... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What nondiscrimination requirements apply to National Health Service Corps sites? 23.13 Section 23.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Corps Personnel § 23.13 What nondiscrimination requirements apply to National Health Service Corps sites...
... ADMINISTRATION National Policy Matters § 22.520 Campus access for military recruiting and Reserve Officer..., restricting campus access of military recruiters or the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC). (2) By...'s primary implementation of that statute in 32 CFR part 216, “Military Recruiting and...
... COMMISSION Aspen Group Resources Corp., Commercial Concepts, Inc., Desert Health Products, Inc., Equalnet Communications Corp., Geneva Steel Holdings Corp., Orderpro Logistics, Inc. (n/k/a Securus Renewable Energy, Inc... accurate information concerning the securities of Commercial Concepts, Inc. because it has not filed...
and serve in a variety of different fields, including medical and surgical nursing, emergency/ trauma nursing, critical care nursing, mental health...553 448 445 105 123% 1920 Maternal Infant 205 3 202 142 142 60 142% 1922 Pediatric Nursing 63 2 61 40 40 21 153% 1930 Psychiatric Nursing 72 1 71 48...48 23 148% 1940 Community Health 20 1 19 37 37 (18) 51% 1945 ER/ Trauma Nursing Community 243 4 239 180 180 59 133% 1950 Perioperative Nursing
... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on the National Health Service Corps; Request for Nominations AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is...
GAO General Accounting Office GME Graduate Medical Education GMO General Medical Officer GPA Grade Point Average xiv HPLRP Health...supersede, or automatically promote, to O-3. At this juncture, a student will begin internship training, followed by a General Medical Officer ( GMO ) or...medical students will not complete a GMO or FS tour, and they will instead continue on through residency and fellowship training. This is commonly
... Health Service Corps scholarship program? 62.1 Section 62.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SCHOLARSHIP AND LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAMS National Health Service Corps Scholarship Program § 62.1 What is the scope and purpose of the National Health Service Corps scholarship program? These regulations apply...
... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on the National Health Service Corps; Request for Nominations AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration... Administration (HRSA) is requesting nominations to fill five vacancies on the National Advisory Council (NAC)...
Bhatavadekar, Neel B; Rozier, R Gary; Konrad, Thomas R
Access to oral health care among low income populations is a growing problem. The National Health Service Corps (NHSC) might increase the supply of dentists motivated to provide services for this population. To determine if North Carolina dentists who began a service obligation with the NHSC in 1990-1999 continued to provide care for underserved populations and if they differ from non-NHSC alumni primary care dentists who started practice in the state during that same period. All 19 NHSC alumni and 50 comparison dentists were surveyed by mail. NHSC alumni also responded to selected items in a telephone follow-up interview. The two groups were compared using difference of means tests and multivariate contingency tables. National Health Service Corps alumni were more likely to be African-American (38%vs. 10%), work in safety net practices (84%vs. 23%), and see more publicly insured patients (60%vs. 19%) than comparison dentists. Yet their job satisfaction was comparable to non-NHSC alumni dentists. Analyses suggested that current practice in safety net settings is affected by dentists' race, altruistic motivations and previous NHSC participation. CONCLUSION AND POLICY IMPLICATION: Targeted recruitment of African-American dentists and others wanting to work in underserved communities could amplify the effectiveness of the financial incentive of NHSC loan repayment and induce dentists to remain in 'safety net' settings. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.
Hue, Pham Thi Bach; Wohlgemuth, Sven; Echizen, Isao; Thuy, Dong Thi Bich; Thuc, Nguyen Dinh
There needs to be a strategy for securing the privacy of patients when exchanging health records between various entities over the Internet. Despite the fact that health care providers such as Google Health and Microsoft Corp.'s Health Vault comply with the U.S Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the privacy of patients is still at risk. Several encryption schemes and access control mechanisms have been suggested to protect the disclosure of a patient's health record especially from unauthorized entities. However, by implementing these approaches, data owners are not capable of controlling and protecting the disclosure of the individual sensitive attributes of their health records. This raises the need to adopt a secure mechanism to protect personal information against unauthorized disclosure. Therefore, we propose a new Fine-grained Access Control (FGAC) mechanism that is based on subkeys, which would allow a data owner to further control the access to his data at the column-level. We also propose a new mechanism to efficiently reduce the number of keys maintained by a data owner in cases when the users have different access privileges to different columns of the data being shared.
Full Text Available Introduction: The viability of hearing protection device (HPD verification (i.e., fit-testing on a large scale was investigated to address this gap in a military accession environment. Materials and Methods: Personal Attenuation Ratings (PARs following self-fitted (SELF-Fit HPDs were acquired from 320 US Marine Corps training recruits (87.5% male, 12.5% female across four test protocols (1-, 3-, 5-, and 7- frequency. SELF-Fit failures received follow-up to assess potential causes. Follow-up PARs were acquired (Experimenter fit [EXP-Fit], followed by Subject re-fit [SUB Re-Fit]. EXP-Fit was intended to provide a perception (dubbed “ear canal muscle memory” of what a correctly fitted HPD should feel like. SUB Re-Fit was completed following EXP-Fit to determine whether a training recruit could duplicate EXP-Fit on her/his own without assistance. Results: A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA (N = 320 showed that SELF-Fit means differed significantly between protocols (P 60% pass rates. Results showed that once recruits experienced how HPDs should feel when inserted correctly, they were able to properly replicate the procedure with similar results to the expert fit suggesting “ear canal muscle memory” may be a viable training strategy concomitant with HPD verification. Fit-test duration was also measured to examine the tradeoff between results accuracy and time required to complete each protocol. Discussion: Results from this study showed the critical importance of initial selection and fitting of HPDs followed by verification (i.e., fit-testing at Navy and Marine Corps accession points. Achieving adequate protection from an HPD is fundamentally dependent on obtaining proper fit of the issued HPD as well as the quality of training recruits receive regarding HPD use.
Full Text Available Adolescents represent a large proportion of the population. As they mature and become sexually active, they face more serious health risks. Most face these risks with too little factual information, too little guidance about sexual responsibility and multiple barriers to accessing health care. A typical descriptive and explanatory design was used to determine what the characteristics of an accessible adolescent health service should be. Important results and conclusions that were reached indicate that the adolescent want a medical doctor and a registered nurse to be part of the health team treating them and they want to be served in the language of their choice. Family planning, treatment of sexually transmitted diseases and psychiatric services for the prevention of suicide are services that should be included in an adolescent accessible health service. The provision of health education concerning sexual transmitted diseases and AIDS is a necessity. The service should be available thought out the week (included Saturdays and within easy reach. It is recommended that minor changes in existing services be made, that will contribute towards making a health delivery service an adolescent accessible service. An adolescent accessible health service can in turn make a real contribution to the community’s efforts to improve the health of its adolescents and can prove to be a rewarding professional experience to the health worker.
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What operational requirements apply to an entity to which National Health Service Corps personnel are assigned? 23.8 Section 23.8 Public Health PUBLIC... Assignment of National Health Service Corps Personnel § 23.8 What operational requirements apply to an entity...
This podcast is based on the November, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that more than one in four adults 18-64 years old (about 50 million) report being uninsured for at least part of the past 12 months, and focuses on the growing number of middle-income adults and those with a chronic illness or disability who have no health insurance. Created: 11/9/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 11/9/2010.
Vincent-Johnson, Nancy A
Even though privately-owned pet care is a lower priority mission than military working dog care, food inspection,and the public health mission, it is still very important,and the one that many Veterinary Corps officers, civil-ian veterinarians, and technicians enjoy the most. The vast majority of veterinarians and technicians went into veterinary medicine because of a love for animals. It is fulfilling to offer guidance to a client with a new puppy or kitten, see a sick pet improve after treatment, and interact with dozens of animals and clients in a day. The services provided by the Army Veterinary Corps in car-ing for pets has expanded over the years and the standard of care has improved as well. It is truly a privilege to serve those who dedicate themselves to the protection of our Nation. The Army Veterinary Corps is indeed proud to provide care to the pets of Warfighters of the Army,Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard; their family members; and our military retirees.
Kuenburg, Alexa; Fellinger, Paul; Fellinger, Johannes
.... The present study reviews literature from 2000 to 2015 on access to health care for deaf people and reveals significant challenges in communication with health providers and gaps in global health...
Health literacy, cited as essential to achieving Healthy People 2010's goals to "increase quality and years of healthy life" and to "eliminate health disparities," is defined by Healthy People as "the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions." Accessibility, by definition, the aforementioned "capacity to obtain," thus is health literacy's primary prerequisite. Accessibility's designation as the global gateway to health literacy is predicated also on life's realities: global aging and climate change, war and terrorism, and life-extending medical and technological advances. People with diverse access needs are health professionals' raison d'être. However, accessibility, consummately cross-cultural and universal, is virtually absent as a topic of health promotion and practice research and scholarly discussion of health literacy and equity. A call to action to place accessibility in its rightful premier position on the profession's agenda is issued.
Lusi Herawati Sunyoto Usman Mark Zuidgeest
Full Text Available Equitable health care is a basic right for citizens and must be fulfilled by the government. This research analyzed communitydiscrepancy in access to reach health services in public hospitals and Puskesmas (health centers in Banyuwangi Regency.This research identified community accessibility to health facilities services using travel time and transport modes choiceas indicators. Flowmap tool is used to analyze catchment area of each health facility using different transport modes choice:becak and public transport for poor group and motorcycle and car for non-poor group with different travel time within 30, 60 and more than 60 minutes. It is concluded that there was an accessibility difference between poor and non-poor group. The accessibility to the health facilities of poor group was lower than non-poor group. This condition occurred because the government policy of equitable access to health service facility did not pay attention to accessibility of poor group.
Kuenburg, Alexa; Fellinger, Paul; Fellinger, Johannes
Access to health care without barriers is a clearly defined right of people with disabilities as stated by the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities. The present study reviews literature from 2000 to 2015 on access to health care for deaf people and reveals significant challenges in communication with health providers and gaps in…
In February 2010, the Delhi High Court delivered its decision in Bayer Corp v Union of India in which Bayer had appealed against an August 2009 decision of the same court. Both decisions prevented Bayer from introducing the concept of patent linkage into India's drug regulatory regime. Bayer appealed to the Indian Supreme Court, the highest court in India, which agreed on 2 March 2010 to hear the appeal. Given that India is regarded as a global pharmaceutical manufacturer of generic medications, how its judiciary and government perceive their international obligations has a significant impact on the global access to medicines regime. In rejecting the application of patent linkage, the case provides an opportunity for India to further acknowledge its international human rights obligations.
Lusi Herawati Sunyoto Usman Mark Zuidgeest
as indicators. Flowmap tool is used to analyze catchment area of each health facility using different transport modes choice:becak and public transport for poor group and motorcycle and car for non-poor group with different travel time within 30, 60 and more than 60 minutes. It is concluded that there was an accessibility difference between poor and non-poor group. The accessibility to the health facilities of poor group was lower than non-poor group. This condition occurred because the government policy of equitable access to health service facility did not pay attention to accessibility of poor group.
Leininger, Lindsey; Levy, Helen
It might seem strange to ask whether increasing access to medical care can improve children's health. Yet Lindsey Leininger and Helen Levy begin by pointing out that access to care plays a smaller role than we might think, and that many other factors, such as those discussed elsewhere in this issue, strongly influence children's health.…
Radis, Molly E.; Updegrove, Stephen C.; Somsel, Anne; Crowley, Angela A.
Access to student health information, such as immunizations, screenings, and care plans for chronic conditions, is essential for school nurses to fulfill their role in promoting students' health. School nurses typically encounter barriers to accessing health records and spend many hours attempting to retrieve health information. As a result,…
Radis, Molly E; Updegrove, Stephen C; Somsel, Anne; Crowley, Angela A
Access to student health information, such as immunizations, screenings, and care plans for chronic conditions, is essential for school nurses to fulfill their role in promoting students' health. School nurses typically encounter barriers to accessing health records and spend many hours attempting to retrieve health information. As a result, nurses' time is poorly utilized and students may suffer adverse outcomes including delayed school entry. In response to this pressing public health issue, a school medical advisor and director of school nurses in a local health department successfully negotiated access for school nurses to three health record systems: a state immunization tracking system, an electronic lead surveillance program, and an electronic health record system. This negotiation process is presented within a framework of the Theory of Diffusion of Innovation and provides a strategy for other school nurses seeking access to student health information.
Full Text Available Abstract Open Access publishing is a valuable resource for the synthesis and distribution of essential health care information. This article discusses the potential benefits of Open Access, specifically in terms of Low and Middle Income (LAMI countries in which there is currently a lack of informed health care providers – mainly a consequence of poor availability to information. We propose that without copyright restrictions, Open Access facilitates distribution of the most relevant research and health care information. Furthermore, we suggest that the technology and infrastructure that has been put in place for Open Access could be used to publish download-able manuals, guides or basic handbooks created by healthcare providers in LAMI countries.
Snowdon, Anne; Schnarr, Karin; Alessi, Charles
The lead paper from Zelmer and Hagens details the substantive evolution occurring in health information technologies that has the potential to transform the relationship between consumers, health practitioners and health systems. In this commentary, the authors suggest that Canada is experiencing a shift in consumer behaviour toward a desire to actively manage one's health and wellness that is being facilitated through the advent of health applications on mobile and online technologies platforms. The result is that Canadians are now able to create personalized health solutions based on their individual health values and goals. However, before Canadians are able to derive a personal health benefit from these rapid changes in information technology, they require and are increasingly demanding greater real-time access to their own health information to better inform decision-making, as well as interoperability between their personal health tracking systems and those of their health practitioner team.
McGibbon, Elizabeth; Etowa, Josephine; McPherson, Charmaine
The social determinants of health (SDH) are recognized as important indicators of health and well-being. Health-care services (primary, secondary, tertiary care) have not until recently been considered an SDH. Inequities in access to health care are changing this view. These inequities include barriers faced by certain population groups at point of care, such as the lack of cultural competence of health-care providers. The authors show how a social justice perspective can help nurses understand how to link inequities in access to poorer health outcomes, and they call on nurses to break the cycle of oppression that contributes to these inequities.
... below. Please note that entities on this list may or may not have current job opportunities for NHSC... support and facilitate mentorship, professional development, and training opportunities for Corps...
Suka, Machi; Odajima, Takeshi; Okamoto, Masako; Sumitani, Masahiko; Igarashi, Ataru; Ishikawa, Hirono; Kusama, Makiko; Yamamoto, Michiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Sugimori, Hiroki
To examine the relationship between health literacy (HL), health information access, health behavior, and health status in Japanese people. A questionnaire survey was conducted at six healthcare facilities in Japan. Eligible respondents aged 20-64 years (n=1218) were included. Path analysis with structural equation modeling was performed to test the hypothesis model linking HL to health information access, health behavior, and health status. The acceptable fitting model indicated that the pathways linking HL to health status consisted of two indirect paths; one intermediated by health information access and another intermediated by health behavior. Those with higher HL as measured by the 14-item Health Literacy Scale (HLS-14) were significantly more likely to get sufficient health information from multiple sources, less likely to have risky habits of smoking, regular drinking, and lack of exercise, and in turn, more likely to report good self-rated health. HL was significantly associated with health information access and health behavior in Japanese people. HL may play a key role in health promotion, even in highly educated countries like Japan. In order to enhance the effects of health promotion interventions, health professionals should aim at raising HL levels of their target population groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The need for health information resources to support climate change adaptation and mitigation decisions is growing, both in the United States and around the world, as the manifestations of climate change become more evident and widespread. In many instances, these information resources are not specific to a changing climate, but have either been developed or are highly relevant for addressing health issues related to existing climate variability and weather extremes. To help address the need for more integrated data, the Interagency Cross-Cutting Group on Climate Change and Human Health, a working group of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, has developed the Metadata Access Tool for Climate and Health (MATCH). MATCH is a gateway to relevant information that can be used to solve problems at the nexus of climate science and public health by facilitating research, enabling scientific collaborations in a One Health approach, and promoting data stewardship that will enhance the quality and application of climate and health research. MATCH is a searchable clearinghouse of publicly available Federal metadata including monitoring and surveillance data sets, early warning systems, and tools for characterizing the health impacts of global climate change. Examples of relevant databases include the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Public Health Tracking System and NOAA's National Climate Data Center's national and state temperature and precipitation data. This presentation will introduce the audience to this new web-based geoportal and demonstrate its features and potential applications.
Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Transportation constraints to rural health accessibility in Ogun Waterside Local Government Area ... Secondary data was also sourced to serve as complement to the primary ...
MacDonald, Michael R Bob
In 1999, the Navy and Marine Corps Public Health Center converted an HIV train-the-trainer program into a broader effort of preventing not just HIV, but also other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancies. The premise for this broader approach was that a more comprehensive sexual health promotion message of STI, HIV, and unplanned pregnancy prevention is more likely to include at least one personally relevant concern for any given individual and is, therefore, more likely to be internalized and acted upon by the greatest number of individuals, and that risk reduction for any one of these consequences of sexual activity may reduce risk for all. This new effort was labeled the Sexual Health and Responsibility Program (SHARP). Within the Navy and Marine Corps, SHARP has become a focal and trusted source of sexual health promotion products, consultative services, and training, as well as a conduit for multidisciplinary collaboration and coordination. The existence of this central sexual health program normalizes integrated and comprehensive sexual health messages, enables efficiencies, promotes program and policy uniformity, and provides a forum for cross-organizational collaboration and continuous improvement.
MacDonald, Michael R. (Bob)
In 1999, the Navy and Marine Corps Public Health Center converted an HIV train-the-trainer program into a broader effort of preventing not just HIV, but also other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancies. The premise for this broader approach was that a more comprehensive sexual health promotion message of STI, HIV, and unplanned pregnancy prevention is more likely to include at least one personally relevant concern for any given individual and is, therefore, more likely to be internalized and acted upon by the greatest number of individuals, and that risk reduction for any one of these consequences of sexual activity may reduce risk for all. This new effort was labeled the Sexual Health and Responsibility Program (SHARP). Within the Navy and Marine Corps, SHARP has become a focal and trusted source of sexual health promotion products, consultative services, and training, as well as a conduit for multidisciplinary collaboration and coordination. The existence of this central sexual health program normalizes integrated and comprehensive sexual health messages, enables efficiencies, promotes program and policy uniformity, and provides a forum for cross-organizational collaboration and continuous improvement. PMID:23450888
paper, proposes a framework for monitoring equity in access and health .... get additional data through in—depth and qualitative studies. Equity and health .... characteristics of HIV infected patients seeking care in relation to access to the Drug ...
Public access computing in health science libraries began with online computer-assisted instruction. Library-based collections and services have expanded with advances in microcomputing hardware and software. This growth presents problems: copyright, quality, instability in the publishing industry, and uncertainty about collection scope; librarians managing the new services require new skills to support their collections. Many find the cooperative efforts of several organizational units are required. Current trends in technology for the purpose of information management indicate that these services will continue to be a significant focus for libraries.
Loos, E F
Aging and digitalisation are important trends which have their impact on information accessibility. Accessible information about products and services is of crucial importance to ensure that all citizens can participate fully as active members of society. Senior citizens who have difficulties using new media run the risk of exclusion in today's information society. Not all senior citizens, however, encounter problems with new media. Not by a long shot. There is much to be said for 'aged heterogeneity', the concept that individual differences increase as people age. In two explorative qualitative case studies related to accessible health information--an important issue for senior citizens--that were conducted in the Netherlands, variables such as gender, education level and frequency of internet use were therefore included in the research design. In this paper, the most important results of these case studies will be discussed. Attention will be also paid to complementary theories (socialisation, life stages) which could explain differences in information search behaviour when using old or new media.
Frasca, Dominic R
The Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), through the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR), coordinates federal Emergency Support Function (ESF) #8 preparedness, response, and recovery actions. To address these needs, the ASPR can draw on trained personnel from a variety of sources, both from within and outside HHS. Among the resources under the domain of HHS is the Medical Reserve Corps (MRC), directed by the Office of the Civilian Volunteer Medical Reserve Corps (OCVMRC) in the Office of the Surgeon General. MRC units are community based and function as a way to locally organize and utilize medical and public health professionals, such as physicians, nurses, pharmacists, dentists, veterinarians, and epidemiologists. Nonclinical volunteers, such as interpreters, chaplains, office workers, legal advisors, and others, can fill logistical and support roles in MRC units. This article discusses locally controlled (Hurricanes Gustav and Ike) and federalized (Hurricanes Katrina and Rita) MRC activations, and it describes the advantages of using medical volunteers in a large-scale disaster response setting.
Al-Neyadi, Fahed; Abawajy, Jemal H.
E-Health systems logically demand a sufficiently fine-grained authorization policy for access control. The access to medical information should not be just role-based but should also include the contextual condition of the role to access data. In this paper, we present a mechanism to extend the standard role-based access control to incorporate contextual information for making access control decisions in e-health application. We present an architecture consisting of authorisation and context infrastructure that work cooperatively to grant access rights based on context-aware authorization policies and context information.
Souliotis, Kyriakos; Hasardzhiev, Stanimir; Agapidaki, Eirini
Research evidence suggests that access to health care is the key influential factor for improved population health outcomes and health care system sustainability. Although the importance of addressing barriers in access to health care across European countries is well documented, little has been done to improve the situation. This is due to different definitions, approaches and policies, and partly due to persisting disparities in access within and between European countries. To bridge this gap, the Patient Access Partnership (PACT) developed (a) the '5As' definition of access, which details the five critical elements (adequacy, accessibility, affordability, appropriateness, and availability) of access to health care, (b) a multi-stakeholders' approach for mapping access, and (c) a 13-item questionnaire based on the 5As definition in an effort to address these obstacles and to identify best practices. These tools are expected to contribute effectively to addressing access barriers in practice, by suggesting a common framework and facilitating the exchange of knowledge and expertise, in order to improve access to health care between and within European countries. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
According to the Institute of Medicine, health care access is defined as "the degree to which people are able to obtain appropriate care from the health care system in a timely manner." Two key components of health care access are medical insurance and having access to a usual source of health care. Recent national data show that 34% of Latino…
Kushalnagar, Poorna; Naturale, Joan; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Smith, Scott R; Werfel, Emily; Doolittle, Richard; Jacobs, Stephen; DeCaro, James
To date, there have been efforts toward creating better health information access for Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users. However, the usability of websites with access to health information in ASL has not been evaluated. Our article focuses on the usability of four health websites that include ASL videos. We seek to obtain ASL users' perspectives on the navigation of these ASL-accessible websites, finding the health information that they needed, and perceived ease of understanding ASL video content. ASL users (n = 32) were instructed to find specific information on four ASL-accessible websites, and answered questions related to (a) navigation to find the task, (b) website usability, and (c) ease of understanding ASL video content for each of the four websites. Participants also gave feedback on what they would like to see in an ASL health library website, including the benefit of added captioning and/or signer model to medical illustration of health videos. Participants who had lower health literacy had greater difficulty in finding information on ASL-accessible health websites. This article also describes the participants' preferences for an ideal ASL-accessible health website, and concludes with a discussion on the role of accessible websites in promoting health literacy in ASL users.
Park, Hyejin; Cormier, Eileen; Gordon, Glenna; Baeg, Jung Hoon
The increasing amount of health information available on the Internet highlights the importance of eHealth literacy skills for health consumers. Low eHealth literacy results in disparities in health consumers' ability to access and use eHealth information. The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived eHealth literacy of a general health consumer population so that healthcare professionals can effectively address skills gaps in health consumers' ability to access and use high-quality online health information. Participants were recruited from three public library branches in a Northeast Florida community. The eHealth Literacy Scale was used. The majority of participants (n = 108) reported they knew how and where to find health information and how to use it to make health decisions; knowledge of what health resources were available and confidence in the ability to distinguish high- from low-quality information were considerably less. The findings suggest the need for eHealth education and support to health consumers from healthcare professionals, in particular, how to access and evaluate the quality of health information.
Access to health care in South Africa - the influence of race and class. R Lalloo, M J .... number of consumer durables in the household; (iv) the highest educational .... Pillay YG, Bond P. Health and social policies in the new South Africa. Int J Health ... gender- do they affect reported health-care seeking behaviour. Soc Sci ...
Gudmundsen, Anne M.
An agreement between the College of Nursing at Texas Woman's University and the Peace Corps was negotiated to include two years of Peace Corps service with work leading to a master's or doctoral degree in nursing. A brief description of a student assigned to Banjul, Gambia, is presented. (MLW)
Full Text Available The role of information is undeniable in promoting public health (1-3. “Access to health information for all” was the slogan of the World Health Organization in 2004 (4. The proving of this slogan requires access to health information by beneficiaries (health professionals and patients. Access to health information by specialists as partly been achieved, but access to health information for patients and their families is considered low (5-7, which could have adverse effects. Health professionals have quick and easy access to information through libraries and medical information centers, participation in seminars, exchange of scientific information with other professionals, as well as identifying ways to effectively access to health information, but patients and their families do not have access to such facilities and capabilities. Therefore, patients and their families are faced with a phenomenon known as “inequity in access to health information” and the continuation of the injustice leads to health information poverty. Thus, the main question now is what we should do? It seems that the government needs to develop a national policy in the field of health information and it is the most important step. In the next step, the government should expand the concept production via using potentials of different organizations like public media (TV and Radio, health ministry and press and increase the access of patients to health information in the easy language (level of health information between health professionals and patients is different.
Bertera, Elizabeth M.; Bertera, Robert L.; Morgan, Russell; Wuertz, Ellen; Attey, Alfred M. O.
Many older adults do not use health information available on the Internet. Older adults residing in affordable housing were taught to use the NIHSeniorHealth.gov Web site. Participants were predominantly African American women with limited education and income (N = 42). Outcomes included changes in computer and health Web site navigation skills.…
McKirnan, David J.; Du Bois, Steve N.; Alvy, Lisa M.; Jones, Kyle
Men who have sex with men (MSM) appear to experience barriers to health care compared with general population men. This report examines individual differences in health care access within a diverse sample of urban MSM ("N" = 871). The authors examined demographic differences in health care access and the relation between access and health-related…
Maggio, Lauren A; Steinberg, Ryan M; Moorhead, Laura; O'Brien, Bridget; Willinsky, John
The research sought to ascertain the types and quantity of research evidence accessed by health personnel through PubMed and UpToDate in a university medical center over the course of a year in order to better estimate the impact that increasing levels of open access to biomedical research can be expected to have on clinical practice in the years ahead. Web log data were gathered from the 5,042 health personnel working in the Stanford University Hospitals (SUH) during 2011. Data were analyzed for access to the primary literature (abstracts and full-text) through PubMed and UpToDate and to the secondary literature, represented by UpToDate (research summaries), to establish the frequency and nature of literature consulted. In 2011, SUH health personnel accessed 81,851 primary literature articles and visited UpToDate 110,336 times. Almost a third of the articles (24,529) accessed were reviews. Twenty percent (16,187) of the articles viewed were published in 2011. When it is available, health personnel in a clinical care setting frequently access the primary literature. While further studies are needed, this preliminary finding speaks to the value of the National Institutes of Health public access policy and the need for medical librarians and educators to prepare health personnel for increasing public access to medical research.
Steinberg, Ryan M.; Moorhead, Laura; O'Brien, Bridget; Willinsky, John
Purpose: The research sought to ascertain the types and quantity of research evidence accessed by health personnel through PubMed and UpToDate in a university medical center over the course of a year in order to better estimate the impact that increasing levels of open access to biomedical research can be expected to have on clinical practice in the years ahead. Methods: Web log data were gathered from the 5,042 health personnel working in the Stanford University Hospitals (SUH) during 2011. Data were analyzed for access to the primary literature (abstracts and full-text) through PubMed and UpToDate and to the secondary literature, represented by UpToDate (research summaries), to establish the frequency and nature of literature consulted. Results: In 2011, SUH health personnel accessed 81,851 primary literature articles and visited UpToDate 110,336 times. Almost a third of the articles (24,529) accessed were reviews. Twenty percent (16,187) of the articles viewed were published in 2011. Conclusion: When it is available, health personnel in a clinical care setting frequently access the primary literature. While further studies are needed, this preliminary finding speaks to the value of the National Institutes of Health public access policy and the need for medical librarians and educators to prepare health personnel for increasing public access to medical research. PMID:23930091
In recent years, tremendous progress has been made toward providing health information in Africa, in part because of technological advancements. Nevertheless, ensuring that information is accessible, comprehensible, and usable remains problematic, and there remain needs in many settings to address issues such as computer skills, literacy, and the infrastructure to access information. To determine how librarians might play a more strategic role in meeting information needs of health professionals in Africa, the author reviewed key components of information systems pertinent to knowledge management for the health sector, including access to global online resources, capacity to use computer technology for information retrieval, information literacy, and the potential for professional networks to play a role in improving access to and use of information. The author concluded that, in regions that lack adequate information systems, librarians could apply their knowledge and skills to facilitate access and use by information seekers. Ensuring access to and use of health information can also be achieved by engaging organizations and associations working to enhance access to health information, such as the Association for Health Information and Libraries in Africa. These groups can provide assistance through training, dissemination, information repackaging, and other approaches known to improve information literacy.
Vanessa Franco de Carvalho
Full Text Available Objective: to understand how is the access to the public health service users in the Papanicolaou Test. Methods: qualitative study, with 52 women who have changes in the Pap smear exam, questioning the exam achievement frequency and the difficulties of its access and the consultations. It was developed a thematic analysis based on the Fekete accessibility reference. Results: three categories emerged: access to information on the frequency of Pap smears, highlighting the completion of the examination linked only to the professional application; access to Pap smears, in which most women do not have difficulty; access to a return visit, showing the difficulty of women getting back into service after the exam. Conclusion: most women have easy access to the Pap smear. However, there are limitations on the return visit, hindering to establish immediate actions to the beginning of treatment.
Vanessa Franco de Carvalho
Full Text Available Objective: to understand how is the access to the public health service users in the Papanicolaou Test. Methods: qualitative study, with 52 women who have changes in the Pap smear exam, questioning the exam achievement frequency and the difficulties of its access and the consultations. It was developed a thematic analysis based on the Fekete accessibility reference. Results: three categories emerged: access to information on the frequency of Pap smears, highlighting the completion of the examination linked only to the professional application; access to Pap smears, in which most women do not have difficulty; access to a return visit, showing the difficulty of women getting back into service after the exam. Conclusion: most women have easy access to the Pap smear. However, there are limitations on the return visit, hindering to establish immediate actions to the beginning of treatment.
... reduce in Nigeria. KEYWORDS: Infant mortality, Maternal health care, Pregnancy care, Delivery care, Nigeria ... not go for antenatal care, and as a result may not access other cares ...... Inadequate Use of Prenatal Services Among. Brazilian ...
McClellan, Kelly A; Avard, Denise; Simard, Jacques; Knoppers, Bartha M
Personalized medicine promises that an individual's genetic information will be increasingly used to prioritize access to health care. Use of genetic information to inform medical decision making, however, raises questions as to whether such use could be inequitable. Using breast cancer genetic risk prediction models as an example, on the surface clinical use of genetic information is consistent with the tools provided by evidence-based medicine, representing a means to equitably distribute limited health-care resources. However, at present, given limitations inherent to the tools themselves, and the mechanisms surrounding their implementation, it becomes clear that reliance on an individual's genetic information as part of medical decision making could serve as a vehicle through which disparities are perpetuated under public and private health-care delivery models. The potential for inequities arising from using genetic information to determine access to health care has been rarely discussed. Yet, it raises legal and ethical questions distinct from those raised surrounding genetic discrimination in employment or access to private insurance. Given the increasing role personalized medicine is forecast to play in the provision of health care, addressing a broader view of what constitutes genetic discrimination, one that occurs along a continuum and includes inequitable access, will be needed during the implementation of new applications based on individual genetic profiles. Only by anticipating and addressing the potential for inequitable access to health care occurring from using genetic information will we move closer to realizing the goal of personalized medicine: to improve the health of individuals.
Ryder, Nathan; McNulty, Anna M
Confidentiality concerns are often described as barriers to seeking sexual health care. There has been little research describing the relative importance of confidentiality to clients of sexual health clinics, and whether members of high-risk groups have greater concerns. This study aimed to determine the importance of confidentiality and anonymity to clients of a public sexual health clinic, and determine associations with gender and sexuality. A self-administered questionnaire was offered to consecutive new English-speaking clients in October and November 2007. Participants were asked to describe the reasons for presenting, likelihood of disclosing identifying information, and concern should specific people and agencies become aware of their attendance. Of 350 eligible clients, 270 (77%) participated in the survey. Expert care was included in the top three reasons for choosing a sexual health clinic rather than a general practitioner by over half of participants, while confidentiality and cost were each included in the top three reasons by one-third of respondents respectively. Over 90% of clients reported they were likely to give accurate identifying information to the clinic. Participants were comfortable with disclosure of information to other health-care workers but became increasingly unwilling for information to be shared with services not directly involved in their care. Overall there were few associations with gender or sexuality. Clients choose to attend our clinic for a variety of reasons, with confidentiality and anonymity being of lesser importance than competence and cost. Confidentiality is important to the majority of clients, whereas few desire anonymity. Most clients would accept information being shared with other health services, suggesting that confidentiality may not be a barrier to the use of electronic health records in sexual health clinics.
Drozdowicz, Michał; Ganzha, Maria; Paprzycki, Marcin
Internet of Things (IoT) requires novel solutions to facilitate autonomous, though controlled, resource access. Access policies have to facilitate interactions between heterogeneous entities (devices and humans). Here, we focus our attention on access control in eHealth. We propose an approach based on enriching policies, based on well-known and widely-used eXtensible Access Control Markup Language, with semantics. In the paper we describe an implementation of a Policy Information Point integrated with the HL7 Security and Privacy Ontology.
Maggio, Lauren A; Steinberg, Ryan M; Moorhead, Laura; O'Brien, Bridget; Willinsky, John
The research sought to ascertain the types and quantity of research evidence accessed by health personnel through PubMed and UpToDate in a university medical center over the course of a year in order...
...., MTI Technology Corp., and North American Scientific, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading July 13... concerning the securities of North American Scientific, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic...
Martinez, Iveris L; Frick, Kevin; Glass, Thomas A; Carlson, Michelle; Tanner, Elizabeth; Ricks, Michelle; Fried, Linda P
Engagement in social and generative activities has benefits for the well-being of older adults; hence, methods for broadly engaging them in such activities are desired. Experience Corps Baltimore, a social model for health promotion for older adult volunteers in public schools, offers insight to such successful recruitment and retention. We report on data over a 4-year period in Baltimore City, Maryland, and describe a five-stage screening process implemented to recruit a diverse group of senior volunteers who would remain in the program for at least 1 year. The sample consisted of 443 older adults expressing an interest in and screened for volunteering. Comparisons were made with Chi-square and Fisher's t-test between those who entered the program and those who did not and those who were retained in the program. Gender, race, age group, and prior volunteering were significant in ultimate volunteer service in the schools. Overall, 38% of 443 persons recruited entered the schools; 94% of participants were over 60 years (p = 0.05) with a mean age of 69 years; 90% were women (p = 0.03), and 93% African-American (p = 0.005); 57% had not volunteered in the past year (p = 0.004). Ninety-two percent were retained in the first year; 80% returned a second year. Among the latter, 83% had volunteering regardless of baseline MMSE score, self-reported health, and motivation for volunteering. In conclusion, it is possible to recruit and retain a diverse pool of older adults to participate in a high-intensity volunteer program, including non-traditional volunteers. Of special note is the success in recruiting African-American women and those with lower education, who may particularly benefit from health promotion.
McKirnan, David J.; Du Bois, Steve N.; Alvy, Lisa M.; Jones, Kyle
Men who have sex with men (MSM) appear to experience barriers to health care compared with general population men. This report examines individual differences in health care access within a diverse sample of urban MSM ("N" = 871). The authors examined demographic differences in health care access and the relation between access and…
Hall, Amanda K.; Bernhardt, Jay M.; Dodd, Virginia; Vollrath, Morgan W.
Objective: Innovations in health information technology (HIT) provide opportunities to reduce health care spending, improve quality of care, and improve health outcomes for older adults. However, concerns relating to older adults' limited access and use of HIT, including use of the Internet for health information, fuel the digital health divide…
Hall, Amanda K.; Bernhardt, Jay M.; Dodd, Virginia; Vollrath, Morgan W.
Objective: Innovations in health information technology (HIT) provide opportunities to reduce health care spending, improve quality of care, and improve health outcomes for older adults. However, concerns relating to older adults' limited access and use of HIT, including use of the Internet for health information, fuel the digital health divide…
Godager, Geir; Iversen, Tor; Ma, Ching-to Albert
We study gatekeeping physicians' referrals of patients to specialty care. We derive theoretical results when competition in the physician market intensifies. First, due to competitive pressure, physicians refer patients to specialty care more often. Second, physicians earn more by treating patients themselves, so refer patients to specialty care less often. We assess empirically the overall effect of competition with data from a 2008-2009 Norwegian survey, National Health Insurance Administration, and Statistics Norway. From the data we construct three measures of competition: the number of open primary physician practices with and without population adjustment, and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index. The empirical results suggest that competition has negligible or small positive effects on referrals overall. Our results do not support the policy claim that increasing the number of primary care physicians reduces secondary care.
Domenick Sridharan, Natalie; Fish, Larry; Yu, Lan; Weisbord, Steven; Jhamb, Manisha; Makaroun, Michel S; Yuo, Theodore H
In addition to age and comorbidities, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is known to predict mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Understanding the association of vascular access type with HRQOL can help surgeons to provide patient-centered dialysis access recommendations. We sought to understand the impact of HD access type on HRQOL. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study of community-dwelling prevalent HD patients in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. We assessed patient satisfaction with their access using the Vascular Access Questionnaire (VAQ) and HRQOL with the Short Form Health Survey. We compared access satisfaction and HRQOL across access types. We used logistic regression modeling to evaluate the association of access type with satisfaction and multivariate analysis of variance to evaluate the association of both of these variables on HRQOL. We surveyed 77 patients. The mean age was 61.8 ± 15.9 years. Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) was used by 62.3%, tunneled dialysis catheter (TDC) by 23.4%, and arteriovenous graft (AVG) by 14.3%. There was a significant difference in satisfaction by access type with lowest median VAQ score (indicating highest satisfaction) in patients with AVF followed by TDC and AVG (4.5 vs 6.5 vs 7.0; P = .013). Defining a VAQ score of <7 to denote satisfaction, AVF patients were more likely to be satisfied with their access, compared with TDC or AVG (77% vs 56% vs 55%; P = NS). Multivariate regression analysis yielded a model that predicted 46% of the variance of VAQ score; important predictors of dissatisfaction included <1 year on dialysis (β = 3.36; P < .001), increasing number of access-related hospital admissions in the last year (β = 1.69; P < .001), and AVG (β = 1.72; P = .04) or TDC (β = 1.67; P = .02) access. Mean physical and mental QOL scores (the composite scores of Short Form Health Survey) were not different by access type (P = .49; P = .41). In an additive multivariate analysis of variance
Masland, Mary C; Snowden, Lonnie R; Wallace, Neal T
Examined were effects on access of managed care assessment and authorization processes in California's 57 county mental health plans. Primary data on managed care implementation were collected from surveys of county plan administrators; secondary data were from Medicaid claims and enrollment files. Using multivariate fixed effects regression, we found that following implementation of managed care, greater access occurred in county plans where assessments and treatment were performed by the same clinician, and where service authorizations were made more rapidly. Lower access occurred in county plans where treating clinicians authorized services themselves. Results confirm the significant effects of managed care processes on outcomes and highlight the importance of system capacity.
S. J. E. J. van Vuuren
Full Text Available The health of citizens is usually a priority in any society. In order to prevent/cure disease, people make use of various forms of care, ranging from lay care to professional health care (PRHC. Professional health care, however, is not equally accessible to all members of a society. This article attempts to indicate how factors such as costs, distance, consultation hours, attitude of medical personnel can result in PRHC being less accessible for some members and totally inaccessible for other members of a society. It is imperative that health care planners should once again review this issue in order to ensure that all South Africans are able to exercise their basic right to health care.
Dândara Nayara Azevêdo Dantas
Full Text Available The objective was to know the evaluation of patients with tuberculosis regarding the access to health care and the diagnosis of the disease. It is a cross-sectional quantitative study made in Natal, RN, Brazil, from February to September 2012, with 60 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis. Data were collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Access to health care was considered easy by 80% of patients. Of those, 35% considered it easy because of the short time to get a doctor’s appointment and 21.7% because of their relationship with the health professionals. The access to the diagnosis of the disease was also evaluated as easy (85%. Of this total, 33.3% rated it as easy, once the exams were made in the health service and 13.3% due to the short time to get immediate doctor’s appointment. It is concluded that the organization of the services was crucial for the good or bad evaluation of the access to the assistance to health and diagnosis of the disease.
Bell, Scott; Wilson, Kathi; Shah, Tayyab Ikram; Gersher, Sarina; Elliott, Tina
Accessibility to health services at the local or community level is an effective approach to measuring health care delivery in various constituencies in Canada and the United States. GIS and spatial methods play an important role in measuring potential access to health services. The Three-Step Floating Catchment Area (3SFCA) method is a GIS based procedure developed to calculate potential (spatial) accessibility as a ratio of primary health care (PHC) providers to the surrounding population in urban settings. This method uses PHC provider locations in textual/address format supplied by local, regional, or national health authorities. An automated geocoding procedure is normally used to convert such addresses to a pair of geographic coordinates. The accuracy of geocoding depends on the type of reference data and the amount of value-added effort applied. This research investigates the success and accuracy of six geocoding methods as well as how geocoding error affects the 3SFCA method. ArcGIS software is used for geocoding and spatial accessibility estimation. Results will focus on two implications of geocoding: (1) the success and accuracy of different automated and value-added geocoding; and (2) the implications of these geocoding methods for GIS-based methods that generalise results based on location data.
Full Text Available Spatial analytical tools and analyses are key enabling instruments which can be used to efficiently plan for public-spaces such as health care facilities in a metropolitan context. Improving the levels of access to public-spaces through various...
Kimerling, Rachel; Baumrind, Nikki
The Anderson behavioral model was used to investigate racial and ethnic disparities in access to specialty mental health services among women in California as well as factors that might account for such disparities. The study was a cross-sectional examination of a probability sample of 3,750 California women. The main indicators of access to services were perceived need, service seeking, and service use. Multivariate models were constructed that accounted for need and enabling and demographic variables. Significant racial and ethnic variations in access to specialty mental health services were observed. African-American, Hispanic, and Asian women were significantly less likely to use specialty mental health services than white women. Multivariate analyses showed that Hispanic and Asian women were less likely than white women to report perceived need, even after frequent mental distress had been taken into account. Among women with perceived need, African-American and Asian women were less likely than white women to seek mental health services after differences in insurance status had been taken into account. Among women who sought services, Hispanic women were less likely than white women to obtain services after adjustment for the effects of poverty. Need and enabling factors did not entirely account for the observed disparities in access to services. Additional research is needed to identify gender- and culture-specific models for access to mental health services in order to decrease disparities in access. Factors such as perceived need and decisions to seek services are important factors that should be emphasized in future studies.
Denise Elvira Pires de Pires
Full Text Available Objective to identify the workloads of nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy, considering its implications for the effectiveness of universal access. Method qualitative study with nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy of the South, Central West and North regions of Brazil, using methodological triangulation. For the analysis, resources of the Atlas.ti software and Thematic Content Analysis were associated; and the data were interpreted based on the labor process and workloads as theorical approaches. Results the way of working in the Family Health Strategy has predominantly resulted in an increase in the workloads of the nursing professionals, with emphasis on the work overload, excess of demand, problems in the physical infrastructure of the units and failures in the care network, which hinders its effectiveness as a preferred strategy to achieve universal access to health. On the other hand, teamwork, affinity for the work performed, bond with the user, and effectiveness of the assistance contributed to reduce their workloads. Conclusions investments on elements that reduce the nursing workloads, such as changes in working conditions and management, can contribute to the effectiveness of the Family Health Strategy and achieving the goal of universal access to health.
Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Ramírez-Valdés, Carlos Jacobo; Cerecero-Garcia, Diego; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza
OBJECTIVE To describe the health status and access to care of forced-return Mexican migrants deported through the Mexico-United States border and to compare it with the situation of voluntary-return migrants. METHODS Secondary data analysis from the Survey on Migration in Mexico’s Northern Border from 2012. This is a continuous survey, designed to describe migration flows between Mexico and the United States, with a mobile-population sampling design. We analyzed indicators of health and access to care among deported migrants, and compare them with voluntary-return migrants. Our analysis sample included 2,680 voluntary-return migrants, and 6,862 deportees. We employ an ordinal multiple logistic regression model, to compare the adjusted odds of having worst self-reported health between the studied groups. RESULTS As compared to voluntary-return migrants, deportees were less likely to have medical insurance in the United States (OR = 0.05; 95%CI 0.04;0.06). In the regression model a poorer self-perceived health was found to be associated with having been deported (OR = 1.71, 95%CI 1.52;1.92), as well as age (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 1.02;1.03) and years of education (OR = 0.94 95%CI 0.93;0.95). CONCLUSIONS According to our results, deportees had less access to care while in the United States, as compared with voluntary-return migrants. Our results also showed an independent and statistically significant association between deportation and having poorer self-perceived health. To promote the health and access to care of deported Mexican migrants coming back from the United States, new health and social policies are required. PMID:25119943
Jacquet, Gabrielle A; Kirsch, Thomas; Durrani, Aqsa; Sauer, Lauren; Doocy, Shannon
Introduction The 2010 floods submerged more than one-fifth of Pakistan's land area and affected more than 20 million people. Over 1.6 million homes were damaged or destroyed and 2,946 direct injuries and 1,985 deaths were reported. Infrastructure damage was widespread, including critical disruptions to the power and transportation networks. Hypothesis Damage and loss of critical infrastructure will affect the population's ability to seek and access adequate health care for years to come. This study sought to evaluate factors associated with access to health care in the aftermath of the 2010 Pakistan floods. A population-proportional, randomized cluster-sampling survey method with 80 clusters of 20 (1,600) households of the flood-affected population was used. Heads of households were surveyed approximately six months after flood onset. Multivariate analysis was used to determine significance. A total of 77.8% of households reported needing health services within the first month after the floods. Household characteristics, including rural residence location, large household size, and lower pre- and post-flood income, were significantly associated (Pfloods was associated with urban residence location, suggesting that locating health care providers in rural areas may be difficult. Access to health services also was associated with post-flood income level, suggesting health resources are not readily available to households suffering great income losses. Jacquet GA , Kirsch T , Durrani A , Sauer L , Doocy S . Health care access and utilization after the 2010 Pakistan floods. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):485-491.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of physical access to health services is extremely important for planning. Complex methods that incorporate data inputs from road networks and transport systems are used to assess physical access to healthcare in industrialised countries. However, such data inputs hardly exist in many developing countries. Straight-line distances between the service provider and resident population are easily obtained but their relationship with driving distance and travel time is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between different measures of physical access, including straight-line distances, road distances and travel time and the impact of these measures on the vaccination of children in Yemen. Methods Coordinates of houses and health facilities were determined by GPS machine in Urban and rural areas in Taiz province, Yemen. Road distances were measured by an odometer of a vehicle driven from participants' houses to the nearest health centre. Driving time was measured using a stop-watch. Data on children's vaccination were collected by personal interview and verified by inspecting vaccination cards. Results There was a strong correlation between straight-line distances, driving distances and driving time (straight line distances vs. driving distance r = 0.92, p Conclusion Straight-line distances, driving distances and driving time are strongly linked and associated with vaccination uptake. Straight-line distances can be used to assess physical access to health services where data inputs on road networks and transport are lacking. Impact of physical access is clear in Yemen, highlighting the need for efforts to target vaccination and other preventive healthcare measures to children who live away from health facilities.
Kousoulis, Antonis A; Ioakeim-Ioannidou, Myrsini; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P
Eastern Greek islands have been direct passageways of (mainly Syrian) refugees to the European continent over the past year. However, basic medical care has been insufficient. Despite calls for reform, the Greek healthcare system has for many years been costly and dysfunctional, lacking universal equity of access. Thus, mainly volunteers look after the refugee camps in the Greek islands under adverse conditions. Communicable diseases, trauma related injuries and mental health problems are the most common issues facing the refugees. The rapid changes in the epidemiology of multiple conditions that are seen in countries with high immigration rates, like Greece, demand pragmatic solutions. Best available knowledge should be used in delivering health interventions. So far, Greece is failed by international aid, and cross-border policies have not effectively tackled underlying reasons for ill-health in this context, like poverty, conflict and equity of access.
Simone Chiadò Piat
Full Text Available
Background: Since the large volume of health information available on the Web has the potential to improve health, Public Health institutions must represent a strong Internet presence with accessible and scientific information. The aims of the study were to verify the presence and visibility of Italian Institutions on the Web and to evaluate the accessibility and quality of the information provided.
Methods: In a focus group setting, 21 keywords were generated, and launched in search-engines Google and MSN. Researchers noted the first 30 results found and determined the position of institutional websites. The accessibility of 303 Public Health websites was assessed in relation to the logo presence and web validation of XHTML, CSS and WAI indicators. Regarding the quality of information, the presence of the HONcode logo in the websites’ homepage was checked.
Results: A high percentage of the keywords selected did not lead to any institutional website in the first three pages of Google (19.0% and MSN (42.8%. Few institutional websites presented the logo indicator and a full web validation. Considering the XHTML indicator, only for 34.0% of the websites there was concordance between the logo presence/absence and results of direct validation, 50.2% for CSS. The quality level seemed to be extremely low.
Conclusions:In order to achieve a larger visibility and guarantee accessibility, Public Health websites have to be correctly designed, edited and maintained. Common and strict European laws about health information on the Web have to be arranged, deeply monitored and carefully adjourned in order to guarantee and support the positive role of institutional websites.
Willinsky, John; Maggio, Lauren
Background In 2008, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy mandated open access for publications resulting from NIH funding (following a 12-month embargo). The large increase in access to research that will take place in the years to come has potential implications for evidence-based practice (EBP) and lifelong learning for health personnel. Objective This study assesses health personnel’s current use of research to establish whether grounds exist for expecting, preparing for, and further measuring the impact of the NIH Public Access Policy on health care quality and outcomes in light of time constraints and existing information resources. Methods In all, 14 interviews and 90 surveys of health personnel were conducted at a community-based clinic and an independent teaching hospital in 2010. Health personnel were asked about the research sources they consulted and the frequency with which they consulted these sources, as well as motivation and search strategies used to locate articles, perceived level of access to research, and knowledge of the NIH Public Access Policy. Results In terms of current access to health information, 65% (57/88) of the health personnel reported being satisfied, while 32% (28/88) reported feeling underserved. Among the sources health personnel reported that they relied upon and consulted weekly, 83% (73/88) reported turning to colleagues, 77% (67/87) reported using synthesized information resources (eg, UpToDate and Cochrane Systematic Reviews), while 32% (28/88) reported that they consulted primary research literature. The dominant resources health personnel consulted when actively searching for health information were Google and Wikipedia, while 27% (24/89) reported using PubMed weekly. The most prevalent reason given for accessing research on a weekly basis, reported by 35% (31/88) of survey respondents, was to help a specific patient, while 31% (26/84) were motivated by general interest in research. Conclusions
Full Text Available This paper tackles the difficult and often not openly discussed This paper tackles the difficult and often not openly discussed topic of access and equity in higher education for people with mental health difficulties. Recent legislative and policy developments in mental health, disability, anti-discrimination and education mean that all students who disclose a mental health condition can expect fair and equitable treatment. However the findings of an exploratory study at an Australian university reveal that just under two thirds of the 54 students who reported mental health difficulties did not disclose this to staff due to fears of discrimination at university and in future employment. Students who did disclose felt supported when staff displayed a respectful attitude and provided appropriate advice and useful strategies for them to remain engaged in university studies when experiencing mental health difficulties.
Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Oviedo, Heidi Celina; Herazo, Edwin
The perceived stigma represents a sociocultural barrier to access mental health services and prevents individuals who meet criteria for a mental disorder the possibility of receiving comprehensive and integred care. To update institutional mechanisms by which stigma related to mental disorders, perceived and perpetrated, acts as a barrier to mental health access. Stigma as a barrier to access to mental health services is due to a reduction in service requests, the allocation of limited resources to mental health, the systematic process of impoverishment of the people who suffer a mental disorder, increased risk of crime, and implications in contact with the legal system, and the invisibility of the vulnerability of these people. Structured awareness and education programs are needed to promote awareness about mental disorders, promote community-based psychosocial rehabilitation, and reintegration into productive life process. In Colombia, the frequency and variables associated with the stigma of mental disorders needs to be studied. This knowledge will enable the implementation of measures to promote the social and labor inclusion of people who meet the criteria for mental disorders. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. All rights reserved.
