traumatic brain injury; to create a network of neurotrauma clinicians and researchers with expertise in knowledge translation and evidence-based practice; and to contribute knowledge to the field of knowledge translation research. The program comprises a series of interlinked projects spanning varying clinical environments and disciplines relevant to neurotrauma, anchored within four themes representing core knowledge translation activities: reviewing research evidence; understanding practice; developing and testing interventions for practice change; and building capacity for knowledge translation in neurotrauma. The program uses a range of different methods and study designs, including: an evidence fellowship program; conduct of and training in systematic reviews; mixed method study designs to describe and understand factors that influence current practices (e.g., semi-structured interviews and surveys); theory-based methods to develop targeted interventions aiming to change practice; a cluster randomised trial to test the effectiveness of a targeted theory-informed intervention; stakeholder involvement activities; and knowledge translation events such as consensus conferences. PMID:22866892

  19. Improving the care of people with traumatic brain injury through the Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET program: protocol for a program of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Sally E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET program was funded in 2009 to increase the uptake of research evidence in the clinical care of patients who have sustained traumatic brain injury. This paper reports the rationale and plan for this five-year knowledge translation research program. The overarching aims of the program are threefold: to improve outcomes for people with traumatic brain injury; to create a network of neurotrauma clinicians and researchers with expertise in knowledge translation and evidence-based practice; and to contribute knowledge to the field of knowledge translation research. The program comprises a series of interlinked projects spanning varying clinical environments and disciplines relevant to neurotrauma, anchored within four themes representing core knowledge translation activities: reviewing research evidence; understanding practice; developing and testing interventions for practice change; and building capacity for knowledge translation in neurotrauma. The program uses a range of different methods and study designs, including: an evidence fellowship program; conduct of and training in systematic reviews; mixed method study designs to describe and understand factors that influence current practices (e.g., semi-structured interviews and surveys; theory-based methods to develop targeted interventions aiming to change practice; a cluster randomised trial to test the effectiveness of a targeted theory-informed intervention; stakeholder involvement activities; and knowledge translation events such as consensus conferences.

  20. Improving the care of people with traumatic brain injury through the Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) program: protocol for a program of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sally E; Bosch, Marije; McKenzie, Joanne E; O'Connor, Denise A; Tavender, Emma J; Bragge, Peter; Chau, Marisa; Pitt, Veronica; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Gruen, Russell L

    2012-01-01

    The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) program was funded in 2009 to increase the uptake of research evidence in the clinical care of patients who have sustained traumatic brain injury. This paper reports the rationale and plan for this five-year knowledge translation research program. The overarching aims of the program are threefold: to improve outcomes for people with traumatic brain injury; to create a network of neurotrauma clinicians and researchers with expertise in knowledge translation and evidence-based practice; and to contribute knowledge to the field of knowledge translation research. The program comprises a series of interlinked projects spanning varying clinical environments and disciplines relevant to neurotrauma, anchored within four themes representing core knowledge translation activities: reviewing research evidence; understanding practice; developing and testing interventions for practice change; and building capacity for knowledge translation in neurotrauma. The program uses a range of different methods and study designs, including: an evidence fellowship program; conduct of and training in systematic reviews; mixed method study designs to describe and understand factors that influence current practices (e.g., semi-structured interviews and surveys); theory-based methods to develop targeted interventions aiming to change practice; a cluster randomised trial to test the effectiveness of a targeted theory-informed intervention; stakeholder involvement activities; and knowledge translation events such as consensus conferences.

  1. Coenzyme Q Biosynthesis: Evidence for a Substrate Access Channel in the FAD-Dependent Monooxygenase Coq6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coq6 is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q, a polyisoprenylated benzoquinone lipid essential to the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this putative flavin-dependent monooxygenase is proposed to hydroxylate the benzene ring of coenzyme Q (ubiquinone precursor at position C5. We show here through biochemical studies that Coq6 is a flavoprotein using FAD as a cofactor. Homology models of the Coq6-FAD complex are constructed and studied through molecular dynamics and substrate docking calculations of 3-hexaprenyl-4-hydroxyphenol (4-HP6, a bulky hydrophobic model substrate. We identify a putative access channel for Coq6 in a wild type model and propose in silico mutations positioned at its entrance capable of partially (G248R and L382E single mutations or completely (a G248R-L382E double-mutation blocking access to the channel for the substrate. Further in vivo assays support the computational predictions, thus explaining the decreased activities or inactivation of the mutated enzymes. This work provides the first detailed structural information of an important and highly conserved enzyme of ubiquinone biosynthesis.

  2. Does Health Insurance Premium Exemption Policy for Older People Increase Access to Health Care? Evidence from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duku, Stephen Kwasi Opuku; van Dullemen, Caroline Elisabeth; Fenenga, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Aging in Sub-Saharan Africa causes major challenges for policy makers in social protection. Our study focuses on Ghana, one of the few Sub-Saharan African countries that passed a National Policy on Aging in 2010. Ghana is also one of the first Sub-Saharan African countries that launched a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS; NHIS Act 650, 2003) with the aim to improve access to quality health care for all citizens, and as such can be considered as a means of poverty reduction. Our study assesses whether premium exemption policy under the NHIS that grants non-payments of annual health insurance premiums for older people increases access to health care. We assessed differences in enrollment coverage among four different age groups (18-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70+). We found higher enrollment for the 70+ and 60-69 age groups. The likelihood of enrollment was 2.7 and 1.7 times higher for the 70+ and 60-69 age groups, respectively. Our results suggest the NHIS exemption policy increases insurance coverage of the aged and their utilization of health care services. PMID:26161589

  3. Recruiting and Engaging Older Men in Evidence-Based Health Promotion Programs: Perspectives on Barriers and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chelsie; Seff, Laura R; Batra, Anamika; Bhatt, Chintan; Palmer, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based health promotion programs are effective at reducing health risks and healthcare costs among older adults, but few men participate in the programs. This mixed methods study aimed to gain insight into the barriers to recruiting and engaging older men in evidence-based health promotion programs offered by the Healthy Aging Regional Collaborative of South Florida (HARC). Fourteen program coordinators participated in a focus group to identify barriers and strategies to improve male participation, and 49 instructors participated in a survey to triangulate the findings. Themes among barriers to male participation included women outnumbering men in the implementation sites and programs, conflict between male gender roles and the programs, and preference for other activities. Themes among strategies included public support of programs by male community leaders, program advertisements featuring males, and adapting program content. Survey results supported themes identified in the focus group. Nearly 78% of the survey respondents agreed that the perception of exercise programs as feminine was a barrier and over 90% of the survey respondents believed program advertisements featuring men would increase male participation. Findings indicate that health promotion programs and recruiting strategies need to be tailored to the unique needs and preferences of older men to improve participation.

  4. Recruiting and Engaging Older Men in Evidence-Based Health Promotion Programs: Perspectives on Barriers and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chelsie; Seff, Laura R; Batra, Anamika; Bhatt, Chintan; Palmer, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based health promotion programs are effective at reducing health risks and healthcare costs among older adults, but few men participate in the programs. This mixed methods study aimed to gain insight into the barriers to recruiting and engaging older men in evidence-based health promotion programs offered by the Healthy Aging Regional Collaborative of South Florida (HARC). Fourteen program coordinators participated in a focus group to identify barriers and strategies to improve male participation, and 49 instructors participated in a survey to triangulate the findings. Themes among barriers to male participation included women outnumbering men in the implementation sites and programs, conflict between male gender roles and the programs, and preference for other activities. Themes among strategies included public support of programs by male community leaders, program advertisements featuring males, and adapting program content. Survey results supported themes identified in the focus group. Nearly 78% of the survey respondents agreed that the perception of exercise programs as feminine was a barrier and over 90% of the survey respondents believed program advertisements featuring men would increase male participation. Findings indicate that health promotion programs and recruiting strategies need to be tailored to the unique needs and preferences of older men to improve participation. PMID:27366330

  5. Recruiting and Engaging Older Men in Evidence-Based Health Promotion Programs: Perspectives on Barriers and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsie Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based health promotion programs are effective at reducing health risks and healthcare costs among older adults, but few men participate in the programs. This mixed methods study aimed to gain insight into the barriers to recruiting and engaging older men in evidence-based health promotion programs offered by the Healthy Aging Regional Collaborative of South Florida (HARC. Fourteen program coordinators participated in a focus group to identify barriers and strategies to improve male participation, and 49 instructors participated in a survey to triangulate the findings. Themes among barriers to male participation included women outnumbering men in the implementation sites and programs, conflict between male gender roles and the programs, and preference for other activities. Themes among strategies included public support of programs by male community leaders, program advertisements featuring males, and adapting program content. Survey results supported themes identified in the focus group. Nearly 78% of the survey respondents agreed that the perception of exercise programs as feminine was a barrier and over 90% of the survey respondents believed program advertisements featuring men would increase male participation. Findings indicate that health promotion programs and recruiting strategies need to be tailored to the unique needs and preferences of older men to improve participation.

  6. Recruiting and Engaging Older Men in Evidence-Based Health Promotion Programs: Perspectives on Barriers and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chelsie; Seff, Laura R.; Batra, Anamika; Bhatt, Chintan; Palmer, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based health promotion programs are effective at reducing health risks and healthcare costs among older adults, but few men participate in the programs. This mixed methods study aimed to gain insight into the barriers to recruiting and engaging older men in evidence-based health promotion programs offered by the Healthy Aging Regional Collaborative of South Florida (HARC). Fourteen program coordinators participated in a focus group to identify barriers and strategies to improve male participation, and 49 instructors participated in a survey to triangulate the findings. Themes among barriers to male participation included women outnumbering men in the implementation sites and programs, conflict between male gender roles and the programs, and preference for other activities. Themes among strategies included public support of programs by male community leaders, program advertisements featuring males, and adapting program content. Survey results supported themes identified in the focus group. Nearly 78% of the survey respondents agreed that the perception of exercise programs as feminine was a barrier and over 90% of the survey respondents believed program advertisements featuring men would increase male participation. Findings indicate that health promotion programs and recruiting strategies need to be tailored to the unique needs and preferences of older men to improve participation. PMID:27366330

  7. Strategies of Building a Stronger Sense of Community for Sustainable Neighborhoods: Comparing Neighborhood Accessibility with Community Empowerment Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-I Albert Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available New Urbanist development in the U.S. aims at enhancing a sense of community and seeks to return to the design of early transitional neighborhoods which have pedestrian-oriented environments with retail shops and services within walking distances of housing. Meanwhile, 6000 of Taiwan’s community associations have been running community empowerment programs supported by the Council for Cultural Affairs that have helped many neighborhoods to rebuild so-called community cohesion. This research attempts to evaluate whether neighborhoods with facilities near housing and shorter travel distances within a neighborhood would promote stronger social interactions and form a better community attachment than neighborhoods that have various opportunities for residents to participate in either formal or informal social gatherings. After interviewing and surveying residents from 19 neighborhoods in Taipei’s Beitou District, and correlating the psychological sense of community with inner neighborhood’s daily travel distances and numbers of participatory activities held by community organizations under empowerment programs together with frequencies of regular individual visits and casual meetings, statistical evidence yielded that placing public facilities near residential locations is more effective than providing various programs for elevating a sense of community.

  8. Dietary Interventions in Multiple Sclerosis: Development and Pilot-Testing of an Evidence Based Patient Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann-Lorenz, Karin; Eilers, Marlene; von Geldern, Gloria; Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Köpke, Sascha; Heesen, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary factors have been discussed to influence risk or disease course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Specific diets are widely used among patients with MS. Objective To design and pilot-test an evidence based patient education program on dietary factors in MS. Methods We performed a systematic literature search on the effectiveness of dietary interventions in MS. A web-based survey among 337 patients with MS and 136 healthy controls assessed knowledge, dietary habits and information needs. An interactive group education program was developed and pilot-tested. Results Fifteen randomised-controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the systematic review. Quality of evidence was low and no clear benefit could be seen. Patients with MS significantly more often adhered to a `Mediterranean Diet`(29.7% versus 14.0%, pnutrition and MS (43%). A pilot test of our newly developed patient education program with 13 participants showed excellent comprehensibility and the MS-specific content was judged as very important. However, the poor evidence base for dietary approaches in MS was perceived disappointing. Conclusions Development and pilot-testing of an evidence-based patient education program on nutrition and MS is feasible. Patient satisfaction with the program suffers from the lack of evidence. Further research should focus on generating evidence for the potential influence of lifestyle habits (diet, physical activity) on MS disease course thus meeting the needs of patients with MS. PMID:27764237

  9. Programmatic influences on outcomes of an evidence-based fall prevention program for older adults: a translational assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Hochhalter, Angela K; Cheng, Yichen; Wang, Suojin; Marcia G. Ory

    2011-01-01

    Investigating the implementation and dissemination of evidence-based health-promotion programs to reach large numbers of diverse older adults is needed. The purpose of this study is to examine relationships between class size and session attendance and assess differences in intervention outcomes based on these community-based fall prevention program characteristics. Pre-post data were analyzed from 2,056 falls prevention program participants. PROC MIXED for repeated measures and ordinary leas...

  10. Free Access Does Not Necessarily Encourage Practitioners to Use Online Evidence Based Information Tools. A Review of: Buchan, H., Lourey, E., D’Este, C., & Sanson-Fisher, R. (2009). Effectiveness of strategies to encourage general practitioners to accept an offer of free access to online evidence-based information: A randomised controlled trial. Implementation Science, 4, article 68.

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Ganshorn

    2010-01-01

    Objectives – To determine which strategies were most effective for encouraging general practitioners (GPs) to sign up for free access to an online evidence based information resource; and to determine whether those who accepted the offer differed in their sociodemographic characteristics from those who did not.Design – Descriptive marketing research study.Setting – Australia’s public healthcare system.Subjects – 14,000 general practitioners (GPs) from all regions of Australia.Methods – Subjec...

  11. Economic evaluation of screening programs for hepatitis C virus infection: evidence from literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coretti S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Silvia Coretti,1 Federica Romano,1 Valentina Orlando,2 Paola Codella,1 Sabrina Prete,1 Eugenio Di Brino,1 Matteo Ruggeri1 1Post-Graduate School of Economics and Management (ALTEMS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy; 2Center of Pharmacoeconomics (CIRFF, Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University, Naples, Italy Background: Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by hepatitis C virus. Its main complications are cirrhosis and liver cancer. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, more than 185 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus and, of these, 350,000 die every year. Due to the high disease prevalence and the existence of effective (and expensive medical treatments able to dramatically change the prognosis, early detection programs can potentially prevent the development of serious chronic conditions, improve health, and save resources. Objective: To summarize the available evidence on the cost-effectiveness of screening programs for hepatitis C. Methods: A literature search was performed on PubMed and Scopus search engines. Trip database was queried to identify reports produced by the major Health Technology Assessment (HTA agencies. Three reviewers dealt with study selection and data extraction blindly. Results: Ten papers eventually met the inclusion criteria. In studies focusing on asymptomatic cohorts of individuals at general risk the cost/quality adjusted life year of screening programs ranged between US $4,200 and $50,000/quality adjusted life year gained, while in those focusing on specific risk factors the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ranged between $848 and $128,424/quality adjusted life year gained. Age of the target population and disease prevalence were the main cost-effectiveness drivers. Conclusion: Our results suggest that, especially in the long run, screening programs represent a cost-effective strategy for the management of hepatitis C. Keywords: hepatitis C, screening

  12. Evaluation of Diverse Community Asthma Interventions: Balancing Health Outcomes with Developing Community Capacity for Evidence-Based Program Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Lynn D; Livingood, William C; Toal, Russ; Keene, DeAnna; Hines, Robert B; Tedders, Stuart; Charles, Simone M; Lawrence, Raymona H; Gunn, Laura H; Williams, Natalie; Kellum, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The challenge of evaluating community asthma management programs is complicated by balancing the emphasis on health outcomes with the need to build community process capacity for conducting and monitoring evidence-based programs. The evaluation of a Georgia Childhood Asthma Management Program, a Healthcare Georgia Foundation-supported initiative for multiple diverse programs and settings, provides an example of an approach and the results that address this challenge. A "developmental evaluation" approach was applied, using mixed methods of quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis, to assess the progress of community asthma prevention programs in building community within the context of: where the community is starting, community-level systems changes, and the community's progress toward becoming more outcome measurement oriented and evidence based. Initial evaluation efforts revealed extensive mobilization of community assets to manage childhood asthma. However, there were minimal planned efforts to assess health outcomes and systems changes, and the lack of a logic model-based program design linking evidence-based practices to outcomes. Following developmental technical assistance within evaluation efforts, all programs developed logic models, linking practices to outcomes with data collection processes to assess progress toward achieving the selected outcomes. This developmental approach across diverse projects and communities, along with a quality improvement benchmarking approach to outcomes, created a focus on health status outcome improvement. Specifically, this approach complemented an emphasis on an improved community process capacity to identify, implement, and monitor evidence-based asthma practices that could be used within each community setting. PMID:25658512

  13. Public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and referral behaviors for an evidence based parenting program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Whitaker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the public child welfare work force influence implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP as most research has focused on the private workforce. This paper reports on public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and practices in a state implementing the EBP, SafeCare®. A survey of public child welfare staff (N = 222 was conducted to assess knowledge, familiarity, and referral barriers and practices. Knowledge of and familiarity with SafeCarewere low, especially among front line staff (case managers. Attitudes toward SafeCare were fairly positive, but somewhat less so than attitudes toward a standard, non-evidenced based parenting program. Case managers were significantly less likely to have made a referral (15% than other staff (46%. Job tenure had few effects on familiarity, knowledge, attitudes, or referrals. The strongest predictors of having made referrals were familiarity with SafeCare and job position.

  14. Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A; Ross, A Catharine;

    2015-01-01

    An increasing recognition has emerged of the complexities of the global health agenda—specifically, the collision of infections and noncommunicable diseases and the dual burden of over- and undernutrition. Of particular practical concern are both 1) the need for a better understanding of the bidi......An increasing recognition has emerged of the complexities of the global health agenda—specifically, the collision of infections and noncommunicable diseases and the dual burden of over- and undernutrition. Of particular practical concern are both 1) the need for a better understanding...... of the bidirectional relations between nutritional status and the development and function of the immune and inflammatory response and 2) the specific impact of the inflammatory response on the selection, use, and interpretation of nutrient biomarkers. The goal of the Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs...... for generating evidence-based policy. The INSPIRE process included convening 5 thematic working groups (WGs) charged with developing summary reports around the following issues: 1) basic overview of the interactions between nutrition, immune function, and the inflammatory response; 2) examination of the evidence...

  15. The IRIS Education and Outreach Program: Providing access to data and equipment for educational and public use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, J.; Toigo, M.; Bravo, T. K.; Hubenthal, M.; McQuillan, P. J.; Welti, R.

    2009-12-01

    The IRIS Education and Outreach Program has been an integral part of IRIS for the past 10 years and during that time has worked to advance awareness and understanding of seismology and earth science while inspiring careers in geophysics. The focus on seismology and the use of seismic data has allowed the IRIS E&O program to develop and disseminate a unique suite of products and services for a wide range of audiences. One result of that effort has been increased access to the IRIS Data Management System by non-specialist audiences and simplified use of location and waveform data. The Seismic Monitor was one of the first Web-based tools for observing near-real-time seismicity. It continues to be the most popular IRIS web page, and thus it presents aspects of seismology to a very wide audience. For individuals interested in more detailed ground motion information, waveforms can be easily viewed using the Rapid Earthquake Viewer, developed by the University of South Carolina in collaboration with IRIS E&O. The Seismographs in Schools program gives schools the opportunity to apply for a low-cost educational seismograph and to receive training for its use in the classroom. To provide better service to the community, a new Seismographs in Schools website was developed in the past year with enhanced functions to help teachers improve their teaching of seismology. The site encourages schools to make use of seismic data and communicate with other educational seismology users throughout the world. Users can view near-real-time displays of other participating schools, upload and download data, and use the “find a teacher” tool to contact nearby schools that also may be operating seismographs. In order to promote and maintain program participation and communication, the site features a discussion forum to encourage and support the growing global community of educational seismograph users. Any data that is submitted to the Seismographs in Schools Website is also accessible

  16. Is there a genuine advantage to the upper part of words during lexical access? Evidence from the Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero, Pilar; Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María

    2014-07-01

    A number of recent visual-word recognition and reading experiments have concluded that the upper part of words is more important for lexical access than is the lower part, which conforms with Huey's (1908) observation. Here, we examined whether this phenomenon may simply be due to the fact that words in Indo-European languages tend to have a higher number of confusable letters in the lower than in the upper part. We manipulated the letter ambiguity of the upper and lower parts of words in two experiments in which we asked participants to report the presentation color of the upper and lower parts of color words and noncolor words, and in a baseline condition, of strings of &s (Stroop task). In Experiment 1, the lower part of noncolor words was more ambiguous than the upper part (upward-unbalanced words), whereas in Experiment 2, the ambiguities of the two parts of the noncolor words were similar (balanced words). For the upward-unbalanced noncolor words, the magnitude of lexical interference (relative to the baseline condition) was greater for the upper than for the lower part. Critically, the differences vanished when this factor was controlled (i.e., balanced words; Exp. 2). Thus, the apparent bias in favor of the upper part of words can be parsimoniously described as an idiosyncratic feature of the words' component letters. PMID:24408533

  17. Effective Evidence-Based Programs For Preventing Sexually-Transmitted Infections: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Dafina; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2015-01-01

    Educational programs for preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have often been implemented in different settings and populations. Mathematica Policy Research and Child Trends conducted a systematic review of 289 evidence-based interventions aiming to reduce STIs and sexual risk behavior in adolescents in the United States. These interventions were published between 1989 and 2012. We conducted a meta-analysis of the interventions that assessed incidence of STIs at follow up, and we identified key characteristics of successful interventions. Results showed that on average interventions reduced incidence roughly from 7 to 6 out of 100 people (17% relative risk reduction (RRR)). Interventions focused on abstinence had no effect, while comprehensive education programs aiming to improve skills and promote safe sexual practices reduced risk by 4 percent (23% RRR). In particular, interventions teaching condom use skills or communication and negotiation skills reduced incidence of STIs by 3 to 4 percent (30% RRR). Finally, interventions decreasing frequency of intercourse or number of sexual partners and interventions increasing condom use also reduced incidence of STIs by 5 to 7 percent (28-36% RRR). Overall properly designed interventions with the above-mentioned characteristics can achieve a 30% reduction of STI incidence. Implications for designing successful interventions to prevent STIs in adolescents are discussed.

  18. Nitrergic system and plasmatic methylarginines: Evidence of their role in the perinatal programming of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Mussap, Michele; Bassareo, Valentina; Flore, Giovanna; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Atherosclerosis, in turn preceded by endothelial dysfunction, underlies a series of important cardiovascular diseases. Reduced bioavailability of endothelial nitric oxide, by increasing vascular tone and promoting platelet aggregation, leukocyte adhesion, and smooth muscle cell proliferation, plays a key role in the onset of the majority of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, high blood levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, a potent inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, are associated with future development of adverse cardiovascular events and cardiac death. Recent reports have demonstrated that another methylarginine, i.e., symmetric dimethylarginine, is also involved in the onset of endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Almost a decade ago, prematurity at birth and intrauterine growth retardation were first associated with a potential negative influence on the cardiovascular apparatus, thus constituting risk factors or leading to early onset of cardiovascular diseases. This condition is referred to as cardiovascular perinatal programming. Accordingly, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are higher among former preterm adults than in those born at term. The aim of this paper was to undertake a comprehensive literature review focusing on cellular and biochemical mechanisms resulting in both reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and increased methylarginine levels in subjects born preterm. Evidence of the involvement of these compounds in the perinatal programming of cardiovascular risk are also discussed.

  19. Guidelines for Establishing a Telemental Health Program to Provide Evidence-Based Therapy for Trauma-Exposed Children and Families

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Andrea M; Shealy, Kristen M.; Reid-Quiñones, Kathryn; Moreland, Angela D.; Davidson, Tatiana M; López, Cristina M.; Barr, Simone C.; de Arellano, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    While similar rates of traumatic experiences exist in both rural and urban settings, mental health resources available to those living in rural areas are often scarce. Limited resources pose a problem for children and families living in rural areas, and several barriers to service access and utilization exist including reduced anonymity, few “after-hours” services, decreased availability of evidence-based treatments, few specialty clinics, and expenses associated with travel, taking time off ...

  20. Electrophysiological evidence of sublexical phonological access in character processing by L2 Chinese learners of L1 alphabetic scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Yen Na; Law, Sam-Po; Mo, Kwan Nok; Lau, Dustin; Su, I-Fan; Shum, Mark S K

    2016-04-01

    While Chinese character reading relies more on addressed phonology relative to alphabetic scripts, skilled Chinese readers also access sublexical phonological units during recognition of phonograms. However, sublexical orthography-to-phonology mapping has not been found among beginning second language (L2) Chinese learners. This study investigated character reading in more advanced Chinese learners whose native writing system is alphabetic. Phonological regularity and consistency were examined in behavioral responses and event-related potentials (ERPs) in lexical decision and delayed naming tasks. Participants were 18 native English speakers who acquired written Chinese after age 5 years and reached grade 4 Chinese reading level. Behaviorally, regular characters were named more accurately than irregular characters, but consistency had no effect. Similar to native Chinese readers, regularity effects emerged early with regular characters eliciting a greater N170 than irregular characters. Regular characters also elicited greater frontal P200 and smaller N400 than irregular characters in phonograms of low consistency. Additionally, regular-consistent characters and irregular-inconsistent characters had more negative amplitudes than irregular-consistent characters in the N400 and LPC time windows. The overall pattern of brain activities revealed distinct regularity and consistency effects in both tasks. Although orthographic neighbors are activated in character processing of L2 Chinese readers, the timing of their impact seems delayed compared with native Chinese readers. The time courses of regularity and consistency effects across ERP components suggest both assimilation and accommodation of the reading network in learning to read a typologically distinct second orthographic system. PMID:26620688

  1. Do the Medicaid and Medicare programs compete for access to health care services? A longitudinal analysis of physician fees, 1998-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Larry L

    2014-09-01

    As the demand for publicly funded health care continues to rise in the U.S., there is increasing pressure on state governments to ensure patient access through adjustments in provider compensation policies. This paper longitudinally examines the fees that states paid physicians for services covered by the Medicaid program over the period 1998-2004. Controlling for an extensive set of economic and health care industry characteristics, the elasticity of states' Medicaid fees, with respect to Medicare fees, is estimated to be in the range of 0.2-0.7 depending on the type of physician service examined. The findings indicate a significant degree of price competition between the Medicaid and Medicare programs for physician services that is more pronounced for cardiology and critical care, but not hospital care. The results also suggest several policy levers that work to either increase patient access or reduce total program costs through changes in fees. PMID:24682916

  2. The Need to Support of Data Flow Graph Visualization of Forensic Lucid Programs, Forensic Evidence, and their Evaluation by GIPSY

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, Serguei A; Debbabi, Mourad

    2010-01-01

    Lucid programs are data-flow programs and can be visually represented as data flow graphs (DFGs) and composed visually. Forensic Lucid, a Lucid dialect, is a language to specify and reason about cyberforensics cases. It includes the encoding of the evidence (representing the context of evaluation) and the crime scene modeling in order to validate claims against the model and perform event reconstruction, potentially within large swaths of digital evidence. To aid investigators to model the scene and evaluate it, instead of typing a Forensic Lucid program, we propose to expand the design and implementation of the Lucid DFG programming onto Forensic Lucid case modeling and specification to enhance the usability of the language and the system.

  3. A Close Look at a STEM-Themed Magnet and its Experiential Program on the Occupational Identities, Career Maturity, and Access Provided to Low Socioeconomic Minority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Urlette

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an experiential program on the occupational identity, access, and career maturity of Black and Latino students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Data shows these students to be underrepresented in STEM fields. Student interest and access are noted in the literature to be amongst the reasons minorities do not pursue a career in STEM related fields. Jobs within the STEM industry pay considerably more than non-STEM related jobs, access to these jobs can help individuals transform their socioeconomic status. Lack of access and exposure to these fields for low socioeconomic minorities then becomes a social justice issue. A mixed methods approach was applied which included surveys and interviews of junior students currently in an experiential careers program with a STEM emphasis. Composites and subscales were created and checked for internal reliability and consistency. Interview responses were recorded and coded based on theories of occupational identity and emergent themes. Findings suggest that most students within the experiential careers program exhibited high levels of occupational identity. The experiential learning model works well to support continuous learning and the identity development of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds.

  4. The Impact of Age Pension Eligibility Age on Retirement and Program Dependence: Evidence from an Australian Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kadir Atalay; Garry F. Barrett

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the effect of the financial incentives created by social security systems on the retirement behaviour of individuals requires exogenous variation in program parameters. In this paper we study the 1993 Australian Age Pension reform which increased the eligibility age for women to access the social security benefit. We find economically significant responses to the increase in the Age Pension eligibility age. An increase in the eligibility age of 1 year induced a decline in retireme...

  5. Synthesis of evidence of diagnostic tests and preventive programs identifying pre-diabetes type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Tučková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D has become the main type of diabetes in children and it is expected that in countries with high income diabetes it is projected to be one of the leading causes of death by 2030. Another fact is that programs and tests diagnosing pre-diabetes type 2 (T2P-DMC are missing. Methods: The aim of the paper is to present the steps for the synthesis of the evidence within the brand new type of the systematic review (SR: SR of diagnostic test accuracy (DTA. Using the acronym PIRD it was developed a review question, search strategy and inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: The initial search was done in two databases (MedLine and Cinahl with 2 025 results. The second search after the improvement of the sensitivity and the specificity was done in 15 databases with 3 681 results. Conclusion: This methodological paper introduces how to conduct the systematic review protocols of diagnostic test accuracy on the example of T2P-DMC.

  6. Implementation of evidence-based home visiting programs aimed at reducing child maltreatment: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Katherine L; Fauchier, Angèle; Derkash, Bridget T; Garrido, Edward F

    2016-03-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in the popularity of home visitation programs as a means of addressing risk factors for child maltreatment. The evidence supporting the effectiveness of these programs from several meta-analyses, however, is mixed. One potential explanation for this inconsistency explored in the current study involves the manner in which these programs were implemented. In the current study we reviewed 156 studies associated with 9 different home visitation program models targeted to caregivers of children between the ages of 0 and 5. Meta-analytic techniques were used to determine the impact of 18 implementation factors (e.g., staff selection, training, supervision, fidelity monitoring, etc.) and four study characteristics (publication type, target population, study design, comparison group) in predicting program outcomes. Results from analyses revealed that several implementation factors, including training, supervision, and fidelity monitoring, had a significant effect on program outcomes, particularly child maltreatment outcomes. Study characteristics, including the program's target population and the comparison group employed, also had a significant effect on program outcomes. Implications of the study's results for those interested in implementing home visitation programs are discussed. A careful consideration and monitoring of program implementation is advised as a means of achieving optimal study results. PMID:26724823

  7. After Access: Underrepresented Students' Postmatriculation Perceptions of College Access Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Darris R.; Pyne, Kimberly B.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the perceived impact of college-going capital gained during participation in a college access program. In three, semistructured interviews spanning the first-year college experience, 10 first-year college students who participated in a college access program articulate the value of access programming and also raise…

  8. Translating Evidence Based Violence and Drug Use Prevention to Obesity Prevention: Development and Construction of the Pathways Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Effective school-based obesity prevention programs are needed to prevent and reduce the growing obesity risk among youth. Utilizing the evidence-rich areas of violence and substance use prevention, translation science may provide an efficient means for developing curricula across multiple health behaviors. This paper introduces Pathways to Health,…

  9. Android Access Control Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Baláž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.

  10. Moving evidence-based drug abuse prevention programs from basic science to practice: "bridging the efficacy-effectiveness interface".

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Gerald J; Winters, Ken C; Realmuto, George M; Tarter, Ralph; Perry, Cheryl; Hektner, Joel M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges faced by developers of youth drug abuse prevention programs in transporting scientifically proven or evidence-based programs into natural community practice systems. Models for research on the transfer of prevention technology are described with specific emphasis given to the relationship between efficacy and effectiveness studies. Barriers that impede the successful integration of efficacy methods within effectiveness studies (e.g., client factors, practitioner factors, intervention structure characteristics, and environmental and organizational factors) are discussed. We present a modified model for program development and evaluation that includes a new type of research design, the hybrid efficacy-effectiveness study that addresses program transportability. The utility of the hybrid study is illustrated in the evaluation of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" prevention program.

  11. 47 CFR 76.977 - Minority and educational programming used in lieu of designated commercial leased access capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minority and educational programming used in... Cable Rate Regulation § 76.977 Minority and educational programming used in lieu of designated... of programming from a qualified minority programming source or from any qualified...

  12. Farmers Market Access by Snap-eligible Mothers of Young Children: Barriers and Impact on Nutrition Education Programming for Cooperative Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Misyak, Sarah Anne

    2014-01-01

    Providing improved access to farmers markets and other local food outlets for low-income audiences is an increasingly popular nutrition intervention strategy to promote consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables and address obesity. The USDA encouraged more farm to fork initiatives and efforts to connect low-income populations with fresh and healthy, local foods through farmers markets through the implementation of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Nutrition Education (SNAP-Ed) p...

  13. The mitochondrial genome of the hexactinellid sponge Aphrocallistes vastus: Evidence for programmed translational frameshifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leys Sally P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA of numerous sponges have been sequenced as part of an ongoing effort to resolve the class-level phylogeny of the Porifera, as well as to place the various lower metazoan groups on the animal-kingdom tree. Most recently, the partial mtDNA of two glass sponges, class Hexactinellida, were reported. While previous phylogenetic estimations based on these data remain uncertain due to insufficient taxon sampling and accelerated rates of evolution, the mtDNA molecules themselves reveal interesting traits that may be unique to hexactinellids. Here we determined the first complete mitochondrial genome of a hexactinellid sponge, Aphrocallistes vastus, and compared it to published poriferan mtDNAs to further describe characteristics specific to hexactinellid and other sponge mitochondrial genomes. Results The A. vastus mtDNA consisted of a 17,427 base pair circular molecule containing thirteen protein-coding genes, divergent large and small subunit ribosomal RNAs, and a reduced set of 18 tRNAs. The A. vastus mtDNA showed a typical hexactinellid nucleotide composition and shared a large synteny with the other sequenced glass sponge mtDNAs. It also contained an unidentified open reading frame and large intergenic space region. Two frameshifts, in the cox3 and nad6 genes, were not corrected by RNA editing, but rather possessed identical shift sites marked by the extremely rare tryptophan codon (UGG followed by the common glycine codon (GGA in the +1 frame. Conclusion Hexactinellid mtDNAs have shown similar trends in gene content, nucleotide composition, and codon usage, and have retained a large gene syntenty. Analysis of the mtDNA of A. vastus has provided evidence diagnostic for +1 programmed translational frameshifting, a phenomenon disparately reported throughout the animal kingdom, but present in the hexactinellid mtDNAs that have been sequenced to date.

  14. Access Customized Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Cosma Emil; Jeflea Victor

    2010-01-01

    By using Word, Excel or PowerPoint one can automate routine operations using the VBA language (Visual Basic for Applications). This language is also used in Access, allowing access to data stored in tables or queries. Thus, Access and VBA resources can be used together. Access is designed for programming forms and reports (among other things), so there won’t be found any of the VBA editor’s specific forms.

  15. A meta-review of evidence on heart failure disease management programs: the challenges of describing and synthesizing evidence on complex interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson David R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite favourable results from past meta-analyses, some recent large trials have not found Heart Failure (HF disease management programs to be beneficial. To explore reasons for this, we evaluated evidence from existing meta-analyses. Methods Systematic review incorporating meta-review was used. We selected meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials published after 1995 in English that examined the effects of HF disease management programs on key outcomes. Databases searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, DARE, NHS EED, NHS HTA, Ageline, AMED, Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL; cited references, experts and existing reviews were also searched. Results 15 meta-analyses were identified containing a mean of 18.5 randomized trials of HF interventions +/- 10.1 (range: 6 to 36. Overall quality of the meta-analyses was very mixed (Mean AMSTAR Score = 6.4 +/- 1.9; range 2-9. Reporting inadequacies were widespread around populations, intervention components, settings and characteristics, comparison, and comparator groups. Heterogeneity (statistical, clinical, and methodological was not taken into account sufficiently when drawing conclusions from pooled analyses. Conclusions Meta-analyses of heart failure disease management programs have promising findings but often fail to report key characteristics of populations, interventions, and comparisons. Existing reviews are of mixed quality and do not adequately take account of program complexity and heterogeneity.

  16. The dynamics of immigrant participation in entitlement programs: evidence from Canada, 1993-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri Ostrovsky

    2012-01-01

    Using uniquely rich Canadian administrative data from the 1993-2007 period, I find no evidence of rising Employment Insurance (EI) participation across recent-immigrant cohorts and no evidence of rising EI participation with number of years spent in Canada beyond the short period following entrance into the Canadian labour market. I also find little evidence of the rising immigrant participation in Social Assistance (SA), either across recent arrival cohorts or with years in Canada. The resul...

  17. Financing Promising Evidence-Based Programs: Early Lessons from the New York City Social Impact Bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Timothy; Nicoletti, Elisa; Misner, Kristin; Bonsu, Janae

    2013-01-01

    Lack of money has long kept promising preventive programs from expanding. Existing government-funded programs are furthermore subject to budgetary cutbacks or complete loss of funding. Moreover, preventive programs traditionally offer no accountability for success or failure. This leaves government entities in a bind where if they invest their…

  18. The time course of access to semantic information in high-performing older adults: behavioral evidence for the hemispheric asymmetry reduction in OLDer individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassi, Ensie; Joanette, Yves

    2011-07-01

    The possibility that the HAROLD phenomenon (i.e., Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in OLDer adults) is manifested in the course of access to semantic information, in particular the meaning of emotional words, was investigated using the visual half-field priming paradigm. The time course of priming was tracked in the cerebral hemispheres across three SOAs: 150, 300, and 750 ms. The results showed older and young adults had the same level of accuracy. While priming occurred unilaterally in young participants, the pattern of priming in older participants appeared to be bilateral whenever it was present, that is, at the 300- and 750-ms SOAs. The delay in the appearance of priming in older adults may be due to an increase in sensory thresholds that causes older adults to need more time to encode stimuli and fully activate their semantic network. It is concluded that the bilateral pattern of priming in the presence of an equivalent level of performance in older adults provides behavioral evidence supporting the compensatory role of the HAROLD phenomenon for this particular task.

  19. Accessibility in Teaching Assistant Training: A Critical Review of Programming from Ontario’s Teaching and Learning Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Vander Kloet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly understood that university education must be accessible to persons with disabilities. The responsibility to make the university accessible is arguably shared by all of us and yet, the extent to which it has become fully accessible is certainly suspect. By undertaking qualitative, discursive analysis of websites, online texts and other materials provided by Ontario’s teaching and learning centres, this paper seeks to do two things. First, it provides a critical overview of the types of training currently available at Ontario universities for teaching assistants on accessibility and teaching. This review will outline initiatives directed towards compliance with Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA requirements, those focused on education and advocacy (as well as areas of overlap and broader equity training which encompasses accessibility. Second, this paper, considering the content of the reviewed material and informed by critical disability studies, offers up an articulation of future directions for research, writing, advocacy, and training on teaching assistant development on accessible teaching. Il est de plus en plus accepté que l’éducation universitaire doit être accessible aux personnes handicapées. Certes, la responsabilité de rendre l’université accessible est partagée par tous et pourtant, la mesure dans laquelle celle-ci est devenue totalement accessible est sans nul doute suspecte. Après avoir entrepris des analyses qualitatives et discursives de sites web, de textes en ligne et d’autres documents fournis par des centres d’enseignement et d’apprentissage de l’Ontario, on cherche dans cet article à accomplir deux choses. Tout d’abord, l’article présente un aperçu critique des types de formation disponibles à l’heure actuelle dans les universités de l’Ontario à l’intention des enseignants auxiliaires sur l’accessibilité et l’enseignement. Cet examen va d

  20. Library residencies and internships as indicators of success: evidence from three programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, D; Henderson, C L

    1999-04-01

    This paper discusses post-master's degree internships in three very different organizations; the University of Illinois at Chicago, the National Library of Medicine, and the Library of Congress. It discusses the internships using several questions. Do the programs serve as a recruitment strategy? Do the programs develop key competencies needed by the participant or organization? Do the programs develop leaders and managers? Is acceptance into a program an indicator of future career success? A survey was mailed to 520 persons who had completed internships in one of the three programs. There was a 49.8% response rate. Responses to fifty-four questions were tabulated and analyzed for each program and for the total group. The results confirm the value of internships to the career of participants. PMID:10219479

  1. Adaptation of an Evidence-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Program Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Allison M; Esplin, Andrea; Baldwin, Laura-Mae

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) provide primary care to low-income and uninsured patients in the United States. FQHCs are required to report annual measurements and provide evidence of improvement for quality measures; effective methods to improve quality in FQHCs are needed. Systems of Support (SOS) is a proactive, mail-based, colorectal cancer screening program that was developed and tested in an integrated health care system. The objective of this study was to adapt...

  2. Private Equity and the Innovation Strategies of Entrepreneurial Firms: Empirical Evidence from the Small Business Innovation Research Program

    OpenAIRE

    Link, Albert N.; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Siegel, Donald S.

    2012-01-01

    There is great interest in evaluating the impact of private equity investments on innovation and economic growth. However, there is no direct empirical evidence on the effects of such transactions on the innovation strategies of entrepreneurial firms. We fill this gap by examining a rich project-level data set consisting of entrepreneurial firms receiving Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program research awards. We find that SBIR firms attracting private equity investments are signif...

  3. Free Access Does Not Necessarily Encourage Practitioners to Use Online Evidence Based Information Tools. A Review of: Buchan, H., Lourey, E., D’Este, C., & Sanson-Fisher, R. (2009. Effectiveness of strategies to encourage general practitioners to accept an offer of free access to online evidence-based information: A randomised controlled trial. Implementation Science, 4, article 68.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ganshorn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – To determine which strategies were most effective for encouraging general practitioners (GPs to sign up for free access to an online evidence based information resource; and to determine whether those who accepted the offer differed in their sociodemographic characteristics from those who did not.Design – Descriptive marketing research study.Setting – Australia’s public healthcare system.Subjects – 14,000 general practitioners (GPs from all regions of Australia.Methods – Subjects were randomly selected by Medicare Australia from its list of GPs that bill it for services. Medicare Australia had 18,262 doctors it deemed eligible; 14,000 of these were selected for a stratified random sample. Subjects were randomized to one of 7 groups of 2,000 each. Each group received a different letter offering two years of free access to BMJ Clinical Evidence, an evidence based online information tool. Randomization was done electronically, and the seven groups were stratified by age group, gender, and location. The interventions given to each group differed as follows:• Group 1: Received a letter offering 2 years of free access, with no further demands on the recipient.• Group 2: Received a letter offering 2 years of free access, but on the condition that they complete an initial questionnaire and another one at 12 months, as well as allowing the publisher to provide de-personalized usage data to the researchers.• Group 3: Same as Group 2, but with the additional offer of an online tutorial to assist them with using the resource.• Group 4: Same as Group 2, but with an additional pamphlet with positive testimonials about the resource from Australian medical opinion leaders.• Group 5: Same as Group 2, but with an additional offer of professional development credits towards their required annual totals.• Group 6: Same as Group 2, but with an additional offer to be entered to win a prize of $500 towards registration at a

  4. Columbia University's Competency and Evidence-based Acute Care Nurse Practitioner Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Christine R.; Roberts, W. Dan

    2002-01-01

    Columbia University's acute care nurse practitioner curriculum incorporates evaluation strategies and standards to assess clinical competence and foster evidence-based practice. The curriculum consists of four core courses, supporting sciences, and specialty courses. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)

  5. Perceived barriers to completing an e-learning program on evidence-based medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Gagnon

    2007-06-01

    Conclusions This study offers a theoretical basis to understand physicians' beliefs towards completing an internet-based continuing medical education (CME program on EBM. Based upon respondents' insights, several modifications were carried out to enhance the uptake of the program by physicians and, therefore, its implementation.