Enabling the shared care paradigm, centralised or even decentralised electronic health record (EHR) systems increasingly become core applications in hospital information systems and health networks. For realising multipurpose use and reuse as well as inter-operability at knowledge level, EHR have to meet special architectural requirements. The component-oriented and model-based architecture should meet international standards. Especially in extended health networks realising inter-organisational communication and co-operation, authorisation cannot be organised at user level anymore. Therefore, models, methods and tools must be established to allow formal and structured policy definition, policy agreements, role definition, authorisation and access control. Based on the author's international engagement in EHR architecture and security standards referring to the revision of CEN ENV 13606, the GEHR/open EHR approach, HL7 and CORBA, models for health-specific and EHR-related roles, for authorisation management and access control have been developed. The basic concept is the separation of structural roles defining organisational entity-to-entity relationships and enabling specific acts on the one hand, and functional roles bound to specific activities and realising rights and duties on the other hand. Aggregation of organisational, functional, informational and technological components follows specific rules. Using UML and XML, the principles as well as some examples for analysis, design, implementation and maintenance of policy and authorisation management as well as access control have been practically implemented.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Today health perpectives has been changing widly. Now social determinants of health are more influence in disease rather than biological causes. If these determinants being ignored, achievement to health Golas would be impossible. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between Social determinants of health and access to health care in GonbadKavoos.Materials and Methods: This study was a correlation and cross-sectional. The populations were urban residents of GonbadKavoos, and the sample size was four hundred households, and the data collection tool was a questionnaire. For statistical analyze between variables these tests were used: independent sample test, Pearson correlation and ANOVA.Results: Among determinants of health, the variables like: socio-economic status of household (P<0.0001, educational level of household breadwinner (P<0.0001, family dimension (P<0.018, employment (P<0.003, residential area (P<0.001, access to internet (P<0.0001, doing exercise (P<0.0001, and having insurance (P<0.0001, had significant relationship with access to health care, spatially dental services and periodical checkup.Conclusion: Social determinants of health have very important relationship with access to health care. Then to decline these inequities in access to health care, development of social and economic equality for all people is so crucial.
Niniek Lely Pratiwi
Full Text Available Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in family planning in Indonesia. Results: Women of 3–4 children in rural greater and prevalence (27.1% compared to women who live in urban areas (25.0%. The main reason of not using contraception mostly because they want to have children 27.0% in urban, 28.2% rural whereas, the second reason is the fear of side effects 23.1% in urban, 16.5% rural. There is 10% of respondent did not use contraceptives, because they did not need it. Health seeking behavior of pregnant women with family planning work status has a significant relationship (prevalence ratio 1.073. The jobless mothers has better access to family planning services compared to working mother. Conclusions: Accessibility of family planning services is inadequate, because not all rural ‘Poskesdes’ equipped with infrastructure and family planning devices, a lack of knowledge of family planning in rural areas. Health seeking behavior of family planning services is mostly to the midwives, the scond is to community health centers and than polindes, ‘poskesdes’ as the ranks third.
Austen, Sally; McGrath, Melissa
Long-distance travel to provide mental health services for deaf people has implications for efficiency, safety, and equality of service. However, uptake of Telemental Health (TMH) has been slow in both deaf and general mental health services. A quantitative study was used to investigate access to TMH and whether staff confidence, experience, or…
Topp, Stephanie M; Moonga, Clement N; Mudenda, Constance; Luo, Nkandu; Kaingu, Michael; Chileshe, Chisela; Magwende, George; Heymann, Jody S; Henostroza, German
Research exploring the drivers of health outcomes of women who are in prison in low- and middle-income settings is largely absent. This study aimed to identify and examine the interaction between structural, organisational and relational factors influencing Zambian women prisoners' health and healthcare access. We conducted in-depth interviews of 23 female prisoners across four prisons, as well as 21 prison officers and health care workers. The prisoners were selected in a multi-stage sampling design with a purposive selection of prisons followed by a random sampling of cells and of female inmates within cells. Largely inductive thematic analysis was guided by the concepts of dynamic interaction and emergent behaviour, drawn from the theory of complex adaptive systems. We identified compounding and generally negative effects on health and access to healthcare from three factors: i) systemic health resource shortfalls, ii) an implicit prioritization of male prisoners' health needs, and iii) chronic and unchecked patterns of both officer- and inmate-led victimisation. Specifically, women's access to health services was shaped by the interactions between lack of in-house clinics, privileged male prisoner access to limited transport options, and weak responsiveness by female officers to prisoner requests for healthcare. Further intensifying these interactions were prisoners' differential wealth and access to family support, and appointments of senior 'special stage' prisoners which enabled chronic victimisation of less wealthy or less powerful individuals. This systems-oriented analysis revealed how Zambian women's prisoners' health and access to healthcare is influenced by weak resourcing for prisoner health, administrative biases, and a prevailing organisational and inmate culture. Findings highlight the urgent need for investment in structural improvements in health service availability but also interventions to reform the organisational culture which shapes
Brindicci, G; Trillo, G; Santoro, C R; Volpe, A; Monno, L; Angarano, G
This paper, part of a larger epidemiological study carried out between 2004 and 2010, analyzed immigrants frequenting the largest Apulian regional hospital (Bari Policlinico). Our aim was to evaluate the perception on the part of undocumented immigrants of their rights of access to the National Health Care services and whether this privilege is actually utilized. An anonymous multi-language questionnaire was distributed to all patients with STP (code number for temporary presence of foreigners) at the immigrant outpatient Infectious Diseases Clinic of Bari from June 2009 to June 2010. Questions were related to nationality, date of arrival in Italy, use of health facilities in the 2 years prior to the compilation of the questionnaire, and their understanding of STP. The patients were also screened for infectious diseases (HIV-Ab, HBsAg, HCV-Ab, VDRL, TPHA and Mantoux). A total of 256/272 patients completed the questionnaire; the meaning of STP was unknown to 156/256 (60.9%) patients, only 54/256 (21%) knew the exact meaning of STP and only 42/54 (76.6%) of the latter knew how long STP was valid. Moreover, 128/256 (50.7%) were aware that doctors from the emergency unit were not allowed to notify police regarding presence of illegal immigrants. Regarding clinical data 3% were HIV+ (8/256), 5% (13 patients) positive for TPHA, 5% for HBsAg, 2% were HCV (five patients). A >10 mm diameter infiltrate of Mantoux test was noted for 44% of patients. A lower prevalence than expected for infections such as HIV, HBV or HCV was noted for immigrants compared to data from their countries of origin. At present, large-scale political solutions to the challenges of facilitating access to health facilities for undocumented immigrants are lacking in Italy. The development of communication systems is fundamental to improving access to health services and to creating links between immigrants and the healthcare system.
Manning, Amy R
The state of child and adolescent overall health in the United States evidences the need for both prevention and treatment. Although much time and energy has been spent in recent years discussing and improving health benefit coverage and affordability for children, physical access to services has not kept pace with these changes. This article will introduce four major physical health issues (obesity, diabetes, asthma, and teen pregnancy/STD) and five key mental health issues (suicide, depression, ADHD, aggression, and violence) facing young people today. In an effort to answer the question, "What can be done?" school-based health clinics and their impact on health and educational outcomes are examined.
Jin, Jing; Ahn, Gail-Joon; Covington, Michael J.; Zhang, Xinwen
The adoption of electronically formatted medical records, so called Electronic Health Records (EHRs), has become extremely important in healthcare systems to enable the exchange of medical information among stakeholders. An EHR generally consists of data with different types and sensitivity degrees which must be selectively shared based on the need-to-know principle. Security mechanisms are required to guarantee that only authorized users have access to specific portions of such critical record for legitimate purposes. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for modelling access control scheme for composite EHRs. Our model formulates the semantics and structural composition of an EHR document, from which we introduce a notion of authorized zones of the composite EHR at different granularity levels, taking into consideration of several important criteria such as data types, intended purposes and information sensitivities.
Schoevers, M.A.; Loeffen, M.J.; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
OBJECTIVE: To obtain information about the actual use of health care facilities by undocumented women and to identify obstacles they experience in accessing health care facilities. METHODS: A mixed methods study, with structured questionnaires and semi-structured interviews, was chosen to obtain a
Gillum, R Frank; Jarrett, Nicole; Obisesan, Thomas O
In order to elucidate cultural correlates of utilization of primary health services by young adult men, we investigated religion in which one was raised and service utilization. Using data from a national survey we tested the hypothesis that religion raised predicts access to and utilization of a regular medical care provider, examinations, HIV and other STD testing and counseling at ages 18-44 years in men born between 1958 and 1984. We also hypothesized that religion raised would be more predictive of utilization for Hispanic Americans and non-Hispanic Black Americans than for non-Hispanic White Americans. The study included a national sample of 4276 men aged 18-44 years. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to assess the hypotheses using data on religion raised and responses to 14 items assessing health care access and utilization. Compared to those raised in no religion, those raised mainline Protestant were more likely (p Religion raised was not associated with testicular exams, STD counseling or HIV testing. In multivariate analyses controlling for confounders, significant associations of religion raised with insurance coverage, a physician as usual source of care and physical examination remained which varied by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, although religion is a core aspect of culture that deserves further study as a possible determinant of health care utilization, we were not able to document any consistent pattern of significant association even in a population with high rates of religious participation.
Holm, S; Liss, P E; Norheim, O F
The health care systems are fairly similar in the Scandinavian countries. The exact details vary, but in all three countries the system is almost exclusively publicly funded through taxation, and most (or all) hospitals are also publicly owned and managed. The countries also have a fairly strong primary care sector (even though it varies between the countries), with family physicians to various degrees acting as gatekeepers to specialist services. In Denmark most of the GP services are free. For the patient in Norway and Sweden there are out-of-pocket co-payments for GP consultations, with upper limits, but consultations for children are free. Hospital treatment is free in Denmark while the other countries use a system with out-of-pocket co-payment. There is a very strong public commitment to access to high quality health care for all. Solidarity and equality form the ideological basis for the Scandinavian welfare state. Means testing, for instance, has been widely rejected in the Scandinavian countries on the grounds that public services should not stigmatise any particular group. Solidarity also means devoting special consideration to the needs of those who have less chance than others of making their voices heard or exercising their rights. Issues of limited access are now, however, challenging the thinking about a health care system based on solidarity.
Haustein, S.; Smith, E.; Mongeon, P.; Shu, F.; Lariviere, V.
As it is a priority of global health research (GHR) to achieve equity in health worldwide, there is an increased demand and expectation that knowledge be shared freely and without barriers. Making research findings available for free to readers by publishing open access (OA) is thus central to GHR. Several studies have assessed the extent to which different forms of OA prevail but despite the importance of free access to knowledge in GHR, particular empirical evidence is missing. This paper aims to fill this gap by analyzing the extent to which GHR papers indexed in PubMed are published OA and how much it costs to publish in gold and hybrid OA journals. Findings show that between 2010 and 2014 as few as 18% of papers were published in gold OA journals, 7% published as hybrid OA (i.e., OA papers in subscription journals), while more than 60% were behind paywalls. Costs for gold OA amounted to $990,619 for 404 papers, whereas $722,631 were spent on article processing charges (APCs) of 223 hybrid papers. The majority of APCs were obtained by large commercial publishing houses known for exorbitant profit margins. (Author)
and Medical Service Corps Professions Officers Special Pays. OPNAV Instruction 7220.17 (December 28, 2005). Special Pay for Medical Corps, Dental ...health and industrial hygiene officers. The specialties focused on in this study, the specialties that receive a special pay, are all located in the...level. 2. OPNAV Instruction 7220.17 The overarching instruction that establishes special pays for Medical Corps, Dental Corps, Medical Service Corps
Fisher-Owens, S A; Soobader, M J; Gansky, S A; Isong, I A; Weintraub, J A; Platt, L J; Newacheck, P W
To ascertain differences across states in children's oral health care access and oral health status and the factors that contribute to those differences. Observational study using cross-sectional surveys. Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, we examined state variation in parents' report of children's oral health care access (absence of a preventive dental visit) and oral health status. We assessed the unadjusted prevalences of these outcomes, then adjusted with child-, family-, and neighbourhood-level variables using logistic regression; these results are presented directly and graphically. Using multilevel analysis, we then calculated the degree to which child-, family-, and community-level variables explained state variation. Finally, we quantified the influence of state-level variables on state variation. Unadjusted rates of no preventive dental care ranged 9.0-26.8% (mean 17.5%), with little impact of adjusting (10.3-26.7%). Almost 9% of the population had fair/poor oral health; unadjusted range 4.1-14.5%. Adjusting analyses affected fair/poor oral health more than access (5.7-10.7%). Child, family and community factors explained ∼¼ of the state variation in no preventive visit and ∼½ of fair/poor oral health. State-level factors further contributed to explaining up to a third of residual state variation. Geography matters: where a child lives has a large impact on his or her access to oral health care and oral health status, even after adjusting for child, family, community, and state variables. As state-level variation persists, other factors and richer data are needed to clarify the variation and drive changes for more egalitarian and overall improved oral health. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schoevers, Marianne A; Loeffen, Maartje J; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria E; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M
To obtain information about the actual use of health care facilities by undocumented women and to identify obstacles they experience in accessing health care facilities. A mixed methods study, with structured questionnaires and semi-structured interviews, was chosen to obtain a complete understanding. One-hundred undocumented women were recruited. Diversity was sought according to age, origin and reason for being undocumented. Undocumented female immigrants have unmet health care needs (56%) and low health care utilisation. Sixty-nine per cent of the women reported obstacles in accessing health care facilities. These included many personal obstacles such as shame, fear and/or lack of information. Poor language proficiency (OR 0.28;. CI 0.09-0.90) reduces utilisation of primary health care services. Health care utilisation of undocumented women is low. Undocumented women refrain from seeking health care because of personal obstacles. These women need to be identified and informed about their rights, the health care system and the duty of professional confidentiality of doctors. Finally, institutional obstacles to access care should be removed since they strengthen reluctance to seek help.
Froelich, John M; Beck, Ryan; Novicoff, Wendy M; Saleh, K J
Growing orthopedic and nonorthopedic literature illustrates the point that having health insurance does not equal having access to care. The goal of this study was to evaluate the burden placed on patients to gain access to outpatient orthopedic care. For this study, burden was quantified as the distance traveled by the patient to be seen in clinic. This study was a retrospective review of all new patient encounters at an adult orthopedic outpatient clinic in an academic tertiary referral center over 1 calendar year. All patients were stratified into 4 categories: commercial/private insurance, Medic-aid, Medicare, and uninsured/private pay. The average distance traveled by each patient to the center was then calculated based on the patient's billing zip code. Patient visits were further stratified based on whether the patients were seen by 1 of 3 different categories of providers: general orthopedics/adult reconstruction, spine, and sports/upper extremity. The study group comprised 774 (31.1%) Medicaid patients, 653 (26.2%) Medicare patients, 917 (36.8%) commercial/private insurance patients, and 146 (5.9%) uninsured/private pay patients. The average 1-way distance traveled was 36.2 miles for Medicaid patients, 21.3 miles for Medicare patients, 24.1 miles for commercial/private insurance patients, and 25.3 miles for uninsured/private pay patients (Paccess to outpatient orthopedic care at a single institution. The specific burdens that each group faces to gain access to care are unclear.
Danziger, Sheldon; Davis, Matthew M; Orzol, Sean; Pollack, Harold A
This analysis explores the effects of the 1996 welfare reform on health insurance coverage and access to care among former recipients of cash aid. Using panel data from the Women's Employment Study, which conducted five interviews between 1997 and 2003 in one Michigan county, we find that 25% of welfare leavers lacked health insurance coverage in fall 2003. Uninsured adults were significantly more likely than others to report that they could not afford a medical or dental visit during the year prior to the 2003 interview. Fixed-effect logistic regression analysis indicates that women who had been off the welfare rolls for at least 12 months (the duration of transitional Medicaid) were significantly more likely to be uninsured than women who had made more recent welfare exits, and were significantly more likely to report financial obstacles to the receipt of medical and dental care.
Mackenzie, Sara; Wiegel, Jennifer R; Mundt, Marlon; Brown, David; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Heiligenstein, Eric; Harahan, Brian; Fleming, Michael
Depression and suicide are of increasing concern on college campuses. This article presents data from the College Health Intervention Projects on the frequency of depression and suicide ideation among 1,622 college students who accessed primary care services in 4 university clinics in the Midwest, Northwest, and Canada. Students completed the Beck Depression Inventory and other measures related to exercise patterns, alcohol use, sensation seeking, and violence. The frequency of depression was similar for men (25%) and women (26%). Thought of suicide was higher for men (13%) than women (10%). Tobacco use, emotional abuse, and unwanted sexual encounters were all associated with screening positive for depression. "Days of exercise per week" was inversely associated with screening positive for depression. Because the majority of students access campus-based student health centers, medical providers can serve a key role in early identification and intervention. With every 4th student reporting symptoms of depression and every 10th student having suicidal thoughts, such interventions are needed.
Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Valaitis, Ruta; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Donald, Faith; Peña, Laura Morán; Brousseau, Linda
ABSTRACT Objective: to examine advanced practice nursing (APN) roles internationally to inform role development in Latin America and the Caribbean to support universal health coverage and universal access to health. Method: we examined literature related to APN roles, their global deployment, and APN effectiveness in relation to universal health coverage and access to health. Results: given evidence of their effectiveness in many countries, APN roles are ideally suited as part of a primary health care workforce strategy in Latin America to enhance universal health coverage and access to health. Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico are well positioned to build this workforce. Role implementation barriers include lack of role clarity, legislation/regulation, education, funding, and physician resistance. Strong nursing leadership to align APN roles with policy priorities, and to work in partnership with primary care providers and policy makers is needed for successful role implementation. Conclusions: given the diversity of contexts across nations, it is important to systematically assess country and population health needs to introduce the most appropriate complement and mix of APN roles and inform implementation. Successful APN role introduction in Latin America and the Caribbean could provide a roadmap for similar roles in other low/middle income countries. PMID:28146177
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to examine advanced practice nursing (APN roles internationally to inform role development in Latin America and the Caribbean to support universal health coverage and universal access to health. Method: we examined literature related to APN roles, their global deployment, and APN effectiveness in relation to universal health coverage and access to health. Results: given evidence of their effectiveness in many countries, APN roles are ideally suited as part of a primary health care workforce strategy in Latin America to enhance universal health coverage and access to health. Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico are well positioned to build this workforce. Role implementation barriers include lack of role clarity, legislation/regulation, education, funding, and physician resistance. Strong nursing leadership to align APN roles with policy priorities, and to work in partnership with primary care providers and policy makers is needed for successful role implementation. Conclusions: given the diversity of contexts across nations, it is important to systematically assess country and population health needs to introduce the most appropriate complement and mix of APN roles and inform implementation. Successful APN role introduction in Latin America and the Caribbean could provide a roadmap for similar roles in other low/middle income countries.
Mouradian, W E; Wehr, E; Crall, J J
Dental caries can be prevented by a combination of community, professional, and individual measures including water fluoridation, professionally applied topical fluorides and dental sealants, and use of fluoride toothpastes. Yet, tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Dental care is the most prevalent unmet health need in US children with wide disparities existing in oral health and access to care. Only 1 in 5 children covered by Medicaid received preventive oral care for which they are eligible. Children from low income and minority families have poorer oral health outcomes, fewer dental visits, and fewer protective sealants. Water fluoridation is the most effective measure in preventing caries, but only 62% of water supplies are fluoridated, and lack of fluoridation may disproportionately affect poor and minority children. Childhood oral disease has significant medical and financial consequences that may not be appreciated because of the separation of medicine and dentistry. The infectious nature of dental caries, its early onset, and the potential of early interventions require an emphasis on preventive oral care in primary pediatric care to complement existing dental services. However, many pediatricians lack critical knowledge to promote oral health. We recommend financial incentives for prioritizing Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment dental services; managed care accountability; integration of medical and dental professional training, clinical care, and research; and national leadership. JAMA. 2000;284:2625-2631.
Racher, Frances E; Vollman, Ardene Robinson
Access to health services is a major concern across North America and abroad, with particular salience for the residents of rural and remote areas and the health professionals committed to providing services to them. Intrinsic to this discussion is clarification of the phenomenon of access to health services, a concept that remains nebulous and obscure to consumers, health care providers, and policymakers alike. Multiple understandings of access to health services impedes progress in the development of policy, the creation of programs, and the transformation of health services. Considerable discussion of theory concerning access to health services is articulated in public or community health literature and that of other disciplines; however, limited attention to this topic is apparent in nursing literature. This report articulates definitions, dimensions, and frameworks of access to health services from available literature and existing theory. Further, key points are identified and discussed for consideration in nursing research on the term access and implications for practice.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to health care can be described along four dimensions: geographic accessibility, availability, financial accessibility and acceptability. Geographic accessibility measures how physically accessible resources are for the population, while availability reflects what resources are available and in what amount. Combining these two types of measure into a single index provides a measure of geographic (or spatial coverage, which is an important measure for assessing the degree of accessibility of a health care network. Results This paper describes the latest version of AccessMod, an extension to the Geographical Information System ArcView 3.×, and provides an example of application of this tool. AccessMod 3 allows one to compute geographic coverage to health care using terrain information and population distribution. Four major types of analysis are available in AccessMod: (1 modeling the coverage of catchment areas linked to an existing health facility network based on travel time, to provide a measure of physical accessibility to health care; (2 modeling geographic coverage according to the availability of services; (3 projecting the coverage of a scaling-up of an existing network; (4 providing information for cost effectiveness analysis when little information about the existing network is available. In addition to integrating travelling time, population distribution and the population coverage capacity specific to each health facility in the network, AccessMod can incorporate the influence of landscape components (e.g. topography, river and road networks, vegetation that impact travelling time to and from facilities. Topographical constraints can be taken into account through an anisotropic analysis that considers the direction of movement. We provide an example of the application of AccessMod in the southern part of Malawi that shows the influences of the landscape constraints and of the modes of transportation on
Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Eames, Deanna R.
The Rio Grande Civil Works and Restoration Projects Web Application, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Albuquerque District, is designed to provide publicly available information through the Internet about civil works and restoration projects in the Rio Grande Basin. Since 1942, USACE Albuquerque District responsibilities have included building facilities for the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force, providing flood protection, supplying water for power and public recreation, participating in fire remediation, protecting and restoring wetlands and other natural resources, and supporting other government agencies with engineering, contracting, and project management services. In the process of conducting this vast array of engineering work, the need arose for easily tracking the locations of and providing information about projects to stakeholders and the public. This fact sheet introduces a Web application developed to enable users to visualize locations and search for information about USACE (and some other Federal, State, and local) projects in the Rio Grande Basin in southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.
Gilmour, Jean; Strong, Alison; Chan, Helen; Hanna, Sue; Huntington, Annette
Online information is a critical resource for evidence-based practice and patient education. This study aimed to establish New Zealand nurses' access and evaluation of online health information in the primary care context using a postal questionnaire survey; there were 630 respondents from a random sample of 931 nurses. The majority of respondents were satisfied with work access to online information (84.5%, n = 501) and searched for online information at least several times a week (57.5%, n = 343). The major barrier to online information seeking was insufficient time, but 68 respondents had no work online information access. The level of nursing qualification was significantly correlated with computer confidence and information quality checking. A range of information evaluation approaches was used. Most nurses in study accessed and evaluated Internet information in contrast to the findings of earlier studies, but there were barriers preventing universal integration into practice.
Hees, S. van; Cornielje, H.; Wagle, P.; Veldman, E.
Purpose: Persons with disabilities face additional barriers in accessing primary healthcare services, especially in developing countries. Consequently the prevalence of secondary health conditions is higher among this population. This study aims to explore the perceived barriers to access primary
Williams, Shanita D; Hansen, Kristen; Smithey, Marian; Burnley, Josepha; Koplitz, Michelle; Koyama, Kirk; Young, Janice; Bakos, Alexis
It is widely accepted that diversifying the nation's health-care workforce is a necessary strategy to increase access to quality health care for all populations, reduce health disparities, and achieve health equity. In this article, we present a conceptual model that utilizes the social determinants of health framework to link nursing workforce diversity and care quality and access to two critical population health indicators-health disparities and health equity. Our proposed model suggests that a diverse nursing workforce can provide increased access to quality health care and health resources for all populations, and is a necessary precursor to reduce health disparities and achieve health equity. With this conceptual model as a foundation, we aim to stimulate the conceptual and analytical work-both within and outside the nursing field-that is necessary to answer these important but largely unanswered questions.
Poliana Remundini de Lima
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study aimed to describe the access and integrality of attention to children before one year old, born between January of 2010 and December of 2012 in a Brazilian city, in a newborn attention program. From the 24.560 children, 55.0% were users of the Unified Health System (SUS; 10.1% children presented low weight at birth; 6,332 (46.9% children received BCG vaccine at the nursing consultation day; 13,590 (79.5% children had neonatal screening being less than seven days old; 17,035 (69.4% children were vaccinated for Hepatitis B at birth. Within SUS users, 68% of children went to nursing consultation at their first week of life and, 37.8% went to a medical consultation being 10 days old. The study presents information of care after birth at the primary healthcare as potential instrument to coordinate assistance to this clientele.
GeoCorps America, a program of the Geological Society of America's (GSA) Education and Outreach Department, provides short-term geoscience jobs in America's most amazing public lands. These jobs are hosted on federal lands managed by GeoCorps' three partner agencies: the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Agency staff submit to GSA position descriptions that help meet their geoscience needs. GSA advertises the positions online, recruits applicants from its 24,000+ members, and coordinates the placement of the candidates selected by agency staff. The typical GeoCorps position lasts for three months, pays a stipend of $2,750, and provides either free housing or a housing allowance. Some GeoCorps positions are classified as "Guest Scientist" positions, which generally last longer, involve larger payments, and require a higher level of expertise. Most GeoCorps positions occur during the spring/summer, but an increasing number of positions are being offered during the fall/winter. GeoCorps positions are open to geoscientists of all levels, from undergraduates through retired professionals. GeoCorps projects involve field and laboratory-based geoscience research, but some projects focus on developing educational programs and materials for staff, volunteers, and the public. The subject areas covered by GeoCorps projects include geology, hydrology, paleontology, mapping/GIS, soils, geo-hazards, cave/karst science, and more. GeoCorps positions have taken place at over 125 different locations nationwide, including Grand Canyon National Park, Sierra National Forest, and Craters of the Moon National Monument. In 2011, GeoCorps began offering GeoCorps Diversity Internships and GeoCorps American Indian Internships. The introduction of these programs doubled the level of diversity among GeoCorps participants. This increase in diversity is helping GSA and its partner agencies in meeting its mutual goal of
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Literature suggests that good quality health care access can have a positive impact on the health of people with serious mental illness (SMI, but literature relating to patterns of access by this group is equivocal. AIM: This study was designed to explore health care access patterns in a group of people with SMI and to compare them with a general New Zealand population group, in order for health providers to understand how they might contribute to positive health outcomes for this group. METHODS: The study surveyed 404 mental health consumers aged 18-65 years receiving care from one district health board in Auckland about their patterns of health care access. Results were compared with those from the New Zealand Health Survey of the general population. RESULTS: Findings suggest that the SMI consumer respondents had poorer physical health than the general population respondents, accessed health care services in more complex ways and were more particular about who they accessed for their care than the general population respondents. There was some concern from SMI consumers around discrimination from health care providers. The study also suggested that some proactive management with SMI consumers for conditions such as metabolic syndrome was occurring within the health care community. DISCUSSION: The first point of access for SMI consumers with general health problems is not always the family general practitioner and so other health professionals may sometimes need to consider the mental and physical health of such consumers in a wider context than their own specialism.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SWAN Coordinating Center provides SWAN data access to SWAN Investigators through the study website. The SWAN website provides access to longitudinal data...
West, Darrell M; Miller, Edward Alan
State health departments have placed a tremendous amount of information, data, and services online in recent years. With the significant increase in online resources at official health sites, though, have come questions concerning equity of access and the confidentiality of electronic medical materials. This paper reports on an examination of public health department websites maintained by the 50 state governments. Using a content analysis of health department sites undertaken each year from 2000 to 2005, we investigate several dimensions of accessibility and privacy: readability levels, disability access, non-English accessibility, and the presence of privacy and security statements. We argue that although progress has been made at improving the accessibility and confidentiality of health department electronic resources, there remains much work to be done to ensure quality access for all Americans in the area of public e-health.
Greenstock, Louise; Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Fraser, Catriona; Bingham, Amie; Naccarella, Lucio; Elliott, Kristine; Morris, Michal
Health policies increasingly promote e-health developments (e.g., consumers' access to online health information) to engage patients in their health care. In order to make these developments available for culturally and socially diverse communities, not only do Internet accessibility, literacy and e-health literacy need to be taken into account, but consumers' preferences and information seeking behaviours for accessing health information have also to be understood. These considerations are crucial when designing major new health policy directions, especially for migration destination countries with culturally diverse populations, such as Australia. The aim of this study was to examine how people from a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) community use telecommunications (phone, mobile, Internet) to access health information. A case study was conducted using a questionnaire exploring the use of telecommunications to access health information among CALD people. The study was carried out at a community health centre in a socially and economically disadvantaged area of Melbourne, a city of 4 million people with a large CALD and migrant population. Questionnaires were translated into three languages and interpreters were provided. Fifty-nine questionnaires were completed by users of the community health centre. Most of the CALD participants did not have access to the Internet at home and very few reported using telecommunications to access health information. The findings of the study suggest that telecommunications are not necessarily perceived to be an important channel for accessing health information by members of the CALD community.
Full Text Available Background. Health policies increasingly promote e-health developments (e.g., consumers’ access to online health information to engage patients in the health care. In order to make these developments available for culturally and socially diverse communities, not only do Internet accessibility, literacy and e-health literacy need to be taken into account, but consumers’ preferences and information seeking behaviours for accessing health information have also to be understood. These considerations are crucial when designing major new health policy directions, especially for migration destination countries with culturally diverse populations, such as Australia. The aim of this study was to examine how people from a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD community use telecommunications (phone, mobile, Internet to access health information. Design and Methods. A case study was conducted using a questionnaire exploring the use of telecommunications to access health information among CALD people. The study was carried out at a community health centre in a socially and economically disadvantaged area of Melbourne, a city of 4 million people with a large CALD and migrant population. Questionnaires were translated into three languages and interpreters were provided. Fifty-nine questionnaires were completed by users of the community health centre. Results. Most of the CALD participants did not have access to the Internet at home and very few reported using telecommunications to access health information. Conclusions. The findings of the study suggest that telecommunications are not necessarily perceived to be an important channel for accessing health information by members of the CALD community.
Guimarães, Luisa; Giovanella, Lígia
This article explores the health policy repercussions of countries' regional integration into the European Union. The aim is to review the regulation of access in other countries, with the conclusion of the single European market and the free circulation of persons, services, goods, and capital. The article begins by reviewing the various forms of integration and describes the expansion and institutionalization of Community agencies. The repercussions of European integration on health policies and regulation of access are analyzed. Market impacts on health result from Treaty directives and internal policy adjustments to free circulation. Health services access is gradually regulated and granted by rulings. Projects along borders illustrate the dynamics where differences are used to achieve comprehensive care. In the oldest integration experience, the market regulation has generated intentional and non-intentional impacts on the health policies of member states, regardless of the organizational model. Knowledge and analysis of this experience signals challenges for the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) and adds to future debates and decisions.
The main contributors to inequities in health relates to widespread poverty. Health cannot be achieved without addressing the social determinants of health, and the answer does not lie in the health sector alone. One of the potential pathways to address vulnerabilities linked to poverty, social exclusion, and empowerment of women is aligning health programmes with empowerment interventions linked to access to capital through microfinance and self-help groups. This paper presents a framework to analyse combined health and financial interventions through microfinance programmes in reducing barriers to access health care. If properly designed and ethically managed such integrated programmes can provide more health for the money spent on health care.
Juliana Pires Ribeiro
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate accessibility to primary health care services in the state of Goiás. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted based on secondary data from the National Program to Improve Access to and Quality of Primary Health Care. The study sample was composed of health professionals from 1,216 primary health care units. Results showed that 68.5% of the health units miss a screening room, thus considerably damaging prompt decision-making by professionals. The lack of medical offices in 2% of the sites hinders the primary health care services accessibility in Goiás. As regards opening hours and work shifts, 86% of the units are open five days a week in eight-hour shifts, which does not favor accessibility for users. This study confirms the lack of accessibility to health services and the need for additional investments to strengthen primary health care.
... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activity (VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Under OMB... INFORMATION: Title: VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records, VA Form 10- 0400. OMB Control Number: 2900... recorded in VHA electronic health records system. An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not...
... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Activity; Comment... attorney by veterans who have medical information recorded in VHA electronic health records system... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health...
Snowden, Lonnie R.; Masland, Mary; Guerrero, Rachel
As noted in the supplement to the U.S. Surgeon General's report on mental health (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), overcoming language access barriers associated with limited English proficiency (LEP) should help to eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in mental health care access and quality. Federal policy requires…
McGrail, Matthew Richard; Humphreys, John Stirling
Poor spatial access to health care remains a key issue for rural populations worldwide. Whilst geographic information systems (GIS) have enabled the development of more sophisticated access measures, they are yet to be adopted into health policy and workforce planning. This paper provides and tests a new national-level approach to measuring primary health care (PHC) access for rural Australia, suitable for use in macro-level health policy. The new index was constructed using a modified two-step floating catchment area method framework and the smallest available geographic unit. Primary health care spatial access was operationalised using three broad components: availability of PHC (general practitioner) services; proximity of populations to PHC services; and PHC needs of the population. Data used in its measurement were specifically chosen for accuracy, reliability and ongoing availability for small areas. The resultant index reveals spatial disparities of access to PHC across rural Australia. While generally more remote areas experienced poorer access than more populated rural areas, there were numerous exceptions to this generalisation, with some rural areas close to metropolitan areas having very poor access and some increasingly remote areas having relatively good access. This new index provides a geographically-sensitive measure of access, which is readily updateable and enables a fine granulation of access disparities. Such an index can underpin national rural health programmes and policies designed to improve rural workforce recruitment and retention, and, importantly, health service planning and resource allocation decisions designed to improve equity of PHC access.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality and essential health information is considered one of the most cost-effective interventions to improve health for a developing country. Healthcare portals have revolutionalized access to health information and knowledge using the Internet and related technologies, but their usage is far from satisfactory in India. This article describes a health portal developed in India aimed at providing one-stop access to efficiently search, organize and share maternal child health information relevant from public health perspective in the country. Methods The portal ‘Repository on Maternal Child Health’ was developed using an open source content management system and standardized processes were followed for collection, selection, categorization and presentation of resource materials. Its usage is evaluated using key performance indicators obtained from Google Analytics, and quality assessed using a standardized checklist of knowledge management. The results are discussed in relation to improving quality and access to health information. Results The portal was launched in July 2010 and provides free access to full-text of 900 resource materials categorized under specific topics and themes. During the subsequent 18 months, 52,798 visits were registered from 174 countries across the world, and more than three-fourth visits were from India alone. Nearly 44,000 unique visitors visited the website and spent an average time of 4 minutes 26 seconds. The overall bounce rate was 27.6%. An increase in the number of unique visitors was found to be significantly associated with an increase in the average time on site (p-value 0.01, increase in the web traffic through search engines (p-value 0.00, and decrease in the bounce rate (p-value 0.03. There was a high degree of agreement between the two experts regarding quality assessment carried out under the three domains of knowledge access, knowledge creation and knowledge transfer (Kappa
Lemke, Sonne; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Kearney, Lisa K; Krahn, Dean D; Neuman, Matthew J; Schmidt, Eric M; Trafton, Jodie A
We outline the development of a Mental Health Domain to track accessibility and quality of mental health care in the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA) as part of a broad-based performance measurement system. This domain adds an important element to national performance improvement efforts by targeting regional and facility leadership and providing them a concise yet comprehensive measure to identify facilities facing challenges in their mental health programs. We present the conceptual framework and rationale behind measure selection and development. The Mental Health Domain covers three important aspects of mental health treatment: Population Coverage, Continuity of Care, and Experience of Care. Each component is a composite of existing and newly adapted measures with moderate to high internal consistency; components are statistically independent or moderately related. Development and dissemination of the Mental Health Domain involved a variety of approaches and benefited from close collaboration between local, regional, and national leadership and from coordination with existing quality-improvement initiatives. During the first year of use, facilities varied in the direction and extent of change. These patterns of change were generally consistent with qualitative information, providing support for the validity of the domain and its component measures. Measure maintenance remains an iterative process as the VHA mental health system and potential data resources continue to evolve. Lessons learned may be helpful to the broader mental health-provider community as mental health care consolidates and becomes increasingly integrated within healthcare systems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Kodjebacheva, Gergana Damianova; Sabo, Tina; Parker, Shan
Studies on the influences of pediatric asthma on health and access to health care were conducted in limited geographic areas or age groups. To investigate associations of asthma with health, use of medical care, mental health or educational services, activity limitations, problems in paying bills, and frustrations in obtaining health care among children in the United States. Caregivers reported children's conditions. Logistic regression models were adjusted for sociodemographic factors in the nationally representative 2011/2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Of the 91,116 children 0 to 17 years old, 14.6% had reported asthma. Of children 0 to 17 years old with asthma, 21.2% were non-Hispanic black. Of children 0 to 17 years old without asthma, 12.2% were non-Hispanic black. In children 0 to 17 years old, compared with children without asthma, children with asthma had an increased odds to have reported fair or poor health, receive more medical care, mental health, and educational services than usual, have activity limitations, have medical bills that the family had problems paying (odds ratio 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.3-1.7), and have caregivers who were frustrated in obtaining care (odds ratio 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.2-1.7). The odds ratios for the associations between asthma and all outcomes were higher in the 0- to 5-year-old compared with the 6- to 17-year-old group. When adjusting for sociodemographic variables, caregivers have problems paying bills and obtaining health care services for their child. To develop age-appropriate interventions, more research is needed to understand why families have difficulties accessing health care. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available As the development of computer science and smart health-care technology, there is a trend for patients to enjoy medical care at home. Taking enormous users in the Smart Health-care System into consideration, access control is an important issue. Traditional access control models, discretionary access control, mandatory access control, and role-based access control, do not properly reflect the characteristics of Smart Health-care System. This paper proposes an advanced access control model for the medical health-care environment, task-role-based access control model, which overcomes the disadvantages of traditional access control models. The task-role-based access control (T-RBAC model introduces a task concept, dividing tasks into four categories. It also supports supervision role hierarchy. T-RBAC is a proper access control model for Smart Health-care System, and it improves the management of access rights. This paper also proposes an implementation of T-RBAC, a binary two-key-lock pair access control scheme using prime factorization.
McGrail, Matthew R; Russell, Deborah J; Humphreys, John S
Objective Improving access to primary health care (PHC) remains a key issue for rural residents and health service planners. This study aims to show that how access to PHC services is measured has important implications for rural health service and workforce planning.Methods A more sophisticated tool to measure access to PHC services is proposed, which can help health service planners overcome the shortcomings of existing measures and long-standing access barriers to PHC. Critically, the proposed Index of Access captures key components of access and uses a floating catchment approach to better define service areas and population accessibility levels. Moreover, as demonstrated through a case study, the Index of Access enables modelling of the effects of workforce supply variations.Results Hypothetical increases in supply are modelled for a range of regional centres, medium and small rural towns, with resulting changes of access scores valuable to informing health service and workforce planning decisions.Conclusions The availability and application of a specific 'fit-for-purpose' access measure enables a more accurate empirical basis for service planning and allocation of health resources. This measure has great potential for improved identification of PHC access inequities and guiding redistribution of PHC services to correct such inequities.What is known about the topic? Resource allocation and health service planning decisions for rural and remote health settings are currently based on either simple measures of access (e.g. provider-to-population ratios) or proxy measures of access (e.g. standard geographical classifications). Both approaches have substantial limitations for informing rural health service planning and decision making.What does this paper add? The adoption of a new improved tool to measure access to PHC services, the Index of Access, is proposed to assist health service and workforce planning. Its usefulness for health service planning is
Topp, Stephanie M; Moonga, Clement N; Luo, Nkandu; Kaingu, Michael; Chileshe, Chisela; Magwende, George; Heymann, S Jody; Henostroza, German
Prison populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) experience a high burden of disease and poor access to health care. Although it is generally understood that environmental conditions are dire and contribute to disease spread, evidence of how environmental conditions interact with facility-level social and institutional factors is lacking. This study aimed to unpack the nature of interactions and their influence on health and healthcare access in the Zambian prison setting. We conducted in-depth interviews of a clustered random sample of 79 male prisoners across four prisons, as well as 32 prison officers, policy makers and health care workers. Largely inductive thematic analysis was guided by the concepts of dynamic interaction and emergent behaviour, drawn from the theory of complex adaptive systems. A majority of inmates, as well as facility-based officers reported anxiety linked to overcrowding, sanitation, infectious disease transmission, nutrition and coercion. Due in part to differential wealth of inmates and their support networks on entering prison, and in part to the accumulation of authority and material wealth within prison, we found enormous inequity in the standard of living among prisoners at each site. In the context of such inequities, failure of the Zambian prison system to provide basic necessities (including adequate and appropriate forms of nutrition, or access to quality health care) contributed to high rates of inmate-led and officer-led coercion with direct implications for health and access to healthcare. This systems-oriented analysis provides a more comprehensive picture of the way resource shortages and human interactions within Zambian prisons interact and affect inmate and officer health. While not a panacea, our findings highlight some strategic entry-points for important upstream and downstream reforms including urgent improvement in the availability of human resources for health; strengthening of facility-based health services systems
Vázquez, María-Luisa; Vargas, Ingrid; Jaramillo, Daniel López; Porthé, Victoria; López-Fernández, Luis Andrés; Vargas, Hernán; Bosch, Lola; Hernández, Silvia S; Azarola, Ainhoa Ruiz
Until April 2012, all Spanish citizens were entitled to health care and policies had been developed at national and regional level to remove potential barriers of access, however, evidence suggested problems of access for immigrants. In order to identify factors affecting immigrants' access to health care, we conducted a qualitative study based on individual interviews with healthcare managers (n=27) and professionals (n=65) in Catalonia and Andalusia, before the policy change that restricted access for some groups. A thematic analysis was carried out. Health professionals considered access to health care "easy" for immigrants and similar to access for autochthons in both regions. Clear barriers were identified to enter the health system (in obtaining the health card) and in using services, indicating a mismatch between the characteristics of services and those of immigrants. Results did not differ among regions, except for in Catalonia, where access to care was considered harder for users without a health card, due to the fees charged, and in general, because of the distance to primary health care in rural areas. In conclusion, despite the universal coverage granted by the Spanish healthcare system and developed health policies, a number of barriers in access emerged that would require implementing the existing policies. However, the measures taken in the context of the economic crisis are pointing in the opposite direction, towards maintaining or increasing barriers.
Crettenden, Ian; Poz, Mario Dal; Buchan, James
This editorial introduces the 'Right time, Right place: improving access to health service through effective retention and distribution of health workers' thematic series. This series draws from studies in a range of countries and provides new insights into what can be done to improve access to health through more effective human resources policies, planning and management. The primary focus is on health workforce distribution and retention.
Pour le xviiie siècle, le corps est encore une machine harmonique. Cette harmonie, c’est tout à la fois la marque divine à l’intérieur du corps, une loi de nature qui permet d’atteindre au bonheur, et une manière de définir l’état de santé. Le corps semble un appareillage soumis à des lois physiques : l’horloge, la fontaine et particulièrement l’instrument de musique. On trouve cette dernière image dans Bacon, en 1639, pour qui la Nature donne des tempéraments pour le corps, « comme la parfai...
Madden, Lynne; King, Lesley; Shiell, Alan
Government anticipates that health economic analysis will contribute to evidence-based policy development. Early examples in Australia where this expectation has been met include the economic evaluations of breast and cervical screening. However, the level of integration of health economics within health services that require this advice appears uneven. We sought to describe how government health departments in Australia use specialist health economic advice to inform policy and planning and the mechanisms through which they access this advice. Information describing the arrangements for gaining health economics input into health decision-making was sought through interviews with a purposeful sample of economists and non-economists employed by all departments of health in Australia (state, territories and national). The survey was undertaken in August 2004. To aid interpretation of the results eight health economic functions were identified. As a comparison, four other government departments in NSW provided information about their access to economic advice. All health departments except one reported being current users of health economics expertise. A variety of arrangements were described to source this, from building organisational capacity with self-sufficient in-house units to forging links with external sources. However, specialist positions for economists or health economists employed within health were few. A framework mapping these arrangements for sourcing advice with the eight common health economic functions to be met is presented. All other non-health government departments approached accessed economic advice, with three having in-house units. A small health economics capacity in Australia has been established over the past 30 years through a variety of structural and strategic mechanisms. Health departments value health economic advice and use a variety of arrangements to obtain this. These arrangements have strengths and weaknesses depending upon the
Hu, Ruishan; Dong, Suocheng; Zhao, Yonghong; Hu, Hao; Li, Zehong
There is a great health services disparity between urban and rural areas in China. The percentage of people who are unable to access health services due to long travel times increases. This paper takes Donghai County as the study unit to analyse areas with physician shortages and characteristics of the potential spatial accessibility of health services. We analyse how the unequal health services resources distribution and the New Cooperative Medical Scheme affect the potential spatial accessibility of health services in Donghai County. We also give some advice on how to alleviate the unequal spatial accessibility of health services in areas that are more remote and isolated. The shortest traffic times of from hospitals to villages are calculated with an O-D matrix of GIS extension model. This paper applies an enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method to study the spatial accessibility of health services and to determine areas with physician shortages in Donghai County. The sensitivity of the E2SFCA for assessing variation in the spatial accessibility of health services is checked using different impedance coefficient valuesa. Geostatistical Analyst model and spatial analyst method is used to analyse the spatial pattern and the edge effect of potential spatial accessibility of health services. The results show that 69% of villages have access to lower potential spatial accessibility of health services than the average for Donghai County, and 79% of the village scores are lower than the average for Jiangsu Province. The potential spatial accessibility of health services diminishes greatly from the centre of the county to outlying areas. Using a smaller impedance coefficient leads to greater disparity among the villages. The spatial accessibility of health services is greater along highway in the county. Most of villages are in underserved health services areas. An unequal distribution of health service resources and the reimbursement policies of the
Verónica Perales Blanco
Full Text Available El título de este artículo, la suma del término inglés digital con el francés corps (cuerpo digital es un guiño que hace referencia a la relación existente entre nuestra búsqueda identitaria en el ciberespacio y el derivado carácter económico de la misma. Corp es el término abreviado de corporation, procedente del latín corpus, se entiende como “cuerpo de gente” y se utiliza fundamentalmente para referirse a la estructura de gran parte de los negocios en Norteamérica y el mundo entero.Este artículo analiza -desde una perspectiva de género- algunas de las proyecciones identitarias actuales en internet con especial atención a las vinculadas a los espacios lúdicos.
Hu, Ruishan; Dong, Suocheng; Zhao, Yonghong; Hu, Hao; Li, Zehong
Introduction There is a great health services disparity between urban and rural areas in China. The percentage of people who are unable to access health services due to long travel times increases. This paper takes Donghai County as the study unit to analyse areas with physician shortages and characteristics of the potential spatial accessibility of health services. We analyse how the unequal health services resources distribution and the New Cooperative Medical Scheme affect the potential sp...
The growth in undocumented immigration in the United States has garnered increasing interest in the arenas of immigration and health care policy reform. Undocumented immigrants are restricted from accessing public health and social service as a result of their immigration status. The Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act restricts undocumented immigrants from participating in state exchange insurance market places, further limiting them from accessing equitable health care services. This commentary calls for comprehensive policy reform that expands access to health care for undocumented immigrants based on an analysis of immigrant health policies and their impact on health care expenditures, public health, and the role of health care providers. The intersectional nature of immigration and health care policy emphasizes the need for nurse policymakers to advocate for comprehensive policy reform aimed at improving the health and well-being of immigrants and the nation as a whole. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Leyva-Flores, René; Infante-Xibille, César; Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Quintino-Pérez, Frida
To analyze socioeconomic, health conditions and access to health services of Mexican indigenous population between 2006 and 2012. A comparative analysis was done between indigenous and non indigenous population, using the information from th National Health and Nutrition Survey (2006 and 2012). 60% of the indigenous population was allocated at the poorest socioeconomic level in 2012 despite the implementation of social programs. The Seguro Popular increased its coverage from 14 to 61.9% in indigenous population. The increase observed in coverage in no indigenous population was from 10 to 35.7%. Nevertheless, no increase was observed in the utilization of healthcare services between indigenous and non indigenous population. The access to hospital services for childbirth delivery increased from 63.8 to 76.4% in indigenous population. However there is an important difference with non indigenous population (93.9%). The increase in the coverage of the Seguro Popular in Mexico has had heterogeneous results in the utilization of health care services. Other social programs such a Oportunidades have not had an impact to alleviate poverty in indigenous groups.
Poljski, Carolyn; Quiazon, Regina; Tran, Chau
Drawing on the research and advocacy work being conducted by the Multicultural Centre for Women's Health (MCWH), a national community-based organization in Victoria, Australia, the paper analyzes female international students' experiences with accessing sexual and reproductive health information and services. Accessibility of sexual and…
Biswas, Dan; Toebes, Brigit; Hjern, Anders
Undocumented migrants' access to health care varies across Europe, and entitlements on national levels are often at odds with the rights stated in international human rights law. The aim of this study is to address undocumented migrants' access to health care in Denmark, Sweden, and the Netherlands...
Biswas, Dan; Toebes, Brigit; Hjern, Anders
Undocumented migrants' access to health care varies across Europe, and entitlements on national levels are often at odds with the rights stated in international human rights law. The aim of this study is to address undocumented migrants' access to health care in Denmark, Sweden, and the Netherlands...... from a human rights perspective....
Brown, K E; Newby, K; Caley, M; Danahay, A; Kehal, I
Sexual health service access is fundamental to good sexual health, yet interventions designed to address this have rarely been implemented or evaluated. In this article, pilot evaluation findings for a targeted public health behavior change intervention, delivered via a website and web-app, aiming to increase uptake of sexual health services among 13-19-year olds are reported. A pre-post questionnaire-based design was used. Matched baseline and follow-up data were identified from 148 respondents aged 13-18 years. Outcome measures were self-reported service access, self-reported intention to access services and beliefs about services and service access identified through needs analysis. Objective service access data provided by local sexual health services were also analyzed. Analysis suggests the intervention had a significant positive effect on psychological barriers to and antecedents of service access among females. Males, who reported greater confidence in service access compared with females, significantly increased service access by time 2 follow-up. Available objective service access data support the assertion that the intervention may have led to increases in service access. There is real promise for this novel digital intervention. Further evaluation is planned as the model is licensed to and rolled out by other local authorities in the United Kingdom.
Specialty Report ending July 20066 FY06 BA SUPSPEC SUBSPECIALTY TOTAL TRAINING NET BILLETS FAIR PERCENT CODE # DESCRIPTION INVENTORY 1...will result.10 The current goal within DoD to maximize our effectiveness with joint operations against GWOT warrants that wartime dental support is...Medicine 18,000 27,000 35,000 Pediatric Dentistry 18,000 27,000 35,000 Public Health Dentistry 18,000 27,000 35,000 Temporomandibular Dysfunction
Brown, K. E.; Newby, K.; Caley, M.; Danahay, A.; Kehal, I.
Sexual health service access is fundamental to good sexual health, yet interventions designed to address this have rarely been implemented or evaluated. In this article, pilot evaluation findings for a targeted public health behavior change intervention, delivered via a website and web-app, aiming to increase uptake of sexual health services among…
Das, Biswa R.; Leatherman, John C.; Bressers, Bonnie M.
The Internet has potential for improving health information delivery and strengthening connections between rural populations and local health service providers. An exploratory case study six rural health care markets in Kansas showed that about 70% of adults use the Internet, with substantial use for accessing health information. While there are…
Akinci, Fevzi; Healey, Bernard J
Using the concept of social marketing, this study examined the determinants of access to primary health care services in order to better understand the perceived access problems and unmet service needs of an entire city in Northeastern Pennsylvania. Consistent with previous research, lack of access to health insurance coverage represents an important financial barrier to access to health care services in this community. This study also highlights the role of perceived need in explaining the presence or absence of a physician consultation.While increased attention to access issues at the national level is important, there also needs to be more emphasis on collecting local data for local decision-making regarding access issues.
E. Schokkaert (Schokkaert); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); D. de Graeve (Diana); A. Lecluyse (Ann); C. van de Voorde (Carine)
textabstractThe effects of supplemental health insurance on health-care consumption crucially depend on specific institutional features of the health-care system. We analyse the situation in Belgium, a country with a very broad coverage in compulsory social health insurance and where supplemental
Low, Wah-Yun; Tong, Wen-Ting; Wong, Yut-Lin; Jegasothy, Ravindran; Choong, Sim-Poey
Malaysia has an abortion law, which permits termination of pregnancy to save a woman's life and to preserve her physical and mental health (Penal Code Section 312, amended in 1989). However, lack of clear interpretation and understanding of the law results in women facing difficulties in accessing abortion information and services. Some health care providers were unaware of the legalities of abortion in Malaysia and influenced by their personal beliefs with regard to provision of abortion services. Accessibility to safer abortion techniques is also an issue. The development of the 2012 Guidelines on Termination of Pregnancy and Guidelines for Management of Sexual and Reproductive Health among Adolescents in Health Clinics by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, is a step forward toward increasing women's accessibility to safe abortion services in Malaysia. This article provides an account of women's accessibility to abortion in Malaysia and the health sector response in addressing the barriers.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the patterns of dental health services access in children under twelve years of age in Peru. Data from 25,285 children under 12 years who participated in the Demographic and Family Health Survey of 2014 were reviewed. An exploratory spatial analysis was performed to project the proportions of children with access to dental health services, according to national regions, type of health service and urban or rural place of residence. The results show that of the total sample, 26.7% had access to dental health services in the last six months, 39.6% belonged to the age group 0-4 years, 40.6% lived in the Andean region and 58.3% lived in urban areas. The regions of Huancavelica, Apurimac, Ayacucho, Lima and Pasco had the highest percentages of access nationwide. In conclusion, there is low access to dental health services in the population under 12 years of age in Peru. The spatial distribution of access to dental health services allows regions to be identified and grouped according to similar access patterns, in order to better focus public health actions.