  6. Developing Memory Clinics in Primary Care: An Evidence-Based Interprofessional Program of Continuing Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda; Weston, W. Wayne; Hillier, Loretta M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Primary care is challenged to meet the needs of patients with dementia. A training program was developed to increase capacity for dementia care through the development of Family Health Team (FHT)-based interprofessional memory clinics. The interprofessional training program consisted of a 2-day workshop, 1-day observership, and 2-day…

  7. Effectiveness of a Parent Training Program in (Pre)Adolescence: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijten, Patty; Overbeek, Geertjan; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The present randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of the parent training program Parents and Children Talking Together (PCTT) for parents with children in the preadolescent period who experience parenting difficulties. The program is focused on reducing child problem behavior by improving parents' communication and problem solving…

  8. Empirical Evidence in Support of a Research-Informed Water Conservation Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ruthanne; Serna, Victoria Faubion

    2016-01-01

    Based on results from a 2008 research study of regional citizen knowledge concerning watershed issues, a water conservation education program was designed and implemented. Findings from the initial study demonstrated program success as evidenced by knowledge gain and willingness to "commit" to water saving behaviors in 94% of students. A…

  9. A new national service learning program in the Netherlands : preliminary evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2009-01-01

    Since 2006, the Department of Education in the Netherlands encourages the introduction of service learning programs at the level of secondary education. The goal of the programs is to promote civic-mindedness: civic engagement, awareness of values and norms, and active citizenship. Past studies of t

  10. Multiple impacts of an intergenerational program in Japan: Evidence from the Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Masashi; Murayama, Yoh; Takahashi, Tomoya; Ohba, Hiromi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Nonaka, Kumiko; Kuraoka, Masataka; Sakurai, Ryota; Nishi, Mariko; Sakuma, Naoko; Kobayashi, Erika; Shinkai, Shoji; Fujiwara, Yoshinori

    2016-03-01

    Compelling evidence supporting the benefits of social engagement in older adults has been increasingly discussed. However, knowledge regarding an intergenerational program is limited. Herein, we provide a targeted review of intergenerational programs by focusing on our novel interventional program, Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy. The Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy program is an intergenerational picture-book reading program launched in 2004. Participants were involved a 3-month intensive weekly training seminar comprising classes about book selection, reading techniques and basic knowledge of children's school life. Subsequently, they participated in group activities that involved playing a hand game, and reading picture books to children at kindergartens, elementary schools and public childcare centers, once every 1-2 weeks. The Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy program has shown improvement of physical and psychological functioning of older adults and healthy upbringing of children. Similarly, Experience Corps - designed to train and place volunteers in participating elementary schools for an academic year during which time they assist teachers - also showed positive effects for older adults' health status and the psychological/academic success of young children in the USA. Health promotion efforts for older adults must support social policy for the creation of meaningful service programs for older adults on a large social scale. As such, an intergenerational program based on the concept of social capital, defined as "features of social organization, such as trust, norms and networks, that can improve the efficacy of society by facilitating coordinated actions," is an effective and sustainable program for health promotion among older adults. PMID:27018288

  11. Multiple impacts of an intergenerational program in Japan: Evidence from the Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Masashi; Murayama, Yoh; Takahashi, Tomoya; Ohba, Hiromi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Nonaka, Kumiko; Kuraoka, Masataka; Sakurai, Ryota; Nishi, Mariko; Sakuma, Naoko; Kobayashi, Erika; Shinkai, Shoji; Fujiwara, Yoshinori

    2016-03-01

    Compelling evidence supporting the benefits of social engagement in older adults has been increasingly discussed. However, knowledge regarding an intergenerational program is limited. Herein, we provide a targeted review of intergenerational programs by focusing on our novel interventional program, Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy. The Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy program is an intergenerational picture-book reading program launched in 2004. Participants were involved a 3-month intensive weekly training seminar comprising classes about book selection, reading techniques and basic knowledge of children's school life. Subsequently, they participated in group activities that involved playing a hand game, and reading picture books to children at kindergartens, elementary schools and public childcare centers, once every 1-2 weeks. The Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy program has shown improvement of physical and psychological functioning of older adults and healthy upbringing of children. Similarly, Experience Corps - designed to train and place volunteers in participating elementary schools for an academic year during which time they assist teachers - also showed positive effects for older adults' health status and the psychological/academic success of young children in the USA. Health promotion efforts for older adults must support social policy for the creation of meaningful service programs for older adults on a large social scale. As such, an intergenerational program based on the concept of social capital, defined as "features of social organization, such as trust, norms and networks, that can improve the efficacy of society by facilitating coordinated actions," is an effective and sustainable program for health promotion among older adults.

  12. Implementation lessons: the importance of assessing organizational "fit" and external factors when implementing evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demby, Hilary; Gregory, Alethia; Broussard, Marsha; Dickherber, Jennifer; Atkins, Shantice; Jenner, Lynne W

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the demand for evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs has increased, but practitioners often struggle to replicate and implement them as designed in real-world community settings. The purpose of this article is to describe the barriers and facilitators encountered during pilot year attempts to implement an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program within three types of organizations: (1) small community-based organizations; (2) a school-based organization; and (3) a large decentralized city-sponsored summer youth program. We frame our discussion of these experiences within the context of a systemic, multilevel framework for implementation consisting of (1) core implementation components; (2) organizational components; and (3) external factors. This article explores the organizational and external implementation factors we experienced during the implementation process, describes our lessons learned throughout this process, and offers strategies for other practitioners to proactively address these factors from the start of program planning. These findings may provide useful insight for other organizations looking to implement multi-session, group-level interventions with fidelity.

  13. Evidence-based medicine among internal medicine residents in a community hospital program using smart phones

    OpenAIRE

    Ackerman Michael; Green Linda; Fontelo Paul; León Sergio A; Liu Fang

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background This study implemented and evaluated a point-of-care, wireless Internet access using smart phones for information retrieval during daily clinical rounds and academic activities of internal medicine residents in a community hospital. We did the project to assess the feasibility of using smart phones as an alternative to reach online medical resources because we were unable to find previous studies of this type. In addition, we wanted to learn what Web-based information reso...

  14. LifeSteps: An Evidence-based Health Promotion Program for Underserved Populations – A Community Service Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Austin-McCain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the most common, costly, and preventable of all health problems in the United States. Chronic diseases represent the leading causes of death and are experienced at higher rates by minority populations (CDC, 2012. Innovative community-based health promotion programs are recommended that meet the diverse needs of underserved populations (Yeary, et al., 2011. LifeSteps is being developed as an evidence-based health promotion program focusing on health and wellness, a domain area defined within the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework (OTPF, 2008. LifeSteps will utilize a client-centered approach to coach individuals in making health behavior changes. Fieldwork and service-learning components are incorporated integrating clinical practice, academic study, and collaboration with community providers. Program evaluation measures based on the Transtheoretical Model (TTM have been identified to address all phases of program planning. The LifeSteps health promotion program aligns with local, national, and international objectives and addresses the need for programs that meet the diverse needs of underserved populations. Occupational therapists are in a unique position for implementing community-based interventions that promote health and contribute to a healthier society.

  15. Evidence that attitude accessibility augments the relationship between speeding attitudes and speeding behavior: a test of the MODE model in the context of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Mark A; Lee, Emme; Robertson, Jamie S; Innes, Rhona

    2015-01-01

    According to the MODE model of attitude-to-behavior processes, attitude accessibility augments attitude-behavior correspondence, reflecting an automatic influence of attitudes on behavior. We therefore tested whether attitude accessibility moderates the attitude-behavior relationship in a context that is governed by characteristically automatic behavior, namely driving. In study 1 (correlational design), participants (N=130) completed online questionnaire measures of the valences and accessibilities of their attitudes towards speeding. Two weeks later, online questionnaire measures of subsequent speeding behavior were obtained. Attitude valence was a significantly better predictor of behavior at high (mean+1SD) versus low (mean-1SD) levels of attitude accessibility. In study 2 (experimental design), attitude accessibility was manipulated with a repeated attitude expression task. Immediately after the manipulation, participants (N=122) completed online questionnaire measures of attitude valence and accessibility, and two weeks later, subsequent speeding behavior. Increased attitude accessibility in the experimental (versus control) condition generated an increase in attitude-behavior correspondence. The findings are consistent with the MODE model's proposition that attitudes can exert an automatic influence on behavior. Interventions to reduce speeding could usefully increase the accessibility of anti-speeding attitudes and reduce the accessibility of pro-speeding attitudes.

  16. Communicating Program Outcomes to Encourage Policymaker Support for Evidence-Based State Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M. Schmidt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use, the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S., can be reduced through state-level tobacco prevention and cessation programs. In the absence of research about how to communicate the need for these programs to policymakers, this qualitative study aimed to understand the motivations and priorities of policymakers in North Carolina, a state that enacted a strong tobacco control program from 2003–2011, but drastically reduced funding in recent years. Six former legislators (three Democrats, three Republicans and three lobbyists for health organizations were interviewed about their attitudes towards tobacco use, support of state-funded programs, and reactions to two policy briefs. Five themes emerged: (1 high awareness of tobacco-related health concerns but limited awareness of program impacts and funding, (2 the primacy of economic concerns in making policy decisions, (3 ideological differences in views of the state’s role in tobacco control, (4 the impact of lobbyist and constituent in-person appeals, and (5 the utility of concise, contextualized data. These findings suggest that building relationships with policymakers to communicate ongoing program outcomes, emphasizing economic data, and developing a constituent advocacy group would be valuable to encourage continued support of state tobacco control programs.

  17. The impact of health insurance programs for children: evidence from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Van, Cuong

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of children’s health insurance programs on health care utilization and health care expenditures of children from 6 to 14 years old in Vietnam using four rounds of the Vietnam Household Living Standard Surveys from 2006 to 2012. We find a positive effect of both student and free health insurance programs on the number of health care visits. This positive impact tends to increase over time, and the impact of the free health insurance program is larger than the imp...

  18. Early Intervention Programs for Children with Behavior Problems and at Risk for Developing Antisocial Behaviors: Evidence- and Research-Based Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, John W.; Katsiyannis, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The number of children who would be eligible for, and benefit from, early intervention programs has dramatically increased during the past several years. However, those programs would have to meet the U.S. Department of Education's criteria for being evidence based. Some programs that have proven successful would not be eligible but rather be…

  19. An Examination of Interprofessional Team Functioning in a BScN Blended Learning Program: Implications for Accessible Distance-Based Nursing Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lorraine Mary; Beattie, Bev; Caswell, Wenda; Fitzgerald, Scott; Nowrouzi, Behdin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the perceptions and experiences of an interprofessional team responsible for the development and delivery of the Registered Practical Nurse (RPN) to Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN) Blended Learning Program at Nipissing University were examined. In this program, RPNs can acquire a BScN through distance-based part-time study,…

  20. Developing a strategic marketing plan for physical and occupational therapy services: a collaborative project between a critical access hospital and a graduate program in health care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, Bita A; Deshmukh, A A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a marketing plan for the Physical and Occupational Therapy (PT/OT) department at a Critical Access Hospital (CAH). We took the approach of understanding and analyzing the rural community and health care environment, problems faced by the PT/OT department, and developing a strategic marketing plan to resolve those problems. We used hospital admissions data, public and physician surveys, a SWOT analysis, and tools to evaluate alternative strategies. Lack of awareness and negative perception were key issues. Recommended strategies included building relationships with physicians, partnering with the school district, and enhancing the wellness program.

  1. Developing a strategic marketing plan for physical and occupational therapy services: a collaborative project between a critical access hospital and a graduate program in health care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, Bita A; Deshmukh, A A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a marketing plan for the Physical and Occupational Therapy (PT/OT) department at a Critical Access Hospital (CAH). We took the approach of understanding and analyzing the rural community and health care environment, problems faced by the PT/OT department, and developing a strategic marketing plan to resolve those problems. We used hospital admissions data, public and physician surveys, a SWOT analysis, and tools to evaluate alternative strategies. Lack of awareness and negative perception were key issues. Recommended strategies included building relationships with physicians, partnering with the school district, and enhancing the wellness program. PMID:23924224

  2. The Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology's Grand Rounds Around the World-An Online Educational Program Freely Accessible to All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Dennis; Leung, Christopher; He, Mingguang; Tham, Clement; Liu, Yizhi; Pang, Calvin; Martin, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Grand rounds are excellent learning platforms for physicians and other health care professionals to keep up with important evolving areas in the management and treatment models of various diseases. However, there are hardly any freely accessible grand rounds in ophthalmology to meet the need for ophthalmic education in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond. The Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology would like to meet the need by sponsoring a new initiative "Grand Rounds Around the World" so that ophthalmologists and eye care professionals in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond can benefit from the program, leading to improved patient care and the elimination of learning barriers.

  3. Development and Feasibility of an Evidence-Based Patient Education Program for Managing Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddersen, Lena Katharina; Lau, Stephanie; Köpke, Sascha; Moss-Morris, Rona; Heesen, Christoph; Pöttgen, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Fatigue is a common and disabling symptom, often causing decreased quality of life, social withdrawal, and unemployment. We developed and studied the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioral group intervention to manage fatigue in MS. We aimed to integrate the concepts of cognitive-behavioral therapy and evidence-based patient information. Methods: We conducted patient interviews and a focus group to assess patients' interest in and need for fatigue self-management training and developed the program accordingly. The program consists of six 90-minute modules, which were structured with the use of moderation cards, helping to guarantee treatment fidelity. The program was tested on three pilot groups (N = 16) in a rehabilitation center. Fatigue, depression, and coping self-efficacy were assessed at baseline and after the intervention. Acceptance and general satisfaction with the program were also evaluated. Results: Patient interviews elicited different characteristics of fatigue, suggesting that patients had different requirements. The program was very acceptable to patients. Pre-post assessments of the pilot study showed significantly improved scores on the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale (P = .013) but not on the Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Functions and the 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that this program is a feasible cognitive-behavioral group training program that may improve coping self-efficacy and has the potential to subsequently reduce fatigue. The next step is evaluation of the program in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:27252600

  4. Teachers’ attitudes towards reflective teaching: evidences in a professional development program (pdp)

    OpenAIRE

    Jerez Rodríguez, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Reflective teaching is a paradigm that dominates teacher education around the world and most professional development programs include it as a way to improve teachers’ practice. As a teacher educator I am aware of the importance reflective teaching (RT) has on teachers’ professional development. This article reports a research experience with two in-service teachers of English enrolled in a professional development program at a public university in Bogotá who initiated a reflective teaching p...

  5. Programs to improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health in the US: a review of the evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Manlove J; Fish H; Moore KA

    2015-01-01

    Jennifer Manlove, Heather Fish, Kristin Anderson Moore Child Trends, Bethesda, MD, USA Background: US adolescents have high rates of teen pregnancy, childbearing, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), highlighting the need to identify and implement effective programs that will help improve teen sexual and reproductive health. Materials and methods: This review identified 103 random-assignment evaluations of 85 programs that incorporated intent-to-treat analyses and assessed impacts on ...

  6. Sediment toxicity data from the NOAA National Status and Trends Program, March 1991 to July 1996 (NODC Accession 9800146)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of its bioeffects assessment program. NOAA has begun a series of surveys of the toxicity and other biological effects of toxicants in selected bays and...

  7. The Economic Impact of Social Media on Small Businesses: Evidence from Three Mississippi Extension Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, James N.; Hood, Ken; Gallardo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    With many social media companies now in the marketplace, it behooves small businesses not to use these outlets to market their products, especially rural businesses. In this paper, we discuss some of the economic impacts of using online social networks and provide case study evidence from Mississippi.

  8. Videoconferencing of a national program for residents on evidence-based practice: early performance evaluation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the medium of videoconferencing for the delivery of a course for radiology residents in practice-based learning (PBL), including evidence-based practice, at centers geographically separated from the principal teaching site.

  9. Effective Educational Programs: Meta-Findings from the Best Evidence Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    One of the major series of reviews in elementary and secondary education is the Best Evidence Encyclopedia, or the BEE. Up to now, findings for systematic reviews have largely been restricted to the reviews themselves, with few cases in which lessons learned across many reviews using similar methods can be synthesized. The completion of the Best…

  10. Structural adjustment and public spending on health: evidence from IMF programs in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentikelenis, Alexander E; Stubbs, Thomas H; King, Lawrence P

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between health policy in low-income countries (LICs) and structural adjustment programs devised by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has been the subject of intense controversy over past decades. While the influence of the IMF on health policy can operate through various pathways, one main link is via public spending on health. The IMF has claimed that its programs enhance government spending for health, and that a number of innovations have been introduced to enable borrowing countries to protect health spending from broader austerity measures. Critics have pointed to adverse effects of Fund programs on health spending or to systematic underfunding that does not allow LICs to address health needs. We examine the effects of Fund programs on government expenditures on health in low-income countries using data for the period 1985-2009. We find that Fund programs are associated with higher health expenditures only in Sub-Saharan African LICs, which historically spent less than any other region. This relationship turns negative in LICs in other regions. We outline the implications of these findings for health policy in a development context. PMID:25576997

  11. Nurse residency programs: an evidence-based review of theory, process, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gwen; Hair, Carole; Todero, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Nursing shortages exist worldwide while job stress, dissatisfaction, lack of peer support and limited professional opportunities still contribute to attrition. The aim of this systematic review is to describe and evaluate the quality of the science, report recommendations and lessons learned about implementing and evaluating nurse residency programs (NRPs) designed to improve new graduate transitioning. Databases were searched between 1980 and 2010 using five search terms: nurse, intern, extern, transition and residency programs. Twenty studies reporting programs for new RNs fit the inclusion criteria. Three major discoveries include: 1. Wide variation in content, teaching and learning strategies make comparison across programs difficult; 2. Lack of theory in designing the educational intervention has limited the selection and development of new instruments to measure program effectiveness; and 3. Well designed quasi-experimental studies are needed. As a major nursing education redesign, NRPs could be used to test the principles, concepts and strategies of organizational transformation and experiential-interactive learning theory. By focusing on fiscal outcomes, current administrators of NRPs are missing the opportunity to implement an organizational strategy that could improve workplace environments. Healthcare organizations need to envision NRPs as a demonstration of positive clinical learning environments that can enhance intra- and interprofessional education and practice. PMID:22818190

  12. The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access: an evidence-based review [version 3; referees: 3 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Tennant

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing debates surrounding Open Access to the scholarly literature are multifaceted and complicated by disparate and often polarised viewpoints from engaged stakeholders. At the current stage, Open Access has become such a global issue that it is critical for all involved in scholarly publishing, including policymakers, publishers, research funders, governments, learned societies, librarians, and academic communities, to be well-informed on the history, benefits, and pitfalls of Open Access. In spite of this, there is a general lack of consensus regarding the potential pros and cons of Open Access at multiple levels. This review aims to be a resource for current knowledge on the impacts of Open Access by synthesizing important research in three major areas: academic, economic and societal. While there is clearly much scope for additional research, several key trends are identified, including a broad citation advantage for researchers who publish openly, as well as additional benefits to the non-academic dissemination of their work. The economic impact of Open Access is less well-understood, although it is clear that access to the research literature is key for innovative enterprises, and a range of governmental and non-governmental services. Furthermore, Open Access has the potential to save both publishers and research funders considerable amounts of financial resources, and can provide some economic benefits to traditionally subscription-based journals. The societal impact of Open Access is strong, in particular for advancing citizen science initiatives, and leveling the playing field for researchers in developing countries. Open Access supersedes all potential alternative modes of access to the scholarly literature through enabling unrestricted re-use, and long-term stability independent of financial constraints of traditional publishers that impede knowledge sharing. However, Open Access has the potential to become unsustainable for

  13. The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access: an evidence-based review [version 2; referees: 4 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Tennant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing debates surrounding Open Access to the scholarly literature are multifaceted and complicated by disparate and often polarised viewpoints from engaged stakeholders. At the current stage, Open Access has become such a global issue that it is critical for all involved in scholarly publishing, including policymakers, publishers, research funders, governments, learned societies, librarians, and academic communities, to be well-informed on the history, benefits, and pitfalls of Open Access. In spite of this, there is a general lack of consensus regarding the potential pros and cons of Open Access at multiple levels. This review aims to be a resource for current knowledge on the impacts of Open Access by synthesizing important research in three major areas: academic, economic and societal. While there is clearly much scope for additional research, several key trends are identified, including a broad citation advantage for researchers who publish openly, as well as additional benefits to the non-academic dissemination of their work. The economic impact of Open Access is less well-understood, although it is clear that access to the research literature is key for innovative enterprises, and a range of governmental and non-governmental services. Furthermore, Open Access has the potential to save both publishers and research funders considerable amounts of financial resources, and can provide some economic benefits to traditionally subscription-based journals. The societal impact of Open Access is strong, in particular for advancing citizen science initiatives, and leveling the playing field for researchers in developing countries. Open Access supersedes all potential alternative modes of access to the scholarly literature through enabling unrestricted re-use, and long-term stability independent of financial constraints of traditional publishers that impede knowledge sharing. However, Open Access has the potential to become unsustainable for

  14. 77 FR 5661 - Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... HUD published a proposed rule on January 24, 2011 (76 FR 4194), which advised of evidence suggesting... the International Association of Chiefs of Police, the National District Attorneys Association, the... involving nonconformity with gender stereotypes. Interpret Sex Discrimination Under the Fair Housing Act...

  15. Determinants of malaria program expenditures during elimination: case study evidence from select provinces in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jenny X; Newby, Gretchen; Brackery, Aprielle; Smith Gueye, Cara; Candari, Christine J; Escubil, Luz R; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Baquilod, Mario

    2013-01-01

    ...Even though eliminating malaria from the endemic margins is a part of the Global Malaria Action Plan, little guidance exists on what resources are needed to transition from controlling malaria to eliminating it. Using Philippines as an example, this study aimed to (1) estimate the financial resources used by sub-national malaria programs in different phases during elimination and (2) understand how different environmental and organizational factors may influence expenditure levels and spending proportions. The Philippines provides an opportunity to study variations in sub-national programs because its epidemiological and ecological diversity, devolved health system, and progressive elimination strategy all allow greater flexibility for lower-level governments to direct activities, but also create challenges for coordination and resource mobilization. Through key informant interviews and archival record retrieval in four selected provinces chosen based on eco-epidemiological variation, expenditures associated with provincial malaria programs were collected for selected years (mid-1990s to 2010). Results show that expenditures per person at risk per year decrease as programs progress from a state of controlled low-endemic malaria to elimination to prevention of reintroduction regardless of whether elimination was deliberately planned. However, wide variation across provinces were found: expenditures were generally higher if mainly financed with donor grants, but were moderated by the level of economic development, the level of malaria transmission and receptivity, and the capacity of program staff. Across all provinces, strong leadership appears to be a necessary condition for maintaining progress and is vital in controlling outbreaks. While sampled provinces and years may not be representative of other sub-national malaria programs, these findings suggest that the marginal yearly cost declines with each phase during elimination. PMID:24086279

  16. Determinants of malaria program expenditures during elimination: case study evidence from select provinces in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jenny X; Newby, Gretchen; Brackery, Aprielle; Smith Gueye, Cara; Candari, Christine J; Escubil, Luz R; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Baquilod, Mario

    2013-01-01

    ...Even though eliminating malaria from the endemic margins is a part of the Global Malaria Action Plan, little guidance exists on what resources are needed to transition from controlling malaria to eliminating it. Using Philippines as an example, this study aimed to (1) estimate the financial resources used by sub-national malaria programs in different phases during elimination and (2) understand how different environmental and organizational factors may influence expenditure levels and spending proportions. The Philippines provides an opportunity to study variations in sub-national programs because its epidemiological and ecological diversity, devolved health system, and progressive elimination strategy all allow greater flexibility for lower-level governments to direct activities, but also create challenges for coordination and resource mobilization. Through key informant interviews and archival record retrieval in four selected provinces chosen based on eco-epidemiological variation, expenditures associated with provincial malaria programs were collected for selected years (mid-1990s to 2010). Results show that expenditures per person at risk per year decrease as programs progress from a state of controlled low-endemic malaria to elimination to prevention of reintroduction regardless of whether elimination was deliberately planned. However, wide variation across provinces were found: expenditures were generally higher if mainly financed with donor grants, but were moderated by the level of economic development, the level of malaria transmission and receptivity, and the capacity of program staff. Across all provinces, strong leadership appears to be a necessary condition for maintaining progress and is vital in controlling outbreaks. While sampled provinces and years may not be representative of other sub-national malaria programs, these findings suggest that the marginal yearly cost declines with each phase during elimination.

  17. Determinants of malaria program expenditures during elimination: case study evidence from select provinces in the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny X Liu

    Full Text Available ...Even though eliminating malaria from the endemic margins is a part of the Global Malaria Action Plan, little guidance exists on what resources are needed to transition from controlling malaria to eliminating it. Using Philippines as an example, this study aimed to (1 estimate the financial resources used by sub-national malaria programs in different phases during elimination and (2 understand how different environmental and organizational factors may influence expenditure levels and spending proportions. The Philippines provides an opportunity to study variations in sub-national programs because its epidemiological and ecological diversity, devolved health system, and progressive elimination strategy all allow greater flexibility for lower-level governments to direct activities, but also create challenges for coordination and resource mobilization. Through key informant interviews and archival record retrieval in four selected provinces chosen based on eco-epidemiological variation, expenditures associated with provincial malaria programs were collected for selected years (mid-1990s to 2010. Results show that expenditures per person at risk per year decrease as programs progress from a state of controlled low-endemic malaria to elimination to prevention of reintroduction regardless of whether elimination was deliberately planned. However, wide variation across provinces were found: expenditures were generally higher if mainly financed with donor grants, but were moderated by the level of economic development, the level of malaria transmission and receptivity, and the capacity of program staff. Across all provinces, strong leadership appears to be a necessary condition for maintaining progress and is vital in controlling outbreaks. While sampled provinces and years may not be representative of other sub-national malaria programs, these findings suggest that the marginal yearly cost declines with each phase during elimination.

  18. Programming of the Internet of Things Android System Access in the University%高校物联网Android系统接入编程实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪磊

    2013-01-01

    By means of communication and network technology,the Internet of Things can be massive complete awareness information presented to the user truly everywhere perception. But as the mass of information on the Internet,the ordinary user can not directly digest the information,and only through further processing,these data can be used for the user. This article is designed programming methods and steps of the Android platform for mobile phones to access the Internet,and the development of effective Internet access applications,the access and processing of Things the digitalized construction projects for the University Logistics,building programs.%  借助于通信和网络技术,物联网可以将海量的感知信息完整地呈现给用户,真正做到无处不在的感知。但正如互联网上的海量信息一样,普通用户无法直接消化这些信息,只有通过进一步的加工处理,这些数据才能为用户所用。设计了Android平台手机接入互联网的编程方法和步骤,并开发了行之有效的互联网接入应用程序,为高校后勤数字化建设项目中物联网的接入与处理,提供了建设方案。

  19. Adapting Evidence-Based Prevention Approaches for Latino Adolescents: The Familia Adelante Program - Revised

    OpenAIRE

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Goldbach, Jeremy T.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral health is defined as the absence of mental illness or substance use problems and the presence of positive emotional well being. Although many U.S. Hispanic youth are at increased risk for substance abuse, suicidality, teen pregnancy, unsafe sexual practices and HIV, there exists a lack of available evidence-based practices for Hispanic youth which promotes behavioral health and HIV prevention. The objective of the current research was to adapt and revise the Familia Adelante (FA) P...

  20. Examining the Sustainability of an Evidence-Based Preschool Curriculum: The REDI Program

    OpenAIRE

    Sanford DeRousie, Rebecca M.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which an evidence-based preschool curriculum (Head Start REDI) was sustained by 20 teachers during the year following a randomized controlled efficacy trial, when teachers were no longer required by the research project to implement the curriculum. Two quantitative measures of sustainability (teacher ratings, REDI coach ratings) and a qualitative measure (teacher interview) were collected and compared. Sustainability varied by the specific curriculum componen...

  1. Is the crop insurance program effective in China? Evidence from farmers analysis in ifve provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ke; ZHANG Qiao; Shingo Kimura; Suraya Akter

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Chinese crop insurance program in terms of farmers’ utility and welfare. A simulation model based on the power utility function was ifrst developed to evaluate the effectiveness of crop insurance. Then, the Monte Carlo approach was used to generate the datasets of area, price, yield, cost, and income based on the characteristics of representative farmers, which were clustered and calibrated using the farm-level data of 574 individual farmers from ifve Chinese provinces. Finaly, the effectiveness of Chinese crop insurance was evaluated by comparing the certainty equivalence (CE) of farmers’ utility/welfare under alternative crop insurance scenarios. Government subsidy is a necessary premise for implementing the crop insurance program. The government should subsidize more than 50%of the crop insurance premium to motivate more farmers to participate in the program. The ifndings also show that the current crop insurance program in China has increased the farmers’ welfare but stil need to be improved to achieve the Pareto improvement and to make ful use of the ifnancial fund of the government. This paper is believed to not only extend academic research but also has signiifcant implications for policymakers, especialy in the context of rapid development of Chinese crop insurance with much issues such as rate, subsidy and coverage level needed to be improved.

  2. Evaluation of an Evidence-Based Tobacco Treatment Curriculum for Psychiatry Residency Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Leek, Desiree; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Louie, Alan K.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Smokers with mental illness and addictive disorders account for nearly one in two cigarettes sold in the United States and are at high risk for smoking-related deaths and disability. Psychiatry residency programs provide a unique arena for disseminating tobacco treatment guidelines, influencing professional norms, and increasing access…

  3. Who Carries the Burden of Reproductive Health and AIDS Programs? - Evidence from OECD Donor Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. van Dalen (Hendrik)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis paper tries to establish who carries the burden in supporting reproductive health and AIDS programs worldwide. The 1994 International Conference of Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo established goals for the expansion of assistance in matters of reproductive health and AIDS

  4. Empirically Supported Psychotherapy in Social Work Training Programs: Does the Definition of Evidence Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Mullen, Edward J.; Ponniah, Kathryn; Gameroff, Marc J.; Verdeli, Helen; Mufson, Laura; Fitterling, Heidi; Wickramaratne, Priya

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: A national survey finds that 62% of social work programs do not require didactic and clinical supervision in any empirically supported psychotherapy (EST). The authors report the results of analysis of national survey data using two alternative classifications of EST to determine if the results are because of the definition of EST used…

  5. Supporting Policy and Program Decisions: Recommendations for Conducting High Quality Systematic Evidence Reviews. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Policy and program decisions typically involve selecting one choice from among a set of options, and research about the effect of those options can help inform the decision process. However, for the research to be useful, decision makers need a way of drawing accurate lessons from what often can be a large assortment of relevant studies.…

  6. Pitfalls of Participatory Programs: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Education in India

    OpenAIRE

    Abhijit V. Banerjee; Banerji, Rukmini; Duflo, Esther; Glennerster, Rachel; Khemani, Stuti

    2008-01-01

    Participation of beneficiaries in the monitoring of public services is increasingly seen as key to improving their efficiency. In India, the current government flagship program on universal primary education organizes community members, specifically locally elected leaders and parents of children enrolled in public schools, into committees and gives these powers over resource allocation, ...

  7. Evidence-Based Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The UCLA PEERS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Frankel, Fred; Gantman, Alexander; Dillon, Ashley R.; Mogil, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the efficacy and durability of the PEERS Program, a parent-assisted social skills group intervention for high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Results indicate that teens receiving PEERS significantly improved their social skills knowledge, social responsiveness, and overall social skills in the areas of social…

  8. Towards evidence-based clinical practice: an international survey of 18 clinical guideline programs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, J.S.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Klazinga, N.S.; Makela, M.; Zaat, J.O.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe systematically the structures and working methods of guideline programs. DESIGN: Descriptive survey using a questionnaire with 32 items based on a framework derived from the literature. Answers were tabulated and checked by participants. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: Key informants of 1

  9. Iterations of the SafeCare Model: An Evidence-Based Child Maltreatment Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Anna; Lutzker, John R.

    2008-01-01

    SafeCare is an evidenced-based parenting program for at-risk and maltreating parents that addresses the social and family ecology in which child maltreatment occurs. SafeCare home visitors focus on behavioral skills that are trained to predetermined performance criteria. Recent research has stressed the importance of successful dissemination and…

  10. 75 FR 8982 - Medicare Program; Request for Nominations for Members for the Medicare Evidence Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... in the Federal Register (63 FR 68780) announcing establishment of the Medicare Coverage Advisory... November 24, 1998. On January 26, 2007 the Secretary published a notice in the Federal Register (72 FR 3853... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Request for Nominations...

  11. 76 FR 71573 - Medicare Program; Request for Nominations for Members for the Medicare Evidence Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... notice in the Federal Register (63 FR 68780) announcing establishment of the MCAC was published on... January 26, 2007, the Secretary published a notice in the Federal Register (72 FR 3853), announcing that... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Request for Nominations...

  12. 78 FR 63986 - Medicare Program; Request for Nominations for Members for the Medicare Evidence Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... notice in the Federal Register (63 FR 68780) announcing establishment of the MCAC was published on... January 26, 2007, the Secretary published a notice in the Federal Register (72 FR 3853), announcing that... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Request for Nominations...

  13. Speech Motor Programming in Apraxia of Speech: Evidence from a Delayed Picture-Word Interference Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailend, Marja-Liisa; Maas, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Apraxia of speech (AOS) is considered a speech motor programming impairment, but the specific nature of the impairment remains a matter of debate. This study investigated 2 hypotheses about the underlying impairment in AOS framed within the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA; Guenther, Ghosh, & Tourville, 2006) model: The…

  14. Florida Public Health Training Center: Evidence-Based Online Mentor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Kathryn A.; Alsac-Seitz, Biray; Mescia, Nadine; Brown, Lisa M.; Hyer, Kathy; Liburd, Desiree; Rogoff, David P.; Troutman, Adewale

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an Online Mentor Program (OMP) designed to support and facilitate mentorships among and between Florida Department of Health (FDOH) employees and USF College of Public Health students using a Web-based portal. The Florida Public Health Training Center (FPHTC) at the University of South Florida (USF) College of Public Health…

  15. Peer monitoring, social ties and moral hazard in group lending programs : Evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, N; Lensink, R; Mehrteab, HT

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of monitoring and social ties on moral hazard behavior within group lending programs. Our study is based on data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We separately analyze the impact of group leaders and other grou

  16. The role of managerial stock option programs in governance: evidence from REIT stock repurchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Ghosh; E. Giambona; J.P. Harding; O. Sezer; C.F. Sirmans

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of stock option programs and executive holdings of stock options in real estate investment trust (REIT) governance. We study the issue by analyzing how the market reaction to a stock repurchase announcement varies as a function of the individual REIT's governance struc

  17. Decentralization and Educational Performance: Evidence from the PROHECO Community School Program in Rural Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gropello, Emanuela; Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effectiveness of the Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria (PROHECO) community school program in rural Honduras. The data include standardized tests and extensive information on school, teacher, classroom and community features for 120 rural schools drawn from 15 states. Using academic achievement decompositions we find that…

  18. Monitoring fever treatment behaviour and equitable access to effective medicines in the context of initiatives to improve ACT access: baseline results and implications for programming in six African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littrell Megan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT remains limited in high malaria-burden countries, and there are concerns that the poorest people are particularly disadvantaged. This paper presents new evidence on household treatment-seeking behaviour in six African countries. These data provide a baseline for monitoring interventions to increase ACT coverage, such as the Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm. Methods Nationally representative household surveys were conducted in Benin, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia between 2008 and 2010. Caregivers responded to questions about management of recent fevers in children under five. Treatment indicators were tabulated across countries, and differences in case management provided by the public versus private sector were examined using chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to test for association between socioeconomic status and 1 malaria blood testing, and 2 ACT treatment. Results Fever treatment with an ACT is low in Benin (10%, the DRC (5%, Madagascar (3% and Nigeria (5%, but higher in Uganda (21% and Zambia (21%. The wealthiest children are significantly more likely to receive ACT compared to the poorest children in Benin (OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 1.12-6.42; the DRC (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.12-4.24; Madagascar (OR = 5.37, 95% CI = 1.58-18.24; and Nigeria (OR = 6.59, 95% CI = 2.73-15.89. Most caregivers seek treatment outside of the home, and private sector outlets are commonly the sole external source of treatment (except in Zambia. However, children treated in the public sector are significantly more likely to receive ACT treatment than those treated in the private sector (except in Madagascar. Nonetheless, levels of testing and ACT treatment in the public sector are low. Few caregivers name the national first-line drug as most effective for treating malaria in Madagascar (2%, the DRC (2%, Nigeria (4% and Benin (10

  19. The SOS Suicide Prevention Program: Further Evidence of Efficacy and Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Elizabeth A; Aseltine, Robert H; James, Amy

    2016-02-01

    This study replicated and extended previous evaluations of the Signs of Suicide (SOS) prevention program in a high school population using a more rigorous pre-test post-test randomized control design than used in previous SOS evaluations in high schools (Aseltine and DeMartino 2004; Aseltine et al. 2007). SOS was presented to an ethnically diverse group of ninth grade students in technical high schools in Connecticut. After controlling for the pre-test reports of suicide behaviors, exposure to the SOS program was associated with significantly fewer self-reported suicide attempts in the 3 months following the program. Ninth grade students in the intervention group were approximately 64% less likely to report a suicide attempt in the past 3 months compared with students in the control group. Similarly, exposure to the SOS program resulted in greater knowledge of depression and suicide and more favorable attitudes toward (1) intervening with friends who may be exhibiting signs of suicidal intent and (2) getting help for themselves if they were depressed or suicidal. In addition, high-risk SOS participants, defined as those with a lifetime history of suicide attempt, were significantly less likely to report planning a suicide in the 3 months following the program compared to lower-risk participants. Differential attrition is the most serious limitation of the study; participants in the intervention group who reported a suicide attempt in the previous 3 months at baseline were more likely to be missing at post-test than their counterparts in the control group.

  20. A framework for developing an evidence-based, comprehensive tobacco control program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shacham Galia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco control is an area where the translation of evidence into policy would seem to be straightforward, given the wealth of epidemiological, behavioural and other types of research available. Yet, even here challenges exist. These include information overload, concealment of key (industry-funded evidence, contextualization, assessment of population impact, and the changing nature of the threat. Methods In the context of Israel's health targeting initiative, Healthy Israel 2020, we describe the steps taken to develop a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. We elaborate on the following: a scientific issues influencing the choice of tobacco control strategies; b organization of existing evidence of effectiveness of interventions into a manageable form, and c consideration of relevant philosophical and political issues. We propose a framework for developing a plan and illustrate this process with a case study in Israel. Results Broad consensus exists regarding the effectiveness of most interventions, but current recommendations differ in the emphasis they place on different strategies. Scientific challenges include integration of complex and sometimes conflicting information from authoritative sources, and lack of estimates of population impact of interventions. Philosophical and political challenges include the use of evidence-based versus innovative policymaking, the importance of individual versus governmental responsibility, and whether and how interventions should be prioritized. The proposed framework includes: 1 compilation of a list of potential interventions 2 modification of that list based on local needs and political constraints; 3 streamlining the list by categorizing interventions into broad groupings of related interventions; together these groupings form the basis of a comprehensive plan; and 4 refinement of the plan by comparing it to existing comprehensive plans. Conclusions Development of a comprehensive

  1. Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to…

  2. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 748 - Guidance on Response Programs for Unauthorized Access to Member Information and Member Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... See 12 CFR Part 748, appendix A, Paragraph III.B. 2. Following the assessment of these risks, appendix... Safeguards Rule promulgated by the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”), 12 CFR Part 314. II. Response Program i... containing nonpublic personal information about a member, whether in paper, electronic, or other...

  3. The effect of a Lean quality improvement implementation program on surgical pathology specimen accessioning and gross preparation error frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maxwell L; Wilkerson, Trent; Grzybicki, Dana M; Raab, Stephen S

    2012-09-01

    Few reports have documented the effectiveness of Lean quality improvement in changing anatomic pathology patient safety. We used Lean methods of education; hoshin kanri goal setting and culture change; kaizen events; observation of work activities, hand-offs, and pathways; A3-problem solving, metric development, and measurement; and frontline work redesign in the accessioning and gross examination areas of an anatomic pathology laboratory. We compared the pre- and post-Lean implementation proportion of near-miss events and changes made in specific work processes. In the implementation phase, we documented 29 individual A3-root cause analyses. The pre- and postimplementation proportions of process- and operator-dependent near-miss events were 5.5 and 1.8 (P < .002) and 0.6 and 0.6, respectively. We conclude that through culture change and implementation of specific work process changes, Lean implementation may improve pathology patient safety. PMID:22912352

  4. The effect of a Lean quality improvement implementation program on surgical pathology specimen accessioning and gross preparation error frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maxwell L; Wilkerson, Trent; Grzybicki, Dana M; Raab, Stephen S

    2012-09-01

    Few reports have documented the effectiveness of Lean quality improvement in changing anatomic pathology patient safety. We used Lean methods of education; hoshin kanri goal setting and culture change; kaizen events; observation of work activities, hand-offs, and pathways; A3-problem solving, metric development, and measurement; and frontline work redesign in the accessioning and gross examination areas of an anatomic pathology laboratory. We compared the pre- and post-Lean implementation proportion of near-miss events and changes made in specific work processes. In the implementation phase, we documented 29 individual A3-root cause analyses. The pre- and postimplementation proportions of process- and operator-dependent near-miss events were 5.5 and 1.8 (P < .002) and 0.6 and 0.6, respectively. We conclude that through culture change and implementation of specific work process changes, Lean implementation may improve pathology patient safety.

  5. Population-Level Impact of Ontario’s Infant Rotavirus Immunization Program: Evidence of Direct and Indirect Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosella, Laura C.; Wang, Jun; Le Saux, Nicole; Crowcroft, Natasha S.; Harris, Tara; Bolotin, Shelly; Deeks, Shelley L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the direct and indirect population impact of rotavirus (RV) immunization on hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in Ontario before and after the publicly-funded RV immunization program. Methods Administrative data was used to identify ED visits and hospitalizations for all Ontarians using ICD-10 codes. We used two outcome definitions: RV-specific AGE (RV-AGE) and codes representing RV-, other viral and cause unspecified AGE (“overall AGE”). The pre-program and public program periods were August 1, 2005 to July 31, 2011; and August 1, 2011 to March 31, 2013, respectively. A negative binominal regression model that included the effect of time was used to calculate rates and rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for RV-AGE and overall AGE between periods, after adjusting for age, seasonality and secular trends. Analyses were conducted for all ages combined and age stratified. Results Relative to the pre-program period, the adjusted RRs for RV-AGE and overall AGE hospitalizations in the public program period were 0.29 (95%CI: 0.22–0.39) and 0.68 (95%CI: 0.62–0.75), respectively. Significant reductions in RV-AGE hospitalizations were noted overall and for the following age bands: = 65 years (RR 0.80, 95%CI: 0.72–0.90). The program was associated with adjusted RRs of 0.32 (95% CI: 0.20–0.52) for RV-AGE ED visits and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85–0.96) for overall AGE ED visits. Conclusions This large, population-based study provides evidence of the impact of RV vaccine in preventing hospitalizations and ED visits for RV-AGE and overall AGE, including herd effects. PMID:27168335

  6. How evidence-based is an 'evidence-based parenting program'? A PRISMA systematic review and meta-analysis of Triple P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Philip

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions to promote positive parenting are often reported to offer good outcomes for children but they can consume substantial resources and they require rigorous appraisal. Methods Evaluations of the Triple P parenting program were subjected to systematic review and meta-analysis with analysis of biases. PsychInfo, Embase and Ovid Medline were used as data sources. We selected published articles reporting any child-based outcome in which any variant of Triple P was evaluated in relation to a comparison condition. Unpublished data, papers in languages other than English and some book chapters were not examined. Studies reporting Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory or Child Behavior Checklist scores as outcomes were used in the meta-analysis. Results A total of 33 eligible studies was identified, most involving media-recruited families. Thirty-one of these 33 studies compared Triple P interventions with waiting list or no-treatment comparison groups. Most papers only reported maternal assessments of child behavior. Twenty-three papers were incorporated in the meta-analysis. No studies involved children younger than two-years old and comparisons of intervention and control groups beyond the duration of the intervention were only possible in five studies. For maternally-reported outcomes the summary effect size was 0.61 (95%CI 0.42, 0.79. Paternally-reported outcomes following Triple P intervention were smaller and did not differ significantly from the control condition (effect size 0.42 (95%CI -0.02, 0.87. The two studies involving an active control group showed no between-group differences. There was limited evidence of publication bias, but there was substantial selective reporting bias, and preferential reporting of positive results in article abstracts. Thirty-two of the 33 eligible studies were authored by Triple-P affiliated personnel. No trials were registered and only two papers contained conflict of interest

  7. The structure of motor programming: evidence from reaction times and lateralized readiness potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lu; Sommer, Werner; Masaki, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    There is a widely accepted notion that movement elements are assembled prior to movement execution in a central motor programming stage. However, it is not clear how this stage is structured-whether it is a unitary stage allowing different motor parameters to cross talk or whether there are several independent processes dealing with each motor parameter. We addressed this question by orthogonally manipulating two movement-related factors: response sequence complexity and movement duration. Both factors yielded main effects on reaction time but no interaction. Additive effects of both factors on the onsets of response- but not stimulus-synchronized lateralized readiness potentials suggest separable motoric loci of sequence complexity and duration. These findings are at variance with the notion of a unitary movement programming stage. PMID:25082470

  8. Is Obesity Associated with Food Assistance Program Participation? Evidence from the U.S. and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Chaparro Lanfranco, Maria Pia

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic. While numerous obesity prevention efforts have been implemented around the world for different age groups and at different settings (i.e. school, home, community), most of these have shown short-term, moderate results if at all. Identifying successful obesity prevention strategies, therefore, remains critical. Food assistance programs (FAPs), originally designed to prevent hunger among the poor, have the potential to work as venues for obesity prevention inter...