Holder, Reynaldo; Fabrega, Ricardo
Moving towards Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage (UAH/UHC) is an imperative task on the health agenda for the Americas. The Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) recently approved resolution CD53.R14, titled Strategy for Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage. From the perspective of the Region of the Americas, UAH/UHC "imply that all people and communities have access, without any kind of discrimination, to comprehensive, appropriate and timely, quality health services determined at the national level according to needs, as well as access to safe, affordable, effective, quality medicines, while ensuring that the use of these services does not expose users to financial hardship, especially groups in conditions of vulnerability". PAHO's strategic approach to UAH/UHC sets out four specific lines of action toward effective universal health systems. The first strategic line proposes: a) implementation of integrated health services delivery networks (IHDSNs) based on primary health care as the key strategy for reorganizing, redefining and improving healthcare services in general and the role of hospitals in particular; and b) increasing the response capacity of the first level of care. An important debate initiated in 2011 among hospital and healthcare managers in the region tried to redefine the role of hospitals in the context of IHSDNs and the emerging UAH/UHC movement. The debates resulted in agreements around three main propositions: 1) IHSDNs cannot be envisioned without hospitals; 2) The status-quo and current hospital organizational culture makes IHSDNs inviable; and 3) Without IHSDNs, hospitals will not be sustainable. This process, that predates the approval of PAHO's UAH/UHC resolution, now becomes more relevant with the recognition that UAH/UHC cannot be attained without a profound change in healthcare service and particularly in hospitals. In this context, a set of challenges both for
The relationship between disability and poverty has been described in different contexts. Nevertheless, the basic characteristics of this relationship have not yet been fully established. The social exclusion and discrimination against people with disabilities increase the risk of poverty and reduce the access to basic opportunities such as health and education. This study examines the impact of a health limitation and poverty in the access to health care services in Colombia. Data from the C...
primary care provider and support staff—a nurse care manager, clinical associate, and administrative clerk. Letter Page 2 GAO-16-328...Health Eligibility Center, VHA central office—VHA’s Health Resource Center, Office of Primary Care, and Access and Clinical Administration Program ...newly enrolled veterans were able to access primary care from the Department of Veterans Affairs’ (VA) Veterans Health Administration (VHA), and others
Radigan, Marleen; Wang, Rui; Chen, Yu; Xiang, Jiani
Access to peer advocates is increasingly available to youth and their caregivers who are receiving services in the public mental health system. This study examines associations between reported access to a youth or family advocate and perceptions of satisfaction with mental health services. A cross-sectional survey of youth (N = 768) and caregivers (N = 1,231) who utilized public mental health services in New York State in 2012 was conducted. The survey includes items on access to youth or family advocates and degree of satisfaction with mental health services. A greater proportion of youth or caregivers with access to peer advocates compared to those without access responded positively on the satisfaction domains of access to services, appropriateness of services, participation in services and overall/global satisfaction. Access to peer advocates was also positively associated with agreement on the psychotropic medication comprehension domain for youth and on perceptions of child functioning and social connectedness for caregivers compared to those without access. This study adds to the growing understanding of the important role peer advocates play in engaging youth with mental health needs and their caregivers in mental health services.
Ce séminaire fait suite à un cycle de conférences données en 2014 sur la notion de corps de chair dans le premier christianisme. Cette année la recherche a porté sur le corps spécifique des anges dans la patristique grecque et latine. Sur la base d’un corpus de textes délimité, j’ai essayé de montrer deux choses principales : d’un côté, on ne peut pas comprendre la spécificité du corps des anges sans l’inscrire dans le champ de l’angélologie chrétienne, qui assimile l’ange et l’âme, et d’un a...
Full Text Available Spatial analytical tools and analyses are key enabling instruments which can be used to efficiently plan for public-spaces such as healthcare facilities in a metropolitan context. Improving the levels of access to public-spaces through various...
Hallgren, Emily; Yamada, Seiji
The Republic of the Marshall Islands is a sovereign nation previously under the administrative control of the United States. Since 1986, the Compacts of Free Association (COFA) between the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the United States allows Marshall Islands citizens to freely enter, lawfully reside, and work in the United States, and provides the United States exclusive military control of the region. When the COFA was signed, COFA migrants were eligible for Medicaid and other safety net programs. However, these migrants were excluded from benefits as a consequence of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act. Currently, COFA migrants have limited access to health care benefits in the United States, which perpetuates health inequalities. PMID:25713965
Jarcuska, P.; Bobakova, D.; Uhrin, J.; Bobak, L.; Babinska, I.; Kolarcik, P.; Veselska, Z.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.
The health of Roma has been found to be poorer than that of the majority population. The aim of this study was to explore the differences between Roma and non-Roma regarding perceived barriers in accessing health services. Furthermore, we aimed to assess the association between self-rated health
Jarcuska, P.; Bobakova, D.; Uhrin, J.; Bobak, L.; Babinska, I.; Kolarcik, P.; Veselska, Z.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.
The health of Roma has been found to be poorer than that of the majority population. The aim of this study was to explore the differences between Roma and non-Roma regarding perceived barriers in accessing health services. Furthermore, we aimed to assess the association between self-rated health sta
Adams, Carolyn; Allen, Judy
Access to datasets of personal health information held by government agencies is essential to support public health research and to promote evidence-based public health policy development. Privacy legislation in Australia allows the use and disclosure of such information for public health research. However, access is not always forthcoming in a timely manner and the decision-making process undertaken by government data custodians is not always transparent. Given the public benefit in research using these health information datasets, this article suggests that it is time to recognise a right of access for approved research and that the decisions, and decision-making processes, of government data custodians should be subject to increased scrutiny. The article concludes that researchers should have an avenue of external review where access to information has been denied or unduly delayed.
Full Text Available Undocumented immigrants face significant challenges in accessing health care. Throughout the United States, these challenges may relate to the structure of the public health system in which the undocumented find themselves. In addition, local, regional, and national practices aimed at targeting immigrants for deportation or other non-health reasons may serve to punish them for seeking health services or care. Spain and the United Kingdom serve as useful case studies in comparing the ability of the undocumented to seek health services in Europe and the United States. Overall, promoting access to comprehensive health services for the undocumented should be a national priority, along with analysis of any immigration-related laws or policies for potential harmful impact on health care access.
Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena
One-fifth of Kazakhstan's population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N = 450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia.
Uchôa, Severina Alice da Costa; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Fronteira, Inês Santos Estevinho; Coêlho, Ardigleusa Alves; Martiniano, Claudia Santos; Brandão, Isabel Cristina Araújo; Yamamura, Mellina; Maroto, Renata Melo
Objective: to analyze the influence of contextual indicators on the performance of municipalities regarding potential access to primary health care in Brazil and to discuss the contribution from nurses working on this access. Method: a multicenter descriptive study based on secondary data from External Evaluation of the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care, with the participation of 17,202 primary care teams. The chi-square test of proportions was used to verify differences between the municipalities stratified based on size of the coverage area, supply, coordination, and integration; when necessary, the chi-square test with Yates correction or Fisher's exact test were employed. For the population variable, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used. Results: the majority of participants were nurses (n=15.876; 92,3%). Statistically significant differences were observed between the municipalities in terms of territory (p=0.0000), availability (p=0.0000), coordination of care (p=0.0000), integration (p=0.0000) and supply (p=0.0000), verifying that the municipalities that make up area 6 tend to have better performance in these dimensions. Conclusion: areas 4,5 and 6 performed better in every analyzed dimension, and the nurse had a leading role in the potential to access primary health care in Brazil. PMID:26959332
Severina Alice da Costa Uchôa
Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the influence of contextual indicators on the performance of municipalities regarding potential access to primary health care in Brazil and to discuss the contribution from nurses working on this access. Method: a multicenter descriptive study based on secondary data from External Evaluation of the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care, with the participation of 17,202 primary care teams. The chi-square test of proportions was used to verify differences between the municipalities stratified based on size of the coverage area, supply, coordination, and integration; when necessary, the chi-square test with Yates correction or Fisher's exact test were employed. For the population variable, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used. Results: the majority of participants were nurses (n=15.876; 92,3%. Statistically significant differences were observed between the municipalities in terms of territory (p=0.0000, availability (p=0.0000, coordination of care (p=0.0000, integration (p=0.0000 and supply (p=0.0000, verifying that the municipalities that make up area 6 tend to have better performance in these dimensions. Conclusion: areas 4,5 and 6 performed better in every analyzed dimension, and the nurse had a leading role in the potential to access primary health care in Brazil.
Rousseau, Cécile; ter Kuile, Sonia; Munoz, Marie; Nadeau, Lucie; Ouimet, Marie-Jo; Kirmayer, Laurence; Crépeau, François
Migration flux is being transformed by globalization, and the number of people with either undocumented or with a precarious status is growing in Canada. There are no epidemiological data on the health and social consequences of this situation, but clinicians working in primary care with migrants and refugees are increasingly worried about the associated morbidity. This commentary summarizes findings from a pilot study with health professionals in the Montreal area and suggests that the uninsured population predicament is a national problem. Although ethical and legal issues associated with data collection by clinicians, institutions and governments need to be examined, estimating the public health consequences and long-term cost associated with problems in access to health care due to migratory status should be a priority. Current regulations and administrative policies appear to be at odds with the principles of equal rights set out by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Beyond the commitment of individual clinicians, Canadian medical associations should take an advocacy role and scrutinize the ethical and medical implications of the present system.
Jarcuska, Pavol; Bobakova, Daniela; Uhrin, Jan; Bobak, Ladislav; Babinska, Ingrid; Kolarcik, Peter; Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea
The health of Roma has been found to be poorer than that of the majority population. The aim of this study was to explore the differences between Roma and non-Roma regarding perceived barriers in accessing health services. Furthermore, we aimed to assess the association between self-rated health status and Roma ethnicity and explore to what degree barriers in accessing health services explain this association. We used data from the cross-sectional HepaMeta study conducted in 2011 in Slovakia. The final sample comprised 452 Roma (mean age 34.7; 35.2 % men) and 403 (mean age 33.5; 45.9 % men) non-Roma respondents. Roma ethnicity was found to be significantly associated with poorer self-rated health status. A considerable part of this association can be explained by barriers in accessing health services as perceived by Roma. Worse health in Roma is partially mediated by worse access to health services, apart from a large educational gap between Roma living in settlements and the majority population. Interventions should focus not only on health literacy among Roma but also on the health care system and health care professionals.
Yao, Jing; Murray, Alan T; Agadjanian, Victor
Utilization of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services can significantly impact health outcomes, such as pregnancy and birth, prenatal and neonatal mortality, maternal morbidity and mortality, and vertical transmission of infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS. It has long been recognized that access to SRH services is essential to positive health outcomes, especially in rural areas of developing countries, where long distances as well as poor transportation conditions, can be potential barriers to health care acquisition. Improving accessibility of health services for target populations is therefore critical for specialized healthcare programs. Thus, understanding and evaluation of current access to health care is crucial. Combining spatial information using geographical information system (GIS) with population survey data, this study details a gravity model-based method to measure and evaluate access to SRH services in rural Mozambique, and analyzes potential geographic access to such services, using family planning as an example. Access is found to be a significant factor in reported behavior, superior to traditional distance-based indicators. Spatial disparities in geographic access among different population groups also appear to exist, likely affecting overall program success.
Rao, Mala; Singh, Prabal Vikram; Katyal, Anuradha; Samarth, Amit; Bergkvist, Sofi; Renton, Adrian; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan
.... We aimed to assess whether the innovative state-funded Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh state launched in 2007, has achieved equity of access to hospital inpatient...
Katz, Vikki S.; Ang, Alfonso; Suro, Roberto
U.S. Latinos experience constrained access to formal health care resources, contributing to higher incidence of preventable diseases and chronic health conditions than the general population. The authors explore whether a rich set of informal health communication connections--to friends, family, radio, television, Internet, newspapers, magazines,…
Erbes, Christopher R; Stinson, Rebecca; Kuhn, Eric; Polusny, Melissa; Urban, Jessica; Hoffman, Julia; Ruzek, Josef I; Stepnowsky, Carl; Thorp, Steven R
Mobile health (mHealth) refers to the use of mobile technology (e.g., smartphones) and software (i.e., applications) to facilitate or enhance health care. Several mHealth programs act as either stand-alone aids for Veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or adjuncts to conventional psychotherapy approaches. Veterans enrolled in a Veterans Affairs outpatient treatment program for PTSD (N = 188) completed anonymous questionnaires that assessed Veterans' access to mHealth-capable devices and their utilization of and interest in mHealth programs for PTSD. The majority of respondents (n = 142, 76%) reported having access to a cell phone or tablet capable of running applications, but only a small group (n = 18) reported use of existing mHealth programs for PTSD. Age significantly predicted ownership of mHealth devices, but not utilization or interest in mHealth applications among device owners. Around 56% to 76% of respondents with access indicated that they were interested in trying mHealth programs for such issues as anger management, sleep hygiene, and management of anxiety symptoms. Findings from this sample suggest that Veterans have adequate access to, and interest in, using mHealth applications to warrant continued development and evaluation of mobile applications for the treatment of PTSD and other mental health conditions.
Katz, Vikki S.; Ang, Alfonso; Suro, Roberto
U.S. Latinos experience constrained access to formal health care resources, contributing to higher incidence of preventable diseases and chronic health conditions than the general population. The authors explore whether a rich set of informal health communication connections--to friends, family, radio, television, Internet, newspapers, magazines,…
Full Text Available [The abstract of this article is not available. Here are the first sentence of the interview with Peter Suber. The complete interview is freely available upon registration]Peter Suber (http://bit.ly/suber is Berkman Fellow at Harvard University, Senior Researcher at SPARC, the Open Access Project Director at Public Knowledge, and Research Professor of Philosophy at Earlham College. He conducts research, writing, consulting, and advocacy on open access and related topics.Q: The aim of open access is to remove access barriers to publication. Don’t you think that fee-based model can be an obstacle for authors in less-developed countries?A: Fee-based OA journals don’t work as well as no-fee OA journals in fields and countries where most research is unfunded. But it’s important to remember that the vast majority of OA journals (70% charge no publication fees at all. The percentage is even higher for OA journals published in developing countries. For example, nearly all the OA journals published in India are no-fee. It’s equally important to remember that green OA, or OA through repositories, is an inexpensive alternative to gold OA, or OA through journals.
Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, Sandro
Traditional access control mechanisms aim to prevent illegal actions a-priori occurrence, i.e. before granting a request for a document. There are scenarios however where the security decision can not be made on the fly. For these settings we developed a language and a framework for a-posteriori
González, Lina María; Peñaloza, Rolando Enrique; Matallana, María Alexandra; Gil, Fabián; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Landaeta, Angela Patricia Vega
Access to mental health services by people with mental disorders has traditionally been limited, and is associated with attitudinal, social, and structural variables. To analyse the factors that determine access to mental health services by the adult population (18-44 years old) in Colombia, from the results obtained in the 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Analysis of variables of access to attention in mental health care for adults. The reasons for not consulting were classified as barriers of behavioural supply and demand. To analyse the factors associated with access to mental health services in the Colombian adult population, the use of health services in the last 12 months for emotional, nervous or mental health problems was taken into account, as well as associated variables such as demographic characteristics, occupational activity, affiliation to social security, and health status variables. The relationships between these variables were estimated using bivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Rural residence, being married, and having a chronic disease were associated with the decision to consult or not to consult the doctor. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the situation as regards mental health care access, as well as to determine the potential factors associated with these limitations. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to personal health information through the electronic health record (EHR is an innovative means to enable people to be active participants in their own health care. Currently this is not an available option for consumers of health. The absence of a key technology, the EHR, is a significant obstacle to providing patient accessible electronic records. To assess the readiness for the implementation and adoption of EHRs in Canada, a national scan was conducted to determine organizational readiness and willingness for patient accessible electronic records. Methods A survey was conducted of Chief Executive Officers (CEOs of Canadian public and acute care hospitals. Results Two hundred thirteen emails were sent to CEOs of Canadian general and acute care hospitals, with a 39% response rate. Over half (54.2% of hospitals had some sort of EHR, but few had a record that was predominately electronic. Financial resources were identified as the most important barrier to providing patients access to their EHR and there was a divergence in perceptions from healthcare providers and what they thought patients would want in terms of access to the EHR, with providers being less willing to provide access and patients desire for greater access to the full record. Conclusion As the use of EHRs becomes more commonplace, organizations should explore the possibility of responding to patient needs for clinical information by providing access to their EHR. The best way to achieve this is still being debated.
J. Sellin (Jennifer)
textabstractThe World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that the share of people lacking access to essential medicines worldwide is around 1.7 billon, approximately one-third of the world’s population. Lack of access to essential medicines is an especially serious problem for patients in developin
Smith, Scott R; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Hauser, Peter C
Deaf individuals have more cardiovascular risks than the general population that are believed to be related to their cardiovascular health knowledge disparities. This phenomenological study describes where 20 deaf sign language-using adolescents from Rochester, New York, many who possess many positive characteristics to support their health literacy, learn cardiovascular health information and their lived experiences accessing health information. The goal is to ultimately use this information to improve the delivery of cardiovascular health education to this population and other deaf adolescents at a higher risk for weak health literacy. Deaf bilingual researchers interviewed deaf adolescents, transcribed and coded the data, and described the findings. Five major sources of cardiovascular health information were identified including family, health education teachers, healthcare providers, printed materials, and informal sources. Despite possessing advantageous characteristics contributing to stronger health literacy, study participants described significant challenges with accessing health information from each source. They also demonstrated inconsistencies in their cardiovascular health knowledge, especially regarding heart attack, stroke, and cholesterol. These findings suggest a great need for additional public funding to research deaf adolescents' informal health-related learning, develop accessible and culturally appropriate health surveys and health education programming, improve interpreter education, and disseminate information through social media.
Sakai, Christina; Mackie, Thomas I; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Franzen, Sara; Partap, Anu; Flores, Glenn; Leslie, Laurel K
To examine the perspectives of youth on factors that influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Focus groups were conducted with youth with a history of mental health needs and previous service use who had aged out of foster care. Questions were informed by the Health Belief Model and addressed 4 domains: youth perceptions of the "threat of mental health problems," treatment benefits versus barriers to accessing mental health services, self-efficacy, and "cues to action." Data were analyzed using a modified grounded-theory approach. Youth (N = 28) reported ongoing mental health problems affecting their functioning; however, they articulated variable levels of reliance on formal mental health treatment versus their own ability to resolve these problems without treatment. Past mental health service experiences influenced whether youth viewed treatment options as beneficial. Youth identified limited self-efficacy and insufficient psychosocial supports "cueing action" during their transition out of foster care. Barriers to accessing mental health services included difficulties obtaining health insurance, finding a mental health provider, scheduling appointments, and transportation. Youths' perceptions of their mental health needs, self-efficacy, psychosocial supports during transition, and access barriers influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Results suggest that strategies are needed to 1) help youth and clinicians negotiate shared understanding of mental health treatment needs and options, 2) incorporate mental health into transition planning, and 3) address insurance and other systemic barriers to accessing mental health services after aging out of foster care. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chorev, Nitsan; Kenneth C Shadlen
In this introduction we briefly review the literature on intellectual property rights and access to medicines, identifying two distinct generations of research. The first generation analyzes the origins of new intellectual property rules, in particular the World Trade Organization’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), and the significance of TRIPS to developing countries. The second generation examines\\ud national-level experiences, as countries adjust ...
OASIS is a non-for-profit consortium that drives the development convergence and adoption of open standards for the global information society. It involves more than 600 organizations and individuals as well as IT leaders Sun, Microsoft, IBM and Oracle. One of its standards is XACML which appeared a few years ago and now there are about 150,000 hits on Google. XACML (eXtensible Access Control Markup Language) is not technology related. Sun published in 2004 open source Sun XACML which is in compliance with XACML 1.0. specification and now works to make it comply with XACML 2.0. The heart of XACML are attributes values of defined type and name that is to be attached to a subject, a resource, an action and an environment in which a subject request action on resource. In that way XACML is to replace Role Based Access Control which dominated for years. The paper examines performances in CEN 13 606 and ISO 22 600 based healthcare system which uses XACML for access control.
This study is dedicated to understanding broadly what kind of role do mobile phones play in a health system and what is the impact of mHealth programs on the lives of people in Kenya. This thesis investigates some of the challenges and opportunities related to the use of information and communication technology (ICT) to promote human development and social change and to combat poverty. The emphasis is on the potential of mobile phones in improving maternal health in developing countries. I be...
Plumbaum, Till; Narr, Sascha; Eryilmaz, Elif; Hopfgartner, Frank; Klein-Ellinghaus, Funda; Reese, Anna; Albayrak, Sahin
Finding health-related content is not an easy task. People have to know what to search for, which medical terms to use, and where to find accurate information. This task becomes even harder when people such as immigrants wish to find information in their country of residence and do not speak the national language very well. In this paper, we present a new health information system that allows users to search for health information using natural language queries composed of multiple languages. We present the technical details of the system and outline the results of a preliminary user study to demonstrate the usability of the system.
Alencar Albuquerque, Grayce; de Lima Garcia, Cintia; da Silva Quirino, Glauberto; Alves, Maria Juscinaide Henrique; Belém, Jameson Moreira; dos Santos Figueiredo, Francisco Winter; da Silva Paiva, Laércio; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; da Silva Maciel, Érika; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Adami, Fernando
The relationship between users and health services is considered essential to strengthen the quality of care. However, the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender population suffer from prejudice and discrimination in access and use of these services. This study aimed to identify the difficulties associated with homosexuality in access and utilization of health services. A systematic review conducted using PubMed, Cochrane, SciELO, and LILACS, considering the period from 2004 to 2014. The studies were evaluated according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criterias. Were included manuscripts written in English or Portuguese, articles examining the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender population's access to health services and original articles with full text available online. The electronic databases search resulted in 667 studies, of which 14 met all inclusion criteria. Quantitative articles were predominant, showing the country of United States of America to be the largest producer of research on the topic. The studies reveal that the homosexual population have difficulties of access to health services as a result of heteronormative attitudes imposed by health professionals. The discriminatory attendance implies in human rights violations in access to health services. The non-heterosexual orientation was a determinant factor in the difficulties of accessing health care. A lot must still be achieved to ensure access to health services for sexual minorities, through the adoption of holistic and welcoming attitudes. The results of this study highlight the need for larger discussions about the theme, through new research and debates, with the aim of enhancing professionals and services for the health care of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Persons.
Gastroprotective Effects of Ethyl acetate Extract of A. difformis. Int J Health Res, ... Five genera of moulds (Rhizopus, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Curvularia and. Trichoderma) .... wire-screen-plastic-bottom cages and fed with a conventional diet ...
Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam
The Data Protection Act 1998, section 7, has long granted patients the right of access to their health records. The right is exercised by a subject access request and a person with parental responsibility may exercise this right on behalf of a child. However, once the child is considered Gillick competent then a subject access request to a child's records must only be granted with the consent of the child. In this article the author sets out the requirements for a subject access request and why community nurses and specialist practitioners must proceed with caution when a request is received in respect of a child from the age of 12 years.
Harris, Bronwyn; Eyles, John; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Thomas, Liz; Goudge, Jane
As in many fragile and post-conflict countries, South Africa's social contract has formally changed from authoritarianism to democracy, yet access to services, including health care, remains inequitable and contested. We examine access barriers to quality health services and draw on social contract theory to explore ways in which a post-apartheid health care contract is narrated, practiced and negotiated by patients and providers. We consider implications for conceptualizing and promoting more inclusive, equitable health services in a post-conflict setting. Using in-depth interviews with 45 patients and 67 providers, and field observations from twelve health facilities in one rural and two urban sub-districts, we explore access narratives of those seeking and delivering - negotiating - maternal health, tuberculosis and antiretroviral services in South Africa. Although South Africa's right to access to health care is constitutionally guaranteed, in practice, a post-apartheid health care contract is not automatically or unconditionally inclusive. Access barriers, including poverty, an under-resourced, hierarchical health system, the nature of illness and treatment, and negative attitudes and actions, create conditions for insecure or adverse incorporation into this contract, or even exclusion (sometimes temporary) from health care services. Such barriers are exacerbated by differences in the expectations that patients and providers have of each other and the contract, leading to differing, potentially conflicting, identities of inclusion and exclusion: defaulting versus suffering patients, uncaring versus overstretched providers. Conversely, caring, respectful communication, individual acts of kindness, and institutional flexibility and leadership may mitigate key access barriers and limit threats to the contract, fostering more positive forms of inclusion and facilitating easier access to health care. Building health in fragile and post-conflict societies requires
Nash, David A
Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General, and the subsequent National Call to Action to Promote Oral Health, contributed significantly to raising awareness regarding the lack of access to oral health care by many Americans, especially minority and low-income populations, with resulting disparities in oral health. The problem is particularly acute among children. The current dental workforce in the United States is inadequate to meet the oral health care needs of children. It is inadequate in terms of numbers of dentists, as well as their geographic distribution, ethnicity, education, and practice orientation. Dental therapists, paraprofessionals trained in a 2 academic-year program of postsecondary education, have been employed internationally to improve access to oral health care for children. Research has documented that utilizing dental therapists is a cost-effective method of providing quality oral health care for children. Dental therapists have recently been introduced in Alaska by the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium. Dental therapists could potentially care for children in dental offices, public health clinics, and school systems, as well as in the offices of pediatricians and family physicians. Adding dental therapists to the health care team would be a significant strategy for improving access to care for children and reducing oral health disparities.
The aim of this paper is to answer the question whether there is a real demand for equal access to health care or--better--to medical care and which interest groups (patients, health care professionals, policy makers and others) are interested in equal access. The focus is on EU countries including recent case law from the European Court of Justice and the European Court of Human Rights. We discuss whether there is a need to have legislative safeguards to protect equal access to medical care and whether such norms really work. The paper concludes that some of the key players in medical care are not primarily governed by a real willingness to have equal and just access to medical care, but by rather egoistic approaches. It seems that policy makers and politicians are the only ones who, surprisingly, must at least formally call for and enforce equal access to medical care. Interests of other groups seem to be different.
Full Text Available Background: To address the acute shortages of health workers in underserved, remote, and difficult-to-access areas, the Government of Chhattisgarh and the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM launched the Chhattisgarh Rural Medical Corps (CRMC in 2009. CRMC has enabled provisions such as financial incentives, residential accommodation, life insurance, and extra marks during admission at the postgraduate (PG level to eligible doctors for the attraction and retention of health workers, i.e., doctors, staff nurses, auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs, and rural medical assistants (RMAs in underserved areas. Objectives: This study aims to understand the CRMC scheme in terms of implementation, challenges, gaps, and outcome in achieving the attraction and retention of health workers in the remote and difficult-to-access areas of Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: The study adopts a mix of both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The purposive sampling method was used for the selection of three districts having normal, difficult, and inaccessible areas. Data were collected through key informant (KI interviews with beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of CRMC or district and state government officials, and reviews of document were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Results: CRMC has made positive outcome as 1319 health workers, including doctors, have joined the service in 2010-11, reducing the vacancy of doctors from 90% to 45%. The scope of CRMC was primarily limited to payment of monthly financial incentives. The fund utilization rate of CRMC has increased (from 27% in 2009-10 to 98% in 2011-12, though there are delays in payment of incentives. The majority of staff lack awareness about CRMC during job applications. The payment of incentives based on facility performance has demotivated staff. Conclusions: Establishment of a performance management system, activating the CRMC cell to make it functional, and wide publicity of CRMC
Haughton, Lorna Tanya; Kreuter, Matthew; Hall, Jasmine; Holt, Cheryl L; Wheetley, Eric
This exploratory study examines access to communication technologies, its association with health-related variables and study attrition, and its stability over time in a study of lower income African American women visiting urban public health centers. Participants (n = 1,227) provided information about cancer-related behaviors in a baseline questionnaire that also assessed their e-mail and cell phone/pager access. Interviews conducted at 1-, 6-, and 18-month follow up determined attrition, and an e-mail message sent to participants at 6-month follow up determined stability of access. Fewer than 10% of women reported e-mail access; 26% reported cell/phone pager access. At 6-month follow up, 45% of e-mail accounts were inactive; accounts from pay access providers were more likely to be inactive than work- or school-based accounts (58% versus 25%). Cell phone/pager access was positively associated with mammography knowledge. Attrition rates were lower among women with access than among those without access. Priorities for future research based on these preliminary findings are discussed.
Jayabalan, Manoj; O'Daniel, Thomas
This study presents a systematic literature review of access control for electronic health record systems to protect patient's privacy. Articles from 2006 to 2016 were extracted from the ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore Digital Library, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and MetaPress using broad eligibility criteria, and chosen for inclusion based on analysis of ISO22600. Cryptographic standards and methods were left outside the scope of this review. Three broad classes of models are being actively investigated and developed: access control for electronic health records, access control for interoperability, and access control for risk analysis. Traditional role-based access control models are extended with spatial, temporal, probabilistic, dynamic, and semantic aspects to capture contextual information and provide granular access control. Maintenance of audit trails and facilities for overriding normal roles to allow full access in emergency cases are common features. Access privilege frameworks utilizing ontology-based knowledge representation for defining the rules have attracted considerable interest, due to the higher level of abstraction that makes it possible to model domain knowledge and validate access requests efficiently.
Nandi, Arijit; Galea, Sandro; Lopez, Gerald; Nandi, Vijay; Strongarone, Stacey; Ompad, Danielle C
We assessed access to and use of health services among Mexican-born undocumented immigrants living in New York City in 2004. We used venue-based sampling to recruit participants from locations where undocumented immigrants were likely to congregate. Participants were 18 years or older, born in Mexico, and current residents of New York City. The main outcome measures were health insurance coverage, access to a regular health care provider, and emergency department care. In multivariable models, living in a residence with fewer other adults, linguistic acculturation, higher levels of formal income, higher levels of social support, and poor health were associated with health insurance coverage. Female gender, fewer children, arrival before 1997, higher levels of formal income, health insurance coverage, greater social support, and not reporting discrimination were associated with access to a regular health care provider. Higher levels of education, higher levels of formal income, and poor health were associated with emergency department care. Absent large-scale political solutions to the challenges of undocumented immigrants, policies that address factors shown to limit access to care may improve health among this growing population.
Campbell, Tonya J; Alberga, Amanda; Rosella, Laura C
Research demonstrates that prediabetes awareness has important implications for participation in diabetes risk-reducing behaviors. We examined the impact of levels of access to health services on prediabetes awareness. In 2016, we conducted an analysis among U.S. adults with prediabetes using cross-sectional data from three cycles (2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants aware and unaware of their prediabetes were classified as having full, partial, or no access to health services based on current health insurance coverage and having a routine place to go for health care. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between access to health services and prediabetes awareness. Among a total sample of 2999U.S. adults with prediabetes, an estimated 92.0% were unaware of their prediabetes status. Participants that were unaware of their prediabetes tended to be younger, male, and were less likely to be obese or have a family history of diabetes. Having no access to health services significantly increased the odds of being prediabetes unaware (AOR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.10-6.38). However, participants with insurance but no place of regular care had the greatest odds of being prediabetes unaware (AOR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.21-8.55). These findings suggest that access to health services is a key factor for prediabetes awareness. Health policies and interventions should strive to ensure equitable access to health services in order to detect prediabetes, and promote awareness and engagement in risk-reducing behaviors to decrease the incidence of diabetes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Despite the importance of political institutions in shaping the social environment, the causal impact of politics on health care access and inequalities has been understudied. Even when considered, research tends to focus on the effects of formal macro-political institutions such as the welfare state. We investigate how micro-politics and informal institutions affect access to care. Methods This study uses a mixed-methods approach, combining findings from a household survey (n = 1789 and qualitative interviews (n = 310 in Lebanon. Multivariate logistic regression was employed in the analysis of the survey to examine the effect of political activism on access to health care while controlling for age, sex, socioeconomic status, religious commitment and piety. Results We note a significantly positive association between political activism and the probability of receiving health aid (p , with an OR of 4.0 when comparing individuals with the highest political activity to those least active in our sample. Interviews with key informants also reveal that, although a form of “universal coverage” exists in Lebanon whereby any citizen is eligible for coverage of hospitalization fees and treatments, in practice, access to health services is used by political parties and politicians as a deliberate strategy to gain and reward political support from individuals and their families. Conclusions Individuals with higher political activism have better access to health services than others. Informal, micro-level political institutions can have an important impact on health care access and utilization, with potentially detrimental effects on the least politically connected. A truly universal health care system that provides access based on medical need rather than political affiliation is needed to help to alleviate growing health disparities in the Lebanese population.
Turner, Anne M; Petrochilos, Deanna; Nelson, David E; Allen, Eileen; Liddy, Elizabeth D
We conducted an on-line survey of 164 local health departments' staff in five Northwestern states in 2006-2007 to assess Internet access and use by staff. Most (96%) respondents had full-time access to their own worksite computer. The most important selection criterion for selecting Web sites was credibility of the sponsoring organization (55%). Accuracy (46%), reputable source (30%), and currency of information (19%) were considered most critical for assessing information quality. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (80%) and state health department (60%) sites were used most commonly. These findings can be used to improve public health Web sites and support decision making in practice.
Garza-Elizondo, María Eugenia; Salinas-Martínez, Ana María; Núñez-Rocha, Georgina Mayela; Villarreal Ríos, Enrique; Vásquez-Treviño, María Guadalupe; Vásquez-Salazar, María Guadalupe
The accessibility to health centers is a limitation to the use of preventive and curative health centers. To assess geographic accessibility using a parameter that integrates information about the use of preventive services and travelling time from home to the health center. We analyzed target geographical areas of 10 community centers located at the Northeast of Mexico. A survey was conducted to collect information about the utilization of preventive services for detection of diabetes and hypertension within last year and in women, detection of cervical and breast cancer. The time required to travel between the health center and the farthest location point at every neighborhood of each geographic area, using public or private transportation, was calculated. Health service use and transportation time were condensed in a single parameter, called geographic accessibility index. Data was normalized using z scores. Three geographical areas denominated 7, 8 and 10 had the lowest detection rates of chronic diseases, with values ranging from 45% to 48%. By car, area number 3 had the longest travelling time, corresponding to 14 minutes. The longest travelling times by public transportation were detected in areas 1 and 3, corresponding to 27 and 29 minutes, respectively The geographic accessibility index showed that the least favorable z scores travelling by car corresponded to areas 6 and 10 and, when travelling on public transportation, to areas 8 and 10. The geographic accessibility index identified areas that required improvements in accessibility.
Tiwari, Basant; Kumar, Abhay
Electronic health records (EHR) provides convenient method to exchange medical information of patients between different healthcare providers. Access control mechanism in healthcare services characterises authorising users to access EHR records. Role Based Access Control helps to restrict EHRs to users in a certain role. Significant works have been carried out for access control since last one decade but little emphasis has been given to on-demand role based access control. Presented work achieved access control through physical data isolation which is more robust and secure. We propose an algorithm in which selective combination of policies for each user of the EHR database has been defined. We extend well known data mining technique 'classification' to group EHRs with respect to the given role. Algorithm works by taking various roles as class and defined their features as a vector. Here, features are used as a Feature Vector for classification to describe user authority.
Rangel Gomez, Maria Gudelia; Tonda, Josana; Zapata, G Rogelio; Flynn, Michael; Gany, Francesca; Lara, Juanita; Shapiro, Ilan; Rosales, Cecilia Ballesteros
While individuals of Mexican origin are the largest immigrant group living in the U.S., this population is also the highest uninsured. Health disparities related to access to health care, among other social determinants, continue to be a challenge for this population. The government of Mexico, in an effort to address these disparities and improve the quality of life of citizens living abroad, has partnered with governmental and non-governmental health-care organizations in the U.S. by developing and implementing an initiative known as Ventanillas de Salud-Health Windows-(VDS). The VDS is located throughout the Mexican Consular network and aim to increase access to health care and health literacy, provide health screenings, and promote healthy lifestyle choices among low-income and immigrant Mexican populations in the U.S.
Ali, Moazzam; Bhatti, Mohammad Ayaz; Kuroiwa, Chushi
Pakistan's maternal mortality rate is high, and adequate and timely emergency services could prevent most maternal deaths. A woman's right to life-saving services of skilled health care providers in childbirth is undeniable. This paper examines factors restricting women's access to emergency obstetric care services in Pakistan. This cross-sectional survey on emergency obstetric care services collected information at the health facility level using UN process indicators. The study enrolled 170 health facilities from nineteen randomly selected districts in Punjab and NWFP. Diverse factors limit women's access to Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) services. EmOC services were unavailable in most health facilities surveyed. Staff absenteeism, geographic remoteness, delayed access, and ambulance shortages jeopardize the transferral of seriously ill patients to higher level care facilities. Cultural norms dictate that women should be examined by women doctors, whose dearth makes these services inaccessible. Many maternal deaths would be avoidable if EmOC health services were accessible. The geographic obstacles to timely access, poor hospital infrastructure, and high staff absenteeism rates require immediate attention. Health facilities' working hours were inconsistent with the provision of around-the-clock essential services, depriving and endangering the lives of many in need. It is imperative to increase skilled female workers capable of managing EmOC problems through proper incentives. A focused approach at local levels through proper supervision, motivation, and management would unquestionably save women's lives.
Walters, Heather; Kulkarni, Madhur; Forman, Jane; Roeder, Kathryn; Travis, Jamie; Valenstein, Marcia
The majority of VA patient suicides are completed with firearms. Interventions that delay patients' gun access during high-risk periods may reduce suicide, but may not be acceptable to VA stakeholders or may be challenging to implement. Using qualitative methods, stakeholders' perceptions about gun safety and interventions to delay gun access during high-risk periods were explored. Ten focus groups and four individual interviews were conducted with key stakeholders, including VA mental health patients, mental health clinicians, family members and VA facility leaders (N=60). Transcripts were consensus-coded by two independent coders, and structured summaries were developed and reviewed using a consensus process. All stakeholder groups indicated that VA health system providers had a role in increasing patient safety and emphasized the need for providers to address gun access with their at-risk patients. However, VA mental health patients and clinicians reported limited discussion regarding gun access in VA mental health settings during routine care. Most, although not all, patients and clinicians indicated that routine screening for gun access was acceptable, with several noting that it was more acceptable for mental health patients. Most participants suggested that family and friends be involved in reducing gun access, but expressed concerns about potential family member safety. Participants generally found distribution of trigger locks acceptable, but were skeptical about its effectiveness. Involving Veteran Service Organizations or other individuals in temporarily holding guns during high-risk periods was acceptable to many participants but only with numerous caveats. Patients, clinicians and family members consider the VA health system to have a legitimate role in addressing gun safety. Several measures to delay gun access during high-risk periods for suicide were seen as acceptable and feasible if implemented thoughtfully. Published by Elsevier Inc.
McCarthy, John F; Blow, Frederic C; Valenstein, Marcia; Fischer, Ellen P; Owen, Richard R; Barry, Kristen L; Hudson, Teresa J; Ignacio, Rosalinda V
We examine the impact of two dimensions of access-geographic accessibility and availability-on VA health system and mental health treatment retention among patients with serious mental illness (SMI). Among 156,631 patients in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in fiscal year 1998 (FY98), we used Cox proportional hazards regression to model time to first 12-month gap in health system utilization, and in mental health services utilization, by the end of FY02. Geographic accessibility was operationalized as straight-line distance to nearest VA service site or VA psychiatric service site, respectively. Service availability was assessed using county-level VA hospital beds and non-VA beds per 1,000 county residents. Patients who died without a prior gap in care were censored. There were 32, 943 patients (21 percent) with a 12-month gap in health system utilization; 65,386 (42 percent) had a 12-month gap in mental health services utilization. Gaps in VA health system utilization were more likely if patients were younger, nonwhite, unmarried, homeless, nonservice-connected, if they had bipolar disorder, less medical morbidity, an inpatient stay in FY98, or if they lived farther from care or in a county with fewer VA inpatient beds. Similar relationships were observed for mental health, however being older, female, and having greater morbidity were associated with increased risks of gaps, and number of VA beds was not significant. Geographic accessibility and resource availability measures were associated with long-term continuity of care among patients with SMI. Increased distance from providers was associated with greater risks of 12-month gaps in health system and mental health services utilization. Lower VA inpatient bed availability was associated with increased risks of gaps in health system utilization. Study findings may inform efforts to improve treatment retention.
The Relationship Between the Educational Background and Managerial Experience of Senior Navy Medical Service Corps Executives (Health Care Administrators) and their Perceived Current and Required Management Capabilities.
not always an option for the individuals in these corps. The HCAs, on the other hand, are placed into management positions virtually upon being...analysis represented virtually every executive position in Navy Medicine. The proportions of surveys that were received tracked very closely with the...Sum Housio.. San Antono. Texas Scope aula 01a10110010 Of eWamNde in bgb~luMuitY edanluor at bcwwd yims in die casualty cos sysoem: leadership and
INSTRUMENTS Skinfold thicknesses were measured using Harpenden , John Bull calipers from Novel Products, Inc. The protocol followed was also from...34Technique for Measuring Body Circumferences and Skinfold Thickness ," (Beckett and Hodgdon, 1984). Skinfold thicknesses were measured using Harpenden , John...physique, Navy men were slightly heavier than their Marine Corps counterparts and had greater skinfold thicknesses and %BF (see Table 5). These differences
The homeless population in Germany is continually increasing. Featuring prominently among those on the increase are women, young persons and homeless people from East Germany. Studies of the health of homeless individuals in recent years show that indices of illness are far higher for many disorders than for comparable groups who are housed. One result from a recent study by the University of Mainz (1994) was that more than 90% of homeless people urgently need medical treatment. According this research, the main health problems of the homeless are: cardiac disease (hypertension, CAD) (52.5%), skin disease (scabies, lice, leg ulcers, abscesses, pyodermias) and acute infections (50%), lower respiratory tract (COAD) (47.5%) and trauma victims (50%), followed by liver (30%), kidney (25%) and gastrointestinal diseases (GU) (20%). The problems of alcoholism and mental disorders of various sorts are added to this picture. Violence to homeless people is increasing. A lot of homeless people are multi-morbid. The relationship between the time of homelessness and the state of illness was not linear. It was found that in the beginning of homelessness most of the homeless people were in a poor physical condition. The poor physical condition of homeless people does not stem from only one cause, but results from a combination of different factors: individual social conditions (social class; social relations; sedentary lifestyle), personal or family life crisis (life events and coping behaviour), the individual risk behaviour (for instance the bizarre sleeping accommodations, alcohol and cigarette consumption unemployment in a depressed economy, structure of the society (cutbacks in government welfare and social service programmes). As a result of bad experiences with existing medical institutions, homeless persons do not consult the doctor or too late. Many are afraid of large institutions; most are not members of a health insurance scheme (uninsured); and many are perceived in
Roth, R L
An acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention project was begun in Malawi in January 1993 by Peace Corps Malawi. 23 workers strive: 1) to offer health education and counseling with regard to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS in district hospitals, health centers, and health clinics; 2) to encourage the participation of community groups in AIDS prevention, education, and counseling support activities; and 3) to implement AIDS education in primary and secondary schools. Volunteer activities include health education, home-based care, school programs (drama groups, peer counseling), income-generating activities, condom distribution, and formation of district committees and sub-committees. Target groups include women and youth. Sexual health is promoted. Malawian counterparts are being trained by the volunteers to ensure sustainability; local volunteers are becoming important as resources become scarce. The program is becoming decentralized as it moves into the villages, and community groups are increasing in number. Obstacles include: 1) the lack of resources; 2) the fact that the District AIDS Coordinators are also clinical officers and medical assistants and so can serve only part time; 3) the cultural taboos that make discussion of certain topics difficult; 4) the political system; 5) illiteracy among women; 6) drug abuse among youth; and 7) the difficulty of remaining separated from one's work when one is surrounded by clients, including coworkers, who are HIV positive.
Most biomedical journals charge readers a hefty access toll to read the full text version of a published research article. These tolls bring enormous profits to the traditional corporate publishing industry, but they make it impossible for most people worldwide--particularly in low and middle income countries--to access the biomedical literature. Traditional publishers also insist on owning the copyright on these articles, making it illegal for readers to freely distribute and photocopy papers, translate them, or create derivative educational works. This article argues that excluding the poor from accessing and freely using the biomedical research literature is harming global public health. Health care workers, for example, are prevented from accessing the information they need to practice effective medicine, while policymakers are prevented from accessing the essential knowledge they require to build better health care systems. The author proposes that the biomedical literature should be considered a global public good, basing his arguments upon longstanding and recent international declarations that enshrine access to scientific and medical knowledge as a human right. He presents an emerging alternative publishing model, called open access, and argues that this model is a more socially responsive and equitable approach to knowledge dissemination.
Ana Paula Scoleze Ferrer
Full Text Available Introduction: Hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (HACSC are considered an indicator of the effectiveness of primary health care (PHC. High rates of HACSC represent problems in the access or the quality of health care. In Brazil, HACSC rates are high and there are few studies on the factors associated with it. Objective: To evaluate the access to PHC offered to children and adolescents hospitalized due to ACSC and analyze the conditioning factors. Method: Cross-sectional study with a quantitative and qualitative approach. Five hundred and one (501 users (guardians/caregivers and 42 professionals of PHC units were interviewed over one year. Quantitative data were obtained using Primary Care Assessment Tool validated in Brazil (PCATool-Brazil, while qualitative data were collected by semi-structured interview. The independent variables were: age, maternal education, family income, type of diagnosis, and model of care offered, and the dependent variables were access and its components (accessibility and use of services. Results: Sixty-five percent (65.2% of hospitalizations were ACSC. From the perspective of both users and professionals, access and its components presented low scores. Age, type of diagnosis, and model of care affected the results. Conclusion: The proportion of HACSC was high in this population. Access to services is inappropriate due to: barriers to access, appreciation of the emergency services, and attitude towards health needs. Professional attitudes and opinions reinforce inadequate ideas of users reflecting on the pattern of service use.
Beauchamp, Alison; Batterham, Roy W.; Dodson, Sarity
Background: The need for healthcare strengthening to enhance equity is critical, requiring systematic approaches that focus on those experiencing lesser access and outcomes. This project developed and tested the Ophelia (OPtimising HEalth LIteracy and Access) approach for co-design of interventions...... to improve health literacy and equity of access. Eight principles guided this development: Outcomes focused; Equity driven, Needs diagnosis, Co-design, Driven by local wisdom, Sustainable, Responsive and Systematically applied. We report the application of the Ophelia process where proof......-of-concept was defined as successful application of the principles. Methods: Nine sites were briefed on the aims of the project around health literacy, co-design and quality improvement. The sites were rural/metropolitan, small/large hospitals, community health centres or municipalities. Each site identified their own...
Bas-Sarmiento, Pilar; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Martina; Albar-Marín, M A Jesús; García-Ramírez, Manuel
To identify and describe the needs and problems of the immigrant population related to access and utilization of health services. A descriptive, qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted using focus groups. The study area was the county of Campo de Gibraltar (Spain), which represents the gateway to Europe for immigration from Africa. The final sample size (51 immigrants from 11 countries) was determined by theoretical saturation. A narrative analysis was conducted with QSR NVivo9 software. Immigrants' discourse showed four categories of analysis: response to a health problem, system access, knowledge of social and health resources, and health literacy needs. Responses to health problems and the route of access to the health care system differed according to some sociodemographic characteristics (nationality/culture of origin, length of residence, and economic status). In general, immigrants primarily used emergency services, hampering health promotion and prevention. The health literacy needs identified concerned language proficiency and the functioning of the health system. There is a need to promote interventions to enhance health literacy among immigrants. These interventions should take into account diversity and length of residence, and should be based on an action-participation methodology. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Hester, Ronald D
The United States has become a country that is constantly at war. This situation has created a crisis amongst our veterans. The current uneven access to appropriate mental health services that returning U.S. veterans encounter echoes the disparities in access to quality mental health services for the general population. The information presented here shows that the shortcomings of our health care system in addressing the mental health needs for our returning veterans may lead to the high suicide rates. Addressing the problem of inadequate access to quality mental health services is critical in any efforts to reforming the U.S. health care system. Our findings suggest that mental health disparities are often a leading factor to the high suicide rates among veterans who experience depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. To improve the health and well-being of our veterans who have served this nation, requires a collaboration between public and non-profit mental health providers at the State and local levels. It is imperative that we increase the availability of crisis intervention and mental health services for all veterans that have served this nation.
... of Engineers, Department of the Army 33 CFR Part 334 Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is amending its regulations to establish a new danger zone. This danger zone will enable the Marine Corps to control access and movement of persons, vessels and...
Naseem, Mustafa; Shah, Altaf H; Khiyani, Muhammad Faheem; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Gulzar, Shabnam; AlJameel, AlBandary H.; Khalil, Hesham S.
Summary Background The prevalence of oral diseases including dental caries and periodontal conditions is remarkably higher in people with disabilities. The provision of accessible oral health services for people with learning disabilities may be challenging. Objectives The objectives of the review were to identify barriers in accessing oral health care that persists within society, enabling or disabling people with learning disabilities. Methods Using the Arksey O’Malley framework, a scoping review was conducted on PubMed/Medline, OVIDSP, and EMBASE. Studies were evaluated and short-listed based on the inclusion criteria, which consisted of: (1) study participants or population with learning disabilities, (2) aged 16 years or over, (3) reporting on access to oral health services, (4) published in the English language. Those that justified the inclusion criteria were carefully chosen after a blind peer-reviewed process when relevance and quality were debated. Results Nine studies were eventually included from searches. Tabulation of data was done under the heading of study type, outcomes, the year of publication and patient selection. The majority of studies provided a biomedical overview of access for adults with learning disabilities. Conclusions The concept of access for people with disability is still ill-defined and obscure. Access to oral health care and needs of people with learning disabilities are complex and multi-facet. PMID:28149451
Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Valaitis, Ruta; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Donald, Faith; Peña, Laura Morán; Brousseau, Linda
to examine advanced practice nursing (APN) roles internationally to inform role development in Latin America and the Caribbean to support universal health coverage and universal access to health. we examined literature related to APN roles, their global deployment, and APN effectiveness in relation to universal health coverage and access to health. given evidence of their effectiveness in many countries, APN roles are ideally suited as part of a primary health care workforce strategy in Latin America to enhance universal health coverage and access to health. Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico are well positioned to build this workforce. Role implementation barriers include lack of role clarity, legislation/regulation, education, funding, and physician resistance. Strong nursing leadership to align APN roles with policy priorities, and to work in partnership with primary care providers and policy makers is needed for successful role implementation. given the diversity of contexts across nations, it is important to systematically assess country and population health needs to introduce the most appropriate complement and mix of APN roles and inform implementation. Successful APN role introduction in Latin America and the Caribbean could provide a roadmap for similar roles in other low/middle income countries. analisar o papel da enfermagem com prática avançada (EPA) a nível internacional para um relatório do seu desenvolvimento na América Latina e no Caribe, para apoiar a cobertura universal de saúde e o acesso universal à saúde. análise da bibliografia relacionada com os papéis da EPA, sua implantação no mundo e a eficácia da EPA em relação à cobertura universal de saúde e acesso à saúde. dada a evidência da sua eficácia em muitos países, as funções da EPA são ideais como parte de uma estratégia de recursos humanos de atenção primária de saúde na América Latina para melhorar a cobertura universal de saúde e o acesso à saúde. Brasil
Colucci, Erminia; Minas, Harry; Szwarc, Josef; Guerra, Carmel; Paxton, Georgia
Refugee young people have been identified as a group with high risk for mental health problems, due to their experience of trauma, forced migration, and stressors associated with settlement. A high prevalence of mental health problems is reported in this group, however some research suggests refugee young people have low rates of mental health service access. There is little information available on barriers and facilitators to mental service delivery for this group. Using data from 15 focus groups and five key informant interviews with a total of 115 service providers from 12 agencies in Melbourne, Australia, this paper explores barriers and facilitators to engaging young people from refugee backgrounds with mental health services. Eight key themes emerged: cultural concepts of mental health, illness, and treatment; service accessibility; trust; working with interpreters; engaging family and community; the style and approach of mental health providers; advocacy; and continuity of care.
Kelley, Megan S; Su, Dejun; Britigan, Denise H
Health knowledge and behavior can be shaped by the extent to which individuals have access to reliable and understandable health information. Based on data from a population-based telephone survey of 1,503 respondents of ages 18 years and older living in Douglas County, Nebraska, in 2013, this study assesses disparities in health information access and their related covariates. The two most frequently reported sources of health information are the Internet and health professionals, followed by print media, peers, and broadcast media. Relative to non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks are more likely to report health professionals as their primary source of health information (odds ratio [OR] = 2.61, p < .001) and less likely to report peers (OR = 0.39, p < .05). A comparison between Whites and Hispanics suggests that Hispanics are less likely to get their health information through the Internet (OR = 0.51, p < .05) and more likely to get it from broadcast media (OR = 4.27, p < .01). Relative to their counterparts, participants with no health insurance had significantly higher odds of reporting no source of health information (OR = 3.46, p < .05). Having no source of health information was also associated with an annual income below $25,000 (OR = 2.78, p < .05 compared to middle income range) and being born outside of the United States (OR = 5.00, p < .05). Access to health information is lowest among society's most vulnerable population groups. Knowledge of the specific outlets through which people are likely to obtain health information can help health program planners utilize the communication channels that are most relevant to the people they intend to reach.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In recent years, the country of Mongolia (population 2.8 million has experienced rapid social changes associated with economic growth, persisting socio-economic inequities and internal migration. In order to improve health access for the urban poor, the Ministry of Health developed a "Reaching Every District" strategy (RED strategy to deliver an integrated package of key health and social services. The aim of this article is to present findings of an assessment of the implementation of the RED strategy, and, on the basis of this assessment, articulate lessons learned for equitable urban health planning. Methods Principal methods for data collection and analysis included literature review, barrier analysis of health access and in-depth interviews and group discussions with health managers and providers. Findings The main barriers to health access for the urban poor relate to interacting effects of poverty, unhealthy daily living environments, social vulnerability and isolation. Implementation of the RED strategy has resulted in increased health access for the urban poor, as demonstrated by health staff having reached new clients with immunization, family planning and ante-natal care services, and increased civil registrations which enable social service provision. Organizational effects have included improved partnerships for health and increased motivation of the health workforce. Important lessons learned from the early implementation of the RED strategy include the need to form strong partnerships among stakeholders at each level of the health system and in the community, as well as the need to develop a specific financing strategy to address the needs of the very poor. The diverse social context for health in an urban poor setting calls for a decentralized planning and partnership strategy, but with central level commitment towards policy guidance and financing of pro-poor urban health strategies. Conclusions Lessons
Ramos, Raquel de Souza; Gomes, Antonio Marcos Tosoli; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina; Marques, Sergio Corrêa; Spindola, Thelma; Nogueira, Virginia Paiva Figueiredo
Objective: the judicialization of health is incorporated into the daily work of health institutions in Brazil through the court orders for access. In this study, the objective was to describe the contents of the social representations of access, through judicialization, for the health professionals. Method: qualitative study based on Social Representations Theory, involving 40 professionals, at a teaching hospital and at the center for the regulation of beds and procedures in Rio de Janeiro. Forty semistructured interviews were held, to which the thematic-categorical content analysis technique was applied. Results: the health professionals' attitude towards the reality the judicialization imposes is negative, but they acknowledge this resource as necessary in view of the public health crisis. Judicialization is considered a strategy to exercise citizenship that superimposes individual on collective law, increases social inequalities in access and compromises the efficacy of health policies. Conclusion: considering social representation as a determinant of practices, the representations that emerged can contribute to the change of the professionals' practices. Improvements in user care should be promoted, characterized as one of the main challenges to advance in universal access to health. PMID:27143542
Raquel de Souza Ramos
Full Text Available Objective: the judicialization of health is incorporated into the daily work of health institutions in Brazil through the court orders for access. In this study, the objective was to describe the contents of the social representations of access, through judicialization, for the health professionals. Method: qualitative study based on Social Representations Theory, involving 40 professionals, at a teaching hospital and at the center for the regulation of beds and procedures in Rio de Janeiro. Forty semistructured interviews were held, to which the thematic-categorical content analysis technique was applied. Results: the health professionals' attitude towards the reality the judicialization imposes is negative, but they acknowledge this resource as necessary in view of the public health crisis. Judicialization is considered a strategy to exercise citizenship that superimposes individual on collective law, increases social inequalities in access and compromises the efficacy of health policies. Conclusion: considering social representation as a determinant of practices, the representations that emerged can contribute to the change of the professionals' practices. Improvements in user care should be promoted, characterized as one of the main challenges to advance in universal access to health.
Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; Vázquez, María Luisa
In Colombia, the on-going armed conflict causes displacement of thousands of persons that suffer its economic, social, and health consequences. Despite government regulatory efforts, displaced people still experience serious problems in securing access to health care. In order to analyze the institutional factors that affect access to health care by the internally displaced population, a qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive study was carried out by means of semi-structured individual interviews with a criterion sample of stakeholders (81). A narrative content analysis was performed, with mixed generation of categories and segmentation of data by themes and informants. Inadequate funding, providers' problems with reimbursement by insurers, and lack of clear definition as to coverage under the Social Security System in Health pose barriers to access to health care by the internally displaced population. Bureaucratic procedures, limited inter- and intra-sector coordination, and scarce available resources for public health service providers also affect access. Effective government action is required to ensure the right to health care for this population.
Vázquez, María Luisa; Terraza-Núñez, Rebeca; S-Hernández, Silvia; Vargas, Ingrid; Bosch, Lola; González, Andrea; Pequeño, Sandra; Cantos, Raquel; Martínez, Juan Ignacio; López, Luís Andrés
Although until April 2012, all Spanish citizens regardless of their origin, residence status and work situation were entitled to health care, available evidence suggested inadequate access for immigrants. Following the Aday and Andersen model, we conducted an analysis of policy elements that affect immigrants' access to health care in Spain, based on documentary analysis of national policies and selected regional policies related to migrant health care. Selected documents were (a) laws and plans in force at the time containing migrant health policies and (b) evaluations. The analysis included policy principles, objectives, strategies and evaluations. Results show that the national and regional policies analyzed are based on the principle that health care is a right granted to immigrants by law. These policies include strategies to facilitate access to health care, reducing barriers for entry to the system, for example simplifying requirements and raising awareness, but mostly they address the necessary qualities for services to be able to attend to a more diverse population, such as the adaptation of resources and programs, or improved communication and training. However, limited planning was identified in terms of their implementation, necessary resources and evaluation. In conclusion, the policies address relevant barriers of access for migrants and signal improvements in the health system's responsiveness, but reinforcement is required in order for them to be effectively implemented.
Nøhr, Christian; Parv, Liisa; Kink, Pille; Cummings, Elizabeth; Almond, Helen; Nørgaard, Jens Rahbek; Turner, Paul
Most countries face an ageing population, increasing chronic diseased, and constrictions on budget for providing health services. Involving patients in their own care by allowing them access to their patient data is a trend seen in many places. Data on the type and level of access citizens have to their own health data in three countries was gathered from public sources. Data from each individual country is presented and the experiences of Denmark, Estonia and Australia are examined whilst similarities and differences explored. The discussion adopts a citizen-centred perspective to consider how the different e-portal systems support, protect and structure citizen interactions with their own health data in three key areas: Security, privacy and data protection; User support; and Citizen adoption and use. The paper highlights the impact of opt-in/opt-out approaches on citizen access and the lack of a structured approach to addressing differences in citizen health and e-health literacy. This research also confirms while current data provides detail on the availability and use of personal health data by citizens, questions still remain over the ultimate impact on patient outcomes of these initiatives. It is anticipated the insights generated from the three countries experiences, supporting citizen access to their health data will be useful to improve these initiatives and guide other countries aspiring to support similar initiatives.
Meng, Y Y; Jatulis, D E; McDonald, J P; Legorreta, A P
This study was designed to determine the levels and predictors of Medicare enrollees' satisfaction with access to medical care and quality of health care in a health maintenance organization. Data collected by an instrument adapted from the Group Health Association of America's Consumer Satisfaction Survey were analyzed after being linked with administrative data. In general, Medicare enrollees reported high satisfaction with both access to and quality of health care. Most members (96%) rated skill, experience, and training of physicians and the friendliness and courtesy of the staff favorably. A lower percentage of members (77%) rated favorably the ability to contact a physician after hours. Levels of satisfaction were essentially not explained by patient characteristics such as age, sex, geographic region, medications, or utilization. Stepwise regression identified the ease of arranging appointments as the strongest predictor of satisfaction, with access to care and outcomes of medical care as the strongest predictor of overall satisfaction with quality of health care. These findings indicate that items that members rated least favorably, such as ability to contact a physician after hours, added little to the prediction of satisfaction with access to and quality of health care.
Hodgkinson, Stacy; Godoy, Leandra; Beers, Lee Savio; Lewin, Amy
Poverty is a common experience for many children and families in the United States. Children low-income household has been linked to poor health and increased risk for mental health problems in both children and adults that can persist across the life span. Despite their high need for mental health services, children and families living in poverty are least likely to be connected with high-quality mental health care. Pediatric primary care providers are in a unique position to take a leading role in addressing disparities in access to mental health care, because many low-income families come to them first to address mental health concerns. In this report, we discuss the impact of poverty on mental health, barriers to care, and integrated behavioral health care models that show promise in improving access and outcomes for children and families residing in the contexts of poverty. We also offer practice recommendations, relevant to providers in the primary care setting, that can help improve access to mental health care in this population.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Citizens choose their health care services not only depending on their needs, but also on where they are located. The location of the services is especially important in the case of mental health due to the specific features of mental disorders. This article provides an analysis of temporal access by road to outpatient mental health centres in Andalusia (Spain with a view to improving accessibility for the greatest volume of population possible. Methods: Firstly, accessibility by road to the outpatient mental health centres was calculated in terms of time by establishing journey times using the ArcGIS Geographical Information System´s (GIS Network Analyst module. These journey times by road enabled travel times to be established for these sections, temporal accessibility areas to be plotted from each of the outpatient mental health centres and the number of people included in each accessibility area to be calculated. Results: The accessibility analysis enabled the sitting of the centres to be evaluated for 2006, a comparison to be made with 2011 (with six new facilities having been set up since 2006 and new locations for the siting of these six new facilities to be proposed. Conclusions: This study has enabled the optimum territorial locations to be proposed for the six mental health centres created between 2006 and 2011 that would allow travel times to be reduced for the greatest numbers of people possible. It can be stated on the basis of this study that, if territorial criteria had been taken into account, 97,720 inhabitants would have seen their travel times to their nearest mental health centres reduced using the same resources.
Estacio, Emee Vida; Whittle, Rebecca; Protheroe, Joanne
This article aims to examine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with access and use of Internet for health-related purposes and its relationship with health literacy. Data were drawn from a health literacy survey ( N = 1046) and analysed using logistic regression. Results show a strong association between health literacy, internet access and use. Socio-demographic characteristics particularly age, education, income, perceived health and social isolation also predict internet access. Thus, in addition to widening access, the movement towards digitisation of health information and services should also consider digital skills development to enable people to utilise digital technology more effectively, especially among traditionally hard-to-reach communities.
Connolly, J P; Baez, S A
Today, asthma is an increasing health problem in young Americans. In some cases, it can be quite difficult to diagnose. Many individuals enter military service each year with undiagnosed asthma, which subsequently limits their performance of duty. We review the patterns of asthma in children and young adults and relate this to Navy and Marine Corps personnel. We also review the current evaluation of this disease in the U.S. Navy Medical Department and suggest future improvements in this evaluation.
Hanssens, Lise G M; Devisch, Ignaas; Lobbestael, Janique; Cottenie, Barbara; Willems, Sara
In general, vulnerable populations experience more problems in accessing health care. This also applies to the Roma-population. In the City of Ghent, Belgium, a relatively large group of Roma resides more or less permanently. The aim of this study is to explore the barriers this population encounters in their search for care. In this qualitative study using in-depth interviews the barriers to health care for the Roma in Ghent are explored. We interviewed 12 Roma and 13 professionals (volunteers, health care providers,...) who had regular contact with the Roma-population in Ghent. For both groups purposive sampling was used to achieve maximal variation regarding gender, age, nationality and legal status. The Roma-population in Ghent encounters various barriers in their search for care. Financial constraints, not being able to reach health care and having problems to get through the complexity of the system are some of the most critical problems. Another important finding is the crucial role of trust between patient and care provider in the care-giving process. Roma share several barriers with other minority groups, such as: financial constraints, mobility issues and not knowing the language. However, more distinctive for this group is the lack of trust in care providers and health care in general. As a result, restraint and lack of communication form serious barriers for both patient and provider in their interaction. In order to ensure equitable access for Roma, more emphasis should be on establishing a relationship of mutual respect and understanding.
Kristiansson, Charlotte; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Hugo
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drug...... be indicated. Caregivers frequently paid for health services as well as antibiotics, even though all children in the study qualified for free health care and medicines. The implementation of the Seguro Integral de Salud health insurance must be improved.......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drugs...... in Yurimaguas and 793 children of the same age in Moyobamba were included in the study. Caregivers were interviewed on health care seeking strategies (public/private sectors; formal/informal providers), and medication for their children in relation to reported symptoms and socio-economic status. Self...
Mi, Misa; Wu, Wendy; Qiu, Maylene; Zhang, Yingting; Wu, Lin; Li, Jie
This systematic review examines types of mobile devices used by health professions students, kinds of resources and tools accessed via mobile devices, and reasons for using the devices to access the resources and tools. The review included 20 studies selected from articles published in English between January 2010 and April 2015, retrieved from PubMed and other sources. Data extracted included participants, study designs, mobile devices used, mobile resources/apps accessed, outcome measures, and advantages of and barriers to using mobile devices. The review indicates significant variability across the studies in terms of research methods, types of mobile programs implemented, resources accessed, and outcomes. There were beneficial effects of using mobile devices to access resources as well as conspicuous challenges or barriers in using mobile devices.
Vargas-Peláez, Claudia Marcela; Rover, Marina Raijche Mattozo; Leite, Silvana Nair; Rossi Buenaventura, Francisco; Farias, Mareni Rocha
Despite countries' efforts to ensure access to essential medicines, some people do not have their needs met, and often resort to the Judiciary to get access to the medicines they need. This phenomenon, known as "judicialization of access to medicines", has aroused the academia's interest in law, health and social fields. In this context, this scoping study investigates, through qualitative thematic analysis, the approach to judicialization of access to medicines (normative or social) and its possible impacts (positive or negative) described in articles published in scientific journals indexed in the main health databases prior to July 2012. 65 of 384 papers met the inclusion criteria of focusing on lawsuits for access to medicines or judicialization of access to medicines as a phenomenon; empiric studies, review articles or theoretical discussions, written in English, Portuguese or Spanish; most of them were about Brazil, Colombia and England. Results show that judicialization is a complex phenomenon that involves technical-scientific, legal and social aspects. The judicialization impacts mentioned have changed over time. In the late 1990s and early 2000s the emphasis of positive impacts predominated both on the normative and social approaches, having as main reference the movements that claimed from the States the guarantee of access to HIV/AIDS treatment. In the mid-2000s, however, there was an emphasis of the negative effects of judicial intervention, when lawsuits for access to medicines became a problem in some countries. Few studies used the social approach to judicialization. For this reason, there is not enough information about whether lawsuits for access to medicines are related to a real recognition of the right to health as an exercise of citizenship. Such aspects need to be further studied.
Lavelle, Bridget; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Wickrama, K. A. S.
Economic restructuring in rural areas in recent decades has been accompanied by rising marital instability. To examine the implications of the increase in divorce for the health of rural women, we examine how marital status predicts adequacy of health insurance coverage and health care access, and whether these factors help to account for the…
Bansal, Dipika; Purohit, Vilok K
Essential Medicine Concept, a major breakthrough in health care, started in 1977 when World Health Organization (WHO) published its first list. Appropriate use of essential medicines is one of the most cost-effective components of modern health care. The selection process has evolved from expert evaluation to evidence-based selection. The first Indian list was published in 1996 and the recent revision with 348 medicines was published in 2011 after 8 years. Health expenditure is less in India as compared to developed countries. India faces a major challenge in providing access to medicines for its 1.2 billion people by focusing on providing essential medicines. In the future, countries will face challenges in selecting high-cost medicines for oncology, orphan diseases and other conditions. There is a need to develop strategies to improve affordable access to essential medicines under the current health care reform.
Geetha Lakshmi Sreerama
Full Text Available Context: Despite policies to make health care accessible to all, it is not universally accessible. Frequent evaluation of barriers to accessibility of health care services paves path for improvement. Hence, present study is undertaken to evaluate the factors and public health policies influencing health care access to rural people in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, which can be interpolated for other regions. Aims: To assess knowledge, perceptions, availing of public health care services, barriers to health care access in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional, hospital-based survey in the Government Maternity Hospital (GMH, Tirupati, a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Fifty women delivered normally in GMH through convenient sampling technique. Data collected on standardized pro forma as per IMS Institute of Healthcare Informatics. Statistical Analysis Used: Is done through MS Excel 2007, Epi Info 7 (of Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA and frequencies were described. Results: Distance, waiting hours, societal responsibility, nature of the illness, presumed commercialization of Medicare system, attitudes of health care providers, and loss of wages were not barriers for accessing health care. Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA and availability of ambulance services made great improvements in health care accessibility. Absenteeism of health care providers is a problem. Conclusions: Expanding the ambulance services and ASHA network will be an effective measure for further accessibility to health care. Absenteeism of health care providers needs correction.
Full Text Available Access to health care in rural areas is a major concern for local populations as well as for policy makers in developing countries. This paper examines spatial access to in-patient health care in northern rural India. In order to measure spatial access, impedance-based competition using the Three-Step floating Catchment Area (3SFCA method, a modification of the simple gravity model, was used. 3SFCA was chosen for the study of the districts of Pratapgarh and Kanpur Dehat in the Uttar Pradesh state and Vaishali in the Bihar state, two of India’s poorest states. This approach is based on discrete distance decay and also considers more parameters than other available methods, hence is believed to be a robust methodology. It was found that Vaishali district has the highest spatial access to in-patient health care followed by Pratapgarh and Kanpur Dehat. There is serious lack of health care, in Pratapgarh and Kanpur Dehat with 40% and 90% of the villages having shortage of in-patient care facilities in these respective districts. The most important factor affecting spatial access was found to be the distance to the nearest major urban agglomeration.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Inadequate access to essential medicines is a common issue within developing countries. Policy response is constrained, amongst other factors, by a dearth of in-depth country level evidence. We share here i gaps related to access to essential medicine in Pakistan; and ii prioritization of emerging policy and research concerns. METHODS: An exploratory research was carried out using a health systems perspective and applying the WHO Framework for Equitable Access to Essential Medicine. Methods involved key informant interviews with policy makers, providers, industry, NGOs, experts and development partners, review of published and grey literature, and consultative prioritization in stakeholder's Roundtable. FINDINGS: A synthesis of evidence found major gaps in essential medicine access in Pakistan driven by weaknesses in the health care system as well as weak pharmaceutical regulation. 7 major policy concerns and 11 emerging research concerns were identified through consultative Roundtable. These related to weaknesses in medicine registration and quality assurance systems, unclear and counterproductive pricing policies, irrational prescribing and sub-optimal drug availability. Available research, both locally and globally, fails to target most of the identified policy concerns, tending to concentrate on irrational prescriptions. It overlooks trans-disciplinary areas of policy effectiveness surveillance, consumer behavior, operational pilots and pricing interventions review. CONCLUSION: Experience from Pakistan shows that policy concerns related to essential medicine access need integrated responses across various components of the health systems, are poorly addressed by existing evidence, and require an expanded health systems research agenda.
van Dooren, Kate; Lennox, Nick; Stewart, Madeline
People with intellectual disability represent ~2-3% of the Australian population and experience elevated rates of mortality and morbidity compared with the general population. People with intellectual disability, and their families and carers, must keep track of extensive medical information while also managing turnover of paid staff, general practitioners and other health professionals, making them beneficiaries of Australia's new eHealth record system. Although they are key users, there is a lack of knowledge about the accessibility of the system for individuals with intellectual disability, or those responsible for managing their health information. This is a missed opportunity to improve the lives of an already overlooked group. This study aimed to identify the facilitators and barriers to registering for an eHealth record network for people with intellectual disability and those supporting them to manage their health information. We interviewed potential users of eHealth records, including four people with intellectual disability, three family members and two residential support workers. Our findings suggest that decision-makers involved in the roll-out of the eHealth record networks should incorporate 'reasonable accommodations' to improve accessibility for people with intellectual disability and those who support them to manage their health information. This includes identifying and eliminating the barriers to accessibility of eHealth records and taking appropriate measures to promote access to individuals with intellectual disability. People with intellectual disability and the people who support them are a diverse group with a range of abilities. The translation of their views into practice will help to improve the eHealth system for this and other vulnerable population groups.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to medical literature in developing countries is helped by open access publishing and initiatives to allow free access to subscription only journals. The effectiveness of these initiatives in Africa has not been assessed. This study describes awareness, reported use and factors influencing use of on-line medical literature via free access initiatives. Methods Descriptive study in four teaching hospitals in Cameroon, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda plus one externally funded research institution in The Gambia. Survey with postgraduate doctors and research scientists to determine Internet access patterns, reported awareness of on-line medical information and free access initiatives; semi structured interviews with a sub-sample of survey participants to explore factors influencing use. Results In the four African teaching hospitals, 70% of the 305 postgraduate doctors reported textbooks as their main source of information; 66% had used the Internet for health information in the last week. In two hospitals, Internet cafés were the main Internet access point. For researchers at the externally-funded research institution, electronic resources were their main source, and almost all had used the Internet in the last week. Across all 333 respondents, 90% had heard of PubMed, 78% of BMJ on line, 49% the Cochrane Library, 47% HINARI, and 19% BioMedCentral. HINARI use correlates with accessing the Internet on computers located in institutions. Qualitative data suggested there are difficulties logging into HINARI and that sometimes it is librarians that limit access to passwords. Conclusion Text books remain an important resource for postgraduate doctors in training. Internet use is common, but awareness of free-access initiatives is limited. HINARI and other initiatives could be more effective with strong institutional endorsement and management to promote and ensure access.
Souza, Cinoélia Leal; Souzas, Raquel
From the standpoint of sociodemographic, teens today represent an important portion of the Brazilian population. In 2005 the Brazilian government published the National Youth Policy. Despite of this, many teens still find difficulties in accessing public services, especially the ones involving health. This study aimed to analyze young students' speeches about the conditions of access to public services and health through qualitative research. The students inquired live in rural and urban areas of the city of Vitória da Conquista - Bahia. The method used was the content analysis proposed by Bardin (1979) and Minayo (2006), and the technique of discussion groups for youth proposed by Weller (2006).
Systems of universal health coverage may aspire to provide care based on need and not ability to pay; the complexities of this aspiration (conceptual, practical, and ethical) call for normative analysis. This special issue arises in the wake of a judicial inquiry into preferential access in the Canadian province of Alberta, the Vertes Commission. I describe this inquiry and set out a taxonomy of forms of differential and preferential access. Papers in this special issue focus on the conceptual specification of health system boundaries (the concept of medical need) and on the normative questions raised by complex models of funding and delivery of care, where patients, providers, and services cross system boundaries.
Long, Sharon K; Stockley, Karen; Nordahl, Kate Willrich
While the impacts of the Affordable Care Act will vary across the states given their different circumstances, Massachusetts' 2006 reform initiative, the template for national reform, provides a preview of the potential gains in insurance coverage, access to and use of care, and health care affordability for the rest of the nation. Under reform, uninsurance in Massachusetts dropped by more than 50%, due, in part, to an increase in employer-sponsored coverage. Gains in health care access and affordability were widespread, including a 28% decline in unmet need for doctor care and a 38% decline in high out-of-pocket costs.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate residential exposure to alcohol outlets in relation to alcohol consumption and mental health morbidity (anxiety, stress, and depression. This was a cross-sectional study of 6,837 adults obtained from a population representative sample for the period 2006-2009 in Perth, Western Australia. The number of alcohol outlets was ascertained for a 1600 m service area surrounding the residential address. Zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regression were used to assess associations with total alcohol consumption, harmful alcohol consumption (7-10 drinks containing 10 g of alcohol for men, 5-6 drinks for women and medically diagnosed and hospital contacts (for anxiety, stress, and depression, respectively. The rate ratio for the number of days of harmful consumption of alcohol per month and the number of standard drinks of alcohol consumed per drinking day was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.11 and 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.03 for each additional liquor store within a 1600 m service area, respectively. The odds ratio of hospital contact for anxiety, stress, or depression was 1.56 (95% CI: 0.98, 2.49 for those with a liquor store within the service area compared to those without. We observed strong evidence for a small association between residential exposure to liquor stores and harmful consumption of alcohol, and some support for a moderate-sized effect on hospital contacts for anxiety, stress, and depression.
Frances E. Owusu-Ansah
Full Text Available Background: Rapid rural-urban migration of people to cities is a reality around the globe that has increased city slum dwellers. Sodom and Gomorrah is a city slum located in the heart of Accra, Ghana. Like other slums, it lacks basic amenities necessary for dwellers’ quality of life. This study describes residents’ access to health and factors associated with the use of healthcarefacilities.Methods: Questionnaires were administered in systematically selected shacks across the entire slum. Data on demographic characteristics, existent health facilities and number of users, health-insured residents and knowledge of common diseases were collected.Results: Majority of the residents were from the northern parts of Ghana, relative to the south and a few of them come from other parts of West Africa. Seventy-one percent of residents had never visited a health facility in the last 5 years. When necessary, they access health care from drug stores (61.1% or hospitals (33.1%. Residents’ age, educational status, income, health knowledge and membership of National Health Insurance Scheme were significantly (p < 0.05 associated with the use of healthcare facilities. Younger residents and those without National Health Insurance Scheme membership, formal education, no knowledge of common illnesses and regular income were significantly less likely to use a healthcare facility. For most residents, neither distance (73.2% nor transportation to health facilities was a problem (74.1%.Conclusion: Conditions of profound environmental hazards, overcrowding, poor-quality housing and lack of health care in Sodom and Gomorrah pose grave threats to the health of the inhabitants. Multisectoral interventions and resource mobilisation championed by the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development are needed to alter the trend.Keywords: Slum dwellers, health, access, Sodom and Gomorra, Ghana
Bailey, Stacy C; O'Conor, Rachel; Bojarski, Elizabeth A; Mullen, Rebecca; Patzer, Rachel E; Vicencio, Daniel; Jacobson, Kara L; Parker, Ruth M; Wolf, Michael S
Age and race-related disparities in technology use have been well documented, but less is known about how health literacy influences technology access and use. To assess the association between patients' literacy skills and mobile phone ownership, use of text messaging, Internet access, and use of the Internet for health-related purposes. A secondary analysis utilizing data from 1077 primary care patients enrolled in two, multisite studies from 2011-2013. Patients were administered an in-person, structured interview. Patients with adequate health literacy were more likely to own a mobile phone or smartphone in comparison with patients having marginal or low literacy (mobile phone ownership: 96.8 vs. 95.2 vs. 90.1%, respectively, P text messaging (78.6 vs. 75.2 vs. 53.1%, P literacy-related disparities in technology access and use are widespread, with lower literate patients being less likely to own smartphones or to access and use the Internet, particularly for health reasons. Future interventions should consider these disparities and ensure that health promotion activities do not further exacerbate disparities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Marta M. Jankowska
Full Text Available Background: Social and environmental factors are increasingly recognized for their ability to influence health outcomes at both individual and neighborhood scales in the developing urban world. Yet issues of spatial heterogeneity in these complex environments may obscure unique elements of neighborhood life that may be protective or harmful to human health. Resident perceptions of neighborhood effects on health may help to fill gaps in our interpretation of household survey results and better inform how to plan and execute neighborhood-level health interventions. Objective: We evaluate differences in housing and socioeconomic indicators and health, environment, and neighborhood perceptions derived from the analysis of a household survey and a series of focus groups in Accra, Ghana. We then explore how neighborhood perceptions can inform survey results and ultimately neighborhood-level health interventions. Design: Eleven focus groups were conducted across a socioeconomically stratified sample of neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. General inductive themes from the focus groups were analyzed in tandem with data collected in a 2009 household survey of 2,814 women. In-depth vignettes expand upon the three most salient emergent themes. Results: Household and socioeconomic characteristics derived from the focus groups corroborated findings from the survey data. Focus group and survey results diverged for three complex health issues: malaria, health-care access, and sense of personal agency in promoting good health. Conclusion: Three vignettes reflecting community views about malaria, health-care access, and sense of personal agency in promoting good health highlight the challenges facing community health interventions in Accra and exemplify how qualitatively derived neighborhood-level health effects can help shape health interventions.
Full Text Available Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intellectual disability from a pre-existing community development project in the Sahadoli Kadim block of rural Uttar Pradesh. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the local practitioners frequented by these caregivers. Results: Barriers identified were grouped under cognitive, structural and financial barriers which were found to be consistent with the Health Care Access Barrier Model (Carrillo, et al., 2011; WHO, 2011. Cognitive barriers included caregivers being unable to identify the complex health needs of their children. Caregivers lacked appropriate knowledge of intellectual disability, with doctors failing to educate them. Structural and financial barriers encompassed poor availability of healthcare providers and contributed to poor access to specialists. Caregivers had no information about government financial aid and healthcare providers did not refer them to these. Conclusion: Children with intellectual disabilities are forced to live with a poor quality of life because of cognitive, structural and financial barriers they face in accessing health care. Results are specific to children with intellectual disability in rural Sahadoli Kadim and could be used to inform policies and strategies to reduce disparities in health care access for these children.
Marine Corps Concept Paper, Operational Maneuver From The Sea, "Chaos In The Littorals" available from <http// ismo - wwwl.usmc.mil/concepts...In The Littorals". Available from <http// ismo - wwwl.mqg.usmc.mil/concepts/omfts.htm>. Internet. Accessed 6 December 1997. 9. Tzu, Sun
Meskarpour-Amiri, Mohammad; Dopeykar, Nooredin; Ameryoun, Ahmad; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali
Background: Timely access to cardiovascular health services is necessary to prevent heart damages. The present study examined inequality in geographical distribution of cardiovascular health services in Iran. Methods: Present study is a cross-sectional study conducted using demographic data from all Iranian provinces (31 provinces) from 2012 census by the Statistics Center of Iran (SCI). The Gini coefficients of CCU beds and cardiologists were used to assess equality in access to cardiovascular health services in Iran. MS Excel software was used to calculate Gini coefficients. Results: The proportions of CCU bed and cardiologist per 100,000 population were 4.88 and 1.27, respectively; also the Gini coefficients were 0.129 and 0.045, respectively. Conclusion: Descriptive statistics showed a skewness in distribution of pubic cardiovascular health services in Iran, though Gini coefficient revealed no significant inequality. However, equal distribution of CCU beds and cardiovascular specialists does not mean they are sufficiently available in Iran. PMID:28210585
Adair-Rohani, Heather; Zukor, Karen; Bonjour, Sophie; Wilburn, Susan; Kuesel, Annette C; Hebert, Ryan; Fletcher, Elaine R
ABSTRACT Background: Access to electricity is critical to health care delivery and to the overarching goal of universal health coverage. Data on electricity access in health care facilities are rarely collected and have never been reported systematically in a multi-country study. We conducted a systematic review of available national data on electricity access in health care facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We identified publicly-available data from nationally representative facility surveys through a systematic review of articles in PubMed, as well as through websites of development agencies, ministries of health, and national statistics bureaus. To be included in our analysis, data sets had to be collected in or after 2000, be nationally representative of a sub-Saharan African country, cover both public and private health facilities, and include a clear definition of electricity access. Results: We identified 13 health facility surveys from 11 sub-Saharan African countries that met our inclusion criteria. On average, 26% of health facilities in the surveyed countries reported no access to electricity. Only 28% of health care facilities, on average, had reliable electricity among the 8 countries reporting data. Among 9 countries, an average of 7% of facilities relied solely on a generator. Electricity access in health care facilities increased by 1.5% annually in Kenya between 2004 and 2010, and by 4% annually in Rwanda between 2001 and 2007. Conclusions: Energy access for health care facilities in sub-Saharan African countries varies considerably. An urgent need exists to improve the geographic coverage, quality, and frequency of data collection on energy access in health care facilities. Standardized tools should be used to collect data on all sources of power and supply reliability. The United Nations Secretary-General's “Sustainable Energy for All” initiative provides an opportunity to comprehensively monitor energy access in health care
Phunchongharn, Phond; Niyato, Dusit; Hossain, Ekram; Camorlinga, Sergio
Wireless communications technologies can support efficient healthcare services in medical and patient-care environments. However, using wireless communications in a healthcare environment raises two crucial issues. First, the RF transmission can cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) to biomedical devices, which could critically malfunction. Second, the different types of electronic health (e-Health) applications require different quality of service (QoS). In this paper, we introduce an innovative wireless access scheme, called EMI-aware prioritized wireless access, to address these issues. First, the system architecture for the proposed scheme is introduced. Then, an EMI-aware handshaking protocol is proposed for e-Health applications in a hospital environment. This protocol provides safety to the biomedical devices from harmful interference by adapting transmit power of wireless devices based on the EMI constraints. A prioritized wireless access scheme is proposed for channel access by two different types of applications with different priorities. A Markov chain model is presented to study the queuing behavior of the proposed system. Then, this queuing model is used to optimize the performance of the system given the QoS requirements. Finally, the performance of the proposed wireless access scheme is evaluated through extensive simulations.
Fisher, Rohan; Lassa, Jonatan
Modelling travel time to services has become a common public health tool for planning service provision but the usefulness of these analyses is constrained by the availability of accurate input data and limitations inherent in the assumptions and parameterisation. This is particularly an issue in the developing world where access to basic data is limited and travel is often complex and multi-modal. Improving the accuracy and relevance in this context requires greater accessibility to, and flexibility in, travel time modelling tools to facilitate the incorporation of local knowledge and the rapid exploration of multiple travel scenarios. The aim of this work was to develop simple open source, adaptable, interactive travel time modelling tools to allow greater access to and participation in service access analysis. Described are three interconnected applications designed to reduce some of the barriers to the more wide-spread use of GIS analysis of service access and allow for complex spatial and temporal variations in service availability. These applications are an open source GIS tool-kit and two geo-simulation models. The development of these tools was guided by health service issues from a developing world context but they present a general approach to enabling greater access to and flexibility in health access modelling. The tools demonstrate a method that substantially simplifies the process for conducting travel time assessments and demonstrate a dynamic, interactive approach in an open source GIS format. In addition this paper provides examples from empirical experience where these tools have informed better policy and planning. Travel and health service access is complex and cannot be reduced to a few static modeled outputs. The approaches described in this paper use a unique set of tools to explore this complexity, promote discussion and build understanding with the goal of producing better planning outcomes. The accessible, flexible, interactive and
Ahern, M; Scott, E
Increasingly, physicians are joint-venturing with health care businesses such as physical therapy centers, diagnostic imaging centers, ambulatory surgical centers, and other services. Simultaneously, outpatient costs have been rising. Theoretical and empirical evidence, including results of an exploratory survey of experts, indicate that these two events are linked. Specifically, joint ventures between referring physicians and health care businesses often appear to increase costs, increase utilization, reduce quality of care, and reduce access.
Arne H Eide
Full Text Available There is an increasing awareness among researchers and others that marginalized and vulnerable groups face problems in accessing health care. Access problems in particular in low-income countries may jeopardize the targets set by the United Nations through the Millennium Development Goals. Thus, identifying barriers for individuals with disability in accessing health services is a research priority. The current study aimed at identifying the magnitude of specific barriers, and to estimate the impact of disability on barriers for accessing health care in general. A population based household survey was carried out in Sudan, Namibia, Malawi, and South Africa, including a total of 9307 individuals. The sampling strategy was a two-stage cluster sampling within selected geographical areas in each country. A listing procedure to identify households with disabled members using the Washington Group six screening question was followed by administering household questionnaires in households with and without disabled members, and questionnaires for individuals with and without disability. The study shows that lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs, are the four major barriers for access. The study also showed substantial variation in perceived barriers, reflecting largely socio-economic differences between the participating countries. Urbanity, socio-economic status, and severity of activity limitations are important predictors for barriers, while there is no gender difference. It is suggested that education reduces barriers to health services only to the extent that it reduces poverty. Persons with disability face additional and particular barriers to health services. Addressing these barriers requires an approach to health that stresses equity over equality.
Eide, Arne H; Mannan, Hasheem; Khogali, Mustafa; van Rooy, Gert; Swartz, Leslie; Munthali, Alister; Hem, Karl-Gerhard; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Dyrstad, Karin
There is an increasing awareness among researchers and others that marginalized and vulnerable groups face problems in accessing health care. Access problems in particular in low-income countries may jeopardize the targets set by the United Nations through the Millennium Development Goals. Thus, identifying barriers for individuals with disability in accessing health services is a research priority. The current study aimed at identifying the magnitude of specific barriers, and to estimate the impact of disability on barriers for accessing health care in general. A population based household survey was carried out in Sudan, Namibia, Malawi, and South Africa, including a total of 9307 individuals. The sampling strategy was a two-stage cluster sampling within selected geographical areas in each country. A listing procedure to identify households with disabled members using the Washington Group six screening question was followed by administering household questionnaires in households with and without disabled members, and questionnaires for individuals with and without disability. The study shows that lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs, are the four major barriers for access. The study also showed substantial variation in perceived barriers, reflecting largely socio-economic differences between the participating countries. Urbanity, socio-economic status, and severity of activity limitations are important predictors for barriers, while there is no gender difference. It is suggested that education reduces barriers to health services only to the extent that it reduces poverty. Persons with disability face additional and particular barriers to health services. Addressing these barriers requires an approach to health that stresses equity over equality.
Eide, Arne H.; Mannan, Hasheem; Khogali, Mustafa; van Rooy, Gert; Swartz, Leslie; Munthali, Alister; Hem, Karl-Gerhard; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Dyrstad, Karin
There is an increasing awareness among researchers and others that marginalized and vulnerable groups face problems in accessing health care. Access problems in particular in low-income countries may jeopardize the targets set by the United Nations through the Millennium Development Goals. Thus, identifying barriers for individuals with disability in accessing health services is a research priority. The current study aimed at identifying the magnitude of specific barriers, and to estimate the impact of disability on barriers for accessing health care in general. A population based household survey was carried out in Sudan, Namibia, Malawi, and South Africa, including a total of 9307 individuals. The sampling strategy was a two-stage cluster sampling within selected geographical areas in each country. A listing procedure to identify households with disabled members using the Washington Group six screening question was followed by administering household questionnaires in households with and without disabled members, and questionnaires for individuals with and without disability. The study shows that lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs, are the four major barriers for access. The study also showed substantial variation in perceived barriers, reflecting largely socio-economic differences between the participating countries. Urbanity, socio-economic status, and severity of activity limitations are important predictors for barriers, while there is no gender difference. It is suggested that education reduces barriers to health services only to the extent that it reduces poverty. Persons with disability face additional and particular barriers to health services. Addressing these barriers requires an approach to health that stresses equity over equality. PMID:25993307
Vreeland, Carol E.; Alpi, Kristine M.; Pike, Caitlin A.; Whitman, Elisabeth E.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne
Objective “One Health” is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and managing the health and well-being of humans, animals, and the environments they share that relies on knowledge from the domains of human health, animal health, and the environmental sciences. The authors' objective was to evaluate the extent of open access (OA) to journal articles in a sample of literature from these domains. We hypothesized that OA to articles in human health or environmental journals was greater than access to animal health literature. Methods A One Health seminar series provided fifteen topics. One librarian translated each topic into a search strategy and searched four databases for articles from 2011 to 2012. Two independent investigators assigned each article to human health, the environment, animal health, all, other, or combined categories. Article and journal-level OA were determined. Each journal was also assigned a subject category and its indexing evaluated. Results Searches retrieved 2,651 unique articles from 1,138 journals; 1,919 (72%) articles came from 406 journals that contributed more than 1 article. Seventy-seven (7%) journals dealt with all 3 One Health domains; the remaining journals represented human health 487 (43%), environment 172 (15%), animal health 141 (12%), and other/combined categories 261 (23%). The proportion of OA journals in animal health (40%) differed significantly from journals categorized as human (28%), environment (28%), and more than 1 category (29%). The proportion of OA for articles by subject categories ranged from 25%–34%; only the difference between human (34%) and environment (25%) was significant. Conclusions OA to human health literature is more comparable to animal health than hypothesized. Environmental journals had less OA than anticipated. PMID:27076796
Culpepper, William J; Cowper-Ripley, Diane; Litt, Eric R; McDowell, Tzu-Yun; Hoffman, Paul M
Access to appropriate and timely healthcare is critical to the overall health and well-being of patients with chronic diseases. In this study, we used geographic information system (GIS) tools to map Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their access to MS specialty care. We created six travel-time bands around VHA facilities with MS specialty care and calculated the number of VHA patients with MS who resided in each time band and the number of patients who lived more than 2 hours from the nearest specialty clinic in fiscal year 2007. We demonstrate the utility of using GIS tools in decision-making by providing three examples of how patients' access to care is affected when additional specialty clinics are added. The mapping technique used in this study provides a powerful and valuable tool for policy and planning personnel who are evaluating how to address underserved populations and areas within the VHA healthcare system.
Thurman, David J.; Kobau, Rosemarie; Luo, Yao-Hua; Helmers, Sandra L.; Zack, Matthew M.
Introduction Community-based and other epidemiologic studies within the United States have identified substantial disparities in health care among adults with epilepsy. However, few data analyses addressing their health-care access are representative of the entire United States. This study aimed to examine national survey data about adults with epilepsy and to identify barriers to their health care. Materials and methods We analyzed data from U.S. adults in the 2010 and the 2013 National Health Interview Surveys, multistage probability samples with supplemental questions on epilepsy. We defined active epilepsy as a history of physician-diagnosed epilepsy either currently under treatment or accompanied by seizures during the preceding year. We employed SAS-callable SUDAAN software to obtain weighted estimates of population proportions and rate ratios (RRs) adjusted for sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Results Compared to adults reporting no history of epilepsy, adults reporting active epilepsy were significantly more likely to be insured under Medicaid (RR = 3.58) and less likely to have private health insurance (RR = 0.58). Adults with active epilepsy were also less likely to be employed (RR = 0.53) and much more likely to report being disabled (RR = 6.14). They experience greater barriers to health-care access including an inability to afford medication (RR = 2.40), mental health care (RR = 3.23), eyeglasses (RR = 2.36), or dental care (RR = 1.98) and are more likely to report transportation as a barrier to health care (RR = 5.28). Conclusions These reported substantial disparities in, and barriers to, access to health care for adults with active epilepsy are amenable to intervention. PMID:26627980
Brickle, Colleen M; Self, Karl D
The development of dental therapy in the U.S. grew from a desire to find a workforce solution for increasing access to oral health care. Worldwide, the research that supports the value of dental therapy is considerable. Introduction of educational programs in the U.S. drew on the experiences of programs in New Zealand, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom, with Alaska tribal communities introducing dental health aide therapists in 2003 and Minnesota authorizing dental therapy in 2009. Currently, two additional states have authorized dental therapy, and two additional tribal communities are pursuing the use of dental therapists. In all cases, the care provided by dental therapists is focused on communities and populations who experience oral health care disparities and have historically had difficulties in accessing care. This article examines the development and implementation of the dental therapy profession in the U.S. An in-depth look at dental therapy programs in Minnesota and the practice of dental therapy in Minnesota provides insight into the early implementation of this emerging profession. Initial results indicate that the addition of dental therapists to the oral health care team is increasing access to quality oral health care for underserved populations. As evidence of dental therapy's success continues to grow, mid-level dental workforce legislation is likely to be introduced by oral health advocates in other states. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21(st) Century."
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate healthcare access disparity that will cause delayed and unmet healthcare needs for the elderly, and to examine health inequality and healthcare cost burden for the elderly. To produce clear policy applications, this study adapts a modified PRECEDE-PROCEED model for framing theoretical and experimental approaches. Data were collected from a large collection of the Community Tracking Study Household Survey 2003–2004 of the USA. Reliability and construct validity are examined for internal consistency and estimation of disparity and inequality are analyzed by using probit/ols regressions. The results show that predisposing factors (e.g., attitude, beliefs, and perception by socio-demographic differences are negatively associated with delayed healthcare. A 10% increase in enabling factors (e.g., availability of health insurance coverage, and usual sources of healthcare providers are significantly associated with a 1% increase in healthcare financing factors. In addition, information through a socio-economic network and support system has a 5% impact on an access disparity. Income, health status, and health inequality are exogenously determined. Designing and implementing easy healthcare accessibility (healthcare system and healthcare financing methods, and developing a socio-economic support network (including public health information are essential in reducing delayed healthcare and health inequality.
Ramírez, Giovanna Rojas; Bravo, Pamela Eguiguren; Vivaldi, María Isabel Matamala; Manríquez, Irma Palma; Pérez, Thelma Gálvez
Identify difficulties in adolescents' access to contraceptive care and information, based on perceptions and experiences of health workers in Huechuraba, in the Metropolitan Region of Chile. This qualitative, descriptive study incorporated principles of participatory action research, involving health care teams in the survey and data analysis, and generating proposals for improvement. Seventeen (17) semi-structured individual interviews and one group interview were conducted with professionals and technical personnel involved in adolescent care in the commune's health centers. Health workers perceived that adolescents were having difficulties reaching the centers due to cultural factors, lack of information, lack of health activities in the community, while administrative requirements and procedures hindered access to care. Shortcomings were evident in the management and interpretation of fertility regulation standards and of current legislation, and in the absence of explanatory frameworks recognizing adolescents' gender, sexual, and reproductive rights. Adolescents and their needs have a low profile and there are conflicts between theory and practice regarding access to contraception and counseling, with a lack of definitions or agreements that take into account social and cultural contexts. It is urgent to provide health workers with training on gender and sexual and reproductive rights, together with opportunities for reflection in order to generate coordinated and effective approaches. Efforts are required to disseminate the program and organize activities in community spaces, together with other community sectors.
Walker, Evan; McMahan, Ryan; Barnes, Deborah; Katen, Mary; Lamas, Daniela; Sudore, Rebecca
Documenting patients' advance care planning wishes is essential to providing value-aligned care, as is having this documentation readily accessible. Little is known about advance care planning documentation practices in the electronic health record. Describe advance care planning documentation practices and the accessibility of documented discussions in the electronic health record. Participants were primary care patients at the San Francisco VA Medical Center, were ≥60 years old, and had ≥2 chronic/serious health conditions. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the prevalence of advance care planning documentation, including any legal forms/orders and discussions in the prior five years. We also determined accessibility of discussions (i.e., accessible centralized posting vs. inaccessible free-text in progress notes). The mean age of 414 participants was 71 years (SD ±8), 9% were women, 43% were non-white, and 51% had documented advance care planning including 149 (36%) with forms/orders and 138 (33%) with discussions. Seventy-four participants (50%) with forms/orders lacked accompanying explanatory documentation. Most (55%) discussions were not easily accessible, including 70% of those documenting changes in treatment preferences from prior forms/orders. Half of chronically ill, older participants had documented advance care planning, including one third with documented discussions. However, half of the patients with completed legal forms/orders had no accompanying documented explanatory discussions, and the majority of documented discussions were not easily accessible, even when wishes had changed. Ensuring that patients' preferences are documented and easily accessible is an important patient safety and quality improvement target to ensure patients' wishes are honored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
K.J. Grit (Kor); J.J. den Otter (Joost); A. Spreij
textabstractThe presence of undocumented migrants is increasing in many Western countries despite wide-ranging attempts by governments to increase border security. Measures taken to control the influx of immigrants include policies that restrict access to publicly funded health care for undocumented
Gele, Abdi A; Torheim, Liv Elin; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Kumar, Bernadette
Despite the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in some immigrant and refugee communities in Norway, there is very little information available on their utilization of diabetes prevention interventions, particularly for women from Somali immigrant communities. A qualitative study of 30 Somali immigrant women aged 25 years and over was carried out in the Oslo area. Unstructured interviews were used to explore women's knowledge of diabetes, their access to preventive health facilities, and factors impeding their reception of preventive health programs targeted for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. The study participants were found to have a good knowledge of diabetes. They knew that a sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy diet are among the risk factors for diabetes. Regardless of their knowledge, participants reported a sedentary lifestyle accompanied with the consumption of an unhealthy diet. This was attributed to a lack of access to tailored physical activity services and poor access to health information. Considering gender-exclusive training facilities for Somali immigrant women and others with similar needs, in addition to access to tailored health information on diet, may encourage Somali women to adopt a healthy lifestyle, and it will definitely contribute to a national strategy for the prevention of diabetes.
Siegel, Martin; Koller, Daniela; Vogt, Verena; Sundmacher, Leonie
The evolving lack of ambulatory care providers especially in rural areas increasingly challenges the strict separation between ambulatory and inpatient care in Germany. Some consider allowing hospitals to treat ambulatory patients to tackle potential shortages of ambulatory care in underserved areas. In this paper, we develop an integrated index of spatial accessibility covering multiple dimensions of health care. This index may contribute to the empirical evidence concerning potential risks and benefits of integrating the currently separated health care sectors. Accessibility is measured separately for each type of care based on official data at the district level. Applying an Improved Gravity Model allows us to factor in potential cross-border utilization. We combine the accessibilities for each type of care into a univariate index by adapting the concept of regional multiple deprivation measurement to allow for a limited substitutability between health care sectors. The results suggest that better health care accessibility in urban areas persists when taking a holistic view. We believe that this new index may provide an empirical basis for an inter-sectoral capacity planning.
Gerreth, Karolina; Borysewicz-Lewicka, Maria
Background: A patient's with disability everyday life is rife with many limitations such as architectural, transport, information as well as medical, psychological, legal, economic and social barriers. The aim of this study was to evaluate access to dental health care of special-care schoolchildren with intellectual disability on the basis of…
Wanderley, Miguel; Menezes, Júlio, Jr.; Gusmão, Cristine; Lins, Rodrigo
In the area of primary health care, there is a high demand in Brazil of permanent education and qualification of professionals who work in this field. Besides, nowadays it is a consensus that education can be benefited by the use of mobile devices, especially due to the possibilities of browsing, use and of easy access to different resources. In…
Khan, Arshia A.
Driven by the compulsion to improve the evident paucity in quality of care, especially in critical access hospitals in the United States, policy makers, healthcare providers, and administrators have taken the advise of researchers suggesting the integration of technology in healthcare. The Electronic Health Record (EHR) System composed of multiple…
Madden, Erin Fanning
Communities struggling with access to healthcare in the U.S. are often considered to be disadvantaged and lacking in resources. Yet, these communities develop and nurture valuable strategies for healthcare access that are underrecognized by health scholars. Combining medical sociology and critical race theory perspectives on cultural capital, this paper examines the health-relevant cultural resources, or Cultural Health Capital, in South Texas Mexican American border communities. Ethnographic data collected during 2011-2013 in Cameron and Hidalgo counties on the U.S.-Mexico border provide empirical evidence for expanding existing notions of health-relevant cultural capital. These Mexican American communities use a range of cultural resources to manage healthcare exclusion and negotiate care in alternative healthcare spaces like community clinics, flea markets and Mexican pharmacies. Navigational, social, familial, and linguistic skills and knowledge are used to access doctors and prescription drugs in these spaces despite social barriers to mainstream healthcare (e.g. cost, English language skills, etc.). Cultural capital used in marginalized communities to navigate limited healthcare options may not always fully counteract healthcare exclusion. Nevertheless, recognizing the cultural resources used in Mexican American communities to facilitate healthcare challenges deficit views and yields important findings for policymakers, healthcare providers, and advocates seeking to capitalize on community resources to improve healthcare access. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
@@ Zhang Weiqing, director of the National Population and Family Planning Commission (NPFPC), disclosed at the inaugural meeting of the China Reproductive Health Industry Association (CRIA), held on March 26, 2007, that China will create an inspection system, a quality accreditation system, and an industry access system for better population structure and family planning.
Mao, Eric J; Kelly, Colleen R; Machan, Jason T
This study confirms previously reported racial differences in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) rates in the United States and explores the nature of those differences. We conducted a retrospective study using the 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, the largest all-payer database of hospital discharges in the United States. We identified hospital stays most likely to include antibiotic treatment for infections, based on hospital discharge diagnoses, and we examined how CDI rates varied, in an attempt to distinguish between genotypic and environmental racial differences. Logistic regressions for the survey design were used to test hypotheses. Among patients likely to have received antibiotics, white patients had higher CDI rates than black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American patients (P racial bias in health care access is less, racial differences in CDI rates disappeared (P = 1.0). Infected patients did not show racial differences in rates of complicated CDI or death (P = 1.0). Although white patients had greater CDI rates than nonwhite patients, racial differences in CDI rates disappeared in a population for which health care access was presumed to be less racially biased. This provides evidence that apparent racial differences in CDI risks may represent health care access disparities, rather than genotypic differences. CDI represents a deviation from the paradigm that increased health care access is associated with less morbidity.
Ouweltjes, W.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Frankena, K.; Leeuwen, van J.L.