  9. Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Malcolm A

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the reso...

  10. How effective are food for education programs?: A critical assessment of the evidence from developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Adelman, Sarah W.; Gilligan, Daniel O.; Lehrer, Kim

    2008-01-01

    "The economic motivations for investing in the education and nutritional status of primary-school-aged children are well established. Moreover, investments in both of these forms of human capital are likely to benefit from substantial complementarities. However, in developing countries, poor and creditconstrained households routinely invest less in education and nutrition than is privately or socially optimal. Food for education (FFE) programs, including meals served in school and take-home r...

  11. Does supplementary food program help children during the crisis? Evidence from Indonesian Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Satriawan, Elan

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of supplementary food program that was aimed to help the children to maintain their health when facing the 1997/98 economic crisis in Indonesia. To do so we apply difference-in-difference method for two different kinds of sample: unmatched and matched one. The results from unmatched (using pooled OLS and fixed-effect) and matched (average treatment effect based on propensity scores) tend to be consistent: during 1997/98 crisis, children who were exposed ...

  12. Performance of IPFs after mass privatization process. Evidence from Russian and Czech mass privatization programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Aurelia Bodog

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available IPFs were created to facilitate theownership concentration. Extensive literature pointsout that effective corporate governance needsownership concentration. Vishny and Shleifer (1986,Mc Connell and Servaes (1990, Vishny, Shleifer(1997 find a positive relation between ownershipconcentration and corporate performance in US. Theyall argue that diffuse ownership yields significantpower to managers, whose interests do not coincidewith shareholder’s interests. Consequently, managerscould purse non-value maximizing activities such asself dealing, quiet life or empire building. This paperexamines evidence on IPFs in transitional economiesof Czech Republic and Russia.

  13. Do student loans improve accessibility to higher education and student performance? An impact study of the SOFES program in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Canton; Blom, A.

    2004-01-01

    Financial aid to students in tertiary education can contribute to human capital accumulation through two channels: increased enrolment and improved student performance. We analyse the quantitative importance of both channels in the context of a student loan program (SOFES) implemented at private universities in Mexico. With regard to the first channel, results from the Mexican household survey indicate that financial support has a strongly positive effect on university enrolment. Two data sou...

  14. An Open-Source Sandbox for Increasing the Accessibility of Functional Programming to the Bioinformatics and Scientific Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Matthew; Sesanker, Colbert; Schiller, Martin R; Ellis, Heidi Jc; Hinman, M Lee; Vyas, Jay; Gryk, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Scientists are continually faced with the need to express complex mathematical notions in code. The renaissance of functional languages such as LISP and Haskell is often credited to their ability to implement complex data operations and mathematical constructs in an expressive and natural idiom. The slow adoption of functional computing in the scientific community does not, however, reflect the congeniality of these fields. Unfortunately, the learning curve for adoption of functional programming techniques is steeper than that for more traditional languages in the scientific community, such as Python and Java, and this is partially due to the relative sparseness of available learning resources. To fill this gap, we demonstrate and provide applied, scientifically substantial examples of functional programming, We present a multi-language source-code repository for software integration and algorithm development, which generally focuses on the fields of machine learning, data processing, bioinformatics. We encourage scientists who are interested in learning the basics of functional programming to adopt, reuse, and learn from these examples. The source code is available at: https://github.com/CONNJUR/CONNJUR-Sandbox (see also http://www.connjur.org).

  15. An Open-Source Sandbox for Increasing the Accessibility of Functional Programming to the Bioinformatics and Scientific Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Matthew; Sesanker, Colbert; Schiller, Martin R; Ellis, Heidi Jc; Hinman, M Lee; Vyas, Jay; Gryk, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Scientists are continually faced with the need to express complex mathematical notions in code. The renaissance of functional languages such as LISP and Haskell is often credited to their ability to implement complex data operations and mathematical constructs in an expressive and natural idiom. The slow adoption of functional computing in the scientific community does not, however, reflect the congeniality of these fields. Unfortunately, the learning curve for adoption of functional programming techniques is steeper than that for more traditional languages in the scientific community, such as Python and Java, and this is partially due to the relative sparseness of available learning resources. To fill this gap, we demonstrate and provide applied, scientifically substantial examples of functional programming, We present a multi-language source-code repository for software integration and algorithm development, which generally focuses on the fields of machine learning, data processing, bioinformatics. We encourage scientists who are interested in learning the basics of functional programming to adopt, reuse, and learn from these examples. The source code is available at: https://github.com/CONNJUR/CONNJUR-Sandbox (see also http://www.connjur.org). PMID:25328913

  16. Evidence-based recommendations for the development of obesity prevention programs targeted at preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerbell, C D; Moore, H J; Vögele, C; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Manios, Y; Douthwaite, W; Nixon, C A; Gibson, E L

    2012-03-01

    The ToyBox intervention was developed using an evidence-based approach, using the findings of four reviews. These reviews included three critical and narrative reviews of educational strategies and psychological approaches explaining young children's acquisition and formation of energy-balance related behaviours, and the management of these behaviours, and also a systematic review of behavioural models underpinning school-based interventions in preschool and school settings for the prevention of obesity in children aged 4-6 years. This paper summarises and translates the findings from these reviews into practical evidence based recommendations for researchers and policy-makers to consider when developing and implementing interventions for the prevention of overweight and obesity in young (aged 4-6 years) children. The recommendations focus on two behaviours, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and healthy eating, and include general recommendations, intervention approaches, interventions content, and simple messages. The review also briefly examines the role that the commercial sector plays in hindering or facilitating attempts to create healthy food environments for children. This paper also recognises that childhood obesity is not an issue for the education sector alone; it needs to be tackled at a multi sectoral level, recognizing the particularly important role of local governments, nongovernment organizations and the media.

  17. Access to Risk Mitigating Weather Forecasts and Changes in Farming Operations in East and West Africa: Evidence from a Baseline Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable weather currently ranks among the major challenges facing agricultural development in many African countries. Impact mitigation through access to reliable and timely weather forecasts and other adaptive mechanisms are foremost in Africa’s policy dialogues and socio-economic development agendas. This paper analyzed the factors influencing access to forecasts on incidence of pests/diseases (PD and start of rainfall (SR. The data were collected by Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS and analyzed with Probit regression separately for East Africa, West Africa and the combined dataset. The results show that 62.7% and 56.4% of the farmers from East and West Africa had access to forecasts on start of rainfall, respectively. In addition, 39.3% and 49.4% of the farmers from East Africa indicated that forecasts on outbreak of pests/diseases and start of rainfall were respectively accompanied with advice as against 18.2% and 41.9% for West Africa. Having received forecasts on start of rainfall, 24.0% and 17.6% of the farmers from East and West Africa made decisions on timing of farming activities respectively. Probabilities of having access to forecasts on PD significantly increased with access to formal education, farm income and previous exposure to climatic shocks. Furthermore, probabilities of having access to forecasts on SR significantly increased (p < 0.05 with access to business income, radio and perception of more erratic rainfall, among others. It was recommended that promotion of informal education among illiterate farmers would enhance their climatic resilience, among others.

  18. Optimizing suicide prevention programs and their implementation in Europe (OSPI Europe): an evidence-based multi-level approach.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviour are significant public health issues in Europe requiring effective preventive interventions. However, the evidence for effective preventive strategies is scarce. The protocol of a European research project to develop an optimized evidence based program for suicide prevention is presented. METHOD: The groundwork for this research has been established by a regional community based intervention for suicide prevention that focuses on improving awareness and care for depression performed within the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD). The EAAD intervention consists of (1) training sessions and practice support for primary care physicians,(2) public relations activities and mass media campaigns, (3) training sessions for community facilitators who serve as gatekeepers for depressed and suicidal persons in the community and treatment and (4) outreach and support for high risk and self-help groups (e.g. helplines). The intervention has been shown to be effective in reducing suicidal behaviour in an earlier study, the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression. In the context of the current research project described in this paper (OSPI-Europe) the EAAD model is enhanced by other evidence based interventions and implemented simultaneously and in standardised way in four regions in Ireland, Portugal, Hungary and Germany. The enhanced intervention will be evaluated using a prospective controlled design with the primary outcomes being composite suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal), and with intermediate outcomes being the effect of training programs, changes in public attitudes, guideline-consistent media reporting. In addition an analysis of the economic costs and consequences will be undertaken, while a process evaluation will monitor implementation of the interventions within the different regions with varying organisational and healthcare contexts. DISCUSSION: This multi-centre research seeks to overcome major

  19. Optimizing suicide prevention programs and their implementation in Europe (OSPI-Europe): An evidence-based multi-level approach

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2009-11-23

    Abstract Background Suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviour are significant public health issues in Europe requiring effective preventive interventions. However, the evidence for effective preventive strategies is scarce. The protocol of a European research project to develop an optimized evidence based program for suicide prevention is presented. Method The groundwork for this research has been established by a regional community based intervention for suicide prevention that focuses on improving awareness and care for depression performed within the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD). The EAAD intervention consists of (1) training sessions and practice support for primary care physicians,(2) public relations activities and mass media campaigns, (3) training sessions for community facilitators who serve as gatekeepers for depressed and suicidal persons in the community and treatment and (4) outreach and support for high risk and self-help groups (e.g. helplines). The intervention has been shown to be effective in reducing suicidal behaviour in an earlier study, the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression. In the context of the current research project described in this paper (OSPI-Europe) the EAAD model is enhanced by other evidence based interventions and implemented simultaneously and in standardised way in four regions in Ireland, Portugal, Hungary and Germany. The enhanced intervention will be evaluated using a prospective controlled design with the primary outcomes being composite suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal), and with intermediate outcomes being the effect of training programs, changes in public attitudes, guideline-consistent media reporting. In addition an analysis of the economic costs and consequences will be undertaken, while a process evaluation will monitor implementation of the interventions within the different regions with varying organisational and healthcare contexts. Discussion This multi-centre research seeks to overcome major

  20. Optimizing Suicide Prevention Programs and Their Implementation in Europe (OSPI Europe: an evidence-based multi-level approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Margaret

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviour are significant public health issues in Europe requiring effective preventive interventions. However, the evidence for effective preventive strategies is scarce. The protocol of a European research project to develop an optimized evidence based program for suicide prevention is presented. Method The groundwork for this research has been established by a regional community based intervention for suicide prevention that focuses on improving awareness and care for depression performed within the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD. The EAAD intervention consists of (1 training sessions and practice support for primary care physicians,(2 public relations activities and mass media campaigns, (3 training sessions for community facilitators who serve as gatekeepers for depressed and suicidal persons in the community and treatment and (4 outreach and support for high risk and self-help groups (e.g. helplines. The intervention has been shown to be effective in reducing suicidal behaviour in an earlier study, the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression. In the context of the current research project described in this paper (OSPI-Europe the EAAD model is enhanced by other evidence based interventions and implemented simultaneously and in standardised way in four regions in Ireland, Portugal, Hungary and Germany. The enhanced intervention will be evaluated using a prospective controlled design with the primary outcomes being composite suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal, and with intermediate outcomes being the effect of training programs, changes in public attitudes, guideline-consistent media reporting. In addition an analysis of the economic costs and consequences will be undertaken, while a process evaluation will monitor implementation of the interventions within the different regions with varying organisational and healthcare contexts. Discussion This multi-centre research seeks to

  1. Urban fertility responses to local government programs: Evidence from the 1923-1932 U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Fox

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the 1920s and early 1930s, U.S. fertility declined overall but with large regional variations. Changes in foreign born populations explain only part of this. Differences in public health and poverty relief programs may further help explain these declines because of their potential impact on fertility determinants, in particular on breastfeeding and child mortality. Objective: We investigate whether public health investments in child health (conservation of child life programs and poverty relief (outdoor care of poor or charity for children and mothers affected fertility for U.S. cities over 100,000 persons between 1923 and 1932. Methods: We analyze data covering 64 cities between 1923-1932 that include birth information from the U.S. Birth, Stillbirth and Infant Mortality Statistics volumes and city financial information from the Financial Statistics of Cities volumes. Time and city fixed-effects models are used to identify the impact of public investments on fertility. Results: Fixed effects estimates indicating the conservation of child life programs explain about 10 percent of the fertility change between 1923 and 1932. Outdoor care of poor did not seem to be related to fertility. Investments in charity for children and mothers were associated with fertility increases, possibly because poorer areas experienced relative increases in both higher fertility and charitable spending. Conclusions: Public spending on child health was strongly related to decreasing fertility in the U.S. during the 1920s, possibly because of increased breastfeeding and decreased child mortality. This leads to a better understanding of the 1920s fertility decline and highlights how public policy may affect fertility.

  2. Immigrant Networks and the Take-Up of Disability Programs: Evidence from US Census Data

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, Delia; Theodoropoulos, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the role of ethnic networks in disability program take-up among working-age immigrants in the United States. We find that even when controlling for country of origin and area of residence fixed effects, immigrants residing amidst a large number of co-ethnics are more likely to receive disability payments when their ethnic groups have higher take-up rates. Although this pattern can be partially explained by cross-group differences in satisfying the work history or income an...

  3. Can an evidence-based fall prevention program be translated for use in culturally diverse communities?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Older adult falls are a significant public health problem,but one that is amenable to preventive interventions.1,2 Despite the progress made in identifying risk factors,developing efficacious health-related interventions,and promoting evidencebased programs in the community,much work remains before these strategies are broadly available and effectively used to reduce fall-related injuries.3 As Newton and ScottFindlay4 have pointed out,the translation of basic scientific knowledge into clinical studies,and the transformation of clinical studies into improvements in health services and public health practices,remain major obstacles to widespread adoption.

  4. The Repeated School-to-Work Transition: Evidence from a Dynamic Programming Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    In continental Europe, high school graduates often interrupt their educational career before entering further education. This behavior incurs substantial cost on the youths and on society in particular. The focus of this paper is the choice between school and joining the labor force, which is faced...... by youths after high school graduation. It is assumed that the decision is taken year by year, and it is analyzed in a discrete choice dynamic programming model. In this forward-looking behavioral model, it is shown that a small bonus would remove interruptions of the educational careers just after high...... school....

  5. Clinical metric and medication persistency effects: evidence from a Medicaid care management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gregory D; Leary, Fredric; Medina, Wendie; Donnelly, Shawn; Warnick, Kathleen

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to estimate clinical metric and medication persistency impacts of a care management program. The data sources were Medicaid administrative claims for a sample population of 32,334 noninstitutionalized Medicaid-only aged, blind, or disabled patients with diagnosed conditions of asthma, coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, or heart failure between 2005 and 2009. Multivariate regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that exposure to a care management intervention increased the likelihood of having the appropriate medication or procedures performed, as well as increased medication persistency. Statistically significant clinical metric improvements occurred in each of the 5 conditions studied. Increased medication persistency was found for beta-blocker medication for members with coronary artery disease, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker and diuretic medications for members with heart failure, bronchodilator and corticosteroid medications for members with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and aspirin/antiplatelet medications for members with diabetes. This study demonstrates that a care management program increases the likelihood of having an appropriate medication dispensed and/or an appropriate clinical test performed, as well as increased likelihood of medication persistency, in people with chronic conditions.

  6. Development of an Evidence-Based Sport Psychological Training Program for Young Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael

    Sport psychological training seems to be a viable way of facilitating development and performance for adult athletes, and even though sport psychological training for young athletes is less investigated, research indicates that talented athletes can benefit from sport psychological training as well....... The aim of this thesis is to review and add to the current knowledge on sport psychologicaltraining for young elite athletes, and to investigate sport psychological interventions for young elite athletes. This will aid the development of sport psychological training programs for young elite athletes.......This thesis investigates sport psychological training for young elite athletes through two approaches. First, three reviews are performed: a review of psychological skills and characteristics needed for successful talent development, a review of current talent development theories and models, and a review...

  7. Evidence of programmed cell death during microsporogenesis in an interspecific Brachiaria (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzinatto, V A; Pagliarini, M S; Valle, C B

    2007-05-11

    Morphological changes have been investigated during plant programmed cell death (PCD) in the last few years due to the new interest in a possible apoptotic-like phenomenon existing in plants. Although PCD has been reported in several tissues and specialized cells in plants, there have been few reports of its occurrence during microsporogenesis. The present study reports a typical process of PCD during meiosis in an interspecific Brachiaria hybrid leading to male sterility. In this hybrid, some inflorescences initiated meiosis but it was arrested in zygotene/pachytene. From this stage, meiocytes underwent a severe alteration in shape showing substantial membrane blebbing; the cytoplasm became denser at the periphery; the cell nucleus entered a progressive stage of chromatin disintegration, and then the nucleolus disintegrated, and the cytoplasm condensed and shrunk. The oldest flowers of the raceme showed only the callose wall in the anthers showing obvious signs of complete sterility.

  8. Livelihoods, conflict and aid programming: is the evidence base good enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Richard; Slater, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    In conflict-affected situations, aid-funded livelihood interventions are often tasked with a dual imperative: to generate material welfare benefits and to contribute to peacebuilding outcomes. There may be some logic to such a transformative agenda, but does the reality square with the rhetoric? Through a review of the effectiveness of a range of livelihood promotion interventions--from job creation to microfinance--this paper finds that high quality empirical evidence is hard to come by in conflict-affected situations. Many evaluations appear to conflate outputs with impacts and numerous studies fail to include adequate information on their methodologies and datasets, making it difficult to appraise the reliability of their conclusions. Given the primary purpose of this literature--to provide policy guidance on effective ways to promote livelihoods--this silence is particularly concerning. As such, there is a strong case to be made for a restrained and nuanced handling of such interventions in conflict-affected settings. PMID:26282061

  9. Evidence of a limited visuo-motor memory used in programming wrist movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miall, R C; Haggard, P N; Cole, J D

    1995-01-01

    Human subjects can pre-program movements on the basis of visual cues. Experience in a particular task leads to the storage of appropriate control parameters which are used in programming subsequent movements, via a short-term motor memory. The form, duration and usage of this memory are, however, uncertain. Repetitive wrist flexion and extension movements were measured in four subjects. Three were neurologically normal men; the fourth subject had a peripheral large-fibre sensory neuropathy, depriving him of proprioceptive information about wrist movement. Subjects made alternating 45 degrees wrist movements between two visual targets; visual feedback of wrist position was provided for the first part of each trial. After 10 s of tracking, the subjects paused for an interval of 0-24 s before resuming tracking without visual feedback of wrist position. The positional accuracy of subsequent movements was analysed with respect to pause interval. Movement accuracy was reduced by the removal of visual feedback in all four subjects: movements after the pause interval were less accurate than those before the pause. Errors also accumulated within each sequence of movements made without visual feedback. Analysis of the first movement in each trial after the pause indicated a clear relationship between movement accuracy and pause interval. In all four subjects, movement accuracy decayed with longer pause intervals. In the deafferented subject, manipulation of the visual inputs (requiring visual fixation, rather than normal pursuit of the target; or direct viewing of the hand instead of viewing a cursor on a computer screen) affected the relationship between pause interval and subsequent movement accuracy. We propose that the memory used when producing these movements is a short-lasting visuo-motor signal, lasting a few seconds, which is derived from visual knowledge of previous movements, rather than a memory of a particular motor output. This visuo-motor signal is used to

  10. The effect of drug vintage on survival: micro evidence from Puerto Rico's Medicaid program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Frank R

    2010-01-01

    Using micro data on virtually all of the drugs and diseases of over 500,000 people enrolled in Puerto Rico's Medicaid program, the impact of the vintage (original FDA approval year) of drugs used to treat a patient on the patient's three-year probability of survival, controlling for demographic characteristics (age, sex, and region), utilization of medical services, and the nature and complexity of illness are examined. It is found that people using newer drugs during January-June, 2000, were less likely to die by the end of 2002, conditional on the covariates. The estimated mortality rates are strictly declining with respect to drug vintage. For pre-1970 drugs, the estimated mortality rate is 4.4%. The mortality rates for 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s drugs are 3.6%, 3.0%, and 2.5%, respectively. The actual mortality rate is about 16% (3.7% vs. 4.4%) lower than it would have been if all of the drugs utilized in 2000 had been pre-1970 drugs. Estimates for subgroups of people with specific diseases display the same general pattern.

  11. Implementing evidence-based interventions in health care: application of the replicating effective programs framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pincus Harold A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the use of a conceptual framework and implementation protocol to prepare effective health services interventions for implementation in community-based (i.e., non-academic-affiliated settings. Methods The framework is based on the experiences of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC Replicating Effective Programs (REP project, which has been at the forefront of developing systematic and effective strategies to prepare HIV interventions for dissemination. This article describes the REP framework, and how it can be applied to implement clinical and health services interventions in community-based organizations. Results REP consists of four phases: pre-conditions (e.g., identifying need, target population, and suitable intervention, pre-implementation (e.g., intervention packaging and community input, implementation (e.g., package dissemination, training, technical assistance, and evaluation, and maintenance and evolution (e.g., preparing the intervention for sustainability. Key components of REP, including intervention packaging, training, technical assistance, and fidelity assessment are crucial to the implementation of effective interventions in health care. Conclusion REP is a well-suited framework for implementing health care interventions, as it specifies steps needed to maximize fidelity while allowing opportunities for flexibility (i.e., local customizing to maximize transferability. Strategies that foster the sustainability of REP as a tool to implement effective health care interventions need to be developed and tested.

  12. Evidence of Sperm Storage in Nursehound (Scyliorhinus stellaris, Linnaeus 1758: Juveniles Husbandry and Tagging Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Micarelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nursehound, Scyliorhinus stellaris (Linnaeus 1758, is a shark of the Scyliorhinidae family, close to the Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus 1758, frequently hosted in public aquaria. Information on biology and ecology is deficiently available regarding this species of sharks. In the Mediterranean basin, they are occasional rare and vulnerable species (Serena, 2005. In 2003 a female specimen of Scyliorhinus stellaris, 90 cm long, fished in the Tyrrhenian Sea was transferred to Tuscany Argentario Mediterranean Aquarium and placed in a 20.000 L tank. The female laid 42 eggs and juveniles were born on 2004 and 2005. They were transferred to the aquarium laboratory in order to get standard protocol for correct juveniles husbandry. After a total of 18-month observations, some of them were tagged and let free on 2006. To collect data about nursehound shark needs in terms of feeding and growing in captivity, especially during the first life years, is a necessary and fundamental step in order to develop a Mediterranean program of tagging and study in the field of conservation policy proposal. Husbandry protocol for this species’ juveniles was developed in this study. This is the first reported case of a nursehound storing sperm for 2 years, in captivity (Pratt, 1993; Hamlett et al., 2002; Awruch, 2007.

  13. A multi-level examination of how the organizational context relates to readiness to implement prevention and evidence-based programming in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilenski, Sarah M; Olson, Jonathan R; Schulte, Jill A; Perkins, Daniel F; Spoth, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Prior theoretical and empirical research suggests that multiple aspects of an organization's context are likely related to a number of factors, from their interest and ability to adopt new programming, to client outcomes. A limited amount of the prior research has taken a more community-wide perspective by examining factors that associate with community readiness for change, leaving how these findings generalize to community organizations that conduct prevention or positive youth development programs unknown. Thus for the current study, we examined how the organizational context of the Cooperative Extension System (CES) associates with current attitudes and practices regarding prevention and evidence-based programming. Attitudes and practices have been found in the empirical literature to be key indicators of an organization's readiness to adopt prevention and evidence-based programming. Based on multi-level mixed models, results indicate that organizational management practices distinct from program delivery may affect an organization's readiness to adopt and implement new prevention and evidence-based youth programs, thereby limiting the potential public health impact of evidence-based programs. Openness to change, openness of leadership, and communication were the strongest predictors identified within this study. An organization's morale was also found to be a strong predictor of an organization's readiness. The findings of the current study are discussed in terms of implications for prevention and intervention.

  14. A multi-level examination of how the organizational context relates to readiness to implement prevention and evidence-based programming in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilenski, Sarah M; Olson, Jonathan R; Schulte, Jill A; Perkins, Daniel F; Spoth, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Prior theoretical and empirical research suggests that multiple aspects of an organization's context are likely related to a number of factors, from their interest and ability to adopt new programming, to client outcomes. A limited amount of the prior research has taken a more community-wide perspective by examining factors that associate with community readiness for change, leaving how these findings generalize to community organizations that conduct prevention or positive youth development programs unknown. Thus for the current study, we examined how the organizational context of the Cooperative Extension System (CES) associates with current attitudes and practices regarding prevention and evidence-based programming. Attitudes and practices have been found in the empirical literature to be key indicators of an organization's readiness to adopt prevention and evidence-based programming. Based on multi-level mixed models, results indicate that organizational management practices distinct from program delivery may affect an organization's readiness to adopt and implement new prevention and evidence-based youth programs, thereby limiting the potential public health impact of evidence-based programs. Openness to change, openness of leadership, and communication were the strongest predictors identified within this study. An organization's morale was also found to be a strong predictor of an organization's readiness. The findings of the current study are discussed in terms of implications for prevention and intervention. PMID:25463014

  15. UNAM Scientific Drilling Program of Chicxulub Impact Structure-Evidence for a 300 kilometer crater diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Marin, L.; Trejo-Garcia, A.

    As part of the UNAM drilling program at the Chicxulub structure, two 700 m deep continuously cored boreholes were completed between April and July, 1995. The Peto UNAM-6 and Tekax UNAM-7 drilling sites are ˜150 km and 125 km, respectively, SSE of Chicxulub Puerto, near the crater's center. Core samples from both sites show a sequence of post-crater carbonates on top of a thick impact breccia pile covering the disturbed Mesozoic platform rocks. At UNAM-7, two impact breccia units were encountered: (1) an upper breccia, mean magnetic susceptibility is high (˜55 × 10-6 SI units), indicating a large component of silicate basement has been incorporated into this breccia, and (2) an evaporite-rich, low susceptibility impact breccia similar in character to the evaporite-rich breccias observed at the PEMEX drill sites further out. The upper breccia was encountered at ˜226 m below the surface and is ˜125 m thick; the lower breccia is immediately subjacent and is >240 m thick. This two-breccia sequence is typical of the suevite-Bunte breccia sequence found within other well preserved impact craters. The suevitic upper unit is not present at UNAM-6. Instead, a >240 m thick evaporite-rich breccia unit, similar to the lower breccia at UNAM-7, was encountered at a depth of ˜280 m. The absence of an upper breccia equivalent at UNAM-6 suggests some portion of the breccia sequence has been removed by erosion. This is consistent with interpretations that place the high-standing crater rim at 130-150 km from the center. Consequently, the stratigraphic observations and magnetic susceptibiity records on the upper and lower breccias (depth and thickness) support a ˜300 km diameter crater model.

  16. Music training improves speech-in-noise perception: Longitudinal evidence from a community-based music program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Skoe, Erika; Strait, Dana L; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2015-09-15

    Music training may strengthen auditory skills that help children not only in musical performance but in everyday communication. Comparisons of musicians and non-musicians across the lifespan have provided some evidence for a "musician advantage" in understanding speech in noise, although reports have been mixed. Controlled longitudinal studies are essential to disentangle effects of training from pre-existing differences, and to determine how much music training is necessary to confer benefits. We followed a cohort of elementary school children for 2 years, assessing their ability to perceive speech in noise before and after musical training. After the initial assessment, participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: one group began music training right away and completed 2 years of training, while the second group waited a year and then received 1 year of music training. Outcomes provide the first longitudinal evidence that speech-in-noise perception improves after 2 years of group music training. The children were enrolled in an established and successful community-based music program and followed the standard curriculum, therefore these findings provide an important link between laboratory-based research and real-world assessment of the impact of music training on everyday communication skills.

  17. Evidence-based medication adherence in Hispanic patients with systolic heart failure in a disease management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Kathy; Beltran, Julieta; Tamariz, Leonardo; Julian, Elyse; Dias, Andre; Trahan, Pat; Arcement, Lee

    2010-01-01

    The Hispanic population is the fastest growing minority in the United States, yet there is a paucity of data regarding patient follow-up in heart failure disease management programs (HFDMPs) and evidence-based medication adherence. The purpose of this study is to measure the compliance of evidence-based medication use, specifically measuring angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and beta-blockers (BBs) in the Hispanic population, and compare these data to the white and black population. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of 561 patients enrolled in an HFDMP at Jackson Medical Hospital in Miami, Florida. At the first visit, 82% of Hispanic, 75% of white, and 79% of black patients were taking ACEIs/ARBs, but only 21% of Hispanic, 35% of white, and 32% of black patients were taking target doses. Hispanic patients are as compliant with ACEI/ARB and BB regimens as are the white and black populations in HFDMPs in a setting of similar socioeconomic features.

  18. Music training improves speech-in-noise perception: Longitudinal evidence from a community-based music program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Skoe, Erika; Strait, Dana L; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2015-09-15

    Music training may strengthen auditory skills that help children not only in musical performance but in everyday communication. Comparisons of musicians and non-musicians across the lifespan have provided some evidence for a "musician advantage" in understanding speech in noise, although reports have been mixed. Controlled longitudinal studies are essential to disentangle effects of training from pre-existing differences, and to determine how much music training is necessary to confer benefits. We followed a cohort of elementary school children for 2 years, assessing their ability to perceive speech in noise before and after musical training. After the initial assessment, participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: one group began music training right away and completed 2 years of training, while the second group waited a year and then received 1 year of music training. Outcomes provide the first longitudinal evidence that speech-in-noise perception improves after 2 years of group music training. The children were enrolled in an established and successful community-based music program and followed the standard curriculum, therefore these findings provide an important link between laboratory-based research and real-world assessment of the impact of music training on everyday communication skills. PMID:26005127

  19. The impact of improved access to market information through mobile phones usage on selling prices: Evidence from rural areas in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Daichi Shimamoto; Hiroyuki Yamada; Martin Gummert

    2014-01-01

    Monopsony is often observed in local agricultural markets in developing countries because of the high entry cost to buyers; farmers in such markets therefore sell their agricultural products at a lower price. However, this situation seems to be changing with the diffusion of mobile phones. This paper investigates how access to market information through mobile phone usage impacts the selling price of rice in rural areas in Cambodia. We conducted a survey of farmers f households concerning agr...

  20. A Levels-of-Evidence Approach for Assessing Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Estuary and River Restoration Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Vogt, Kristiina A.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Dawley, Earl

    2011-03-01

    Even though large-scale ecological restoration programs are beginning to supplement isolated projects implemented on rivers and tidal waterways, the effects of restoration success often continue to be evaluated at project scales or by integration in an additive manner. Today our scientific understanding is sufficient that we can begin to apply lessons learnt from assessing cumulative impacts of anthropogenic stressors on ecosystems to the assessment of ecological restoration. Integration of this knowledge has the potential to increase the efficacy of restoration projects conducted at several locations but co-managed within the confines of a larger integrative program. We introduce here a framework based on a levels-of-evidence approach that facilitates assessment of the cumulative landscape effects of individual restoration actions taken at many different locations. It incorporates data collection at restoration and reference sites, hydrodynamic modeling, geographic information systems, and meta-analyses in a five-stage process: design, data, analysis, synthesis and evaluation, and application. This framework evolved from the need to evaluate the efficacy of restoration projects designed to increase rearing habitat for outmigrating juvenile salmonids, which are being implemented in numerous wetlands on the 235-km tidal portion of the Columbia River, U.S.A.

  1. Evidence-based intervention against bullying and cyberbullying: Evaluation of the NoTrap! program in two independent trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Benedetta E; Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia

    2016-01-01

    The NoTrap! (Noncadiamointrappola!) program is a school-based intervention, which utilizes a peer-led approach to prevent and combat both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the third Edition of the program in accordance with the recent criteria for evidence-based interventions. Towards this aim, two quasi-experimental trials involving adolescents (age M = 14.91, SD = .98) attending their first year at different high schools were conducted. In Trial 1 (control group, n = 171; experimental group, n = 451), latent growth curve models for data from pre-, middle- and post-tests showed that intervention significantly predicted change over time in all the target variables (victimization, bullying, cybervictimization, and cyberbullying). Specifically, target variables were stable for the control group but decreased significantly over time for the experimental group. Long-term effects at the follow up 6 months later were also found. In Trial 2 (control group, n = 227; experimental group, n = 234), the moderating effect of gender was examined and there was a reported decrease in bullying and cyberbullying over time (pre- and post-test) in the experimental group but not the control group, and this decrease was similar for boys and girls.

  2. Evidence-based intervention against bullying and cyberbullying: Evaluation of the NoTrap! program in two independent trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Benedetta E; Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia

    2016-01-01

    The NoTrap! (Noncadiamointrappola!) program is a school-based intervention, which utilizes a peer-led approach to prevent and combat both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the third Edition of the program in accordance with the recent criteria for evidence-based interventions. Towards this aim, two quasi-experimental trials involving adolescents (age M = 14.91, SD = .98) attending their first year at different high schools were conducted. In Trial 1 (control group, n = 171; experimental group, n = 451), latent growth curve models for data from pre-, middle- and post-tests showed that intervention significantly predicted change over time in all the target variables (victimization, bullying, cybervictimization, and cyberbullying). Specifically, target variables were stable for the control group but decreased significantly over time for the experimental group. Long-term effects at the follow up 6 months later were also found. In Trial 2 (control group, n = 227; experimental group, n = 234), the moderating effect of gender was examined and there was a reported decrease in bullying and cyberbullying over time (pre- and post-test) in the experimental group but not the control group, and this decrease was similar for boys and girls. PMID:26879897

  3. Access to International Funds and the Boom in Mexico after the Tequila Crisis: Is There Any Evidence from the Companies Quoted in the NYSE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Boye

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present paper is to test the hypothesis that the Mexican economic boom of the second half of the 90s –which coincided with a post-Tequila credit crunch crisis– can be explained by Mexican firms with access to international financial markets financing their productive investments through international funds. Using a panel of Mexican firms quoted at the NYSE, we show that they neither significantly boosted their productive investments after the Tequila crisis nor relied on external funds.

  4. Do diagnosis delays impact receipt of test results? Evidence from the HIV early infant diagnosis program in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Latigo Mugambi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is scant evidence on the association between diagnosis delays and the receipt of test results in HIV Early Infant Diagnosis (EID programs. We determine the association between diagnosis delays and other health care system and patient factors on result receipt. METHODS: We reviewed 703 infant HIV test records for tests performed between January 2008 and February 2009 at a regional referral hospital and level four health center in Uganda. The main outcome was caregiver receipt of the test result. The primary study variable was turnaround time (time between sample collection and result availability at the health facility. Additional variables included clinic entry point, infant age at sample collection, reported HIV status and receipt of antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We conducted a pooled analysis in addition to separate analyses for each facility. We estimated the relative risk of result receipt using modified Poisson regression with robust standard errors. RESULTS: Overall, the median result turnaround time, was 38 days. 59% of caregivers received infant test results. Caregivers were less likely to receive results at turnaround times greater than 49 days compared to 28 days or fewer (ARR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.70-0.98. Caregivers were more likely to receive results at the PMTCT clinic (ARR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.40-2.33 and less likely at the pediatric ward (ARR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.37-0.81 compared to the immunization clinic. At the level four health center, result receipt was half as likely among infants older than 9 months compared to 3 months and younger (ARR= 0.47; 95% CI = 0.25-0.93. CONCLUSION: In this study setting, we find evidence that longer turnaround times, clinic entry point and age at sample collection may be associated with receipt of infant HIV test results.

  5. Follow-up for cervical cancer: a Program in Evidence-Based Care systematic review and clinical practice guideline update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elit, L.; Kennedy, E.B.; Fyles, A.; Metser, U.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2009, the Program in Evidence-based Care (pebc) of Cancer Care Ontario published a guideline on the follow-up of cervical cancer. In 2014, the pebc undertook an update of the systematic review and clinical practice guideline for women in this target population. Methods The literature from 2007 to August 2014 was searched using medline and embase [extended to 2000 for studies of human papillomavirus (hpv) dna testing]. Outcomes of interest were measures of survival, diagnostic accuracy, and quality of life. A working group evaluated the need for changes to the earlier guidelines and incorporated comments and feedback from internal and external reviewers. Results One systematic review and six individual studies were included. The working group concluded that the new evidence did not warrant changes to the 2009 recommendations, although hpv dna testing was added as a potentially more sensitive method of detecting recurrence in patients treated with radiotherapy. Comments from internal and external reviewers were incorporated. Recommendations Summary Follow-up care after primary treatment should be conducted and coordinated by a physician experienced in the surveillance of cancer patients. A reasonable follow-up strategy involves visits every 3–4 months within the first 2 years, and every 6–12 months during years 3–5. Visits should include a patient history and complete physical examination, with elicitation of relevant symptoms. Vaginal vault cytology examination should not be performed more frequently than annually. Combined positron-emission tomography and computed tomography, other imaging, and biomarker evaluation are not advocated; hpv dna testing could be useful as a method of detection of recurrence after radiotherapy. General recommendations for follow-up after 5 years are also provided. PMID:27122975

  6. The American Geological Institute Minority Participation Program (MPP): Thirty Years of Improving Access to Opportunities in the Geosciences Through Undergraduate and Graduate Scholarships for Underrepresented Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, C. N.; Byerly, G. R.; Smith, M. J.

    2001-05-01

    are used to gauge the needs of the scholar, and to access the success of the overall program. The MPP Advisory Committee aims to match the profession of the mentor with the scholar's academic interest. Throughout the year, mentors and scholars communicate about possible opportunities in the geosciences such as internships, participation in symposia, professional society meetings, and job openings. Mentors have also been active in helping younger students cope with the major changes involved in relocating to a new region of the country or a new college culture. We believe that AGI is well positioned to advance diversity in the geosciences through its unique standing as the major professional organization in the geosciences. AGI maintains strong links to its professional Member Societies, state and federal agencies and funding programs, many with distinctive programs in the geoscience education. AGI Corporate Associates have consistently pledged to support diversity issues in geoscience education. Current plans include seeking funding for 48 undergraduate awards at \\2500 each and \\24,000 to support undergraduate travel to professional meetings. We also expect to increase the size of our graduate scholarship program to 30 students and raise an additional \\$30,000 to support graduate travel to professional meetings.

  7. Access to effective healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Access to effective healthcare is in particular challenging for vulnerable and socially disadvantaged patients. Patients with chronic conditions are over-represented in these lower socioeconomic (LSES) groups. No generic review integrating the evidence on Self-Management support interventions in ...

  8. 我国反兴奋剂教育资格准人制度%Anti-Doping Education Qualification Access Control Program in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珂珂; 栾兆倩

    2012-01-01

    Anti-Doping Education Qualification Access Control Program is an important educational approach. It requests that all athletes have to learn about anti-doping knowledge, pass anti-doping examination, sign anti-doping agreement and take vows against doping. The system is prevention beforehand, and echoes the principle of "taking prevention as the aim and education as the method". It has been proven to be effective and is applauded by athletes and their entourages.%使用兴奋剂不仅危害运动员的身心健康。而且破坏公平竞争的体育精神,甚至严重损害国家形象和荣誉。为积极预防兴奋剂问题的发生。使反兴奋剂教育和管理工作落到实处。我国在反兴奋剂宣传教育工作中,不断加强教育力度,创新教育手段和方式,拓展教育的广度和深度,提高教育的成效。在工作过程中,逐渐形成了一些常规做法,

  9. Access Denied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  10. Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community College Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Includes a collection of eight short articles describing model community college programs. Discusses a literacy program, a mobile computer classroom, a support program for at-risk students, a timber-harvesting program, a multimedia presentation on successful women graduates, a career center, a collaboration with NASA, and an Israeli engineering…

  11. Access to enterntainment and information programming for the crew as part of the communication system of future Mars mission or Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    In recent years the improtance of the psychologic conditions of the cure of a long- term Mars expedition (or a Lunar Base) is becoming a crucial factor concerning the success of such mission. The 500-day stay on Mars will be the longest planetary surface exploration opportunity ever experienced. [1] Manned planetary missions so far had no such long term isolation from the our cultural environment (or "bubble"), and cosmo - and astronauts consumed mostly recorded materials for enterntainment which will not be sufficent for such mission. The closest analogy for such a long-term isolation of a relatively small group of people is the situation at military bases or the American (or other) pioneer settlers. Both American and British Army uses an extensive enternatinment and information media network - both radio and TV - which provides programs for their personell in places which are out of the reach of their home media services but usually inside an other cultural environment. For a mission with a long duration (months or years), where the crew is absolutely cut off from Earth media and news (incl. politics, culture, music etc), especially for the flight time, it is important to create a special "buquet" of programs that keeps the crew inside the Earth cultural environment. In this paper I will discuss the technical requirements for the uplink to a Martian mission on the way to and from and on the surface of Mars, and the questions of optimal programming to such a mission, using the experiences from military media. The psychological problems encountered in space has been analyzed in great detail. [2] Kass and Kass list 28 such problems. Access to Earth mass media or quasi-live enterntainment and informational channel can help in solving the followings [from 3]: setting in of boredom and demoralisation; missing your own language - not fully fluent in the common language; lack of information sharing; confinement and isolation. A general homesickness would probably be an

  12. A clinical education program for speech-language pathologists applying reflective practice, evidence-based practice and case-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilijson, Sara; Katzenberger, Irit

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive clinical education program for speech-language pathology students while considering the learning process and gradual acquisition of knowledge and skills for becoming a practicing speech-language pathologist. It describes the clinical speech and language education program for speech-language pathology students at Hadassah Academic College Jerusalem (HAC) based on three facets of learning: reflective practice, evidence-based practice and case-based learning. Also described are the choice of the model of learning and its implementation. The clinical education program presented reflects the professional development of the faculty at HAC as well as recent trends in clinical education methods. PMID:25790922

  13. Evidence of the thermo-electric Thomson effect and influence on the program conditions and cell optimization in phase-change memory cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, D.T.; Goux, L.; Hurkx, G.A.M.; Attenborough, K.; Delhounge, R.; Lisoni, J.; Jedema, F.J.; Zandt, in 't M.A.A.; Wolters, R.A.M.; Gravesteijn, D.J.; Verheijen, M.; Kaiser, M.; Weemaes, R.G.R.