Claw health, locomotion, feed intake, milk yield, body weight, activity, and lying and standing behavior of dairy heifers were monitored in a single dairy herd during the first 3 mo after calving. During the first 8 wk after calving, 2 treatments were applied: restricted freestall access by closing
Omona, Walter; Ikoja-Odongo, Robert
This paper reports on a study which assessed the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) in health information access and dissemination in Uganda. The project focused not only on information obtainable through libraries for research, teaching, learning and practice, but also on ICT applications concerned with the…
Omona, Walter; Ikoja-Odongo, Robert
This paper reports on a study which assessed the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) in health information access and dissemination in Uganda. The project focused not only on information obtainable through libraries for research, teaching, learning and practice, but also on ICT applications concerned with the…
Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg
Full Text Available Background: Inequalities in healthcare between population groups of South Africa existed during the apartheid era and continue to exist both between and within many population groups. Accessibility and affordability of healthcare is a human right.Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore and describe accessibility, affordability and the use of health services by the mixed race (coloured population in the Western Cape, South Africa.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive, non-experimental study with a quantitative approach was applied. A purposive convenient sample of 353 participants (0.6% was drawn from a population of 63 004 economically-active people who lived in the residential areas as defined for the purpose of the study. All social classes were represented. The hypothesis set was that there is a positive relationship between accessibility, affordability and the use of health services. A pilot study was conducted which also supported the reliability and validity of the study. Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Stellenbosch and informed consent from respondents. A questionnaire was used to collect the data.Results: The hypothesis was accepted. The statistical association between affordability (p = < 0.01, accessibility (p = < 0.01 and the use of health services was found to be significant using the Chi-square (χ² test.Conclusion: The study has shown how affordability and accessibility may influence the use of healthcare services. Accessibility is not only the distance an individual must travel to reach the health service point but more so the utilisation of these services. Continuous Quality Management should be a priority in healthcare services, which should be user-friendly.
Lwoga, Edda T; Questier, Frederik
This study sought to investigate the faculty's awareness, attitudes and use of open access, and the role of information professionals in supporting open access (OA) scholarly communication in Tanzanian health sciences universities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 librarians, while questionnaires were physically distributed to 415 faculty members in all eight Tanzanian health sciences universities, with a response rate of 71.1%. The study found that most faculty members were aware about OA issues. However, the high level of OA awareness among faculty members did not translate into actual dissemination of faculty's research outputs through OA web avenues. A small proportion of faculty's research materials was made available as OA. Faculty were more engaged with OA journal publishing than with self-archiving practices. Senior faculty with proficient technical skills were more likely to use open access than junior faculty. Major barriers to OA usage were related to ICT infrastructure, awareness, skills, author-pay model, and copyright and plagiarism concerns. Interviews with librarians revealed that there was a strong support for promoting OA issues on campus; however, this positive support with various open access-related tasks did not translate into actual action. It is thus important for librarians and OA administrators to consider all these factors for effective implementation of OA projects in research and academic institutions. This is the first comprehensive and detailed study focusing on the health sciences faculty's and librarians' behaviours and perceptions of open access initiatives in Tanzania and reveals findings that are useful for planning and implementing open access initiatives in other institutions with similar conditions. © 2015 Health Libraries Journal.
Van Herp Michel
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, Médecins Sans Frontières, the provincial government, and the provincial health authority began a community project to guarantee financial access to primary health care in Karuzi province, Burundi. The project used a community-based assessment to provide exemption cards for indigent households and a reduced flat fee for consultations for all other households. Methods An evaluation was carried out in 2005 to assess the impact of this project. Primary data collection was through a cross-sectional household survey of the catchment areas of 10 public health centres. A questionnaire was used to determine the accuracy of the community-identification method, households' access to health care, and costs of care. Household socioeconomic status was determined by reported expenditures and access to land. Results Financial access to care at the nearest health centre was ensured for 70% of the population. Of the remaining 30%, half experienced financial barriers to access and the other half chose alternative sites of care. The community-based assessment increased the number of people of the population who qualified for fee exemptions to 8.6% but many people who met the indigent criteria did not receive a card. Eighty-eight percent of the population lived under the poverty threshold. Referring to the last sickness episode, 87% of households reported having no money available and 25% risked further impoverishment because of healthcare costs even with the financial support system in place. Conclusion The flat fee policy was found to reduce cost barriers for some households but, given the generalized poverty in the area, the fee still posed a significant financial burden. This report showed the limits of a programme of fee exemption for indigent households and a flat fee for others in a context of widespread poverty.
Brems, Christiane; Justice, Lauren; Sulenes, Kari; Girasa, Lisa; Ray, Julia; Davis, Madison; Freitas, Jillian; Shean, Margaret; Colgan, Dharmakaya
Yoga is gaining momentum as a popular and evidence-based, integrative health care and self-care practice. The characteristics of yoga practitioners are not proportional to the demographics of the general population, especially with respect to gender and ethnicity. Several access barriers have been implicated (eg, time, cost, and access to teachers). No studies have explored the barriers to practice among health professions students. Their participation in yoga is deemed important because they are future health professionals who will make referrals to other services. Research has shown that providers who practice yoga refer more patients to yoga. To increase yoga practice among health professions students, an understanding must be developed of factors that interfere with or facilitate a regular yoga practice. The current study intended to identify such barriers and motivators. This study was a small population survey. The setting was a private university in the northwestern United States, including students in 3 of its colleges and 10 professional programs. All students (N = 1585) in the programs of the 10 health professions received e-mail requests for participation. The Acceptability of Yoga Survey was developed for purposes of a larger yoga perceptions study and implemented with health professions students. Participants were solicited via e-mail; the survey was administered online. The current study used data from that survey. Of the 498 usable, completed surveys (ie, a response rate of approximately 30%), 478 were relevant to the current study. The sample's demographics--78% women and 79% white--did not differ significantly from the population's demographics. The findings revealed the existence of common barriers that were related to (1) time; (2) cost; (3) lack of pragmatic information about access to yoga classes and teachers; and (4) stereotypes related to flexibility, athleticism, and typical yoga practitioners. Motivators included athleticism, health
Sundari Ravindran, T K; Fonn, Sharon
A social franchise in health is a network of for-profit private health practitioners linked through contracts to provide socially beneficial services under a common brand. The early 21st century has seen considerable donor enthusiasm for promoting social franchises for the provision of reproductive health services. Based on a compendium of descriptive information on 45 clinical social franchises, located in 27 countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, this paper examines their contribution to universal access to comprehensive reproductive health services. It finds that these franchises have not widened the range of reproductive health services, but have mainly focused on contraceptive services, and to a lesser extent, maternal health care and abortion. In many instances, coverage had not been extended to new areas. Measures taken to ensure sustainability ran counter to the objective of access for low-income groups. In almost two-thirds of the franchises, the full cost of all services had to be paid out of pocket and was unaffordable for low-income women. While standards and protocols for quality assurance were in place in all franchises, evidence on adherence to these was limited. Informal interviews with patients indicated satisfaction with services. However, factors such as difficulties in recruiting franchisees and significant attrition, franchisees' inability to attend training programmes, use of lay health workers to deliver services without support or supervision, and logistical problems with applying quality assurance tools, all raise concerns. The contribution of social franchises to universal access to reproductive health services appears to be uncertain. Continued investment in them for the provision of reproductive health services does not appear to be justified until and unless further evidence of their value is forthcoming.
Sealy, Patricia A
This research evaluates accessing of community-based mental health services in relation to the ongoing process of deinstitutionalization of mental health services in Canada. From 1998/1999 to 2002/2003, the process of deinstitutionalization decreased in intensity among the provinces that implemented deinstitutionalization earlier and increased in intensity among the provinces that implemented deinstitutionalization later. By 2002/2003, average days of care per 1,000 population in psychiatric units in general hospitals exceeded days of care in psychiatric hospitals (transinstitutionalization). Accessing of community-based mental health services by individuals with higher levels of psychological distress increased in all provinces from 1998/1999 to 2002/2003.
Background This article considers how health services access and equity documents represent the problem of access to health services and what the effects of that representation might be for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) communities. We conducted a critical discourse analysis on selected access and equity documents using a gender-based diversity framework as determined by two objectives: 1) to identify dominant and counter discourses in health services access and equity literature; and 2) to develop understanding of how particular discourses impact the inclusion, or not, of LGBT communities in health services access and equity frameworks.The analysis was conducted in response to public health and clinical research that has documented barriers to health services access for LGBT communities including institutionalized heterosexism, biphobia, and transphobia, invisibility and lack of health provider knowledge and comfort. The analysis was also conducted as the first step of exploring LGBT access issues in home care services for LGBT populations in Ontario, Canada. Methods A critical discourse analysis of selected health services access and equity documents, using a gender-based diversity framework, was conducted to offer insight into dominant and counter discourses underlying health services access and equity initiatives. Results A continuum of five discourses that characterize the health services access and equity literature were identified including two dominant discourses: 1) multicultural discourse, and 2) diversity discourse; and three counter discourses: 3) social determinants of health (SDOH) discourse; 4) anti-oppression (AOP) discourse; and 5) citizen/social rights discourse. Conclusions The analysis offers a continuum of dominant and counter discourses on health services access and equity as determined from a gender-based diversity perspective. The continuum of discourses offers a framework to identify and redress organizational assumptions
Daley, Andrea E; Macdonnell, Judith A
This article considers how health services access and equity documents represent the problem of access to health services and what the effects of that representation might be for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) communities. We conducted a critical discourse analysis on selected access and equity documents using a gender-based diversity framework as determined by two objectives: 1) to identify dominant and counter discourses in health services access and equity literature; and 2) to develop understanding of how particular discourses impact the inclusion, or not, of LGBT communities in health services access and equity frameworks.The analysis was conducted in response to public health and clinical research that has documented barriers to health services access for LGBT communities including institutionalized heterosexism, biphobia, and transphobia, invisibility and lack of health provider knowledge and comfort. The analysis was also conducted as the first step of exploring LGBT access issues in home care services for LGBT populations in Ontario, Canada. A critical discourse analysis of selected health services access and equity documents, using a gender-based diversity framework, was conducted to offer insight into dominant and counter discourses underlying health services access and equity initiatives. A continuum of five discourses that characterize the health services access and equity literature were identified including two dominant discourses: 1) multicultural discourse, and 2) diversity discourse; and three counter discourses: 3) social determinants of health (SDOH) discourse; 4) anti-oppression (AOP) discourse; and 5) citizen/social rights discourse. The analysis offers a continuum of dominant and counter discourses on health services access and equity as determined from a gender-based diversity perspective. The continuum of discourses offers a framework to identify and redress organizational assumptions about, and ideological commitments to
MacDonnell Judith A
Full Text Available Abstract Background This article considers how health services access and equity documents represent the problem of access to health services and what the effects of that representation might be for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT communities. We conducted a critical discourse analysis on selected access and equity documents using a gender-based diversity framework as determined by two objectives: 1 to identify dominant and counter discourses in health services access and equity literature; and 2 to develop understanding of how particular discourses impact the inclusion, or not, of LGBT communities in health services access and equity frameworks.The analysis was conducted in response to public health and clinical research that has documented barriers to health services access for LGBT communities including institutionalized heterosexism, biphobia, and transphobia, invisibility and lack of health provider knowledge and comfort. The analysis was also conducted as the first step of exploring LGBT access issues in home care services for LGBT populations in Ontario, Canada. Methods A critical discourse analysis of selected health services access and equity documents, using a gender-based diversity framework, was conducted to offer insight into dominant and counter discourses underlying health services access and equity initiatives. Results A continuum of five discourses that characterize the health services access and equity literature were identified including two dominant discourses: 1 multicultural discourse, and 2 diversity discourse; and three counter discourses: 3 social determinants of health (SDOH discourse; 4 anti-oppression (AOP discourse; and 5 citizen/social rights discourse. Conclusions The analysis offers a continuum of dominant and counter discourses on health services access and equity as determined from a gender-based diversity perspective. The continuum of discourses offers a framework to identify and redress
Mold, Freda; de Lusignan, Simon
Online access to medical records and linked services, including requesting repeat prescriptions and booking appointments, enables patients to personalize their access to care. However, online access creates opportunities and challenges for both health professionals and their patients, in practices and in research. The challenges for practice are the impact of online services on workload and the quality and safety of health care. Health professionals are concerned about the impact on workload, especially from email or other online enquiry systems, as well as risks to privacy. Patients report how online access provides a convenient means through which to access their health provider and may offer greater satisfaction if they get a timely response from a clinician. Online access and services may also result in unforeseen consequences and may change the nature of the patient-clinician interaction. Research challenges include: (1) Ensuring privacy, including how to control inappropriate carer and guardian access to medical records; (2) Whether online access to records improves patient safety and health outcomes; (3) Whether record access increases disparities across social classes and between genders; and (4) Improving efficiency. The challenges for practice are: (1) How to incorporate online access into clinical workflow; (2) The need for a business model to fund the additional time taken. Creating a sustainable business model for a safe, private, informative, more equitable online service is needed if online access to records is to be provided outside of pay-for-service systems.
de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Rangel, Marianne de Lucena; da Silva, Marcos André Azevedo; de Lucena, Brunna Thaís Lucwu; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo
The Specialized Dental Clinics (SDCs) represent the first government initiative in Latin America aimed at providing specialized oral health services. This study sought to evaluate the organizational accessibility to specialized oral health care services in Brazil and to understand the factors that may be associated with accessibility from the user’s perspective. This epidemiological, cross-sectional and quantitative study was conducted by means of interviews with individuals who sought specialized public oral health services in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, and consisted of a sample of 590 individuals. Users expressed a favorable view of the classification and resolutive nature of specialized services offered by Brazilian public health. The binary logistic regression analysis revealed weak points highlighting the difficulty involved in obtaining such treatments leading to unfavorable evaluations. In the resolutive nature item, difficulty in accessing the location, queues and lack of materials and equipment were highlighted as statistically significant unfavorable aspects. While many of the users considered the service to be resolutive, weaknesses were mentioned that need to be detected to promote improvements and to prevent other health models adopted worldwide from reproducing the same flaws. PMID:27775584
de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Rangel, Marianne de Lucena; da Silva, Marcos André Azevedo; de Lucena, Brunna Thaís Lucwu; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo
The Specialized Dental Clinics (SDCs) represent the first government initiative in Latin America aimed at providing specialized oral health services. This study sought to evaluate the organizational accessibility to specialized oral health care services in Brazil and to understand the factors that may be associated with accessibility from the user's perspective. This epidemiological, cross-sectional and quantitative study was conducted by means of interviews with individuals who sought specialized public oral health services in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, and consisted of a sample of 590 individuals. Users expressed a favorable view of the classification and resolutive nature of specialized services offered by Brazilian public health. The binary logistic regression analysis revealed weak points highlighting the difficulty involved in obtaining such treatments leading to unfavorable evaluations. In the resolutive nature item, difficulty in accessing the location, queues and lack of materials and equipment were highlighted as statistically significant unfavorable aspects. While many of the users considered the service to be resolutive, weaknesses were mentioned that need to be detected to promote improvements and to prevent other health models adopted worldwide from reproducing the same flaws.
Bernstein, Stan; Edouard, Lindsay
Unmet need for contraception represents a major failure in the provision of reproductive health services and reflects the extent of access to services for spacing and limiting births, which are also affected by personal, partner, community and health system factors. In the context of the Millennium Development Goals, family planning has been given insufficient attention compared to maternal health and the control of sexually transmitted infections. As this omission is being redressed, efforts should be directed towards ensuring that an indicator of unmet need is used as a measure of access to services. The availability of data on unmet need must also be increased to enable national comparisons and facilitate resource mobilisation. Unmet need is a vital component in monitoring the proportion of women able to space and limit births. Unmet need for contraception is a measure conditioned by people's preferences and choices and therefore firmly introduces a rights perspective into development discourse and serves as an important instrument to improve the sensitivity of policy dialogue. The new reproductive health target and the opportunity it offers to give appropriate attention to unmet need for contraception will allow the entry of other considerations vital to ensuring universal access to reproductive health.
Ajeng T. Endarti
Full Text Available Background: Improving human behavior toward Avian influenza may lessen the chance to be infected by Avian influenza. This study aimed to identify several factors influencing behavior in the community.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2008. Behavior regarding Avian influenza was measured by scoring the variables of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Subjects were obtained from the sub district of Limo, in Depok, West Java, which was considered a high risk area for Avian influenza. The heads of household as the sample unit were chosen by multi-stage sampling.Results: Among 387 subjects, 29.5% of them was had good behavior toward Avian influenza. The final model revealed that gender and access to health information were two dominant factors for good behavior in preventing Avian influenza. Compared with men, women had 67% higher risk to have good behavior [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.92-3.04; P = 0.092]. Compared to those with no access to health information, subjects with access to health information had 3.4 fold increase to good behavior (RRa = 3.40; 95% CI = 0.84-13.76; P = 0.087.Conclusion: Acces to health information concerning Avian influenza was more effective among women in promoting good behavior toward preventing Avian influenza. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:56-61Keywords: avian influenza, behavior, gender, health promotion
Palmer, Natasha; Mueller, Dirk H; Gilson, Lucy; Mills, Anne; Haines, Andy
In this article we outline research since 1995 on the impact of various financing strategies on access to health services or health outcomes in low income countries. The limited evidence available suggests, in general, that user fees deterred utilisation. Prepayment or insurance schemes offered potential for improving access, but are very limited in scope. Conditional cash payments showed promise for improving uptake of interventions, but could also create a perverse incentive. The largely African origin of the reports of user fees, and the evidence from Latin America on conditional cash transfers, demonstrate the importance of the context in which studies are done. There is a need for improved quality of research in this area. Larger scale, upfront funding for evaluation of health financing initiatives is necessary to ensure an evidence base that corresponds to the importance of this issue for achieving development goals.
Luz M. Semeah
Full Text Available In 2009, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA set a goal to end veteran homelessness by 2015. Since then there has been a 36% reduction in homelessness due, in part, to the VA Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH program. These services include the receipt of home-based services to the veterans’ home. However, safety concerns and the threat of violence toward health care workers remain problematic in non-institutional care settings. This article discusses the concept of access to care and how safety concerns act as a barrier to services and optimal patient outcomes. Our study provides information on the prevalence of patient violence toward health care workers in the HUD-VASH program in a large veterans’ health system. Results suggest 70% of home-based service providers were exposed to violence and aggression. Providing services to veterans outside of institutional care settings, and the goal of eradicating homelessness among veterans, warrants further examination of access barriers.
Polo, Gina; Acosta, C Mera; Ferreira, Fernando; Dias, Ricardo Augusto
This study integrated accessibility and location-allocation models in geographic information systems as a proposed strategy to improve the spatial planning of public health services. To estimate the spatial accessibility, we modified the two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) model with a different impedance function, a Gaussian weight for competition among service sites, a friction coefficient, distances along a street network based on the Dijkstra's algorithm and by performing a vectorial analysis. To check the accuracy of the strategy, we used the data from the public sterilization program for the dogs and cats of Bogot´a, Colombia. Since the proposed strategy is independent of the service, it could also be applied to any other public intervention when the capacity of the service is known. The results of the accessibility model were consistent with the sterilization program data, revealing that the western, central and northern zones are the most isolated areas under the sterilization program. Spatial accessibility improvement was sought by relocating the sterilization sites using the maximum coverage with finite demand and the p-median models. The relocation proposed by the maximum coverage model more effectively maximized the spatial accessibility to the sterilization service given the non-uniform distribution of the populations of dogs and cats throughout the city. The implementation of the proposed strategy would provide direct benefits by improving the effectiveness of different public health interventions and the use of financial and human resources.
Full Text Available This study integrated accessibility and location-allocation models in geographic information systems as a proposed strategy to improve the spatial planning of public health services. To estimate the spatial accessibility, we modified the two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA model with a different impedance function, a Gaussian weight for competition among service sites, a friction coefficient, distances along a street network based on the Dijkstra's algorithm and by performing a vectorial analysis. To check the accuracy of the strategy, we used the data from the public sterilization program for the dogs and cats of Bogot´a, Colombia. Since the proposed strategy is independent of the service, it could also be applied to any other public intervention when the capacity of the service is known. The results of the accessibility model were consistent with the sterilization program data, revealing that the western, central and northern zones are the most isolated areas under the sterilization program. Spatial accessibility improvement was sought by relocating the sterilization sites using the maximum coverage with finite demand and the p-median models. The relocation proposed by the maximum coverage model more effectively maximized the spatial accessibility to the sterilization service given the non-uniform distribution of the populations of dogs and cats throughout the city. The implementation of the proposed strategy would provide direct benefits by improving the effectiveness of different public health interventions and the use of financial and human resources.
This article describes urban women's role and access to sanitation and a safe water supply in Indonesia, and links potential improvements in women's health to improved access to urban infrastructure. In 1996, USAID discovered that morbidity was higher in female-headed households in urban areas. Female-headed households were only 6.5% of total households, but had 27% more illnesses than male-headed ones. USAID's study found that the health related problems of women were related to their poverty, illiteracy, lack of resources, and lack of access to the cleanest drinking water and wastewater disposal. Age was not a factor. Women had less access to clean drinking water, bathing, and toilet facilities. The USAID mission determined that its gender neutral approach to providing services was not reaching the neediest group. Women needed greater access to healthy urban environmental structures. The USAID shifted its erroneous assumption that female-headed households were headed by mostly old and widowed women and redesigned its infrastructure development to ensure that female-headed households received improved water and sanitation services. The USAID Mission also changed its practices by including women in planning and management of urban infrastructure services. The change was based on the belief that women decision-makers would improve how water, sanitation, and solid waste disposal services were provided. The Mission targeted 20% of its program funds for community participation of women. This effort will provide valuable insight into the role of women in urban service delivery.
Tazhmoye V. Crawford
Full Text Available Background: Access to contraceptive by minors (pre-adolescents and adolescents has spurred policy and legislative debates, part of which is that in an effort to successfully meet government’s objective of a healthy sexual lifestyle among minors. Aims: This study examined factors affecting sexual reproductive health in minors, namely: access to contraceptive advice and treatment, pregnancy, number of sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections (STIs and confidentiality. Materials and Methods: This research involved quantitative and qualitative data. Two hundred and thirty eight sexually active cases were investigated in Jamaica by the researchers, during the period 2006-2007. The age group population was 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17. Results: The study showed that access to contraceptive advice and treatment by minors was more favorable to males than females. The difference in access to contraceptive between male and female was statistically significant (x² = 20.16, p<0.05. Of the 80 male respondents, who are contraceptive users, 11 encountered challenges in legitimately accessing contraceptive methods, while 38 of the 40 female users also encountered challenges. This resulted in unintended pregnancies and impregnation (33.2%, as well as the contracting of STIs (21%. Conclusion: The findings of this study will be important in informing the development of reproductive health services and family life education programs for pre-adolescents and adolescents in Jamaica and other Caribbean countries.
Tazhmoye V Crawford
Full Text Available Background : Access to contraceptive by minors (pre-adolescents and adolescents has spurred policy and legislative debates, part of which is that in an effort to successfully meet government′s objective of a healthy sexual lifestyle among minors. Aims : This study examined factors affecting sexual reproductive health in minors, namely: access to contraceptive advice and treatment, pregnancy, number of sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections (STIs and confidentiality. Materials and Methods: This research involved quantitative and qualitative data. Two hundred and thirty eight sexually active cases were investigated in Jamaica by the researchers, during the period 2006-2007. The age group population was 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17. Results : The study showed that access to contraceptive advice and treatment by minors was more favorable to males than females. The difference in access to contraceptive between male and female was statistically significant (x = 20.16, p<0.05. Of the 80 male respondents, who are contraceptive users, 11 encountered challenges in legitimately accessing contraceptive methods, while 38 of the 40 female users also encountered challenges. This resulted in unintended pregnancies and impregnation (33.2%, as well as the contracting of STIs (21%. Conclusion : The findings of this study will be important in informing the development of reproductive health services and family life education programs for pre-adolescents and adolescents in Jamaica and other Caribbean countries.
Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Arsangjang, Shahram; Mohammadsalehi, Narges; Anbari, Zohreh; Ghaderi, Ebrahim
Oral health affects peoples' lives physically and psychologically and is related to general health, quality of life, and feelings of social well-being. As the educational level is an important predictor of healthy life and can affect healthcare utilization, this study aims to estimate the inequity related to the educational level of parents on the access and utilization of oral health care (OHC) in Qom, Iran. An analytical, cross-sectional study. Overall 281 children, six to seven years of age, were given a self-administrated questionnaire to fill. The sex, access to utilization of OHC, and educational level of the children's parents were questioned. The concentration (C) index was used as the inequity measure and statistical inference was conducted by chi square and the confidence interval of C. The mean age of the children was 6.48 ± 0.5 years. There was not statistically significant difference in the access and utilization rate of OHC between the two sexes (P > 0.05). There was an increasing trend in the utilization rate of OHC, because of the increased educational level of the parents. The C for access and utilization rate, for different levels of fathers' education was 0.055(-0.095 to 0.205) and 0.097(-0.068 to 0.261) and for mothers' educational level was 0.086(-0.068 to 0.241) and 0.091(-0.81 to 0.263), respectively. Our results did not show evidence of sex disparity in the access and utilization of OHC in Iranian children. Also the inequity related to the educational level in access and utilization of OHC was low and not considerable.
Full Text Available Background: Oral health affects peoples′ lives physically and psychologically and is related to general health, quality of life, and feelings of social well-being. As the educational level is an important predictor of healthy life and can affect healthcare utilization, this study aims to estimate the inequity related to the educational level of parents on the access and utilization of oral health care (OHC in Qom, Iran. Study Design: An analytical, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Overall 281 children, six to seven years of age, were given a self-administrated questionnaire to fill. The sex, access to utilization of OHC, and educational level of the children′s parents were questioned. The concentration (C index was used as the inequity measure and statistical inference was conducted by chi square and the confidence interval of C. Statistics: The mean age of the children was 6.48 ± 0.5 years. There was not statistically significant difference in the access and utilization rate of OHC between the two sexes (P > 0.05. There was an increasing trend in the utilization rate of OHC, because of the increased educational level of the parents. The C for access and utilization rate, for different levels of fathers′ education was 0.055(-0.095 to 0.205 and 0.097(-0.068 to 0.261 and for mothers′ educational level was 0.086(-0.068 to 0.241 and 0.091(-0.81 to 0.263, respectively. Conclusion: Our results did not show evidence of sex disparity in the access and utilization of OHC in Iranian children. Also the inequity related to the educational level in access and utilization of OHC was low and not considerable.
Historically deaf people have been denied access to professional nurse education due to a range of language, communication and ideological barriers. The following study was set in the North of England and draws upon the Western experience and knowledge base of deaf people's experience of access to professional education. The aim of this study was to understand the experiences of the first British Sign Language using deaf qualified nurses before they entered the Pre-registration Diploma in Nursing Programme, during the programme and after the programme as they progressed into professional nursing roles. The purpose of the study was to gather the nurses' thoughts and feelings about their experiences and to analyse these using thematic analysis within a narrative interpretive tradition against a backdrop of Jurgen Habermas' critical theory and Paulo Freire's critical pedagogy. By drawing out significant themes to structure a deeper understanding of the nurses' unique positions, they offer a model for inclusive education practice that would support deaf people and people from minority groups into nursing and other health care professions. The signed narratives were video recorded and interpreted into written English transcripts which were then analysed to discover the underlying themes using Boyatzis' (1998) thematic analysis. The findings are set against an historical and contemporary setting of deaf people in Western society, their experiences of education, health and employment. These unique findings illustrate the significance of an accessible language environment for the nurses, the role of the organisation in ensuring access for the nurses and the impact of barriers to education and the clinical environment. The implications for education and practice supports the need to analyse the workforce required in deaf services, to scrutinize the access provided, to develop cultural competence skills, enhance the use of additional support mechanisms, generate accessible
Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countries. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experience of Iranian immigrants who accessed Canadian health care services. Research with immigrants is useful for learning about strategies that newcomers develop to access health care services. Methods The research question guiding this study was, “What are the processes by which Iranian immigrants learn to access health care services in Canada?” To answer the question, a constructivist grounded theory approach was applied. Initially, unstructured interviews were conducted with 17 participants (11 women and six men who were adults (at least 18 years old and had immigrated to Canada within the past 15 years. Eight participants took part in a second interview, and four participants took part in a third interview. Results Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” emerged as the core category. The basic social process (BSP, becoming self-sufficient, was a transitional process and had five stages: becoming a stranger; feeling helpless; navigating/seeking information; employing strategies; and becoming integrated and self-sufficient. We found that “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” was the main struggle throughout this journey. Some of the immigrants were able to overcome these challenges and became proficient in accessing health care services, but others were unable to make the necessary changes and thus stayed in earlier stages/phases of transition, and sometimes returned to their country of origin. Conclusion During the course of this journey a substantive grounded theory was developed that revealed the challenges and issues confronted by this particular group of immigrants. This process explains
Full Text Available In the context of aiming to achieve universal health coverage in Mexico, this study compares access to prescribed medicines (ATPM between Seguro Popular (SP and non-SP affiliated outpatient health service users.ATPM by 6,123 users of outpatient services was analyzed using the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Adjusted bi-probit models were performed incorporating instrumental variables.17.3% of SP and 10.1% of the non-SP population lacked ATPM. Two-thirds of all outpatient SP and 18.5% of all outpatient non-SP received health services at Ministry of Health facilities, among whom, 64.6 and 53.6% of the SP and non-SP population respectively reported ATPM at these facilities. Lack of medicines in health units, chronic health problems (compared to acute conditions and prescription ≥3 medicines were risk factors for non-ATPM. Adjusted models suggest that when using Ministry of Health services, the SP population has a higher probability of ATMP compared to the non-SP population.Given the aspirations of achieving universal health coverage in Mexico, it is important to increase ATPM in Ministry of Health facilities thereby ensuring basic rights to health care are met.
Andres, Ellie; Baird, Sarah; Bingenheimer, Jeffrey Bart; Markus, Anne Rossier
Background Maternity leave is integral to postpartum maternal and child health, providing necessary time to heal and bond following birth. However, the relationship between maternity leave and health outcomes has not been formally and comprehensively assessed to guide public health research and policy in this area. This review aims to address this gap by investigating both the correlates of maternity leave utilization in the US and the related health benefits for mother and child. Methods We searched the peer-reviewed scholarly literature using six databases for the years 1990 to early 2015 and identified 37 studies to be included in the review. We extracted key data for each of the included studies and assessed study quality using the "Weight of the Evidence" approach. Results The literature generally confirms a positive, though limited correlation between maternity leave coverage and utilization. Likewise, longer maternity leaves are associated with improved breastfeeding intentions and rates of initiation, duration and predominance as well as improved maternal mental health and early childhood outcomes. However, the literature points to important disparities in access to maternity leave that carry over into health outcomes, such as breastfeeding. Synthesis We present a conceptual framework synthesizing what is known to date related to maternity leave access and health outcomes.
Zhang, Gaochao; Poulsen, Dorthe V; Lygum, Victoria L; Corazon, Sus S; Gramkow, Marie C; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K
This study systematically evaluated the scientific evidence for health benefits of natural environments for people with mobility impairments. Literature searches based on five categories of terms-target group, nature type, health-related impacts, nature-related activities and accessibility issues-were conducted in four databases (Web of Science, Scopus, CAB ABSTRACT and Medline). Twenty-seven articles from 4196 hits were included in the systematic reviews. We concluded that people with mobility disabilities could gain different health benefits, including physical health benefits, mental health benefits and social health benefits from nature in different kinds of nature contacts ranging from passive contact, active involvement to rehabilitative interventions. Several issues related to the accessibility and use of nature for people with mobility impairments need attention from professionals such as landscape architects, rehabilitative therapists, caregivers and policy makers. The overall quality of methodology of the included studies is not high based on assessment of the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Moreover, more randomized controlled trials and longitudinal studies that focus specifically on evidence-based health design of nature for people with mobility impairments in the future are needed.
Gelberg, Lillian; Browner, C H; Lejano, Elena; Arangua, Lisa
Homelessness is an escalating national problem and women are disproportionately affected. Nevertheless, few studies have focused on the special circumstances associated with being a homeless woman. For instance, while both genders experience serious barriers to obtaining health care, homeless women face an additional burden by virtue of their sexual and reproductive health needs. The current study was conducted as the first stage of a qualitative/quantitative investigation of homeless women's access and barriers to family planning and women's health care. We interviewed 47 homeless women of diverse ages and ethnic backgrounds. A qualitative approach was initially taken to explore the factors homeless women themselves perceive as barriers to their use of birth control and women's health services, and factors they believe would facilitate their use. Key findings are that health is not a priority for homeless women, that transportation and scheduling can be particularly burdensome for homeless women, and that being homeless leads some to feel stigmatized by health care providers. Despite being homeless, having children was extremely important to the women in our study. At the same time, those interested in contraception confronted significant barriers in their efforts to prevent pregnancies. We conclude with suggested interventions that would make general, gynecological, and reproductive health care more accessible to homeless women.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper explores the geographical accessibility of health services in urban and rural areas of the South West of England, comparing two measures of geographical access and characterising the areas most remote from hospitals. Straight-line distance and drive-time to the nearest general practice (GP and acute hospital (DGH were calculated for postcodes and aggregated to 1991 Census wards. The correlation between the two measures was used to identify wards where straight-line distance was not an accurate predictor of drive-time. Wards over 25 km from a DGH were classified as 'remote', and characterised in terms of rurality, deprivation, age structure and health status of the population. Results The access measures were highly correlated (r2>0.93. The greatest differences were found in coastal and rural wards of the far South West. Median straight-line distance to GPs was 1 km (IQR = 0.6–2 km and to DGHs, 12 km (IQR = 5–19 km. Deprivation and rates of premature limiting long term illness were raised in areas most distant from hospitals, but there was no evidence of higher premature mortality rates. Half of the wards remote from a DGH were not classed as rural by the Office for National Statistics. Almost a quarter of households in the wards furthest from hospitals had no car, and the proportion of households with access to two or more cars fell in the most remote areas. Conclusion Drive-time is a more accurate measure of access for peripheral and rural areas. Geographical access to health services, especially GPs, is good, but remoteness affects both rural and urban areas: studies concentrating purely on rural areas may underestimate geographical barriers to accessing health care. A sizeable minority of households still had no car in 1991, and few had more than one car, particularly in areas very close to and very distant from hospitals. Better measures of geographical access, which integrate public and private transport
Pichlhöfer, Otto; Maier, Manfred
The Austrian health-care system is characterized by free provider choice and uncontrolled access to all levels of care. Using primary data, the ECOHCARE study shows that hospitalization rates for the secondary and tertiary care levels in Austria are both 4.4 times higher than those reported from the USA using a similar methodology. At the same time, essential functions of the primary care sector are weak. We propose that regulating access to secondary and tertiary care and restricting free provider choice to the primary care level would both reverse over utilization and strengthen the primary care sector.
Callahan, Ryan; Sevdalis, Nick; Mayer, Erik K; Darzi, Ara
Background Patient accessible electronic health records (PAEHRs) enable patients to access and manage personal clinical information that is made available to them by their health care providers (HCPs). It is thought that the shared management nature of medical record access improves patient outcomes and improves patient satisfaction. However, recent reviews have found that this is not the case. Furthermore, little research has focused on PAEHRs from the HCP viewpoint. HCPs include physicians, nurses, and service providers. Objective We provide a systematic review of reviews of the impact of giving patients record access from both a patient and HCP point of view. The review covers a broad range of outcome measures, including patient safety, patient satisfaction, privacy and security, self-efficacy, and health outcome. Methods A systematic search was conducted using Web of Science to identify review articles on the impact of PAEHRs. Our search was limited to English-language reviews published between January 2002 and November 2014. A total of 73 citations were retrieved from a series of Boolean search terms including “review*” with “patient access to records”. These reviews went through a novel scoring system analysis whereby we calculated how many positive outcomes were reported per every outcome measure investigated. This provided a way to quantify the impact of PAEHRs. Results Ten reviews covering chronic patients (eg, diabetes and hypertension) and primary care patients, as well as HCPs were found but eight were included for the analysis of outcome measures. We found mixed outcomes across both patient and HCP groups, with approximately half of the reviews showing positive changes with record access. Patients believe that record access increases their perception of control; however, outcome measures thought to create psychological concerns (such as patient anxiety as a result of seeing their medical record) are still unanswered. Nurses are more likely than
There should be a clear understanding that when implementing an electronic health record system (EHR), one of the hardest problems we have to solve is the access rights. In Estonia this process lasted for three years and involved all stakeholders of the healthcare sector. Special ethical committee was established to advise the decision makers and doctors to help them understand the ethical dilemmas from the patient's and society's point of view. In this article you will find a short overview of the access rights of the system, roles of the healthcare systems' employees. Descriptions of some specific situations like underage patients and representation of patient with restricted active legal capacity.
Clément, Marie-Caroline; Couralet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Mousquès, Julien; Pierre, Aurélie; Bourgueil, Yann
This evaluation explore empirically, the concept of Multidisciplinary Health Houses, considered as a solution to maintain GP's in remote areas and simultaneously to improve quality of care. Our sample concern 9 health Houses, 71 health professionals of which 32 GP's in two regions. We mixed data collected by questionnaire, visits and interviews. Professional activity and consumptions of care by patients were assessed with claims data from national sickness fund database. Comparison was made with professionals and patients of local zones for each Health Houses. Beyond heterogeneity of health houses in terms of location, size, number of professionals involved, we found a higher level of equipment than average practices, larger access in the day, the week and the year and many informal collaboration. With the same medical activity, doctors declare to have longer holidays. Different level of collaboration can be identified according to the level of substitution between them to their patients. To conclude, Multidisciplinary Health Houses enable GP's to find new balance between work and leisure time and offers larger time accessibility to patients.
Background At the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo, the global community agreed to the goal of achieving universal access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and rights by 2015. This research explores the accelerators and decelerators of achieving universal access to the sexual and reproductive health targets and accordingly makes some suggestions. Method We have critically reviewed the latest national reports and extracted the background data on each SRH indicator. The key stakeholders, both national and international, were visited and interviewed at two sites. A total of 55 in-depth interviews were conducted with religious leaders, policy-makers, senior managers, senior academics, and health care managers. Six focus-group discussions were also held among health care providers. The study was qualitative in nature. Results Obstacles on the road to achieving universal access to SRH can be viewed from two perspectives. One gap exists between current achievements and the targets. The other gap arises due to age, marital status, and residency status. The most recently observed trends in the indicators of the universal access to SRH shows that the achievements in the “unmet need for family planning” have been poor. Unmet need for family planning could directly be translated to unwanted pregnancies and unwanted childbirths; the former calls for sexual education to underserved people, including adolescents; and the latter calls for access to safe abortion. Local religious leaders have not actively attended international goal-setting programs. Therefore, they usually do not presume a positive attitude towards these goals. Such negative attitudes seem to be the most important factors hindering the progress towards universal access to SRH. Lack of international donors to fund for SRH programs is also another barrier. In national levels both state and the society are interactively playing their roles. We have used a
舒文锐; 杨人懿; 潘霄; 林宁; 时皎皎; 焦成元; 唐云翔; 邓光辉; 陈怡; 李玉友
目的：调查高原汽车兵心理健康状况，对心理测量结果进行分析，提出心理服务对策。方法：采用SCL－90量表、军人心理应激自评问卷、阿森斯失眠量表和一般情况问卷对驻高原某部队200名汽车兵进行调查。结果：高原汽车兵在躯体化评分方面显著低于军队常模（P＜0．01）；总均分与8个因子均分（强迫、人际关系敏感性、抑郁、焦虑、敌意、恐怖、妄想、精神病性）低于地方常模（P＜0．05）。军人心理应激自评问卷显示，96．8％的官兵标准分T分＜70，没有心理应激；3．2％的官兵标准分T分≥70，存在心理应激。阿森斯失眠量表显示，25．3％没有失眠症状，16．8％可能存在失眠症状，57．9％存在失眠症状。不同年龄、是否为独生子女、不同家庭经济状况、不同驻扎高原时间、所在海拔高度不同的官兵SCL－90量表总均分和各因子得分均未见明显差异（P＞0．05）。结论：高原汽车兵的心理健康水平在近几年中有较大提升已接近全军平均水平，但睡眠状况较差。建议进行经常性的心理教育、心理测评、心理咨询、行为训练和个别心理诊治。%Objective: To investigate the mental health of plateau motor transport corps and analyze the data , put forward some suggestions for psychological services.Methods:Use SCL-90 Symptom Checklist, soldiers psychological stress self-reported questionnaire, athens insom-nia scale and general situation questionnaire to test 200 soldiers from plateau motor transport corps.Results: Plateau motor transport corps were lower than the military norm in summarization scores(P0.05).Conclusion:Plateau motor transport corps are approaching to the average level of whole army in mental health;mental health status had a great improvement in recent years.We propose to carry out regular psychological education, psychological evaluation, counseling, behavioral
Ploeg, Jenny; Denton, Margaret; Hutchison, Brian; McAiney, Carrie; Moore, Ainsley; Brazil, Kevin; Tindale, Joseph; Wu, Amina; Lam, Annie
The purpose of the study examined in this article was to understand how non-physician health care professionals working in Canadian primary health care settings facilitate older persons' access to community support services (CSSs). The use of CSSs has positive impacts for clients, yet they are underused from lack of awareness. Using a qualitative description approach, we interviewed 20 health care professionals from various disciplines and primary health care models about the processes they use to link older patients to CSSs. Participants collaborated extensively with interprofessional colleagues within and outside their organizations to find relevant CSSs. They actively engaged patients and families in making these linkages and ensured follow-up. It was troubling to find that they relied on out-of-date resources and inefficient search strategies to find CSSs. Our findings can be used to develop resources and approaches to better support primary health care providers in linking older adults to relevant CSSs.
M. G. Karaylanov
Full Text Available The brief analysis of the organization of primary health care on an outpatient basis in the case ofSt. Petersburgis reflected. The structure of primary health care is described, namely healthcare organizations that provide outpatient care; the standards and the level of availability of primary health care, as well as the capacity of outpatient clinics are defined. An important criterion for the quality of care is its accessibility, taking into account the number of attached population. Reforming the ambulatory network in a large city is one of the most difficult health management problems, due to many factors, first of all determined by the needs of the population in primary health care, a variety of organizational forms of outpatient care, intensive changing residential area of the city, the need to ensure effective interactions with other social institutions.
Shaikh, Irshad Ali; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Kamal, Anila; Masood, Sobia
Internet has changed the way we live and work. Advent of this technology has fundamentally transformed our lives the way invention of automobile changed how our lives and cities looked and worked before. Practically no information is available on the use of Internet for health by the people of Pakistan. The Objectives of the study were to assess the access and utilization pattern of Internet by university students in Islamabad, with emphasis on the healthcare information seeking. An anonymous, self-administered, and pre-tested questionnaire with questions on the access, and usage pattern of Internet, seeking health care information online, and belief about reliability of such information; was distributed to only those students who were enrolled in masters or higher degree programs. A total of 600 students were approached and 598 (99.7%) completed the questionnaires. The mean age of students was 23.5 years (range 19-40). The majority of students (423) were enrolled in masters program. Four hundred and sixty-eight students (78.26%) students had access to the computer either at home or at their university hostel. While 304 (50.84%) students had Internet access at home or in their university hostel. Out of 304 students who reported having access to Internet in the past three months, one hundred and thirty-nine (43.4%) students replied affirmatively to the question of having used Internet for seeking health care information. And 109 (78.4%) thought that such information was reliable. Out of 139 students who had used Internet for seeking health information, 35 (25.2%) students replied affirmatively to the question of having discussed health information obtained from Internet with their doctor/physician whom they visited for any illness/treatment. Majority of Islamabad university students in this study had access to computer and Internet. Young and healthy state of this educated age group perhaps accounts for limited use of Internet for seeking healthcare related
Julián Vargas J
Full Text Available Objective: To understand the characteristics of access to the General System of Social Security in health (SGSS, from the perspective of doctors, nurses, administrators and users. Methodology: based on the grounded theory we present a study in six cities in Colombia: Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Bogota, Leticia, Medellín and Pasto, for which interviews were conducted in-depth with health professionals involved in service delivery and focus groups with service users. Results: The findings indicate that insurance has become an end in itself, and being affiliated to SGSSS does not guarantee effective access to services. The dominance of the market, the financial profitability of insurers, imposed cost-containment mechanisms over the right to health. There are limitations from the rules, benefit plans that create geographical, economic and cultural barriers from the various actors involved in the chain of decisions. Additionally, display individual and institutional ethical shortcomings, clientelism and corruption in the management of resources, coupled with poverty and geographical dispersion of communities, mean that further limiting access to health services.
Soares, Neelkamal S; Hobson, Wendy L; Ruch-Ross, Holly; Finneran, Maureen; Varrasso, Denia A; Keller, David
The CATCH (Community Access to Child Health) Program, which supports pediatricians who engage with the community to improve child health, increase access to health care, and promote advocacy through small seed grants, was last evaluated in 1998. The objective was to describe the characteristics of CATCH grant recipients and projects and assess the community impact of funded projects. Prospective data was collected from CATCH applications (grantee characteristics, topic area and target population for projects funded from 2006-2012) and post-project 2-year follow-up survey (project outcomes, sustainability, and impact for projects funded from 2008 through 2010). From 2006 through 2012, the CATCH Program awarded 401 projects to grantees working mostly in general pediatrics. Eighty-five percent of projects targeted children covered by Medicaid, 33% targeted uninsured children, and 75% involved a Latino population. Main topic areas addressed were nutrition, access to health care, and medical home. Sixty-nine percent of grantees from 2008 to 2010 responded to the follow-up survey. Ninety percent reported completing their projects, and 86% of those projects continued to exist in some form. Grantees reported the development of community partnerships (77%) and enhanced recognition of child health issues in the community (73%) as the most frequent changes due to the projects. The CATCH Program funds community-based projects led by pediatricians that address the medical home and access to care. A majority of these projects and community partnerships are sustained beyond their original CATCH funding and, in many cases, are leveraged into additional financial or other community support.
Full Text Available Abstract Background As in many European countries, undocumented migrants in Denmark have restricted access to healthcare. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse undocumented migrants' experiences of access to healthcare, use of alternative health-seeking strategies; and ER nurses' experiences in encounters with undocumented migrants. Methods Qualitative design using semi-structured interviews and observations. The participants included ten undocumented South Asian migrants and eight ER nurses. Results Undocumented migrants reported difficulties accessing healthcare. The barriers to healthcare were: limited medical rights, arbitrariness in healthcare professionals' attitudes, fear of being reported to the police, poor language skills, lack of network with Danish citizens, lack of knowledge about the healthcare system and lack of knowledge about informal networks of healthcare professionals. These barriers induced alternative health-seeking strategies, such as self-medication, contacting doctors in home countries and borrowing health insurance cards from Danish citizens. ER nurses expressed willingness to treat all patients regardless of their migratory status, but also reported challenges in the encounters with undocumented migrants. The challenges for ER nurses were: language barriers, issues of false identification, insecurities about the correct standard procedures and not always being able to provide appropriate care. Conclusions Undocumented migrants face formal and informal barriers to the Danish healthcare system, which lead to alternative health-seeking strategies that may have adverse effects on their health. This study shows the need for policies and guidelines, which in accordance with international human rights law, ensure access to healthcare for undocumented migrants and give clarity to healthcare professionals.
Schierenbeck, Isabell; Johansson, Peter; Andersson, Lena; van Rooyen, Dalena
The right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health is enshrined in many international human rights treaties. However, studies have shown that people with mental disabilities are often marginalized and discriminated against in the fulfillment of their right to health. The aim of this study is to identify and reach a broader understanding of barriers to the right to mental health in the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Eleven semi-structured interviews were carried out with health professionals and administrators. The researchers used the Availability, Accessibility, Acceptability, and Quality (AAAQ) framework from the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to structure and analyze the material. The framework recognizes these four interrelated and partly overlapping elements as necessary for implementation of the right to health. The study identifies eleven barriers to the enjoyment of the right to health for people with mental disabilities. Three categories of barriers relate to availability: lack of staff, lack of facilities, and lack of community services and preventive care. Four barriers relate to accessibility: lack of transport, lack of information, stigmatization, and traditional cultural beliefs of the community. Two barriers relate to acceptability: lack of cross-cultural understanding among staff and traditional cultural beliefs of staff. Finally, two barriers relate to quality: lack of properly trained staff and lack of organizational capacity. The results, in line with earlier research, indicate that the implementation of the right to health for people with mental disabilities is far from achieved in South Africa. The findings contribute to monitoring the right to mental health in South Africa through the identification of barriers to the right to health and by indicating the importance of building monitoring procedures based on the experiences and knowledge of staff involved in mental health
Full Text Available background:Poverty in urban area triggered new problem related with their access to health care services. Heavy burden of life in urban makes health, especially reproductive health, never become first priority for urban poor community. This study is aimed to analyzed equity of urban poor community when accessing the reproductive health care. Methods:This is descriptive study with cross sectional design applied. There were 78 women residents of Penjaringansari II Flats in Surabaya selected by simple random sampling (α=10% as respondents. Penjaringansari II Flats was choosen because it is a slum area that residence by unskilled labours and odd employees. The need fulfillment of respondents in reproductive health care was analyzed by spider web analysis. result: Most of respondents (55.1% were first married before 20 years old. There were 60.5% of them gave birth before 20 years old also, so it belongs to high risk pregnant women. Spider web area for health care of under age married was less than ideal age married which means that under age married urban poor experienced inequity for ANC health services. Approximately 10.3% of respondents had never use contraceptives because they fear of side effects and inhibiton of their husband. conclutions:Better equity shown in the prevention of cervical cancer. Being perceived as the poor who need assistance, free pap smear was often held by Penjaringansari II residents. Poor conditions experienced by a group not only can promote health care inequity, but also promote health care equity. recomendation:Health care equity for urban poor can be pursued through both aid schemes provided by the community or the government.
Kopacz, Marek S; Karras, Elizabeth
(1) Describe the demographic characteristics of student service members and veterans (SSM/V) who seek pastoral care for mental health support; and (2) evaluate patterns of access to mental health care providers among pastoral care users and nonusers. Respondents to the Fall 2011 National College Health Assessment who reported a history of military service and ever having sought mental health care (n = 331). Differences between groups were examined using chi-square and Student's t tests. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated using ordinal logistic regression. One-third of participants used pastoral care. Users were more likely to be male and older. No significant differences were noted for race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, or exposure to hazardous duty. Users had a greater than 6-fold increase in proportional odds of accessing multiple providers. Many SSM/V look to pastoral care for mental health support. Colleges should consider incorporating a pastoral care component into specialized health care programs provided to SSM/V.
Campbell, Ruth M; Klei, A G; Hodges, Brian D; Fisman, David; Kitto, Simon
Understanding the immigrant experience accessing healthcare is essential to improving their health. This qualitative study reports on experiences seeking healthcare for three groups of immigrants in Toronto, Canada: permanent residents, refugee claimants and undocumented immigrants. Undocumented immigrants who are on the Canadian Border Services Agency deportation list are understudied in Canada due to their precarious status. This study will examine the vulnerabilities of this particular subcategory of immigrant and contrast their experiences seeking healthcare with refugee claimants and permanent residents. Twenty-one semi-structured, one-on-one qualitative interviews were conducted with immigrants to identify barriers and facilitators to accessing healthcare. The open structure of the interviews enabled the participants to share their experiences seeking healthcare and other factors that were an integral part of their health. This study utilized a community-based participatory research framework. The study identifies seven sections of results. Among them, immigration status was the single most important factor affecting both an individual's ability to seek out healthcare and her experiences when trying to access healthcare. The healthcare seeking behaviour of undocumented immigrants was radically distinct from refugee claimants or immigrants with permanent resident status, with undocumented immigrants being at a greater disadvantage than permanent residents and refugee claimants. Language barriers are also noted as an impediment to healthcare access. An individual's immigration status further complicates their ability to establish relationships with family doctors, access prescriptions and medications and seek out emergency room care. Fear of authorities and the complications caused by the above factors can lead to the most disadvantaged to seek out informal or black market sources of healthcare. This study reaffirmed previous findings that fear of deportation
Duku, Stephen Kwasi Opuku; van Dullemen, Caroline Elisabeth; Fenenga, Christine
Aging in Sub-Saharan Africa causes major challenges for policy makers in social protection. Our study focuses on Ghana, one of the few Sub-Saharan African countries that passed a National Policy on Aging in 2010. Ghana is also one of the first Sub-Saharan African countries that launched a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS; NHIS Act 650, 2003) with the aim to improve access to quality health care for all citizens, and as such can be considered as a means of poverty reduction. Our study assesses whether premium exemption policy under the NHIS that grants non-payments of annual health insurance premiums for older people increases access to health care. We assessed differences in enrollment coverage among four different age groups (18-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70+). We found higher enrollment for the 70+ and 60-69 age groups. The likelihood of enrollment was 2.7 and 1.7 times higher for the 70+ and 60-69 age groups, respectively. Our results suggest the NHIS exemption policy increases insurance coverage of the aged and their utilization of health care services.
Full Text Available Introduction: In South Africa, there are renewed efforts to strengthen primary health care and community health worker (CHW programmes. This article examines three South African CHW programmes, a small local non-governmental organisation (NGO, a local satellite of a national NGO, and a government-initiated service, that provide a range of services from home-based care, childcare, and health promotion to assist clients in overcoming poverty-related barriers to health care. Methods: The comparative case studies, located in Eastern Cape and Gauteng, were investigated using qualitative methods. Thematic analysis was used to identify factors that constrain and enable outreach services to improve access to care. Results: The local satellite (of a national NGO, successful in addressing multi-dimensional barriers to care, provided CHWs with continuous training focused on the social determinants of ill-health, regular context-related supervision, and resources such as travel and cell-phone allowances. These workers engaged with, and linked their clients to, agencies in a wide range of sectors. Relationships with participatory structures at community level stimulated coordinated responses from service providers. In contrast, an absence of these elements curtailed the ability of CHWs in the small NGO and government-initiated service to provide effective outreach services or to improve access to care. Conclusion: Significant investment in resources, training, and support can enable CHWs to address barriers to care by negotiating with poorly functioning government services and community participation structures.