    2007-01-01

    We present physical and electrical evidence of the Thomson thermo-electric effect in line-type phase-change memory cells. This causes a shift of the molten zone during RESET programming towards the anode contact, and as a consequence the phase change material (PCM) design at the contact area has a s

  14. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Commitment Concerning Evidence-Based Prevention Programs: Differences between Family and Consumer Sciences and 4-H Youth Development Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Olson, Jonathan R.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the results of a study designed to assess knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards evidence-based and other prevention programs among county Extension educators. We examined differences across educators from Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) and 4-H Youth Development. Analyses based on a multi-state sample of educators revealed…

  15. Characteristics and Determinants of Teacher-Designed Pay for Performance Plans: Evidence from Texas' Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) Program. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Characteristics and Determinants of Teacher-Designed Pay for Performance Plans: Evidence from Texas' Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) Program"--a paper presented at the February 2008 National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference--Lori Taylor, Matthew Springer, and Mark Ehlert describe the teacher pay for…

  16. Distinct loci of lexical and semantic access deficits in aphasia: Evidence from voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Denise Y; Schnur, Tatiana T

    2015-06-01

    Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category negatively affects language production and comprehension. By most accounts, semantic interference arises when accessing lexical representations in naming (e.g., Damian, Vigliocco, & Levelt, 2001) and semantic representations in comprehension (e.g., Forde & Humphreys, 1997). Further, damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), a region implicated in cognitive control, results in increasing semantic interference when items repeat across cycles in both language production and comprehension (Jefferies, Baker, Doran, & Lambon Ralph, 2007). This generates the prediction that the LIFG via white matter connections supports resolution of semantic interference arising from different loci (lexical vs semantic) in the temporal lobe. However, it remains unclear whether the cognitive and neural mechanisms that resolve semantic interference are the same across tasks. Thus, we examined which gray matter structures [using whole brain and region of interest (ROI) approaches] and white matter connections (using deterministic tractography) when damaged impact semantic interference and its increase across cycles when repeatedly producing and understanding words in 15 speakers with varying lexical-semantic deficits from left hemisphere stroke. We found that damage to distinct brain regions, the posterior versus anterior temporal lobe, was associated with semantic interference (collapsed across cycles) in naming and comprehension, respectively. Further, those with LIFG damage compared to those without exhibited marginally larger increases in semantic interference across cycles in naming but not comprehension. Lastly, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, connecting the LIFG with posterior temporal lobe, related to semantic interference in naming, whereas the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), connecting posterior with anterior temporal regions related to semantic interference in

  17. Final Results of the Telaprevir Access Program: FibroScan Values Predict Safety and Efficacy in Hepatitis C Patients with Advanced Fibrosis or Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepida, Antonia; Colombo, Massimo; Fernandez, Inmaculada; Abdurakhmanov, Djamal; Abrao Ferreira, Paulo; Strasser, Simone I.; Urbanek, Petr; Mangia, Alessandra; Calleja, José L.; Iraqi, Wafae; DeMasi, Ralph; Lonjon-Domanec, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Liver stiffness determined by transient elastography is correlated with hepatic fibrosis stage and has high accuracy for detecting severe fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C patients. We evaluated the clinical value of baseline FibroScan values for the prediction of safety and efficacy of telaprevir-based therapy in patients with advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis in the telaprevir Early Access Program HEP3002. Methods 1,772 patients with HCV-1 and bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis were treated with telaprevir plus pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PR) for 12 weeks followed by PR alone, the total treatment duration depending on virological response and previous response type. Liver fibrosis stage was determined either by liver biopsy or by non-invasive markers. 1,282 patients (72%) had disease stage assessed by FibroScan; among those 46% were classified as Metavir F3 at baseline and 54% as F4. Results Overall, 1,139 patients (64%) achieved a sustained virological response (SVR) by intention-to-treat analysis. Baseline FibroScan values were tested for association with SVR and the occurrence of adverse events. By univariate analysis, higher baseline FibroScan values were predictive of lower sustained virological response rates and treatment-related anemia. By multivariate analysis, FibroScan was no longer statistically significant as an independent predictor, but higher FibroScan values were correlated with the occurrence of infections and serious adverse events. Conclusions FibroScan has a limited utility as a predictor of safety and efficacy in patients treated with telaprevir-based triple therapy. Nevertheless it can be used in association with other clinical and biological parameters to help determine patients who will benefit from the triple regiments. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01508286 PMID:26398503

  18. Validation of Islet Transport From a Geographically Distant Isolation Center Enabling Equitable Access and National Health Service Funding of a Clinical Islet Transplant Program for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldibbiat, Ali; Huang, Guo Cai; Zhao, Min; Holliman, Graham N; Ferguson, Linda; Hughes, Stephen; Brigham, Ken; Wardle, Julie; Williams, Rob; Dickinson, Anne; White, Steven A; Johnson, Paul R V; Manas, Derek; Amiel, Stephanie A; Shaw, James A M

    2012-01-01

    Islet transplantation has become established as a successful treatment for type 1 diabetes complicated by recurrent severe hypoglycemia. In the UK access has been limited to a few centrally located units. Our goal was to validate a quality-assured system for safe/effective transport of human islets in the UK and to successfully undertake the first transplants with transported islets. Pancreases were retrieved from deceased donors in the north of England and transported to King's College London using two-layer method (TLM) or University of Wisconsin solution alone. Islets were isolated and transported back to Newcastle in standard blood transfusion or gas-permeable bags with detailed evaluation pre- and posttransport. In the preclinical phase, islets were isolated from 10 pancreases with mean yield of 258,000 islet equivalents. No significant differences were seen between TLM and University of Wisconsin solution organ preservation. A significant loss of integrity was demonstrated in islets shipped in gas-permeable bags, whereas sterility, number, purity, and viability were maintained in blood transfusion bags. Maintenance of secretory granules and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was confirmed following transport. A Standard Operating Procedure enabling final pretransplant quality control from a simple side-arm sample was validated. Moreover, levels of insulin and cytokines in transport medium were low, enabling transplant without centrifugation/resuspension at the recipient site. Six clinical transplants of transported islets were undertaken in five recipients with 100% primary graft function and resolution of severe hypoglycemia. Safe and clinically effective islet transport has been established facilitating sustainable NHS funding of a clinical islet transplant program for the UK.

  19. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among Haitian immigrant students: implications for access to mental health services and educational programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Anna C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of Haitian immigrant and refugee youth have emphasized "externalizing" behaviors, such as substance use, high risk sexual behavior, and delinquency, with very little information available on "internalizing" symptoms, such as depression and anxiety. Analyzing stressors and "internalizing" symptoms offers a more balanced picture of the type of social and mental health services that may be needed for this population. The present study aims to: 1 estimate the prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD among Haitian immigrant students; and 2 examine factors associated with depression and PTSD to identify potential areas of intervention that may enhance psychosocial health outcomes among immigrant youth from Haiti in the U.S. Methods A stratified random sample of Haitian immigrant students enrolled in Boston public high schools was selected for participation; 84% agreed to be interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. Diagnosis of depression and PTSD was ascertained using the best estimate diagnosis method. Results The prevalence estimates of depression and PTSD were 14.0% and 11.6%; 7.9% suffered from comorbid PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated factors most strongly associated with depression (history of father's death, self-report of schoolwork not going well, not spending time with friends and PTSD (concern for physical safety, having many arguments with parents, history of physical abuse, and lack of safety of neighborhood. Conclusions A significant level of depression and PTSD was observed. Stressors subsequent to immigration, such as living in an unsafe neighborhood and concern for physical safety, were associated with an increased risk of PTSD and should be considered when developing programs to assist this population. Reducing exposure to these stressors and enhancing access to social support and appropriate school-based and mental health services

  20. Final Results of the Telaprevir Access Program: FibroScan Values Predict Safety and Efficacy in Hepatitis C Patients with Advanced Fibrosis or Cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Lepida

    Full Text Available Liver stiffness determined by transient elastography is correlated with hepatic fibrosis stage and has high accuracy for detecting severe fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C patients. We evaluated the clinical value of baseline FibroScan values for the prediction of safety and efficacy of telaprevir-based therapy in patients with advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis in the telaprevir Early Access Program HEP3002.1,772 patients with HCV-1 and bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis were treated with telaprevir plus pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PR for 12 weeks followed by PR alone, the total treatment duration depending on virological response and previous response type. Liver fibrosis stage was determined either by liver biopsy or by non-invasive markers. 1,282 patients (72% had disease stage assessed by FibroScan; among those 46% were classified as Metavir F3 at baseline and 54% as F4.Overall, 1,139 patients (64% achieved a sustained virological response (SVR by intention-to-treat analysis. Baseline FibroScan values were tested for association with SVR and the occurrence of adverse events. By univariate analysis, higher baseline FibroScan values were predictive of lower sustained virological response rates and treatment-related anemia. By multivariate analysis, FibroScan was no longer statistically significant as an independent predictor, but higher FibroScan values were correlated with the occurrence of infections and serious adverse events.FibroScan has a limited utility as a predictor of safety and efficacy in patients treated with telaprevir-based triple therapy. Nevertheless it can be used in association with other clinical and biological parameters to help determine patients who will benefit from the triple regiments.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01508286.

  1. Expanding health access in the more vulnerable region in the state of São Paulo, Brazil: is this a reflection of the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bruna Pontes da; Stockmann, Denise; Lúcio, Donavan de Souza; Henna, Elaine; Rocha, Maria Carolina Pereira da; Junqueira, Fábio Miranda

    2016-09-01

    The Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program seeks to broaden access to health by providing medical professionals, investments in health units and multi-professional integration geared to the Family Health Strategy. Vale do Ribeira includes 25 cities and is among the most vulnerable regions in São Paulo. It has been allocated 41 physicians from the Program. This study is to evaluate access to health, comparing health indicators before and after the Program. We collected data from DATASUS, SIAB, and the Ministry of Health. There was a marked increase in the number of appointments for infants under one year of age, adults, the elderly, STD/HIV patients and group patient care. There was a decrease in appointments outside the catchment area, as well as hospital admissions for other causes, mothers exclusively breastfeeding their infants up to four months. We concluded that after deployment of the Program, there was an increase in health access and health promotion focused on an area that presents an enormous challenge for Primary Health Care (PHC). It would seem that, since this is a high vulnerability area with a large area for care, hospital admissions for PHC care-sensitive conditions, as well as referrals for secondary services, did not decrease. PMID:27653074

  2. Expanding health access in the more vulnerable region in the state of São Paulo, Brazil: is this a reflection of the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bruna Pontes da; Stockmann, Denise; Lúcio, Donavan de Souza; Henna, Elaine; Rocha, Maria Carolina Pereira da; Junqueira, Fábio Miranda

    2016-09-01

    The Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program seeks to broaden access to health by providing medical professionals, investments in health units and multi-professional integration geared to the Family Health Strategy. Vale do Ribeira includes 25 cities and is among the most vulnerable regions in São Paulo. It has been allocated 41 physicians from the Program. This study is to evaluate access to health, comparing health indicators before and after the Program. We collected data from DATASUS, SIAB, and the Ministry of Health. There was a marked increase in the number of appointments for infants under one year of age, adults, the elderly, STD/HIV patients and group patient care. There was a decrease in appointments outside the catchment area, as well as hospital admissions for other causes, mothers exclusively breastfeeding their infants up to four months. We concluded that after deployment of the Program, there was an increase in health access and health promotion focused on an area that presents an enormous challenge for Primary Health Care (PHC). It would seem that, since this is a high vulnerability area with a large area for care, hospital admissions for PHC care-sensitive conditions, as well as referrals for secondary services, did not decrease.

  3. Are workplace health promotion programs effective at improving presenteeism in workers? a systematic review and best evidence synthesis of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy J David

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presenteeism is highly prevalent and costly to employers. It is defined as being present at work, but limited in some aspect of job performance by a health problem. Workplace health promotion (WHP is a common strategy used to enhance on-the-job productivity. The primary objective is to determine if WHP programs are effective in improving presenteeism. The secondary objectives are to identify characteristics of successful programs and potential risk factors for presenteeism. Methods The Cochrane Library, Medline, and other electronic databases were searched from 1990 to 2010. Reference lists were examined, key journals were hand-searched and experts were contacted. Included studies were original research that contained data on at least 20 participants (≥ 18 years of age, and examined the impacts of WHP programs implemented at the workplace. The Effective Public Health Practice Project Tool for Quantitative Studies was used to rate studies. 'Strong' and 'moderate' studies were abstracted into evidence tables, and a best evidence synthesis was performed. Interventions were deemed successful if they improved the outcome of interest. Their program components were identified, as were possible risk factors contributing to presenteeism. Results After 2,032 titles and abstracts were screened, 47 articles were reviewed, and 14 were accepted (4 strong and 10 moderate studies. These studies contained preliminary evidence for a positive effect of some WHP programs. Successful programs offered organizational leadership, health risk screening, individually tailored programs, and a supportive workplace culture. Potential risk factors contributing to presenteeism included being overweight, a poor diet, a lack of exercise, high stress, and poor relations with co-workers and management. Limitations: This review is limited to English publications. A large number of reviewed studies (70% were inadmissible due to issues of bias, thus limiting

  4. On Programming and Scope of the Exclusion of Illegal Evidence%论排除非法证据的程序设计和范围

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付林宁; 张霄鹏

    2012-01-01

    The new Criminal Procedure Law modified many aspects about the evidence system, made clear pro- visions on the scope and procedures of the illegal evidence exclusion, absorbed the essence of the Rules of Evidence in Handling Death Penalty Cases and the Rules to Elimination Illegal Evidence. The new Criminal Procedure Law detailed and improved the laws and judicial interpretations on illegal evidence exclusion rules in many respects, in- cluding the exclusion of illegal evidence standard, the scope, the program, as well as the proof of evidence legiti- macy, etc.%修改后的《刑事诉讼法》对证据制度做了较大的修改,对非法证据排除的范围和程序等方面都做出了比较明确的规定,吸收了《办理死刑案件证据规定》和《排除非法证据规定》的精华,在诸多方面细化和完善了法律和司法解释关于非法证据排除的规定,包括排除非法证据的标准、范围、程序以及证据合法性的证明等。

  5. Design and Development of a Telerehabilitation Self-Management Program for Persons with Chronic Lower Limb Swelling and Mobility Limitations: Preliminary Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky L. Faett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes design and development of a self-management program, delivered by telerehabilitation (TR, to address the problem of chronic lower limb swelling in persons with limited mobility. The 18.6 million persons with limited mobility in the USA are at increased risk for chronic lower limb swelling and related secondary complications, including cellulitis and skin ulcers. Over time, chronic swelling often progresses to lymphedema, an incurable condition requiring lifelong care. Without successful self-management, lymphedema and its related complications inevitably worsen. Access and adherence to appropriate treatment are challenging for persons with limited mobility. Program development involved a structured process to establish content validity (videos and manuals, readability, suitability, and selection of a TR platform to deliver the educational program. Our goal was to develop a program that would engage patients in self-management skills. The TR software platform chosen, Versatile and Integrated System for Telerehabilitation (VISYTER was designed to facilitate face-to-face delivery of an interactive home-based self-management program via the internet in real time. Results demonstrated validity of the educational program and ease of use with TR. Future plans are to evaluate ability of this approach to promote self-management skills, home monitoring, and improved management of persons with lymphedema and limited mobility.

  6. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  7. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  8. The importance of socio-economic context for social marketing models for improving reproductive health: Evidence from 555 years of program experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahaim Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past two decades, social marketing programs have become an important element of the national family planning and HIV prevention strategy in several developing countries. As yet, there has not been any comprehensive empirical assessment to determine which of several social marketing models is most effective for a given socio-economic context. Such an assessment is urgently needed to inform the design of future social marketing programs, and to avoid that programs are designed using an ineffective model. Methods This study addresses this issue using a database of annual statistics about reproductive health oriented social marketing programs in over 70 countries. In total, the database covers 555 years of program experience with social marketing programs that distribute and promote the use of oral contraceptives and condoms. Specifically, our analysis assesses to what extent the model used by different reproductive health social marketing programs has varied across different socio-economic contexts. We then use random effects regression to test in which socio-economic context each of the models is most successful at increasing use of socially marketed oral contraceptives and condoms. Results The results show that there has been a tendency to design reproductive health social marketing program with a management structure that matches the local context. However, the evidence also shows that this has not always been the case. While socio-economic context clearly influences the effectiveness of some of the social marketing models, program maturity and the size of the target population appear equally important. Conclusions To maximize the effectiveness of future social marketing programs, it is essential that more effort is devoted to ensuring that such programs are designed using the model or approach that is most suitable for the local context.

  9. Hemodialysis access - self care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  10. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  11. Evidence-based practices, attitudes, and beliefs in substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indians and Alaska Natives: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larios, Sandra E; Wright, Serena; Jernstrom, Amanda; Lebron, Dorothy; Sorensen, James L

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse disproportionately impacts American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities in the United States. For the increasing numbers of AI/AN individuals who enter and receive treatment for their alcohol or other drug problem it is imperative that the service they receive be effective. This study used qualitative methodology to examine attitudes toward evidence-based practices, also known as evidence-based treatments (EBTs) in minority-serving substance abuse treatment programs in the San Francisco Bay area. Twenty-two interviews were conducted in the study, of which seven were with program directors and substance abuse counselors at two urban AI/AN focused sites. These clinics were more likely than other minority-focused programs to have experience with research and knowledge about adapting EBTs. Only in the AI/AN specific sites did an issue arise concerning visibility, that is, undercounting AI/AN people in national and state databases. Similar to other minority-focused programs, these clinics described mistrust, fear of exploitation from the research community, and negative attitudes towards EBTs. The underutilization of EBTs in substance abuse programs is prevalent and detrimental to the health of patients who would benefit from their use. Future research should explore how to use this research involvement and experience with adaptation to increase the adoption of EBTs in AI/AN serving clinics.

  12. Characteristics of evidence-based medicine training in Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada emergency medicine residencies - a national survey of program directors

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarczyk, Joseph; Pauls, Merril; Fridfinnson, Jason; Weldon, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent surveys suggest few emergency medicine (EM) training programs have formal evidence-based medicine (EBM) or journal club curricula. Our primary objective was to describe the methods of EBM training in Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) EM residencies. Secondary objectives were to explore attitudes regarding current educational practices including e-learning, investigate barriers to journal club and EBM education, and assess the desire for national coll...

  13. BusinessUSA Resource Access API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — BusinessUSA connects businesses to government services and information. The API provides access to resource abstracts including programs, services, data, events,...

  14. Reconciling the Multiple Objectives of Prison Diversion Programs for Drug Offenders: Evidence from Kansas' Senate Bill 123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemen, Don; Rengifo, Andres F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In recent years, several states have created mandatory prison-diversion programs for felony drug possessors. These programs have both individual-level goals of reducing recidivism rates and system-level goals of reducing prison populations. Objective: This study examines the individual level and system level impact of Kansas' Senate…

  15. A Systematic Meta-Analytic Review of Evidence for the Effectiveness of the "Fast ForWord" Language Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Gemma K.; Torgerson, Carole J.; Torgerson, David; Hulme, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Background: Fast ForWord is a suite of computer-based language intervention programs designed to improve children's reading and oral language skills. The programs are based on the hypothesis that oral language difficulties often arise from a rapid auditory temporal processing deficit that compromises the development of phonological…

  16. Use of the evidence base in substance abuse treatment programs for American Indians and Alaska natives: pursuing quality in the crucible of practice and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleming Candace

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of forces are now shaping a passionate debate regarding the optimal approaches to improving the quality of substance abuse services for American Indian and Alaska Native communities. While there have been some highly successful efforts to meld the traditions of American Indian and Alaska Native tribes with that of 12-step approaches, some American Indian and Alaska Natives remain profoundly uncomfortable with the dominance of this Euro-American approach to substance abuse treatment in their communities. This longstanding tension has now been complicated by the emergence of a number of evidence-based treatments that, while holding promise for improving treatment for American Indian and Alaska Natives with substance use problems, may conflict with both American Indian and Alaska Native and 12-step healing traditions. Discussion We convened a panel of experts from American Indian and Alaska Native communities, substance abuse treatment programs serving these communities, and researchers to discuss and analyze these controversies in preparation for a national study of American Indian and Alaska Native substance abuse services. While the panel identified programs that are using evidence-based treatments, members still voiced concerns about the cultural appropriateness of many evidence-based treatments as well as the lack of guidance on how to adapt them for use with American Indians and Alaska Natives. The panel concluded that the efforts of federal and state policymakers to promote the use of evidence-based treatments are further complicating an already-contentious debate within American Indian and Alaska Native communities on how to provide effective substance abuse services. This external pressure to utilize evidence-based treatments is particularly problematic given American Indian and Alaska Native communities' concerns about protecting their sovereign status. Summary Broadening this conversation beyond its primary

  17. Do the Poorest Ethnic Minorities Benefit from a Large-Scale Poverty Reduction Program? Evidence from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Cuong; Phung, Tung; Westbrook, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    To increase the opportunities for poor ethnic minorities to benefit from economic growth the government of Vietnam implemented one of the biggest poverty reduction programs entitled ‘Socio-economic Development for the Communes Facing Greatest Hardships in the Ethnic Minority and Mountainous Areas’ during 2006 - 2010. This paper estimates the program’s impacts on households in the project areas. We find that the program had positive impacts on several important outcomes of the ethnic minority ...

  18. The Impact of Child SSI Enrollment on Household Outcomes: Evidence from the Survey of Income and Program Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Duggan; Melissa Schettini Kearney

    2005-01-01

    The federal Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program has become a primary source of cash assistance for low-income families with children in the United States, with 1.04 million children currently receiving SSI benefits and 6 percent of children in a household with some SSI income. In this paper we use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to investigate the impact that child SSI enrollment has on household outcomes such as poverty, household earnings, and health i...

  19. Availability, Access, Authenticity, and Persistence: Creating the Environment for Permanent Public Access to Electronic Government Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, George

    2002-01-01

    Discusses efforts by the Federal Depository Library Program to make information accessible more or mostly by electronic means. Topics include Web-based locator tools; collection development; digital archives; bibliographic metadata; and access tools and user interfaces. (Author/LRW)

  20. Hemodialysis access procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic-dialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-dialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency-dialysis access; Chronic kidney failure-dialysis access; Chronic renal failure-dialysis access

  1. Building evidence for peer-led interventions: assessing the cost of the Adolescent Asthma Action program in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otim, Michael E; Jayasinha, Ranmalie; Forbes, Hayley; Shah, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness among adolescents in Australia. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents, in particular, face substantial inequalities in asthma-related outcomes. Triple A (Adolescent Asthma Action) is a peer-led education intervention, which aims to improve asthma self-management and reduce the uptake of smoking among adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the cost of implementing the Triple A program in Australia. Standard economic costing methods were used. It involved identifying the resources that were utilised (such as personnel and program materials), measuring them and then valuing them. We later performed sensitivity analysis so as to identify the cost drivers and a stress test to test how the intervention can perform when some inputs are lacking. Results indicate that the estimated cost of implementing the Triple A program in five schools was $41060, assuming that the opportunity cost of all the participants and venues was accounted for. This translated to $8212 per school or $50 per target student. From sensitivity analysis and a stress test, it was identified that the cost of the intervention (in practice) was $14 per student. This appears to be a modest cost, given the burden of asthma. In conclusion, the Triple A program is an affordable intervention to implement in high schools. The potential asthma cost savings due to the program are significant. If the Triple A program is implemented nation-wide, the benefits would be substantial. PMID:25230153

  2. Environment Implications of China's WTO Accession

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shantong; He Jianwu

    2006-01-01

    China's WTO accession will have important environmental implications. This article aims at providing environmental analysis of the impact of China's accession to the WTO, based on its final offer for WTO accession and a 53-sector, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of China. We try to provide some empirical evidences for policy makers to evaluate the effects of China's WTO accession from environmental prospective.

  3. Examining the Impact of a Highly Targeted State Administered Merit Aid Program on Brain Drain: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis of Missouri's Bright Flight Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James R.; Muñoz, José; Curs, Bradley R.; Ehlert, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of state-funded merit-based aid programs has become increasingly popular among policy-makers, particularly in the southeastern part of the United States. One of the primary rationales of state-funded merit-based aid is to provide scholarships to the best and brightest students as a means to retain high quality human capital in the…

  4. The Effects of a Disease Management Program on Self-Reported Health Behaviors and Health Outcomes: Evidence from the "Florida--A Healthy State (FAHS)" Medicaid Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisky, Donald E.; Kominski, Gerald F.; Afifi, Abdelmonem A.; Kotlerman, Jenny B.

    2009-01-01

    Premature morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases account for a major proportion of expenditures for health care cost in the United States. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of a disease management program on physiological and behavioral health indicators for Medicaid patients in Florida. A two-year prospective study of…

  5. Accessibility and Industrial Location: evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Arauzo Carod, Josep María; Alañón Pardo, Ángel

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo trata de las decisiones de localización de las empresas manufactureras en España. Se analiza como las economías de aglomeración y, especialmente, la accesibilidad a la red de transporte afectan a las decisiones de localización. Durante la década de los 90 hubo en España un intenso programa de construcción de carreteras de alta capacidad que mejoró sustancialmente la accesibilidad de los municipios. El análisis de las decisiones de localización de las empresas se realiza a escala...

  6. Ambulance officers' use of online clinical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westbrook Mary T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital-based clinicians have been shown to use and attain benefits from online evidence systems. To our knowledge there have been no studies investigating whether and how ambulance officers use online evidence systems if provided. We surveyed ambulance officers to examine their knowledge and use of the Clinical Information Access Program (CIAP, an online evidence system providing 24-hour access to information to support evidence-based practice. Methods A questionnaire was completed by 278 ambulance officers in New South Wales, Australia. Comparisons were made between those who used CIAP and officers who had heard of, but not used CIAP. Results Half the sample (48.6% knew of, and 28.8% had used CIAP. Users were more likely to have heard of CIAP from a CIAP representative/presentation, non-users from written information. Compared to ambulance officers who had heard of but had not used CIAP, users were more likely to report better computer skills and that their supervisors regarded use of CIAP as a legitimate part of ambulance officers' clinical role. The main reasons for non-use were lack of access(49.0% and training(31.4%. Of users, 51.3% rated their skills at finding information as good/very good, 67.5% found the information sought all/most of the time, 87.3% believed CIAP had the potential to improve patient care and 28.2% had directly experienced this. Most access to CIAP occurred at home. The databases frequently accessed were MIMS (A medicines information database (73.8% and MEDLINE(67.5%. The major journals accessed were Journal of Emergency Nursing(37.5%, American Journal of Medicine(30.0% and JAMA(27.5%. Conclusion Over half of ambulance officers had not heard of CIAP. The proportion who knew about and used CIAP was also low. Reasons for this appear to be a work culture not convinced of CIAP's relevance to pre-hospital patient care and lack of access to CIAP at work. Ambulance officers who used CIAP accessed it

  7. Evidence-based Intervention Programs: Rethinking, Refining, and Renaming the New Standing Section of "School Psychology Quarterly."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, Karen Callan; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for the name change of the new Standing Section of "School Psychology Quarterly" from "Empirically Supported Interventions" to "Evidence-Based Interventions" (EBI). Furnishes updates on the intent of publishing articles in the EBI section and highlights the types of articles the journal hopes to feature in the future. (GCP)

  8. An evidence-based approach to organization evaluation and change in human service organizations evaluation and program planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalock, Robert L; Lee, Tim; Verdugo, Miguel; Swart, Kees; Claes, Claudia; van Loon, Jos; Lee, Chun-Shin

    2014-08-01

    The work described in this article focuses primarily on how human service organizations can use an evidence-based, self-assessment approach to organization evaluation to facilitate continuous quality improvement and organization change. Real-life examples are presented, strengths and challenges discussed, and future conceptual and measurement issues identified.

  9. Meeting the complex needs of urban youth and their families through the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program: The "real world" meets evidence-informed care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Latoya; Jackson, Jerrold; Gopalan, Geetha; McKay, Mary McKernan

    2015-07-01

    Youth living in poverty face compounding familial and environmental challenges in utilizing effective community mental health services. They have ongoing stressors that increase their dropout rate in mental health service use. Difficulties also exist in staying engaged in services when they are involved with the child welfare system. This study examines the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program, developed across four broad conceptual categories related to parenting skills and family processes that form a multiple family group service delivery approach. A total of 321 families were enrolled in this randomized intervention study, assigned to either the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program or standard care services. Caregivers and their children randomly assigned to the experimental condition received a 16 week multiple family group intervention through their respective outpatient community mental health clinic. Data was collected at baseline, midtest (8 weeks), posttest (16 weeks), and 6 month follow-up. Major findings include high engagement in the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program, compared to standard services. Although child welfare status is not related to attendance, family stress and parental depression are also related to participant engagement in this multiple family group intervention. Involvement in the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program resulted in improved effects for child behaviors. Lastly, no evidence of moderation effects on family stress, child welfare involvement, or parental needs were found. The 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program appeared able to engage families with more complex "real world" needs.

  10. Staff's perceptions of the use of evidence-based physical activity promotion strategies for promoting girls' physical activity at afterschool programs: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkel, Danae; Huberty, Jennifer; Beets, Michael; Tibbits, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    There is a need to improve girls' physical activity (PA) in afterschool programs as girls' PA levels are consistently lower than boys'. An evidence-based professional development framework, the 5 Ms, has been effective in helping staff to improve PA in both girls and boys but further improvements in girls' PA are needed. Little is known about staff's perceptions of using PA promotion strategies to promote girls' PA. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore staff perceptions of the use of evidence-based PA promotion strategies for promoting PA in girls. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff from three community-based afterschool programs located within a school setting (n=18). Data were analyzed using the process of immersion/crystallization. A majority of staff had some knowledge of PA promotion strategies but few staff consistently utilized these strategies and a majority felt several strategies were unnecessary (i.e., having a PA policy). Newer staff reported depending on senior staff to promote PA in girls. Overall, findings suggest that staff's perceptions may impact their use of PA promotions strategies. The results of this study will contribute to the enhancement of an existing staff training framework (the 5 Ms) to improve girls' PA in afterschool programs.

  11. The Mindfulness-enhanced Strengthening Families Program: Integrating brief mindfulness activities and parent training within an evidence-based prevention program

    OpenAIRE

    Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Duncan, Larissa G.; Berrena, Elaine; Bamberger, Katharine T.; Loeschinger, Daniel; Greenberg, Mark T.; Nix, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching parents to be mindful in their daily interactions with their adolescents may be one way to improve the quality of parent-youth relationships and positively affect youth psychological development. Mindfulness in parenting may be especially helpful during adolescence, when youth experience many rapid cognitive, emotional and social changes. The Mindfulness-enhanced Strengthening Families Program (MSFP) teaches both mindfulness and parenting skills to parents of adolescents. In this art...

  12. An Evidence-Based Education Program for Adults about Child Sexual Abuse ("Prevent It!") That Significantly Improves Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Erin K; Silverstone, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85%) agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample) completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behavior (our primary outcome variable). Behavioral questions asked individuals to select behaviors used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking "how many times in the previous 3-months" have you "talked about healthy sexual development or Child sexual abuse (CSA) with a child you know"; "suspected a child was sexually abused"; "taken steps to protect a child"; or "reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare"? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 and 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behavior and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from 25% at baseline to 48

  13. An Evidence-Based Education Program For Adults About Child Sexual Abuse (“Prevent It!” Significantly Improves Behaviours As Well As Attitudes And Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA, called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behaviour of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes towards it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85% agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behaviour (our primary outcome variable. Behavioural questions asked individuals to select behaviours used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking how many times in the previous 3-months have you talked about healthy sexual development or child sexual abuse with a child you know; suspected a child was sexually abused; taken steps to protect a child; or reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 – 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behaviour and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from 25% at baseline

  14. An Evidence-Based Education Program for Adults about Child Sexual Abuse (“Prevent It!”) That Significantly Improves Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Erin K.; Silverstone, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85%) agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample) completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behavior (our primary outcome variable). Behavioral questions asked individuals to select behaviors used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking “how many times in the previous 3-months” have you “talked about healthy sexual development or Child sexual abuse (CSA) with a child you know”; “suspected a child was sexually abused”; “taken steps to protect a child”; or “reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare”? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 and 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behavior and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from

  15. An Evidence-Based Education Program for Adults about Child Sexual Abuse ("Prevent It!") That Significantly Improves Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Erin K; Silverstone, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85%) agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample) completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behavior (our primary outcome variable). Behavioral questions asked individuals to select behaviors used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking "how many times in the previous 3-months" have you "talked about healthy sexual development or Child sexual abuse (CSA) with a child you know"; "suspected a child was sexually abused"; "taken steps to protect a child"; or "reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare"? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 and 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behavior and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from 25% at baseline to 48

  16. The Effect of Disability Insurance on Health Investment: Evidence from the Veterans Benefits Administration's Disability Compensation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Perry

    2009-01-01

    I examine whether individuals respond to monetary incentives to detect latent medical conditions. The effect is identified by a policy that deemed diabetes associated with herbicide exposure a compensable disability under the Veterans Benefits Administration's Disability Compensation program. Since a diagnosis is a requisite for benefit…

  17. Treatment Fidelity of an Evidence-Based Nurse-Led Intervention in a Proactive Primary Care Program for Older People

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, Nienke; ten Dam, Valerie H.; Drubbel, Irene; Numans, Mattijs E.; de Wit, Niek J.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In a large randomized trial, Utrecht PROactive Frailty Intervention Trial (U-PROFIT), we evaluated the effectiveness of an integrated program on the preservation of daily functioning in older people in primary care that consisted of a frailty identification tool and a multicomponent nurs

  18. Evidence-Based Sexuality Education Programs in Schools: Do They Align with the National Sexuality Education Standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sara C.; Wandersman, Abraham; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2015-01-01

    While many states mandate some type of sexuality education in schools, state legislation varies widely across the United States. Nevertheless, though much has been written about the behavioral outcomes of sexuality education programs shown to be effective at reducing one or more risky sexual behaviors in teenagers, less is known about the exact…

  19. The Impact of Practical Relevance on Training Transfer: Evidence from a Service Quality Training Program for German Bank Clerks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebermann, Susanne; Hoffmann, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The management literature provides a variety of recommendations as to how workers' customer orientation might be improved, including through training. Crucial factors in the process of transferring the contents of service quality training programs to practice, however, have not yet been sufficiently analysed. This study proposes and tests a model…

  20. Effects of Work Environment on Transfer of Training: Empirical Evidence from Master of Business Administration Programs in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Nga T. P.; Segers, Mien S. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2013-01-01

    Practical application of newly gained knowledge and skills, also referred to as transfer of training, is an issue of great concern in training issues generally and in Master of Business Administration (MBA) programs particularly. This empirical study examined the influence of the trainees' work environment on their transfer of training, taking…

  1. Can a Public Scholarship Program Successfully Reduce School Drop-Outs in a Time of Economic Crisis? Evidence from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role played by Indonesia's Social Safety Net Scholarships Program in reducing school drop-out rates during the Asian financial crisis. The expectation was that many families would find it difficult to keep their children in school and drop-out rates would be high. The scholarships are found to have been effective in…

  2. The harmony of programs package: Quasi-experimental evidence on deworming and canteen interventions in rural Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azomahou, T.T.; Diallo, F.L.; Raymond, W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a unique and large-scale quasi-experimental data to study the effect of deworming and school meals programs as a package on educational outcomes (pupils' test scores: aggregate, French or math; enrollment, promotion or dropout rates) in rural Senegal. We extend the endogenous selecti

  3. Wuxi Metro Line 4 Depot Access Line with the Standards Program%无锡地铁4号线车辆段出入段线与接轨方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦

    2013-01-01

    In urban rail transit system,the depot is one of the indispensable facilities,so the design of the access line and the connection program has an important impact on the depot construction and operational management.Based on the practical condition of Wuxi Metro Line 4,different programs are analyzed,including macro convergence program,access line in the depot,connection and integration program,etc.,on this basis,an optimum program is recommended,which features land-use saving,low construction cost and convenient management.%在城市轨道交通系统中,车辆段是不可缺少的设施.车辆段出入段线与接轨等相关方案的设计对轨道交通建设和运营管理都有着重要影响.结合无锡地铁4号线的实际情况,分析了车辆段出入段线接轨宏观方案、出入段线入段方案、出入段线连接及接轨配线等方案,并在此基础上提出了车辆段出入段线接轨优化推荐方案.该方案的优点是节约土地资源、节省工程费用、方便运营管理.

  4. Correlates of Access to Business Research Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, John C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines potential correlates of business research database access through academic libraries serving top business programs in the United States. Results indicate that greater access to research databases is related to enrollment in graduate business programs, but not to overall enrollment or status as a public or private institution.…

  5. 77 FR 26213 - Access Authorization Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ...; 68 FR 58792, 58800. 2. In Sec. 11.15: i. Add paragraph (e) introductory text; ii. Revise paragraphs... Reconciliation Act of 1990 sec. 6101 (42 U.S.C. 2214). Federal Register Citation: November 30, 2010; 75 FR 73935... the Material Access Authorization Program (MAAP) and the Information Access Authority Program...

  6. Community Impact of Pharmacy-Randomized Intervention to Improve Access to Syringes and Services for Injection Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie D.; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V.; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In an effort to reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users (IDUs), New York State deregulated pharmacy syringe sales in 2001 through the Expanded Syringe Access Program by removing the requirement of a prescription. With evidence suggesting pharmacists' ability to expand their public health role, a structural,…

  7. Evidence-based nursing: effects of a structured nursing program for the health promotion of Korean women with Hwa-Byung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Lee, Kwang-Ja

    2007-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a culturally tailored nursing program for patients with Hwa-Byung (HB) and to test the effects of the nursing intervention. The structured nursing intervention program was based on a transcultural theoretical framework in which patients with HB received therapies consisting of music therapy, drama, and group therapy. Hwa-Byung is a culture-bound syndrome, literally translated as anger syndrome, attributed to the suppression of anger. Individuals experience a decrease in quality of life as a result of insufficient treatment. Current health care programs do not meet the needs of these individuals, who still need nursing interventions. A culturally tailored therapy is effective and appropriate for patients with illnesses related to their cultural background. Evidence-based nursing is a crucial approach in verifying the effects of nursing care and in enhancing the body of knowledge on nursing science. A nonequivalent, nonsynchronized, and controlled study design was applied to experimental and control groups of an even number of women. The nursing program was generally effective in the mental health condition test; the mental health condition of the experimental group was significantly more improved as compared with that of the control group. The program was particularly effective in the categories of somatization, depression, psychoticism, and hostility. The data indicate that the mental health of patients with HB could be improved with the use of nursing intervention programs. Nurses need to understand the cultural background of patients and provide culture-sensitive interventions for effective patient-oriented care. PMID:17258104

  8. Groundtruthing notes and biological data from coral ecosystems surveys for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Rapid Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program, 2000 - 2002 (NODC Accession 0001448)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (NOWRAMP) began in 2000 with the mission to rapidly evaluate and map the shallow...

  9. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States (NODC Accession 0121254)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  10. Temperature and salinity collected for MMS 'Deepwater Program: Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Slope Habitat and Benthic Ecology' from the Gulf of Mexico, 1999 - 2002 (NODC Accession 0002185)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data collection includes profile data containing temperature and salinity collected in support of this research program to gain better knowledge of the benthic...

  11. Groundtruthing Notes and Miscellaneous Biological Datasets from Coral Ecosystems Surveys from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Rapid Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program of 2000-2002 (NODC Accession 0001448)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (NOWRAMP) began in 2000 with the mission to rapidly evaluate and map the shallow...

  12. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): digital still images from transects on Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii 2008-2010 (NCEI Accession 0104357)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of digital still images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) taken 2008-2010 from 24 sites within 5 main...

  13. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Circulation Program (WOCE) Global Data, Version 2: Surface meteorology data on CD-ROM, 2 disc set (NODC Accession 0000306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NODC Standard Product contains World Ocean Circulation Program (WOCE) Version 2 sound velocity, water depth, bathymetry, and other data collected using echo...

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef benthic communities in Puerto Rico from 2014-05-19 to 2014-12-03 (NCEI Accession 0151729)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic data collection for the National Coral Reef Ecosystem Monitoring Program (NCRMP) consists of two survey types: the Line Point-Intercept (LPI) method and the...

  15. The impacts of intergovernmental grants on municipal infrastructure: Evidence from the Canada-Quebec infrastructure works 2000 program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiriz, Kaddour

    2016-10-01

    This article reports the results of a study on the outcomes of the Canada-Quebec Infrastructure Works 2000 Program (CQIWP), an infrastructure grant program to Quebec municipalities. The focus of this study is on the effects of the CQIWP on municipal investment and physical conditions of drinking water systems and, as such, it goes beyond the usual emphasis on the fiscal consequences of intergovernmental grants. The study results show that the CQIWP was an efficient tool to induce municipalities to increase investment and to reduce the number of aqueduct breakdowns. In light of these findings, this study suggests that upper levels of governments can rely on infrastructure grants to fill the gap in municipal investment and, therefore, to improve the availability and quality of municipal infrastructure. PMID:27423038

  16. The impact of a conditional cash transfer program on the utilization of non-targeted services: Evidence from Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvorapong, Nopphol; Foshanji, Abo Ismael

    2016-03-01

    While existing research suggests that health-related conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have positive impacts on the utilization of CCT-targeted health services, little is known as to whether they also influence the utilization of non-targeted health services-defined as general health services for which program participants are not financially motivated. Based on a sample of 6649 households in a CCT program that took place in May 2009-June 2011 in Afghanistan, we evaluate the impact of the receipt of CCTs on the utilization of non-targeted health services both by women, who were direct beneficiaries of the program, and by members of their households. We estimate the outcomes of interest through four probit models, accounting for potential endogeneity of the CCT receipt and dealing with lack of credible exclusion restrictions in different ways. In comparison with the control group, the receipt of CCTs is found to be associated with an increase in the probability of utilizing non-targeted services among household members across regression models. The results are mixed, with regard to the utilization by women, suggesting that there exist non-economic barriers to health care, unique to women, that are not captured by the data. The results confirm the importance of accounting for direct as well as indirect effects in policy evaluation and suggest that future studies investigate more deeply the role of community health workers in removing non-economic barriers for Afghan women and the possibility of introducing an incentive structure to motivate them to contribute more actively to population health in Afghanistan. PMID:26851407

  17. Structural Conservation Practices in U.S. Corn Production: Evidence on Environmental Stewardship by Program Participants and Non-Participants

    OpenAIRE

    Schaible, Glenn D.; Kim, C. S.; Lambert, Dayton M.

    2007-01-01

    This study used the 2005 ERS CEAP-ARMS data for corn production to first compare key operator, field, farm, economic, and environmental characteristics of conservation program participants with non-participants, by farm-size class. We then estimate a cost-function based technology adoption model of producer decisions regarding the allocation of field-level acres between corn production and infield and perimeter-field conservation structures to examine how these conservation choices differ bet...

  18. Can colorectal cancer mass-screening organization be evidence-based? Lessons from failures: The experimental and pilot phases of the Lazio program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Sabrina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening programmes should be organized to translate theoretical efficacy into effectiveness. An evidence-based organizational model of colorectal cancer screening (CRCS should assure feasibility and high compliance. Methods A multidisciplinary Working Group (WG, reviewed literature and guidelines to define evidence-based recommendations. The WG identified the need for further local studies: physicians' CRCS attitudes, the effect of test type and provider on compliance, and individual reasons for non-compliance. A survey of digestive endoscopy services was conducted. A feasibility study on a target population of 300.000 has begun. Results Based on the results of population trials and on literature review the screening strategy adopted was Faecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT every two years for 50–74 year olds and, for positives, colonoscopy. The immunochemical test was chosen because it has 20% higher compliance than the Guaiac. GPs were chosen as the preferred provider also for higher compliance. Since we observed that distance is the major determinant of non-compliance, we choose GPs because they are the closest providers, both geographically and emotionally, to the public. The feasibility study showed several barriers: GP participation was low, there were administrative problems to involve GPs; opportunistic testing by the GPs; difficulties in access to Gastroenterology centres; difficulties in gathering colonoscopy results; little time given to screening activity by the gastroenterology centre. Conclusion The feasibility study highlighted several limits of the model. Most of the barriers that emerged were consequences of organisational choices not supported by evidence. The principal limit was a lack of accountability by the participating centres.

  19. Developing an Older Adult Volunteer Program in a New York Chinese Community: An Evidence-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Ada C; Glajchen, Myra; Chen, Huajuan; Sun, Juanjuan

    2013-06-01

    This study reports the results of a pilot volunteer project for older Chinese immigrants and documents benefits for both volunteers and caregiver recipients. Using a social marketing approach, the volunteer project was designed as a social model to promote better health among older Chinese immigrants in New York City. The packaging of this health promotion project as a volunteer program was based on a strengths perspective. In the program, 18 older Chinese immigrants were trained to provide support and referral to family caregivers of ill relatives in the Chinese community. At 6 months, outcomes were evaluated for both volunteers and caregivers. The older volunteers perceived benefits associated with volunteering, specifically, a greater sense of well-being and satisfaction with life. In addition, the majority of volunteers felt empowered by training and volunteering (100 %), felt the skills they learned improved communication with their own families (90 %), and reported physical and emotional health benefits (61 %). At the same time, caregivers reported stress reduction following volunteer support. Findings suggest that a volunteer program model may be an effective health promotion intervention for older Chinese immigrants. PMID:23645945

  20. Tribal Veterans Representative (TVR) training program: the effect of community outreach workers on American Indian and Alaska Native Veterans access to and utilization of the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, L Jeanne; Buck Richardson, W J; Floyd, James; Shore, Jay

    2014-10-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives serve at the highest rate of any US race or ethnic group, yet are the most underserved population of Veterans and do not take advantage of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) benefits and services. Barriers to seeking care include stigma, especially for mental health issues; distance to care; and lack of awareness of benefits and services they are entitled to receive. In response to this underutilization of the VA, an innovative program--the Tribal Veterans Representative (TVR) program--was developed within the VA to work with American Indians and Alaska Natives in rural and remote areas. The TVR goes through extensive training every year; is a volunteer, a Veteran and tribal community member who seeks out unenrolled Native Veterans, provides them with information on VA health care services and benefits, and assists them with enrollment paperwork. Being from the community they serve, these outreach workers are able to develop relationships and build rapport and trust with fellow Veterans. In place for over a decade in Montana, this program has enrolled a countless number of Veterans, benefiting not only the individual, but their family and the community as well. Also resulting from this program, are the implementation of Telemental Health Clinics treating Veterans with PTSD, a transportation program helping Veterans get to and from distant VA facilities, a Veteran Resource Center, and a Veteran Tribal Clinic. This program has successfully trained over 800 TVRs, expanded to other parts of the country and into remote areas of Alaska.