Anita K Wagner
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Differences between women and men in political and economic empowerment, education, and health risks are well-documented. Similar gender inequities in access to care and medicines have been hypothesized but evidence is lacking. METHODS: We analyzed 2002 World Health Survey data for 257,922 adult respondents and 80,932 children less than 5 years old from 53 mostly low and middle-income countries. We constructed indicators of need for, access to, and perceptions of care, and we described the number of countries with equal and statistically different proportions of women and men for each indicator. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we estimated effects of gender on our study outcomes, overall and by household poverty. FINDINGS: Women reported significantly more need for care for three of six chronic conditions surveyed, and they were more likely to have at least one of the conditions (OR 1.41 [95% CI 1.38, 1.44]. Among those with reported need for care, there were no consistent differences in access to care between women and men overall (e.g., treatment for all reported chronic conditions, OR 1.00 [0.96, 1.04] or by household poverty. Of concern, access to care for chronic conditions was distressingly low among both men and women in many countries, as was access to preventive services among boys and girls less than 5 years old. CONCLUSIONS: These cross-country results do not suggest a systematic disadvantage of women in access to curative care and medicines for treating selected chronic conditions or acute symptoms, or to preventive services among boys and girls.
Nutsford, D; Pearson, A L; Kingham, S
This study aims to find whether proximity to urban green spaces is associated with human mental health. A cross-sectional examination of the relationship between access to urban green spaces and counts of anxiety/mood disorder treatments amongst residents (aged 15 years and over) in Auckland City, New Zealand. Anxiety/mood disorder treatment counts by three age groups were aggregated to 3149 small area units in Auckland. Six measures of green space access were derived using GIS techniques involving total green spaces and useable green spaces. Negative binomial regression models have been fitted to test the relationship between access to green space and area-level anxiety/mood disorder treatment counts, adjusted for age and area-level deprivation. Anxiety/mood disorder treatment counts were associated with three green space measures. The proportion of both total and useable green space within 3 km and distance to nearest useable green space all indicated a protective effect of increased access to green space against anxiety/mood disorder treatment counts. Access to total and useable green space within 300 m did not exhibit significant associations. This study found that decreased distance to useable green space and increased proportion of green space within the larger neighbourhood were associated with decreased anxiety/mood disorder treatment counts in an urban environment. This suggests the benefits of green space on mental health may relate both to active participation in useable green spaces near to the home and observable green space in the neighbourhood environment. © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Maternal mortality can be prevented if mothers had routine obstetric care and access to emergency obstetric services. However, in accessing healthcare most expecting mothers will have to struggle with distance and financial problems. The study sought to; assess the barriers that discourage women from accessing antenatal, delivery and postnatal services in the Cape coast Metropolis and give recommendations to inform policy. Questionnaire was administered to 150 pregnant women and nursing mothers with babies less than one year from ten communities in the Cape Coast Metropolis. An institutional questionnaire was administered at the University of Cape Coast Hospital which provides health care services to the communities. The study revealed that challenges such as money (16.7%, distance (15.4%, and the behaviour of health personnel (20% were the dominant barriers to accessing antenatal, delivery and post natal services in the Cape Cost Metropolis. These barriers lead to the inability of 14% of pregnant women and nursing mothers with babies less than one year to adhere to the minimum antenatal visitation number of 5 recommended by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Again 15.3% of these respondents were delivered by Traditional Birth Attendants and family members, whiles 5.8% were unable to adhere to the minimum postnatal visitation of two times. NGO’s and government organizations for women should organize training programmes aimed at improving the livelihood or employment for women in these communities.
Glover-Thomas, N; Chima, S C
Mental health law across many jurisdictions provides a legal framework for the compulsory detention and, where appropriate, treatment in hospital of people with mental health problems. Latent within many of these "systems" of mental health provision is the concern that the quality of care people receive does not always meet legal and ethical norms. For many, there remains the very serious recognition that access to mental health care in its entirety remains elusive. International human rights discourse has influenced the shaping of modern mental health laws in many developed countries. In 2008, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) entered into force. For many countries, such as South Africa, the CRPD provides a human rights instrument with the scope to establish a worldwide means of bolstering human rights. This paper examines both the UK and the broader African position with regard to the extent redress can be sought if and when an individual does not receive the care and treatment needed. Within this, consideration will be given to one of the paradoxes of mental health care which bedevil mental health systems: How do legal frameworks for detaining and treating people without their consent work when there is no corresponding enforceable right that appropriate treatment or suitable conditions of detention must be provided. The focus of this paper is the question of whether there is indeed a legal "right" to mental health care.
Andrulis, D P
Urban communities continue to face formidable historic challenges to improving public health. However, reinvestment initiatives, changing demographics, and growth in urban areas are creating changes that offer new opportunities for improving health while requiring that health systems be adapted to residents' health needs. This commentary suggests that health care improvement in metropolitan areas will require setting local, state, and national agendas around 3 priorities. First, health care must reorient around powerful population dynamics, in particular, cultural diversity, growing numbers of elderly, those in welfare-workplace transition, and those unable to negotiate an increasingly complex health system. Second, communities and governments must assess the consequences of health professional shortages, safety net provider closures and conversions, and new marketplace pressures in terms of their effects on access to care for vulnerable urban populations; they must also weigh the potential value of emerging models for improving those populations' care. Finally, governments at all levels should use their influence through accreditation, standards, tobacco settlements, and other financing streams to educate and guide urban providers in directions that respond to urban communities' health care needs.
Sizemore, M H
The issue of access to health care for the elderly and the quality of that care is of growing importance not only in the United States but also in less developed nations such as Mexico. An area of special interest is the U.S.-Mexico border region, where an increasing number of people are relocating to seek jobs they believe will open up as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) loosens trade barriers. Workers flocking to the border often bring their families, including elderly relatives. This study examines a sample of lower-middle and mid-middle class Mexicans aged sixty to eighty-nine who reside in the border city of Ciudad Juárez, focusing on the principal ailments which affect these individuals and available treatment. A concluding section makes brief comparative remarks on access to health care for the elderly in Mexico and in the United States.
Nieto Masot Ana
Full Text Available As the competent laws on Health and Education of the Extremaduran Government read, all the Extremaduran people have the right to their benefits, irrespective of their social, economic and cultural characteristics. Nevertheless, in the Region of Extremadura there are still differences between the rural and urban areas, so, studying how the Extremaduran people can access, with the same conditions, to those services considered basic, such as health and education, is very significant. Using techniques as Network Analyst and the interpolation method IDW, we can note that in Extremadura there are still zones with a very-far- from- laws reality, rural areas with a difficult access to the named services and equipment due to the location on low developed in population and economy areas, and very far from the main communication roads
Virtuoso, Janeisa Franck; Mazo, Giovana Zarpellon; Menezes, Enaiane Cristina; Cardoso, Adilson Sant'Ana; Dias, Roges Ghidini; Balbé, Giovane Pereira
The morbidity profile and access to health services of 132 women and 33 men, with average age of 69.1 ± 6 years--all practitioners of physical activities was--analyzed. A questionnaire for the socio-demographic profile, physical activity involved, self-referred morbidity and access to health services was applied. In the analysis, descriptive and inferencial statistics were used, with a significance level of 5%. Most of the sample was 60-69 years old (55.7%), practicing water aerobics (52.7%) and had high blood pressure (48.4%). The women aged 60 to 69 years (p 0.05). The younger-aged men went more often to a doctor during the last year than the younger-aged women (p physical activity.
Ana Cláudia Conceição da Silva
Full Text Available Study aimed to characterize the studies on access and use of health services by the Roma population. A systematic review was performed by searching for articles from databases OvidSP/Medline, ProQuest, Web of Science and LILACS, between 2003 and 2013. Initially, 115 citations were selected: (51 Medline, (17 ProQuest, ( 47 Web of Science, (0 Lilacs. After thorough reading, 10 articles were selected which were related to access and health of Roma population. Many studies seemed to meet inclusion criteria by reading the title and abstract, but after thorough reading they did not meet the requirements. All are in English idiom. Most of the UK in the period of 2012-1013, quantitative studies. They presented varied methods, without methodological rigor and detail, with unrepresentative samples and little comparability findings.
Yang, Duck-Hye; Goerge, Robert; Mullner, Ross
The inequitable geographic distribution of health care resources has long been recognized as a problem in the United States. Traditional measures, such as a simple ratio of supply to demand in an area or distance to the closest provider, are easy measures for spatial accessibility. However the former one does not consider interactions between patients and providers across administrative borders and the latter does not account for the demand side, that is, the competition for the supply. With advancements in GIS, however, better measures of geographic accessibility, variants of a gravity model, have been applied. Among them are (1) a two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method and (2) a kernel density (KD) method. This microscopic study compared these two GIS-based measures of accessibility in our case study of dialysis service centers in Chicago. Our comparison study found a significant mismatch of the accessibility ratios between the two methods. Overall, the 2SFCA method produced better accessibility ratios. There is room for further improvement of the 2SFCA method-varying the radius of service area according to the type of provider or the type of neighborhood and determining the appropriate weight equation form-still warrant further study.
Sundar Rao PSS
Full Text Available Pamidipani SS Sundar Rao LEPRA India, Secunderabad, India Abstract: Throughout its history, leprosy has been much feared and misunderstood. Today, we have the best knowledge, expertise, therapies, and surgical and physiotherapeutic skills to virtually cure and eradicate the disease, but the continuing high levels of stigma pose insurmountable obstacles in our efforts to remove the scourges of leprosy. In this review, the medical, social, and political aspects related to the impact of stigma on leprosy are elaborated, and strategies for providing access to equitable and effective care are described. Leprosy is a biosocial disease, and experience has shown that both the medical and social dimensions must be aggressively confronted. Stigma in leprosy is based on religious, sociocultural, psychological, and demographic experience over centuries of human existence. Therefore, any attempt to eradicate or reduce stigma will require strong multifaceted approaches that will permeate psychological, social, and mental layers of the human mind and result in necessary health-seeking behaviors. What then is needed is a social multidrug therapy similar to the medical multidrug therapy, where there would be one arm for curing the medical problems of leprosy, a second arm focusing on empowering the people, especially affected persons, through appropriate education, awareness, especially for early detection and treatment, encouraging positive attitudes and perceptions, and a third arm for advocacy, attacking derogatory and discriminatory laws, enabling opportunities for persons with leprosy disabilities to be profitably employed, and providing necessary rehabilitation facilities. Health can never be adequately protected by health services without the active understanding and involvement of communities whose health is at stake. The review cautions that without a social multidisciplinary approach using community-based participatory techniques, we cannot provide
Full Text Available Abstract Background Coping strategies have, in some countries, become so prevalent that it has been widely assumed that the very notion of civil services ethos has completely – and possibly irreversibly – disappeared. This paper describes the importance and the nature of pilfering of drugs by health staff in Mozambique and Cape Verde, as perceived by health professionals from these countries. Their opinions provide pointers as to how to tackle these problems. Methods This study is based on a self-administered questionnaire addressed to a convenience sample of health workers in Mozambique and in Cape Verde. Results The study confirms that misuse of access to pharmaceuticals has become a key element in the coping strategies health personnel develop to deal with difficult living conditions. Different professional groups (misuse their privileged access in different ways, but doctors diversify most. The study identifies the reasons given for misusing access to drugs, shows how the problem is perceived by the health workers, and discusses the implications for finding solutions to the problem. Our findings reflect, from the health workers themselves, a conflict between their self image of what it means to be an honest civil servant who wants to do a decent job, and the brute facts of life that make them betray that image. The manifest unease that this provokes is an important observation as such. Conclusion Our findings suggest that, even in the difficult circumstances observed in many countries, behaviours that depart from traditional civil servant deontology have not been interiorised as a norm. This ambiguity indicates that interventions to mitigate the erosion of proper conduct would be welcome. The time to act is now, before small-scale individual coping grows into large-scale, well-organized crime.
Bronwyn A Myers
Full Text Available The causes of maternal death are well known, and are largely preventable if skilled health care is received promptly. Complex interactions between geographic and socio-cultural factors affect access to, and remoteness from, health care but research on this topic rarely integrates spatial and social sciences. In this study, modeling of travel time was integrated with social science research to refine our understanding of remoteness from health care. Travel time to health facilities offering emergency obstetric care (EmOC and population distribution were modelled for a district in eastern Indonesia. As an index of remoteness, the proportion of the population more than two hours estimated travel time from EmOC was calculated. For the best case scenario (transport by ambulance in the dry season, modelling estimated more than 10,000 fertile aged women were more than two hours from EmOC. Maternal mortality ratios were positively correlated with the remoteness index, however there was considerable variation around this relationship. In a companion study, ethnographic research in a subdistrict with relatively good access to health care and high maternal mortality identified factors influencing access to EmOC, including some that had not been incorporated into the travel time model. Ethnographic research provided information about actual travel involved in requesting and reaching EmOC. Modeled travel time could be improved by incorporating time to deliver request for care. Further integration of social and spatial methods and the development of more dynamic travel time models are needed to develop programs and policies to address these multiple factors to improve maternal health outcomes.
Frances E. Owusu-Ansah; Harry Tagbor; Mabel Afi Togbe
Background: Rapid rural-urban migration of people to cities is a reality around the globe that has increased city slum dwellers. Sodom and Gomorrah is a city slum located in the heart of Accra, Ghana. Like other slums, it lacks basic amenities necessary for dwellers’ quality of life. This study describes residents’ access to health and factors associated with the use of healthcarefacilities.Methods: Questionnaires were administered in systematically selected shacks across the entire slum. Dat...
Bloom, Joan R; Hu, Teh-wei; Wallace, Neal; Cuffel, Brian; Hausman, Jaclyn W; Sheu, Mei-Ling; Scheffler, Richard
Objective To examine service cost and access for persons with severe mental illness under Medicaid mental health capitation payment in Colorado. Capitation contracts were made with two organizational models: community mental health centers (CMHCs) that manage and deliver services (direct capitation [DC]) and joint ventures between CMHCs and a for-profit managed care firm (managed behavioral health organization, [MBHO]) and compared to fee for service (F.F.S.). Data Sources/Study Setting Both primary and secondary data were collected for the year prior to the new financing policy and the following two years (1995–1998). Study Design A stratified random sample of 522 severely mentally ill subjects was selected from comparable geographic areas within the capitated and FFS regions of Colorado. Major variables include service cost, utilization, and access (probability of service use) derived from secondary claims data, subject reported access collected at six-month intervals, and baseline outcomes (symptoms, functioning, and quality of life). Principal Findings In comparison to the FFS area, cost per person was reduced in the capitated areas in each of the two years following implementation. By the end of year two, cost per person was reduced by two-thirds in the MBHO areas and by one-fifth in the DC areas. Reductions in access were found for both capitated areas, although reductions in utilization for those receiving service were found only in the MBHO model. Conclusions Medicaid mental health capitation in Colorado resulted in cost reducing service changes for persons with severe mental illness. Assessment of outcome change is necessary to identify cost effectiveness. PMID:12035996
Full Text Available Equity of access to healthcare remains a major challenge with families continuing to face financial and non-financial barriers to services. Lack of education has been shown to be a key risk factor for 'catastrophic' health expenditure (CHE, in many countries including India. Consequently, ways to address the education divide need to be explored. We aimed to assess whether the innovative state-funded Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh state launched in 2007, has achieved equity of access to hospital inpatient care among households with varying levels of education.We used the National Sample Survey Organization 2004 survey as our baseline and the same survey design to collect post-intervention data from 8623 households in the state in 2012. Two outcomes, hospitalisation and CHE for inpatient care, were estimated using education as a measure of socio-economic status and transforming levels of education into ridit scores. We derived relative indices of inequality by regressing the outcome measures on education, transformed as a ridit score, using logistic regression models with appropriate weights and accounting for the complex survey design.Between 2004 and 2012, there was a 39% reduction in the likelihood of the most educated person being hospitalised compared to the least educated, with reductions observed in all households as well as those that had used the Aarogyasri. For CHE the inequality disappeared in 2012 in both groups. Sub-group analyses by economic status, social groups and rural-urban residence showed a decrease in relative indices of inequality in most groups. Nevertheless, inequalities in hospitalisation and CHE persisted across most groups.During the time of the Aarogyasri scheme implementation inequalities in access to hospital care were substantially reduced but not eliminated across the education divide. Universal access to education and schemes such as Aarogyasri have the synergistic potential
Milosevic, Diana; Cheng, I-Hao; Smith, Mitchell M
People of refugee background living in Australia can have significant physical and emotional healthcare needs. However, their ability to access mainstream health services, including general practitioners, may be limited by factors such as lack of familiarity with the health system, language and cultural barriers, and cost. There are a number of ways in which GPs can be involved and various sources of support available. With minor modifications to practice logistics and consultations, GPs can provide beneficial and rewarding healthcare for this disadvantaged group of families and individuals.
Helleberg, Marie; Engsig, Frederik N; Kronborg, Gitte;
OBJECTIVE:: We aimed to assess retention of HIV infected individuals in the Danish health care system over a 15-year period. METHODS:: Loss to follow-up (LTFU) was defined as 365 days without contact to the HIV care system. Data were obtained from the nationwide Danish HIV Cohort study, The Danis......, especially after initiation of HAART. Absence from HIV care is associated with increased mortality. We conclude that high rates of retention can be achieved in a health care system with free access to treatment and is associated with a favorable outcome....
Yu, Daihua X; Parmanto, Bambang; Dicianno, Brad E; Watzlaf, Valerie J; Seelman, Katherine D
Purpose State: An innovative mobile health system called iMHere (interactive Mobile Health and Rehabilitation) has been developed at the University of Pittsburgh to support self-care and adherence to self-care regimens for patients with chronic conditions. The goal of this study is to explore and to identify the accessibility needs and preferences of individuals with dexterity impairments when they use the iMHere system. Participants were asked to perform tasks after a one-week field trial. The time for a participant to complete each task, the number of possible errors a participant made and the number of errors a participant was able to self-correct were recorded and analyzed. The Telehealth Usability Questionnaire was collected to rate participants' experiences. Nine participants with various levels of dexterity abilities were included in the study. A statistically significant negative correlation was identified between participants' dexterity levels and their error ratios by using a Pearson product-moment correlation (r = -0.434, n = 36, p = 0.004). Approximately 51% of errors detected was self-corrected without any help, but other errors called for resolution from a researcher. Due to the diversity of participants' dexterity impairments, their needs and preferences differ one from another. Personalized design may be the key to approaching these challenges in improving accessibility. Implications for Rehabilitation An innovative mobile health system called iMHere has been developed to support self-care and adherence to self-care regimens as part of rehabilitation for patients with chronic conditions. Before populations with these limitations can harness the potential of mHealth, accessibility of mHealth has to be addressed to ensure its quality and value. Dexterity limitations are commonly associated with chronic disease, accidents or aging. The study presented here identified the potential issues and barriers to accessibility related to user
Luke C Mullany
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health indicators are poor and human rights violations are widespread in eastern Burma. Reproductive and maternal health indicators have not been measured in this setting but are necessary as part of an evaluation of a multi-ethnic pilot project exploring strategies to increase access to essential maternal health interventions. The goal of this study is to estimate coverage of maternal health services prior to this project and associations between exposure to human rights violations and access to such services. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Selected communities in the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions of eastern Burma that were accessible to community-based organizations operating from Thailand were surveyed to estimate coverage of reproductive, maternal, and family planning services, and to assess exposure to household-level human rights violations within the pilot-project target population. Two-stage cluster sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15-45 y documented access to essential antenatal care interventions, skilled attendance at birth, postnatal care, and family planning services. Mid-upper arm circumference, hemoglobin by color scale, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia by rapid diagnostic dipstick were measured. Exposure to human rights violations in the prior 12 mo was recorded. Between September 2006 and January 2007, 2,914 surveys were conducted. Eighty-eight percent of women reported a home delivery for their last pregnancy (within previous 5 y. Skilled attendance at birth (5.1%, any (39.3% or > or = 4 (16.7% antenatal visits, use of an insecticide-treated bed net (21.6%, and receipt of iron supplements (11.8% were low. At the time of the survey, more than 60% of women had hemoglobin level estimates < or = 11.0 g/dl and 7.2% were Pf positive. Unmet need for contraceptives exceeded 60%. Violations of rights were widely reported: 32.1% of Karenni households reported forced labor and 10% of Karen
Hughes, Naomi Rebecca
This article describes a study that examined the experiences of 27 individuals who frequented an Open Access homeless shelter in Toronto, Canada. The overarching aim of this study was to map the social organisation of health care in Toronto, with particular regards to the ways in which literacy, or the lack of literacy, mediates the experiences of homeless individuals attempting to gain access to health care. While terms such as "literate" or "illiterate" might be seen to reflect an individual's level of acquired education or competence, critical social theorists argue that such terms instead more accurately reflect an individual's relative class or position within the social hierarchy. Individuals who possess literacy are able to read into texts for their implicit understandings, directives, and power structures. Furthermore, they are able to translate and decode texts as potential pretexts for coordination or control. This study draws on a Freirean critical standpoint, which acknowledges that knowledge and power are inextricably interconnected. This study asked: How does literacy, or the lack of literacy, facilitate or impede access to health care for homeless individuals? What are the social consequences of illiteracy?
Svetlana A. Firsova
Full Text Available Introduction: this article explores the pedagogical technology employed to teach medical students foundations of work with MICROSOFT ACCESS databases. The above technology is based on integrative approach to the information modeling in public health practice, drawing upon basic didactic concepts that pertain to objects and tools databases created in MICROSOFT ACCESS. The article examines successive steps in teaching the topic “Queries in MICROSOFT ACCESS” – from simple queries to complex ones. The main attention is paid to such components of methodological system, as the principles and teaching methods classified according to the degree of learners’ active cognitive activity. The most interesting is the diagram of the relationship of learning principles, teaching methods and specific types of requests. Materials and Methods: the authors used comparative analysis of literature, syllabi, curricula in medical informatics taught at leading medical universities in Russia. Results: the original technique of training in putting queries with databases of MICROSOFT ACCESS is presented for analysis of information models in practical health care. Discussion and Conclusions: it is argued that the proposed pedagogical technology will significantly improve the effectiveness of teaching the course “Medical Informatics”, that includes development and application of models to simulate the operation of certain facilities and services of the health system which, in turn, increases the level of information culture of practitioners.
MacFarlane, Katrina A; O'Neil, Mary Lou; Tekdemir, Deniz; Çetin, Elvin; Bilgen, Barış; Foster, Angel M
Turkey has maintained liberal contraception and abortion policies since the 1980s. In 2012, the government proposed to restrict abortion; a bill limiting abortion was later drafted but never passed into law. Since the proposed restriction, women have reported difficulty accessing abortion services across Turkey. We aimed to better understand the current availability of abortion and reproductive health services in Istanbul and explore whether access to services has changed since 2012. In 2015, we completed 14 in-depth interviews with women and 11 semi-structured interviews with key informants. We transcribed all interviews and completed content and thematic analyses of the data. Key informants had good knowledge about the political discourse and the current abortion law. In contrast, women were familiar with the political discourse but had mixed information about the current status of abortion and were unsure about the legality of their own abortions. There was consensus that access to services has become more limited in the last five years due to the political climate, thus advocacy to prioritize reproductive health services, and abortion care in particular, in the public health system are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jerome-D'Emilia, Bonnie; Dunphy Suplee, Patricia; Gardner, Marcia R
As a first step in a proposed program of community-based participatory research, this study investigated access to care and specific health needs in a population of Hispanic women from a medically underserved, urban community. There were 66 Hispanic women recruited at a local church to complete a 94-item researcher-developed survey. Thirty-two percent of women in the study were not U.S. citizens. Being insured, being a citizen, and having a medical diagnosis were significant in satisfaction with care. The most prevalent health issue for this population was being overweight or obese. This study demonstrates the use of the community needs assessment process in the development of interventions to improve a community's health and health care. This is especially true in the Hispanic community in which large variations based on culture and country of origin will impact the success of planned interventions.
Ana Cléia Margarida Tonhá
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze people's perception on the access to health services in the southern outskirts of the Integrated Region for the Development of the Federal District (RIDE/DF, as per its acronym in Portuguese. A descriptive, cross-sectional, epidemiological and population-based study with a household survey design was carried out in 2010 and 2011. A semi-structured questionnaire, previously validated, was applied. A total of 605 individuals who lived in the southern outskirts of the Federal District were interviewed, of which 311 (51.4% were female, 215 (35.8% had incomplete primary education, 163 (40.9% sought health services in Primary Care Units and 166 (45.5% sought health services in another municipality. Access to health services in the region is influenced by social and economic conditions and by the place of living. These findings allow managers to better study the setting, review care services provided and meet health needs of that population.
Hokororo, Adolfine; Kihunrwa, Albert F; Kalluvya, Samuel; Changalucha, John; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Downs, Jennifer A
In Tanzania, approximately 25% of adolescents give birth and 50% more become sexually active during adolescence. We hypothesised that reproductive health education and services for adolescent girls are inaccessible and conducted this study to gain insights into their perceptions of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and barriers to reproductive health service utilisation in rural Mwanza, Tanzania. We conducted nine focus groups among pregnant adolescents aged 15-20 years. Data were transcribed, translated and coded for relevant themes using NVivo10 software for qualitative data analysis. Most participants were aware of the dangers of STIs to themselves and their unborn babies, but did not perceive themselves as at risk of acquiring STIs. They viewed condoms as ineffective for preventing STIs and pregnancies and unnecessary for those in committed relationships. Stigma, long waiting times, and lack of privacy in the clinics discouraged adolescent girls from seeking reproductive health care. Reproductive health care for adolescent girls who are not pregnant is practically nonexistent in Tanzania. Healthcare access for pregnant young women is also limited. Targeted changes to increase clinic accessibility and to provide reproductive health education to all rather than only pregnant women have the potential to address these gaps. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hernandez, Stephen H A; Bedrick, Edward J; Parshall, Mark B
We investigated perceptions of stigma and barriers associated with accessing mental health services among active component U.S. Air Force officer and enlisted nursing personnel (N = 211). The Britt and Hoge et al Stigma scale and Hoge et al Barriers to Care scale were administered via an anonymous, online survey. Stigma items pertained to concerns that might affect decisions to seek mental health treatment. Most of the sample agreed with the items "Members of my unit might have less confidence in me" and "My unit leadership might treat me differently." Approximately 20% to 46% agreed with the other four stigma items. Officer nursing personnel were significantly more likely than enlisted to agree that accessing mental health services would be embarrassing, harm their career, or cause leaders to blame them for the problem (p ≤ 0.03 for each comparison). Getting time off from work for treatment and scheduling appointments were perceived as barriers by 41% and 21% of respondents, respectively. We conclude that proportions of Air Force nursing personnel reporting concerns about potential stigmatizing consequences of seeking mental health care are substantial and similar to ranges previously reported by military service members screening positive for mental health problems after deployment.
Aleman, Alicia; Perez Galan, Ana
The impact of health technology assessment (HTA) in the judicialization of the right of health has not been deeply studied in Latin American countries. The purpose of this study is to review the process of judicialization of the access to high cost drugs in Uruguay and assess the impact HTAs have had on this process. The methodology used for this study included a comprehensive literature search in electronic databases, local journals, internal documents developed in the Ministry of Health, as well as conducting interviews with key informants. Judicialization of the access of high cost drugs has been increasing since 2010. The strategy of the Ministry of Health of Uruguay to decrease this problem included the organization of roundtables with judges and other stakeholders on the basis of HTA, the training of defense lawyers in the use and interpretation of HTA, and the participation of a professional who develops HTA in the preparation of the defense arguments. A year after the implementation of this strategy, 25 percent of writs of protection were won by the Ministry of Health. Even though the strategy implemented was effective in reducing the loss of litigations, it was not effective in reducing the growing number of writs of protection. It is essential to address this problem in a broad debate and to promote understanding between the parties.
Laura L Moorhead
Full Text Available Through funding agency and publisher policies, an increasing proportion of the health sciences literature is being made open access. Such an increase in access raises questions about the awareness and potential utilization of this literature by those working in health fields.A sample of physicians (N=336 and public health non-governmental organization (NGO staff (N=92 were provided with relatively complete access to the research literature indexed in PubMed, as well as access to the point-of-care service UpToDate, for up to one year, with their usage monitored through the tracking of web-log data. The physicians also participated in a one-month trial of relatively complete or limited access.The study found that participants' research interests were not satisfied by article abstracts alone nor, in the case of the physicians, by a clinical summary service such as UpToDate. On average, a third of the physicians viewed research a little more frequently than once a week, while two-thirds of the public health NGO staff viewed more than three articles a week. Those articles were published since the 2008 adoption of the NIH Public Access Policy, as well as prior to 2008 and during the maximum 12-month embargo period. A portion of the articles in each period was already open access, but complete access encouraged a viewing of more research articles.Those working in health fields will utilize more research in the course of their work as a result of (a increasing open access to research, (b improving awareness of and preparation for this access, and (c adjusting public and open access policies to maximize the extent of potential access, through reduction in embargo periods and access to pre-policy literature.
Moorhead, Laura L; Holzmeyer, Cheryl; Maggio, Lauren A; Steinberg, Ryan M; Willinsky, John
Through funding agency and publisher policies, an increasing proportion of the health sciences literature is being made open access. Such an increase in access raises questions about the awareness and potential utilization of this literature by those working in health fields. A sample of physicians (N=336) and public health non-governmental organization (NGO) staff (N=92) were provided with relatively complete access to the research literature indexed in PubMed, as well as access to the point-of-care service UpToDate, for up to one year, with their usage monitored through the tracking of web-log data. The physicians also participated in a one-month trial of relatively complete or limited access. The study found that participants' research interests were not satisfied by article abstracts alone nor, in the case of the physicians, by a clinical summary service such as UpToDate. On average, a third of the physicians viewed research a little more frequently than once a week, while two-thirds of the public health NGO staff viewed more than three articles a week. Those articles were published since the 2008 adoption of the NIH Public Access Policy, as well as prior to 2008 and during the maximum 12-month embargo period. A portion of the articles in each period was already open access, but complete access encouraged a viewing of more research articles. Those working in health fields will utilize more research in the course of their work as a result of (a) increasing open access to research, (b) improving awareness of and preparation for this access, and (c) adjusting public and open access policies to maximize the extent of potential access, through reduction in embargo periods and access to pre-policy literature.
Kangolle Alfred CT
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is a rapidly increasing problem in developing countries. Access, quality and efficiency of cancer services in developing countries must be understood to advance effective cancer control programs. Health services research can provide insights into these areas. Discussion This article provides an overview of oncology health services in developing countries. We use selected examples from peer-reviewed literature in health services research and relevant publicly available documents. In spite of significant limitations in the available data, it is clear there are substantial barriers to access to cancer control in developing countries. This includes prevention, early detection, diagnosis/treatment and palliation. There are also substantial limitations in the quality of cancer control and a great need to improve economic efficiency. We describe how the application of health data may assist in optimizing (1 Structure: strengthening planning, collaboration, transparency, research development, education and capacity building. (2 Process: enabling follow-up, knowledge translation, patient safety and quality assurance. (3 Outcome: facilitating evaluation, monitoring and improvement of national cancer control efforts. There is currently limited data and capacity to use this data in developing countries for these purposes. Summary There is an urgent need to improve health services for cancer control in developing countries. Current resources and much-needed investments must be optimally managed. To achieve this, we would recommend investment in four key priorities: (1 Capacity building in oncology health services research, policy and planning relevant to developing countries. (2 Development of high-quality health data sources. (3 More oncology-related economic evaluations in developing countries. (4 Exploration of high-quality models of cancer control in developing countries. Meeting these needs will require national, regional and
M Stanton Jean
Full Text Available Because many diseases are multifactorial disorders,the scientific progress in genomics and genetics should be taken into consideration in public health research. In this context, genomic databases will constitute an important source of information. Consequently, it is important to identify and characterize the State's role and authority on matters related to public health,in order to verify whether it has access to such databases while engaging in public health genomic research. We first consider the evolution of the concept of public health, as well as its core functions, using a comparative approach (e.g. WHO, PAHO, CDC and the Canadian province of Quebec. Following an analysis of relevant Quebec legislation, the precautionary principle is examined as a possible avenue to justify State access to and use of genomic databases for research purposes. Finally, we consider the Influenza pandemic plans developed by WHO, Canada, and Quebec,as examples of key tools framing public health decision-making process.We observed that State powers in public health, are not,in Quebec,well adapted to the expansion of genomics research.We propose that the scope of the concept of research in public health should be clear and include the following characteristics:a commitment to the health and well-being of the population and to their determinants; the inclusion of both applied research and basic research; and, an appropriate model of governance (authorization, follow-up,consent, etc..We also suggest that the strategic approach version of the precautionary principle could guide collective choices in these matters.
Nokulunga H. Cele
Full Text Available Background: Homosexual patients are affected by social factors in their environment, and as a result may not have easy access to existing health care services. Prejudice against homosexuality and homosexual patients remains a barrier to them seeking appropriate healthcare. The concern is that lesbians and gays might delay or avoid seeking health care when they need it because of past discrimination or perceived homophobia within the health care thereby putting their health at risk.Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of homosexual patients utilising primary health care (PHC services in Umlazi in the province ofKwaZulu-Natal (KZN.Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study was conducted which was contextual innature. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 participants. The findings of this study were analysed using content analysis.Results: Two major themes emerged from the data analysis, namely, prejudice against homosexual patients by health care providers and other patients at the primary health care facilities, and, homophobic behaviour from primary health care personnel.Conclusion: Participants experienced prejudice and homophobic behaviour in the course of utilising PHC clinics in Umlazi, which created a barrier to their utilisation of health services located there. Nursing education institutions, in collaboration with the National Department of Health, should introduce homosexuality and anti-homophobia education programmes during the pre-service and in-service education period. Such programmes will help to familiarise health care providers with the health care needs of homosexual patients and may decrease homophobic attitudes.
Szabo, Christopher Paul; Fine, Jennifer; Mayers, Pat; Naidoo, Shan; Zabow, Tuviah
Mental health leadership is a critical component of patient access to care. More specifically, the ability of mental health professionals to articulate the needs of patients, formulate strategies and engage meaningfully at the appropriate level in pursuit of resources. This is not a skill set routinely taught to mental health professionals. A public-private mental health leadership initiative, emanating from a patient access to care programme, was developed with the aim of building leadership capacity within the South African public mental health sector. The express aim was to equip health care professionals with the requisite skills to more effectively advocate for their patients. The initiative involved participants from various sites within South Africa. Inclusion was based on the proposal of an ongoing "project", i.e. a clinician-initiated service development with a multidisciplinary focus. The projects were varied in nature but all involved identification of and a plan for addressing an aspect of the participants' daily professional work which negatively impacted on patient care due to unmet needs. Six such projects were included and involved 15 participants, comprising personnel from psychiatry, psychology, occupational therapy and nursing. Each project group was formally mentored as part of the initiative, with mentors being senior professionals with expertise in psychiatry, public health and nursing. The programme design thus provided a unique practical dimension in which skills and learnings were applied to the projects with numerous and diverse outcomes. Benefits were noted by participants but extended beyond the individuals to the health institutions in which they worked and the patients that they served. Participants acquired both the skills and the confidence which enabled them to sustain the changes that they themselves had initiated in their institutions. The initiative gave impetus to the inclusion of public mental health as part of the curriculum
Wearn, A M; Greenfield, S M
Complementary therapy (CT) has become increasingly popular with the general public and interest from the health professions has been rising. There has been no study focusing on the pattern of availability of CT within urban and inner-city general practice. We aimed to describe the prevalence and pattern of access to complementary therapy in this setting, identifying the characteristics of practices offering CT and the perceived barriers to service provision. We sent a postal questionnaire to all 254 general practices on the Birmingham Family Health Services Authority list. Practices were asked whether they offered any access to CTs, how services were organized and which therapies were available and to identify any barriers to provision. 175 practices (68.9%) responded. Half of the practices offered access to CT. Of these, half offered an in-house service, usually provided by the doctor (81.8%). Of GPs practising therapies themselves, 58% began in or after 1990. Seventeen separate therapies were offered, most commonly acupuncture, osteopathy, chiropractic, hypnotherapy and homoeopathy. Practices significantly more likely to offer access to CT were of larger list size and training or teaching practices. They were equally likely to be fundholders or non-fundholders. Practices offering an in-house service tended to be fundholding, training and of larger list size. Finance was perceived as the major barrier. In the area studied, many patients now have some access to CT within primary care, often within their own practice. In the main, therapies offered are the 'medically acceptable face' of complementary medicine.
Williams, Gemma A; Parmar, Divya; Dkhimi, Fahdi; Asante, Felix; Arhinful, Daniel; Mladovsky, Philipa
To help reduce child mortality and reach universal health coverage, Ghana extended free membership of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to children (under-18s) in 2008. However, despite the introduction of premium waivers, a substantial proportion of children remain uninsured. Thus far, few studies have explored why enrolment of children in NHIS may remain low, despite the absence of significant financial barriers to membership. In this paper we therefore look beyond economic explanations of access to health insurance to explore additional wider determinants of enrolment in the NHIS. In particular, we investigate whether social exclusion, as measured through a sociocultural, political and economic lens, can explain poor enrolment rates of children. Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey of 4050 representative households conducted in Ghana in 2012. Household indices were created to measure sociocultural, political and economic exclusion, and logistic regressions were conducted to study determinants of enrolment at the individual and household levels. Our results indicate that socioculturally, economically and politically excluded children are less likely to enrol in the NHIS. Furthermore, households excluded in all dimensions were more likely to be non-enrolled or partially-enrolled (i.e. not all children enrolled within the household) than fully-enrolled. These results suggest that equity in access for socially excluded children has not yet been achieved. Efforts should be taken to improve coverage by removing the remaining small, annually renewable registration fee, implementing and publicising the new clause that de-links premium waivers from parental membership, establishing additional scheme administrative offices in remote areas, holding regular registration sessions in schools and conducting outreach sessions and providing registration support to female guardians of children. Ensuring equitable access to NHIS will contribute substantially
Parkinson, Sarah E; Behrouzan, Orkideh
In the context of ongoing armed conflicts in Libya, Syria, Yemen, and Iraq, it is vital to foster nuanced understandings of the relationship between health, violence, and everyday life in the Middle East and North Africa. In this article, we explore how healthcare access interacts with humanitarian bureaucracy and refugees' daily experiences of exile. What are the stakes involved with accessing clinical services in humanitarian situations? How do local conditions structure access to healthcare? Building on the concept of "therapeutic geographies," we argue for the integration of local socio-political context and situated knowledge into understandings of humanitarian healthcare systems. Using evidence gathered from participant observation among Syrian and Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, we demonstrate how procedures developed to facilitate care-such as refugee registration and insurance contracting-can interact with other factors to simultaneously prevent and/or disincentivize refugees' accessing healthcare services and expose them to structural violence. Drawing on two interconnected ethnographic encounters in a Palestinian refugee camp and in a Lebanese public hospital, we demonstrate how interactions surrounding the clinical encounter reveal the social, political, and logistical complexities of healthcare access. Moreover, rather than hospital visits representing discrete encounters with the Lebanese state, we contend that they reveal important moments in an ongoing process of negotiation and navigation within and through the constraints and uncertainties that shape refugee life. As a result, we advocate for the incorporation of situated forms of knowledge into humanitarian healthcare practices and the development of an understanding of healthcare access as nested in the larger experience of everyday refugee life.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This article centers around a proposal outlining how research universities could leverage their intellectual property to help close the access gap for health innovations in poor countries. A recent deal between Emory University, Gilead Sciences, and Royalty Pharma is used as an example to illustrate how 'equitable access licensing' could be put into practice. Discussion While the crisis of access to medicines in poor countries has multiple determinants, intellectual property protection leading to high prices is well-established as one critical element of the access gap. Given the current international political climate, systemic, government-driven reform of intellectual property protection seems unlikely in the near term. Therefore, we propose that public sector institutions, universities chief among them, adopt a modest intervention – an Equitable Access License (EAL – that works within existing trade-law and drug-development paradigms in order to proactively circumvent both national and international obstacles to generic medicine production. Our proposal has three key features: (1 it is prospective in scope, (2 it facilitates unfettered generic competition in poor countries, and (3 it centers around universities and their role in the biomedical research enterprise. Two characteristics make universities ideal agents of the type of open licensing proposal described. First, universities, because they are upstream in the development pipeline, are likely to hold rights to the key components of a wide variety of end products. Second, universities acting collectively have a strong negotiating position with respect to other players in the biomedical research arena. Finally, counterarguments are anticipated and addressed and conclusions are drawn based on how application of the Equitable Access License would have changed the effects of the licensing deal between Emory and Gilead.
Razum, O; Wenner, J; Bozorgmehr, K
Health and access to health care are considered a human right. "Regular" immigrants such as work migrants in Germany have the same entitlement to health care coverage through the statutory health insurance as the majority population. This, however, is not the case for refugees and asylum seekers. According to paragraphs 4 and 6 of the Asylum Seekers' Benefit Act, their entitlement is restricted to care for acute pain, pregnancy and childbirth, as well as immunizations in the first 15 months. Additional care can be financed on a case-by-case basis. Care provision is regulated in different ways by the communities; it is further complicated by different regulations at the federal state levels and by differences in knowledge of the physicians on how entitlement restrictions can be circumvented on a case-by-case basis. Thus, entitlement and access to care of asylum seekers and refugees is driven by chance in 3 respects: when they are assigned to a federal state, when they are assigned to a community, and when they are treated by a doctor with more or less knowledge of the legal regulations. Restrictions on entitlement to health care are associated with higher health care expenditure. They may also lead to delayed treatment of life-threatening conditions. Furthermore, they may negatively affect social integration of asylum seekers. Therefore, the restrictions of entitlement in paragraphs 4 and 6 of the Asylum Seekers' Benefit Act need to be lifted immediately. Asylum seekers should be granted the same entitlements to health care as the majority population in the whole of Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
van de Ven, Wynand P M M
In a recent article in this journal Simon-Tuval, Horev and Kaplan argue that in order to improve the protection of consumers there might be a need to impose a threshold on the medical loss ratio (MLR) for voluntary health insurance (VHI) in Israel . Their argument is that VHI in Israel covers several essential services that are not covered by the mandatory benefits package due to budget constraints, while there are market failures in the VHI market that justify regulation to assure consumer protection such as high accessibility to high quality coverage. In this commentary it will be argued that in addition to market failures there are also government failures. It is doubtful whether imposing a threshold on MLR is effective because of government failures. It can be even counter-productive. Therefore, alternative regulatory measures are discussed to promote the protection of the beneficiaries. If essential services covered by VHI are unaffordable for some low-income people, government can extend the current mandatory basic health insurance so that it covers all essential services. If there is a budget restriction, the amount of government funds could be increased, or the health plans could be allowed to request an additional flat rate premium, set by them and to be paid by the consumer directly to their health plan. Also, effective out-of-pocket payments could be introduced. Subsidies could be given to low-income people to compensate for their additional expenses under the mandatory health insurance. If these changes are adopted, then the government would no longer be held responsible for access to benefits outside the mandatory health insurance. Accordingly, all VHI could be sold on the normal free insurance market, just as other types of indemnity insurance. In addition, the Israeli health insurance and healthcare markets could be made more competitive by introducing procompetitive regulation. This would increase the efficiency and affordability of healthcare.
Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N.; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A.; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A.; Ngogang, Jeanne Y.
Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems. As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs. PMID:27508058
Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Ngogang, Jeanne Y
Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems. As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs.
Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Foster-Fishman, Pennie G.; Davidson, William S.; Mumman, Manpreet K.; Riley, Natasha; Sadler, Georgia R.
Latinas are more likely to exhibit late stage breast cancers at the time of diagnosis and have lower survival rates compared to white women. A contributing factor may be that Latinas have lower rates of mammography screening. This study was guided by the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to examine factors associated with mammography screening utilization among middle-aged Latinas. An academic–community health center partnership collected data from community-based sample of 208 Latinas 40 years and older in the San Diego County who completed measures assessing psychosocial factors, health care access, and recent mammography screening. Results showed that 84.6 % had ever had a mammogram and 76.2 % of women had received a mammogram in the past 2 years. Characteristics associated with mammography screening adherence included a lower acculturation (OR 3.663) a recent physician visit in the past year (OR 6.304), and a greater confidence in filling out medical forms (OR 1.743), adjusting for covariates. Results demonstrate that an annual physical examination was the strongest predictor of recent breast cancer screening. Findings suggest that in this community, improving access to care among English-speaking Latinas and addressing health literacy issues are essential for promoting breast cancer screening utilization. PMID:24150421
Castañeda, Sheila F; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Foster-Fishman, Pennie G; Davidson, William S; Mumman, Manpreet K; Riley, Natasha; Sadler, Georgia R
Latinas are more likely to exhibit late stage breast cancers at the time of diagnosis and have lower survival rates compared to white women. A contributing factor may be that Latinas have lower rates of mammography screening. This study was guided by the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to examine factors associated with mammography screening utilization among middle-aged Latinas. An academic-community health center partnership collected data from community-based sample of 208 Latinas 40 years and older in the San Diego County who completed measures assessing psychosocial factors, health care access, and recent mammography screening. Results showed that 84.6 % had ever had a mammogram and 76.2 % of women had received a mammogram in the past 2 years. Characteristics associated with mammography screening adherence included a lower acculturation (OR 3.663) a recent physician visit in the past year (OR 6.304), and a greater confidence in filling out medical forms (OR 1.743), adjusting for covariates. Results demonstrate that an annual physical examination was the strongest predictor of recent breast cancer screening. Findings suggest that in this community, improving access to care among English-speaking Latinas and addressing health literacy issues are essential for promoting breast cancer screening utilization.
Haines, Andy; Smith, Kirk R; Anderson, Dennis; Epstein, Paul R; McMichael, Anthony J; Roberts, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodcock, James; Woods, Jeremy
The absence of reliable access to clean energy and the services it provides imposes a large disease burden on low-income populations and impedes prospects for development. Furthermore, current patterns of fossil-fuel use cause substantial ill-health from air pollution and occupational hazards. Impending climate change, mainly driven by energy use, now also threatens health. Policies to promote access to non-polluting and sustainable sources of energy have great potential both to improve public health and to mitigate (prevent) climate disruption. There are several technological options, policy levers, and economic instruments for sectors such as power generation, transport, agriculture, and the built environment. However, barriers to change include vested interests, political inertia, inability to take meaningful action, profound global inequalities, weak technology-transfer mechanisms, and knowledge gaps that must be addressed to transform global markets. The need for policies that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate while addressing the energy needs of disadvantaged people is a central challenge of the current era. A comprehensive programme for clean energy should optimise mitigation and, simultaneously, adaption to climate change while maximising co-benefits for health--eg, through improved air, water, and food quality. Intersectoral research and concerted action, both nationally and internationally, will be required.
Sandra Lúcia Vieira Ulinski Aguilera
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and analyze inequities in the access to specialized services in the municipalities of the metropolitan area of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. This is an ecological study. In its preparatory stage, this study focused on the socioeconomic, epidemiologic, healthcare network and sectoral financing network profiles of the 26 municipalities comprising this area. Factor analysis was employed to obtain the six principal components, and a synthetic index was calculated from them, allowing municipalities to be ranked according to living conditions and health situation. Primary data was collected from 24 municipalities, regarding their capacity, directed and repressed demand of specialized healthcare services. The context analysis revealed accentuated intermunicipal inequities. The synthetic index allowed municipalities to be classified in four relatively homogeneous groups regarding living and health conditions. Municipalities located in Vale do Ribeira obtained the worse outcomes for the Living Conditions and Health Situation Synthetic Index, as well as the higher repressed demand for specialized healthcare services. The geographical distance from the capital showed to contribute to worse living and health conditions and greater difficulties in access to healthcare services.
de Oliveira, Raimunda Félix; de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Goya, Neusa
This article analyzes user viewpoints regarding mental health care, with a focus on comprehensiveness and access at Psychosocial Care Centers (PCCs). It is a qualitative study with theoretical and methodological references of the Fourth Generation Evaluation and application of the Hermeneutic Dialectic Circle technique. Twelve users of ten mental health services in Fortaleza were interviewed from March to May 2011. Themes of the study were grouped from the narratives, with the hermeneutics of Paul Ricoeur as the benchmark for analysis. The thematic categories were: viewpoints on mental healthcare; conflicts between supply and the subjective need to receive; similarities and differences: from tutelage to autonomy; absence and belonging: open PCCs and non-community centers; between stigma and humanization. The main findings are: the PCCs are seen as spaces for conviviality able to establish affective and social networks; stigma, prejudice and tutelage are present in the services, in their families and in the community; asylum practices persist in alternative services; the humanization of care extends access and bonding in the services; the trajectory of users of the Unified Health System occurs due to their social and health needs.
Walker, Mary Ellen; Anonson, June; Szafron, Michael
The relationship between political environment and health services accessibility (HSA) has not been the focus of any specific studies. The purpose of this study was to address this gap in the literature by examining the relationship between political environment and HSA. This relationship that HSA indicators (physicians, nurses and hospital beds per 10 000 people) has with political environment was analyzed with multiple least-squares regression using the components of democracy (electoral processes and pluralism, functioning of government, political participation, political culture, and civil liberties). The components of democracy were represented by the 2011 Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index (EIUDI) sub-scores. The EIUDI sub-scores and the HSA indicators were evaluated for significant relationships with multiple least-squares regression. While controlling for a country's geographic location and level of democracy, we found that two components of a nation's political environment: functioning of government and political participation, and their interaction had significant relationships with the three HSA indicators. These study findings are of significance to health professionals because they examine the political contexts in which citizens access health services, they come from research that is the first of its kind, and they help explain the effect political environment has on health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available This paper is a qualitative assessment of a public health insurance scheme in the state of Andhra Pradesh, south India, called the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme (or Aarogyasri, using the case-study method. Focusing on inpatient hospital care and especially on surgical treatments leaves the scheme wanting in meeting the health care needs of and addressing the impoverishing health expenditure incurred by the poor, especially those living in rural areas. Though well-intentioned, people from vulnerable sections of society may find the scheme ultimately unhelpful for their needs. Through an in-depth qualitative approach, the paper highlights not just financial difficulties but also the non-financial barriers to accessing health care, despite the existence of a scheme such as Aarogyasri. Narrative evidence from poor households offers powerful insights into why even the most innovative state health insurance schemes may not achieve their goals and systemic corrections needed to address barriers to health care.
Tim Michiel Oosterveer
Full Text Available Background: Despite many improvements, health disparities between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Canada's North persist. While a strong primary health care (PHC system improves the health of a population, the majority of indigenous communities are very remote, and their access to PHC services is likely reduced. Understanding the challenges in accessing PHC services in these communities is necessary to improve the health of the population. Objective: The objective of the study was to document and analyze the challenges in accessing PHC services by indigenous people in remote communities in Canada's Northwest Territories (NWT from the perspectives of users and providers of PHC services. Methods: Using explorative, qualitative methods, our study involved 14 semi-structured interviews with PHC service providers (SPs and service users (SUs in 5 communities across the NWT which varied according to population, remoteness, ethnic composition and health care resources. The interview guide was developed after key informant consultations. Results: Both SPs and SUs understood the constraints in providing equitable access to PHC services in remote communities. The provision of emergency care was found to be particularly challenging, because of the lack of qualified staff in the community and the dependence on aeromedical evacuations. Wider dissemination of first aid skills among community members was seen to cover some gaps and also increase self-confidence. For non-emergency care, the need to travel outside the community was generally disliked. All recognized the need for more preventive services which were often postponed or delayed because of the overwhelming demand for acute care. As long as services were provided in a community, the satisfaction was high among SUs. SPs appreciated the orientation they received and the ability to build rapport with the community. Conclusions: Northern SUs and SPs generally acknowledge the health
Fonseca, Luciara Leão Viana; Nehmy, Rosa Maria Quadros; Mota, Joaquim Antônio César
Oral healthcare provided by the Unified Health System (SUS) faces the challenge of attending the epidemiological profile of Brazil's adult population. Qualitative research using semi-structured interviews was conducted to understand the experiences, expectations and perception of SUS users to services in Diamantina, State of Minas Gerais, and content analysis was used to assess the data. Discussion of the results was based on dialogue between the symbolic interactionism of Goffman and Bourdieu's concept of habitus. The results show that the users did not give importance to dental care during childhood and adolescence because care was unknown to them. There was no offer of treatment besides dental extraction. Today, they value teeth and suffer the embarrassment caused by rotten teeth. However, access to dental restoration via SUS is not possible. For their children, they perceive better access to information and care, but for specialized procedures there are barriers. They express resignation both in relation to the poor state of the teeth and the difficulties of access to dental care, which can be understood by the constant exclusion experienced by them in the past, shaping their actions in the present. It was concluded that oral health in SUS should incorporate the social value and the aesthetic dimension of teeth as a social right.
Riggs, Elisha; Davis, Elise; Gibbs, Lisa; Block, Karen; Szwarc, Jo; Casey, Sue; Duell-Piening, Philippa; Waters, Elizabeth
Often new arrivals from refugee backgrounds have experienced poor health and limited access to healthcare services. The maternal and child health (MCH) service in Victoria, Australia, is a joint local and state government operated, cost-free service available to all mothers of children aged 0-6 years. Although well-child healthcare visits are useful in identifying health issues early, there has been limited investigation in the use of these services for families from refugee backgrounds. This study aims to explore experiences of using MCH services, from the perspective of families from refugee backgrounds and service providers. We used a qualitative study design informed by the socioecological model of health and a cultural competence approach. Two geographical areas of Melbourne were selected to invite participants. Seven focus groups were conducted with 87 mothers from Karen, Iraqi, Assyrian Chaldean, Lebanese, South Sudanese and Bhutanese backgrounds, who had lived an average of 4.7 years in Australia (range one month-18 years). Participants had a total of 249 children, of these 150 were born in Australia. Four focus groups and five interviews were conducted with MCH nurses, other healthcare providers and bicultural workers. Four themes were identified: facilitating access to MCH services; promoting continued engagement with the MCH service; language challenges; and what is working well and could be done better. Several processes were identified that facilitated initial access to the MCH service but there were implications for continued use of the service. The MCH service was not formally notified of new parents arriving with young children. Pre-arranged group appointments by MCH nurses for parents who attended playgroups worked well to increase ongoing service engagement. Barriers for parents in using MCH services included access to transportation, lack of confidence in speaking English and making phone bookings. Service users and providers reported that
Gillis, Angela; Mac Lellan, Marian A
Critical service learning (CSL) offers promise for preparing community health nursing students to be advocates for social justice and social change. The purpose of this article is to describe a community based CSL project designed to provide cardiac health screening to an underserviced population, wherein nursing's role in social justice is integrated into nursing practice. First, the relationship between social justice and CSL is explored. Then, the CSL approach is examined and differentiated from the traditional service learning models frequently observed in the nursing curriculum. The CSL project is described and the learning requisites, objectives, requirements, and project outcomes are outlined. While not a panacea for system reform, CSL offers nursing students avenues for learning about social justice and understanding the social conditions that underlie health inequalities. Nurse educators may benefit from the new strategies for incorporating social justice into nursing curriculum; this paper suggests that CSL offers one possibility.
Littlefield, Lyn; Giese, Jill
The Australian Government's Better Access to Mental Health Care initiative introduced mental health reforms that included the availability of Medicare-funded psychology services. The mental health initiative has resulted in a huge uptake of these services, demonstrating the strong community demand for psychological treatment. The initiative has…
was the advent of the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program. This program is focused on continuing the development of Marines through challenging training...author by Mr. Daniel Weidensaul. 21 United States Marine Corps, Marine Corps Order 1500.54A: Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (Washington, D.C...United States Marine Corps. Marine Corps Order 1500.54A: Marine Corps Martial Arts Program. Washington, D.C.: Headquarters United States Marine Corps, 16
This literature review synthesises the findings from published reviews and key individual studies of health, nutrition and educational access with a particular emphasis on issues of gender, poverty, social exclusion and innovative practices. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the range of research designs and methods employed in…
Walker, Carol; Beck, Charles R.; Eccles, Richard; Weston, Chris
The NHS Constitution requires all NHS organisations to provide high-quality comprehensive services, based on clinical need, which do not discriminate between patients (DH 2010a). Together with its health and social care partners, the NHS also has a statutory duty of care to meet the needs of all patients with dignity and compassion. Recent…
of Physician Assistants E. H. Estee , Jr., M.D. (quoted in Pitcairn & Flahault, 1974), cautions Americans regarding the frivolous use of healthcare...required for PA certification. PAs are one of four health professions with a self -regulatory system involving periodic mandatory recertification
Tong, Yue; Sun, Jinyuan; Chow, Sherman S M; Li, Pan
Motivated by the privacy issues, curbing the adoption of electronic healthcare systems and the wild success of cloud service models, we propose to build privacy into mobile healthcare systems with the help of the private cloud. Our system offers salient features including efficient key management, privacy-preserving data storage, and retrieval, especially for retrieval at emergencies, and auditability for misusing health data. Specifically, we propose to integrate key management from pseudorandom number generator for unlinkability, a secure indexing method for privacy-preserving keyword search which hides both search and access patterns based on redundancy, and integrate the concept of attribute-based encryption with threshold signing for providing role-based access control with auditability to prevent potential misbehavior, in both normal and emergency cases.
Gruskin, Sofia; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Ezer, Tamar; Gathumbi, Anne; Cohen, Jonathan; Kameri-Mbote, Patricia
In Kenya, human rights violations have a marked impact on the health of people living with HIV. Integrating legal literacy and legal services into healthcare appears to be an effective strategy to empower vulnerable groups and address underlying determinants of health. We carried out an evaluation to collect evidence about the impact of legal empowerment programmes on health and human rights. The evaluation focused on Open Society Foundation-supported legal integration activities at four sites: the Academic Model of Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) facility, where the Legal Aid Centre of Eldoret (LACE) operates, in Eldoret; Kenyatta National Hospital's Gender-based Violence Recovery Centre, which hosts the COVAW legal integration program; and Christian Health Association of Kenya (CHAK) facilities in Mombasa and Naivasha. In consultation with the organizations implementing the programs, we designed a conceptual logic model grounded in human rights principles, identified relevant indicators and then coded structure, process and outcome indicators for the rights-related principles they reflect. The evaluation included a resource assessment questionnaire, a review of program records and routine data, and semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with clients and service providers. Data were collected in May-August 2010 and April-June 2011. Clients showed a notable increase in practical knowledge and awareness about how to access legal aid and claim their rights, as well as an enhanced ability to communicate with healthcare providers and to improve their access to healthcare and justice. In turn, providers became more adept at identifying human rights violations and other legal difficulties, which enabled them to give clients basic information about their rights, refer them to legal aid and assist them in accessing needed support. Methodological challenges in evaluating such activities point to the need to strengthen rights-oriented evaluation
Full Text Available Introduction: In Kenya, human rights violations have a marked impact on the health of people living with HIV. Integrating legal literacy and legal services into healthcare appears to be an effective strategy to empower vulnerable groups and address underlying determinants of health. Methods: We carried out an evaluation to collect evidence about the impact of legal empowerment programmes on health and human rights. The evaluation focused on Open Society Foundation-supported legal integration activities at four sites: the Academic Model of Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH facility, where the Legal Aid Centre of Eldoret (LACE operates, in Eldoret; Kenyatta National Hospital's Gender-based Violence Recovery Centre, which hosts the COVAW legal integration program; and Christian Health Association of Kenya (CHAK facilities in Mombasa and Naivasha. In consultation with the organizations implementing the programs, we designed a conceptual logic model grounded in human rights principles, identified relevant indicators and then coded structure, process and outcome indicators for the rights-related principles they reflect. The evaluation included a resource assessment questionnaire, a review of program records and routine data, and semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with clients and service providers. Data were collected in May–August 2010 and April–June 2011. Results: Clients showed a notable increase in practical knowledge and awareness about how to access legal aid and claim their rights, as well as an enhanced ability to communicate with healthcare providers and to improve their access to healthcare and justice. In turn, providers became more adept at identifying human rights violations and other legal difficulties, which enabled them to give clients basic information about their rights, refer them to legal aid and assist them in accessing needed support. Methodological challenges in evaluating such activities point to
McQuoid, Julia; Jowsey, Tanisha; Talaulikar, Girish
Stable routines are key to successful illness self-management for the growing number of people living with chronic illness around the world. Yet, the influence of chronically ill individuals' everyday contexts in supporting routines is poorly understood. This paper takes a space-time geographical approach to explore the everyday space-time contexts and routines of individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We ask: what is the relationship between renal patients' space-time contexts and their ability to establish and maintain stable routines, and, what role does health service access play in this regard? We draw from a qualitative case study of 26 individuals with CKD in Australia. Data comprised self-reported two day participant diaries and semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was guided by an inductive-deductive approach. We examined the embeddedness of routines within the space-time contexts of participants' everyday lives. We found that participants' everyday space-time contexts were highly complex, especially for those receiving dialysis and/or employed, making routines difficult to establish and vulnerable to disruption. Health service access helped shape participants' everyday space-time contexts, meaning that incidences of unpredictability in accessing health services set-off 'ripple effects' within participants' space-time contexts, disrupting routines and making everyday life negotiation more difficult. The ability to absorb ripple effects from unpredictable health services without disrupting routines varied by space-time context. Implications of these findings for the deployment of the concept of routine in health research, the framing of patient success in self-managing illness, and health services design are discussed. In conclusion, efforts to understand and support individuals in establishing and maintaining routines that support health and wellbeing can benefit from approaches that contextualise and de
Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the accessibility of reproductive health information and contraceptives in a relatively less developed area of rural central India and assessed the risks facing young unmarried men. Methods This cross-sectional study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. Participants included 38 unmarried rural men in four focus-group discussions and a representative sample of 316 similarly profiled men, aged 17-22 years, in a survey. Information was collected on the men's socioeconomic characteristics; awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of family planning; attitudes toward future contraceptive use; intra-family communication; knowledge about STIs/HIV/AIDS; and access and use of condoms. Content analysis for qualitative information and descriptive analysis for survey data were used to draw conclusions. Results Young unmarried rural Indian men's sexual and reproductive health (SRH knowledge is limited, although the majority is familiar with condoms (99%. The young men identified electronic mass media (67% as the prime source of reproductive health information, yet they lacked detailed knowledge of various contraceptives and felt ignored by health providers, who, they felt, would be capable of providing SRH information through interpersonal communication. Young men are more concerned about avoiding infections and securing sexual pleasure and less concerned about avoiding potential pregnancies. For example, 68% of the young men were aware of condoms and their HIV/AIDS preventive role, but only about two-fifths mentioned condom use to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Although most young men (96% knew where to access a condom, they felt uncomfortable or embarrassed doing so in their own villages or close by because of socio-cultural norms that prevented them from using contraceptives. Very few respondents (4% disclosed using condoms themselves, but 59% said they knew someone from their peer group who had used them
Char, Arundhati; Saavala, Minna; Kulmala, Teija
We investigated the accessibility of reproductive health information and contraceptives in a relatively less developed area of rural central India and assessed the risks facing young unmarried men. This cross-sectional study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. Participants included 38 unmarried rural men in four focus-group discussions and a representative sample of 316 similarly profiled men, aged 17-22 years, in a survey. Information was collected on the men's socioeconomic characteristics; awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of family planning; attitudes toward future contraceptive use; intra-family communication; knowledge about STIs/HIV/AIDS; and access and use of condoms. Content analysis for qualitative information and descriptive analysis for survey data were used to draw conclusions. Young unmarried rural Indian men's sexual and reproductive health (SRH) knowledge is limited, although the majority is familiar with condoms (99%). The young men identified electronic mass media (67%) as the prime source of reproductive health information, yet they lacked detailed knowledge of various contraceptives and felt ignored by health providers, who, they felt, would be capable of providing SRH information through interpersonal communication. Young men are more concerned about avoiding infections and securing sexual pleasure and less concerned about avoiding potential pregnancies. For example, 68% of the young men were aware of condoms and their HIV/AIDS preventive role, but only about two-fifths mentioned condom use to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Although most young men (96%) knew where to access a condom, they felt uncomfortable or embarrassed doing so in their own villages or close by because of socio-cultural norms that prevented them from using contraceptives. Very few respondents (4%) disclosed using condoms themselves, but 59% said they knew someone from their peer group who had used them. Young unmarried men in rural India are underserved with
Ghanshyam K Bhatta
Full Text Available Background: Family Planning (FP is a key developmental focus for the government of Nepal. Use of modern contraceptives has stagnated at 43.2% since 2011. Unmet need for family planning (FP in Nepal remains high at 27%. Despite relatively high unmet need, a factor contributing to this levelling of contraceptive use is the limited range of methods available to most clients at most sites. To address the FP need among married women of reproductive age (WRA, we tested integration of FP into agricultural programs. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of a FP program integrated into an agriculture (e.g., non-health sector program. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional (post interventional study was conducted November 2015 to February 2016 among 525 WRA participating in an agriculture program. Results: The contraceptives commonly used by women in the study location were Depo Provera and Minilap. After Technical Integration Coverage and Access (TICA interventions, almost all of the respondents (99.6% had heard about FP of which 67.8% correctly understood FP as a method to prevent unwanted pregnancy. About 50% of the respondents were found currently using FP. The percentage of WRA aware of long-acting and permanent FP methods increased from 49.0% to 62.0% and 39.0% to 52.0% respectively. Decisions on using a FP method were predominantly made by the husband (68.0%. However, 68.4% women reported that they were accompanied by their husband. The proportion of men willing to use FP increased from 5.2% to 15.5% after TICA activities implementation. The main reason identified for not currently using FP devices was that the husband and wife were not living together (88.8%. Most of the women (98.0% reported that FP utilization improved their quality of life. Conclusion: TICA activities were very successful in both increasing FP knowledge level as well as utilizing FP services among the targeted beneficiaries. The use of FP increased among agriculture program
Sedig, Kamran; Parsons, Paul; Dittmer, Mark; Ola, Oluwakemi
Public health professionals work with a variety of information sources to carry out their everyday activities. In recent years, interactive computational tools have become deeply embedded in such activities. Unlike the early days of computational tool use, the potential of tools nowadays is not limited to simply providing access to information; rather, they can act as powerful mediators of human-information discourse, enabling rich interaction with public health information. If public health informatics tools are designed and used properly, they can facilitate, enhance, and support the performance of complex cognitive activities that are essential to public health informatics, such as problem solving, forecasting, sense-making, and planning. However, the effective design and evaluation of public health informatics tools requires an understanding of the cognitive and perceptual issues pertaining to how humans work and think with information to perform such activities. This paper draws on research that has examined some of the relevant issues, including interaction design, complex cognition, and visual representations, to offer some human-centered design and evaluation considerations for public health informatics tools.
Langellier, Brent A; Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Inkelas, Moira; Ortega, Alexander N
It is important to understand the source of health-care disparities between Latinos and other children in the United States. We examine parent-reported health-care access and utilization among Latino, White, and Black children (≤17 years old) in the United States in the 2006-2011 National Health Interview Survey. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition, we portion health-care disparities into two parts (1) those attributable to differences in the levels of sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., income) and (2) those attributable to differences in group-specific regression coefficients that measure the health-care 'return' Latino, White, and Black children receive on these characteristics. In the United States, Latino children are less likely than Whites to have a usual source of care, receive at least one preventive care visit, and visit a doctor, and are more likely to have delayed care. The return on sociodemographic characteristics explains 20-30% of the disparity between Latino and White children in the usual source of care, delayed care, and doctor visits and 40-50% of the disparity between Latinos and Blacks in emergency department use and preventive care. Much of the health-care disadvantage experienced by Latino children would persist if Latinos had the sociodemographic characteristics as Whites and Blacks.
Matsaganis, Matthew D; Wilkin, Holley A
This article contributes to the burgeoning literature on the social determinants of health disparities. The authors investigate how communication resources and collective efficacy, independently and in combination, shape residents' access to health enhancing resources (including healthcare services, sources of healthier food options, and public recreation spaces) in their communities. Using random digit dial telephone survey data from 833 residents of South Los Angeles communities the authors show that communicative social capital-that is, an information and problem-solving resource that accrues to residents as they become more integrated into their local communication network of neighbors, community organizations, and local media-plays a significant role in access to health resources. This relationship is complicated by individuals' health insurance and health status, as communicative social capital magnifies the sense of absence of resources for those who are in worse health and lack insurance. Communicative social capital builds collective efficacy, which is positively related to access to health-enhancing resources, but it also mediates the negative relationship between communicative social capital and access to health resources. Residents with richer stores of communicative social capital and collective efficacy report better access to health resources. The authors conclude with a discussion of implications of these findings and suggestions for future research.
Bayati, Mohsen; Feyzabadi, Vahid Yazdi; Rashidian, Arash
Background: Women's health is a key factor affecting the health of the whole population. Tackling inequality in determinants of health is recognized as the main path toward reducing the inequality in health outcomes. This study aimed to analyze the provincial inequality in determinants of women's health and health care in Iran. Methods: Using the Moss's model (2002) as a comprehensive framework of determinants of women's health, including “geopolitical environment,” “culture, norms, sanctions,” “women's roles in reproduction and production,” “health-related mediators,” and “health outcome” categories, we chose 13 indicators. Afterward, using data sources including the Iranian Multiple Indicators of Demographics and Health Survey, the National Organization for Civil Registration, and Statistics Centre of Iran, we analyzed provincial inequality in these indicators in Iran (2011). Gini coefficient and Lorenz curve were used for measuring inequality. Results: Gini coefficients calculated as follows; life satisfaction level (0.027), literate women (0.398), women with proper knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention (0.483), unemployed women (0.380), women without an income (0.384), women who use at least one type of mass media (0.389), women who used computer or internet (0.467), women who had received pregnancy care from a skill birth attendant (SBA) (0.420), women who had delivered with the help of an SBA (0.426), women who currently smoke cigarettes (0.603), women who currently consume hookah (0.561), women with at least one chronic disease (0.438), and women's deaths in 2010 and 2011 (0.393 and 0.359, respectively). Conclusions: We found large provincial disparities in determinants of women's health in Iran. Determinants such as lifestyle, health behavior, health knowledge, and health-care services availability should be considered by health policymakers in addressing the inequality in women's health at a provincial level.
Martins, Kaisy Pereira; Costa, Tatiana Ferreira da; Medeiros, Thayris Mariano de; Fernandes, Maria das Graças Melo; França, Inácia Sátiro Xavier de; Costa, Kátia Nêyla de Freitas Macêdo
This study aimed at evaluating the internal structure of Family Health Units in relation to the access of people with physical and/or sensory disabilities. It is a descriptive, exploratory, population-based research, held in Family Health Units of the municipality of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. For the collection of data, a checklist based on Technical Standard 9050 was used. For the analysis, the descriptive and exploratory analysis of the data and the Chi-square test were applied. As a result, of the 90 buildings evaluated, only 47.8% have a wheelchair ramp, of these 30.0% have maximum slope and 32.2% have anti-slip flooring. In 28.9% access happens through a staircase without handrail and in 6.7% through a staircase with handrail, 6.7% of these with anti-slip flooring. And only 17.8% of sliding doors have lowered tracks. We concluded that it must be recognized that public policies and institutions do not correspond to the need of these people, and it is necessary to reformulate this form of care and reorganize health services.
Terán-Figueroa, Yolanda; Muñiz-Carreón, Patricia; Moya, Monserrat Fernandez; Galán-Cuevas, Sergio; Noyola-Range, Nuri; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sandra Olimpia; Ortiz-Valdez, Julio Alejandro; Cruz-Valdez, Aurelio
Cervical cancer is caused by high-risk HPV, a sexually transmitted virus. In Mexico, this disease represents a public health problem. San Luis Potosi is located within ten states with the highest rates in the country. Indigenous women of Mexico will likely to develop cervical cancer due to inequality in access to health services and their determinants. Epidemiological studies can be supported by investigations of diverse geographical nature to undertake the identification and analysis of spatial patterns of disease. To locate by geographical distribution of Huasteca Potosina women high-risk HPV positive to observe the burden of disease in patients with limited access to health services and propose specific primary prevention activities was made with a sample of 605 women. Cervico-vaginal specimens were taken. High-risk HPV infection was determined by hybrid capture. Age and date of the last Papanicolaou were obtained through a structured poll. It was use descriptive statistics and georeference was made in a map using the software ILWIS 3.3. Countyes with the highest and lowest percentages of infection were found. The prevalence of infection with high-risk HPV was 9.9% and age groups with the highest percentages of infection were in 51-60 and 41-50 years. Most women had been made the Papanicolaou at time of the present study. Georeferenceas like epidemiological tool for generating risk profiles allowed suggest strategies for improve prevention, early detection and control of the cervical cancer.
Beran, David; Yudkin, John S; de Courten, Maximilian
In order to improve the health of people with Type 1 diabetes in developing countries, a clear analysis of the constraints to insulin access and diabetes care is needed. We developed a Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, comprising a series of questionnaires as well as a protocol...
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Over the past four decades, the Indonesian health care system has greatly expanded and the health of Indonesian people has improved although the rich-poor gap in health status and service access remains an issue. The government has been trying to address these gaps and intensify efforts to improve the health of the poor following the economic crisis in 1998. Methods This paper examines trends and levels in socio-economic inequity of health and identifies critical factors constraining efforts to improve the health of the poor. Quantitative data were taken from the Indonesian Demographic Health Surveys and the National Socio-Economic Surveys, and qualitative data were obtained from interviews with individuals and groups representing relevant stakeholders. Results The health of the population has improved as indicated by child mortality decline and the increase in community access to health services. However, the continuing prevalence of malnourished children and the persisting socio-economic inequity of health suggest that efforts to improve the health of the poor have not yet been effective. Factors identified at institution and policy levels that have constrained improvements in health care access and outcomes for the poor include: the high cost of electing formal governance leaders; confused leadership roles in the health sector; lack of health inequity indicators; the generally weak capacity in the health care system, especially in planning and budgeting; and the leakage and limited coverage of programs for the poor. Conclusions Despite the government's efforts to improve the health of the poor, the rich-poor gap in health status and service access continues. Factors at institutional and policy levels are critical in contributing to the lack of efficiency and effectiveness for health programs that address the poor.
Increasing complexity of health care organization, rapid hyperspecialization of medical care, lack of ’patient literacy’ and pressure on patients to take over responsibility, challenges political dreams of equal access to patient centered high quality secure care....
Ramoni, Rachel B; Asher, Sheetal R; White, Joel M; Vaderhobli, Ram; Ogunbodede, Eyitope O; Walji, Muhammad F; Riedy, Christine; Kalenderian, Elsbeth
A person's right to access his or her protected health information is a core feature of the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule. If the information is stored electronically, covered entities must be able to provide patients with some type of machine-readable, electronic copy of their data. The aim of this study was to understand how academic dental institutions execute the Privacy Rule's right of access in the context of electronic health records (EHRs). A validated electronic survey was distributed to the clinical deans of 62 U.S. dental schools during a two-month period in 2014. The response rate to the survey was 53.2% (N=33). However, three surveys were partially completed, and of the 30 completed surveys, the 24 respondents who reported using axiUm as the EHR at their dental school clinic were the ones on which the results were based (38.7% of total schools at the time). Of the responses analyzed, 86% agreed that clinical modules should be considered part of a patient's dental record, and all agreed that student teaching-related modules should not. Great variability existed among these clinical deans as to whether administrative and financial modules should be considered part of a patient record. When patients request their records, close to 50% of responding schools provide the information exclusively on paper. This study found variation among dental schools in their implementation of the Privacy Rule right of access, and although all the respondents had adopted EHRs, a large number return records in paper format.
In May 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health announced the distribution of the first batch of locally produced generic tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to support its program of universal and free access for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The inclusion of TDF in the public health program illustrates what has been considered the 'Brazilian model' of HIV/AIDS response, as it illustrates the current phase of the Brazilian pharmaceutical economy. Brazil is known for having managed to control the expansion of HIV/AIDS through a unique initiative combining the public health and the industrial production of generics. But, if at first local manufacturers could freely copy ARVs and produce cheaper generic versions that were delivered to the Ministry of Health, since the country started to grant patents on drugs in 1996, the sustainability of this policy has been challenged by the high cost of patented second-line HIV/AIDS treatments. In order to assure continuity of the local production of ARVs, and keep the program of public health alive, Brazilians are now forced to deal with conflicts of drugs' intellectual property rights in order to open the path to generic production. This article aims to describe the experiences surrounding TDF in Brazil and the unprecedented conflicts and challenges it has brought for our different interviewees. Blurring the frontier between the public and the private, the TDF case was driven at the same time by an ethic of drug access and regulation of drug quality, which has inspired Brazilians to intervene and transform the world they live in.
Larkins, Sarah; Sen Gupta, Tarun; Evans, Rebecca; Murray, Richard; Preston, Robyn
Attention to the inequitable distribution and limited access to primary health care resources is key to addressing the priority health needs of underserved populations in rural, remote and outer metropolitan areas. There is little high-quality evidence about improving access to quality primary health care services for underserved groups, particularly in relation to geographic barriers, and limited discussion about the training implications of reforms to improve access. To progress equity in access to primary health care services, health professional education institutions need to work with both the health sector and policy makers to address issues of workforce mix, recruitment and retention, and new models of primary health care delivery. This requires a fundamental shift in focus from these institutions and the health sector, to each view themselves as partners in an integrated teaching, research and service-oriented health system. This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities for primary health care professionals, educators and the health sector in providing quality teaching and clinical experiences for increasing numbers of health professionals as a result of the reform agenda. It then outlines some practical strategies based on theory and evolving experience for dealing with some of these challenges and capitalising on opportunities.
Marine Corps. Others argue that the newly revised Counterinsurgency Field Manual and implementation of the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program...also argued that the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program highlights the fact that issues such as winning the hearts and minds and respect for
Elliott, Katherine P; Hunsley, John
Given the underutilization of mental health services by those with mental health problems, growing attention has focused on barriers to utilizing services. Several researchers have used the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 1.2 dataset, including measures of barriers because of accessibility, acceptability, and availability, to explore the gap between mental health service need and use. Because the psychometric properties of these barrier measures have not been evaluated, the reliability and validity of the 3 measures were examined in the present study. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using data from CCHS participants who had indicated unmet need regarding information on mental illness and its treatments; availability of services, medication, and psychotherapy or counseling (n = 353); as well as the full sample of participants reporting any unmet need in the past year (n = 1,784). The hypothesized 3-factor model (i.e., accessibility, acceptability, and availability) failed to converge with both samples. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted using data from the full sample (n = 1,784), and a possible 2-factor solution was obtained. Reliability analyses on this 2-factor model, as well as the 3-factor model included in the CCHS, demonstrated that internal consistency values failed to attain acceptable levels of reliability (i.e., α < .70). Based on these analyses, these barrier measures are neither reliable nor valid. These measures should not be used to examine barriers to service within the CCHS 1.2 dataset, and caution should be exercised in interpreting the findings of studies that used these measures. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Cook, Won Kim; Cherpitel, Cheryl
Supported by a National Institute of Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse grant, this study examined associations between healthcare access and heavy drinking in patients with hypertension and diabetes. Using a sample of 7,428 U.S. adults from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey data, multivariate logistic regressions were performed. Better access to health care, as indicated by regular source of care and frequent use of primary care, was associated with reduced odds of heavy drinking. Alcohol ...
Following the demise of apartheid, human rights in South Africa are now constitutionally enshrined.The right to health in South Africa's Constitution has been credited with transforming the lives of millions of people by triggering programmatic reforms in HIV treatment and the prevention of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV.However, a constitutionally enshrined right to health offers no guarantee that clinical trial participants will enjoy post-trial access to beneficial interventions. Using access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in South Africa as an example, this paper argues that adherence to bioethics norms could realize the right to health for trial participants following the end of a clinical trial.
Kreider, Amanda R; French, Benjamin; Aysola, Jaya; Saloner, Brendan; Noonan, Kathleen G; Rubin, David M
An increasing diversity of children's health coverage options under the US Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, together with uncertainty regarding reauthorization of the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) beyond 2017, merits renewed attention on the quality of these options for children. To compare health care access, quality, and cost outcomes by insurance type (Medicaid, CHIP, private, and uninsured) for children in households with low to moderate incomes. A repeated cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from the 2003, 2007, and 2011-2012 US National Surveys of Children's Health, comprising 80,655 children 17 years or younger, weighted to 67 million children nationally, with household incomes between 100% and 300% of the federal poverty level. Multivariable logistic regression models compared caregiver-reported outcomes across insurance types. Analysis was conducted between July 14, 2014, and May 6, 2015. Insurance type was ascertained using a caregiver-reported measure of insurance status and each household's poverty status (percentage of the federal poverty level). Caregiver-reported outcomes related to access to primary and specialty care, unmet needs, out-of-pocket costs, care coordination, and satisfaction with care. Among the 80,655 children, 51,123 (57.3%) had private insurance, 11,853 (13.6%) had Medicaid, 9554 (18.4%) had CHIP, and 8125 (10.8%) were uninsured. In a multivariable logistic regression model (with results reported as adjusted probabilities [95% CIs]), children insured by Medicaid and CHIP were significantly more likely to receive a preventive medical (Medicaid, 88% [86%-89%]; P < .01; CHIP, 88% [87%-89%]; P < .01) and dental (Medicaid, 80% [78%-81%]; P < .01; CHIP, 77% [76%-79%]; P < .01) visits than were privately insured children (medical, 83% [82%-84%]; dental, 73% [72%-74%]). Children with all insurance types experienced challenges in access to specialty care, with caregivers of children
The Use of National Youth Service Corp Members to Build AIDS Competent ... for Rural Youth (HP4RY), funded by the Global Health Research Initiative (Canada). It began ... Using the AIDS Competent Community (ACC) model developed by ...
Suguimoto S Pilar
Full Text Available Abstract Background Japan provides universal health insurance to all legal residents. Prior research has suggested that immigrants to Japan disproportionately lack health insurance coverage, but no prior study has used rigorous methodology to examine this issue among Latin American immigrants in Japan. The aim of our study, therefore, was to assess the pattern of health insurance coverage and predictors of uninsurance among documented Latin American immigrants in Japan. Methods We used a cross sectional, mixed method approach using a probability proportional to estimated size sampling procedure. Of 1052 eligible Latin American residents mapped through extensive fieldwork in selected clusters, 400 immigrant residents living in Nagahama City, Japan were randomly selected for our study. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire developed from qualitative interviews. Results Our response rate was 70.5% (n = 282. Respondents were mainly from Brazil (69.9%, under 40 years of age (64.5% and had lived in Japan for 9.45 years (SE 0.44; median, 8.00. We found a high prevalence of uninsurance (19.8% among our sample compared with the estimated national average of 1.3% in the general population. Among the insured full time workers (n = 209, 55.5% were not covered by the Employee's Health Insurance. Many immigrants cited financial trade-offs as the main reasons for uninsurance. Lacking of knowledge that health insurance is mandatory in Japan, not having a chronic disease, and having one or no children were strong predictors of uninsurance. Conclusions Lack of health insurance for immigrants in Japan is a serious concern for this population as well as for the Japanese health care system. Appropriate measures should be taken to facilitate access to health insurance for this vulnerable population.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is two fold: first, to analyze the spatial distribution of health services that different public institutions offer in the metropolitan peripheral municipalities of Mexico City; and second, give some reasons that explain that distribution. The analysis tries to demonstrate a lack of territorial approach in the construction of the social policy in the particular case of the health sector. The spatial range of health service, coverage and accessibility in the eastern part of the State of Mexico was calculate through variables much as number of doctors, nurses, beds and medical center, that the different public institution particularly IMSS, ISSSTE and ISSEMYM, offer. Results tend to show an unequal distribution of health resources either human or material, as well as a territorial disorden in their distribution with a high concentration in urban areas. Thus, analysis shows that space plays a fundamental role as a structuring factor in the application of health policies and in the planning of such services.
Gonçalves, Marta; Moleiro, Carla
Understanding the concepts of mental health and help seeking behaviours of migrant and ethnic minority families constitutes an important step toward improving the intercultural competence of health and education professionals. This paper addresses these goals among ethnic and migrant minorities in Portugal. For this a multi-informant approach was selected. The study involved nine focus groups (N = 39) conducted with different samples: young immigrants (12-17 years), immigrant parents, teachers and health professionals. The results showed similarities and differences in concepts of mental health, as well as help seeking processes. Stigma continued to be recognized as a barrier in the access to mental health care. The paper argues that providing adequate training on mental health on cultural diversity competencies to health and education professionals can contribute to a better inter-communication and -relation system in the family-school-primary care triangle and thus facilitate access to mental health care for youth.
Full Text Available Research indicates that people living in rural and remote areas of Canada face challenges to accessing health services. This article reports on a community-engaged research project conducted by investigators at Memorial University of Newfoundland in collaboration with the Rural Secretariat Regional Councils and Regional Partnership Planners for the Corner Brook–Rocky Harbour and Stephenville–Port aux Basques Rural Secretariat Regions of Newfoundland and Labrador. The aim of this research was to gather information on barriers to accessing health services, to identify solutions to health services’ access issues and to inform policy advice to government on enhancing access to health services. Data was collected through: (1 targeted distribution of a survey to communities throughout the region, and (2 informal ‘kitchen table’ discussions to discuss health services’ access issues. A total of 1049 surveys were collected and 10 kitchen table discussions were held. Overall, the main barriers to care listed in the survey included long wait times, services not available in the area and services not available at time required. Other barriers noted by survey respondents included transportation problems, financial concerns, no medical insurance coverage, distance to travel and weather conditions. Some respondents reported poorer access to maternal/child health and breast and cervical screening services and a lack of access to general practitioners, pharmacy services, dentists and nurse practitioners. Recommendations that emerged from this research included improving the recruitment of rural physicians, exploring the use of nurse practitioners, assisting individuals with travel costs, developing specialist outreach services, increasing use of telehealth services and initiating additional rural and remote health research. Keywords: rural, remote, healthcare, health services, social determinants of health
de França, Viviane Helena; Modena, Celina Maria; Confalonieri, Ulisses Eugenio Cavalcanti
Objective: to investigate the knowledge of managers and health professionals, social workers and education professionals regarding the principal barriers to universal health coverage and universal access to health on the part of the extremely poor population; and to point to the contributions made by nursing for the promotion of this right. Method: a qualitative study whose reference was, for ensuring the right to health, the reorientation of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) towards universal coverage and access in these territories. Interviews were held with 27 members of the multi-professional team of a municipality with high social vulnerability. The data were worked on using thematic content analysis. Results: the following were ascertained as the principal barriers to universal health coverage and access to health: failures in the expansion and strengthening of the services; absence of diagnosis of the priority demands; shortage of technology, equipment, and material and human resources; poor local infrastructure; and actions with low resolutive power and absence of interdepartmental policies. Within the multi-professional team, nursing acts in the SUS in unique health actions and social practices in these territories, presenting an in-depth perspective on this harsh reality, being able to contribute with indispensable support for confronting these disparities in universal health coverage and universal access to health. Conclusion: nursing's in-depth understanding regarding these barriers is essential for encouraging the processes reorienting the SUS, geared towards equality in the right to health. PMID:27143541
Breyer, Betsy; Voss-Andreae, Adriana
This paper investigated the role of grocery store prices in structuring food access for low-income households in Portland, Oregon. We conducted a detailed healthful foods market basket survey and developed an index of store cost based on the USDA Thrifty Food Plan. Using this index, we estimated the difference in street-network distance between the nearest low-cost grocery store and the nearest grocery store irrespective of cost. Spatial regression of this metric in relation to income, poverty, and gentrification at the census tract scale lead to a new theory regarding food access in the urban landscape. Food deserts are sparse in Portland, but food mirages are abundant, particularly in gentrifying areas where poverty remains high. In a food mirage, grocery stores are plentiful but prices are beyond the means of low-income households, making them functionally equivalent to food deserts in that a long journey to obtain affordable, nutritious food is required in either case. Results suggested that evaluation of food environments should, at a minimum, consider both proximity and price in assessing healthy food access for low-income households.
Abstract The Israel Journal of Health Policy Research (IJHPR) is a new, open access journal. IJHPR seeks to promote intensive intellectual interactions among scholars and practitioners from Israel and other countries regarding all aspects of health policy, with particular attention to Israel. The ultimate aim of these interactions is to contribute to the development of health policy in Israel, and also to foster wider communication between health scientists and policy analysts in Israel and t...
Full Text Available As the Electronic Health Record (EHR systems constantly expand to support more clinical activities and their implementations in healthcare organizations become more widespread, several communities have been working intensively for several years to develop open access and open source EHR software, aiming at reducing the costs of EHR deployment and maintenance. In this paper, we describe and evaluate the most popular open source electronic medical records such as openEMR, openMRS and patientOS, providing their technical features and potentials. These systems are considered quite important due to their prevalence. The article presents the key features of each system and outlines the advantages and problems of Open Source Software (OSS Systems through a review of the literature, in order to demonstrate the possibility of their adoption in modern electronic healthcare systems. Also discussed are the future trends of OS EHRs in the context of the Personal Health Records and mobile computing paradigm.
Carreon, Daisy C; Baumeister, Sebastian E
Few studies have examined differences in health care access across Asian American ethnicities and none have considered the effects of residential segregation. The segregation of Asians by neighborhood has been steadily increasing over the past few decades due in part to the settlement patterns of immigrants. Data from the 2009 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 746) were used. We examined differences in yearly medical checkups between Asian subgroups as well as among foreign-born and US-born Asians. Results showed that immigrant Filipinos and Vietnamese were less likely to get a checkup compared with foreign-born Chinese. The effect of Asian subgroup was modified by the percentage of Asians in a census tract (p Chinese and Vietnamese residential concentration of Asians had a stronger inverse association with having a yearly checkup.
Illegal immigration in Canada is characterized mainly by non-status immigrants who legally enter Canada and stay after their legal status expires and by failed refugee claimants. For these persons, immigration status or its absence plays an important role in determining the degree of access to Canadian health care. This article situates the clinical setting as a site of contention and negotiation of citizenship and care in social networks as well as pragmatic and discursive strategies. Drawing on the case of a patient who faced imminent deportation and became suicidal, in this article I depict how psychiatrists and other health practitioners embrace "bearing witness" as an ethical practice, which intersects the medical and legal spheres.
Mala Rao; Prabal Vikram Singh; Anuradha Katyal; Amit Samarth; Sofi Bergkvist; Adrian Renton; Gopalakrishnan Netuveli
.... We aimed to assess whether the innovative state-funded Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh state launched in 2007, has achieved equity of access to hospital inpatient...
Lorence, Daniel P; Park, Heeyoung; Fox, Susannah
Policy initiatives of the late 1990s were believed to have largely eliminated the information "Digital Divide." For healthcare consumers, access to information is an essential part of the consumer-centric framework outlined in the recently proposed national health information initiative. This study sought to examine how racial/ethnic characteristics are associated with Internet use and online health information. Using a cross-sectional nationwide study of reported Internet use and information search in 2000 and 2002, we studied a stratified sample of computer users from the Pew Internet and American Life Project surveys. Adjusted estimates of race/ethnicity and income effects on Internet use and search behaviors were derived from generalized estimating equations. Results show wide gaps in the use of computers between Hispanics and Whites (OR = 0.593 [0.440, 0.798]) and between African-Americans and Whites (OR = 0.554 [0.427, 0.720]) in 2000 significantly narrowed in 2002 (OR of Hispanic to white = 1.250 [0.874, 1.789]; OR of African-American to Whites = (0.793 [0.551, 1.141]). Gaps in access to the Internet, however, remained consistent between 2000-2002. Differences in health information seeking between Hispanics and Whites existed in both 2000 and 2002. 56% of White Internet users at some time searched for online health information, whereas 42% of Hispanic Internet users did so in 2000. By 2002, these percentages had increased to 13.4 and 15.8%, respectively. Data highlight the persistence of "Digitally Underserved Groups," despite recent Divide reduction strategies.
Webber, Gail C; Spitzer, Denise L; Somrongthong, Ratana; Dat, Truong Cong; Kounnavongsa, Somphone
Migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam were surveyed to determine their experiences in accessing reproductive health care services in the cities of Phnom Penh, Vientiane, Bangkok, and Hanoi. A total of 7 health care institutions were chosen as popular with migrant beer promoters. Staff at these institutions provided information on the institution, and 390 beer promoters were surveyed about their experiences while accessing services. There were discrepancies between findings from the staff interviews and the experiences of the beer promoters. In general, the migrant women were satisfied with the cost, location, friendliness of the health care providers, and knowledge and skills of the providers. They were less positive about confidentiality and waiting times, though many still agreed that these were not an issue. Health care planners and providers should take note of the issues affecting access to reproductive health care services for migrant women when they design and implement services.
Webber, Gail C.; Spitzer, Denise L.; Somrongthong, Ratana; Dat, Truong Cong; Kounnavongsa, Somphone
Migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam were surveyed to determine their experiences in accessing reproductive health care services in the cities of Phnom Penh, Vientiane, Bangkok, and Hanoi. A total of 7 health care institutions were chosen as popular with migrant beer promoters. Staff at these institutions provided information on the institution, and 390 beer promoters were surveyed about their experiences while accessing services. There were discrepancies between findings from the staff interviews and the experiences of the beer promoters. In general, the migrant women were satisfied with the cost, location, friendliness of the health care providers, and knowledge and skills of the providers. They were less positive about confidentiality and waiting times, though many still agreed that these were not an issue. Health care planners and providers should take note of the issues affecting access to reproductive health care services for migrant women when they design and implement services. PMID:22743859
Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Leitão, Glória da Conceição Mesquita
Access to healthcare services is one of the important aspects of the Unified National Health System in Brazil, and the supply and management of such services is the responsibility of municipalities. This study focuses on difficulties faced by men with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in accessing appointments for treatment. This was a qualitative study of men treated at an STD clinic in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil, in November 2003, using content analysis technique and interpretation of interviews, focusing on access as the category. Men with STDs encountered extensive difficulty in accessing medical appointments, even when they used different strategies for this purpose. Scheduling of services is incompatible with patients' available time. At the primary care level, the supply of appointments for STDs scarcely exists. More investment is needed in the Unified National Health System in order to improve access to appointments for men with STDs, and the supply of services should take the population's demand into account.
Cristina Marques de Almeida Holanda
Full Text Available This study seeks to identify the formation of social support networks of people with physical disabilities, and how these networks can help facilitate access to health services and promote social inclusion. It is a cross-sectional study, with data collected via a form applied to physically disabled persons over eighteen years of age registered with the Family Health Teams of the municipal district of João Pessoa in the state of Paraíba. It was observed that the support networks of these individuals predominantly consist of family members (parents, siblings, children, spouses and people outside the family (friends and neighbors. However, 50% of the interviewees declared that they could not count on any support from outside the family. It was observed that the support network contributes to access to the services and participation in social groups. However, reduced social inclusion was detected, due to locomotion difficulties, this being the main barrier to social interaction. Among those individuals who began to interact in society, the part played by social support was fundamental.
Menzel, Paul T
(1) The conception of a cultural moral right is useful in capturing the social-moral realities that underlie debate about universal health care. In asserting such rights, individuals make claims above and beyond their legal rights, but those claims are based on the society's existing commitments and moral culture. In the United States such a right to accessible basic health care is generated by various empirical social facts, primarily the conjunction of the legal requirement of access to emergency care with widely held principles about unfair free riding and just sharing of costs between well and ill. The right can get expressed in social policy through either single-payer or mandated insurance. (2) The same elements that generate this right provide modest assistance in determining its content, the structure and scope of a basic minimum of care. They justify limits on patient cost sharing, require comparative effectiveness, and make cost considerations relevant. They shed light on the status of expensive, marginally life extending, last-chance therapies, as well as life support for PVS patients. They are of less assistance in settling contentious debates about screening for breast and prostate cancer and treatments for infertility and erectile dysfunction, but even there they establish a useful framework for discussion. Scarcity of resources need not be a leading conceptual consideration in discerning a basic minimum. More important are the societal elements that generate the cultural moral right to a basic minimum.
Chung, Hyun Jung; Han, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyerang; Finkelstein, Julia L
Childhood immunization rates are at an all-time high globally, and national data for China suggests close to universal coverage. Refugees from North Korea and their children may have more limited health care access in China due to their legal status. However, there is no data on immunization rates or barriers to coverage in this population. This study was conducted to determine the rates and correlates of immunizations in children (≥1 year) born to North Korean refugees in Yanbien, China. Child immunization data was obtained from vaccination cards and caregiver self-report for 7 vaccines and 1:3:3:3:1 series. Age-appropriate vaccination rates of refugee children were compared to Chinese and migrant children using a goodness-of-fit test. Logistic regression was used to determine correlates of immunization coverage for each vaccine and the 1:3:3:3:1 series. Age-appropriate immunization coverage rates were significantly lower in children born to North Korean refugees (12.1-97.8 %), compared to Chinese (99 %) and migrant (95 %) children. Increased father's age and having a sibling predicted significantly lower vaccination rates. Children born to North Korean refugees had significantly lower immunization rates, compared to Chinese or migrant children. Further research is needed to examine barriers of health care access in this high-risk population.
Objectives: to characterize the scientific contribution nursing has made regarding coverage, universal access and equity in health, and to understand this production in terms of subjects and objects of study. Material and methods: this was cross-sectional, documentary research; the units of analysis were 97 journals and 410 documents, retrieved from the Web of Science in the category, "nursing". Descriptors associated to coverage, access and equity in health, and the Mesh thesaurus, were applied. We used bibliometric laws and indicators, and analyzed the most important articles according to amount of citations and collaboration. Results: the document retrieval allowed for 25 years of observation of production, an institutional and an international collaboration of 31% and 7%, respectively. The mean number of coauthors per article was 3.5, with a transience rate of 93%. The visibility index was 67.7%, and 24.6% of production was concentrated in four core journals. A review from the nursing category with 286 citations, and a Brazilian author who was the most productive, are issues worth highlighting. Conclusions: the nursing collective should strengthen future research on the subject, defining lines and sub-lines of research, increasing internationalization and building it with the joint participation of the academy and nursing community. PMID:26959329
Schroeder, Doris; Chennells, Roger
In May 2003, one of the most important benefit sharing agreements to date was signed in South Africa. The South African San Council and the South African Centre for Scientific and Industrial Research agreed to share the benefits derived from genetic research on the Hoodia plant. Payments to the San Council started in 2005 and could reach 1.3 million US Dollars per year for approximately 15 years. Members of the San community in Southern Africa are exposed to serious poverty, resulting in malnutrition and avoidable illnesses. The question we are interested in is: could benefit sharing in compliance with the Convention on Biological Diversity be a partial solution to lack of access to essential health care? In the first part of the paper, we shall briefly introduce the legal background of benefit sharing and the San case. In the second part of the paper, we shall argue that benefit sharing and access to essential health care should not be formally linked. We shall substantiate our claim by introducing practical, normative and so-called 'bigger picture' reasons against the link.
Holanda, Cristina Marques de Almeida; De Andrade, Fabienne Louise Juvêncio Paes; Bezerra, Maria Aparecida; Nascimento, João Paulo da Silva; Neves, Robson da Fonseca; Alves, Simone Bezerra; Ribeiro, Kátia Suely Queiroz Silva
This study seeks to identify the formation of social support networks of people with physical disabilities, and how these networks can help facilitate access to health services and promote social inclusion. It is a cross-sectional study, with data collected via a form applied to physically disabled persons over eighteen years of age registered with the Family Health Teams of the municipal district of João Pessoa in the state of Paraíba. It was observed that the support networks of these individuals predominantly consist of family members (parents, siblings, children, spouses) and people outside the family (friends and neighbors). However, 50% of the interviewees declared that they could not count on any support from outside the family. It was observed that the support network contributes to access to the services and participation in social groups. However, reduced social inclusion was detected, due to locomotion difficulties, this being the main barrier to social interaction. Among those individuals who began to interact in society, the part played by social support was fundamental.
Jennings, Larissa; Omoni, Adetayo; Akerele, Akunle; Ibrahim, Yisa; Ekanem, Ekpenyong
Mobile communication technologies may reduce maternal health disparities related to cost, distance, and infrastructure. However, the ability of mHealth initiatives to accelerate maternal health goals requires in part that women with the greatest health needs have access to mobile phones. This study examined if women with limited mobile phone access have differential odds of maternal knowledge and health service utilization as compared to female mobile phone users who are currently eligible to participate in maternal mHealth programs. Using household survey data from Nigeria, multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the odds of maternal knowledge and service utilization by mobile phone strata. Findings showed that in settings with unequal access to mobile phones, mHealth interventions may not reach women who have the poorest maternal knowledge and care-seeking as these women often lacked mobile connectivity. As compared to mobile users, women without mobile phone access had significantly lower odds of antenatal care utilization (OR=0.48, 95%CI: 0.36-0.64), skilled delivery (OR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.45-0.70), and modern contraceptive use (OR=0.50, 95%CI: 0.33-0.76) after adjusting for demographic characteristics. They also had significantly lower knowledge of maternal danger signs (OR=0.69, 95%CI: 0.53-0.90) and knowledge of antenatal (OR=0.46, 95%CI: 0.36-0.59) and skilled delivery care benefits (OR=0.62, 95%CI: 0.47-0.82). No differences were observed by mobile phone strata in uptake of emergency obstetric care, postnatal services, or breastfeeding. As maternal mHealth strategies are increasingly utilized, more efforts are needed to improve women's access to mobile phones and minimize potential health inequities brought on by health systems and technological barriers in access to care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lin, Chao-Hung; Young, Shuenn-Tsong; Kuo, Te-Son
With the aging of the population and the increasing patient preference for receiving care in their own homes, remote home care is one of the fastest growing areas of health care in Taiwan and many other countries. Many remote home-monitoring applications have been developed and implemented to enable both formal and informal caregivers to have remote access to patient data so that they can respond instantly to any abnormalities of in-home patients. The aim of this technology is to give both patients and relatives better control of the health care, reduce the burden on informal caregivers and reduce visits to hospitals and thus result in a better quality of life for both the patient and his/her family. To facilitate their widespread adoption, remote home-monitoring systems take advantage of the low-cost features and popularity of the Internet and PCs, but are inherently exposed to several security risks, such as virus and denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. These security threats exist as long as the in-home PC is directly accessible by remote-monitoring users over the Internet. The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to improve the security of such systems, with the proposed architecture aimed at increasing the system availability and confidentiality of patient information. A broker server is introduced between the remote-monitoring devices and the in-home PCs. This topology removes direct access to the in-home PC, and a firewall can be configured to deny all inbound connections while the remote home-monitoring application is operating. This architecture helps to transfer the security risks from the in-home PC to the managed broker server, on which more advanced security measures can be implemented. The pros and cons of this novel architecture design are also discussed and summarized.
Brindha, B.; Prashanthi Devi, M.
The Nilgiris district in Tamilnadu has a rich biodiversity in terms of flora, fauna and ethnic population. The district is basically a mountainous region, situated at an elevation of 2000 to 2,600 meters above MSL and constituting of several hill and Steep Mountain valleys. This region houses six tribes who are mainly forest dwellers and live in close settlements depending on the forest resources for their livelihood. The Tribes of Nilgiris have been diagnosed and monitored for Sickle cell Anemia which is a disease of major concern among these ethnic populations. This genetic disorder developed due to the sickling of Red Blood Cells has increased during the past few decades. The Tribes, as they live in close encounter with the forest regions and have strict social cultural barriers, face difficulty in availing treatment or counseling from the Sickle Cell Research Center (SCRC) and other NGOs like NAWA and AHWINI in the region. It was observed that many factors such as landscape terrain, climatic conditions and improper roads tend to hinder the access to appropriate health care. The SCRC in Gudalur region is a facility established to monitor the disease cases inspite of these influencing factors. On analyzing the year bound age wise classification among male and female patients, certain dropouts in cases were observed which may be due to inaccessible condition or migration of the patient. In our study, Landscape heterogeneity mapping for different climatic seasons was done in ArcGIS 10.1. For this, contour and terrain maps, road networks and villages were prepared and factors that determine Terrain Difficulty were assessed. Vegetation mapping using IRS satellite images for the study region was attempted and associated with the landscape map. A risk analysis was proposed based on terrain difficulty and access to the nearest Health care Center. Based on this, the above factors alternate routes were suggested to access the difficult areas.
White, Kari; Yeager, Valerie A; Menachemi, Nir; Scarinci, Isabel C
We conducted in-depth interviews in May to July 2012 to evaluate the effect of Alabama's 2011 omnibus immigration law on Latina immigrants and their US- and foreign-born children's access to and use of health services. The predominant effect of the law on access was a reduction in service availability. Affordability and acceptability of care were adversely affected because of economic insecurity and women's increased sense of discrimination. Nonpregnant women and foreign-born children experienced the greatest barriers, but pregnant women and mothers of US-born children also had concerns about accessing care. The implications of restricting access to health services and the potential impact this has on public health should be considered in local and national immigration reform discussions.
Duda, Catherine; Rajaram, Kumar; Barz, Christiane; Rosenthal, J Thomas
There has been an increasing emphasis on health care efficiency and costs and on improving quality in health care settings such as hospitals or clinics. However, there has not been sufficient work on methods of improving access and customer service times in health care settings. The study develops a framework for improving access and customer service time for health care settings. In the framework, the operational concept of the bottleneck is synthesized with queuing theory to improve access and reduce customer service times without reduction in clinical quality. The framework is applied at the Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center to determine the drivers for access and customer service times and then provides guidelines on how to improve these drivers. Validation using simulation techniques shows significant potential for reducing customer service times and increasing access at this institution. Finally, the study provides several practice implications that could be used to improve access and customer service times without reduction in clinical quality across a range of health care settings from large hospitals to small community clinics.
the capability to perform NCIC checks to vet contractor employees, and not all Navy installations nave the ability to access NCIC, NCACS is not...Management Corp 10,017 REA to contract N40085-06-D-1260 Goodwill Industries 199,148 Overhead charge to contract N00189-09- C-Z003 DynCorp international
Xie, Bo; Bugg, Julie M
An innovative experiment to develop and evaluate a public library computer training program to teach older adults to access and use high-quality Internet health information involved a productive collaboration among public libraries, the National Institute on Aging and the National Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and a Library and Information Science (LIS) academic program at a state university. One hundred and thirty-one older adults aged 54-89 participated in the study between September 2007 and July 2008. Key findings include: a) participants had overwhelmingly positive perceptions of the training program; b) after learning about two NIH websites (http://nihseniorhealth.gov and http://medlineplus.gov) from the training, many participants started using these online resources to find high quality health and medical information and, further, to guide their decision-making regarding a health- or medically-related matter; and c) computer anxiety significantly decreased (p libraries, LIS academic programs, and other organizations interested in providing similar programs in their communities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing urbanization and population density, and persisting inequities in health outcomes across socioeconomic groupings have raised concerns internationally regarding the health of the urban poor. These concerns are also evident in Cambodia, which prompted the design of a study to identify and describe the main barriers to access to health services by the poor in the capital city, Phnom Penh. Sources and Methods Main sources of data were through a household survey, followed by in-depth qualitative interviews with mothers, local authorities and health centre workers in four very poor communities in Phnom Penh. Main findings Despite low incomes and education levels, the study communities have moderate levels of access to services for curative and preventive care. However, qualitative findings demonstrate that households contextualize poor health and health access in terms of their daily living conditions, particularly in relation to environmental conditions and social insecurity. The interactions of low education, poor living conditions and high food costs in the context of low and irregular incomes reinforce a pattern of “living from moment to moment” and results in a cycle of disadvantage and ill health in these communities. There were three main factors that put poor communities at a health disadvantage; these are the everyday living conditions of communities, social and economic inequality and the extent to which a society assesses and acts on inequities in their health care access. Conclusions In order to improve access to health and health services for the urban poor, expansion of public health functions and capacities will be required, including building partnerships between health providers, municipal authorities and civil society.
Full Text Available The spatial realities and dynamics of a changing population with changing health care needs require regular and logical methods to evaluate and assist in primary health care (PHC) planning. Geographical access is an important aspect in the planning...
Full Text Available The spatial realities and dynamics of a changing population with changing health care needs require regular and logical methods to evaluate and assist in primary health care (PHC) planning. Geographical access is an important aspect in the planning...
Jarlenski, Marian; Baller, Julia; Borrero, Sonya; Bennett, Wendy L
To examine time trends in disparities in low-income children's health insurance coverage and access to care by family immigration status. We used data from the National Survey of Children's Health in 2003 to 2011-2012, including 83,612 children aged 0 to 17 years with family incomes status categories: citizen children with nonimmigrant parents; citizen children with immigrant parents; and immigrant children. We used multivariable regression analyses to obtain adjusted trends in health insurance coverage and access to care. All low-income children experienced gains in health insurance coverage and access to care from 2003 to 2011-2012, regardless of family immigration status. Relative to citizen children with nonimmigrant parents, citizen children with immigrant parents had a 5 percentage point greater increase in health insurance coverage (P = .06), a 9 percentage point greater increase in having a personal doctor or nurse (P health insurance coverage than other groups. However, the group had a 14 percentage point greater increase in having a personal doctor or nurse (P family immigration status have lessened over time among children in low-income families, although large disparities still exist. Policy efforts are needed to ensure that children of immigrant parents and immigrant children are able to access health insurance and health care. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cook, Won Kim; Cherpitel, Cheryl J
Supported by a National Institute of Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse grant, this study examined associations between health care access and heavy drinking in patients with hypertension and diabetes. Using a sample of 7,428 US adults from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey data, multivariate logistic regressions were performed. Better access to health care, as indicated by regular source of care and frequent use of primary care, was associated with reduced odds of heavy drinking. Alcohol interventions may be more effective if targeted at patients with chronic conditions adversely affected by drinking. Future research needs to investigate factors facilitating such interventions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are large variations in mental health prescribing in UK populations. However the underlying reasons for these differences, which may be related to differences in prevalence, cultural expectations or practical difficulties in access to treatment, remain uncertain. Methods Linear modelling was used to investigate whether population characteristics or access to primary care account for variations in mental health prescribing across 39 deprived neighbourhoods. Results The proportion of sampled respondents whose first language was not English and the ratio of general practitioners to population explained 61% of variation. Deprivation and mental health status were not significant predictors of prescribing in these relatively deprived communities. Conclusion These findings suggest that mental health prescribing, within deprived areas, as well as reflecting cultural and social differences in prescribing, may also be a proxy measure of access to care.
Hollard, Guillaume; Sene, Omar
We test for a causal role of social capital, as measured by self-reported trust, in determining access to basic health facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa. To skirt the reverse-causality problems between social capital and basic health, we rely on instrumental-variable (IV) estimates. A one standard-deviation increase in trust is predicted to lead to a 0.22 standard-deviation fall in doctor absenteeism, a 0.31 standard-deviation fall in waiting time and a 0.30 standard-deviation fall in bribes. As a robustness check, we also use a different database regarding a different health issue, access to clean water. We find that a one standard-deviation rise in trust leads to a 0.33 standard-deviation rise in access to clean water. The variety of public goods considered provides insights about the possible channels through which social capital is converted into health improvements.
Goeman, Dianne; Conway, Sue; Norman, Ralph
Background. Health literacy is the ability to access, understand, and use information and services for good health. Among people with chronic conditions, health literacy requirements for effective self-management are high. The Optimising Health Literacy and Access (Ophelia) study engaged diverse...... and nurses reported clear benefits to their practice. Conclusion. A structured method that supports healthcare services to codesign interventions that respond to the health literacy needs of their clients can lead to evidence-informed, sustainable practice changes that support clients to better understand...... organisations in the codesign of interventions involving the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) needs assessment, followed by development and evaluation of interventions addressing identified needs. This study reports the process and outcomes of one of the nine organisations, the Royal District Nursing Service...
Saha, Somen; Annear, Peter Leslie
It is a challenge for the poor to overcome the barriers to accessing health services. Membership-based microfinance with associated health programmes can improve health outcomes for the poor. This study reviewed the evidence published between 1993 and 2013 on the role of membership-based microfinance with associated health programmes in improving health outcomes for the poor in South Asia. A total of 661 papers were identified and 26 selected for inclusion, based on the relevance and rigour of the research methods. Of these 26, five were evidence reviews. Of the remaining 21 papers, 12 were from India, seven from Bangladesh, and one each from Sri Lanka and Indonesia. Three papers addressed more than one theme. Five key themes emerged from the review: (i) the impact of microfinance programmes on the social and economic situation of the poor; (ii) the impact of microfinance programmes on community health; (iii) the impact of integrated microfinance health programmes on raising client awareness; (iv) the impact of integrated microfinance health programmes on financing health care; and (v) the impact of integrated microfinance health programmes on affordable health-care products and services. The review provides new evidence on the pathways through which microfinance helps to improve population health and value for money for such programmes. Among countries with large populations in the informal sector, there is a strong case for policy-makers to support these groups in providing access to life-saving health care among the poor.
Ganle, John Kuumuori; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Otupiri, Easmon; Parker, Michael
Poor access to and use of skilled delivery services have been identified as a major contributory factor to poor maternal and newborn health in sub-Saharan African countries, including Ghana. However, many previous studies that examine norms of childbirth and care-seeking behaviours have focused on identifying the norms of non-use of services, rather than factors, that can promote service use. Based on primary qualitative research with a total of 185 expectant and lactating mothers, and 20 healthcare providers in six communities in Ghana, this paper reports on strategies that can be used to overcome health system barriers to the use of skilled delivery services. The strategies identified include expansion and redistribution of existing maternal health resources and infrastructure, training of more skilled maternity caregivers, instituting special programmes to target women most in need, improving the quality of maternity care services provided, improving doctor-patient relationships in maternity wards, promotion of choice, protecting privacy and patient dignity in maternity wards and building partnerships with traditional birth attendants and other non-state actors. The findings suggest the need for structural changes to maternity clinics and routine nursing practices, including an emphasis on those doctor-patient relational practices that positively influence women's healthcare-seeking behaviours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Omrani-Khoo, Habib; Lotfi, Farhad; Safari, Hossein; Zargar Balaye Jame, Sanaz; Moghri, Javad; Shafii, Milad
Equitable distribution of health system resources has been a serious challenge for long ago among the health policy makers. Conducted studies have mostly ever had emphasis on equality rather than equity. In this paper we have attempted to examine both equality and equity in resources distribution. This is an applied and descriptive study in which we plotted Lorenz and concentration curves to describe graphically the distribution of hemodialysis beds and nephrologists as two complementary resources in health care in relation to hemodialysis patients. To end this, inequality and inequity were measured by calculating Gini- coefficient, concentration and Robin Hood indices. We used STATA and EXCEL software to calculate indicators. The results showed that inequality was not seen in hemodialysis beds in population level. However, distribution of nephrologists without considering population needs was accompanied with some sort of inequality. Gini- coefficient for beds and nephrologists distribution in population level was respectively 0.02 and 0.38. Hence, calculation of concentration index for distribution of hemodialysis beds and nephrologists with regard to population needs indicated that unlike beds distribution, equity gap between nephrologists distribution against patients distribution among the provinces was considerably significant again. Our results imply that although hemodialysis beds in Iran have been distributed in connection with the population need, nephrologists' distribution is not the same as hemodialysis beds one and this imbalance in complementary resources, can affect both efficiency and equitable access to services for population.
..., Inc., Roche Pharmaceuticals, 340 Kingsland St., Nutley, NJ 07110-1199 NDA 18-101 Symmetrel (amantadine... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp. et al.; Withdrawal of... Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp., One Health Plaza, East Hanover, NJ 07936-1080 NDA 9-000 Cafergot...
Purpose: This longitudinal study examined the role of health insurance in access to health care among older immigrants. Design and Methods: Using data from the Second Longitudinal Study of Aging, the longitudinal trajectories of having a usual source of care were compared between 3 groups (all 70+ years): (a) late-life immigrants with less than 15…
Sanmartin, Claudia; Pierre, Fritz; Tremblay, Stéphane
Waiting for care has been and continues to be a major issue for the healthcare sector in Canada. While considerable gains have been made regarding valid and reliable information on waiting times, gaps remain. Statistics Canada continues to provide information regarding patients' experiences in accessing care at the national and provincial levels, including how long individuals waited for specialized services, through the Health Services Access Survey. The survey offers several advantages, including waiting time information that is comparable across time and space, enhanced patient information and information regarding patients' experiences in waiting for care. The results for 2005 indicate that median waiting time for all specialized services was between 3 and 4 weeks and remained relatively stable between 2003 and 2005. Waiting times for specialist visits did not vary by income. In addition to being asked how long they waited, individuals were asked about their experiences in waiting for care. While the majority of individuals waiting for care indicated that their waiting time was acceptable, there continues to be a proportion of Canadians who feel they are waiting an unacceptably long time for care. Between 11% and 18% of individuals waiting for care indicated that their life was affected by waiting.
Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.
Broering, N C; Hylton, J S; Guttmann, R; Eskridge, D
Users of the IAIMS Knowledge Network at the Georgetown University Medical Center have access to multiple in-house and external databases from a single point of entry through BioSYNTHESIS. The IAIMS project has developed a rich environment of biomedical information resources that represent a medical decision support system for campus physicians and students. The BioSYNTHESIS system is an information navigator that provides transparent access to a Knowledge Network of over a dozen databases. These multiple health sciences databases consist of bibliographic, informational, diagnostic, and research systems which reside on diverse computers such as DEC VAXs, SUN 490, AT&T 3B2s, Macintoshes, IBM PC/PS2s and the AT&T ISN and SYTEK network systems. Ethernet and TCP/IP protocols are used in the network architecture. BioSYNTHESIS also provides network links to the other campus libraries and to external institutions. As additional knowledge resources and technological advances have become available. BioSYNTHESIS has evolved from a two phase to a three phase program. Major components of the system including recent achievements and future plans are described.
Duguet, Anne-Marie; Bévière, Bénédicte
Health care is a fundamental human right in Europe, and all Member States recognise everyone's right to the access to preventive healthcare and to receive medical care in the event of sickness or pregnancy. Nevertheless, this right is focused on citizens and the application to migrants, particularly undocumented migrants, varies widely in the EU. The French legislation is organized with a humanitarian approach. In this article, the authors present the French system of social protection, the "Couvernture médicale universelle" or CMU, which provides the same protection to asylum seekers and documented immigrants as to nationals, and the "Aide médicale d'état" or AME, that is open to every person who does not fulfil the legal conditions to obtain the CMU, such as illegal immigrants. Created in 1995, recently access to the AME has been restricted. A claim of discrimination has been rejected by the Conseil d'Etat and 215,000 persons received the AME in 2009. The expenses incurred by the AME increased by 17% in 2010, and there is a debate in Parliament to limit care and to ask the recipient for a financial contribution.
Gilson, Lucy; McIntyre, Di
Since 1994 the South African government has placed equity at the heart of its health policy goals. However, there has as yet been surprisingly little assessment of the success of policies in reducing inequity. This article provides insights on these issues by applying the Affordability Ladder conceptual framework in synthesizing evidence drawn from a series of household surveys and studies undertaken between 1992 and 2003. These data suggest that, despite policy efforts, inequities in access and utilization between socioeconomic groups remain. Underlying challenges include worsening community perceptions of the quality of publicly provided care and the influence of insurance status on utilization patterns. Further and more detailed evaluation of household-level policy impacts requires both improvements in the quality of South African survey data, particularly in enhancing consistency in survey design over time, and more detailed, focused studies.
Lobach, David F.; Willis, Janese M.; Macri, Jennifer M.; Simo, Jessica; Anstrom, Kevin J.
Increasing emphasis is being placed on the importance of information technology to improve the safety and quality of healthcare. However, concern is growing that these potential benefits will not be equally distributed across the population because of a widening digital divide along racial and socioeconomic lines. In this pilot study, we surveyed 31 Medicaid beneficiaries to ascertain their interest in and projected use of a healthcare patient Internet portal. We found that most Medicaid beneficiaries (or their parents/guardians) were very interested in accessing personal health information about themselves (or their dependents) online. Additionally, they were interested in accessing healthcare services online. We also found that many Medicaid beneficiaries have Internet access, including a slight majority with access to high-speed Internet connections. Our study revealed significant concern about the privacy of online health information. PMID:17238393
Oba, Shino; Toyoshima, Masato; Ogata, Hiromitsu
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the past attendance for cervical cancer screening with knowledge of risk factors, access to health-related information, health profiles and health competence beliefs among Japanese women. Methods: Women ages 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, and 60 were contacted cross-sectionally as part of a project for the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Nikaho, Akita prefecture Japan between June 2010 and March 2011, and 249 women were analyzed for the current study. The questionnaire asked about past cervical cancer screening. Knowledge of each cervical cancer risk factor was determined on a four-point scale. A barriers to information access scale was utilized to assess the degree of difficulty in accessing health-related information. Health profiles were measured using the EuroQOL EQ-5D. Perceived health competence was measured using a scale (PHCS). The association was evaluated with odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were calculated from a logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age and potential confounders. The trend across the level was also assessed. Results: Women who knew that sexual intercourse at young age was a risk factor were significantly more likely to have participated in cervical cancer screening sometime in their lives (p for trend =0.02). Women who had pain/discomfort and those who had anxiety/depression were significantly more likely to have participated in cervical screening within the past two years (odds ratio [OR]: 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–3.94; OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.05–5.16, respectively). Women with higher PHCS were significantly more likely to have attended for cervical screened at some point in their lives (p=0.04). Conclusion: This study observed that specific knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors, health profiles and PHCS were associated with the past attendance for cervical cancer screening among women in a community. Further researches are
Full Text Available Access to medicines is the lynchpin to realizing a range of human rights, public health and development imperatives. However, without strong policy action to increase access to affordable medicines, there is little hope of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals or of realizing the human right to health. Access to medicines is a fundamental element of the right to health, and the majority of states are bound by core obligations in this regard. Accordingly, states must ensure that this critical human rights, public health and development interest is appropriately prioritized against inadequate resource allocations and competing private or trade interests. This is an imperative which we have argued should have framed the deliberations of the UN High Level Panel on Access to Medicines, convened to propose solutions to the “policy incoherence” between international human rights, trade rules and public health that is impeding access to medicines and the right to health for millions. In this article we explore interpretations in international human rights law regarding state duties towards medicines that should have guided these deliberations, and which were presented by the first author in a submission to the panel. We argue that at least two clear right to health duties support the High Level Panel’s recommendations: (1 the duty to prevent unreasonably high costs for medicines from denying large segments of the population their rights to health; and (2 the core obligation to provide essential medicines. Consequently, we explore three areas of action implied by these duties: (1 consistent implementation of human rights impact assessment; (2 institutionalizing the Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS flexibilities in law and policy; (3 making permanent the waiver of TRIPS for least developed countries (LDC, and waiving the application of TRIPS to essential medicines in low and middle-income countries. Finally, we
Full Text Available Hearing loss is associated with cognitive decline and impairment in daily living activities. Access to hearing health care has broad implications for healthy aging of the U.S. population. This qualitative study investigated factors related to the socio-ecological domains of hearing health in a US-Mexico border community experiencing disparities in access to care. A multidisciplinary research team partnered with Community Health Workers (CHWs from a Federally Qualified Health Center in designing the study. CHWs conducted interviews with people with hearing loss (n=20 and focus groups with their family/friends (n=27 and with members of the community-at-large (n=47. The research team conducted interviews with FQHC providers and staff (n=12. Individuals experienced depression, sadness and social isolation, as well as frustration and even anger regarding communication. Family members experienced negative impacts of deteriorating communication, but expressed few coping strategies. There was general agreement across data sources that hearing loss was not routinely addressed within primary care and assistive hearing technology was generally unaffordable. Community members described stigma related to hearing loss and a need for greater access to hearing health care and broader community education. Findings confirm the causal sequence of hearing impairment on quality of life aggravated by socio-economic conditions and lack of access to hearing health care. Hearing loss requires a comprehensive and innovative public health response across the socio-ecological framework that includes both individual communication intervention and greater access to hearing health resources. Community health workers can be effective in tailoring intervention strategies to community characteristics.
This paper seeks to set the practical discipline of public interest intellectual property (IP) management in public health into its broader policy context. The most immediate and direct impact of IP systems on public welfare results not from international standards nor from national legislation - though these norms are fundamentally important - but rather from the accumulated impact of numerous practical choices whether or not to seek IP protection; where and where not; and how any exclusive rights are deployed, by whom, and to what end. IP management is the essentially practical exercise of limited exclusive rights over protected subject matter, the judicious use of those rights to leverage outcomes that advance an institution's or a firm's objectives. Exclusive rights are used to construct and define knowledge-based relationships, to leverage access to technology and other necessary resources, and to enhance market-based incentives. IP management choices range across a broad spectrum, spanning public domain strategies, open or exclusive licensing, and strong exclusivity. The idea of 'exclusive rights', as a specific legal mechanism, can run counter to expectations of greater openness and accessibility, but actual outcomes will depend very much on how these mechanisms are used in practice. For public interest or public sector institutions concerned with health research and development, particularly the development of new medicines, IP management choices can be just as critical as they are for private firms, although a predominant institutional concentration on advancing direct public interest objectives may lead to significantly different approaches in weighing and exercising practical choices for IP management: even so, a private sector approach should not be conflated with exclusivity as an end in itself, nor need public interest IP management eschew all leverage over IP. This paper offers a tentative framework for a richer typology of those choices, to give a
Abdulkader A. Murad
Full Text Available Spatial data play an important role in the planning of health care facilities and their allocation. Today, geographical information systems (GIS provide useful techniques for capturing, maintaining and analysing health care spatial data; indeed health geoinformatics is an emerging discipline that uses innovative geospatial technology to investigate health issues. The purpose of this paper is to define how GIS can be used for assessing the level of accessibility to health care. The paper identifies the advantages of using GIS in health care planning and covers GIS-based international accessibility with a focus on GIS applications for health care facilities in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A geodatabase that includes location of health services, road networks, health care demand and population districts was created using ArcGIS software. The geodatabase produced is based on collected data and covers issues, such as defining the spatial distribution of health care facilities, evaluating health demand types and modelling health service areas based on analysis of driving-time and straight-line distances.
Pacheco, Tania L; Ramirez, Mariana A; Capitman, John A
This article demonstrates that policy barriers resulting in access to health care inequities were significantly decreased by 2 Promotora interventions for 416 legal and undocumented Latino immigrants in the California Central Valley. Promotoras conducted baseline/follow-up assessments and referrals/phone-calls/visits during a 3-month period. In-depth interviews with Promotoras and a policy analysis on policy-driven access programs were carried out. Access to care was significantly increased between legal and undocumented immigrant from baseline to follow-up. Systemic barriers to access (malos tratos) reflected on personal barriers such as affordability of care. Promotoras help participants overcome barriers but do not change the policies determining access and procedures.
Tighter national budgets and escalating drug prices continue to present challenges for pharmaceutical market access strategies and societal cost of care. As pharmaceutical companies and medical governmental advisory organizations enter tougher negotiations, hospital trusts and other dispensary firms face barriers to receiving the best medical treatment, and as a result patient access is limited. The 2016 HealthNetwork Communications' Pharma Pricing & Market Access Europe meeting brought together pharmaceutical, medical governmental advisory and stakeholders and market access/pricing consultants, to encourage discussions and negotiations into how to improve the drug pricing system and consequential market access strategies while achieving the respective reimbursement and affordability objectives. Copyright 2016 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.
Gany, Francesca; Bari, Sehrish; Gill, Pavan; Loeb, Rebecca
Objectives. We describe the impact of the Step On It! intervention to link taxi drivers, particularly South Asians, to health insurance enrollment and navigate them into care when necessary. Methods. Step On It! was a worksite initiative held for 5 consecutive days from September 28 to October 2, 2011, at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City. Data collected included sociodemographics, employment, health care access and use, height, weight, blood pressure, and random plasma glucose. Participants were given their results, counseled by a medical professional, and invited to participate in free workshops provided by partner organizations. Results. Of the 466 drivers participated, 52% were uninsured, and 49% did not have a primary care provider. Of 384 drivers who had blood pressure, glucose, or both measured, 242 (63%) required urgent or regular follow-up. Of the 77 (32%) requiring urgent follow-up, 50 (65%) sought medical care at least once, of whom 13 (26%) received a new diagnosis. Of the 165 (68%) requiring regular follow-up, 68 (41%) sought medical care at least once, of whom 5 (7%) received a new diagnosis. Conclusions. This study provides encouraging results about the potential impact of an easy-to-deliver, easily scalable workplace intervention with a large, vulnerable population. PMID:25211738
Duke, Michael R
In the Marshall Islands, a history of extensive nuclear weapons testing and covert biomedical research, coupled with the U.S.'s ongoing military presence in the country, has severely compromised the health of the local population. Despite the U.S.'s culpability in producing ill health along with high rates of emigration from the islands to the mainland United States, the large portion of Marshallese who reside in the United States face substantial barriers to accessing health care. Drawing from ongoing field research with a Marshallese community in Arkansas, this article explores the multifaceted impediments that U.S.-based Marshall Islanders face in receiving medical treatment. Calling on an expansive and inclusive notion of neocolonialism, I argue that Marshallese structural vulnerability with regard to health and health care treatment derives from their status as neocolonial subjects and from their limited claims to health-related deservingness associated with this status. [Marshall Islanders, health care access, neocolonialism, radiation exposure, immigrant health] L̗ōmn̗ak ko rōttin̗o: Ilo M̗ajel̗, juon bwebwenato kōn kōmmālmel im nuclear baam̗ ko im ekkatak ko rōttin̗o̗ kōn wāwein an baijin ko jelōt armej, barāinwōt an to an ri tarinae ro an Amedka pād ilo aelōn̄ kein, em̗ōj an jelōt ājmour an armej ro ilo aelōn̄ kein. Men̄e alikkar bwe Amedka in ear jino nan̄inmej kein im ej un eo armej rein rej em̗m̗akūt jān āne kein āne er n̄an ioon Amedka, elōn̄ iaan ri M̗ajel̗ rein rej jelm̗ae elōn̄ apan̄ ko n̄an aer del̗o̗n̄e jikin ājmour ko. Jān ekkatak eo ej bōk jikin kiō, jerbal in ej etali kabōjrak rak kein rōlōn̄ im armej in M̗ajel̗ ro ioon Amedka in rej jelm̗ae ilo aer jibadōk lo̗k jikin taktō. Ilo an kar Amedka jibadōk juon jea eo eutiej imejān lal̗ in, ij kwal̗ok juon aō akweelel bwe apan̄ ko an armej in M̗ajel̗ ikijjeen ājmour im jikin taktō ej itok jān aer kar ri kōm̗akoko ilo an kar
José Alfredo Hernández Landeros
Full Text Available Reflect on the need to ensure access to information to everyone as the foundation of a information society. The case of Mexico and its public policy information from the Federal Institute of Access to Information. A proposal to adopt an information management system documentation for the Federal Ministry of Health of Mexico, based on international norms and standards in order to control, organize and retrieve information within your site.
Agudelo-Suárez Andrés A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to health services is an important health determinant. New research in health equity is required, especially amongst economic migrants from developing countries. Studies conducted on the use of health services by migrant populations highlight existing gaps in understanding which factors affect access to these services from a qualitative perspective. We aim to describe the views of the migrants regarding barriers and determinants of access to health services in the international literature (1997–2011. Methods A systematic review was conducted for Qualitative research papers (English/Spanish published in 13 electronic databases. A selection of articles that accomplished the inclusion criteria and a quality evaluation of the studies were carried out. The findings of the selected studies were synthesised by means of metasynthesis using different analysis categories according to Andersen’s conceptual framework of access and use of health services and by incorporating other emergent categories. Results We located 3,025 titles, 36 studies achieved the inclusion criteria. After quality evaluation, 28 articles were definitively synthesised. 12 studies (46.2% were carried out in the U.S and 11 studies (42.3% dealt with primary care services. The participating population varied depending mainly on type of host country. Barriers were described, such as the lack of communication between health services providers and migrants, due to idiomatic difficulties and cultural differences. Other barriers were linked to the economic system, the health service characteristics and the legislation in each country. This situation has consequences for the lack of health control by migrants and their social vulnerability. Conclusions Economic migrants faced individual and structural barriers to the health services in host countries, especially those with undocumented situation and those experimented idiomatic difficulties. Strategies to
Munyewende, Pascalia; Rispel, Laetitia C; Harris, Bronwyn; Chersich, Matthew
We present qualitative data from a 2005 exploratory study, recently published studies, and an analysis of the Department of Health's strategic plan to highlight the need for a broader policy debate on health-care access for migrants in South Africa. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 Zimbabwean women living in inner-city Johannesburg to document the special characteristics of this group of migrants, enquiring about their perceptions of HIV risk, and experiences of health services in South Africa. We identified access barriers, namely perceptions of relatively low HIV risk, severely constrained financial circumstances, uncertain legal status, and experiences of unresponsive health workers. We recommend that migrant-health rights be placed on South Africa's policy agenda, migrants be included in HIV prevention programs and that health workers be sensitized to the needs of migrants.
... Innovation Corps Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: Innovation Corps (I-Corps) for Advisory Committee, 80463. Date/Time: October 28, 2013, 3:00 p.m.-5:00 p.m..., Program Director, Innovation Corps (I-Corps), Engineering Directorate, National Science Foundation,...
Janiak, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Elizabeth; Foster, Angel M
Following state-level health care reform in Massachusetts, young women reported confusion over coverage of contraception and other sexual and reproductive health services under newly available health insurance products. To address this gap, a plain-language Web site titled "My Little Black Book for Sexual Health" was developed by a statewide network of reproductive health stakeholders. The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the health literacy demands and usability of the site among its target audience, women ages 18-26 years. We performed an evaluation of the literacy demands of the Web site's written content and tested the Web site's usability in a health communications laboratory. Participants found the Web site visually appealing and its overall design concept accessible. However, the Web site's literacy demands were high, and all participants encountered problems navigating through the Web site. Following this evaluation, the Web site was modified to be more usable and more comprehensible to women of all health literacy levels. To avail themselves of sexual and reproductive health services newly available under expanded health insurance coverage, young women require customized educational resources that are rigorously evaluated to ensure accessibility. To maximize utilization of reproductive health services under expanded health insurance coverage, US women require customized educational resources commensurate with their literacy skills. The application of established research methods from the field of health communications will enable advocates to evaluate and adapt these resources to best serve their targeted audiences. © 2013.
Moureau, Nancy L; Trick, Nancy; Nifong, Thomas; Perry, Cathy; Kelley, Cheryl; Carrico, Ruth; Leavitt, Michael; Gordon, Steven M; Wallace, Jessica; Harvill, Monte; Biggar, Connie; Doll, Michael; Papke, Loreli; Benton, Lori; Phelan, Deborah A
Vascular access for the infusion of medications and solutions requires timely assessment, planning, insertion, and assessment. Traditional vascular access is reactive, painful, and ineffective, often resulting in the exhaustion of peripheral veins prior to consideration of other access options. Evidence suggests clinical pathways improve outcomes by reducing variations and establishing processes to assess and coordinate care, minimizing fragmentation and cost. Implementation of a vascular access clinical pathway leads to the intentional selection of the best vascular access device for the patient specific to the individual diagnosis, treatment plan, current medical condition, and the patient's vessel health (1). The Vessel Health and Preservation (VHP) programme incorporates evidence-based practices focused on timely, intentional proactive device selection implemented within 24 hours of admission into any acute facility. VHP is an all-inclusive clinical pathway, guiding clinicians from device selection through patient discharge, including daily assessment. Initiation of the VHP programme within a facility provides a systematic pathway to improve vascular access selection and patient care, allowing for the reduction of variations and roadblocks in care while increasing positive patient outcomes and satisfaction. Patient safety and preservation of vessel health is the ultimate goal.
Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) often require services from multiple health care providers. This study's objective is to evaluate whether CSHCN, enrolled in Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) and receiving care coordination services, experience improved access to mental and specialty health care services. Using data from the 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, two separate outcomes are used to evaluate children's access to care: receipt of needed mental and specialty care and timely access to services. Using propensity score matching, CSHCN propensity for receiving care coordination services is derived and an assessment is made of care coordination's impact on the receipt of health care and whether care is delayed. Results demonstrate that care coordination is positively associated with whether a child receives the mental and specialty care that they need, regardless of whether or not that coordination is perceived to be adequate by parents. However, receiving care coordination services that parents perceive to be adequate has a larger impact on the timeliness in which care is received. This study indicates that care coordination is associated with an increased ability for CSHCN to access needed mental and specialty care. States should consider offering care coordination services that support provider communication and fulfill families' coordination needs to the CSHCN enrolled in their Medicaid and CHIP programs.
Full Text Available Background: Women with disabilities in Zimbabwe face numerous challenges in accessing sexual and reproductive health. Cultural belief still regards them as not sexually active. The government has also failed to promote policies that facilitate access to sexual and reproductive services by women with disabilities.Objectives: The reseach objectives were to explore the challenges faced by women with disabilities in accessing sexual and reproductive health in Zimbabwe.Method: The data were gathered using in-depth interviews with 23 purposively selected respondents. Thirteen women had physical disabilities, five were visually impaired, three were deaf and two were stammering. The respondents with physical disabilities were using wheelchairs, walking frames, prosthesis, crutches and caliper shoes. The participants’ ages ranged from 18 to 45 years. All interviews were transcribed and translated verbatim into English, and passages were extracted from the transcripts. Key themes and concepts were identified and coded to offer a rich framework for analysis, comparisons and presentation of the data.Results: Negative perceptions of health personnel towards people with disabilities, disability-unfriendly infrastructure at health facilities and absence of trained personnel for people with disabilities (sign language are some of the challenges involved.Conclusion: The government, in partnership with other stakeholders, should address challenges faced by women with disabilities when accessing sexual and reproductive health services. Non-government, private hospitals and profit-making organisations should join hands with government in funding health requirements for women with disabilities.
Full Text Available A recent advancement in location-allocation modeling formulates a two-step approach to a new problem of minimizing disparity of spatial accessibility. Our field work in a health care planning project in a rural county in China indicated that residents valued distance or travel time from the nearest hospital foremost and then considered quality of care including less waiting time as a secondary desirability. Based on the case study, this paper further clarifies the sequential decision-making approach, termed “two-step optimization for spatial accessibility improvement (2SO4SAI.” The first step is to find the best locations to site new facilities by emphasizing accessibility as proximity to the nearest facilities with several alternative objectives under consideration. The second step adjusts the capacities of facilities for minimal inequality in accessibility, where the measure of accessibility accounts for the match ratio of supply and demand and complex spatial interaction between them. The case study illustrates how the two-step optimization method improves both aspects of spatial accessibility for health care access in rural China.
Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe
Certain product development partnerships (PDPs) recognize that to promote the reduction of global health disparities they must create access to their products and strengthen research capacity in developing countries. We evaluated the contribution of 3 PDPs--Medicines for Malaria Venture, Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative, and Institute for One World Health--according to Frost and Reich's access framework. We also evaluated PDPs' capacity building in low- and middle-income countries at the individual, institutional, and system levels. We found that these PDPs advance public health by ensuring their products' registration, distribution, and adoption into national treatment policies in disease-endemic countries. Nonetheless, ensuring broad, equitable access for these populations--high distribution coverage; affordability, particularly for the poor; and adoption at provider and end-user levels--remains a challenge.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Imaging Corp.'s Aerial Multispectral Oil Mapping System employs a customizable 4-spectral channel system and IR imager integrated to allow simultaneous data...
Ouweltjes, W; van der Werf, J T N; Frankena, K; van Leeuwen, J L
Claw health, locomotion, feed intake, milk yield, body weight, activity, and lying and standing behavior of dairy heifers were monitored in a single dairy herd during the first 3 mo after calving. During the first 8 wk after calving, 2 treatments were applied: restricted freestall access by closing the stalls between 2300 h and 0500 h (yes or no) and alley flooring (concrete or rubber topped slatted floors). Apart from treatments, housing was identical. The animals were kept in small groups (n=4 to 6) in adjacent barn pens. Thereafter, the animals were kept in 1 group in a freestall section with concrete slatted floor and unrestricted access to the stalls for 5 wk. All animals were fed the same partial mixed ration. We hypothesized that (1) hard flooring causes high mechanical load of the claws and (2) restricted freestall access causes prolonged standing bouts and reinforced effects of hard flooring on claws. The heifers had only minor claw lesions before first calving, and the prevalence and severity of sole hemorrhages increased during the first 3 mo after calving (from 0.24 ± 0.08 to 1.18 ± 0.14 and from 0.04 ± 0.01 to 0.24 ± 0.02, respectively), particularly in the outer hind claws. Animals kept on rubber alley flooring had lower average hemorrhage scores in wk 9 (0.13 ± 0.03 vs. 0.21 ± 0.03) and wk 14 (0.20 ± 0.03 vs. 0.27 ± 0.03) after calving, had a slower feed intake (3.05 ± 0.14 vs. 3.46 ± 0.14 g/s) and spent more time feeding (7.3 ± 0.3 vs. 6.6 ± 0.3 min/h) than animals kept on hard concrete alley floors. Restricted freestall access resulted in fewer standing bouts per day (14.4 ± 1.0 vs. 17.9 ± 1.0) and more strides per hour (99.8 ± 5.4 vs. 87.2 ± 5.4) without changing overall standing time (15.0 ± 0.3 vs. 14.7 ± 0.3 h/d) and did not affect the occurrence of sole hemorrhages. The animals with no overnight freestall access spent more time standing (55.9 ± 0.9 vs. 35.8 ± 0.9 min/h) and feeding (7.8 ± 0.3 vs. 4.3 ± 0.3 min/h) between
Liu, Xiayang; Cook, Glenda; Cattan, Mima
As Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom age, they experience an increasing need to access health and care services. It has, however, been reported that older Chinese immigrants have difficulties in accessing these services. This study explored the experiences of this population in using health and care services and the strategies that they adopted to address their difficulties. A grounded theory method with a two-staged research design was used. Stage 1 explored the participants' experiences of ageing and use of health and social care services through focus group interviews. Stage 2 investigated the strategies individuals used to support access to and use of services through individual interviews. Forty-four older Chinese people and 15 supporters participated in interviews during August 2011 and May 2013. These older Chinese immigrants were challenged in knowing about and in accessing services. Their difficulties were attributed to language barriers, lack of information and instrumental support, and emotional and cultural issues regarding use of health and care services. Their supporters facilitated access to services and acted as a bridge between the service and the user; therefore, they were given the title 'Bridge People'. Bridge People have different backgrounds: family and friends, public sector workers and staff from community-based Chinese organisations. The defining attributes of these supporters were: bilinguality, bicultural, multifunctionality and accessibility. There is no charge for this support; and the relationship between the Bridge Person and recipient involves trust and influence over decisions regarding use of health and care services. Bridge People should be recognised and identified by health, social care and housing services to promote engagement and use of services by older immigrant Chinese people.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 2009, the Commandant of the Marine Corps declared energy a top priority and created the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Expeditionary Energy Office to develop an energy strategy to reduce and optimize energy usage throughout the Marine Corps. This thesis examines the operational tasks and capabilities that drive the current USMC rifle platoon’s energy burdens using an Expeditionary Warrior 2012 war-game scenario. The primary conclusion of ...
Brown, Alison M C; Pirotta, Marie
Prioritisation of clients requesting physiotherapy in Victorian community health services has occurred in the absence of a uniform evidence-based prioritisation process. The effect of the varying prioritisation procedures on client outcomes is unknown. This two-part study sought to answer two questions: what are the current prioritisation practices? And what is the evidence for prioritisation? Staff of Victorian community health services offering physiotherapy (n=67) were sent a structured questionnaire regarding their prioritisation practices. The questionnaire data revealed a wide range of poorly defined criteria and methods of assessment for prioritisation. The evidence for prioritisation and the use of specific prioritisation criteria were examined via a literature search. The literature suggested the use of acute severe pain, interference with activities of daily living and falls as indicators of need for priority service. The lack of uniformity found in determining priority of access reflects the complexity of determining need and the lack of research and validated tools to assist decision making. Further research into prioritisation criteria is required to determine their validity and if their use in a prioritisation tool would actually improve outcomes for clients.
Weale, Albert; Kieslich, Katharina; Littlejohns, Peter; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Tumilty, Emma; Weerasuriya, Krisantha; Whitty, Jennifer A
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to introduce the special issue on improving equitable access to health care through increased public and patient involvement (PPI) in prioritization decisions by discussing the conceptualization, scope and rationales of PPI in priority setting that inform the special issue. Design/methodology/approach - The paper employs a mixed-methods approach in that it provides a literature review and a conceptual discussion of the common themes emerging in the field of PPI and health priority setting. Findings - The special issue focuses on public participation that is collective in character, in the sense that the participation relates to a social, not personal, decision and is relevant to whole groups of people and not single individuals. It is aimed at influencing a decision on public policy or legal rules. The rationales for public participation can be found in democratic theory, especially as they relate to the social and political values of legitimacy and representation. Originality/value - The paper builds on previous definitions of public participation by underlining its collective character. In doing so, it develops the work by Parry, Moyser and Day by arguing that, in light of the empirical evidence presented in this issue, public participatory activities such as protests and demonstrations should no longer be labelled unconventional, but should instead be labelled as "contestatory participation". This is to better reflect a situation in which these modes of participation have become more conventional in many parts of the world.
Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Luksiene, Dalia; Dedele, Audrius; Reklaitiene, Regina; Baceviciene, Migle; Vencloviene, Jone; Bernotiene, Gailute; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Milinaviciene, Egle; Bobak, Martin; Peasey, Anne; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
The aims of this study were to explore associations of the distance and use of urban green spaces with the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and its risk factors, and to evaluate the impact of the accessibility and use of green spaces on the incidence of CVD among the population of Kaunas city (Lithuania). We present the results from a Kaunas cohort study on the access to and use of green spaces, the association with cardiovascular risk factors and other health-related variables, and the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. A random sample of 5,112 individuals aged 45-72 years was screened in 2006-2008. During the mean 4.41 years follow-up, there were 83 deaths from CVD and 364 non-fatal cases of CVD among persons free from CHD and stroke at the baseline survey. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for data analysis. We found that the distance from people's residence to green spaces was not related to the prevalence of health-related variables. However, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus were significantly lower among park users than among non-users. During the follow up, an increased risk of non-fatal and fatal CVD combined was observed for those who lived ≥629.61 m from green spaces (3rd tertile of distance to green space) (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.36), and the risk for non-fatal CVD-for those who lived ≥347.81 m (2nd and 3rd tertile) and were not park users (HR = 1.66) as compared to men and women who lived 347.8 m or less (1st tertile) from green space. Men living further away from parks (3rd tertile) had a higher risk of non-fatal and fatal CVD combined, compared to those living nearby (1st tertile) (HR = 1.51). Compared to park users living nearby (1st tertile), a statistically significantly increased risk of non-fatal CVD was observed for women who were not park users and living farther away from parks (2nd and 3rd tertile) (HR = 2.78). Our analysis suggests
Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Scott, David; Hanley, Christine
People with serious mental illness experience higher rates of oral and dental health problems than the wider population. Little is known about how dental health is viewed or addressed by nurses working with mental health consumers. This paper presents the views of nurses regarding the nature and severity of dental health problems of consumers with serious mental illness, and how often they provide advice on dental health. Mental health sector nurses (n=643) completed an online survey, including questions on dental and oral health issues of people with serious mental illness. The majority of nurses considered the oral and dental conditions of people with serious mental illness to be worse than the wider community. When compared with a range of significant physical health issues (e.g. cardiovascular disease), many nurses emphasised that dental and oral problems are one of the most salient health issues facing people with serious mental illness, their level of access to dental care services is severely inadequate and they suffer significantly worse dental health outcomes as a result. This study highlights the need for reforms to increase access to dental and oral health care for mental health consumers.
Full Text Available -Based Accessibility Analysis in Determining Public Primary Health Care Demand in Metropolitan Areas Hunadi Mokgalaka July 2014 Contents • Service access planning • GIS-based accessibility analysis • Key challenges to application • Methodology... • Accessibility modelling - improved means of measuring facility access and of identifying poorly served areas and backlogs (spatially) • Inform long term plans • Measure progress w.r.t. service delivery of services • Assist in setting service standards...
Bouchard, Maryse; Kohler, Jillian C; Orbinski, James; Howard, Andrew
Globally, injuries cause approximately as many deaths per year as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined, and 90% of injury deaths occur in low- and middle- income countries. Given not all injuries kill, the disability burden, particularly from orthopaedic injuries, is much higher but is poorly measured at present. The orthopaedic services and orthopaedic medical devices needed to manage the injury burden are frequently unavailable in these countries. Corruption is known to be a major barrier to access of health care, but its effects on access to orthopaedic services is still unknown. A qualitative case study of 45 open-ended interviews was conducted to investigate the access to orthopaedic health services and orthopaedic medical devices in Uganda. Participants included orthopaedic surgeons, related healthcare professionals, industry and government representatives, and patients. Participants' experiences in accessing orthopaedic medical devices were explored. Thematic analysis was used to analyze and code the transcripts. Analysis of the interview data identified poor leadership in government and corruption as major barriers to access of orthopaedic care and orthopaedic medical devices. Corruption was perceived to occur at the worker, hospital and government levels in the forms of misappropriation of funds, theft of equipment, resale of drugs and medical devices, fraud and absenteeism. Other barriers elicited included insufficient health infrastructure and human resources, and high costs of orthopaedic equipment and poverty. This study identified perceived corruption as a significant barrier to access of orthopaedic care and orthopaedic medical devices in Uganda. As the burden of injury continues to grow, the need to combat corruption and ensure access to orthopaedic services is imperative. Anti-corruption strategies such as transparency and accountability measures, codes of conduct, whistleblower protection, and higher wages and benefits for workers could be
Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, injuries cause approximately as many deaths per year as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined, and 90% of injury deaths occur in low- and middle- income countries. Given not all injuries kill, the disability burden, particularly from orthopaedic injuries, is much higher but is poorly measured at present. The orthopaedic services and orthopaedic medical devices needed to manage the injury burden are frequently unavailable in these countries. Corruption is known to be a major barrier to access of health care, but its effects on access to orthopaedic services is still unknown. Methods A qualitative case study of 45 open-ended interviews was conducted to investigate the access to orthopaedic health services and orthopaedic medical devices in Uganda. Participants included orthopaedic surgeons, related healthcare professionals, industry and government representatives, and patients. Participants’ experiences in accessing orthopaedic medical devices were explored. Thematic analysis was used to analyze and code the transcripts. Results Analysis of the interview data identified poor leadership in government and corruption as major barriers to access of orthopaedic care and orthopaedic medical devices. Corruption was perceived to occur at the worker, hospital and government levels in the forms of misappropriation of funds, theft of equipment, resale of drugs and medical devices, fraud and absenteeism. Other barriers elicited included insufficient health infrastructure and human resources, and high costs of orthopaedic equipment and poverty. Conclusions This study identified perceived corruption as a significant barrier to access of orthopaedic care and orthopaedic medical devices in Uganda. As the burden of injury continues to grow, the need to combat corruption and ensure access to orthopaedic services is imperative. Anti-corruption strategies such as transparency and accountability measures, codes of conduct
Background Globally, injuries cause approximately as many deaths per year as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined, and 90% of injury deaths occur in low- and middle- income countries. Given not all injuries kill, the disability burden, particularly from orthopaedic injuries, is much higher but is poorly measured at present. The orthopaedic services and orthopaedic medical devices needed to manage the injury burden are frequently unavailable in these countries. Corruption is known to be a major barrier to access of health care, but its effects on access to orthopaedic services is still unknown. Methods A qualitative case study of 45 open-ended interviews was conducted to investigate the access to orthopaedic health services and orthopaedic medical devices in Uganda. Participants included orthopaedic surgeons, related healthcare professionals, industry and government representatives, and patients. Participants’ experiences in accessing orthopaedic medical devices were explored. Thematic analysis was used to analyze and code the transcripts. Results Analysis of the interview data identified poor leadership in government and corruption as major barriers to access of orthopaedic care and orthopaedic medical devices. Corruption was perceived to occur at the worker, hospital and government levels in the forms of misappropriation of funds, theft of equipment, resale of drugs and medical devices, fraud and absenteeism. Other barriers elicited included insufficient health infrastructure and human resources, and high costs of orthopaedic equipment and poverty. Conclusions This study identified perceived corruption as a significant barrier to access of orthopaedic care and orthopaedic medical devices in Uganda. As the burden of injury continues to grow, the need to combat corruption and ensure access to orthopaedic services is imperative. Anti-corruption strategies such as transparency and accountability measures, codes of conduct, whistleblower protection, and higher
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... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Municipal Mortgage & Equity LLC, Prolink Holdings Corp., RPM Technologies, Inc., SARS Corp... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of SARS Corp. because it has not...
Ginossar, Tamar; Nelson, Sara
The innovative educational communication interventions described in this paper include the use of bi-lingual, low literacy level websites and training created by low income Latina women to increase access to health care, health information, and the internet. We focus on one grassroots intervention, aimed at increasing access to health care for…
Ginossar, Tamar; Nelson, Sara
The innovative educational communication interventions described in this paper include the use of bi-lingual, low literacy level websites and training created by low income Latina women to increase access to health care, health information, and the internet. We focus on one grassroots intervention, aimed at increasing access to health care for…
Vogel, Christina; Parsons, Camille; Godfrey, Keith; Robinson, Sian; Harvey, Nicholas C; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Baird, Janis
Purpose Identifying factors that contribute to optimal childhood bone development could help pinpoint strategies to improve long term bone health. A healthy diet positively influences bone health from before birth and during childhood. This study addressed a gap in the literature by examining the relationship between residential neighbourhood food environment and bone mass in infants and children. Methods 1107 children participating in the Southampton Women’s Survey, United Kingdom, underwent measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at birth and four and/or six years by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Cross-sectional observational data describing food outlets within the boundary of each participant’s neighbourhood were used to derive three measures of the food environment: the counts of fast food outlets, healthy speciality stores and supermarkets. Results Neighbourhood exposure to fast food outlets was associated with lower BMD in infancy (β=−0.23(z-score): 95% CI −0.38, −0.08), and lower BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables (β=−0.17(z-score): 95% CI −0.32, −0.02). Increasing neighbourhood exposure to healthy speciality stores was associated with higher BMD at four and six years (β=0.16(z-score): 95% CI 0.00, 0.32 and β=0.13(z-score): 95% CI −0.01, 0.26 respectively). The relationship with BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables was statistically significant at four years but not at six years. Conclusions The neighbourhood food environment pregnant mothers and young children are exposed to may effect bone development during early childhood. If confirmed in future studies, action to reduce access to fast food outlets could have benefits for childhood development and long term bone health. PMID:26458387
Spencer Nick J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the attention the situation of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has received in the context of European Union enlargement, research on their access to health services is very limited, in particular with regard to child health services. Methods 50 qualitative in-depth interviews with users, providers and policy-makers concerned with child health services in Bulgaria, conducted in two villages, one town of 70,000 inhabitants, and the capital Sofia. Results Our findings provide important empirical evidence on the range of barriers Roma children face when accessing health services. Among the most important barriers are poverty, administrative and geographical obstacles, low levels of parental education, and lack of ways to accommodate the cultural, linguistic and religious specifics of this population group. Conclusion Our research illustrates the complexity of the problems the Roma face. Access to health care cannot be discussed in isolation from other problems this population group experiences, such as poverty, restricted access to education, and social exclusion.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with intellectual disability have a higher prevalence of physical health problems but often experience disparities in accessing health care. In England, a number of legislative changes, policies and recommendations have been introduced to improve health care access for this population. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the extent to which patients with intellectual disability and their carers experience discrimination or other barriers in accessing health services, and whether health care experiences have improved over the last decade years. METHOD AND MAIN FINDINGS: Twenty nine participants (14 patient and carer dyads, and one carer took part in semi-structured interviews. The interviews were audio-taped and transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Eight themes were identified. Half the participants thought that the patient had been treated unfairly or had been discriminated against by health services. There were accounts of negative staff attitudes and behaviour, and failure of services to make reasonable adjustments. Other barriers included problems with communication, and accessing services because of lack of knowledge of local services and service eligibility issues; lack of support and involvement of carers; and language problems in participants from minority ethnic groups. Most participants were able to report at least one example of good practice in health care provision. Suggestions for improving services are presented. CONCLUSION: Despite some improvements to services as a result of health policies and recommendations, more progress is required to ensure that health services make reasonable adjustments to reduce both direct and indirect discrimination of people with intellectual disability.
Hevia, Martin; Vacaflor, Carlos Herrera
A Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) seeks to have a profound, effective, and broad impact: bringing access to health rights to the largest global community possible. One of the main issues the FCGH will address is how to make the right to health justiciable. An FCGH must articulate functional remedies for violations of the right to health by state or non-state actors. This paper analyzes one approach to ensuring the recognition of the rights defended in a future FCGH. Following the incremental development approach inspired by the architecture of other successful framework convention protocols, we propose the inclusion of access to health justice guidelines in an FCGH. This proposal is based on the amparo remedy, a figure already extant in the legislation of several Latin American countries; since its incorporation, these countries have witnessed a significant increase in litigation defending health rights. This is only one of many important advantages to broadly adopting guidelines based on the amparo remedy. The proposed guidelines would serve as a basic agreement on broad principles on access to health justice.
叶永清; 魏兴武; 刘成风; 陈茜茜; 左艳霞; 胡佳
[Objective]To understand the prevalence situation and influencing factors of common diseases in senior high school students of corps, provide the scientific basis for making the prevention and control measures. [Methods]6 529 students were collected from senior high schools by cluster sampling from September to November 2009, the investigation and statistical analysis were conducted according to national methods and standards. [Results]The prevalence rate of malnutrition, obesity, poor eyesight, dental caries, trachoma and low weight was 5.62% , 12.19% , 83.61%, 10.17%, 3.08% and 17.83%, respectively. There were significant differences in prevalence rates of these common diseases among different grades (P <0. 05 orP<0.01). The differences in prevalence rates of obesity, poor eyesight, dental caries, trachoma and low weight between boys and girls were significant (P < 0. 01). [ Conclusion]The prevalence rate of common diseases in senior high school students in Shihezi city of corps can not be ignored, especially poor eyesight. It is necessary to carry out the comprehensive prevention measures to improve the health quality of students.%目的 了解兵团高中学生常见病现状及影响因素,为制定防治干预措施提供科学依据.方法 2009年9-11月整群抽取高中学区6529名学生进行调查,按国家规定的方法和标准进行调查和统计分析.结果 高中生的营养不良率为5.62％,肥胖率为12.19％,视力不良率为83.61％,龋齿患病率为10.17％,沙眼患病率为3.08％,较低体重率17.83％,以上项目各年级比较差异均有统计学意义(P＜0.05或P＜0.01).肥胖、视力不良、龋齿、沙眼和较低体重患病率男女学生比较,差异有统计学意义(P＜0.01).结论 兵团石河子市高中学生常见病患病率现况不容忽视,重点是视力不良,需采取综合性的防治措施以提高学生的整体健康素质.
Rosen, Bruce; Israeli, Avi
The Israel Journal of Health Policy Research (IJHPR) is a new, open access journal. IJHPR seeks to promote intensive intellectual interactions among scholars and practitioners from Israel and other countries regarding all aspects of health policy, with particular attention to Israel. The ultimate aim of these interactions is to contribute to the development of health policy in Israel, and also to foster wider communication between health scientists and policy analysts in Israel and their colleagues around the world. This inaugural editorial provides an overview of the new journal's rationale and its key features.